Science.gov

Sample records for pit release sites

  1. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Work Plan Mud Pit Release Sites, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-03-12

    This Work Plan describes the approach that will be used to conduct human health and ecological risk assessments for Amchitka Island, Alaska, which was utilized as an underground nuclear test site between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U.S. Department of Energy) conducted two nuclear tests (known as Long Shot and Milrow) and assisted the U.S. Department of Defense with a third test (known as Cannikin). Amchitka Island is approximately 42 miles long and located 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, in the western end of the Aleutian Island archipelago in a group of islands known as the Rat Islands. Historically including deep drilling operations required large volumes of drilling mud, a considerable amount of which was left on the island in exposed mud pits after testing was completed. Therefore, there is a need for drilling mud pit remediation and risk assessment of historical mud pit releases. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the constituents in soil, surface water, and sediment at these former testing sites. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate what further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of these three sites that will protect both human health and the environment. Suspected compounds of potential ecological concern for investigative analysis at these sites include diesel-range organics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, volatile organic compounds, and chromium. The results of these characterizations and risk assessments will be used to evaluate corrective action alternatives to include no further action, the implementation of institutional controls, capping on site, or off-sit e

  2. Site Release Reports for C-Well Pipeline, UE-25 Large Rocks Test Site, and 29 GSF Test Pits

    SciTech Connect

    K.E. Rasmuson

    2002-04-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy has implemented a program to reclaim lands disturbed by site characterization at Yucca Mountain. Long term goals of the program are to re-establish processes on disturbed sites that will lead to self-sustaining plant communities. The Biological Opinion for Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Studies required that the U.S. Department of Energy develop a Reclamation Standards and Monitoring Plan to evaluate the success of reclamation efforts. According to the Reclamation Standards and Monitoring Plan, reclaimed sites will be monitored periodically, remediated if necessary, and eventually compared to an appropriate reference area to determine whether reclamation goals have been achieved and the site can be released from further monitoring. Plant cover, density, and species richness (success parameters) on reclaimed sites are compared to 60 percent of the values (success criteria) for the same parameters on the reference area. Small sites (less than 0.1 ha) are evaluated for release using qualitative methods while large sites (greater than 0.1 ha) are evaluated using quantitative methods. In the summer of 2000, 31 small sites reclaimed in 1993 and 1994 were evaluated for reclamation success and potential release from further monitoring. Plant density, cover, and species richness were estimated on the C-Well Pipeline, UE-25 Large Rocks test site, and 29 ground surface facility test pits. Evidence of erosion, reproduction and natural recruitment, exotic species abundance, and animal use (key attributes) also were recorded for each site and used in success evaluations. The C-Well Pipeline and ground surface facility test pits were located in a ''Larrea tridentata - Ephedra nevadensis'' vegetation association while the UE-25 Large Rocks test site was located in an area dominated by ''Coleogyne ramosissima and Ephedra nevadensis''. Reference areas in the same vegetation associations with similar slope and aspect were chosen for comparison to

  3. Pit Viper strikes at the Hanford site. Pit maintenance using robotics at the Hanford Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder-Smith, Lynne

    2002-06-30

    The Pit Viper - a remote operations waste retrieval system - was developed to replace manual operations in the valve pits of waste storge tanks at the Hanford Site. The system consists of a typical industrial backhoe fitted with a robotic manipulator arm and is operated remotely from a control trailer located outside of the tank farm. Cameras mounted to the arm and within the containment tent allow the operator to view the entire pit area and operate the system using a joystick. The arm's gripper can grasp a variety of tools that allow personnel to perform cleaning, debris removal, and concrete repair tasks -- a more efficient and less dose-intensive process than the previous "long-pole" method. The project team overcame a variety of obstacles during development and testing of the Pit Viper system, and deployment occurred in Hanford Tank C-104 in December 2001.

  4. Radon release and dispersion from an open pit uranium mine

    SciTech Connect

    Kisieleski, W.E.

    1980-06-01

    Radon-222 flux from representative sections of the United Nuclear St. Anthony open-pit mine complex was measured. The collected radon was adsorbed on activated charcoal and the radon activity was measured by gamma spectroscopy. System design, calibration, and the procedure to determine radon flux density (pCi/m/sup 2/.s) are described. A continuous series of radon flux densities were measured over a 5-month period at a control point in the mine. The average flux density at the control point was 1.9 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. A close correlation between radon flux density variations and changes in barometric pressure was observed by a comparison of meteorological data and average daily radon flux density measured at the control point. The release rate from each section of the mine was calculated from the average radon flux density and the area of the section, as determined from enlarged aerial photographs. The average radon flux density for eight locations over the ore-bearing section was 7.3 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average flux density for four locations over undisturbed topsoil was 0.17 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average Ra-226 content of ten samples taken from the ore-bearing region was 102 pCi/g ore. The ratio of radon flux density to radium content (specific flux) was 0.072. The release rate from the entire St. Anthony open pit was determined to be 3.5 x 10/sup 5/ pCi/s. This rate is comparable to the natural release of radon from one square mile of undisturbed topsoil. 16 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Geologic report for the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits Site

    SciTech Connect

    1984-10-01

    A preliminary geologic site characterization study was conducted at the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits Site, which is part of the Weldon Spring Site, in St. Charles County, Missouri. The Raffinate Pits Site is under the custody of the Department of Energy (DOE). Surrounding properties, including the Weldon Spring chemical plant, are under the control of the Department of the Army. The study determined the following parameters: site stratigraphy, lithology and general conditions of each stratigraphic unit, and groundwater characteristics and their relation to the geology. These parameters were used to evaluate the potential of the site to adequately store low-level radioactive wastes. The site investigation included trenching, geophysical surveying, borehole drilling and sampling, and installing observation wells and piezometers to monitor groundwater and pore pressures.

  6. Radon and aerosol release from open-pit uranium mining

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Nielson, K.K.; Mauch, M.L.

    1982-08-01

    The quantity of /sup 222/Rn (hereafter called radon) released per unit of uranium produced from open pit mining has been determined. A secondary objective was to determine the nature and quantity of airborne particles resulting from mine operations. To accomplish these objectives, a comprehensive study of the release rates of radon and aerosol material to the atmosphere was made over a one-year period from April 1979 to May 1980 at the Morton Ranch Mine which was operated by United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) in partnership with Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The mine is now operated for TVA by Silver King Mines. Morton Ranch Mine was one of five open pit uranium mines studied in central Wyoming. Corroborative measurements were made of radon flux and /sup 226/Ra (hereafter called radium) concentrations of various surfaces at three of the other mines in October 1980 and again at these three mines plus a fourth in April of 1981. Three of these mines are located in the Powder River Basin, about 80 kilometers east by northeast of Casper. One is located in the Shirley Basin, about 60 km south of Casper, and the remaining one is located in the Gas Hills, approximately 100 km west of Casper. The one-year intensive study included simultaneous measurement of several parameters: continuous measurement of atmospheric radon concentration near the ground at three locations, monthly 24-hour radon flux measurements from various surfaces, radium analyses of soil samples collected under each of the flux monitoring devices, monthly integrations of aerosols on dichotomous aerosol samplers, analysis of aerosol samplers for total dust loading, aerosol elemental and radiochemical composition, aerosol elemental composition by particle size, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall.

  7. Amchitka Mud Pit Sites 2006 Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspection Report, Amchitka Island, Alaska, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2006-09-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA/NSO) remediated six areas associated with Amchitka mud pit release sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. This included the construction of seven closure caps. To ensure the integrity and effectiveness of remedial action, the mud pit sites are to be inspected every five years as part of DOE's long-term monitoring and surveillance program. In August of 2006, the closure caps were inspected in accordance with the ''Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspection Plan for Amchitka Island Mud Pit Release Sites'' (Rev. 0, November 2005). This post-closure monitoring report provides the 2006 cap inspection results.

  8. Mud Pit Identification Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (September 2001, Rev. No. 0)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2001-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection completed the Mud Pit Strategy, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada (DOE/NV, 2001) to document a systematic process for identifying and categorizing potentially contaminated mud pits located on the NTS, and systematically evaluating them for inclusion in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The objectives of this report are to summarize the process used to define the six mud pit categories, identify mud pits, discuss the mud pits that do not meet FFACO entry criteria, identify mud pits for proposed FFACO entry, and describe the general mud pit distribution. Underground nuclear testing conducted since 1951 at the NTS has produced mud pits that were used for the transfer and collection of drilling mud, rock cuttings, and drilling fluids. This report documents the execution of the strategy document by examining the identification process and documenting these results. For clarification purposes, this document uses the term ''entry'' to indicate inclusion of mud pits into the FFACO and ''exclusion'' to indicate those mud pits which do not meet the ''entry'' criteria defined in this report. Based on this criteria, 257 mud pits identified that have been proposed for FFACO entry were found in 14 separate areas of the NTS. Each of the 257 mud pits proposed for FFACO entry will need to be located in the field, photographed, and documented during future Industrial Sites Project, Preliminary Assessment activities. If the field review determines that a mud pit was misidentified or improperly categorized, the appropriate FFACO modification request will be submitted for review and approval.

  9. Demonstration of In-Situ Stabilization of Buried Waste at Pit G-11 at the Brookhaven National laboratory Glass Pits Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, B.P.; Gilbert, J.; Heiser, J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1989 BNL was added to the EPAs National Priorities List. The site is divided into seven operable units (OU). OU-I includes the former landfill area. The field task site is noted as the AOC 2C Glass Holes location. Beginning in the 1960s and continuing into the 1980s, BNL disposed of laboratory waste (glassware, chemicals and animal carcasses) in numerous shallow pits. The drivers for remediating the pits are; historical records that indicate hazardous materials may have been disposed of in the pits; ground water contamination down gradient of the pits; a test excavation of one of the glass holes that unearthed laboratory glass bottles with unidentified liquids still contained; and the fact that BNL rests atop an EPA designated sole-source aquifer. The specific site chosen for this demonstration was pit G-11. The requirements that lead to choosing this pit were; a well characterized pit and a relatively isolated pit where our construction operations would not impact on adjacent pits. The glass holes area, including pit G-11, was comprehensively surveyed using a suite of geophysical techniques (e.g., EM-31, EM-61, GPR). Prior to stabilizing the waste form a subsurface barrier was constructed to contain the entire waste pit. The pit contents were then stabilized using a cement grout applied via jet grouting. The stabilization was performed to make removal of the waste from the pit easier and safer in terms of worker exposure. The grouting process would mix and masticate the waste and grout and form a single monolithic waste form. This large monolith would then be subdivided into smaller 4 foot by 4 foot by 10-12 foot block using a demolition grout. The smaller blocks would then be easily removed from the site and disposed of in a CERCLA waste site.

  10. Radiological survey report for the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    The Weldon Spring Site (WSS) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facility comprising the Raffinate Pits facility, the Quarry, and potentially contaminated vicinity properties. Radiological characterization of the WSS will be conducted in three phases: the Raffinate Pits facility, Quarry, and the vicinity properties. Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) and its radiological support subcontractor, Eberline Instrument Corporation (EIC), conducted a radiological characterization survey of the Raffinate Pits during 1982 and 1983 in support of on-site construction work and a technical evaluation of site geology. The survey consisted of direct beta-gamma surface readings, near-surface gamma readings, exposure level measurements, and gamma-logs of boreholes. Soil samples were also collected from the surface, shallow boreholes, and trenches on the site. This report describes the radiological characterization of the Raffinate Pits facility, the procedures used to conduct the survey, the survey results, and their significance. 5 references, 9 figures, 8 tables.

  11. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-F-3 PNL Burn Pit, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-042

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-10-20

    The 128-F-3 waste site is a former burn pit associated with the 100-F Area experimental animal farm. The site was overlain by coal ash associated with the 126-F-1 waste site and could not be located during confirmatory site evaluation. Therefore, a housekeeping action was performed to remove the coal ash potentially obscuring residual burn pit features. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  12. Probability of Liquefaction for Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) Site, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.C.

    2003-09-30

    This report documents the probability of liquefaction (POL) for the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF). The procedure for analysis of a critical layer of interest requires the following basic steps: (1) establish the probability of occurrence (POO) of ranges of 2.5 Hz bedrock motion based on a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA); (2) define the critical layer that may be susceptible to liquefaction; (3) estimate distributions of cyclic stress ratio (CSR) (i.e., seismic demand) for the critical layer using site-specific soil properties corresponding to the bedrock motions; (4) estimate capacity of the critical layer based on site-specific cone penetration test (CPT) soundings and standard penetration test (SPT) blowcount data; and (5) sum the probability of liquefaction for each range of bedrock motion using empirical data correlating demand and capacity with liquefaction. The soil layer most susceptible to liquefaction is the critical layer. The critical layer is characterized by relatively low blowcount and low fines content and is established from soil layers below the water table. A key component for seismic demand is the establishment of the soil profile and it's uncertainty. The PDCF site is consistent with the 1997 SRS-specific model used to compute the site amplification database. Thus, previously derived site amplification functions reflecting the uncertainty in site properties and stratigraphy can be used to predict distributions of CSR given a specific earthquake magnitude and level of bedrock motion. The previously developed site amplification database reflects uncertainty in site response based on the large database of site shear-wave velocity profiles. Consequently, for each level of bedrock motion (from the PSHA) the site amplification database is used to establish the distribution of the expected CSR (demand) in the critical layer.

  13. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of the Chromic Acid Pit site, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Thomas, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 3.0 milligrams per liter. Nitrate concentrations are abnormally high in the Old Mesa well field located about 5,000 feet southwest of the Chromic Acid Pit site. Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in water samples were analyzed for the first sampling round; no confirmed volatile or semivolatile organic compounds were detected above the laboratory reporting limits. Total chromium concentrations ranged from 0.0099 to 0.092 milligram per liter; dissolved chromium concentrations ranged from 0.0068 to 0.0094 milligram per liter. Overall, water-quality characteristics in water from the chromic acid pit ground-water monitoring wells are similar to those in the surrounding area. Detected chemical concentrations in water from the chromic acid pit monitoring wells during the four sampling periods were below U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-established maximum contaminant levels for public drinking water supplies. Statistical analyses were performed on 39 of the chemical constituents analyzed for in ground water from the chromic acid pit monitoring wells. Concentrations of chloride and fluoride were significantly less in water from the downgradient wells than in water from the upgradient well, whereas concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and dissolved solids were significantly greater in water from the downgradient wells than in water from the upgradient well. Concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen were significantly different in water from the two downgradient wells. Differences detected through statistical analysis of chemical constituents of water in the chromic acid pit monitoring wells did not appear to indicate a release of hazardous chemicals from the chromic acid pit. There was no indication of ground-water contamination in either downgradient well.

  14. Remedial investigation and feasibility study for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 Pit 7 Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Taffet, M.J. ); Oberdorfer, J.A. ); McIlvride, W.A. )

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes the results and conclusions of the investigation of tritium and other compounds in ground water in the vicinity of landfills at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 Pit 7 Complex. 91 refs., 110 figs., 43 tabs.

  15. 218 E-8 Borrow Pit Demolition Site clean closure soil evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Korematsu-Olund, D.M.

    1995-06-12

    This report summarizes the sampling activities undertaken and the analytical results obtained in a soil sampling and analyses study performed for the 218 E-8 Borrow Pit Demolition Site (218 E-8 Demolition Site). The 218 E-8 Demolition Site is identified as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) treatment unit that will be closed in accordance with the applicable laws and regulations. The site was used for the thermal treatment of discarded explosive chemical products. No constituents of concern were found in concentrations indicating contamination of the soil by 218 E-8 Demolition Site activities.

  16. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 2: Site characterization report of the Pit 1 area

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.; Bogle, M.A.; Cline, S.R.; Naney, M.T.; Gu, B.

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993, initially encompassing the application of in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was to have supported a possible Interim Record of Decision (IROD) or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches as early as FY 1997. The Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 7, which contains these seven seepage pits and trenches, will probably not begin until after the year 2000. This treatability study will establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability to overlap melt settings that are necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. This report summarizes the site characterization information gathered through the end of September 1996 which supports the planning and assessment of ISV for Pit 1 (objective 4 above).

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krauss and Catherine Birney

    2011-05-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 544 are located within Areas 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, 19, and 20 of the Nevada National Security Site. Corrective Action Unit 544 comprises the following CASs: • 02-37-08, Cellar & Mud Pit • 02-37-09, Cellar & Mud Pit • 07-09-01, Mud Pit • 09-09-46, U-9itsx20 PS #1A Mud Pit • 10-09-01, Mud Pit • 12-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 19-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-04, Mud Pit • 19-25-01, Oil Spill • 19-99-06, Waste Spill • 20-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-02, Mud Pit • 20-09-03, Mud Pit • 20-09-04, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-06, Mud Pit • 20-09-07, Mud Pit • 20-09-10, Mud Pit • 20-25-04, Oil Spills • 20-25-05, Oil Spills The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 544 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 544 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  18. Holocene faulting near closed landfill Pit 6, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.W.; Taffet, M.J.; Copland, J.R.; Mateik, R.S.; Wade, W.M.

    1992-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Site 300 test facility, an 11 mi{sup 2} area, is located in the rugged, semiarid Altamont Hills southwest of Tracy, California. Geologic studies conducted at the site in support of environmental assessments of closed landfill Pit 6 reveal the presence of a fault strand showing evidence of repeated movements during late Pleistocene and Holocene time. These studies included airphoto interpretation, geologic mapping, and logging of four exploratory trenches and other exposures. The fault was traced from west of Pit 6 to southeast of the pit, a distance of about 1,500 ft; regional reconnaissance suggests that the fault extends beyond the limits of the area studied in detail. The identified fault strand is not coincident with any previously mapped fault. It occurs within a band of highly deformed Tertiary rocks that is bounded by the Carnegie fault on the north and the Corral Hollow fault on the south. Evidence of Holocene movement within the larger Corral Hollow-Carnegie fault zone indicates that this fault zone should be considered active and could be a source of future strong earthquake motion. Regressions relating total fault length, segment length, and fault plane area suggest that the Corral Hollow-Carnegie fault zone may be capable of generating an earthquake in the range of M{sub s} 6.3 to 7.1. Effects of a strong earthquake on closed landfill Pit 6 would be expected to be slight since the identified Holocene fault trace passes at least 100 ft south of the outer limits of the pit area. However, the effects of strong ground shaking from a local source upon buildings, slopes, and other structures within Site 300 and vicinity should receive further consideration.

  19. Holocene faulting near closed landfill Pit 6, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.W.; Taffet, M.J. ); Copland, J.R. ); Mateik, R.S.; Wade, W.M. )

    1992-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300 test facility, an 11 mi[sup 2] area, is located in the rugged, semiarid Altamont Hills southwest of Tracy, California. Geologic studies conducted at the site in support of environmental assessments of closed landfill Pit 6 reveal the presence of a fault strand showing evidence of repeated movements during late Pleistocene and Holocene time. These studies included airphoto interpretation, geologic mapping, and logging of four exploratory trenches and other exposures. The fault was traced from west of Pit 6 to southeast of the pit, a distance of about 1,500 ft; regional reconnaissance suggests that the fault extends beyond the limits of the area studied in detail. The identified fault strand is not coincident with any previously mapped fault. It occurs within a band of highly deformed Tertiary rocks that is bounded by the Carnegie fault on the north and the Corral Hollow fault on the south. Evidence of Holocene movement within the larger Corral Hollow-Carnegie fault zone indicates that this fault zone should be considered active and could be a source of future strong earthquake motion. Regressions relating total fault length, segment length, and fault plane area suggest that the Corral Hollow-Carnegie fault zone may be capable of generating an earthquake in the range of M[sub s] 6.3 to 7.1. Effects of a strong earthquake on closed landfill Pit 6 would be expected to be slight since the identified Holocene fault trace passes at least 100 ft south of the outer limits of the pit area. However, the effects of strong ground shaking from a local source upon buildings, slopes, and other structures within Site 300 and vicinity should receive further consideration.

  20. Construction quality assurance for Pit 6 landfill closure, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-30

    Golder Construction Services, Inc. (GCS), under contract to the Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), provided the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and testing during the construction of the Site 300, Pit 6 landfill closure cover. The cap construction was performed as a CERCLA non-time-critical removal action from June 2 to August 29, 1997. the project site is located 18 miles east of Livermore on Tesla Road and approximately 10 miles southwest of Tracy on Corral Hollow Road in San Joaquin County, California. This report certifies that the LLNL, Site 300, Pit 6, Landfill Closure was constructed in accordance with the construction specifications and design drawings. This report documents construction activities and CQA monitoring and testing for construction of the Pit 6 Landfill Closure. Golder Associates, Inc. of Oakland, California was the design engineering firm responsible for preparation of the drawings and specifications. CQA services were provided by GCS, of Roseville, California, under supervision of a California registered civil Engineer.

  1. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Revision No. 0, August 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2001-08-21

    knowledge. Recirculation processes within the mud pits enhance volatilization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), thereby reducing the potential concentrations of any VOCs that may be present. A secondary source of contaminants from random truck dumping activities and leaking vehicle discharge may have released fuels, grease, motor oil, and hydraulic fluids into the mud pit effluent stream. Radionuclide contamination is not expected at these CASs based on historical information. The primary radioisotopes that could be expected, if present, are cesium-137, tritium, and strontium-90. The SAFER process ends with closure of the site based on the laboratory analytical results of the environmental samples. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 356 using the SAFER process. On completion of the field activities, a Closure Report will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for review and approval.

  2. Sulci Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in serveral ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire ediface to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found in an area of 'sulci' ridges east of Olympus Mons. Graben cut the ridges, and one graben hosts the collapse pits. It is likely that these collapse pits are related to volatile release from material that filled the lows at some point after graben formation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 18.6, Longitude 234.6 East (125.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in

  3. Title I conceptual design for Pit 6 landfill closure at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonnell, B.A.; Obenauf, K.S.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this design project is to evaluate and prepare design and construction documents for a closure cover cap for the Pit 6 Landfill located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300. This submittal constitutes the Title I Design (Conceptual Design) for the closure cover of the Pit 6 Landfill. A Title I Design is generally 30 percent of the design effort. Title H Design takes the design to 100 percent complete. Comments and edits to this Title I Design will be addressed in the Title II design submittal. Contents of this report are as follows: project background; design issues and engineering approach; design drawings; calculation packages; construction specifications outline; and construction quality assurance plan outline.

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Laura A. Pastor

    2005-04-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. The CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 357 is comprised of 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 4, 7, 8, 10, and 25 of the NTS (Figure 1-1). The NTS is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 357 consists of 11 CASs that are mud pits located in Areas 7, 8, and 10. The mud pits were associated with drilling activities conducted on the NTS in support of the underground nuclear weapons testing. The remaining three CASs are boxes and pipes associated with Building 1-31.2el, lead bricks, and a waste dump. These CAS are located in Areas 1, 4, and 25, respectively. The following CASs are shown on Figure 1-1: CAS 07-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-01, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-06, Mud Pit, Stains, Material; CAS 01-99-01, Boxes, Pipes; CAS 04-26-03, Lead Bricks; and CAS 25-15-01, Waste Dump. The purpose of the corrective action activities was to obtain analytical data that supports the closure of CAU 357. Environmental samples were collected during the investigation to determine whether contaminants exist and if detected, their extent. The investigation and sampling strategy was designed to target locations and media most likely to be contaminated (biased sampling). A general site conceptual model was developed for each CAS to support and guide the investigation as outlined in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2003b). This CR

  5. Release Data Package for Hanford Site Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert G.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Engel, David W.

    2006-07-01

    Beginning in fiscal year (FY) 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office initiated activities, including the development of data packages, to support a Hanford assessment. This report describes the data compiled in FY 2003 through 2005 to support the Release Module of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) for the updated composite analysis. This work was completed as part of the Characterization of Systems Project, part of the Remediation and Closure Science Project, the Hanford Assessments Project, and the Characterization of Systems Project managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Related characterization activities and data packages for the vadose zone and groundwater are being developed under the remediation Decision Support Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. The Release Module applies release models to waste inventory data from the Inventory Module and accounts for site remediation activities as a function of time. The resulting releases to the vadose zone, expressed as time profiles of annual rates, become source terms for the Vadose Zone Module. Radioactive decay is accounted for in all inputs and outputs of the Release Module. The Release Module is implemented as the VADER (Vadose zone Environmental Release) computer code. Key components of the Release Module are numerical models (i.e., liquid, soil-debris, cement, saltcake, and reactor block) that simulate contaminant release from the different waste source types found at the Hanford Site. The Release Module also handles remediation transfers to onsite and offsite repositories.

  6. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2002-11-12

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 356, Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. This CAU is located in Areas 3 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 356 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-04-01, Area 3 Change House Septic System; 03-09-01, Mud Pit Spill Over; 03-09-03, Mud Pit; 03-09-04, Mud Pit; 03-09-05, Mud Pit; 20-16-01, Landfill; and 20-22-21, Drums. This CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's (NNSA/NV's) recommendation that no further corrective action and closure in place is deemed necessary for CAU 356. This recommendation is based on the results of field investigation/closure activities conducted November 20, 2001, through January 3, 2002, and March 11 to 14, 2002. These activities were conducted in accordance with the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan (SAFER) for CAU 356. For CASs 03-09-01, 03-09-03, 20-16-01, and 22-20-21, analytes detected in soil during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against Preliminary Action Levels (PALs) and it was determined that no Contaminants of Concern (COCs) were present. Therefore, no further action is necessary for the soil at these CASs. For CASs 03-04-01, 03-09-04, and 03-09-05, analytes detected in soil during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against PALs and identifies total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and radionuclides (i.e., americium-241 and/or plutonium 239/240) as COCs. The nature, extent, and concentration of the TPH and radionuclide COCs were bounded by sampling and shown to be relatively immobile. Therefore, closure in place is recommended for these CASs in CAU 356. Further, use restrictions are not required at this CAU beyond the NTS use restrictions identified in

  7. Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project : Final Siting Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, James M.

    1992-04-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of satellite and release facilities for the Umatilla Basin hatchery program. The Umatilla Basin hatchery program consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in the Umatilla River as defined in the Umatilla master plan approved in 1989 by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult salmon broodstock holding and spawning facilities, facilities for recovery, acclimation, and/or extended rearing of salmon juveniles, and development of river sites for release of hatchery salmon and steelhead. The historic and current distribution of fall chinook, summer chinook, and coho salmon and steelhead trout was summarized for the Umatilla River basin. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Twenty seven sites were evaluated for the potential and development of facilities. Engineering and environmental attributes of the sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  8. Assessing and Adapting LiDAR-Derived Pit-Free Canopy Height Model Algorithm for Sites with Varying Vegetation Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, V.; Hulslander, D.; Goulden, T.; Wasser, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial and temporal monitoring of vegetation structure is important to the ecological community. Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems are used to efficiently survey large forested areas. From LiDAR data, three-dimensional models of forests called canopy height models (CHMs) are generated and used to estimate tree height. A common problem associated with CHMs is data pits, where LiDAR pulses penetrate the top of the canopy, leading to an underestimation of vegetation height. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) currently implements an algorithm to reduce data pit frequency, which requires two height threshold parameters, increment size and range ceiling. CHMs are produced at a series of height increments up to a height range ceiling and combined to produce a CHM with reduced pits (referred to as a "pit-free" CHM). The current implementation uses static values for the height increment and ceiling (5 and 15 meters, respectively). To facilitate the generation of accurate pit-free CHMs across diverse NEON sites with varying vegetation structure, the impacts of adjusting the height threshold parameters were investigated through development of an algorithm which dynamically selects the height increment and ceiling. A series of pit-free CHMs were generated using three height range ceilings and four height increment values for three ecologically different sites. Height threshold parameters were found to change CHM-derived tree heights up to 36% compared to original CHMs. The extent of the parameters' influence on modelled tree heights was greater than expected, which will be considered during future CHM data product development at NEON. (A) Aerial image of Harvard National Forest, (B) standard CHM containing pits, appearing as black speckles, (C) a pit-free CHM created with the static algorithm implementation, and (D) a pit-free CHM created through varying the height threshold ceiling up to 82 m and the increment to 1 m.

  9. Ascraeus Mons Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found on the flank of Ascraeus Mons. The pits and channels are all related to lava tube formation and emptying.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 8, Longitude 253.9 East (106.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science

  10. Lava Tube Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found in the southern hemisphere of Mars. They are likely lava tube collapse pits related to flows from Hadriaca Patera.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -36.8, Longitude 89.6 East (270.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space

  11. Remedial investigation report, site 2-Pesticide Pit Burial Area, Stewart Air National Guard Base, Newburgh, New York. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Site 2-Pesticide Pit Burial Area was investigated under the Installation Restoration Program. A removal action was conducted in 1988, when pesticide containers and contaminated soil were excavated from the pit. The pit covered an area of approximately 1000 square feet and was approximately 12 feet deep. The report recommends no further action based on study results.

  12. Remedial investigation report, site 2-Pesticide Pit Burial Area, Stewart Air National Guard Base, Newburgh, New York. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Site 2-Pesticide Pit Burial Area was investigated under the Installation Restoration Program. A removal action was conducted in 1988, when pesticide containers and contaminated soil were excavated from the pit. The pit covered an area of approximately 1000 square feet and was approximately 12 feet deep. The report recommends no further action based on study results.

  13. Sulci Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    This is the Noctis Labyrinthus region of Mars. These collapse pits are forming along structural fractures that are allowing the release of volatiles from the subsurface. This is believed to be the way that chaos terrain forms on Mars. This area represents the early stage of chaos formation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -12.6, Longitude 264 East (96 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in

  14. Comparative study of fluoride released and recharged from conventional pit and fissure sealants versus surface prereacted glass ionomer technology

    PubMed Central

    Salmerón-Valdés, Elias Nahum; Scougall-Vilchis, Rogelio J; Alanis-Tavira, Jorge; Morales-Luckie, Raúl Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Context: The fluoride release of sealants in vitro shows a marked decrease. Giomers are distinguishable from manufactured resin-based sealants and contain prereacted glass-ionomer particles (PRG). Aims: To compare the amounts of fluoride released from the main pit and fissure of a resin-based sealant with that from a Giomer and to assess the abilities of the sealant and the Giomer to recharge when exposed to regular use of fluoride rinse. Materials and Methods: The readings for the fluoride concentration were carried out for 60 days using a fluoride ion-specific electrode. After this period, the samples were recharged using a fluoride mouth rinse. The amount of fluoride released after this recharge was determined for 5 days. The data were analyzed using Student's t- and analysis of variance tests. Results: In general, all materials presented higher fluoride release in the first 24 h; G1 and G4 showed a higher fluoride release in this period. On the other hand, G3 and G1 presented the most constant fluoride release until the 8th day, wherein all the sealants considerably decreased in the amount of fluoride released. Conclusion: G1 and G3 released higher concentrations of fluoride, although no significant differences were found. Giomers recharged in the first 24 h after polymerization presented an improved and sustained fluoride release. PMID:26957792

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-F-2, 100-F Burning Pit Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-031

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-12-01

    The 128-F-2 waste site consisted of multiple burn and debris filled pits located directly east of the 107-F Retention Basin and approximately 30.5 m east of the northeast corner of the 100-F Area perimeter road that runs along the riverbank. The burn pits were used for incinerating nonradioactive, combustible materials from 1945 to 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  16. Nonequivalent release sites govern synaptic depression.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hua; McGinley, Matthew J; Mandel, Gail; Brehm, Paul

    2016-01-19

    Synaptic depression is prominent among synapses, but the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Here, we use paired patch clamp recording to study neuromuscular transmission between the caudal primary motor neuron and target skeletal muscle in zebrafish. This synapse has an unusually low number of release sites, all with high probabilities of release in response to low-frequency stimulation. During high-frequency stimulation, the synapse undergoes short-term depression and reaches steady-state levels of transmission that sustain the swimming behavior. To determine the release parameters underlying this steady state, we applied variance analysis. Our analysis revealed two functionally distinct subclasses of release sites differing by over 60-fold in rates of vesicle reloading. A slow reloading class requires seconds to recover and contributes to depression onset but not the steady-state transmission. By contrast, a fast reloading class recovers within tens of milliseconds and is solely responsible for steady-state transmission. Thus, in contrast to most current models that assign levels of steady-state depression to vesicle availability, our findings instead assign this function to nonuniform release site kinetics. The duality of active-site properties accounts for the highly nonlinear dependence of steady-state depression levels on frequency.

  17. Nonequivalent release sites govern synaptic depression.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hua; McGinley, Matthew J; Mandel, Gail; Brehm, Paul

    2016-01-19

    Synaptic depression is prominent among synapses, but the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Here, we use paired patch clamp recording to study neuromuscular transmission between the caudal primary motor neuron and target skeletal muscle in zebrafish. This synapse has an unusually low number of release sites, all with high probabilities of release in response to low-frequency stimulation. During high-frequency stimulation, the synapse undergoes short-term depression and reaches steady-state levels of transmission that sustain the swimming behavior. To determine the release parameters underlying this steady state, we applied variance analysis. Our analysis revealed two functionally distinct subclasses of release sites differing by over 60-fold in rates of vesicle reloading. A slow reloading class requires seconds to recover and contributes to depression onset but not the steady-state transmission. By contrast, a fast reloading class recovers within tens of milliseconds and is solely responsible for steady-state transmission. Thus, in contrast to most current models that assign levels of steady-state depression to vesicle availability, our findings instead assign this function to nonuniform release site kinetics. The duality of active-site properties accounts for the highly nonlinear dependence of steady-state depression levels on frequency. PMID:26715759

  18. Nonequivalent release sites govern synaptic depression

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Hua; McGinley, Matthew J.; Mandel, Gail; Brehm, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic depression is prominent among synapses, but the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Here, we use paired patch clamp recording to study neuromuscular transmission between the caudal primary motor neuron and target skeletal muscle in zebrafish. This synapse has an unusually low number of release sites, all with high probabilities of release in response to low-frequency stimulation. During high-frequency stimulation, the synapse undergoes short-term depression and reaches steady-state levels of transmission that sustain the swimming behavior. To determine the release parameters underlying this steady state, we applied variance analysis. Our analysis revealed two functionally distinct subclasses of release sites differing by over 60-fold in rates of vesicle reloading. A slow reloading class requires seconds to recover and contributes to depression onset but not the steady-state transmission. By contrast, a fast reloading class recovers within tens of milliseconds and is solely responsible for steady-state transmission. Thus, in contrast to most current models that assign levels of steady-state depression to vesicle availability, our findings instead assign this function to nonuniform release site kinetics. The duality of active-site properties accounts for the highly nonlinear dependence of steady-state depression levels on frequency. PMID:26715759

  19. Characterization of the Burma Road Rubble Pit at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, K.G.; Frazier, W.L.; McAdams, T.D.; McFalls, S.L.; Rabin, M.; Voss, L. |

    1996-05-01

    The Burma Road Rubble Pit (BRRP) is located at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The BRRP unit consists of two unlined earthen pits dug into surficial soil and filled with various waste materials. It was used from 1973--1983 for the disposal of dry inert rubble such as metal, concrete, lumber, poles, light fixtures, and glass. No record of the disposal of hazardous substances at the BRRP has been found. In 1983, the BRRP was closed by covering it with soil. In September 1988, a Ground Penetrating Radar survey detected three disturbed areas of soil near the BRRP, and a detailed and combined RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation was conducted from November 1993 to February 1994 to determine whether hazardous substances were present in the subsurface, to evaluate the nature and extent of contamination, and to evaluate the risks posed to the SRS facility due to activities conducted at the BRRP site. Metals, semi-volatile organic compounds, volatile organic compounds, radionuclides and one pesticide (Aldrin) were detected in soil and groundwater samples collected from seventeen BRRP locations. A baseline risk assessment (BRA) was performed quantitatively to evaluate whether chemical and radionuclide concentrations detected in soil and groundwater at the BRRP posed an unacceptable threat to human health and the environment. The exposure scenarios identifiable for the BRRP were for environmental researchers, future residential and occupational land use. The total site noncancer hazard indices were below unity, and cancer risk levels were below 1.0E-06 for the existing and future case environmental researcher scenario. The future case residential and occupational scenarios showed total hazard and risk levels which exceeded US EPA criterion values relative to groundwater scenarios. For the most part, the total carcinogenic risks were within the 1.0E-04 to 1.0E-06 risk range. Only the future adult residential scenario was associated with risks exceeding 1.0E-04.

  20. Alba Patera Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    This image of the Alba Patera region has both lava tube collapse pits (running generally east/west) and subsidence related collapse within structural grabens.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 26.9, Longitude 256.5 East (103.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  1. Tharsis Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found within the extensive lava flows of the Tharsis region. They are related to lava tubes, likely coming from Ascraeus Mons.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 22.8, Longitude 266.8 East (93.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office

  2. Alba Patera Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found within graben surrounding Alba Patera. Alba Patera is an old volcano that has subsided after it's magma chamber was evacuated.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 43.1, Longitude 259.4 East (100.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  3. Tractus Catena Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found in graben located in Tractus Catena. These features are related to subsidence after magma chamber evacuation of Alba Patera.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 35.8, Longitude 241.7 East (118.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  4. Mud Pit Risk-Based Closure Strategy Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Brain Hoenes

    2004-08-01

    This report presents the findings of the human and ecological risk assessment for the NTS mud pits. The risk assessment utilizes data from 52 of the 270 NTS mud pits in conjunction with corroborative data from 87 other DOE mud pits associated with nuclear testing (at locations on the NTS, in the western United States, and Alaska) as well as relevant process knowledge. Based on the risk assessment findings, the report provides a strategy for further evaluation, characterization, and closure of all 270 NTS mud pit CASs using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER).

  5. Decision Document for the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, Pesticide Rinse Area, Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, Illicit PCB Dump Site, and the Battery Acid Pit Fort Lewis, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Liikala, Terry L.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Taira, Randal Y.

    2000-12-11

    PNNL conducted independent site evaluations for four sites at Fort Lewis, Washington, to determine their suitability for closure on behalf of the installation. These sites were recommended for "No Further Action" by previous invesitgators and included the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant (IWTP), the Pesticide Rinse Area, the Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, and the Illicit PCB Dump Site.

  6. Decision Document for the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, Pesticide Rinse Area, Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, Illicit PCB Dump Site, and the Battery Acid Pit Fort Lewis, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J; Liikala, Terry L; Strenge, Dennis L; Taira, Randal Y

    2001-01-10

    PNNL conducted independent site evaluations for four sites at Fort Lewis, Washington, to determine their suitability for closure on behalf of the installation. These sites were recommended for ''No Further Action'' by previous investigators and included the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant (IWTP), the Pesticide Rinse Area, the Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, and the Illicit PCB Dump Site.

  7. Extensive rill erosion and gullying on abandoned pit mining sites in Lusatia, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunth, Franziska; Kaiser, Andreas; Vláčilová, Markéta; Schindewolf, Marcus; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    As the major economic driver in the province of Lusatia, Eastern Germany, the large open-cast lignite mining sites characterize the landscape and leave vast areas of irreversible changed post-mining landscapes behind. Cost-intensive renaturation projects have been implemented in order to restructure former mine sites into stabile self-sustaining ecosystems and local recreation areas. With considerable expenditure the pits are stabilized, flooded and surrounding areas are restructured. Nevertheless, heavy soil erosion, extensive gullying and slope instability are challenges for the restructuring and renaturation of the abandoned open-cast mining sites. The majority of the sites remain inaccessible to the public due to instable conditions resulting in uncontrolled slides and large gullies. In this study a combined approach of UAV-based aerial imagery, 3D multi-vision surface reconstruction and physically-based soil erosion modelling is carried out in order to document, quantify and better understand the causes of erosion processes on mining sites. Rainfall simulations have been carried out in lausatian post mining areas to reproduce soil detachment processes and observe the responsible mechanisms for the considerable erosion rates. Water repellency and soil sealing by biological crusts were hindering infiltration and consequently increasing runoff rates despite the mainly sandy soil texture. On non-vegetated experimental plots runoff coefficients up to 87 % were measured. In a modelling routine for a major gully catchment regarding a 50 years rainfall event, simulation results reveal runoff coefficients of up to 84% and erosion rates of 118 Mg*ha^-1. At the sediment pass over point 450Mg of sediments enter the surface water bodies. A system response of this order of magnitude were unexpected by the authorities. By applying 3D multi-vision surface reconstruction a model validation is now possible and further may illustrate the great importance of soil conservation

  8. Corrective action plan for corrective action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Nacht, S.

    1999-08-01

    The Mercury Fire Training Pit is a former fire training area located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Mercury Fire Training Pit was used from approximately 1965 to the early 1990s to train fire-fighting personnel at the NTS, and encompasses an area approximately 107 meters (m) (350 feet [ft]) by 137 m (450 ft). The Mercury Fire Training Pit formerly included a bermed burn pit with four small burn tanks, four large above ground storage tanks an overturned bus, a telephone pole storage area, and areas for burning sheds, pallets, and cables. Closure activities will include excavation of the impacted soil in the aboveground storage tank and burn pit areas to a depth of 1.5 m (5 ft), and excavation of the impacted surface soil downgradient of the former ASTs and burnpit areas to a depth of 0.3 m (1 ft). Excavated soil will be disposed in the Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill at the NTS.

  9. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-B-2, 100-B Burn Pit #2 Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-038

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Carlson

    2005-12-21

    The 128-B-2 waste site was a burn pit historically used for the disposal of combustible and noncombustible wastes, including paint and solvents, office waste, concrete debris, and metallic debris. This site has been remediated by removing approximately 5,627 bank cubic meters of debris, ash, and contaminated soil to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  10. Ground-water quality, water year 1995, and statistical analysis of ground-water-quality data, water years 1994-95, at the Chromic Acid Pit site, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Roybal, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    The Chromic Acid Pit site is an inactive waste disposal site that is regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The 2.2-cubic-yard cement-lined pit was operated from 1980 to 1983 by a contractor to the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss. The pit, located on the Fort Bliss military reservation in El Paso, Texas, was used for disposal and evaporation of chromic acid waste generated from chrome plating operations. The site was closed in 1989, and the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission issued permit number HW-50296 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency number TX4213720101), which approved and implemented post-closure care for the Chromic Acid Pit site. In accordance with an approved post-closure plan, the U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the U.S. Army in monitoring and evaluating ground-water quality at the site. One upgradient ground-water monitoring well (MW1) and two downgradient ground-water monitoring wells (MW2 and MW3), installed adjacent to the chromic acid pit, are monitored on a quarterly basis. Ground-water sampling of these wells by the U.S. Geological Survey began in December 1993. The ground-water level, measured in a production well located approximately 1,700 feet southeast of the Chromic Acid Pit site, has declined about 29.43 feet from 1982 to 1995. Depth to water at the Chromic Acid Pit site in September 1995 was 284.2 to 286.5 feet below land surface; ground-water flow at the water table is assumed to be toward the southeast. Ground-water samples collected from monitoring wells at the Chromic Acid Pit site during water year 1995 contained dissolved- solids concentrations of 481 to 516 milligrams per liter. Total chromium concentrations detected above the laboratory reporting limit ranged from 0.0061 to 0.030 milligram per liter; dissolved chromium concentrations ranged from 0.0040 to 0.010 milligram per liter. Nitrate as nitrogen concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 2.8 milligrams per

  11. Environmental assessment for the expansion and operation of the Central Shops Borrow Pit at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) to assess the potential environmental impacts of the proposed expansion and operation of an existing borrow pit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. A borrow pit is defined as an excavated area where material has been dug for use as fill at another location. The proposed action would entail the areal enlargement, continued operation, and eventual close-out of the established facility known as the Central Shops Borrow Pit. Operations at SRS supporting waste site closure and the construction and maintenance of site facilities and infrastructure require readily available suitable soil for use as fill material. With the recent depletion of the other existing on-site sources for such material, DOE proposes to expand the existing facility. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact or prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

  12. Collapse Pits in Bernard Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in serveral ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire ediface to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These pits occur in the floor of Bernard Crater. These collapse pits were likely formed by the release of volatiles from the materials deposited in the crater floor.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -24, Longitude 205.5 East (154.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission

  13. Feasibility of Using 36 C1 to Depict Water Infiltration at the Pit 7 Complex, LLNL Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Nimz, G J

    2002-01-25

    Measurements of bomb-pulse {sup 36}Cl and chloride concentrations in soils from the Pit 7 Complex basin, LLNL Site 300, combined with a demonstration model of moisture flux and infiltration rate, indicate that the bomb-pulse can be an extremely useful tool for the characterization of the unsaturated hydrology at Site 300. Bomb-pulse {sup 36}Cl is readily identifiable in the soil column, and exhibits moisture infiltration-related variations at different locations. It can be used to calibrate chloride accumulation models of unsaturated flow. In the continuing investigation of the origin and development of the Pit 7 Complex tritium plume, bomb-pulse {sup 36}Cl will provide a useful mechanism for hydrologic characterization.

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 177: Mud Pits and Cellars Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2007-02-01

    This Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 177: Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This Closure Report complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. The Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 177 are located within Areas 8, 9, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of this Closure Report is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data that confirm the corrective actions implemented for CAU 177 CASs.

  15. Fate and groundwater impacts of produced water releases at OSPER "B" site, Osage County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Kakouros, E.; Thordsen, J.J.; Ambats, G.; Abbott, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    For the last 5 a, the authors have been investigating the transport, fate, natural attenuation and ecosystem impacts of inorganic and organic compounds in releases of produced water and associated hydrocarbons at the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research (OSPER) "A" and "B" sites, located in NE Oklahoma. Approximately 1.0 ha of land at OSPER "B", located within the active Branstetter lease, is visibly affected by salt scarring, tree kills, soil salinization, and brine and petroleum contamination. Site "B" includes an active production tank battery and adjacent large brine pit, two injection well sites, one with an adjacent small pit, and an abandoned brine pit and tank battery site. Oil production in this lease started in 1938, and currently there are 10 wells that produce 0.2-0.5 m3/d (1-3 bbl/d) oil, and 8-16 m3/d (50-100 bbl/d) brine. Geochemical data from nearby oil wells show that the produced water source is a Na-Ca-Cl brine (???150,000 mg/L TDS), with high Mg, but low SO4 and dissolved organic concentrations. Groundwater impacts are being investigated by detailed chemical analyses of water from repeated sampling of 41 boreholes, 1-71 m deep. The most important results at OSPER "B" are: (1) significant amounts of produced water from the two active brine pits percolate into the surficial rocks and flow towards the adjacent Skiatook reservoir, but only minor amounts of liquid petroleum leave the brine pits; (2) produced-water brine and minor dissolved organics have penetrated the thick (3-7 m) shale and siltstone units resulting in the formation of three interconnected plumes of high-salinity water (5000-30,000 mg/L TDS) that extend towards the Skiatook reservoir from the two active and one abandoned brine pits; and (3) groundwater from the deep section of only one well, BR-01 located 330 m upslope and west of the site, appear not to be impacted by petroleum operations. ?? 2007.

  16. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-B-3 Burn Pit Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-058

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-11-17

    The 128-B-3 waste site is a former burn and disposal site for the 100-B/C Area, located adjacent to the Columbia River. The 128-B-3 waste site has been remediated to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results of sampling at upland areas of the site also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Obi

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this Closure Report (CR) is to provide documentation of the completed corrective action and to provide data confirming the corrective action. The corrective action was performed following the approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], 1999b) and consisted of closure-in-place with partial excavation, disposal, backfilling, administrative controls, and post-closure monitoring. Soil with petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations above the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) Action Level of 100 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) (Nevada Administrative Code, 1996) was removed to a depth of 1.5 meters (m) (5 feet [ft]). The excavations were backfilled with clean fill to restore the site and to prevent contact with deeper, closed-in-place soil that exceeded the NDEP Action Level. According to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (DOE, 1998), the Mercury Fire Training Pit was used from approximately 1965 to the early 1990s to train fire-fighting and emergency response personnel at the NTS and encompasses an area approximately 85 by 115 m (280 by 380 ft). The location of the Mercury Fire Training Pit is shown in Figure 1 and a site plan is shown in Figure 2. The Mercury Fire Training Pit formerly included a bermed bum pit with four small bum tanks; four large above ground storage tanks (ASTS); an overturned bus, a telephone pole storage area; and several areas for burning sheds, pallets, and cables. During the active life of the Mercury Fire Training Pit, training events were conducted at least monthly and sometimes as often as weekly. Fuels burned during these events included off-specification or rust-contaminated gasoline, diesel, and aviation fuel (JP-4). Other items burned during these events included paint, tires, a pond liner, wood, paper, cloth, and copper cable. Approximately 570 liters (L) (150 gallons [gal]) of fuel were used for each training event resulting in an approximate total of 136,000 L (36

  18. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 126-B-3, 184-B Coal Pit Dumping Area, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-028

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-07

    The 126-B-3 waste site is the former coal storage pit for the 184-B Powerhouse. During demolition operations in the 1970s, the site was used for disposal of demolition debris from 100-B/C Area facilities. The site has been remediated by removing debris and contaminated soils. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  19. Partial site release at a power reactor facility.

    PubMed

    Darman, Joseph; Whitney, Michael; Dubiel, Richard

    2004-01-01

    U.S. NRC licensed facilities undergoing decommissioning may wish to remove portions of their site from the jurisdiction of their license, prior to final license termination. The method of partial site release, relevant to radiological conditions, described herein employs NUREG-1505 methodology for demonstrating indistinguishability from background. The partial site release process was also informed by NRC Regulatory Issue Summary 2000-19 "Partial Release of Reactor Site for Unrestricted Use Before NRC Approval of the License Termination Plan." However, the focus of this discussion is the radiological aspects of partial site release, relevant to the implementation of NUREG-1505 methodology for demonstrating indistinguishability from background, based on the 137Cs concentrations at the site and a suitable background reference area. This type of approach was found acceptable by the NRC, and the partial site release was granted. PMID:14695009

  20. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-44:4, Discovery Pipeline in Silica Gel Pit, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-030

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-09-23

    The 100-F-44:4, Discovery Pipeline in Silica Gel Pit subsite is located in the 100-FR-1 Operable Unit of the Hanford Site, near the location of the former 110-F Gas Storage Tanks structure. The 100-F-44:4 subsite is a steel pipe discovered October 17, 2004, during trenching to locate the 118-F-4 Silica Gel Pit. Based on visual inspection and confirmatory investigation sampling data, the 100-F-44:4 subsite is a piece of non-hazardous electrical conduit debris. The 100-F-44:4 subsite supports unrestricted future use of shallow zone soil and is protective of groundwater and the Columbia River. No residual contamination exists within the deep zone. Therefore, no deep zone institutional controls are required.

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1999-05-26

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for the Nevada Test Site's Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit (Corrective Action Unit 342) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 342 is comprised of Corrective Action Site 23-56-01. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for Corrective Action Unit 342. The scope of this document consists of the following: Develop corrective action objectives; Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; Develop corrective action alternatives; Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for the Corrective Action Unit.

  2. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krauss

    2010-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 544, Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 544 comprises the following 20 corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS): • 02-37-08, Cellar & Mud Pit • 02-37-09, Cellar & Mud Pit • 07-09-01, Mud Pit • 09-09-46, U-9itsx20 PS #1A Mud Pit • 10-09-01, Mud Pit • 12-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 19-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-04, Mud Pit • 19-25-01, Oil Spill • 19-99-06, Waste Spill • 20-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-02, Mud Pit • 20-09-03, Mud Pit • 20-09-04, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-06, Mud Pit • 20-09-07, Mud Pit • 20-09-10, Mud Pit • 20-25-04, Oil Spills • 20-25-05, Oil Spills This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 544 using the SAFER process. Using the approach approved for previous mud pit investigations (CAUs 530–535), 14 mud pits have been identified that • are either a single mud pit or a system of mud pits, • are not located in a radiologically posted area, and • have no evident biasing factors based on visual inspections. These 14 mud pits are recommended for no further action (NFA), and further field investigations will not be conducted. For the sites that do not meet the previously approved closure criteria, additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 335: Area 6 Injection Well and Drain Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2000-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 335, Area 6 Injection Well and Drain Pit, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 335 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs). The CAU is located in the Well 3 Yard in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site. Historical records indicate that the Drain Pit (CAS 06-23-03) received effluent from truck-washing; the Drums/Oil Waste/Spill (CAS 06-20-01) consisted of four 55-gallon drums containing material removed from the Cased Hole; and the Cased Hole (CAS 06-20-02) was used for disposal of used motor oil, wastewater, and debris. These drums were transported to the Area 5 Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site in July 1991; therefore, they are no longer on site and further investigation or remediation efforts are not required. Consequently, CAS 06-20-01 will be closed with no further action and details of this decision will be described in the Closure Report for this CAU. Any spills that may have been associated with this CAS will be investigated and addressed under CAS 06-20-02. Field investigation efforts will be focused on the two remaining CASs. The scope of the investigation will center around identifying any contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) and, if present, determining the vertical and lateral extent of contamination. The COPCs for the Drain Pit include: total volatile/ semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (gasoline-and diesel-range organics), ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, polychlorinated biphenyls, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, and radionuclides. The COPCs for the Cased Hole include: total volatile/ semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel-range organics only), and total Resource Conservation an d

  4. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 355: Area 2 Cellars/Mud Pits Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the November 2003, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 355: Area 2 Cellars/Mud Pits as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the URs for: • CAS 02-37-01, Cellar & Mud Pit • CAS 02-37-03, Cellar & Mud Pit • CAS 02-37-04, Cellar & Mud Pit • CAS 02-37-05, Cellar & Mud Pit • CAS 02-37-06, Cellar & Mud Pit • CAS 02-37-07, Cellar & Mud Pit • CAS 02-37-10, Cellar & Mud Pit • CAS 02-37-11, Cellar & Mud Pit • CAS 02-37-12, Cellar & Mud Pit • CAS 02-37-13, Cellar & Mud Pit • CAS 02-37-14, Cellar & Mud Pit • CAS 02-37-15, Cellar & Mud Pit • CAS 02-37-16, Cellar & Mud Pit • CAS 02-37-17, Cellar • CAS 02-37-18, Cellar & Tanks These URs were established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and were based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since these URs were established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed

  5. Tale of two pit lakes: initial results of a three-year study of the Main Zone and Waterline pit lakes near Houston, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crusius, J.; Pieters, R.; Leung, A.; Whittle, P.; Pedersen, T.; Lawrence, G.; McNee, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Pit lakes are becoming increasingly common in North America as well as in the rest of the world. They are created as openpit mines fill passively with ground water and surface inflows on cessation of mining activity. In many instances, the water quality in these pit lakes does not meet regulatory requirements due to a number of influences. The most important are the oxidation of sulfide minerals and the associated release of acid and metals and the flushing of soluble metals during pit filling. Examples of pit lakes with severe water-quality problems include the Berkeley Pit lake (Butte, MT) and the Liberty Pit lake (Nevada), whose waters are characterized by a pH near 3 and Cu concentrations as high as ~150 mg/L (Miller et al., 1996; Davis and Eary, 1997). The importance of the problem can be seen in the fact that some of these sites in the United States are Superfund sites.

  6. Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project : Final Conceptual Design Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, James M.

    1992-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of satellite and release facilities for the Umatilla Basin hatchery program. The Umatilla Basin hatchery program consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in the Umatilla River as defined in the Umatilla master plan approved in 1989 by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult salmon broodstock holding and spawning facilities, facilities for recovery, acclimation, and/or extended rearing of salmon juveniles, and development of river sites for release of hatchery salmon and steelhead. The historic and current distribution of fall chinook, summer chinook, and coho salmon and steelhead trout was summarized for the Umatilla River basin. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Twenty seven sites were evaluated for the potential development of facilities. Engineering and environmental attributes of the sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Al Wickline

    2007-08-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 553 are located within Areas 19 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site. Corrective Action Unit 553 is comprised of the following CASs: •19-99-01, Mud Spill •19-99-11, Mud Spill •20-09-09, Mud Spill •20-99-03, Mud Spill The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and provide data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 553 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were or will be performed: •Review the current site conditions including the concentration and extent of contamination. •Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. •Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. •Document the Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 553 to be issued by Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  8. Consequence Analyses Following Potential Savannah River Site Hydrological Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-07-28

    Postulated accidental release of radiological material to surface water bodies on the Savannah River Site and the resulting downstream contamination of the Savannah River pose a potential threat to downstream river users.

  9. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 335: Area 6 Injection Well and Drain Pit Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-10-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 335, Area 6 Injection Well and Drain Pit, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD). However, there is one modification to the selected alternative. Due to the large area that would require fencing, it is proposed that instead of fencing, an appropriate number of warning signs attached to tee posts be used to delineate the use restriction area. CAU 335 is located in Area 6 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 335 is located in the Area 6 Well 3 Yard approximately 39 km (24 mi) north of Mercury, on the Mercury Highway and several hundred feet (ft) west along Road 6-06. CAU 335 consists of the following three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 06-20-01, Drums, Oil Waste, Spill; CAS 06-20-02, 20-inch Cased Hole; CAS 06-23-03, Drain Pit. The site history for CAU 335 is provided in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (DOE/NV, 2000). Briefly, CAS 06-20-01, was used for storing material that was pumped out of CAS 06-20-02 and placed into four 208-liter (L) (55-gall [gal]) drums. The drums were taken to the NTS Area 5 Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site in 1991. CAS 06-20-01 will be closed with no further action required. Any spills associated with CAS 06-20-01 are addressed and considered part of CAS 06-20-02. CAS 06-20-02 was used for disposal of used motor oil, wastewater, and debris for an undetermined amount of time. In 1991, the casing was emptied of its contents, excavated, and backfilled. CAS 06-23-03 was used as a depository for effluent waste from truck-washing activities from 1960-1991.

  10. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Units 530, 531, 532, 533, 534, and 535, Nevada Test Site Mud Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2005-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses closure for the following six corrective action units (CAUs) identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996): (1) CAU 530 - LANL Preshot Mud Pits; (2) CAU 531 - LANL Postshot Mud Pits; (3) CAU 532 - LLNL Preshot Mud Pits; (4) CAU 533 - LLNL Postshot Mud Pits; (5) CAU 534 - Exploratory/Instrumentation Mud Pits; and (6) CAU 535 - Mud Pits/Disposal Areas. Corrective Action Units 530-535 consist of corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 1-10, 14, 17, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This plan provides the approach for activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing all the CASs within these CAUs. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of all CASs within CAUs 530-535 using the SAFER process. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process utilized in this investigation follows the approved risk-based closure strategy outlined in the ''Mud Pit Risk-Based Closure Strategy Report'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004b). The closure strategy was developed based on available information including historical documentation of process knowledge, analytical results from previous sampling activities for contaminants of potential concern at similar mud pits located at the NTS and at off-site locations, future land-use scenarios for each NTS area, and potential exposure scenarios along with the calculated risk for human and ecological receptors.

  11. PIT tags increase effectiveness of freshwater mussel recaptures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurth, J.; Loftin, C.; Zydlewski, J.; Rhymer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Translocations are used increasingly to conserve populations of rare freshwater mussels. Recovery of translocated mussels is essential to accurate assessment of translocation success. We designed an experiment to evaluate the use of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags to mark and track individual freshwater mussels. We used eastern lampmussels (Lampsilis radiata radiata) as a surrogate for 2 rare mussel species. We assessed internal and external PIT-tag retention in the laboratory and field. Internal tag retention was high (75-100%), and tag rejection occurred primarily during the first 3 wk after tagging. A thin layer of nacre coated internal tags 3 to 4 mo after insertion, suggesting that long-term retention is likely. We released mussels with external PIT tags at 3 field study sites and recaptured them with a PIT pack (mobile interrogation unit) 8 to 10 mo and 21 to 23 mo after release. Numbers of recaptured mussels differed among study sites; however, we found more tagged mussels with the PIT-pack searches with visual confirmation (72-80%) than with visual searches alone (30-47%) at all sites. PIT tags offer improved recapture of translocated mussels and increased accuracy of posttranslocation monitoring. ?? 2007 by The North American Benthological Society.

  12. Evapotranspiration Cover for the 92-Acre Area Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Area 5 Waste Management Division, Nevada National Security Site, Final CQA Report

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management; The Delphi Groupe, Inc.; J. A. Cesare and Associates, Inc.

    2012-01-31

    The report is the Final Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report for the 92-Acrew Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, for the period of January 20, 2011, to January 31, 2012 The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. The 92-Acre Area encompasses the southern portion of the Area 5 RWMS, which has been designated for the first final closure operations. This area contains 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes, 16 narrow trenches, and 9 broader pits. With the exception of two active pits (P03 and P06), all trenches and pits in the 92-Acre Area had operational covers approximately 2.4 meters thick, at a minimum, in most areas when this project began. The units within the 92-Acre Area are grouped into the following six informal categories based on physical location, waste types and regulatory requirements: (1) Pit 3 Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU); (2) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111; (3) CAU 207; (4) Low-level waste disposal units; (5) Asbestiform low-level waste disposal units; and (6) One transuranic (TRU) waste trench.

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2008-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 234, Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, located in Areas 2, 3, 4, 12, and 15 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit 234 is comprised of the following 12 corrective action sites: •02-09-48, Area 2 Mud Plant #1 •02-09-49, Area 2 Mud Plant #2 •02-99-05, Mud Spill •03-09-02, Mud Dump Trenches •04-44-02, Mud Spill •04-99-02, Mud Spill •12-09-01, Mud Pit •12-09-04, Mud Pit •12-09-08, Mud Pit •12-30-14, Cellar •12-99-07, Mud Dump •15-09-01, Mud Pit The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 234 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: •Determine whether contaminants of concern are present. •If contaminants of concern are present, determine their extent. •Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 234 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs.

  14. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Under Contract between US DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Blackhawk Geosciences Division of Coleman Research Corporation (BGD-CRC), geophysical investigations were conducted to improve the detection of buried wastes. Site characterization is a costly and time consuming process with the most costly components being drilling, sampling, and chemical analysis of samples. There is a focused effort at US DOE and other agencies to investigate methodologies that reduce costs and shorten the time between characterization and clean-up. These methodologies take the form of employing non-invasive (geophysical) and minimal invasive (e.g., cone penetrometer driving) techniques of characterization, and implementing a near real-time, rational decision-making process (Expedited Site Characterization). Over the Cold Test Pit (CTP) at INEL, data were acquired with multiple sensors on a dense grid. Over the CTP the interpretations inferred from geophysical data are compared with the known placement of various waste forms in the pit. The geophysical sensors employed were magnetics, frequency and time domain electromagnetics, and ground penetrating radar. Also, because of the high data density acquired, filtering and other data processing and imaging techniques were tested. The conclusions derived from the geophysical surveys were that pit boundaries, berms between cells within the pit, and individual objects placed in the pit were best mapped by the new Geonics EM61 time domain EM metal detector. Part of the reason for the effectiveness of the time domain metal detector is that objects buried in the pit are dominantly metallic. Also, the utility of geophysical data is significantly enhanced by dimensional and 3-dimensional imaging formats. These images will particularly assist remediation engineers in visualizing buried wastes.

  15. Prokaryotic dynamics and heterotrophic metabolism in a deep convection site of Eastern Mediterranean Sea (the Southern Adriatic Pit)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzaro, M.; La Ferla, R.; Maimone, G.; Monticelli, L. S.; Zaccone, R.; Civitarese, G.

    2012-08-01

    We report on investigations of prokaryotic abundance, biomass, extracellular enzymatic activity, prokaryotic heterotrophic production and respiration in the full water column (˜1200 m) of a deep convection site (the Southern Adriatic Pit), carried out on six cruises in 2006-2008. Prokaryotic abundance (PA) varied vertically and temporally and ranged from 1.2 to 20.4×105 cell ml-1. Cell volumes, generally increased with depth; the lowest mean cell volume was observed in a period with no active convective process (Feb-07) and the highest in a period of stratification (Jun-08) following the convection process occurred in Feb-08. Prokaryotic biomass decreased with the depth and was related with both seasonal cycles of organic matter and hydrological processes. The picophytoplankton ranged in the upper layer (UL) from 0.089 to 10.71×104 cell ml-1. Cells were also recorded till 500 m depth in Feb-08 and this finding could be linked to water convection occurred in the Southern Adriatic Pit in that month. In UL the variations of enzymatic activities as well as leucine-aminopeptidase/ß-glucosidase ratio showed a seasonal trend probably linked to the productive processes of the photic layer. An inverse relation between alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) and phosphate concentrations was found (APA=0.0003PO4-1.7714, R2=0.333, P<0.05). Generally cell-specific enzymatic activities increased with depth as did cell-specific carbon dioxide production rates, while cell-specific prokaryotic heterotrophic production had an opposite trend. High values of prokaryotic growth efficiency registered in the deep layers in Nov-06 reflected a supply of preformed C transported within the deep water masses. Overall, in 2007 when no convective phenomenon was observed, the variability of prokaryotic metabolism was governed by the seasonal cycle of the organic matter, while in Nov-06 and Jun-08 the dynamics of deep water ventilation influenced the trend along the water column of many microbial

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2007-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit 234, Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, consists of 12 inactive sites located in the north and northeast section of the NTS. The 12 CAU 234 sites consist of mud pits, mud spills, mud sumps, and an open post-test cellar. The CAU 234 sites were all used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat and Rainier Mesa areas during the 1950s through the 1970s. The CASs in CAU 234 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting appropriate corrective action alternatives.

  17. Description of borehole geophysical and geologist logs, Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    2003-01-01

    Between October 2002 and January 2003, geophysical logging was conducted in six boreholes at the Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pa., to determine (1) the waterproducing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical borehole flow, orientation of fractures, and borehole and casing depth; and (2) the hydraulic interconnection between the six boreholes and the site extraction well. The boreholes range in depth from 61 to 270 feet. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-flow, and acoustic-televiewer logs. Caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on fluid-temperature and single-point-resistance logs indicated possible water-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance, natural-gamma, and geologist logs provided information on stratigraphy. Flowmeter measurements were conducted while the site extraction well was pumping and when it was inactive to determine the hydraulic connections between the extraction well and the boreholes. Borehole geophysical logging and heatpulse flowmetering indicate active flow in the boreholes. Two of the boreholes are in ground-water discharge areas, two boreholes are in ground-water recharge areas, and one borehole is in an intermediate regime. Flow was not determined in one borehole. Heatpulse flowmetering, in conjunction with the geologist logs, indicates highly weathered zones in the granitic gneiss can be permeable and effective transmitters of water, confirming the presence of a two-tiered ground-water-flow system. The effort to determine a hydraulic connection between the site extraction well and six logged boreholes was not conclusive. Three boreholes showed decreases in depth to water after pumping of the site extraction well; in two boreholes, the depth to water increased. One borehole was cased its

  18. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 177: Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2006-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 177, Mud Pits and Cellars, identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order''. Corrective Action Unit 177 consists of the 12 following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 8, 9, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site: (1) 08-23-01, Mud Pit and Cellar; (2) 09-09-41, Unknown No.3 Mud Pit/Disposal Area; (3) 09-09-45, U-9bz PS No.1A Mud Pit (1) and Cellar; (4) 09-23-05, Mud Pit and Cellar; (5) 09-23-08, Mud Pit and Cellar; (6) 09-23-09, U-9itsx20 PS No.1A Cellar; (7) 10-23-02, Mud Pit and Cellar; (8) 10-23-03, Mud Pit and Cellar; (9) 19-23-01, Mud Pit and Cellar; (10) 19-23-02, Cellar and Waste Storage Area; (11) 19-23-03, Cellar with Casing; and (12) 20-23-07, Cellar. This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 177 using the SAFER process. The data quality objective process developed for this CAU identified the following expected closure options: (1) investigation and confirmation that no contamination exists above the preliminary action levels (PALs), leading to a no further action declaration, or (2) characterization of the nature and extent of contamination, leading to closure in place with use restrictions. The expected closure options were selected based on available information including contaminants of potential concern, future land use, and assumed risks. A decision flow process was developed to outline the collection of data necessary to achieve closure. There are two decisions that need to be answered for closure. Decision I is to determine whether contaminants of potential concern are present in concentrations exceeding the PALs

  19. Radioactive releases at the Savannah River Site, 1954--1988

    SciTech Connect

    Hetrick, C.S.; Martin, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    Radioactive Releases at the Savannah River Site, 1954--1988 (WSRC-RP-89-737) is the continuation of a series of reports, previously titled Releases of Radioactivity at the Savannah River Plant (DPSU-1-YR-25). The series reflects the use of air and liquid effluent sample analyses in determining the amount of radioactivity released from Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The identification and characterization of these source terms since plant startup in 1954 have aided Site personnel in confining and limiting the amount of radioactivity released to the environment from SRS facilities. Data contained in this report are used for a variety of purposes, including the calculation of offsite dose estimates and aiding special environmental studies. This document is an effluent/source term report. The report is divided into four summary sections. Summary A details volumes of air and water released from emission sources since plant startup. Summary B lists annual radioactive release data from these emission sources, grouped by nuclide and area. Summary C provides yearly totals of radioactive releases by radionuclide, under the headings Atmospheric,'' Liquid to streams,'' or Liquid to Seepage Basins'' accordingly. Monthly radioactive releases from each emission source from 1986 to 1988 are found in Summary D. Where appropriate, headings in the summary tables have been changed to clarify and simplify emission data (see Appendix B). Additionally, any new discharge points, such as the liquid discharge from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), are included in this report. A listing of 1988 source term and onsite discharge designations is provided in Appendix C. 36 refs.

  20. Arsia Mons Collapse Pits in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found on the flank of Arsia Mons and are related to lava tube collapse.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -8.8, Longitude 240.4 East (119.6 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal

  1. Primer for evaluating ecological risk at petroleum release sites.

    PubMed

    Claff, R

    1999-02-01

    Increasingly, risk-based approaches are being used to guide decision making at sites such as service stations and petroleum product terminals, where petroleum products have been inadvertently released to the soil. For example, the API Decision Support System software, DSS, evaluates site human health risk along six different routes of exposure. The American Society for Testing and Materials' Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) standard, ASTM 1739, establishes a tiered framework for evaluating petroleum release sites on the basis of human health risk. Though much of the risk assessment focus has been on human health risk, regulatory agencies recognize that protection of human health may not fully protect the environment; and EPA has developed guidance on identifying ecological resources to be protected through risk-based decision making. Not every service station or petroleum product terminal site warrants a detailed ecological risk assessment. In some cases, a simple preliminary assessment will provide sufficient information for decision making. Accordingly, the American Petroleum Institute (API) is developing a primer for site managers, to assist them in conducting this preliminary assessment, and in deciding whether more detailed ecological risk assessments are warranted. The primer assists the site manager in identifying relevant ecological receptors and habitats, in identifying chemicals and exposure pathways of concern, in developing a conceptual model of the site to guide subsequent actions, and in identifying conditions that may warrant immediate response. PMID:10189585

  2. Primer for evaluating ecological risk at petroleum release sites.

    PubMed

    Claff, R

    1999-02-01

    Increasingly, risk-based approaches are being used to guide decision making at sites such as service stations and petroleum product terminals, where petroleum products have been inadvertently released to the soil. For example, the API Decision Support System software, DSS, evaluates site human health risk along six different routes of exposure. The American Society for Testing and Materials' Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) standard, ASTM 1739, establishes a tiered framework for evaluating petroleum release sites on the basis of human health risk. Though much of the risk assessment focus has been on human health risk, regulatory agencies recognize that protection of human health may not fully protect the environment; and EPA has developed guidance on identifying ecological resources to be protected through risk-based decision making. Not every service station or petroleum product terminal site warrants a detailed ecological risk assessment. In some cases, a simple preliminary assessment will provide sufficient information for decision making. Accordingly, the American Petroleum Institute (API) is developing a primer for site managers, to assist them in conducting this preliminary assessment, and in deciding whether more detailed ecological risk assessments are warranted. The primer assists the site manager in identifying relevant ecological receptors and habitats, in identifying chemicals and exposure pathways of concern, in developing a conceptual model of the site to guide subsequent actions, and in identifying conditions that may warrant immediate response.

  3. Savannah River Site radioiodine atmospheric releases and offsite maximum doses

    SciTech Connect

    Marter, W.L.

    1990-11-01

    Radioisotopes of iodine have been released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Site since 1955. The releases, mostly from the 200-F and 200-H Chemical Separations areas, consist of the isotopes, I-129 and 1-131. Small amounts of 1-131 and 1-133 have also been released from reactor facilities and the Savannah River Laboratory. This reference memorandum was issued to summarize our current knowledge of releases of radioiodines and resultant maximum offsite doses. This memorandum supplements the reference memorandum by providing more detailed supporting technical information. Doses reported in this memorandum from consumption of the milk containing the highest I-131 concentration following the 1961 1-131 release incident are about 1% higher than reported in the reference memorandum. This is the result of using unrounded 1-131 concentrations of I-131 in milk in this memo. It is emphasized here that this technical report does not constitute a dose reconstruction in the same sense as the dose reconstruction effort currently underway at Hanford. This report uses existing published data for radioiodine releases and existing transport and dosimetry models.

  4. Benzodiazepine Site Agonists Differentially Alter Acetylcholine Release in Rat Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Hambrecht-Wiedbusch, Viviane S.; Mitchell, Melinda F.; Firn, Kelsie A.; Baghdoyan, Helen A.; Lydic, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Background Agonist binding at the benzodiazepine site of γ-aminobutric acid type A receptors diminishes anxiety and insomnia by actions in the amygdala. The neurochemical effects of benzodiazepine-site agonists remain incompletely understood. Cholinergic neurotransmission modulates amygdala function, and in this study we tested the hypothesis that benzodiazepine-site agonists alter acetylcholine (ACh) release in the amygdala. Methods Microdialysis and high performance liquid chromatography quantified ACh release in the amygdala of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=33). ACh was measured before and after IV administration (3 mg/kg) of midazolam or eszopiclone, with and without anesthesia. ACh in isoflurane-anesthetized rats during dialysis with Ringer’s solution(control) was compared to ACh release during dialysis with Ringer’s solution containing (100 μM) midazolam, diazepam, eszopiclone, or zolpidem. Results In unanesthetized rats, ACh in the amygdala was decreased by IV midazolam (−51.1%; P=0.0029; 95% CI= −73.0% to −29.2%) and eszopiclone (−39.6%; P=0.0222; 95% CI= −69.8% to −9.3%). In anesthetized rats, ACh in the amygdala was decreased by IV administration of midazolam (−46.2%; P=0.0041; 95% CI= −67.9% to −24.5%) and eszopiclone (−34.0%; P=0.0009; 95% CI= −44.7% to −23.3%), and increased by amygdala delivery of diazepam (43.2%; P=0.0434; 95% CI= 2.1% to 84.3%), and eszopiclone (222.2%; P=0.0159; 95% CI= 68.5% to 375.8%). Conclusions ACh release in the amygdala was decreased by IV delivery of midazolam and eszopiclone. Dialysis delivery directly into the amygdala caused either increased (eszopiclone and diazepam) or likely no significant change (midazolam and zolpidem) in ACh release. These contrasting effects of delivery route on ACh release support the interpretation that systemically administered midazolam and eszopiclone decrease ACh release in the amygdala by acting on neuronal systems outside of the amygdala. PMID:24842176

  5. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 358: Areas 18, 19, 20 Cellars/Mud Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-01-01

    This closure report documents that the closure activities performed at Corrective Action Unit 358: Areas 18, 19, 20 Cellars/Mud Pits, were in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 358.

  6. ANCHOR HILL PIT LAKE IN SITU TREATMENT, GILT EDGE MINE SUPERFUND SITE, S. DAKOTA, USA - A RETROSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Region VII Superfund office and the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP)have been conducting a field scale technology demonstration of an in situ treatment of the Anchor Hill Pit Lake at the Gilt Edge Mine Superfund...

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 335: Area 6 Injection Well and Drain Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2003-06-01

    This Closure Report documents the activities undertaken to close Corrective Action Unit 335: Area 6 Injection Well and Drain Pit, according to the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 335 was closed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 335.

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Units 530, 531, 532, 533, 534, 535: NTS Mud Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2006-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the recommendation of no further action for the following six Corrective Action Units (CAUs): (1) CAU 530 - LANL Preshot Mud Pits; (2) CAU 531 - LANL Postshot Mud Pits; (3) CAU 532 - LLNL Preshot Mud Pits; (4) CAU 533 - LLNL Postshot Mud Pits; (5) CAU 534 - Exploratory/Instrumentation Mud Pits; and (6) CAU 535 - Mud Pits/Disposal Areas. This CR complies with the requirements of the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. CAUs 530-535 are located in Areas 1-10, 14, 17, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site and are comprised of 268 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed in Table 1-1. The purpose of this CR is to validate the risk-based closure strategy presented in the ''Mud Pit Risk-Based Closure Strategy Report'' (RBCSR) (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and the CAUs 530-535 SAFER Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2005b). This strategy uses 52 CASs as a statistical representation of CAUs 530-535 to confirm the proposed closure alternative, no further action, is sufficient to protect human health and the environment. This was accomplished with the following activities: A field investigation following a probabilistic sampling design to collect data that were used in a non-carcinogenic risk assessment for human receptors; Visual habitat surveys to confirm the lack of habitat for threatened and endangered species; Disposal of debris and waste generated during field activities; and Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAUs 530-535 issued by Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The field investigation and site visits were conducted between August 31, 2005 and February 21, 2006. As stated in the RBCSR and Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan, total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics (TPH-DRO) was the only contaminant of potential concern identified for CAUs 530-535. This

  9. Use of controlled release herbicides in waste burial sites

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.

    1981-07-01

    Controlled-release formulations of herbicides have been applied to the soil in the manner traditional for herbicides: on the surface or mixed into the top few inches of soil. The controlled-release formulation allows another option that we propose to use: to place herbicides, contained in controlled-release formulations, in a layer at least a foot below the surface of the soil, in order to prevent root penetration below that level. Ideally, the herbicide will prevent root tip cell division but will not translocate within the plant, thus assuring that the plant will survive, preserving the ground cover. Trifluralin is one of the herbicides which does not translocate and was chosen for use in this study. A number of applications for this technology are possible; particularly in waste management. In the present studies, we used two different forms of polymeric carrier/delivery (PCD) systems to investigate the controlled release of herbicides. In the initial study, a sheet was made of homogeneous mixtures of an individual polymer and trifluralin. We made several of these sheets, using a different polymer each time (with trifluralin) to compare release rates from the various polymers. We also fabricated cylindrical pellets in two sizes from mixtures of Profax/sup a/ PS-1600 polypropylene and trifluralin, formulated to determine the interaction of PCD systems with soil. Also developed is a trifluralin-releasing device with a theoretical effective lifetime approaching 100 years. The system was designed specifically to protect the asphalt layer or clay/aggregate barriers on uranium mill tailings piles. PCD devices composed of pellets could also be implanted over burial sites for radioactive and/or toxic materials, preventing translocation of those materials to plant shoots, and thence into the biosphere.

  10. Post-Closure Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Calendar Years 2000-2001

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-04-01

    This biennial soil gas monitoring report provides an analysis and summary of site inspections and soil gas monitoring data obtained at the Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit site, located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, during the calendar years December 1999--December 2001 monitoring period. This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) 23-56-01 and is the only CAS assigned to Corrective Action Unit 342. Inspections of the Area 23 Mercury Fire Training pit site are conducted to determine and document the physical condition of the site, monitoring well, and any unusual conditions that could impact the proper operation of the unit closure. Physical inspections of the closure were completed semiannually and indicated that the site is in good condition with no significant findings noted. The objective of the soil gas monitoring program is to determine if the remaining petroleum hydrocarbons beneath the above-ground storage tank area are undergoing natural biodegradation. Comparing initial conditions to those of the first biennial soil gas monitoring event indicate a general increase in concentration of organic analytes, although this trend is not strong. There has been a decrease in the amount of carbon dioxide, with the percentage of nitrogen and oxygen about the same. The increase in organic analytes indicates that mixing of the atmosphere with the air in the monitoring well is occurring. Changes in atmospheric pressure will drive air both in and out of the monitoring well. The change in carbon dioxide in the opposite direction possibly indicates a change in biological parameters between the sampling events. The sampling and analysis of future samples should be consistent with the methods already used. This includes sampling at the same time of year, but not immediately after a significant meteorological event. This means the results to date are not conclusive

  11. ELL facilitates RNA polymerase II pause site entry and release.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jung S; Fufa, Temesgen D; Wakano, Clay; Fernandez, Alfonso; Haggerty, Cynthia M; Sung, Myong-Hee; Gardner, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Transcription is a multi-stage process that coordinates several steps within the transcription cycle including chromatin reorganization, RNA polymerase II recruitment, initiation, promoter clearance and elongation. Recent advances have identified the super elongation complex, containing the eleven-nineteen lysine-rich leukaemia (ELL) protein, as a key regulator of transcriptional elongation. Here we show that ELL has a diverse and kinetically distinct role before its assembly into the super elongation complex by stabilizing Pol II recruitment/initiation and entry into the pause site. Loss of ELL destabilizes the pre-initiation complexes and results in disruption of early elongation and promoter proximal chromatin structure before recruitment of AFF4 and other super elongation complex components. These changes result in significantly reduced transcriptional activation of rapidly induced genes. Thus, ELL has an early and essential role during rapid high-amplitude gene expression that is required for both Pol II pause site entry and release. PMID:22252557

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, July 2002, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2002-07-18

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 140 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-08-01, Detonation Pits; 05-08-02, Debris Pits; 05-17-01, Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site (Buried); 05-19-01, Waste Disposal Site; 05-23-01, Gravel Gertie; 05-35-01, Burn Pit; 05-99-04, Burn Pit; 22-99-04, Radioactive Waste Dump; 23-17-01, Hazardous Waste Storage Area. All nine of these CASs are located within Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. This CAU is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The NTS has been used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. The CASs in CAU 140 were used for testing, material storage, waste storage, and waste disposal. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria and resolve the decision statements. Phase I will determine if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels. This data will be evaluated at all CASs. Phase II will determine the extent of the contaminant(s) of concern (COCs). This data will only be evaluated for CASs with a COC identified during Phase I. Based on process knowledge, the COPCs for CAU 140 include volatile organics, semivolatile organics, petroleum hydrocarbons, explosive residues

  13. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Savannah River Site (USDOE), Burma Road Rubble Pit (operable unit 32), Aiken, SC, June 18, 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Burma Road Rubble Pit (BRRP) unit (231-4F) is listed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(u) solid waste management unit/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensatin and Liability Act (CERCLA) unit in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Savannah River Site. Only non-hazardous, inert material (e.g., wood, trash, wire, bottles, plastic, rubble, foam, concrete, etc.) was placed at the BRRP source unit. Based on the results of the remedial investigation, no action is necessary at the BRRP unit soils to ensure the protection of human health and the environment.

  14. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2006-08-01

    This report provides a summary and analysis of visual site inspections and soil gas sampling results for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 342, Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit. CAU 342 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 and consists of Corrective Action Site 23-56-01, Former Mercury Fire Training Pit. This report covers calendar years 2004 and 2005. Visual site inspections were conducted on May 20 and November 14, 2004, and May 17 and November 15, 2005. No significant findings were observed during these inspections. The site was in good condition, and no repair activities were required. Soil gas samples were collected on November 29, 2005, for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and samples were collected on December 1, 2005, for analysis of base gases. Base gas concentrations in the monitoring well show a high concentration of carbon dioxide and a low concentration of oxygen, which is an indication of biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the soil. Results for VOCs and SVOCs are unchanged, with VOCs below or near laboratory method detection limits and no SVOCs detected above laboratory method detection limits. Post-closure monitoring was required for six years after closure of the site. Therefore, since 2005 was the sixth year of monitoring, the effectiveness of natural attenuation of the TPH-impacted soil by biodegradation was evaluated. The base gas concentrations indicate that biodegradation of TPH in the soil is occurring; therefore, it is recommended that monitoring be discontinued. Visual site inspections should continue to be performed biannually to ensure that the signs are in place and readable and that the use restriction has been maintained. The results of the site inspections will be documented in a letter report and submitted annually.

  15. Gas release from the LUSI eruption site: large scale estimates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciarra, A.; Mazzini, A.; Etiope, G.; Husein, A.; Hadi, S.

    2015-12-01

    The spectacular Indonesian Lusi mud eruption started in May 2006 following to a 6.3 M earthquake striking the island of Java. Previous studies investigated the mechanisms of reactivation of the Watukosek fault system that crosses Lusi locality and continues to the NE of Java. Results show that the quake triggered lateral movement of this strike-slip system resulting in several aligned eruptions sites including Lusi. Geochemical studies of the erupted fluids reveal a mantle signature and point to a connection with the neighboring Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex indicating that Lusi is a sedimentary hosted geothermal system. In order to better understand 1) the geometry of the Lusi subsurface plumbing system, 2) to estimate the type and the amount of gas released, and 3) how tectonic structures may control this activity, we conducted a comprehensive survey around the Lusi crater. We sampled more than 60 seepage sites to analyze the composition of the gas released and conducted a flux measurements survey of over 350 stations (CO2 and CH4). In addition we completed three CO2, CH4, radon profiles (120 points) perpendicular to the NE-SW oriented Watukosek strike-slip fault system and complemented that with geoelectric surveys. Results show that the whole area is characterized by diffused gas release through seeps, fractures, microfractures and soil degassing. Overall the highest gas flux were recorded at stations crossing the fractured zones that coincide with the position of the Watukosek fault system. The fractures release mainly CO2 (with peaks up to 400 g/m2day) and display higher temperatures (up to 41°C). This main shear zone is populated by numerous seeps that expel mostly CH4. Flux measurements in the seeping pools reveal that φCO2 is an order of magnitude higher than that measured in the fractures, and two orders of magnitude for φCH4. Radon measurements vary from 30 and 90 Bq/m3 on the edges of the study area to 6000 Bq/m3in the proximity of the faulted

  16. Pitted keratolysis*

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Jr, Hiram Larangeira; Siqueira, Rodrigo Nunes; Meireles, Renan da Silva; Rampon, Greice; de Castro, Luis Antonio Suita; Silva, Ricardo Marques e

    2016-01-01

    Pitted keratolysis is a skin disorder that affects the stratum corneum of the plantar surface and is caused by Gram-positive bacteria. A 30-year-old male presented with small punched-out lesions on the plantar surface. A superficial shaving was carried out for scanning electron microscopy. Hypokeratosis was noted on the plantar skin and in the acrosyringium, where the normal elimination of corneocytes was not seen. At higher magnification (x 3,500) bacteria were easily found on the surface and the described transversal bacterial septation was observed. PMID:26982791

  17. Cracked and Pitted Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-536, 6 November 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a typical view--at 1.5 meters (5 feet) per pixel--of surfaces in far western Utopia Planitia. In this region, the plains have developed cracks and pit chains arranged in a polygonal pattern. The pits form by collapse along the trend of a previously-formed crack. This picture is located near 45.0oN, 275.4oW. This April 2003 image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  18. Radiation doses from Hanford site releases to the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Farris, W.T.; Napier, B.A.; Ikenberry, T.A.

    1994-06-01

    Radiation doses to individuals were estimated for the years 1944-1992. The dose estimates were based on the radioactive-releases from the Hanford Site in south central Washington. Conceptual models and computer codes were used to reconstruct doses through the early 1970s. The published Hanford Site annual environmental data were used to complete the does history through 1992. The most significant exposure pathway was found to be the consumption of cow`s milk containing iodine-131. For the atmospheric pathway, median cumulative dose estimates to the thyroid of children ranged from < 0.1 to 235 rad throughout the area studied. The geographic distribution of the dose levels was directly related to the pattern of iodine-131 deposition and was affected by the distribution of commercial milk and leafy vegetables. For the atmospheric pathway, the-highest estimated cumulative-effective-dose-equivalent (EDE) to an adult was estimated to be 1 rem at Ringold, Washington for the period 1944-1992. For the Columbia River pathway, cumulative EDE estimates ranged from <0.5 to l.5 rem cumulative dose to maximally exposed adults downriver from the Hanford Site for the years 1944-1992. The most significant river exposure pathway was consumption of resident fish containing phosphorus-32 and zinc-65.

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 340: Pesticide Release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1998-12-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 340, the NTS Pesticide Release Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 340 is located at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites: 23-21-01, Area 23 Quonset Hut 800 Pesticide Release Ditch; 23-18-03, Area 23 Skid Huts Pesticide Storage; and 15-18-02, Area 15 Quonset Hut 15-11 Pesticide Storage. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each Corrective Action Site. The scope of this Corrective Action Decision Document consists of the following tasks: Develop corrective action objectives; Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; Develop corrective action alternatives; Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each Corrective Action Site.

  20. Corrective action investigation plan: Area 2 Photo Skid 16 Wastewater Pit, Corrective Action Unit 332. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains a detailed description and plan for an environmental investigation of the Area 2 Photo Skid 16 Wastewater Pit. The site is located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site. The Photo Skid Wastewater Pit was used for disposal of photochemical process waste, and there is a concern that such disposal may have released photochemicals and metals to the soil beneath the pit and adjacent to it. The purpose of this investigation is to identify the presence and nature of contamination present in and adjacent to the wastewater pit and to determine the appropriate course of environmental response action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure through remediation, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action.

  1. Addendum 2 to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 358: Areas 18, 19, 20 Cellars/Mud Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revison 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2009-05-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 358: Areas 18, 19, 20 Cellars/Mud Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, January 2004 as described in the document Supplemental Investigation Report for FFACO Use Restrictions, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (SIR) dated November 2008. The SIR document was approved by NDEP on December 5, 2008. The approval of the SIR document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the SIR document, this addendum consists of: • This page that refers the reader to the SIR document for additional information • The cover, title, and signature pages of the SIR document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the SIR document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 19-09-05, Mud Pit. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was reevaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the UR because contamination is not present at the site above the risk-based FALs. Requirements for inspecting and maintaining this UR will be canceled, and the postings and signage at this site will be removed. Fencing and posting may be present at this site that are unrelated to the FFACO UR such as for

  2. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the April 2000, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 23-56-01, Former Mercury Fire Training Pit. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the UR because contamination is not present at

  3. Comet 67P's Pitted Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    High-resolution imagery of comet 67P ChuryumovGerasimenko has revealed that its surface is covered in active pits some measuring hundreds of meters both wide and deep! But what processes caused these pits to form?Pitted LandscapeESAs Rosetta mission arrived at comet 67P in August 2014. As the comet continued its journey around the Sun, Rosetta extensively documented 67Ps surface through high-resolution images taken with the on-board instrument NavCam. These images have revealed that active, circular depressions are a common feature on the comets surface.In an attempt to determine how these pits formed, an international team of scientists led by Olivier Mousis (Laboratory of Astrophysics of Marseille) has run a series of simulations of a region of the comet the Seth region that contains a 200-meter-deep pit. These simulations include the effects of various phase transitions, heat transfer through the matrix of ices and dust, and gas diffusion throughout the porous material.Escaping VolatilesAdditional examples of pitted areas on 67Ps northern-hemisphere surface include the Ash region and the Maat region (both imaged September 2014 by NavCam) [Mousis et al. 2015]Previous studies have already eliminated two potential formation mechanisms for the pits: impacts (the sizes of the pits werent right) and erosion due to sunlight (the pits dont have the right shape). Mousis and collaborators assume that the pits are instead caused by the depletion of volatile materials chemical compounds with low boiling points either via explosive outbursts at the comets surface, or via sinkholes opening from below the surface. But what process causes the volatiles to deplete when the comet heats?The authors simulations demonstrate that volatiles trapped beneath the comets surface either in icy structures called clathrates or within amorphous ice can be suddenly released as the comet warms up. The team shows that the release of volatiles from these two structures can create 200-meter

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-10-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the NTS, CAU 140 consists of nine corrective action sites (CASs). Investigation activities were performed from November 13 through December 11, 2002, with additional sampling to delineate the extent of contaminants of concern (COCs) conducted on February 4 and March 18 and 19, 2003. Results obtained from the investigation activities and sampling indicated that only 3 of the 9 CASs at CAU 140 had COCs identified. Following a review of existing data, future land use, and current operations at the NTS, the following preferred alternatives were developed for consideration: (1) No Further Action - six CASs (05-08-02, 05-17-01, 05-19-01, 05-35-01, 05-99-04, and 22-99-04); (2) Clean Closure - one CAS (05-08-01), and (3) Closure-in-Place - two CASs (05-23-01 and 23-17-01). These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, the alternatives meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 140.

  5. Safer Work Plan for CAUs 452, 454, 456, and 464 Closure of Historical UST Release Sites Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Bonn

    1997-08-01

    This plan addresses characterization and closure of nine underground storage tank petroleum hydrocarbon release sites. The sites are located at the Nevada Test Site in Areas 2, 9, 12, 23, and 25. The underground storage tanks associated with the release sites and addressed by this plan were closed between 1990 and 1996 by the U. S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office. One underground storage tank was closed in place (23-111-1) while the remaining eight were closed by removal. Hydrocarbon releases were identified at each of the sites based upon laboratory analytical data samples collected below the tank bottoms. The objective of this plan is to provide a method for implementing characterization and closure of historical underground storage tank hydrocarbon release sites.

  6. A site-specific controlled-release system for metformin.

    PubMed

    Di Colo, Giacomo; Zambito, Ylenia; Baggiani, Andrea; Carelli, Vera; Serafini, Maria Francesca

    2005-05-01

    Oral absorption of the antihyperglycaemic agent metformin hydrochloride (MF-HCl) is confined to the upper part of the intestine, therefore rational controlled-release formulations of this drug should ensure a complete release during transit from stomach to jejunum. The aim of this study was the preparation of a system able to sustain release of high MF-HCl doses in compliance with the above requirement. Matrices (6 mm diameter; 50 mg weight) comprising varying drug-Precirol ATO 5 ratios were prepared by compression. The matrix containing 70% drug was coated on one face with Eudragit L100-55. Drug release to simulated gastric (SGF), jejunal (SJF) and ileal (SIF) fluids in sequence was studied using a modified USP rotating basket method. Release depended on drug load whereas it was independent of dissolution medium pH and hydrodynamics. Release kinetics were of radical t type and were determined by drug diffusion in aqueous pores created in the matrix by drug dissolution. An equation correlating rate-determining factors was developed, whereby the release pattern could be optimized. The half-coated matrix started release in SGF and completed it in SJF. The half-coated matrix, synchronizing drug release and matrix transit across the small intestine, may improve drug bioavailability and reduce side effects. PMID:15901345

  7. Water-Level Reconstruction and its Implications for Late Pleistocene Paleontological Site Formation in Hoyo Negro, a Submerged Subterranean Pit in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissolo, D.; Reinhardt, E. G.; Collins, S.; Kovacs, S. E.; Beddows, P. A.; Chatters, J. C.; Nava Blank, A.; Luna Erreguerena, P.

    2014-12-01

    A massive pit deep within the now submerged cave system of Sac Actun, located along the central east coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, contains a diverse fossil assemblage of extinct megafauna as well as a nearly complete human skeleton. The inundated site of Hoyo Negro presents a unique and promising opportunity for interdisciplinary Paleoamerican and paleoenvironmental research in the region. Investigations have thus far revealed a range of associated features and deposits which make possible a multi-proxy approach to identifying and reconstructing the natural and cultural processes that have formed and transformed the site over millennia. Understanding water-level fluctuations (both related to, and independent from, eustatic sea level changes), with respect to cave morphology is central to understanding the movement of humans and animals into and through the cave system. Recent and ongoing studies involve absolute dating of human, faunal, macrobotanical, and geological samples; taphonomic analyses; and a characterization of site hydrogeology and sedimentological facies, including microfossil assemblages and calcite raft deposits.

  8. Geologic controls on movement of produced-water releases at US geological survey research Site A, Skiatook lake, Osage county, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, J.K.; Zielinski, R.A.; Smith, B.D.; Abbott, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Highly saline produced water was released from multiple sources during oil field operations from 1913 to 1973 at the USGS research Site A on Skiatook Lake in northeastern Oklahoma. Two pits, designed to hold produced water and oil, were major sources for release of these fluids at the site. Produced water spills from these and other features moved downslope following topography and downdip by percolating through permeable eolian sand and colluvium, underlying permeable sandstone, and, to a lesser extent, through shales and mudstones. Saline water penetrated progressively deeper units as it moved through the gently dipping bedrock to the north and NW. A large eroded salt scar north of the pits coincides with underlying fine-grained rocks that have retained substantial concentrations of salt, causing slow revegetation. Where not eroded, thick eolian sand or permeable sandstone bedrock is near the surface, and vegetation has been little affected or has reestablished itself after the introduced salt was flushed by precipitation. The extent of salt-contaminated bedrock extends well beyond existing surface salt scars. These results indicate that one of the legacies of surface salt spills can be a volume of subsurface salinization larger than the visible surface disturbance. ?? 2007.

  9. Closure Report for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-02-21

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of the 92-Acre Area, which includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' This CR provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that the closure objectives were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996 [as amended March 2010]). Closure activities began in January 2011 and were completed in January 2012. Closure activities were conducted according to Revision 1 of the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for the 92-Acre Area and CAU 111 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2010). The following closure activities were performed: (1) Construct an engineered evapotranspiration cover over the boreholes, trenches, and pits in the 92-Acre Area; (2) Install use restriction (UR) warning signs, concrete monuments, and subsidence survey monuments; and (3) Establish vegetation on the covers. UR documentation is included as Appendix C of this report. The post-closure plan is presented in detail in Revision 1 of the CADD/CAP for the 92-Acre Area and CAU 111, and the requirements are summarized in Section 5.2 of this document. When the next request for modification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit NEV HW0101 is submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), the requirements for post-closure monitoring of the 92-Acre Area will be included. NNSA/NSO requests the following: (1) A Notice of Completion from NDEP to NNSA/NSO for closure of CAU 111; and (2) The transfer of CAU 111 from Appendix III to Appendix IV, Closed Corrective Action Units, of the FFACO.

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 556: Dry Wells and Surface Release Points Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Draft), Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2007-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit  (CAU) 556, Dry Wells and Surface Release Points, is located in Areas 6 and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 556 is comprised of four corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: •06-20-04, National Cementers Dry Well •06-99-09, Birdwell Test Hole •25-60-03, E-MAD Stormwater Discharge and Piping •25-64-01, Vehicle Washdown and Drainage Pit These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

  11. Iodine-131 releases from the Hanford Site, 1944--1947

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.

    1993-03-01

    Releases of fission product iodine-131 are calculated for the 1944 through 1947 period from the Hanford Reservation. Releases to the atmosphere were from the ventilation stacks of T and B separation plants. A reconstruction of daily separation plant operations forms the basis of the releases. The reconstruction traces the iodine-131 content of each fuel discharge from the B, D, and F Reactors to the dissolving step in the separation plants. Statistical computer modeling techniques are used to estimate hourly release histories based on sampling mathematical distribution functions that express the uncertainties in the source data and timing. The reported daily, monthly, and yearly estimates are averages and uncertainty ranges are based on 100 independent Monte Carlo realizations'' of the hourly release histories.

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 340: NTS Pesticide Release Sites Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Obi

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide documentation of the completed corrective action and to provide data confirming the corrective action. The corrective action was performed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], 1999) and consisted of clean closure by excavation and disposal. The Area 15 Quonset Hut 15-11 was formerly used for storage of farm supplies including pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers. The Area 23 Quonset Hut 800 was formerly used to clean pesticide and herbicide equipment. Steam-cleaning rinsate and sink drainage occasionally overflowed a sump into adjoining drainage ditches. One ditch flows south and is referred to as the quonset hut ditch. The other ditch flows southeast and is referred to as the inner drainage ditch. The Area 23 Skid Huts were formerly used for storing and mixing pesticide and herbicide solutions. Excess solutions were released directly to the ground near the skid huts. The skid huts were moved to a nearby location prior to the site characterization performed in 1998 and reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE, 1998). The vicinity and site plans of the Area 23 sites are shown in Figures 2 and 3, respectively.

  13. The electronic diagnosis of caries in pits and fissures: site-specific stable conductance readings or cumulative resistance readings?

    PubMed

    Ricketts, D N; Kidd, E A; Wilson, R F

    1997-01-01

    A prototype electronic caries meter (ECM II; LODE, Groningen. The Netherlands) was designed to deliver a conductance reading when the reading had remained stable for 3 consecutive seconds. The aim of this study was to determine whether this type of stable conductance reading was optimal for caries diagnosis. The ECM II was connected to a graphic recorder which enabled the continuous resistance to be recorded. The graphic recording was calibrated using a standard, variable resistance box. Stable conductance readings were taken for 76 sites on 32 extracted teeth with no visible sign of cavitation at an airflow of 7.5 l/min. Simultaneous graphic recording of resistance was continued for 10 s and cumulative resistance measurements were calculated by adding the resistance values at 1-second intervals. Histological validation of caries status was carried out on macroradiographs of sections cut to include sample sites. The histological picture was compared with the stable conductance reading and the cumulative resistance value for each site. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated by randomly choosing stable conductance and cumulative resistance values to differentiate sound and carious sites. The results were presented as a series of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and the optimum sensitivity and specificity values determined. 33% of sites had enamel caries and 32% had enamel and dentine caries. Results showed that both stable conductance readings and cumulative resistance measurements gave high and comparable sensitivity and specificity values for the diagnosis of dentine caries (sens. 92%, spec. 87% and sens. 88%, spec. 81%, respectively). However, when intra-examiner reproducibility was checked, stable conductance readings were more repeatable and achieved in shorter clinical time. In conclusion, stable conductance readings appear to be the most suitable for occlusal caries diagnosis.

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536 is located in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 536 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Area 3 Release Site, and comprises a single Corrective Action Site (CAS): {sm_bullet} CAS 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CAS 03-44-02 is clean closure. Closure activities included removing and disposing of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)- and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-impacted soil, soil impacted with plutonium (Pu)-239, and concrete pad debris. CAU 536 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 536 Corrective Action Plan (CAP), with minor deviations as approved by NDEP. The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 536 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2004). This Closure Report documents CAU 536 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 1,000 cubic yards (yd3) of hydrocarbon waste in the form of TPH- and PAH-impacted soil and debris, approximately 8 yd3 of Pu-239-impacted soil, and approximately 100 yd3 of concrete debris were generated, managed, and disposed of appropriately. Additionally, a previously uncharacterized, buried drum was excavated, removed, and disposed of as hydrocarbon waste as a best management practice. Waste minimization techniques, such as the utilization of laboratory analysis to characterize and classify waste streams, were employed during the performance of closure

  15. Aquifer Characteristics Data Report for the Weldon Spring Site chemical plant/raffinate pits and vicinity properties for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the procedures and methods used, and presents the results of physical testing performed, to characterize the hydraulic properties of the shallow Mississippian-Devonian aquifer beneath the Weldon Spring chemical plant, raffinate pits, and vicinity properties. The aquifer of concern is composed of saturated rocks of the Burlington-Keokuk Limestone which constitutes the upper portion of the Mississippian-Devonian aquifer. This aquifer is a heterogeneous anisotropic medium which can be described in terms of diffuse Darcian flow overlain by high porosity discrete flow zones and conduits. Average hydraulic conductivity for all wells tested is 9.6E-02 meters/day (3.1E-01 feet/day). High hydraulic conductivity values are representative of discrete flow in the fractured and weathered zones in the upper Burlington-Keokuk Limestone. They indicate heterogeneities within the Mississippian-Devonian aquifer. Aquifer heterogeneity in the horizontal plane is believed to be randomly distributed and is a function of fracture spacing, solution voids, and preglacial weathering phenomena. Relatively high hydraulic conductivities in deeper portions of the aquifer are though to be due to the presence of widely spaced fractures. 44 refs., 27 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Site Characterization of Ethanol-Blended Fuel Releases

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been an increasing use of biofuels (ethanol in particular) in the fuel supply nationwide, and an increase in the number of stations that sell gasoline that contains more than 10% ethanol. The U.S. EPA needs to understand the fate of these materials if they are released ...

  17. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Mark J

    2013-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications To Remove Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order dated September 2013. The Use Restriction Removal document was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection on October 16, 2013. The approval of the UR Removal document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the UR Removal document, this addendum consists of: This page that refers the reader to the UR Removal document for additional information The cover, title, and signature pages of the UR Removal document The NDEP approval letter The corresponding section of the UR Removal document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 04-26-03, Lead Bricks. This UR was established as part of FFACO corrective actions and was based on the presence of lead contamination at concentrations greater than the action level established at the time of the initial investigation.

  18. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-08

    The objectives of this research project were to lay the foundation for further improvement in the use of geophysical methods for detection of buried wastes, and to increase the information content derived from surveys. Also, an important goal was to move from mere detection to characterization of buried wastes. The technical approach to achieve these objectives consisted of: (1) Collect a data set of high spatial density; (2) Acquire data with multiple sensors and integrate the interpretations inferred from the various sensors; (3) Test a simplified time domain electromagnetic system; and (4) Develop imaging and display formats of geophysical data readily understood by environmental scientists and engineers. The breadth of application of this work is far reaching. Not only are uncontrolled waste pits and trenches, abandoned underground storage tanks, and pipelines found throughout most US DOE facilities, but also at military installations and industrial facilities. Moreover, controlled land disposal sites may contain ``hot spots`` where drums and hazardous material may have been buried. The technologies addressed by the R&D will benefit all of these activities.

  19. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-08-11

    This report summarizes field sampling activities conducted in support of WCH’s Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River. This work was conducted form 2008 through 2010. The work included preliminary mapping and measurement of Hanford Site contaminants in sediment, pore water, and surface water located in areas where groundwater upwelling were found.

  20. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Coumbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-11-10

    This report summarizes field sampling activities conducted in support of WCH’s Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River. This work was conducted form 2008 through 2010. The work included preliminary mapping and measurement of Hanford Site contaminants in sediment, pore water, and surface water located in areas where groundwater upwelling were found.

  1. Toxic chemical release inventory at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.J.

    1995-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) submits an annual Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (Form R) as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). The Site uses a multi-step process for completing the Form R which includes developing a written procedure, determine thresholds, collection of chemical use and fate information, and peer review.

  2. Hood River PIT-tag interrogation system efficiency study. Annual report of U.S. Geological Survey activities: November 2010-October 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    An additional USGS-CRRL task, under contract number 50150, was to build three antennas for use with Destron-Fearing 2001F-ISO PIT tag readers. These antennas would be 5 used at the East Fork Hood River Acclimation site. They would be placed in the outflow channel to inform managers about the number of PIT tagged steelhead smolts released to the Hood River after a period of acclimation when some mortality and predation might occur. 

  3. Revised Finding of No Significant Impact for Expansion and Operation of the Central Shops Borrow Pit at the Savannah River Site (10/29/03)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-10-29

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1194) in 1997 for the expansion and operation of the existing Central Shops Borrow Pit (i.e., SRS Facility 632-G) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. This EA was prepared in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR 15400-1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR 1021). Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE determined that the action was not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) was not required, and DOE issued a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) dated March 13, 1997. In an effort to provide the site with cost-effective future landfill capacity for construction and demolition (C&D) debris/structural fill, DOE is considering redefining the closure of the 632-G facility to encompass the permitted disposal of inert C&D debris into the excavation areas, which would then be closed as per regulatory requirements. Based on the existing infrastructure at the 632-G facility that would support a permitted Part III C&D Landfill, DOE has concluded that the environmental impacts of the proposed use of the excavated portions of this facility as an inert debris landfill is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an EIS is not required, and DOE is issuing this revised FONSI.

  4. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    2003-06-25

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan was prepared as a characterization and closure report for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 357, Mud Pits and Waste Dump, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The CAU consists of 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 4, 7, 8, 10, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). All of the CASs are found within Yucca Flat except CAS 25-15-01 (Waste Dump). Corrective Action Site 25-15-01 is found in Area 25 in Jackass Flat. Of the 14 CASs in CAU 357, 11 are mud pits, suspected mud pits, or mud processing-related sites, which are by-products of drilling activities in support of the underground nuclear weapons testing done on the NTS. Of the remaining CASs, one CAS is a waste dump, one CAS contains scattered lead bricks, and one CAS has a building associated with Project 31.2. All 14 of the CASs are inactive and abandoned. Clean closure with no further action of CAU 357 will be completed if no contaminants are detected above preliminary action levels. A closure report will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for review and approval upon completion of the field activities. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3/2004.

  5. Physical and chemical control of released microorganisms at field sites

    SciTech Connect

    Donegan, K.; Seidler, R.; Matyac, C.

    1991-01-01

    An important consideration in the environmental release of a genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) is the capability for reduction or elimination of GEM populations once their function is completed or if adverse environmental effects are observed. The decontamination treatments of burning and biocide application, alone and in combination with tilling, were evaluated for their ability to reduce populations of bacteria released on the phylloplane. Field plots of bush beans sprayed with the bacterium Erwinia herbicola, received the following treatments: (1) control, (2) control + till, (3) burn, (4) burn + till, (5) Kocide (cupric hydroxide), (6) Kocide + till, (7) Agri-strep (streptomycin sulfate), and (8) Agri-strept + till. Leaves and soil from the plots were sampled -1, 1, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, and 27 days after application of the decontamination treatments. Burning produced a significant and persistent reduction in the number of bacteria whereas tilling, alone or in combination with the biocide treatments, stimulated a significant and persistent reduction in the number of bacteria, whereas tilling, alone or in combination with the biocide treatments, stimulated a significant increase in bacterial populations that persisted for several weeks.

  6. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2006-11-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. It has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. A SAFER may be performed when the following criteria are met: (1) Conceptual corrective actions are clearly identified (although some degree of investigation may be necessary to select a specific corrective action before completion of the Corrective Action Investigation [CAI]); (2) Uncertainty of the nature, extent, and corrective action must be limited to an acceptable level of risk; (3) The SAFER Plan includes decision points and criteria for making data quality objective (DQO) decisions. The purpose of the investigation will be to document and verify the adequacy of existing information; to affirm the decision for clean closure, closure in place, or no further action; and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective action. The actual corrective action selected will be based on characterization activities implemented under this SAFER Plan. This SAFER Plan identifies decision points developed in cooperation with the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP), where the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) will reach consensus with the NDEP before beginning the next phase of work. Corrective Action Unit 553 is located in Areas 19 and 20 of the NTS, approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 553 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: 19-99-01, Mud Spill; 19-99-11, Mud Spill; 20-09-09, Mud Spill; and 20-99-03, Mud Spill. There is sufficient information and process

  7. Tailoring release protocols to individual species and sites: one size does not fit all.

    PubMed

    Moseby, Katherine E; Hill, Brydie M; Lavery, Tyrone H

    2014-01-01

    Reintroduction programs for threatened species often include elaborate release strategies designed to improve success, but their advantages are rarely tested scientifically. We used a set of four experiments to demonstrate that the influence of release strategies on short-term reintroduction outcomes is related to both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. We compared different reintroduction strategies for three mammal species in an arid environment where exotic mammalian predators were removed. Wild greater stick-nest rats selected vegetation shelter sites with greater structural density than captive-bred rats, travelled further from the release site and experienced lower rates of mortality. In comparison, there was no difference in mortality or movement between wild and captive-bred greater bilbies. Burrowing bettongs and greater bilbies were also subjected to immediate and delayed release strategies and whilst no difference was detected in bilbies, bettongs that were subjected to delayed releases lost less weight and took less time to establish burrows than those that were immediately released. Interspecific differences in treatment response were attributed to predation risk, the nature of the release site, and behavioural traits such as shelter investment and sociality. Our varied results highlight the inadequacies of review articles focusing on optimum release protocols due to their attempt to generalise across species and release sites. We provide an example of a predictive model to guide future release strategy experimentation that recognises the range of intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing reintroduction outcomes. We encourage researchers to treat programs experimentally, identify individual site and species characters that may influence release strategies and record data on movements, mortality, weight dynamics, and settling times and distances. The inherent issues of small sample size and low statistical power that plague most reintroduction

  8. Savannah River Site Ingestion Pathway Methodology Manual for Airborne Radioactive Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, A.W. III

    2001-01-03

    This manual documents a recommended methodology for determining the ingestion pathway consequences of hypothetical accidental airborne radiological releases from facilities at the Savannah River Site. Both particulate and tritiated radioactive contaminants are addressed. Other approaches should be applied for evaluation of routine releases.

  9. Minutes of the workshop on off-site release criteria for contaminated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.N.

    1989-11-01

    A one and one-half-day workshop was held May 2-3, 1989, at the Pollard Auditorium in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, with the objective of formulating a strategy for developing reasonable and uniform criteria for releasing radioactively contaminated materials from the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. This report contains the minutes of the workshop. At the conclusion of the workshop, a plan was formulated to facilitate the development of the above-mentioned off-site release criteria.

  10. Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1996-03-01

    This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).

  11. An Assessment of Freeze Brand and PIT Tag Recovery Data at McNary Dam, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McCutcheon, Clinton Scott

    1989-01-01

    This study evaluated mark recovery data from PIT-tagged and freeze-branded fish recovered at McNary Dam in 1987. Hatchery and river-run populations of yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye salmon (O. nerka) and steelhead (O. mykiss) were used in this investigation. Paired groups of PIT-tagged and freeze-branded juvenile salmonids were released upstream from McNary Dam and subsequently recaptured at that site. PIT tags were recovered in significantly higher proportions than freeze brands regardless of species of stock. Furthermore, for chinook and sockeye salmon, PIT tag recovery data exhibited less variability. Reasons for the discrepant intermark recovery rates are discussed. 10 refs., 27 figs., 23 tabs.

  12. Metastable pitting of carbon steel under potentiostatic control

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Y.F.; Luo, J.L.

    1999-03-01

    The metastable pitting of A516-70 carbon steel was studied under potentiostatic control in solutions containing chloride ions. It was shown that there were different current fluctuation patterns and spectral slopes, that is, roll-off slopes, in passivity, general corrosion, and metastable pitting. Pits were often covered by a deposit which played an important role in the current fluctuation, with a quick current rise followed by a slow drop. There was a transitional potential (about 0 mV vs Ag/AgCl electrode) below which the metastable pitting initiation rate increased with the potential, because more sites would be activated. Above the transitional potential, the decay of the pitting occurrence rate with increased potential was due to the elimination of available pit sites. When the applied potential was between {minus}50 and 100 mV, pit growth kinetics was controlled by the potential drop through the deposit over the pit mouth. The potential dependence of repassivation time was mainly due to the effect of applied potential on the deposit over the pit mouth. There seemed to be good agreement between the calculated pit size and the measured values by optical microphotography. The assumption of hemispherical pit geometry was reasonable in calculating the pit radii.

  13. Gas Retention and Release from Hanford Site Sludge Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Meacham, Joseph E.; Follett, Jordan R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2015-02-18

    Radioactive wastes from nuclear fuel processing are stored in large underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. Solid wastes can be divided into saltcake (mostly precipitated soluble sodium nitrate and nitrite salts with some interstitial liquid consisting of concentrated salt solutions) and sludge (mostly low solubility aluminum and iron compounds with relatively dilute interstitial liquid). Waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, radio-thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank’s carbon steel walls. Nonflammable gases, such as nitrous oxide and nitrogen, are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., ammonia and methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks.

  14. Formulation and evaluation of controlled release antibiotic biodegradable implants for post operative site delivery.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Vijay; Mudnaik, Rajesh; Barde, Laxmikant; Roy, Arghya; Shivhare, Umesh; Bhusari, Kishore

    2010-03-01

    Biodegradable implants of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride for post operative site delivery were prepared using glyceryl monostearate and different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000), glycerol and Tween 80 as erosion enhancers by compression and molding technique. Formulations were subjected to in vitro drug release by the USP dissolution method, while promising formulations were subjected to in vitro drug release by the agar gel method and also to stability studies. It was observed that glyceryl monostearate formed hydrophobic matrix and delayed the drug delivery. Antibiotic release profile was controlled by using different combinations of erosion enhancers. The formulation prepared by the compression method showed more delayed release compared to formulations prepared by the molding method.

  15. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 340, Pesticide Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense. As required by the FFACO (1996), this document provides or references all of the specific information for planning investigation activities associated with three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These CASs are collectively known as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 340, Pesticide Release Sites. According to the FFACO, CASs are sites that may require corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. These sites are CAS 23-21-01, Area 23 Quonset Hut 800 (Q800) Pesticide Release Ditch; CAS 23-18-03, Area 23 Skid Huts Pesticide Storage; and CAS 15-18-02, Area 15 Quonset Hut 15-11 Pesticide Storage (Q15-11). The purpose of this CAIP for CAU 340 is to direct and guide the investigation for the evaluation of the nature and extent of pesticides, herbicides, and other contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) that were stored, mixed, and/or disposed of at each of the CASs.

  16. Confirmatory Survey for the Partial Site Release at the ABB Inc. CE Winsor Site, Windsor, CT

    SciTech Connect

    W.C. Adams

    2008-06-27

    The objectives of the confirmatory surveys were to confirm that remedial actions had been effective in meeting established release criteria and that documentation accurately and adequately describes the final radiological conditions of the PSR Impacted Areas.

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 326: Areas 6 and 27 Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-12-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities undertaken to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 326, Areas 6 and 27 Release Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Site closure was performed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan (SAFER) Plan for CAU 326 (US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV, 2001]). CAU 326 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs), 06-25-01, 06-25-02, 06-25-04, and 27-25-01. CAS 06-25-01 is a release site associated with an underground pipeline that carried heating oil from the heating oil underground storage tank (UST), Tank 6-CP-1, located to the west of Building CP-70 to the boiler in Building CP-1 located in the Area 6 Control Point (CP) compound. This site was closed in place administratively by implementing use restrictions. CAS 06-25-02 is a hydrocarbon release associated with an active heating oil UST, Tank 6-DAF-5, located west of Building 500 at the Area 6 Device Assembly Facility. This site was closed in place administratively by implementing use restrictions. CAS 06-25-04 was a hydrocarbon release associated with Tank 6-619-4. This site was successfully remediated when Tank 6-619-4 was removed. No further action was taken at this site. CAS 27-25-01 is an excavation that was created in an attempt to remove hydrocarbon-impacted soil from the Site Maintenance Yard in Area 27. Approximately 53 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (70 cubic yards [yd{sup 3}]) of soil impacted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was excavated from the site in August of 1994. Clean closure of this site was completed in 2002 by the excavation and disposal of approximately 160 m{sup 3} (210 yd{sup 3}) of PCB-impacted soil.

  18. Optic Nerve Pit

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is the effect of optic pit on vision? The pit itself does not affect vision and most patients remain without any symptoms for decades. About 50% of patients start feeling vision deterioration in their 20’s or 30’s. It is ...

  19. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1988-08-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commericial power reactors operating during 1985. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 61 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 73 person-rem to a low of 0.011 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 200 person-rem for the 110 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 5 /times/ 10/sup /minus/6/ mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  20. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1984. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 56 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 110 person-rem to a low of 0.002 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 5 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 280 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 6 x 10/sup -6/ mrem to a high of 0.04 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  1. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A. )

    1989-10-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1986. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 66 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 31 person-rem to a low of 0.0007 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 1.7 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 110 person-rem for the 140 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 2 {times} 10{sup -6} mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. 12 refs.

  2. Mechanisms, pools, and sites of spontaneous vesicle release at synapses of rod and cone photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Cork, Karlene M; Van Hook, Matthew J; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2016-08-01

    Photoreceptors have depolarized resting potentials that stimulate calcium-dependent release continuously from a large vesicle pool but neurons can also release vesicles without stimulation. We characterized the Ca(2+) dependence, vesicle pools, and release sites involved in spontaneous release at photoreceptor ribbon synapses. In whole-cell recordings from light-adapted horizontal cells (HCs) of tiger salamander retina, we detected miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) when no stimulation was applied to promote exocytosis. Blocking Ca(2+) influx by lowering extracellular Ca(2+) , by application of Cd(2+) and other agents reduced the frequency of mEPSCs but did not eliminate them, indicating that mEPSCs can occur independently of Ca(2+) . We also measured release presynaptically from rods and cones by examining quantal glutamate transporter anion currents. Presynaptic quantal event frequency was reduced by Cd(2+) or by increased intracellular Ca(2+) buffering in rods, but not in cones, that were voltage clamped at -70 mV. By inhibiting the vesicle cycle with bafilomycin, we found the frequency of mEPSCs declined more rapidly than the amplitude of evoked excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) suggesting a possible separation between vesicle pools in evoked and spontaneous exocytosis. We mapped sites of Ca(2+) -independent release using total internal reflectance fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy to visualize fusion of individual vesicles loaded with dextran-conjugated pHrodo. Spontaneous release in rods occurred more frequently at non-ribbon sites than evoked release events. The function of Ca(2+) -independent spontaneous release at continuously active photoreceptor synapses remains unclear, but the low frequency of spontaneous quanta limits their impact on noise.

  3. Mechanisms, pools, and sites of spontaneous vesicle release at synapses of rod and cone photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Cork, Karlene M; Van Hook, Matthew J; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2016-08-01

    Photoreceptors have depolarized resting potentials that stimulate calcium-dependent release continuously from a large vesicle pool but neurons can also release vesicles without stimulation. We characterized the Ca(2+) dependence, vesicle pools, and release sites involved in spontaneous release at photoreceptor ribbon synapses. In whole-cell recordings from light-adapted horizontal cells (HCs) of tiger salamander retina, we detected miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) when no stimulation was applied to promote exocytosis. Blocking Ca(2+) influx by lowering extracellular Ca(2+) , by application of Cd(2+) and other agents reduced the frequency of mEPSCs but did not eliminate them, indicating that mEPSCs can occur independently of Ca(2+) . We also measured release presynaptically from rods and cones by examining quantal glutamate transporter anion currents. Presynaptic quantal event frequency was reduced by Cd(2+) or by increased intracellular Ca(2+) buffering in rods, but not in cones, that were voltage clamped at -70 mV. By inhibiting the vesicle cycle with bafilomycin, we found the frequency of mEPSCs declined more rapidly than the amplitude of evoked excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) suggesting a possible separation between vesicle pools in evoked and spontaneous exocytosis. We mapped sites of Ca(2+) -independent release using total internal reflectance fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy to visualize fusion of individual vesicles loaded with dextran-conjugated pHrodo. Spontaneous release in rods occurred more frequently at non-ribbon sites than evoked release events. The function of Ca(2+) -independent spontaneous release at continuously active photoreceptor synapses remains unclear, but the low frequency of spontaneous quanta limits their impact on noise. PMID:27255664

  4. 10 CFR 50.83 - Release of part of a power reactor facility or site for unrestricted use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... release. Nuclear power reactor licensees seeking NRC approval shall— (1) Evaluate the effect of releasing... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Release of part of a power reactor facility or site for... of a power reactor facility or site for unrestricted use. (a) Prior written NRC approval is...

  5. 10 CFR 50.83 - Release of part of a power reactor facility or site for unrestricted use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... release. Nuclear power reactor licensees seeking NRC approval shall— (1) Evaluate the effect of releasing... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Release of part of a power reactor facility or site for... of a power reactor facility or site for unrestricted use. (a) Prior written NRC approval is...

  6. 10 CFR 50.83 - Release of part of a power reactor facility or site for unrestricted use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... release. Nuclear power reactor licensees seeking NRC approval shall— (1) Evaluate the effect of releasing... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Release of part of a power reactor facility or site for... of a power reactor facility or site for unrestricted use. (a) Prior written NRC approval is...

  7. 10 CFR 50.83 - Release of part of a power reactor facility or site for unrestricted use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... release. Nuclear power reactor licensees seeking NRC approval shall— (1) Evaluate the effect of releasing... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Release of part of a power reactor facility or site for... of a power reactor facility or site for unrestricted use. (a) Prior written NRC approval is...

  8. 10 CFR 50.83 - Release of part of a power reactor facility or site for unrestricted use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... release. Nuclear power reactor licensees seeking NRC approval shall— (1) Evaluate the effect of releasing... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Release of part of a power reactor facility or site for... of a power reactor facility or site for unrestricted use. (a) Prior written NRC approval is...

  9. Data Catalog for Models Simulating Release of Contaminants from Hanford Site Waste Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert G.; Lopresti, Charles A.

    2001-09-26

    This report provides summaries of release models used in Hanford Site assessments published over the past 14 years (1987 to 2001). Mathematical formulations that commonly have been used in recent years (i.e., salt-cake, cement, soil-debris, reactor block, glass, and corrosion) are described, along with associated parameter definitions and their units. Tables in this report provide links to data sources needed to implement the models. These links enable users to quickly locate the specific release model information and data sources they need for applying the models to future to site assessments.

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Strand

    2004-10-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental samples. Corrective Action Unit 554 is located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 554 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), which is: 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. This site consists of soil contamination resulting from a fuel release from underground storage tanks (USTs). Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation prior to evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document for CAU 554. Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 15, 2004, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; and contractor personnel. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 554.

  11. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1982. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1986-06-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1982. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 51 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 30 person-rem to a low of 0.007 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 130 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 6 x 10/sup -7/ mrem to a high of 0.06 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  12. CORRECTIVE ACTION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 536: AREA 3 RELEASE SITE, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    CAU 536 consists of CAS 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge, located in Area 3 of the NTS. The site was characterized in 2004 according to the approved CAIP and the site characterization results are reported in the CAU 536 CADD. The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in the approved CAU 536 CADD.

  13. Lessons Learned from Pit Viper System Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Catalan, Michael A.; Bailey, Sharon A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick L.

    2002-08-08

    The Pit Viper is a tele-operated system intended to enhance worker safety while simultaneously improving the efficiency of pit operations at the Hanford Site. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components were used in an attempt to increase system reliability and reduce integration difficulties. The Pit Viper, as is, provides significant improvement over the current baseline approach. During integration, multiple areas where technology development would enhance the effectiveness of the system were identified. Most notable of these areas were the manipulator control system, tool design, and tool handling. Various issues were identified regarding the interfacing of the Pit Viper with the Tank Farm environment and the maturity of remote/ robotic systems for unstructured environments.

  14. Waterborne Release Monitoring and Surveillance Programs at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-03-26

    This report documents the liquid release environmental compliance programs currently in place at the Savannah river Site (SRS). Included are descriptions of stream monitoring programs, which measure chemical parameters and radionuclides in site streams and the Savannah river and test representative biological communities within the streams for chemical and radiological uptake. This report also explains the field sampling and analytical capabilities that are available at SRS during both normal and emergency conditions.

  15. Population Dose Commitments Due to Radioactive Releases from Nuclear Power Plant Sites in 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D. A.

    1980-10-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1977. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ, Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 220 person-rem to a low of 0.003 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 16 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 700 person-rem for the 92 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 2 x 10{sup -5} mrem to a high of 0.1 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  16. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from Nuclear-Power-Plant Sites in 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1982-12-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1979. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 1300 person-rem to a low of 0.0002 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 38 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 1800 person-rem for the 94 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 2 x 10/sup -6/ mrem to a high of 0.7 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  17. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1987. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 70 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for reach of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} mrem to a high of 0.009 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. However, licensee calculation of doses to the maximally exposed individual at some sites indicated values of up to approximately 100 times average individual doses (on the order of a few millirem per year). 2 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Use of Electrical Conductivity Logging to Characterize the Geological Context of Releases at UST Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk is the combination of hazard and exposure. Risk characterization at UST release sites has traditionally emphasized hazard (presence of residual fuel) with little attention to exposure. Exposure characterization often limited to a one-dimensional model such as the RBCA equa...

  19. Closure Report for Housekeeping Category Corrective Action Unit 387: Spill Sites and Releases, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-10-01

    This Closure Report documents the closure activities conducted for CAU 387: Spill Sites and Releases. Closure activities were performed in two phases. Phase I activities consisted of collecting waste characterization samples of soil at appropriate sites. The results were used to determine how waste generated during closure activities would be handled and disposed (i.e., as nonhazardous sanitary or hazardous waste). Phase 2 activities consisted of closing each CAS by removing debris and/or soil, disposing of the generated waste, and verifying that each site was clean-closed by visual inspection and/or collecting soil verification samples for laboratory analysis. Additionally, seven sites were closed with no further action after concurrence with Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). Four other sites were moved into different CAUs in Appendix III of the FFACO because the housekeeping process was not adequate to close them. Copies of the analytical results for the site verification samples are included in Appendix A. Copies of the Sectored Housekeeping Site Closure Verification Forms for each of the 16 CAS are included in Appendix B.

  20. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1988. Fifty-year commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 71 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 16 person-rem to a low of 0.0011 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 1.1 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 75 person-rem for the 150 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. However, licensee calculation of doses to the maximally exposed individual at some sites indicated values of up to approximately 100 times average individual doses (on the order of a few millirem per year).

  1. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1988. Volume 10

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1988. Fifty-year commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 71 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 16 person-rem to a low of 0.0011 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 1.1 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 75 person-rem for the 150 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. However, licensee calculation of doses to the maximally exposed individual at some sites indicated values of up to approximately 100 times average individual doses (on the order of a few millirem per year).

  2. PitPro 1.1 User's Manual; Pit-tag to SURPH Data Translation Utility, Technical Manual 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Westhagen, Peter; Skalski, John

    2003-07-01

    This manual describes the use of Program PitPro to convert PIT-tag data files in PTAGIS (PIT Tag Information System, Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission) to input files ready for survival analysis in Program SURPH 2.1. This utility converts the various PIT-tag detections at the multitude of detector coils within a juvenile bypass or at adult counting windows and ladders into capture histories. The capture histories indicate whether a tagged fish was detected, not detected, or detected and censored at the major hydroprojects in the Columbia Basin. A major update to this program is the inclusion of adult upstream detection histories. Adult detection histories include not only whether the fish was detected or not but also the year of detection for proper adult survival estimation. The SURPH program is a valuable tool for estimating survival and detection probabilities of fish migrating in the Snake and Columbia rivers. Using special input data files, SURPH computes reach-to-reach statistics for any release group passing a system of detection sites. However, PIT-tag data, as available from PTAGIS, comes in a form that is not ready for use as SURPH input. SURPH requires a capture history for each fish. A capture history consists of a series of fields, one for each detection site, that has a code for whether the fish was detected and returned to the river, detected and removed, or not detected. The data, as received from PTAGIS, has one line for each detection with information such as fish identification (id), detection date and time, number of coil hits and detector coil ids, etc. Because an individual fish may be detected at several coils within a detection site as well as at several detection sites, each fish is often represented by multiple lines in the PTAGIS data file. For the PTAGIS data to be usable by SURPH, it must be preprocessed. The data must be condensed down to one line per fish with the relevant detection information from the PTAGIS file

  3. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear-power-plant sites in 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Peloquin, R.A.; Schwab, J.D.; Baker, D.A.

    1982-06-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1978. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 200 person-rem to a low of 0.0004 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 14 person-rem. The total population dose for allsites was estimated at 660 person-rem for the 93 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 3 x 10/sup -6/ mrem to a high of 0.08 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  4. SCFA lead lab technical assistance review of the Pit 7 Complex source containment

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, D.; Janeday, D.; Woodward, D.; Imrich, J.; Evans, J.; Morris, M.; Reimus, P.; Hazen, T.

    2001-01-29

    On January 29-30, 2001 a technical assistance team (TAT) met with the Pit 7 project team at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to review technologies being evaluated for remediation in the Site 300 Pit 7 Complex and the process for selecting these technologies. Specifically, the project team presented the TAT with a core need to identify technically and economically practicable technologies and methods to stabilize, contain, or control the tritium and uranium in the source areas at the Pits 3 and 5 landfill area to prevent further releases of these contaminants to groundwater and the migration of tritiated and uranium-contaminated groundwater. The approaches and needs for the systems surrounding the landfills were also presented and discussed. With encouragement from the project team, the TAT expanded its focus to include additional site characterization, a water balance model, and computational models. The TAT was comprised of leading technical and regulatory experts from around the country and was assembled by SCFA's Lead Lab in response to a technical assistance request from John Ziagos, Project Manager for the Pit 7 Area (Technical Assistance Request: LLNL No.1). A list of the TAT members is included below and contact information the TAT members and site participants is in Appendix B. To familiarize the TAT assistance team with Pit 7 Complex issues, the project team gave a presentation outlining the site geology, contaminant hydrogeology, land-use issues, stakeholder concerns, regulatory requirements, groundwater flow and transport modeling efforts, pit source characterization efforts, and remedial options. Time for clarification and questions between the TAT and the site team was integrated into the presentation schedule. On the morning of the second day, the TAT reconvened with the site team and John Evans of the TAT presented information about a helium soil gas survey method that could potentially be used to locate and characterize tritium hot

  5. Development of Floating-Mucoadhesive Microsphere for Site Specific Release of Metronidazole

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Md. Lutful; Ahmed, Tajnin; Mannan, Md. Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate metronidazole loaded floating-mucoadhesive microsphere for sustained drug release at the gastric mucosa. Methods: Alginate gastroretentive microspheres containing metronidazole were prepared by ionic gelation method using sodium bicarbonate as gas forming agent, guar gum as mucoadhesive polymer, and Eudragit L100 as drug release modifier. Carbopol was used for increasing the bead strength. The microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and evaluated by means of drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro buoyancy, and swelling studies. In vitro mucoadhesion and drug release studies were carried out in order to evaluate site specific sustained drug release. Results: All formulations showed 100% buoyancy in vitro for a prolonged period of time. Amount of guar gum influenced the properties of different formulations. The formulation containing drug and guar gum at a ratio of 1:0.5 showed the best results with 76.3% drug entrapment efficiency, 61.21% mucoadhesion, and sustained drug release. Carbopol was found to increase surface smoothness of the microspheres. Conclusion: Metronidazole mucoadhesive-floating microspheres can be effectively used for sustained drug release to the gastric mucosa in treatment of upper GIT infection. PMID:27478781

  6. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1987-04-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1983. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 52 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 45 person-rem to a low of 0.002 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 170 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk.

  7. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1992. Volume 14

    SciTech Connect

    Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.

    1996-03-01

    Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1992. Fifty-year dose commitments for a 1-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teenager, and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses, which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix I, design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 3.7 person-rem to a low of 0.0015 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 0.66 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 47 person-rem for the 130-million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the 10 CFR 50, Appendix I, design objectives.

  8. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1989. Volume 11

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1993-02-01

    Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1989. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix I design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 14 person-rem to a low of 0.005 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 1.2 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 84 person-rem for the 140 million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the Appendix I design objectives.

  9. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1991. Volume 13

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1995-04-01

    Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1991. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teenager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix 1 design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 22 person-rem to a low of 0.002 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 1.2 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 88 person-rem for the 130 million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the Appendix 1 design objectives.

  10. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A. )

    1993-02-01

    Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1989. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix I design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 14 person-rem to a low of 0.005 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 1.2 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 84 person-rem for the 140 million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the Appendix I design objectives.

  11. Rare and spatially segregated release sites mediate a synaptic interaction between two identified network neurons.

    PubMed

    Cabirol-Pol, Marie-Jeanne; Combes, Denis; Fénelon, Valérie S; Simmers, John; Meyrand, Pierre

    2002-02-01

    Laser-scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), electron microcopy (EM), and cellular electrophysiology were used in combination to study the structural basis of an inhibitory synapse between two identified neurons of the same network. To achieve this, we examined the chemical inhibitory synapse between identified neurons belonging to the lobster (Homarus gammarus) pyloric network: the pyloric dilator (PD) and the lateral pyloric (LP) neurons. In order to visualize simultaneously these two neurons, we used intrasomatic injection of Lucifer Yellow (LY) in one and rhodamine/horseradish peroxydase (HRP) in the other. Under LSCM, we found only two zones of close apposition in a restricted part of the neuritic tree of the two network neurons. Then, within these two zones, the synaptic release sites were searched using EM. To this end, photoconversion of LY with immunogold and development of HRP with DAB were performed on the previously observed preparations. Structural evidence was found for only one release site per zone. To confirm this result, and because the zones of contact were always segregated in a restricted part of the dendrites, we used laser photoablation to selectively delete, either pre- or postsynaptically, the branches on which the release sites were located. In both cases, such restrictive ablation completely abolished the functional interaction between these neurons. Our results therefore demonstrate that an inhibitory synapse that is essential for the operation of a neural network relies on only very few sites of contact localized in a highly restricted part of each neuron's dendritic arbor. PMID:11793361

  12. Landfill-stimulated iron reduction and arsenic release at the Coakley Superfund Site (NH).

    PubMed

    deLemos, Jamie L; Bostick, Benjamin C; Renshaw, Carl E; Stürup, Stefan; Feng, Xiahong

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic is a contaminant at more than one-third of all Superfund Sites in the United States. Frequently this contamination appearsto resultfrom geochemical processes rather than the presence of a well-defined arsenic source. Here we examine the geochemical processes that regulate arsenic levels at the Coakley Landfill Superfund Site (NH), a site contaminated with As, Cr, Pb, Ni, Zn, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Long-term field observations indicate that the concentrations of most of these contaminants have diminished as a result of treatment by monitored natural attenuation begun in 1998; however, dissolved arsenic levels increased modestly over the same interval. We attribute this increase to the reductive release of arsenic associated with poorly crystalline iron hydroxides within a glaciomarine clay layer within the overburden underlying the former landfill. Anaerobic batch incubations that stimulated iron reduction in the glaciomarine clay released appreciable dissolved arsenic and iron. Field observations also suggest that iron reduction associated with biodegradation of organic waste are partly responsible for arsenic release; over the five-year study period since a cap was emplaced to prevent water flow through the site, decreases in groundwater dissolved benzene concentrations at the landfill are correlated with increases in dissolved arsenic concentrations, consistent with the microbial decomposition of both benzene and other organics, and reduction of arsenic-bearing iron oxides. Treatment of contaminated groundwater increasingly is based on stimulating natural biogeochemical processes to degrade the contaminants. These results indicate that reducing environments created within organic contaminant plumes may release arsenic. In fact, the strong correlation (>80%) between elevated arsenic levels and organic contamination in groundwater systems at Superfund Sites across the United States suggests that arsenic contamination caused by natural degradation of

  13. Neutrophils recruited to sites of infection protect from virus challenge by releasing neutrophil extracellular traps.

    PubMed

    Jenne, Craig N; Wong, Connie H Y; Zemp, Franz J; McDonald, Braedon; Rahman, Masmudur M; Forsyth, Peter A; McFadden, Grant; Kubes, Paul

    2013-02-13

    Neutrophils mediate bacterial clearance through various mechanisms, including the release of mesh-like DNA structures or neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that capture bacteria. Although neutrophils are also recruited to sites of viral infection, their role in antiviral innate immunity is less clear. We show that systemic administration of virus analogs or poxvirus infection induces neutrophil recruitment to the liver microvasculature and the release of NETs that protect host cells from virus infection. After systemic intravenous poxvirus challenge, mice exhibit thrombocytopenia and the recruitment of both neutrophils and platelets to the liver vasculature. Circulating platelets interact with, roll along, and adhere to the surface of adherent neutrophils, forming large, dynamic aggregates. These interactions facilitate the release of NETs within the liver vasculature that are able to protect host cells from poxvirus infection. These findings highlight the role of NETs and early tissue-wide responses in preventing viral infection.

  14. Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River - 13603

    SciTech Connect

    Lerch, J.A.; Hulstrom, L.C.; Sands, J.P.

    2013-07-01

    In south-central Washington State, the Columbia River flows through the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. A primary objective of the Hanford Site cleanup mission is protection of the Columbia River, through remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater that resulted from its weapons production mission. Within the Columbia River system, surface water, sediment, and biota samples related to potential Hanford Site hazardous substance releases have been collected since the start of Hanford operations. The impacts from release of Hanford Site radioactive substances to the Columbia River in areas upstream, within, and downstream of the Hanford Site boundary have been previously investigated as mandated by the U.S. Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act. The Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River [1] was issued in 2008 to initiate assessment of the impacts under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 [2]. The work plan established a phased approach to characterize contaminants, assess current risks, and determine whether or not there is a need for any cleanup actions. Field investigation activities over a 120-mile stretch of the Columbia River began in October 2008 and were completed in 2010. Sampled media included surface water, pore water, surface and core sediment, island soil, and fish (carp, walleye, whitefish, sucker, small-mouth bass, and sturgeon). Information and sample results from the field investigation were used to characterize current conditions within the Columbia River and assess whether current conditions posed a risk to ecological or human receptors that would merit additional study or response actions under CERCLA. The human health and ecological risk assessments are documented in reports that were published in 2012 [3, 4]. Conclusions from the risk assessment reports are being summarized and integrated with remedial investigation

  15. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1981. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1981. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teenager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways from 48 sites ranged from a high of 20 person-rem to a low of 0.008 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 160 person-rem for the 98 million people considered at risk.

  16. Testing carbon sequestration site monitor instruments using a controlled carbon dioxide release facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, Seth D.; Nehrir, Amin R.; Keith, Charlie J.; Repasky, Kevin S.; Dobeck, Laura M.; Carlsten, John L.; Spangler, Lee H.

    2008-02-01

    Two laser-based instruments for carbon sequestration site monitoring have been developed and tested at a controlled carbon dioxide (CO2) release facility. The first instrument uses a temperature tunable distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser capable of accessing the 2.0027-2.0042 μm spectral region that contains three CO2 absorption lines and is used for aboveground atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements. The second instrument also uses a temperature tunable DFB diode laser capable of accessing the 2.0032-2.0055 μm spectral region that contains five CO2 absorption lines for underground CO2 soil gas concentration measurements. The performance of these instruments for carbon sequestration site monitoring was studied using a newly developed controlled CO2 release facility. A 0.3 ton CO2/day injection experiment was performed from 3-10 August 2007. The aboveground differential absorption instrument measured an average atmospheric CO2 concentration of 618 parts per million (ppm) over the CO2 injection site compared with an average background atmospheric CO2 concentration of 448 ppm demonstrating this instrument's capability for carbon sequestration site monitoring. The underground differential absorption instrument measured a CO2 soil gas concentration of 100,000 ppm during the CO2 injection, a factor of 25 greater than the measured background CO2 soil gas concentration of 4000 ppm demonstrating this instrument's capability for carbon sequestration site monitoring

  17. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1983-08-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1980. In addition doses derived from the shutdown reactors at the Three Mile Island site were included. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 40 person-rem to a low of 0.02 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 4 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 180 person-rem for the 96 million people considered at risk.

  18. Do release-site biases reflect response to the Earth's magnetic field during position determination by homing pigeons?

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Cordula V.; Walker, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    How homing pigeons (Columba livia) return to their loft from distant, unfamiliar sites has long been a mystery. At many release sites, untreated birds consistently vanish from view in a direction different from the home direction, a phenomenon called the release-site bias. These deviations in flight direction have been implicated in the position determination (or map) step of navigation because they may reflect local distortions in information about location that the birds obtain from the geophysical environment at the release site. Here, we performed a post hoc analysis of the relationship between vanishing bearings and local variations in magnetic intensity using previously published datasets for pigeons homing to lofts in Germany. Vanishing bearings of both experienced and naïve birds were strongly associated with magnetic intensity variations at release sites, with 90 per cent of bearings lying within ±29° of the magnetic intensity slope or contour direction. Our results (i) demonstrate that pigeons respond in an orderly manner to the local structure of the magnetic field at release sites, (ii) provide a mechanism for the occurrence of release-site biases and (iii) suggest that pigeons may derive spatial information from the magnetic field at the release site that could be used to estimate their current position relative to their loft. PMID:19556255

  19. Atmospheric dispersion of ammonia accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.M.; Lavender, J.C.

    1997-11-01

    Two errors have been identified in the authorization basis for the 242-A Evaporator at the Hanford Site. These errors, which appear in the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Final Safety Analysis Report analysis of ammonia gas concentrations accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, are: (1) the vessel ventilation system flow rate used in the previous calculations is a factor of ten higher than the actual flow rate, and (2) the previous calculations did not account for the ammonia source term reduction that would occur via condensation of ammonia vapors, which will remove a large fraction of the ammonia from the exhaust gas stream. The purpose of this document is to correct these errors and recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia released to the environment as a result of potential errors in blending Evaporator feed. The errors offset each other somewhat, so it is unlikely that the 242-A Evaporator has operated outside its current authorization basis. However, the errors must be corrected and the results incorporated into a revision of the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Safety Analysis Report, WHC-SD-WM-SAR-023. An EPA-approved atmospheric dispersion model, SCREEN3, was used to recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia that would be released from the 242-A Evaporator as a result of a feed-blending error. The results of the re-analysis of the 242-A Evaporator`s ammonia release scenario are as follows. The onsite receptor 100 m away from the release point (242-A vessel vent stack) is projected to be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of ammonia of 8.3 ppm. The maximally-exposed offsite receptor, located at the nearest Hanford Site boundary 16 km away from the 242-A vessel vent stack, will be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of 0.11 ppm ammonia.

  20. Inefficient processing impairs release of RNA from the site of transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Custódio, N; Carmo-Fonseca, M; Geraghty, F; Pereira, H S; Grosveld, F; Antoniou, M

    1999-01-01

    We describe here for the first time the site of retention within the nucleus of pre-mRNA processing mutants unable to be exported to the cytoplasm. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to detect transcripts from human beta-globin genes that are either normal or defective in splicing or 3' end formation. Nuclear transcripts of both wild-type and mutant RNAs are detected only as intranuclear foci that colocalize with the template gene locus. The kinetics of transcript release from the site of transcription was assessed by treatment of cells with the transcriptional inhibitors actinomycin D, alpha-amanitin and DRB. These drugs induce the rapid disappearance of nuclear foci corresponding to wild-type human beta-globin RNA. In contrast, pre-mRNA mutants defective in either splicing or 3' end formation and which fail to be transported to the cytoplasm, are retained at the site of transcription. Therefore, 3' end processing and splicing appear to be rate limiting for release of mRNA from the site of transcription. PMID:10329631

  1. Detection probability of an in-stream passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag detection system for juvenile salmonids in the Klamath River, northern California, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Hayes, Brian; Wright, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    A series of in-stream passive integrated transponder (PIT) detection antennas installed across the Klamath River in August 2010 were tested using tagged fish in the summer of 2011. Six pass-by antennas were constructed and anchored to the bottom of the Klamath River at a site between the Shasta and Scott Rivers. Two of the six antennas malfunctioned during the spring of 2011 and two pass-through antennas were installed near the opposite shoreline prior to system testing. The detection probability of the PIT tag detection system was evaluated using yearling coho salmon implanted with a PIT tag and a radio transmitter and then released into the Klamath River slightly downstream of Iron Gate Dam. Cormack-Jolly-Seber capture-recapture methods were used to estimate the detection probability of the PIT tag detection system based on detections of PIT tags there and detections of radio transmitters at radio-telemetry detection systems downstream. One of the 43 PIT- and radio-tagged fish released was detected by the PIT tag detection system and 23 were detected by the radio-telemetry detection systems. The estimated detection probability of the PIT tag detection system was 0.043 (standard error 0.042). Eight PIT-tagged fish from other studies also were detected. Detections at the PIT tag detection system were at the two pass-through antennas and the pass-by antenna adjacent to them. Above average river discharge likely was a factor in the low detection probability of the PIT tag detection system. High discharges dislodged two power cables leaving 12 meters of the river width unsampled for PIT detections and resulted in water depths greater than the read distance of the antennas, which allowed fish to pass over much of the system with little chance of being detected. Improvements in detection probability may be expected under river discharge conditions where water depth over the antennas is within maximum read distance of the antennas. Improvements also may be expected if

  2. Pitting of 3003 aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.

    1996-12-31

    The Advanced Photon Source is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source. The storage ring vacuum chamber is fabricated from 6061 extruded Al. Water connections to the vacuum chambers that were fabricated from 3003 Al had developed water leaks, which were subsequently remedied after considerable investigations. Materials subjected to the pitting analysis in this study are 3003, 6061, and 6063 Al.

  3. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  4. Open-pit equipment notebook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Beds of consolidated material need to be drilled and blasted before successful excavation. In open-pit mining it is common to move fragmented material across to spoil piles by dragline, shovel, or bucketwheel excavator. One method recently introduced uses explosives to throw much of the overburden across the pit, thus reducing the amount of material needing rehandling. The increased cost of explosives must be balanced with the reduced cost of power needed by the prime excavator. The drill hole pattern and the use of high energy explosives require careful design. Making the choice between hydraulic excavators with a backhoe or front shovel, wheel loaders, and rope-operated shovels continues to be an interesting area of debate. While the rope-operated electric shovel is best for large output, smaller shovels are being replaced by hydraulic excavators for numerous reasons. One of the advantages of hydraulic excavators is that they weigh around half that of rope-operated shovels with the same size bucket. Another advantage is their mobility. They can move at a speed roughly twice that of a rope-operated shovel. Hydraulic excavators can successfully attack a solid face that needs blasting before being loaded by a wheel loader or rope-operated shovel. Neither the rope-operated shovel nor the wheel loader has the wrist-action of the hydraulic excavator. The backhoe's ability to dig below the level on which it is situated and to load trucks that are on the pit floor is important. Recently, many equipment manufacturers have introduced microprocessor-controlled systems for higher power and simpler operation. The choice between wheel loaders and hydraulic excavators should be based on site conditions.

  5. Detecting Cavitation Pitting Without Disassembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.

    1986-01-01

    Technique for detecting cavitation pitting in pumps, turbines, and other machinery uses low-level nuclear irradiation. Isotopes concentrated below surface emit gamma radiation, a portion of which is attenuated by overlying material. Where there are cavitation pits, output of gamma-ray detector fluctuates as detector is scanned near pits. Important to detect cavitation pits because nozzle, turbine blade, or other pump component weakened by cavitation could fail catastrophically and cause machine to explode.

  6. Socio-demographic Differences in Toxic Release Inventory Siting and Emissions in Metro Atlanta

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ryan; Ramsey-White, Kim; Fuller, Christina H.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has found that low socioeconomic status (SES) populations and minorities in some areas reside in communities with disproportionate exposure to hazardous chemicals. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relevance of socio-demographic characteristics on the presence of Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) facilities, air releases, and prevalence and resolution of air quality complaints in the 20-county Atlanta Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). We found that there were 4.7% more minority residents in census tracts where TRI facilities were located. The odds ratio (OR) for the presence of a TRI facility was 0.89 (p < 0.01) for each 1% increase of females with a college degree and 2.4 (p < 0.01) for households with an income of $22,000–$55,000. The estimated reduction in the amount of chemicals emitted per release associated with population of females with a college degree was 18.53 pounds (p < 0.01). Complaints took longer to resolve in census tracts with higher Hispanic populations (OR = 1.031, 95% CI: 1.010–1.054). Overall, results indicate that SES and race/ethnicity are related to TRI facility siting, releases, and complaints in the Atlanta area. These findings have not been documented previously and suggest that lower SES and non-White communities may be disproportionately exposed. PMID:27455302

  7. Socio-demographic Differences in Toxic Release Inventory Siting and Emissions in Metro Atlanta.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ryan; Ramsey-White, Kim; Fuller, Christina H

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has found that low socioeconomic status (SES) populations and minorities in some areas reside in communities with disproportionate exposure to hazardous chemicals. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relevance of socio-demographic characteristics on the presence of Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) facilities, air releases, and prevalence and resolution of air quality complaints in the 20-county Atlanta Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). We found that there were 4.7% more minority residents in census tracts where TRI facilities were located. The odds ratio (OR) for the presence of a TRI facility was 0.89 (p < 0.01) for each 1% increase of females with a college degree and 2.4 (p < 0.01) for households with an income of $22,000-$55,000. The estimated reduction in the amount of chemicals emitted per release associated with population of females with a college degree was 18.53 pounds (p < 0.01). Complaints took longer to resolve in census tracts with higher Hispanic populations (OR = 1.031, 95% CI: 1.010-1.054). Overall, results indicate that SES and race/ethnicity are related to TRI facility siting, releases, and complaints in the Atlanta area. These findings have not been documented previously and suggest that lower SES and non-White communities may be disproportionately exposed. PMID:27455302

  8. Socio-demographic Differences in Toxic Release Inventory Siting and Emissions in Metro Atlanta.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ryan; Ramsey-White, Kim; Fuller, Christina H

    2016-07-23

    Prior research has found that low socioeconomic status (SES) populations and minorities in some areas reside in communities with disproportionate exposure to hazardous chemicals. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relevance of socio-demographic characteristics on the presence of Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) facilities, air releases, and prevalence and resolution of air quality complaints in the 20-county Atlanta Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). We found that there were 4.7% more minority residents in census tracts where TRI facilities were located. The odds ratio (OR) for the presence of a TRI facility was 0.89 (p < 0.01) for each 1% increase of females with a college degree and 2.4 (p < 0.01) for households with an income of $22,000-$55,000. The estimated reduction in the amount of chemicals emitted per release associated with population of females with a college degree was 18.53 pounds (p < 0.01). Complaints took longer to resolve in census tracts with higher Hispanic populations (OR = 1.031, 95% CI: 1.010-1.054). Overall, results indicate that SES and race/ethnicity are related to TRI facility siting, releases, and complaints in the Atlanta area. These findings have not been documented previously and suggest that lower SES and non-White communities may be disproportionately exposed.

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-07-31

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the 92-Acre Area, the southeast quadrant of the Radioactive Waste Management Site, located in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 92-Acre Area includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 92-Acre Area, which includes CAU 111. The result of the DQO process was that the 92-Acre Area is sufficiently characterized to provide the input data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) without the collection of additional data. The DQOs are included as Appendix A of this document. This CADD/CAP identifies and provides the rationale for the recommended CAA for the 92-Acre Area, provides the plan for implementing the CAA, and details the post-closure plan. When approved, this CADD/CAP will supersede the existing Pit 3 (P03) Closure Plan, which was developed in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.' This document will also serve as the Closure Plan and the Post-Closure Plan, which are required by 40 CFR 265, for the 92-Acre Area. After closure activities are complete, a request for the modification of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit that governs waste management activities at the NTS will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to incorporate the requirements for post-closure monitoring. Four CAAs, ranging from No Further Action to Clean Closure, were evaluated for the 92-Acre Area. The CAAs were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. Based on the evaluation of the data used to develop the conceptual site model; a review of past, current, and future operations at the site; and the detailed and comparative analysis of the

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-11-22

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the 92-Acre Area, the southeast quadrant of the Radioactive Waste Management Site, located in Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The 92-Acre Area includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 92-Acre Area, which includes CAU 111. The result of the DQO process was that the 92-Acre Area is sufficiently characterized to provide the input data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) without the collection of additional data. The DQOs are included as Appendix A of this document. This CADD/CAP identifies and provides the rationale for the recommended CAA for the 92-Acre Area, provides the plan for implementing the CAA, and details the post-closure plan. When approved, this CADD/CAP will supersede the existing Pit 3 (P03) Closure Plan, which was developed in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.' This document will also serve as the Closure Plan and the Post-Closure Plan, which are required by 40 CFR 265, for the 92-Acre Area. After closure activities are complete, a request for the modification of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit that governs waste management activities at the NNSS will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to incorporate the requirements for post-closure monitoring. Four CAAs, ranging from No Further Action to Clean Closure, were evaluated for the 92-Acre Area. The CAAs were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. Based on the evaluation of the data used to develop the conceptual site model; a review of past, current, and future operations at the site; and the detailed and comparative

  11. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 464: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the site characterization of two historical underground storage tank petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified by Corrective Action Site (CAS) Numbers 02-02-03 and 09-02-01. The sites are located at the Nevada Test Site in Areas 2 and 9 and are concrete bunker complexes (Bunker 2-300, and 9-300). Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons at release site 2-300-1 (CAS 02-02-03). Based on site observations, the low hydrocarbon concentrations detected, and the delineation of the vertical and lateral extent of subsurface hydrocarbons, an ``A through K`` evaluation was completed to support a request for an Administrative Closure of the site.

  12. Predicting the Release of Sulfide Oxidation Products at Mine Waste Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blowes, D. W.; Ptacek, C. J.; Mayer, K. U.; Bain, J. G.; Moncur, M. C.; Jambor, J. L.

    2004-05-01

    Reactive solute transport models provide sophisticated tools for predicting the magnitude and duration of acid generation and metal release in mine waste disposal facilities. Over the past decade, these models have become increasingly advanced. The ability of reactive solute transport models to simulate integrated biogeochemical and hydrological processes now challenges our ability to characterize these systems on the field and laboratory scale. Application of reactive solute transport models relies on the development of an accurate conceptual model and specification of the chemical, physical and hydrological characteristics of the waste materials. Release of acidic water and dissolved metals from mine waste disposal facilities is controlled by a complex combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes. The oxidation of sulfide minerals is ultimately controlled by the availability of oxygen, which is usually transported in its gaseous form. The reaction between oxygen and sulfide minerals is catalyzed by chemolithotrophic bacteria. The oxidation of individual sulfide minerals occurs at differing rates. Sulfide oxidation reactions release acid, sulfate and dissolved metals. The acid released may be neutralized by reaction with carbonate, hydroxide and aluminosilicate minerals. The metals released may be attenuated by precipitation of secondary minerals, by coprecipitation or by adsorption reactions. Thorough characterization of the waste properties which control gas transport and water flow through the waste materials is required. In addition, a thorough knowledge of the initial composition and mineralogy is required to develop representative estimates of the environmental effects of the waste materials. When sufficient information is available, the results of reactive solute transport simulations show close agreement to measurements made at field sites and in laboratory experiments.

  13. Atmospheric dispersion and deposition of iodine-131 released from the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Simonen, C.A.; Burk, K.W.; Stage, S.A.

    1994-06-01

    Approximately 2.6x10{sup 4} TBq (700,000 curies) of iodine-131 were released to the air from reactor fuel processing plants on the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington State from December 1944 through December 1949. The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project developed a suite of codes to estimate the doses that might have resulted from these releases. The Regional Atmospheric Transport Code for Hanford Emission Tracking (RATCHET) computer code is part of this suite. The RATCHET code implements a Lagrangian-trajectory, Gaussian-puff dispersion model that uses hourly meteorological and release rate data to estimate daily time-integrated air concentrations and surface contamination for use in dose estimates. In this model, iodine is treated as a mixture of three species (nominally, inorganic gases, organic gases, and particles). Model deposition parameters are functions of the mixture and meteorological conditions. A resistance model is used to calculate dry deposition velocities. Equilibrium between concentrations in the precipitation and the air near the ground is assumed in calculating wet deposition of gases, and irreversible washout of the particles is assumed. RATCHET explicitly treats the uncertainties in model parameters and meteorological conditions. Uncertainties in iodine-131 release rates and partitioning among the nominal species are treated by varying model input. The results of 100 model runs for December 1944 through December 1949 indicate that monthly average air concentrations and deposition have uncertainties ranging from a factor of two near the center of the time-integrated plume to more than an order of magnitude near the edge. These results indicate that -10% of the iodine-131 released to the atmosphere decayed during transit in the study area, -56% was deposited within the study area, and the remaining 34% was transported out of the study area while still in the air.

  14. Calculates External and Inhalation Doses from Acute Radionuclide Releases on the Hanford Site.

    1984-03-02

    HADOC (Hanford Acute Dose Calculations) calculates external and inhalation doses resulting from postulated accidental radionuclide releases on the Hanford site. It generates doses to an individual at a specified location and to the population in the region near the Hanford site for specified organs. Doses reported include the maximally exposed individual's dose (by organ and exposure mode) and the total population dose (by organ and exposure mode) in the sector having the highest population exposuremore » factor. The first year and fifty-year dose commitments are reported. Optional reports giving the fractional contribution to total dose by radionuclide for each organ and dose commitment period for a maximally exposed individual and the population may be printed.« less

  15. Polar Cap Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows kidney bean-shaped pits, and other pits, formed by erosion in a landscape of frozen carbon dioxide. This images shows one of about a dozen different patterns that are common in various locations across the martian south polar residual cap, an area that has been receiving intense scrutiny by the MGS MOC this year, because it is visible on every orbit and in daylight for most of 2005.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 6.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  16. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 12-B-1, 12-B-3, and 12-COMM-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 12 at B Tunnel and a former Communications/Power Maintenance Shop. Release Site 12-B-1 was not able to be clean-closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. However, hydrocarbon impacted soils were excavated down to bedrock. Release Site 12-B-3 was evaluated to verify that the identified release was not associated with the UST removed from the site. Analytical results support the assumption that wood or possibly a roof sealant used as part of the bunker construction could have been the source of hydrocarbons detected. Release Site 12-COMM-1 was not clean closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. The vertical extent of impacted soils was determined not to extend below a depth of 2.7 m (9 ft) below ground surface (bgs). The lateral extent could not be defined due to the presence of a discontinuous lens of hydrocarbon-impacted soil.

  17. Ariel's Densely Pitted Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This mosaic of the four highest-resolution images of Ariel represents the most detailed Voyager 2 picture of this satellite of Uranus. The images were taken through the clear filter of Voyager's narrow-angle camera on Jan. 24, 1986, at a distance of about 130,000 kilometers (80,000 miles). Ariel is about 1,200 km (750 mi) in diameter; the resolution here is 2.4 km (1.5 mi). Much of Ariel's surface is densely pitted with craters 5 to 10 km (3 to 6 mi) across. These craters are close to the threshold of detection in this picture. Numerous valleys and fault scarps crisscross the highly pitted terrain. Voyager scientists believe the valleys have formed over down-dropped fault blocks (graben); apparently, extensive faulting has occurred as a result of expansion and stretching of Ariel's crust. The largest fault valleys, near the terminator at right, as well as a smooth region near the center of this image, have been partly filled with deposits that are younger and less heavily cratered than the pitted terrain. Narrow, somewhat sinuous scarps and valleys have been formed, in turn, in these young deposits. It is not yet clear whether these sinuous features have been formed by faulting or by the flow of fluids.

    JPL manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  18. Post-Accident Sporadic Releases of Airborne Radionuclides from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Site.

    PubMed

    Steinhauser, Georg; Niisoe, Tamon; Harada, Kouji H; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Schneider, Stephanie; Synal, Hans-Arno; Walther, Clemens; Christl, Marcus; Nanba, Kenji; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Koizumi, Akio

    2015-12-15

    The Fukushima nuclear accident (March 11, 2011) caused the widespread contamination of Japan by direct deposition of airborne radionuclides. Analysis of weekly air filters has revealed sporadic releases of radionuclides long after the Fukushima Daiichi reactors were stabilized. One major discharge was observed in August 2013 in monitoring stations north of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP). During this event, an air monitoring station in this previously scarcely contaminated area suddenly reported (137)Cs activity levels that were 30-fold above the background. Together with atmospheric dispersion and deposition simulation, radionuclide analysis in soil indicated that debris removal operations conducted on the FDNPP site on August 19, 2013 are likely to be responsible for this late release of radionuclides. One soil sample in the center of the simulated plume exhibited a high (90)Sr contamination (78 ± 8 Bq kg(-1)) as well as a high (90)Sr/(137)Cs ratio (0.04); both phenomena have usually been observed only in very close vicinity around the FDNPP. We estimate that through the resuspension of highly contaminated particles in the course of these earthmoving operations, gross (137)Cs activity of ca. 2.8 × 10(11) Bq has been released.

  19. Post-Accident Sporadic Releases of Airborne Radionuclides from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Site.

    PubMed

    Steinhauser, Georg; Niisoe, Tamon; Harada, Kouji H; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Schneider, Stephanie; Synal, Hans-Arno; Walther, Clemens; Christl, Marcus; Nanba, Kenji; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Koizumi, Akio

    2015-12-15

    The Fukushima nuclear accident (March 11, 2011) caused the widespread contamination of Japan by direct deposition of airborne radionuclides. Analysis of weekly air filters has revealed sporadic releases of radionuclides long after the Fukushima Daiichi reactors were stabilized. One major discharge was observed in August 2013 in monitoring stations north of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP). During this event, an air monitoring station in this previously scarcely contaminated area suddenly reported (137)Cs activity levels that were 30-fold above the background. Together with atmospheric dispersion and deposition simulation, radionuclide analysis in soil indicated that debris removal operations conducted on the FDNPP site on August 19, 2013 are likely to be responsible for this late release of radionuclides. One soil sample in the center of the simulated plume exhibited a high (90)Sr contamination (78 ± 8 Bq kg(-1)) as well as a high (90)Sr/(137)Cs ratio (0.04); both phenomena have usually been observed only in very close vicinity around the FDNPP. We estimate that through the resuspension of highly contaminated particles in the course of these earthmoving operations, gross (137)Cs activity of ca. 2.8 × 10(11) Bq has been released. PMID:26448161

  20. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington, Collection of Surface Water, River Sediments, and Island Soils

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2009-09-28

    This report has been prepared in support of the remedial investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River and describes the 2008/2009 data collection efforts. This report documents field activities associated with collection of sediment, river water, and soil in and adjacent to the Columbia River near the Hanford Site and in nearby tributaries.

  1. Effect of annealing temperature on the pitting corrosion resistance of super duplex stainless steel UNS S32750

    SciTech Connect

    Tan Hua; Jiang Yiming; Deng Bo; Sun Tao; Xu Juliang; Li Jin

    2009-09-15

    The pitting corrosion resistance of commercial super duplex stainless steels SAF2507 (UNS S32750) annealed at seven different temperatures ranging from 1030 deg. C to 1200 deg. C for 2 h has been investigated by means of potentiostatic critical pitting temperature. The microstructural evolution and pit morphologies of the specimens were studied through optical/scanning electron microscope. Increasing annealing temperature from 1030 deg. C to 1080 deg. C elevates the critical pitting temperature, whereas continuing to increase the annealing temperature to 1200 deg. C decreases the critical pitting temperature. The specimens annealed at 1080 deg. C for 2 h exhibit the best pitting corrosion resistance with the highest critical pitting temperature. The pit morphologies show that the pit initiation sites transfer from austenite phase to ferrite phase as the annealing temperature increases. The aforementioned results can be explained by the variation of pitting resistance equivalent number of ferrite and austenite phase as the annealing temperature changes.

  2. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Stringfellow acid pits site, Glen Avon, California (second remedial action), June 1987. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-25

    The Stringfellow site is located in Riverside County, California. Approximately 34,000,000 gallons of industrial waste, primarily from metal finishing, electroplating, and DDT production were deposited in onsite evaporation ponds. In 1972, the site was voluntarily closed. The primary contaminants of concern affecting onsite and downgradient ground-water include: organics including TCE, inorganics, and metals. The selected remedial action for the site includes: installation of a ground water barrier system in the lower canyon area and treatment of extracted ground water, if necessary, followed by discharge to a publicly owned treatment works installation of a peripheral channel around the north end of the original site to direct upgradient surface-water runoff; and extension of the existing gunite channels southward to discharge surface water to Pyrite Creek.

  3. A Topographic Analysis of Lunar Pit Craters Using LOLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinski, P. T.; Milam, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Pit craters have been a recent interest in the impact crater community due to their elusive formational mechanism(s) and their variable morphologies on different bodies. Pit craters have been observed on multiple planetary bodies and currently efforts are underway to characterize these crater types. In this work we focused on finding and evaluating pitted craters and their morphologic habits on the lunar surface to better constrain pit crater formation on a relatively dry body (compared to Mars and Ganymede). The study area ranged across the entire lunar surface from -20 to 50 degree latitudes and included both highland and maria terrains. The diameter range of the crater population evaluated was 20 - 60 km. The diameter range was chosen to include complex crater morphology (minimum diameter ~20 km) but to not include larger impacts (>60 km) to prevent misinterpretation of central regions. An overall population of 1490 craters were evaluated, of which 115 craters were characterized as pit craters. The LOLA data set along with NAC+WAC, Clementine visible imagery were used to locate and assess the pit craters in addition to generated digital elevation models of the craters. Our results show that pitted craters have variable morphologies, where the pitted features could be oblique or linear in shape. Summit and floor pit craters were found in both maria and highland terrain. The Moran index and Chi statistical tests were applied and determined that the population is randomly distributed across the study area. Evaluation of the individual pit craters show that they may potentially have one or more formational mechanisms associated. The statistical tests coupled with the variant morphologies may indicate multiple relations to possible formational mechanisms (volcanic, volatile release, or structural deformation).

  4. Special Analysis: Disposal Plan for Pit 38 at Technical Area 54, Area G

    SciTech Connect

    French, Sean B.; Shuman, Rob

    2012-06-26

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Operational waste is generated from a wide variety of research and development activities including nuclear weapons development, energy production, and medical research; environmental restoration (ER), and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) waste is generated as contaminated sites and facilities at LANL undergo cleanup or remediation. The majority of this waste is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and is disposed of at the Technical Area 54 (TA-54), Area G disposal facility. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 (DOE, 2001) requires that radioactive waste be managed in a manner that protects public health and safety, and the environment. To comply with this order, DOE field sites must prepare site-specific radiological performance assessments for LLW disposal facilities that accept waste after September 26, 1988. Furthermore, sites are required to conduct composite analyses that account for the cumulative impacts of all waste that has been (or will be) disposed of at the facilities and other sources of radioactive material that may interact with the facilities. Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis was issued in 2008 (LANL, 2008). These analyses estimate rates of radionuclide release from the waste disposed of at the facility, simulate the movement of radionuclides through the environment, and project potential radiation doses to humans for several on- and off-site exposure scenarios. The assessments are based on existing site and disposal facility data, and on assumptions about future rates and methods of waste disposal. The Area G disposal facility consists of Material Disposal Area (MDA) G and the Zone 4 expansion area. To date, disposal operations have been confined to MDA G and are scheduled to continue in that region until MDA G undergoes final closure at the end of 2013. Given its impending closure, efforts have

  5. Neddylation Promotes Ubiquitylation and Release of Ku from DNA-Damage Sites

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jessica S.; Lukashchuk, Natalia; Sczaniecka-Clift, Matylda; Britton, Sébastien; le Sage, Carlos; Calsou, Patrick; Beli, Petra; Galanty, Yaron; Jackson, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The activities of many DNA-repair proteins are controlled through reversible covalent modification by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like molecules. Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) is the predominant DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway in mammalian cells and is initiated by DSB ends being recognized by the Ku70/Ku80 (Ku) heterodimer. By using MLN4924, an anti-cancer drug in clinical trials that specifically inhibits conjugation of the ubiquitin-like protein, NEDD8, to target proteins, we demonstrate that NEDD8 accumulation at DNA-damage sites is a highly dynamic process. In addition, we show that depleting cells of the NEDD8 E2-conjugating enzyme, UBE2M, yields ionizing radiation hypersensitivity and reduced cell survival following NHEJ. Finally, we demonstrate that neddylation promotes Ku ubiquitylation after DNA damage and release of Ku and Ku-associated proteins from damage sites following repair. These studies provide insights into how the NHEJ core complex dissociates from repair sites and highlight its importance for cell survival following DSB induction. PMID:25921528

  6. Neddylation promotes ubiquitylation and release of Ku from DNA-damage sites.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jessica S; Lukashchuk, Natalia; Sczaniecka-Clift, Matylda; Britton, Sébastien; le Sage, Carlos; Calsou, Patrick; Beli, Petra; Galanty, Yaron; Jackson, Stephen P

    2015-05-01

    The activities of many DNA-repair proteins are controlled through reversible covalent modification by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like molecules. Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) is the predominant DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway in mammalian cells and is initiated by DSB ends being recognized by the Ku70/Ku80 (Ku) heterodimer. By using MLN4924, an anti-cancer drug in clinical trials that specifically inhibits conjugation of the ubiquitin-like protein, NEDD8, to target proteins, we demonstrate that NEDD8 accumulation at DNA-damage sites is a highly dynamic process. In addition, we show that depleting cells of the NEDD8 E2-conjugating enzyme, UBE2M, yields ionizing radiation hypersensitivity and reduced cell survival following NHEJ. Finally, we demonstrate that neddylation promotes Ku ubiquitylation after DNA damage and release of Ku and Ku-associated proteins from damage sites following repair. These studies provide insights into how the NHEJ core complex dissociates from repair sites and highlight its importance for cell survival following DSB induction.

  7. Open-pit explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Dannenberg, J.

    1982-07-01

    This paper explains how mine operators are taking a closer look at the power of explosives and how primary breakage affects other open-pit mining costs. Slurries have overcome most of the disadvantages attributed to them in their early years and may replace Anfo. Effective blasting is the key to an efficient, low-cost mining operation. Reviews are presented on research in crater studies, computer-aided design, the expanding gas theory, and high-speed motion picture cameras that show the importance of shock energy in fracturing the rock interfaces throughout the burden. The paper concludes with MSHA-approved courses in blasting offered throughout the US.

  8. Global methane emissions from pit latrines.

    PubMed

    Reid, Matthew C; Guan, Kaiyu; Wagner, Fabian; Mauzerall, Denise L

    2014-01-01

    Pit latrines are an important form of decentralized wastewater management, providing hygienic and low-cost sanitation for approximately one-quarter of the global population. Latrines are also major sources of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) from the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in pits. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit approach to account for local hydrological control over the anaerobic condition of latrines and use this analysis to derive a set of country-specific emissions factors and to estimate global pit latrine CH4 emissions. Between 2000 and 2015 we project global emissions to fall from 5.2 to 3.8 Tg y(-1), or from ∼ 2% to ∼ 1% of global anthropogenic CH4 emissions, due largely to urbanization in China. Two and a half billion people still lack improved sanitation services, however, and progress toward universal access to improved sanitation will likely drive future growth in pit latrine emissions. We discuss modeling results in the context of sustainable water, sanitation, and hygiene development and consider appropriate technologies to ensure hygienic sanitation while limiting CH4 emissions. We show that low-CH4 on-site alternatives like composting toilets may be price competitive with other CH4 mitigation measures in organic waste sectors, with marginal abatement costs ranging from 57 to 944 $/ton carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) in Africa and 46 to 97 $/ton CO2e in Asia.

  9. Method for estimating ingestion doses to the public near the Savannah River site following an accidental atmospheric release.

    PubMed

    Simpkins, A A

    2005-02-01

    At the Savannah River Site, emergency response computer models are used to estimate dose following releases of radioactive materials to the environment. Downwind air and ground concentrations and their associated doses from inhalation and ground shine pathways are estimated. The emergency response model (PUFF-PLUME) uses real-time data to track either instantaneous (puff) or continuous (plume) releases. A site-specific ingestion dose model was developed for use with PUFF-PLUME that includes the following ingestion dose pathways pertinent to the surrounding Savannah River Site area: milk, beef, water, and fish. The model is simplistic and can be used with existing code output.

  10. Site Safety and Health Plan (Phase 3) for the treatability study for in situ vitrification at Seepage Pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.; Naney, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    This plan is to be implemented for Phase III ISV operations and post operations sampling. Two previous project phases involving site characterization have been completed and required their own site specific health and safety plans. Project activities will take place at Seepage Pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Purpose of this document is to establish standard health and safety procedures for ORNL project personnel and contractor employees in performance of this work. Site activities shall be performed in accordance with Energy Systems safety and health policies and procedures, DOE orders, Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standards 29 CFR Part 1910 and 1926; applicable United States Environmental Protection Agency requirements; and consensus standards. Where the word ``shall`` is used, the provisions of this plan are mandatory. Specific requirements of regulations and orders have been incorporated into this plan in accordance with applicability. Included from 29 CFR are 1910.120 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response; 1910.146, Permit Required - Confined Space; 1910.1200, Hazard Communication; DOE Orders requirements of 5480.4, Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Standards; 5480.11, Radiation Protection; and N5480.6, Radiological Control Manual. In addition, guidance and policy will be followed as described in the Environmental Restoration Program Health and Safety Plan. The levels of personal protection and the procedures specified in this plan are based on the best information available from reference documents and site characterization data. Therefore, these recommendations represent the minimum health and safety requirements to be observed by all personnel engaged in this project.

  11. The release of vasopressin by nicotine: further studies on its site of action.

    PubMed Central

    Castro de Souza, E; Rocha E Silva, M

    1977-01-01

    1. In cats anaesthetized with chloralose the release of vasopressin in response to nicotine injections was examined. This release was measured by assaying the hormone in samples of venous blood. 2. Nicotine injections were given by three different routes, namely intravertebral, intracarotid and intravenous. The first two represent close arterial routes to the medulla and to the hypothalamus, respectively, the effects of which could be compared to those following intravenous, i.e. systemic, administration. 3. Nicotine was found to increase vasopressin secretion by all three routes of administration. The potency of intracarotid injections was found to be no greater than that of intravenous injections, in sharp contrast to intravertebral injections, which were 4-5 times more potent. 4. In terms of vascular effects, intracarotid and intravenous injections of nicotine were found to increase blood pressure, whereas intravertebral injections of low doses of nicotine were always followed by a fall in blood pressure. Higher doses of intravertebral nicotine produce mixed results, pressor or depressor, in different animals. 5. The vasodepressor effect of intravertebral nicotine was part of a cardiovascular response which included a lowering of total peripheral resistance and of stroke work, whereas the cardiac output, the heart rate and the stroke volume remained essentially unchanged. 6. These results clearly indicate that a medullary area, which has been previously described, is the most sensitive site for the vasopressin releasing action of nicotine and that systemic administration of the drug induces vasopressin secretion by virtue of its action on the medulla, rather than directly on the supraoptic nucleus. 7. The results also indicate that the vasodepressor effect which follows the application of nicotine on the medulla is chiefly due to vasodilator effects on systemic blood vessels, with practically no action on cardiac function. The significance of these results is

  12. Release of Radioactive Scrap Metal/Scrap Metal (RSM/SM) at Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company, Inc. (REECo) is the prime contractor to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in providing service and support for NTS operations. Mercury Base Camp is the main control point for the many forward areas at NTS, which covers 1,350 square miles. The forward areas are where above-ground and underground nuclear tests have been performed over the last 41 years. No metal (or other material) is returned to Mercury without first being tested for radioactivity. No radioactive metals are allowed to reenter Mercury from the forward areas, other than testing equipment. RAMATROL is the monitor check point. They check material in various ways, including swipe tests, and have a large assortment of equipment for testing. Scrap metal is also checked to address Resource Conservation and Recovery Act concerns. After addressing these issues, the scrap metals are categorized. Federal Property Management Regulations (FPMR) are followed by REECo. The nonradioactive scrap material is sold through the GSA on a scheduled basis. Radioactive scrap metal are presently held in forward areas where they were used. REECo has gained approval of their Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements, NVO-325 application, which will allow disposal on site, when RSM is declared a waste. The guideline that REECo uses for release limits is DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Works, Attachment 2, Surface Radioactivity Guides, of this order, give release limits for radioactive materials. However, the removal of radioactive materials from NTS require approval by DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) on a case-by-case basis. Requirements to consider before removal are found in DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management.

  13. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit No. 456: Underground storage tank release site 23-111-1, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The underground storage tank (UST) release site 23-111-1 is located in Mercury, Nevada. The site is in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, (NTS) located on the north side of Building 111. The tank associated with the release was closed in place using cement grout on September 6, 1990. The tank was not closed by removal due to numerous active underground utilities, a high-voltage transformer pad, and overhead power lines. Soil samples collected below the tank bottom at the time of tank closure activities exceeded the Nevada Administrative Code Action Level of 100 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) for petroleum hydrocarbons. Maximum concentrations detected were 119 mg/kg. Two passive venting wells were subsequently installed at the tank ends to monitor the progress of biodegradation at the site. Quarterly air sampling from the wells was completed for approximately one year, but was discontinued since data indicated that considerable biodegradation was not occurring at the site.

  14. Leukaemia in the vicinity of two tritium-releasing nuclear facilities: a comparison of the Kruemmel Site, Germany, and the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Grosche, B; Lackland, D; Mohr, L; Dunbar, J; Nicholas, J; Burkart, W; Hoel, D

    1999-09-01

    In 1991, an increased rate of childhood leukaemia was reported from the small northern German community of Elbmarsch, which is located on the banks of the River Elbe opposite the Kruemmel nuclear power plant. Owing to the fact that the increase occurred six years after the start-up of the plant, radioactive discharges were suspected as being implicated in the development of the cases. Previous investigations have failed to identify any exposure which might be associated with the cluster. Nonetheless, concern regarding the increased tritium burden in the environment remains. To further assess the impact of tritium releases to the environment upon population cancer rates, the releases and leukaemia rates at the Savannah River site, USA, were compared with the Kruemmel site. Based on the data from 1991 to 1995, the incidence of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of the Savannah River site was non-significantly less than expected compared with the significantly higher than expected rates close to the German plant. In contrast, tritium releases from the Savannah River site exceed those from the Kruemmel site by several orders of magnitude. The results of this observational study suggest that factors other than environmental tritium releases are associated with the increased number of leukaemia cases near the Kruemmel site.

  15. The effect of airflow on site-specific electrical conductance measurements used in the diagnosis of pit and fissure caries in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, D N; Kidd, E A; Wilson, R F

    1997-01-01

    There has been renewed interest in the electronic diagnosis of occlusal caries using measurement of conductance or impedance. One of two previously manufactured electronic caries detectors (the Vanguard electronic caries detector, Massachusetts Manufacturing Corporation, Cambridge, Mass., USA) had a probe tip with an integral air supply. Airflow is essential for removing superficial moisture and preventing surface conduction to the gingival margin. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of airflow on electronic diagnosis of occlusal caries using a prototype electronic caries meter (ECM II. LODE, Groningen, The Netherlands) fitted with a flow meter. Stable conductance readings were taken at 76 discrete sites on 32 extracted teeth with no visible signs of cavitation, at 3 airflows: 5, 7.5 and 10 litres/min. The stable conductance scale was a continuous scale from -0.45 to 13.25 and set by the manufacturer. Histological validation was carried out on macroradiographs of sections cut to include each sample site. The histological picture was compared with the stable conductance readings taken at various airflows. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using different conductance readings to differentiate sound and carious sites, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves constructed. Of the sites, 32% had enamel and dentine caries and 33% had enamel caries. The ROC curves showed airflow to be highly relevant. An airflow of 5 litres/min was shown to be inadequate and led to large numbers of false-positive diagnoses. A minimum airflow of 7.5 litres/min was required to achieve optimum sensitivity (92%) and specificity (87%) for dentine caries diagnosis. PMID:9118182

  16. 13. DETAIL WEST OF TURBINE PIT SHOWING PIT DRAINED AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL WEST OF TURBINE PIT SHOWING PIT DRAINED AND TURBINE EXPOSED. ORIGINAL WATER LEVEL SHOWN BY LINE JUST ABOVE ARCHED OPENING TO LEFT. WATER LINE AFTER 1982 INSTALLATION OF FLASH BOARDS REVEALED BY DARK STAIN. - Middle Creek Hydroelectric Dam, On Middle Creek, West of U.S. Route 15, 3 miles South of Selinsgrove, Selinsgrove, Snyder County, PA

  17. Linking snow depth to avalanche release area size: measurements from the Vallée de la Sionne field site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veitinger, Jochen; Sovilla, Betty

    2016-08-01

    One of the major challenges in avalanche hazard assessment is the correct estimation of avalanche release area size, which is of crucial importance to evaluate the potential danger that avalanches pose to roads, railways or infrastructure. Terrain analysis plays an important role in assessing the potential size of avalanche releases areas and is commonly based on digital terrain models (DTMs) of a snow-free summer terrain. However, a snow-covered winter terrain can significantly differ from its underlying, snow-free terrain. This may lead to different, and/or potentially larger release areas. To investigate this hypothesis, the relation between avalanche release area size, snow depth and surface roughness was investigated using avalanche observations of artificially triggered slab avalanches over a period of 15 years in a high-alpine field site. High-resolution, continuous snow depth measurements at times of avalanche release showed a decrease of mean surface roughness with increasing release area size, both for the bed surface and the snow surface before avalanche release. Further, surface roughness patterns in snow-covered winter terrain appeared to be well suited to demarcate release areas, suggesting an increase of potential release area size with greater snow depth. In this context, snow depth around terrain features that serve as potential delineation borders, such as ridges or trenches, appeared to be particularly relevant for release area size. Furthermore, snow depth measured at a nearby weather station was, to a considerable extent, related to potential release area size, as it was often representative of snow depth around those critical features where snow can accumulate over a long period before becoming susceptible to avalanche release. Snow depth - due to its link to surface roughness - could therefore serve as a highly useful variable with regard to potential release area definition for varying snow cover scenarios, as, for example, the avalanche

  18. Ultimate open pit stochastic optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotte, Denis; Caron, Josiane

    2013-02-01

    Classical open pit optimization (maximum closure problem) is made on block estimates, without directly considering the block grades uncertainty. We propose an alternative approach of stochastic optimization. The stochastic optimization is taken as the optimal pit computed on the block expected profits, rather than expected grades, computed from a series of conditional simulations. The stochastic optimization generates, by construction, larger ore and waste tonnages than the classical optimization. Contrary to the classical approach, the stochastic optimization is conditionally unbiased for the realized profit given the predicted profit. A series of simulated deposits with different variograms are used to compare the stochastic approach, the classical approach and the simulated approach that maximizes expected profit among simulated designs. Profits obtained with the stochastic optimization are generally larger than the classical or simulated pit. The main factor controlling the relative gain of stochastic optimization compared to classical approach and simulated pit is shown to be the information level as measured by the boreholes spacing/range ratio. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the classical approach increase with the treatment costs but decrease with mining costs. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the simulated pit approach increase both with the treatment and mining costs. At early stages of an open pit project, when uncertainty is large, the stochastic optimization approach appears preferable to the classical approach or the simulated pit approach for fair comparison of the values of alternative projects and for the initial design and planning of the open pit.

  19. Flyover Modeling of Planetary Pits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakumar, A.; Bhasin, N.; Daids, O.; Shanor, R.; Snyder, K.; Whittaker, W.

    2015-10-01

    This research uses vision, inertial, and LIDAR sensors to build a high resolution model of a planetary pit as a landing vehicle flies overhead. Pits allow access to subterranean caves, but cannot be fully observed from orbit due to their geometry.

  20. PIT Tagging Anurans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCreary, Brome

    2008-01-01

    The following video demonstrates a procedure to insert a passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag under the skin of an anuran (frog or toad) for research and monitoring purposes. Typically, a 12.5 mm tag (0.5 in.) is used to uniquely identify individual anurans as smal as 40 mm (1.6 in.) in length from snout to vent. Smaller tags are also available and allow smaller anurans to be tagged. The procedure does not differ for other sizes of tages or other sizes of anurans. Anyone using this procedure should ensure that the tag is small enough to fit easily behind the sacral hump of the anuran, as shown in this video.

  1. Deposition of fluoride on enamel surfaces released from varnishes is limited to vicinity of fluoridation site

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, A. M.; Yakin, M.; Becker, K.; Buchalla, W.; Attin, R.; Wiegand, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the in-situ study was to determine fluoride uptake in non-fluoridated, demineralized enamel after application of fluoride varnishes on enamel samples located at various distances from the non-fluoridated samples. All enamel samples used were demineralized with acidic hydroxyethylcellulose before the experiment. Intra-oral appliances were worn by ten volunteers in three series: (1, Mirafluorid, 0.15% F; 2, Duraphat, 2.3% F and 3, unfluoridated controls) of 6 days each. Each two enamel samples were prepared from 30 bovine incisors. One sample was used for the determination of baseline fluoride content (BFC); the other was treated according to the respective series and fixed in the intra-oral appliance for 6 days. Additionally, from 120 incisors, each four enamel samples were prepared (one for BFC). Three samples (a–c) were placed into each appliance at different sites: (a) directly neighboured to the fluoridated specimen (=next), (b) at 1-cm distance (=1 cm) and (c) in the opposite buccal aspect of the appliance (=opposite). At these sites, new unfluoridated samples were placed at days 1, 3 and 5, which were left in place for 1 day. The volunteers brushed their teeth and the samples with fluoridated toothpaste twice per day. Both the KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride were determined in all samples to determine fluoride uptake and were statistically analyzed. One day, after fluoridation with Duraphat, KOH-soluble fluoride uptake in specimen a (=next) was significantly higher compared to the corresponding samples of both the control and Mirafluorid series, which in turn were not significantly different from each other. At all other sites and time points, fluoride uptake in the enamel samples were not different from controls for both fluoride varnishes. Within the first day after application, intra-oral-fluoride release from the tested fluoride varnish Duraphat leads to KOH-soluble fluoride uptake only in enamel samples located in close

  2. Treatment of a mud pit by bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Avdalović, Jelena; Đurić, Aleksandra; Miletić, Srdjan; Ilić, Mila; Milić, Jelena; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2016-08-01

    The mud generated from oil and natural gas drilling, presents a considerable ecological problem. There are still insufficient remedies for the removal and minimization of these very stable emulsions. Existing technologies that are in use, more or less successfully, treat about 20% of generated waste drilling mud, while the rest is temporarily deposited in so-called mud pits. This study investigated in situ bioremediation of a mud pit. The bioremediation technology used in this case was based on the use of naturally occurring microorganisms, isolated from the contaminated site, which were capable of using the contaminating substances as nutrients. The bioremediation was stimulated through repeated inoculation with a zymogenous microbial consortium, along with mixing, watering and biostimulation. Application of these bioremediation techniques reduced the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons from 32.2 to 1.5 g kg(-1) (95% degradation) during six months of treatment. PMID:27354013

  3. Location of Release Sites and Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels Relative to Calcium Channels at the Photoreceptor Ribbon Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, A. J.; Rabl, K.; Riccardi, G. E.; Brecha, N. C.; Stella, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    Vesicle release from photoreceptor ribbon synapses is regulated by L-type Ca2+ channels, which are in turn regulated by Cl− moving through calcium-activated chloride [Cl(Ca)] channels. We assessed the proximity of Ca2+ channels to release sites and Cl(Ca) channels in synaptic terminals of salamander photoreceptors by comparing fast (BAPTA) and slow (EGTA) intracellular Ca2+ buffers. BAPTA did not fully block synaptic release, indicating some release sites are <100 nm from Ca2+ channels. Comparing Cl(Ca) currents with predicted Ca2+ diffusion profiles suggested that Cl(Ca) and Ca2+ channels average a few hundred nanometers apart, but the inability of BAPTA to block Cl(Ca) currents completely suggested some channels are much closer together. Diffuse immunolabeling of terminals with an antibody to the putative Cl(Ca) channel TMEM16A supports the idea that Cl(Ca) channels are dispersed throughout the presynaptic terminal, in contrast with clustering of Ca2+ channels near ribbons. Cl(Ca) currents evoked by intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) elevation through flash photolysis of DM-nitrophen exhibited EC50 values of 556 and 377 nM with Hill slopes of 1.8 and 2.4 in rods and cones, respectively. These relationships were used to estimate average submembrane [Ca2+]i in photoreceptor terminals. Consistent with control of exocytosis by [Ca2+] nanodomains near Ca2+ channels, average submembrane [Ca2+]i remained below the vesicle release threshold (∼400 nM) over much of the physiological voltage range for cones. Positioning Ca2+ channels near release sites may improve fidelity in converting voltage changes to synaptic release. A diffuse distribution of Cl(Ca) channels may allow Ca2+ influx at one site to influence relatively distant Ca2+ channels. PMID:21084687

  4. Dopamine Release in the Nonhuman Primate Caudate and Putamen Depends upon Site of Stimulation in the Subthalamic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hoon-Ki; Ross, Erika K.; Jo, Hang Joon; Cho, Shinho; Settell, Megan L.; Jeong, Ju Ho; Duffy, Penelope S.; Chang, Su-Youne; Bennet, Kevin E.; Blaha, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for medically refractory Parkinson's disease. Although DBS has recognized clinical utility, its biologic mechanisms are not fully understood, and whether dopamine release is a potential factor in those mechanisms is in dispute. We tested the hypothesis that STN DBS-evoked dopamine release depends on the precise location of the stimulation site in the STN and the site of recording in the caudate and putamen. We conducted DBS with miniature, scaled-to-animal size, multicontact electrodes and used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the best dopamine recording site in the brains of nonhuman primates (rhesus macaques), which are highly representative of human brain anatomy and circuitry. Real-time stimulation-evoked dopamine release was monitored using in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. This study demonstrates that STN DBS-evoked dopamine release can be reduced or increased by redirecting STN stimulation to a slightly different site. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Electrical stimulation of deep structures of the brain, or deep brain stimulation (DBS), is used to modulate pathological brain activity. However, technological limitations and incomplete understanding of the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS prevent personalization of this therapy and may contribute to less-than-optimal outcomes. We have demonstrated that DBS coincides with changes in dopamine neurotransmitter release in the basal ganglia. Here we mapped relationships between DBS and changes in neurochemical activity. Importantly, this study shows that DBS-evoked dopamine release can be reduced or increased by refocusing the DBS on a slightly different stimulation site. PMID:27251623

  5. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 300: Surface Release Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 300 is located in Areas 23, 25, and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 300 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Surface Release Areas and is comprised of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), which are associated with the identified Building (Bldg): {sm_bullet} CAS 23-21-03, Bldg 750 Surface Discharge {sm_bullet} CAS 23-25-02, Bldg 750 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 23-25-03, Bldg 751 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-60-01, Bldg 3113A Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-60-02, Bldg 3901 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-62-01, Bldg 3124 Contaminated Soil {sm_bullet} CAS 26-60-01, Bldg 2105 Outfall and Decon Pad The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 23-21-03, 23-25-02, and 23-25-03 is no further action. As a best management practice, approximately 48 feet of metal piping was removed from CAS 23-25-02 and disposed of as sanitary waste. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 25-60-01, 25-60-02, 25-62-01, and 26-60-01, is clean closure. Closure activities for these CASs included removing and disposing of soil impacted with total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel range organics (TPH-DRO), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and cesium (Cs)-137, concrete impacted with TPH-DRO, and associated piping impacted with TPH-DRO. CAU 300 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 300 Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 300 Corrective Action Decision Document (NNSA/NSO, 2005). This Closure Report documents CAU 300 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 40 cubic yards (yd3) of low-level waste consisting of TPH-DRO-, PCB

  6. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 452: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the site characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 25-3101-1, 25-3102-3, and 25-3152-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 25 at Buildings 3101, 3102, and 3152. The characterization was completed to support administrative closure of the sites. Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of hydrocarbon impact. Clean closure had been previously attempted at each of these sites using backhoe equipment without success due to adjacent structures, buried utilities, or depth restrictions associated with each site. Although the depth and extent of hydrocarbon impact was determined to be too extensive for clean closure, it was verified through drilling that the sites should be closed through an administrative closure. The Nevada Administrative Code ``A Through K`` evaluation completed for each site supports that there is no significant risk to human health or the environment from the impacted soils remaining at each site.

  7. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Budding Sites and Released Virus Suggests a Revised Model for HIV-1 Morphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, L.; Simon, M.; Briggs, J. A. G.; Glass, B.; Riches, J. D.; Johnson, M. C.; Muller, B.; Grunewald, K.; Krausslich, H.-G.

    2008-12-11

    Current models of HIV-1 morphogenesis hold that newly synthesized viral Gag polyproteins traffic to and assemble at the cell membrane into spherical protein shells. The resulting late-budding structure is thought to be released by the cellular ESCRT machinery severing the membrane tether connecting it to the producer cell. Using electron tomography and scanning transmission electron microscopy, we find that virions have a morphology and composition distinct from late-budding sites. Gag is arranged as a continuous but incomplete sphere in the released virion. In contrast, late-budding sites lacking functional ESCRT exhibited a nearly closed Gag sphere. The results lead us to propose that budding is initiated by Gag assembly, but is completed in an ESCRT-dependent manner before the Gag sphere is complete. This suggests that ESCRT functions early in HIV-1 release - akin to its role in vesicle formation - and is not restricted to severing the thin membrane tether.

  8. Light-stimulated cargo release from a core–shell structured nanocomposite for site-specific delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yun; Ling, Li; Li, Xiaofang; Chen, Meng; Su, Likai

    2015-03-15

    This paper reported a core–shell structured site-specific delivery system with a light switch triggered by low energy light (λ=510 nm). Its core was composed of supermagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles for magnetic guiding and targeting. Its outer shell consisted of mesoporous silica molecular sieve MCM-41 which offered highly ordered hexagonal tunnels for cargo capacity. A light switch N1-(4aH-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b′]dipyridin-5(5aH)-ylidene)benzene-1, 4-diamine (CBD) was covalently grafted into these hexagonal tunnels, serving as light stimuli acceptor with loading content of 1.1 μM/g. This composite was fully characterized and confirmed by SEM, TEM, XRD patterns, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption, thermogravimetric analysis, IR, UV–vis absorption and emission spectra. Experimental data suggested that this composite had a core as wide as 150 nm and could be magnetically guided to specific sites. Its hexagonal tunnels were as long as 180 nm. Upon light stimuli of “on” and “off” states, controllable release was observed with short release time of ~900 s (90% capacity). - Graphical abstract: A core–shell structured site-specific delivery system with a light switch triggered by yellow light was constructed. Controllable release was observed with short release time of ~900 s (90% capacity). - Highlights: • A core–shell structured site-specific delivery system was constructed. • It consisted of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core and MCM-41 shell grafted with light switch. • This delivery system was triggered by low energy light. • Controllable release was observed with short release time of ~900 s.

  9. 16. EAST ELEVATION OF FLOAT HOUSE AND FISH WATER RELEASE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. EAST ELEVATION OF FLOAT HOUSE AND FISH WATER RELEASE OUTLET. PART OF ENERGY DISSIPATING BAFFLE PIER SYSTEM IS VISIBLE AT LEFT. - Pit 4 Diversion Dam, Pit River west of State Highway 89, Big Bend, Shasta County, CA

  10. 17. VIEW TO NORTH SHOWING FISH WATER RELEASE OUTLET AS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW TO NORTH SHOWING FISH WATER RELEASE OUTLET AS WELL AS SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST ELEVATIONS OF FLOAT HOUSE. - Pit 4 Diversion Dam, Pit River west of State Highway 89, Big Bend, Shasta County, CA

  11. Constituent Particle Clustering and Pitting Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, D. Gary

    2012-08-01

    Corrosion is a primary degradation mechanism that affects the durability and integrity of structures made of aluminum alloys, and it is a concern for commercial transport and military aircraft. In aluminum alloys, corrosion results from local galvanic coupling between constituent particles and the metal matrix. Due to variability in particle sizes, spatial location, and chemical composition, to name a few critical variables, corrosion is a complex stochastic process. Severe pitting is caused by particle clusters that are located near the material surface, which, in turn, serve as nucleation sites for subsequent corrosion fatigue crack growth. These evolution processes are highly dependent on the spatial statistics of particles. The localized corrosion growth rate is primarily dependent on the galvanic process perpetuated by particle-to-particle interactions and electrochemical potentials. Frequently, severe pits are millimeters in length, and these pits have a dominant impact on the structural prognosis. To accommodate large sizes, a model for three-dimensional (3-D) constituent particle microstructure is proposed. To describe the constituent particle microstructure in three dimensions, the model employs a fusion of classic stereological techniques, spatial point pattern analyses, and qualitative observations. The methodology can be carried out using standard optical microscopy and image analysis techniques.

  12. Local Pheromone Release from Dynamic Polarity Sites Underlies Cell-Cell Pairing during Yeast Mating.

    PubMed

    Merlini, Laura; Khalili, Bita; Bendezú, Felipe O; Hurwitz, Daniel; Vincenzetti, Vincent; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Martin, Sophie G

    2016-04-25

    Cell pairing is central for many processes, including immune defense, neuronal connection, hyphal fusion, and sexual reproduction. How does a cell orient toward a partner, especially when faced with multiple choices? Fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe P and M cells, which respectively express P and M factor pheromones [1, 2], pair during the mating process induced by nitrogen starvation. Engagement of pheromone receptors Map3 and Mam2 [3, 4] with their cognate pheromone ligands leads to activation of the Gα protein Gpa1 to signal sexual differentiation [3, 5, 6]. Prior to cell pairing, the Cdc42 GTPase, a central regulator of cell polarization, forms dynamic zones of activity at the cell periphery at distinct locations over time [7]. Here we show that Cdc42-GTP polarization sites contain the M factor transporter Mam1, the general secretion machinery, which underlies P factor secretion, and Gpa1, suggesting that these are sub-cellular zones of pheromone secretion and signaling. Zone lifetimes scale with pheromone concentration. Computational simulations of pair formation through a fluctuating zone show that the combination of local pheromone release and sensing, short pheromone decay length, and pheromone-dependent zone stabilization leads to efficient pair formation. Consistently, pairing efficiency is reduced in the absence of the P factor protease. Similarly, zone stabilization at reduced pheromone levels, which occurs in the absence of the predicted GTPase-activating protein for Ras, leads to reduction in pairing efficiency. We propose that efficient cell pairing relies on fluctuating local signal emission and perception, which become locked into place through stimulation. PMID:27020743

  13. Gas cylinder disposal pit remediation waste minimization and management

    SciTech Connect

    Alas, C.A.; Solow, A.; Criswell, C.W.; Spengler, D.; Brannon, R.; Schwender, J.M.; Eckman, C.K.; Rusthoven, T.

    1995-02-01

    A remediation of a gas cylinder disposal pit at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico has recently been completed. The cleanup prevented possible spontaneous releases of hazardous gases from corroded cylinders that may have affected nearby active test areas at Sandia`s Technical Area III. Special waste management, safety, and quality plans were developed and strictly implemented for this project. The project was conceived from a waste management perspective, and waste minimization and management were built into the planning and implementation phases. The site layout was planned to accommodate light and heavy equipment, storage of large quantities of suspect soil, and special areas to stage and treat gases and reactive chemicals removed from the pit, as well as radiation protection areas. Excavation was a tightly controlled activity using experienced gas cylinder and reactive chemical specialists. Hazardous operations were conducted at night under lights, to allow nearby daytime operations to function unhindered. The quality assurance plan provided specific control of, and documentation for, critical decisions, as well as the record of daily operations. Both hand and heavy equipment excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques allows sealed glass containers to be exhumed unharmed. In the end, several dozen thermal batteries; 5 pounds (2.3 kg) of lithium metal; 6.6 pounds (3.0 kg) of rubidium metal; several kilograms of unknown chemicals; 140 cubic yards (107 cubic meters) of thorium-contaminated soil; 270 cubic yards (205 cubic meters) of chromium-contaminated soil; and 450 gas cylinders, including 97 intact cylinders containing inert, flammable, toxic, corrosive, or oxidizing gases were removed and effectively managed to minimize waste.

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document/ Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 556: Dry Wells and Surface Release Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2008-09-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 556, Dry Wells and Surface Release Points, located at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 556 is comprised of four corrective action sites (CASs): • 06-20-04, National Cementers Dry Well • 06-99-09, Birdwell Test Hole • 25-60-03, E-MAD Stormwater Discharge and Piping • 25-64-01, Vehicle Washdown and Drainage Pit The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 556 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities began on February 7 and were completed on June 19, 2008, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 556: Dry Wells and Surface Release Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. • Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 556 data were evaluated based on the data quality assessment process, which demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the data for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the COCs for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified COCs at one of the four CASs in CAU 556 that required the completion of a corrective action. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 556 revealed the following: • Corrective Action Sites 06-20-04, 06-99-09, and 25-64-01 do not contain contamination at

  15. HTO and OBT activity concentrations in soil at the historical atmospheric HT release site (Chalk River Laboratories).

    PubMed

    Kim, S B; Bredlaw, M; Korolevych, V Y

    2012-01-01

    Tritium is routinely released by the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) nuclear facilities. Three International HT release experiments have been conducted at the CRL site in the past. The site has not been disturbed since the last historical atmospheric testing in 1994 and presents an opportunity to assess the retention of tritium in soil. This study is devoted to the measurement of HTO and OBT activity concentration profiles in the subsurface 25 cm of soil. In terms of soil HTO, there is no evidence from the past HT release experiments that HTO was retained. The HTO activity concentration in the soil pore water appears similar to concentrations found in background areas in Ontario. In contrast, OBT activity concentrations in soil at the same site were significantly higher than HTO activity concentrations in soil. Elevated OBT appears to reside in the top layer of the soil (0-5 cm). In addition, OBT activity concentrations in the top soil layer did not fluctuate much with season, again, quite in contrast with soil HTO. This result suggests that OBT activity concentrations retained the signature of the historical tritium releases.

  16. The cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites: Whose jurisdiction?

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnett, C.

    1994-12-31

    There exists an overlap between the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Recovery Act ({open_quotes}CERCLA{close_quotes}) and the Atomic Energy Act ({open_quotes}AEA{close_quotes}) regarding the cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste sites. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission ({open_quotes}NRC{close_quotes}) and Agreement States have jurisdiction under the AEA, and the Environmental Protection Agency ({open_quotes}EPA{close_quotes}) has jurisdiction pursuant to CERCLA. This overlapping jurisdiction has the effect of imposing CERCLA liability on parties who have complied with AEA regulations. However, CERCLA was not intended to preempt existing legislation. This is evidenced by the federally permitted release exemption, which explicitly exempts releases from CERCLA liability pursuant to an AEA license. With little guidance as to the applicability of this exemption, it is uncertain whether CERCLA`s liability is broad enough to supersede the Atomic Energy Act. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the overlapping jurisdiction for the cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites with particular emphasis on the cleanup at the Maxey Flats, West Valley and Sheffield sites.

  17. Potential Release Site Sediment Concentrations Correlated to Storm Water Station Runoff through GIS Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    C.T. McLean

    2005-06-01

    This research examined the relationship between sediment sample data taken at Potential Release Sites (PRSs) and storm water samples taken at selected sites in and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The PRSs had been evaluated for erosion potential and a matrix scoring system implemented. It was assumed that there would be a stronger relationship between the high erosion PRSs and the storm water samples. To establish the relationship, the research was broken into two areas. The first area was raster-based modeling, and the second area was data analysis utilizing the raster based modeling results and the sediment and storm water sample results. Two geodatabases were created utilizing raster modeling functions and the Arc Hydro program. The geodatabase created using only Arc Hydro functions contains very fine catchment drainage areas in association with the geometric network and can be used for future contaminant tracking. The second geodatabase contains sub-watersheds for all storm water stations used in the study along with a geometric network. The second area of the study focused on data analysis. The analytical sediment data table was joined to the PRSs spatial data in ArcMap. All PRSs and PRSs with high erosion potential were joined separately to create two datasets for each of 14 analytes. Only the PRSs above the background value were retained. The storm water station spatial data were joined to the table of analyte values that were either greater than the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Multi-Sector General Permit (MSGP) benchmark value, or the Department of Energy (DOE) Drinking Water Defined Contribution Guideline (DWDCG). Only the storm water stations were retained that had sample values greater than the NPDES MSGP benchmark value or the DOE DWDCG. Separate maps were created for each analyte showing the sub-watersheds, the PRSs over background, and the storm water stations greater than the NPDES MSGP benchmark value or the

  18. Controlled-release Hydrogen Peroxide for On-site Treatment of Organic Pollutants in Urban Storm Runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E.; Sun, S.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants are the remaining cause of the environment problems, significantly impairing the hydrologic and biologic function of urban water systems and human health. Managing the NPS loads to urban aquatic systems remains a challenge because of ubiquitous contaminant sources and large pollutants loads in the first flush. Best management practices (BMPs) exist for reducing the NPS pollutants in urban storm waters, but the remedial efficiencies of these passive schemes are unpredictable. This study aims to develop a controlled-release system as part of an in situ chemical oxidation scheme designed for on-site treatment of organic pollutants in urban runoff. Controlled-release hydrogen peroxide (CR-HP) solids were manufactured by dispersing fine sodium percarbonate granules in paraffin wax matrices. Release kinetics and treatment efficiencies of CR-HP for BTEX and MTBE were investigated through a series of column tests. Release data indicated that the CR-HP could continually release hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in flowing water at controlled rates over 276-1756 days, and the release rates could be adjusted by changing the mixing ratios of sodium percarbonate and wax matrices. Additional column tests and model calculations demonstrated that CR-HP/UV systems can provide low-cost, target-specific, and persistent source of oxidants for efficient treatment of organic compounds in urban storm runoff.

  19. Influence of Nest Box Color and Release Sites on Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) Reproductive Success in a Commercial Almond Orchard.

    PubMed

    Artz, Derek R; Allan, Matthew J; Wardell, Gordon I; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2014-12-01

    Intensively managed, commercial orchards offer resources for managed solitary bees within agricultural landscapes and provide a means to study bee dispersal patterns, spatial movement, nest establishment, and reproduction. In 2012, we studied the impact of 1) the color of nest boxes covaried with four nest box density treatments and 2) the number of bee release sites covaried with two nest box density treatments on the reproductive success of Osmia lignaria Say in a California almond orchard pollinated by a mixture of O. lignaria and Apis mellifera L. Nest box color influenced the number of nests, total cells, and cells with male and female brood. More nests and cells were produced in light blue nest boxes than in orange or yellow nest boxes. The covariate nest box density also had a significant effect on brood production. The number of release sites did not affect O. lignaria nesting and reproduction, but the number of cavities in nest boxes influenced reproduction. Overall, the color of nest boxes and their distribution, but not the number of release sites, can greatly affect O. lignaria nest establishment and reproductive success in a commercial almond orchard. The ability to locate nesting sites in a homogenous, large orchard landscape may also be facilitated by the higher frequency of nest boxes with low numbers of cavities, and by the ability to detect certain nest box colors that best contrast with the blooming trees. PMID:26470068

  20. The Influence of Radiation on Pit Solution Chemistry as it Pertains to the Transition from Metastable to Stable Pitting in Steels.

    SciTech Connect

    Galuszka-Muga, Barbara

    2005-05-19

    An investigation was undertaken of the effect of gamma radiation on metastable pitting of mild carbon steels immersed in a solution similar to those existing at high level waste (HLW) deposits in the US. The object was to observe the extent to which a dosage rate of 1 Mrad/hour (10 Kgrey/hour) affected measurable electrochemical parameters such as pitting potential, open circuit potential, rate of metastable pitting and repassivation potential. Methods for reliably measuring electrochemical potentials in a high radiation field were developed. Exploratory analyses were made of the ion product release and electrolyte composition change in a confined volume simulating the conditions of a corrosion initiated pit during gamma irradiation. As expected the results indicated that the metastable pitting rate (as well as the general rate of corrosion) was significantly enhanced by a radiation field.

  1. Evaluation of Fish Movements, Migration Patterns, and Population Abundance with Streamwidth PIT Tag Interrogation Systems, Final Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Zydlewski, Gayle; Winter, Christiane; McClanahan, Dee

    2003-02-01

    Two remote Streamwidth PIT tag Interrogation systems (SPIs) were operated continuously for over one year to test the feasibility of these systems for generating movement, migration, survival and smolt production estimates for salmonids. A total of 1,588 juvenile (< 100 mm FL) naturally produced salmonids (7 coho salmon, 482 cutthroat trout, and 1,099 steelhead) were PIT tagged above the upstream-most SPI (9 sites approximately 1 linear km each) in Fall 2001. Age at tagging for wild caught cutthroat and steelhead was 1 year. SPIs were operating before any PIT tagged fish were released in the creek. Over 390,000 detections were recorded from October 2001 to 31 July 2002. Efficiencies were site dependent, but overall detection efficiency for the creek was 97% with 95% confidence intervals of 91-100%. PIT tag detection efficiency ranged from 55-100% depending on the SPI and varied throughout the year with average efficiencies of 73% and 89%. SPI efficiency of PIT tag detection was not completely dependent on electronics noise levels or environmental conditions. Fish from all tagging locations were detected at the SPIs. Steelhead and cutthroat trout were primarily detected moving in the Spring (April-June) coincident with the anticipated smolt migration. Steelhead were also detected moving past SPIs at lower numbers in the Fall and Winter. Travel time between SPIs (downstream movement) was highly dependent on time of year. Travel time in the Spring was significantly faster (34.4 {+-} 7.0 hours) for all species than during any other time of year (763.1 {+-} 267.0 hours). Steelhead and cutthroat migrating in the Spring were the same age as those that did not migrate in the Spring. Peak of steelhead migration recorded at the two SPIs was 5/11 and 5/12 and the peak in the screw trap was recorded on 5/17. Steelhead smolt production estimates using SPIs (3,802 with 95% confidence intervals of 3,440 - 4,245) was similar to those using more standard screw trap methods

  2. Evaluation of Fish Movements, Migration Patterns and Populations Abundance with Streamwidth PIT Tag Interrogation Systems, Final Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Casey, Sean

    2003-02-01

    Two remote Streamwidth PIT tag Interrogation systems (SPIs) were operated continuously for over one year to test the feasibility of these systems for generating movement, migration, survival and smolt production estimates for salmonids. A total of 1,588 juvenile (< 100 mm FL) naturally produced salmonids (7 coho salmon, 482 cutthroat trout, and 1,099 steelhead) were PIT tagged above the upstream-most SPI (9 sites approximately 1 linear km each) in Fall 2001. Age at tagging for wild caught cutthroat and steelhead was 1 year. SPIs were operating before any PIT tagged fish were released in the creek. Over 390,000 detections were recorded from October 2001 to 31 July 2002. Efficiencies were site dependent, but overall detection efficiency for the creek was 97% with 95% confidence intervals of 91-100%. PIT tag detection efficiency ranged from 55-100% depending on the SPI and varied throughout the year with average efficiencies of 73% and 89%. SPI efficiency of PIT tag detection was not completely dependent on electronics noise levels or environmental conditions. Fish from all tagging locations were detected at the SPIs. Steelhead and cutthroat trout were primarily detected moving in the Spring (April-June) coincident with the anticipated smolt migration. Steelhead were also detected moving past SPIs at lower numbers in the Fall and Winter. Travel time between SPIs (downstream movement) was highly dependent on time of year. Travel time in the Spring was significantly faster (34.4 {+-} 7.0 hours) for all species than during any other time of year (763.1 {+-} 267.0 hours). Steelhead and cutthroat migrating in the Spring were the same age as those that did not migrate in the Spring. Peak of steelhead migration recorded at the two SPIs was 5/11 and 5/12 and the peak in the screw trap was recorded on 5/17. Steelhead smolt production estimates using SPIs (3,802 with 95% confidence intervals of 3,440-4,245) was similar to those using more standard screw trap methods

  3. The Pit and the Safety Pendulum

    SciTech Connect

    Nitschke, Robert Leon; Ramos, Amadeo Gabriel

    2000-11-01

    The hypothesis of this paper is that the safety analysis pendulum has swung considerably in the direction of increasingly complex and lengthy safety evaluations and intense reviews during the past 30 years. The test of this hypothesis will be a review of the safety analysis conducted for various activities associated with the retrieval of transuranic radioactive waste from burial pits at a National Laboratory site over a span of 30 years. The examination will focus on the safety aspects and the safety analysis that was conducted for the projects. At the conclusion of this examination, the paper will identify five reasons why the changes have taken place.

  4. Sites of release of Putative Sex Pheromone and Sexual Behaviour in Female Carcinus maenas(Crustacea: Decapoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamber, S. D.; Naylor, E.

    1997-02-01

    Pre-moult female Carcinus maenasurine was confirmed as a source of putative sex pheromone. The sexual and temporal specificity of bioactivity in pre-moult female urine was demonstrated when urine samples taken from inter-moult and pre-moult male crabs, and inter-moult females, failed to generate a sexual response from receptive males. Detection sensitivity of male crabs to pre-moult female urine was established at a dilution factor of 1 μl of urine in 10 ml of seawater. Experimental blockage of the site of urine release (the antennal gland opercula) failed to diminish the chemical attractiveness of pre-moult female crabs to test males, implicating at least one further site of putative pheromone release. Observations of female sexual behaviour demonstrated an active role by pre-moult and post-moult female crabs when introduced to male crabs whose locomotor movement had been temporarily restricted.

  5. Accidental Release of Chlorine from a Storage Facility and an On-Site Emergency Mock Drill: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Soman, Ambalathumpara Raman; Sundararaj, Gopalswamy

    2015-01-01

    In the current industrial scenario there is a serious need for formulating strategies to handle hazardous substances in the safest way. Manufacture, storage, and use of hazardous substances pose a serious risk to industry, people, and the environment. Accidental release of toxic chemicals can lead to emergencies. An emergency response plan (ERP) is inevitable to minimize the adverse effects of such releases. The on-site emergency plan is an integral component of any process safety and risk management system. This paper deals with an on-site emergency response plan for a chlorine manufacturing industry. It was developed on the basis of a previous study on chlorine release and a full scale mock drill has been conducted for testing the plan. Results indicated that properly trained personnel can effectively handle each level of incidents occurring in the process plant. As an extensive guideline to the district level government authorities for off-site emergency planning, risk zone has also been estimated with reference to a chlorine exposure threshold of 3 ppm.

  6. Maintenance of high-frequency transmission at purkinje to cerebellar nuclear synapses by spillover from boutons with multiple release sites.

    PubMed

    Telgkamp, Petra; Padgett, Daniel E; Ledoux, Veronica A; Woolley, Catherine S; Raman, Indira M

    2004-01-01

    Cerebellar Purkinje neurons maintain high firing rates but their synaptic terminals depress only moderately, raising the question of how vesicle depletion is minimized. To identify mechanisms that limit synaptic depression, we evoked 100 Hz trains of GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in cerebellar nuclear neurons by stimulating Purkinje axons in mouse brain slices. The paired-pulse ratio (IPSC(2)/IPSC(1)) of the total IPSC was approximately 1 and the steady-state ratio (IPSC(20)/IPSC(1)) was approximately 0.5, suggesting a high response probability of postsynaptic receptors, without an unusually high release probability. Three-dimensional electron microscopic reconstructions of Purkinje boutons revealed multiple active zones without intervening transporters, suggestive of "spillover"-mediated transmission. Simulations of boutons with 10-16 release sites, in which transmitter from any site can reach all receptors opposite the bouton, replicated multiple-pulse depression during normal, high, and low presynaptic Ca influx. These results suggest that release from multiple-site boutons limits depletion-based depression, permitting prolonged, high-frequency inhibition at corticonuclear synapses. PMID:14715139

  7. Accidental Release of Chlorine from a Storage Facility and an On-Site Emergency Mock Drill: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Soman, Ambalathumpara Raman; Sundararaj, Gopalswamy

    2015-01-01

    In the current industrial scenario there is a serious need for formulating strategies to handle hazardous substances in the safest way. Manufacture, storage, and use of hazardous substances pose a serious risk to industry, people, and the environment. Accidental release of toxic chemicals can lead to emergencies. An emergency response plan (ERP) is inevitable to minimize the adverse effects of such releases. The on-site emergency plan is an integral component of any process safety and risk management system. This paper deals with an on-site emergency response plan for a chlorine manufacturing industry. It was developed on the basis of a previous study on chlorine release and a full scale mock drill has been conducted for testing the plan. Results indicated that properly trained personnel can effectively handle each level of incidents occurring in the process plant. As an extensive guideline to the district level government authorities for off-site emergency planning, risk zone has also been estimated with reference to a chlorine exposure threshold of 3 ppm. PMID:26171416

  8. Diagnosing physical conditions near the flare energy-release sites from observations of solar microwave type III bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bao-Lin; Karlický, Marian; Mészárosová, Hana; Huang, Guang-Li

    2016-05-01

    In the physics of solar flares, it is crucial to diagnose the physical conditions near the flare energy-release sites. However, so far it is unclear how to diagnose these physical conditions. A solar microwave type III burst is believed to be a sensitive signature of primary energy release and electron accelerations in solar flares. This work takes into account the effect of the magnetic field on the plasma density and develops a set of formulas which can be used to estimate the plasma density, temperature, magnetic field near the magnetic reconnection site and particle acceleration region, and the velocity and energy of electron beams. We apply these formulas to three groups of microwave type III pairs in an X-class flare, and obtained some reasonable and interesting results. This method can be applied to other microwave type III bursts to diagnose the physical conditions of source regions, and provide some basic information to understand the intrinsic nature and fundamental processes occurring near the flare energy-release sites.

  9. Accidental Release of Chlorine from a Storage Facility and an On-Site Emergency Mock Drill: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Soman, Ambalathumpara Raman; Sundararaj, Gopalswamy

    2015-01-01

    In the current industrial scenario there is a serious need for formulating strategies to handle hazardous substances in the safest way. Manufacture, storage, and use of hazardous substances pose a serious risk to industry, people, and the environment. Accidental release of toxic chemicals can lead to emergencies. An emergency response plan (ERP) is inevitable to minimize the adverse effects of such releases. The on-site emergency plan is an integral component of any process safety and risk management system. This paper deals with an on-site emergency response plan for a chlorine manufacturing industry. It was developed on the basis of a previous study on chlorine release and a full scale mock drill has been conducted for testing the plan. Results indicated that properly trained personnel can effectively handle each level of incidents occurring in the process plant. As an extensive guideline to the district level government authorities for off-site emergency planning, risk zone has also been estimated with reference to a chlorine exposure threshold of 3 ppm. PMID:26171416

  10. Data Summary Report for teh Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Hulstrom, L.

    2011-02-07

    This data summary report summarizes the investigation results to evaluate the nature and distribution of Hanford Site-related contaminants present in the Columbia River. As detailed in DOE/RL-2008-11, more than 2,000 environmental samples were collected from the Columbia River between 2008 and 2010. These samples consisted of island soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater upwelling (pore water, surface water, and sediment), and fish tissue.

  11. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    SciTech Connect

    S. W. Clark and H. M Sulloway

    2007-10-31

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

  12. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    SciTech Connect

    S. W. Clark and H. M. Sulloway

    2007-09-26

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

  13. Comprehensive experimental study on prevention of land subsidence caused by dewatering in deep foundation pit with hanging waterproof curtain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T. L.; Yan, X. X.; Wang, H. M.; Huang, X. L.; Zhan, G. H.

    2015-11-01

    Land subsidence caused by dewatering of deep foundations pit has currently become the focus of prevention and control of land subsidence in Shanghai. Because of the reliance on deep foundation dewatering pit projects, two comprehensive test sites were established to help prevent land subsidence. Through geological environmental monitoring during dewatering of a deep foundation pit, the analysis of the relation between artesian water level and soil subsidence, some basic features of land subsidence caused by dewatering of deep foundation pits are elucidated. The results provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of land subsidence caused by dewatering in deep foundation pits.

  14. Methane emissions and contaminant degradation rates at sites affected by accidental releases of denatured fuel-grade ethanol.

    PubMed

    Sihota, Natasha J; Mayer, K Ulrich; Toso, Mark A; Atwater, Joel F

    2013-08-01

    The recent increase in the use of denatured fuel-grade ethanol (DFE) has enhanced the probability of its environmental release. Due to the highly labile nature of ethanol (EtOH), it is expected to rapidly biodegrade, increasing the potential for inducing methanogenic conditions in the subsurface. As environmental releases of DFE can be expected to occur at the ground surface or in the vadose zone (e.g., due to surficial spills from rail lines or tanker trucks and leaking underground storage tanks), the potential for methane (CH4) generation at DFE spill sites requires evaluation. An assessment is needed because high CH4 generation rates may lead to CH4 fluxes towards the ground surface, which is of particular concern if spills are located close to human habitation-related to concerns of soil vapor intrusion (SVI). This work demonstrates, for the first time, the measurement of surficial gas release rates at large volume DFE spill sites. Two study sites, near Cambria and Balaton, in MN are investigated. Total carbon emissions at the ground surface (summing carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 emissions) are used to quantify depth-integrated DFE degradation rates. Results from both sites demonstrate that substantial CO2 and CH4 emissions do occur-even years after a spill. However, large total carbon fluxes, and CH4 emissions in particular, were restricted to a localized area within the DFE source zone. At the Balaton site, estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 5 and 174 μmol m(-2) s(-1), and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 9 μmol m(-2) s(-1). At the Cambria site estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 8 and 500 μmol m(-2) s(-1), and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 393 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Substantial CH4 accumulation, coupled with oxygen (O2) depletion, measured in samples collected from custom-designed gas collection chambers at the Cambria site suggests that the development of explosion

  15. Methane emissions and contaminant degradation rates at sites affected by accidental releases of denatured fuel-grade ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihota, Natasha J.; Mayer, K. Ulrich; Toso, Mark A.; Atwater, Joel F.

    2013-08-01

    The recent increase in the use of denatured fuel-grade ethanol (DFE) has enhanced the probability of its environmental release. Due to the highly labile nature of ethanol (EtOH), it is expected to rapidly biodegrade, increasing the potential for inducing methanogenic conditions in the subsurface. As environmental releases of DFE can be expected to occur at the ground surface or in the vadose zone (e.g., due to surficial spills from rail lines or tanker trucks and leaking underground storage tanks), the potential for methane (CH4) generation at DFE spill sites requires evaluation. An assessment is needed because high CH4 generation rates may lead to CH4 fluxes towards the ground surface, which is of particular concern if spills are located close to human habitation—related to concerns of soil vapor intrusion (SVI). This work demonstrates, for the first time, the measurement of surficial gas release rates at large volume DFE spill sites. Two study sites, near Cambria and Balaton, in MN are investigated. Total carbon emissions at the ground surface (summing carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 emissions) are used to quantify depth-integrated DFE degradation rates. Results from both sites demonstrate that substantial CO2 and CH4 emissions do occur—even years after a spill. However, large total carbon fluxes, and CH4 emissions in particular, were restricted to a localized area within the DFE source zone. At the Balaton site, estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 5 and 174 μmol m- 2 s- 1, and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 9 μmol m- 2 s- 1. At the Cambria site estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 8 and 500 μmol m- 2 s- 1, and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 393 μmol m- 2 s- 1. Substantial CH4 accumulation, coupled with oxygen (O2) depletion, measured in samples collected from custom-designed gas collection chambers at the Cambria site suggests that the development of explosion or

  16. Methane emissions and contaminant degradation rates at sites affected by accidental releases of denatured fuel-grade ethanol.

    PubMed

    Sihota, Natasha J; Mayer, K Ulrich; Toso, Mark A; Atwater, Joel F

    2013-08-01

    The recent increase in the use of denatured fuel-grade ethanol (DFE) has enhanced the probability of its environmental release. Due to the highly labile nature of ethanol (EtOH), it is expected to rapidly biodegrade, increasing the potential for inducing methanogenic conditions in the subsurface. As environmental releases of DFE can be expected to occur at the ground surface or in the vadose zone (e.g., due to surficial spills from rail lines or tanker trucks and leaking underground storage tanks), the potential for methane (CH4) generation at DFE spill sites requires evaluation. An assessment is needed because high CH4 generation rates may lead to CH4 fluxes towards the ground surface, which is of particular concern if spills are located close to human habitation-related to concerns of soil vapor intrusion (SVI). This work demonstrates, for the first time, the measurement of surficial gas release rates at large volume DFE spill sites. Two study sites, near Cambria and Balaton, in MN are investigated. Total carbon emissions at the ground surface (summing carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 emissions) are used to quantify depth-integrated DFE degradation rates. Results from both sites demonstrate that substantial CO2 and CH4 emissions do occur-even years after a spill. However, large total carbon fluxes, and CH4 emissions in particular, were restricted to a localized area within the DFE source zone. At the Balaton site, estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 5 and 174 μmol m(-2) s(-1), and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 9 μmol m(-2) s(-1). At the Cambria site estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 8 and 500 μmol m(-2) s(-1), and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 393 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Substantial CH4 accumulation, coupled with oxygen (O2) depletion, measured in samples collected from custom-designed gas collection chambers at the Cambria site suggests that the development of explosion

  17. An analysis of the potential for Glen Canyon Dam releases to inundate archaeological sites in the Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sondossi, Hoda A.; Fairley, Helen C.

    2014-01-01

    The development of a one-dimensional flow-routing model for the Colorado River between Lees Ferry and Diamond Creek, Arizona in 2008 provided a potentially useful tool for assessing the degree to which varying discharges from Glen Canyon Dam may inundate terrestrial environments and potentially affect resources located within the zone of inundation. Using outputs from the model, a geographic information system analysis was completed to evaluate the degree to which flows from Glen Canyon Dam might inundate archaeological sites located along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. The analysis indicates that between 4 and 19 sites could be partially inundated by flows released from Glen Canyon Dam under current (2014) operating guidelines, and as many as 82 archaeological sites may have been inundated to varying degrees by uncontrolled high flows released in June 1983. Additionally, the analysis indicates that more of the sites currently (2014) proposed for active management by the National Park Service are located at low elevations and, therefore, tend to be more susceptible to potential inundation effects than sites not currently (2014) targeted for management actions, although the potential for inundation occurs in both groups of sites. Because of several potential sources of error and uncertainty associated with the model and with limitations of the archaeological data used in this analysis, the results are not unequivocal. These caveats, along with the fact that dam-related impacts can involve more than surface-inundation effects, suggest that the results of this analysis should be used with caution to infer potential effects of Glen Canyon Dam on archaeological sites in the Grand Canyon.

  18. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 326: Areas 6 and 27 Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2009-05-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 326: Areas 6 and 27 Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Revision 1), December 2002 as described in the document Supplemental Investigation Report for FFACO Use Restrictions, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (SIR) dated November 2008. The SIR document was approved by NDEP on December 5, 2008. The approval of the SIR document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the SIR document, this addendum consists of: • This page that refers the reader to the SIR document for additional information • The cover, title, and signature pages of the SIR document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the SIR document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 06-25-01, CP-1 Heating Oil Release. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was reevaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the UR because contamination is not present at the site above the risk-based FALs. Requirements for inspecting and maintaining this UR will be canceled, and the postings and signage at this site will be removed. Fencing and posting may be present at this site that are unrelated to

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0 with ROTC No. 1 and ROTC No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Boehlecke

    2004-10-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental samples. Corrective Action Unit 554 is located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 554 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), which is: 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. This site consists of soil contamination resulting from a fuel release from underground storage tanks (USTs). Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation prior to evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document for CAU 554. Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 15, 2004, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; and contractor personnel. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 554. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to CAS 23-02-08. The scope of the corrective action investigation

  20. USING SIMPLE MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR ESTIMATING IMPACTS TO GROUND WATER AT PETROLEUM RELEASE SITES - WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulators and consultants alike are routinely tasked with predicting potential future impacts to ground water resources from leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites. Site data is usually sparse, variable, and uncertain at best. However, this type of data can be evaluated ...

  1. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29 Spill/Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-09-26

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting a closure recommendation for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29 Spill/Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in compliance with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. This CAU contains six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 12-25-04, UST 12-16-2 Waste Oil Release; 18-25-01, 18-25-02, 18-25-03, Oil Spills; 18-25-04, Spill (Diesel Fuel); and 29-44-01, Fuel Spill, located within Areas 12, 18, and 29 on the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting recommendations of no further action or closure in place for CASs within CAU 394. Throughout late 2002 and early to mid 2003, closure activities were performed as set forth in the CAU 394 Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan. The closure activities identified the nature and extent of contaminants of potential concern at the CASs, and provided sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions for the CASs. Soil in CASs 18-25-02 and 18-25-03 containing polychlorinated biphenyls exceeding the action levels established by the Nevada Administrative Code were removed for proper disposal. The soil remaining in these CASs containing petroleum hydrocarbons exceeding the action level were closed in place with use restrictions. Corrective Action Sites 18-25-04 required no further corrective action; closure in place is required at CASs 12-25-04, 18-25-01, 18-25-02, 18-25-03, and 29-44-01; and use restrictions are required at CASs 12-25-04, 18-25-01, 18-25-02, 18-25-03 and 29-44-01. In summary, no corrective action plan is required for CAU 394.

  2. Simple Techniques For Assessing Impacts Of Oil And Gas Operations On Public Lands: A Field Evaluation Of A Photoionization Detector (PID) At A Condensate Release Site, Padre Island National Seashore, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, James K.; Zielinski, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Simple, cost-effective techniques are needed for land managers to assess the environmental impacts of oil and gas production activities on public lands, so that sites may be prioritized for remediation or for further, more formal assessment. Field-portable instruments provide real-time data and allow the field investigator to extend an assessment beyond simply locating and mapping obvious disturbances. Field investigators can examine sites for the presence of hydrocarbons in the subsurface using a soil auger and a photoionization detector (PID). The PID measures volatile organic compounds (VOC) in soil gases. This allows detection of hydrocarbons in the shallow subsurface near areas of obvious oil-stained soils, oil in pits, or dead vegetation. Remnants of a condensate release occur in sandy soils at a production site on the Padre Island National Seashore in south Texas. Dead vegetation had been observed by National Park Service personnel in the release area several years prior to our visit. The site is located several miles south of the Malaquite Beach Campground. In early 2001, we sampled soil gases for VOCs in the area believed to have received the condensate. Our purpose in this investigation was: 1) to establish what sampling techniques might be effective in sandy soils with a shallow water and contrast them with techniques used in an earlier study; and 2) delineate the probable area of condensate release. Our field results show that sealing the auger hole with a clear, rigid plastic tube capped at the top end and sampling the soil gas through a small hole in the cap increases the soil VOC gas signature, compared to sampling soil gases in the bottom of an open hole. This sealed-tube sampling method increases the contrast between the VOC levels within a contaminated area and adjacent background areas. The tube allows the PID air pump to draw soil gas from the volume of soil surrounding the open hole below the tube in a zone less influenced by atmospheric air

  3. Optical quantal analysis indicates that long-term potentiation at single hippocampal mossy fiber synapses is expressed through increased release probability, recruitment of new release sites, and activation of silent synapses.

    PubMed

    Reid, Christopher A; Dixon, Don B; Takahashi, Michiko; Bliss, Tim V P; Fine, Alan

    2004-04-01

    It is generally believed that long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses between dentate granule and CA3 pyramidal cells is expressed through presynaptic mechanisms leading to an increase in quantal content. The source of this increase has remained undefined but could include enhanced probability of transmitter release at existing functional release sites or increases in the number of active release sites. We performed optical quantal analyses of transmission at individual mossy fiber synapses in cultured hippocampal slices, using confocal microscopy and intracellular fluorescent Ca(2+) indicators. Our results indicate that LTP is expressed at functional synapses by both increased probability of transmitter release and recruitment of new release sites, including the activation of previously silent synapses here visualized for the first time.

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 481: Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-11-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 481 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard. CAU 481 is located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), CAS 12-42-05, Housekeeping Waste. CAU 481 closure activities were conducted by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency from August 2007 through July 2008 according to the FFACO and Revision 3 of the Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites. Closure activities included removal and disposal of construction debris and low-level waste. Drained fluids, steel, and lead was recycled as appropriate. Waste generated during closure activities was appropriately managed and disposed.

  5. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Pre-project Rare Plant and Wildlife Surveys For the Pit 7 Drainage Diversion and Groundwater Extraction and Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, L; Woollett, J

    2007-07-17

    In January 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) released the final Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Environmental Remediation at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 Pit 7 Complex. At the same time, the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) released the final Negative Declaration and Initial Study covering the Pit 7 remediation. No substantial adverse effect on wildlife species of concern was anticipated from the project. However, it was proposed that wildlife surveys should be conducted prior to construction because species locations and breeding areas could potentially change by the time construction activities began. Although no known populations of rare or endangered/threatened plant species were known to occur within the project impact area at the time these documents were released, rare plants listed by the California Native Plant Society had been observed in the vicinity. As such, both DOE and DTSC proposed that plant surveys would be undertaken at the appropriate time of year to determine if rare plants would be impacted by project construction. This document provides the results of wildlife and rare plant surveys taken prior to the start of construction at the Pit 7 Complex.

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0 / June 2003), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    2003-06-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 536 consists of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS): 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge. The CAU 536 site is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of possible contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for CAS 03-44-02. The additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) prior to evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of this field investigation are to be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3-2004.

  7. Description of work for 216-U-Pond test pits

    SciTech Connect

    Kelty, G.G.

    1993-08-11

    This description of work (DOW) details the field activities associated with the test pit excavation and soil sampling at the 216- U-10 Pond (U-10 Pond) in the 200 West Area and will serve as a field guide for those performing the work. It will be used in conjunction with the 200-UP-2 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study (DOE-RL 1993a, [LFI]) and Site Characterization Manual (WHC 1988a). Test pits will be constructed to characterize the vertical extent of contaminants in sediments within and beneath the former U-10 pond.

  8. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29 Spill/Release Sites Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the September 2003, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29 Spill/Release Sites as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the URs for: • CAS 12-25-04, UST 12-16-2 Waste Oil Release • CAS 18-25-01, Oil Spills • CAS 18-25-02, Oil Spills • CAS 18-25-03, Oil Spill • CAS 29-44-01, Fuel Spill These URs were established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and were based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since these URs were established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, these URs were re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the URs) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the

  9. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest risks of contracting thyroid cancer. Doses from cow's milk are considerably less . Detailed

  10. INTERACTIVE PIT LAKES 2004 CONFERENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This CD and the workshop provide a pit lakes forum for the exchange of scientific information on current domestic and international approaches, including arid and wet regions throughout the world. These approaches include characterization, modeling/monitoring, and treatment and r...

  11. Analytical data for waters of the Harvard Open Pit, Jamestown Mine, Tuolumne County, California, March 1998-September 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashley, R.P.; Savage, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    The Jamestown mine is located in the Jamestown mining district in western Tuolumne County, California (see Fig. 1). This district is one of many located on or near the Melones fault zone, a major regional suture in the Sierra Nevada foothills. The districts along the Melones fault comprise the Mother Lode gold belt (Clark, 1970). The Harvard pit is the largest of several open pits mined at the Jamestown site by Sonora Mining Corporation between 1986 and 1994 (Fig. 2; Algood, 1990). It is at the site of an historical mine named the Harvard that produced about 100,000 troy ounces of gold, mainly between 1906 and 1916 (Julihn and Horton, 1940). Sonora Mining mined and processed about 17,000,000 short tons of ore, with an overall stripping ratio of about 4.5:1, yielding about 660,000 troy ounces of gold (Nelson and Leicht, 1994). Most of this material came from the Harvard pit, which attained dimensions of about 2700 ft (830 m) in length, 1500 ft (460 m) in width, and 600 ft (185 m) in depth. The bottom of the pit is at an elevation of 870 ft (265 m). Since mining operations ceased in mid-1994, the open pit has been filling with water. As of November, 2000, lake level had reached an elevation of about 1170 ft (357 m). Water quality monitoring data gathered after mine closure showed rising levels of arsenic, sulfate, and other components in the lake, with particularly notable increases accompanying a period of rapid filling in 1995 (County of Tuolumne, 1998). The largest potential source for arsenic in the vicinity of the Harvard pit is arsenian pyrite, the most abundant sulfide mineral related to gold mineralization. A previous study of weathering of arsenian pyrite in similarly mineralized rocks at the Clio mine, in the nearby Jacksonville mining district, showed that arsenic released by weathering of arsenian pyrite is effectively attenuated by adsorption on goethite or coprecipitation with jarosite, depending upon the buffering capacity of the pyrite-bearing rock

  12. Effect of co-administration of probiotics with polysaccharide based colon targeted delivery systems to optimize site specific drug release.

    PubMed

    Prudhviraj, G; Vaidya, Yogyata; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Yadav, Ankit Kumar; Kaur, Puneet; Gulati, Monica; Gowthamarajan, K

    2015-11-01

    Significant clinical success of colon targeted dosage forms has been limited by their inappropriate release profile at the target site. Their failure to release the drug completely in the colon may be attributed to changes in the colonic milieu because of pathological state, drug effect and psychological stress accompanying the diseased state or, a combination of these. Alteration in normal colonic pH and bacterial picture leads to incomplete release of drug from the designed delivery system. We report the effectiveness of a targeted delivery system wherein the constant replenishment of the colonic microbiota is achieved by concomitant administration of probiotics along with the polysaccharide based drug delivery system. Guar gum coated spheroids of sulfasalazine were prepared. In the dissolution studies, these spheroids showed markedly higher release in the simulated colonic fluid. In vivo experiments conducted in rats clearly demonstrated the therapeutic advantage of co-administration of probiotics with guar gum coated spheroids. Our results suggest that concomitant use of probiotics along with the polysaccharide based delivery systems can be a simple strategy to achieve satisfactory colon targeting of drugs.

  13. Monitoring Production of Methane from Spills of Gasoline at UST Release Sites (Boston, MA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic biodegradation of the BTEX compounds can produce substantial concentrations of methane in ground water at gasoline spill sites. This methane can escape the ground water, move through the unsaturated zone and potentially produce explosive concentrations of methane in c...

  14. Explanation of Significant Difference (ESD) for the A-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Randall

    2000-11-17

    The A-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) (ABRP) operable unit (OU) is located in the northwest portion of Savannah River Site (SRS), approximately 2.4 kilometers (1.5 miles) south of the A/M Area operations. Between 1951 and 1973, Pits 731-A and 731-1A were used to burn paper, plastics, wood, rubber, rags, cardboard, oil, degreasers, and solvents. Combustible materials were burned monthly. After burning was discontinued in 1973, Pits 731-A and 731-1A were also converted to rubble pits and used to dispose of concrete rubble, bricks, tile, asphalt, plastics, metal, wood products, and rubber until about 1978. When the pits were filled to capacity, there were covered with compacted clay-rich native soils and vegetation was established. Pit 731-2A was only used as a rubble pit until 1983 after which the area was backfilled and seeded. Two other potential source areas within the OU were investigated and found to be clean. The water table aquifer (M-Area aquifer) was also investigated.

  15. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  16. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department and Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-E Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  17. Comparative treatment effectiveness of conventional trench and seepage pit systems.

    PubMed

    Field, J P; Farrell-Poe, K L; Walworth, J L

    2007-03-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems can be a potential source of groundwater contamination in regions throughout the United States and other parts of the world. Here, we evaluate four conventional trench systems and four seepage pit systems to determine the relative effectiveness of these systems for the treatment of septic tank effluent in medium- to coarse-textured arid and semiarid soils. Soil borings were advanced up to twice the depth of the trenches (4 m) and seepage pits (15 m) at two horizontal distances (30 cm and 1.5 m) from the sidewalls of the systems. Soil samples were analyzed for various biological and chemical parameters, including Escherichia coli, total coliform, pH, total organic carbon, total dissolved solids, total nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen. Most soil parameters investigated approached background levels more rapidly near the trenches than the seepage pits, as sampling distance increased both vertically and horizontally from the sidewalls of the systems.

  18. Evaporative respiratory cooling augments pit organ thermal detection in rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Viviana; Andrade, Denis V; Bovo, Rafael P; Tattersall, Glenn J

    2013-12-01

    Rattlesnakes use their facial pit organs to sense external thermal fluctuations. A temperature decrease in the heat-sensing membrane of the pit organ has the potential to enhance heat flux between their endothermic prey and the thermal sensors, affect the optimal functioning of thermal sensors in the pit membrane and reduce the formation of thermal "afterimages", improving thermal detection. We examined the potential for respiratory cooling to improve strike behaviour, capture, and consumption of endothermic prey in the South American rattlesnake, as behavioural indicators of thermal detection. Snakes with a higher degree of rostral cooling were more accurate during the strike, attacking warmer regions of their prey, and relocated and consumed their prey faster. These findings reveal that by cooling their pit organs, rattlesnakes increase their ability to detect endothermic prey; disabling the pit organs caused these differences to disappear. Rattlesnakes also modify the degree of rostral cooling by altering their breathing pattern in response to biologically relevant stimuli, such as a mouse odour. Our findings reveal that low humidity increases their ability to detect endothermic prey, suggesting that habitat and ambush site selection in the wild may be influenced by external humidity levels as well as temperature.

  19. Quantitative damage evaluation of localized deep pitting

    SciTech Connect

    Al Beed, A.A.; Al Garni, M.A.

    2000-04-01

    Localized deep pitting is considered difficult to precisely measure and evaluate using simple techniques and daily-use analysis approaches. A case study was made of carbon steel heat exchangers in a typical fresh cooling water environment that experienced severe pitting. To effectively and precisely evaluate the encountered pitting damage, a simple measurement and analyses approach was devised. In this article, the pitting measurement technique and the damage evaluation approach are presented and discussed in detail.

  20. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 326: Areas 6 and 27 Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    A. T. Urbon

    2001-09-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 326, Areas 6 and 27 Release Sites. This CAU is currently listed in the January 2001, Appendix III of the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996). CAU 326 is located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASS) (Figure 1): CAS 06-25-01--Is a rupture in an underground pipe that carried heating oil (diesel) from the underground heating oil tank (Tank 6-CP-1) located to the west of Building CP-70 to the boiler in Building CP-1 in the Area 6 Control Point (CP) compound. CAS 06-25-02--A heating oil spill that is a result of overfilling an underground heating oil tank (Tank 6-DAF-5) located at the Area 6 Device Assembly Facility (DAF). CAS 06-25-04--A release of waste oil that occurred while removing used oil to from Tank 6-619-4. Tank 6-619-4 is located northwest of Building 6-619 at the Area 6 Gas Station. CAS 27-25-01--Consists of an excavation that was created in an attempt to remove impacted stained soil from the Site Maintenance Yard in Area 27. Approximately 53.5 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (70 cubic yards [yd{sup 3}]) of soil impacted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was excavated before the excavation activities were halted. The excavation activities were stopped because the volume of impacted soil exceeded estimated quantities and budget.

  1. NIR detection of pits and pit fragments in fresh cherries (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the detection of pits and pit fragments in cherries was demonstrated. For detection of whole pits, 300 cherries were obtained locally and pits were removed from half. NIR reflectance spectra were obtained in triplicate...

  2. Workshop Proceedings: Pitting in Steam Generator Tubing

    SciTech Connect

    1984-10-01

    A two-day workshop focused on the probable causes of steam generator pitting at two nuclear plants and on whether pitting is a low-temperature or a high-temperature phenomenon. Participants also heard descriptions of various pit-resistant metals that are suitable for tube sleeving.

  3. CALL FOR ABSTRACTS - PIT LAKES 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    This call for abstracts is for the 11/16-18/2004 Pit Lakes 2004 meeting held in Reno, NV. This conference will provide a forum for the exchange of scientific information on current domestic and international pit lake approaches, including pit lakes from arid and wet regions throu...

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 322: Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 322, Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 322 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 01-25-01 - AST Release Site; (2) 03-25-03 - Mud Plant and AST Diesel Release; and (3) 03-20-05 - Injection Wells and BOP Shop. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 322. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from April 2004 through September 2004, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: (1) Determine if contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to recommend appropriate corrective actions for the CASs. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against appropriate preliminary action levels to identify contaminants of concern for each corrective action site. Radiological field measurements were compared to unrestricted release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities revealed the following: (1) CAS 01-25-01 contains an AST berm contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) diesel-range organics (DRO). (2) CAS 03-25-03 includes two distinct areas: Area A where no contamination remains from a potential spill associated with an AST, and Area B where TPH-DRO contamination associated with various activities at the mud plant was identified. The Area B contamination was found at various locations and depths. (3) CAS 03-25-03 Area B contains TPH-DRO contamination at various locations and

  5. Quantification of methane fluxes from industrial sites using a combination of a tracer release method and a Gaussian model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ars, S.; Broquet, G.; Yver-Kwok, C.; Wu, L.; Bousquet, P.; Roustan, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations keep on increasing in the atmosphere since industrial revolution. Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic GHG after carbon dioxide (CO2). Its sources and sinks are nowadays well identified however their relative contributions remain uncertain. The industries and the waste treatment emit an important part of the anthropogenic methane that is difficult to quantify because the sources are fugitive and discontinuous. A better estimation of methane emissions could help industries to adapt their mitigation's politic and encourage them to install methane recovery systems in order to reduce their emissions while saving money. Different methods exist to quantify methane emissions. Among them is the tracer release method consisting in releasing a tracer gas near the methane source at a well-known rate and measuring both their concentrations in the emission plume. The methane rate is calculated using the ratio of methane and tracer concentrations and the emission rate of the tracer. A good estimation of the methane emissions requires a good differentiation between the methane actually emitted by the site and the methane from the background concentration level, but also a good knowledge of the sources distribution over the site. For this purpose, a Gaussian plume model is used in addition to the tracer release method to assess the emission rates calculated. In a first step, the data obtained for the tracer during a field campaign are used to tune the model. Different model's parameterizations have been tested to find the best representation of the atmospheric dispersion conditions. Once these parameters are set, methane emissions are estimated thanks to the methane concentrations measured and a Bayesian inversion. This enables to adjust the position and the emission rate of the different methane sources of the site and remove the methane background concentration.

  6. Hanford Site Tank 241-C-108 Residual Waste Contaminant Release Models and Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Arey, Bruce W.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2010-06-18

    This report presents the results of laboratory characterization, testing, and analysis for a composite sample (designated 20578) of residual waste collected from single-shell tank C-108 during the waste retrieval process after modified sluicing. These studies were completed to characterize concentration and form of contaminant of interest in the residual waste; assess the leachability of contaminants from the solids; and develop release models for contaminants of interest. Because modified sluicing did not achieve 99% removal of the waste, it is expected that additional retrieval processing will take place. As a result, the sample analyzed here is not expected to represent final retrieval sample.

  7. Monitoring Production of Methane from Spills of Gasoline at UST Release Sites.

    EPA Science Inventory

    ORD-362 (Rev 06/10/05) (Webforms v2.4) Abstract: Anaerobic biodegradation of the BTEX compounds can produce substantial concentrations of methane in ground water at gasoline spill sites. This methane can escape the ground water, move through the unsaturated zone and potentiall...

  8. LIGHT NONAQUEOUS-PHASE LIQUID HYDROCARBON WEATHERING AT SOME JP-4 FUEL RELEASE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fuel weathering study was conducted for database entries to estimate natural light, nonaqueousphase
    liquid weathering and source-term reduction rates for use in natural attenuation models. A range of BTEX
    weathering rates from mobile LNAPL plumes at eight field sites with...

  9. IMPACT OF OIL PRODUCTION RELEASES ON SOME SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AT THE OSPER SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface and soil core samples were collected at two field sites in an old oil production area near Skiatook Lake in Oklahoma. The soil samples were analyzed for nitrates, organic matter, total petroleum hydrocarbons, conductivity, chlorides and dehydrogenase activity. Low level...

  10. Addendum to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 452: Historical Underground Storage Tank Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2009-05-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 452: Historical Underground Storage Tank Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, April 1998 as described in the document Supplemental Investigation Report for FFACO Use Restrictions, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (SIR) dated November 2008. The SIR document was approved by NDEP on December 5, 2008. The approval of the SIR document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the SIR document, this addendum consists of: • This page that refers the reader to the SIR document for additional information • The cover, title, and signature pages of the SIR document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the SIR document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the URs for CASs: • 25-25-09, Spill H940825C (from UST 25-3101-1) • 25-25-14, Spill H940314E (from UST 25-3102-3) • 25-25-15, Spill H941020E (from UST 25-3152-1) These URs were established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and were based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996). Since these URs were established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, these URs were re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the URs) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove these URs because contamination is not present at these sites above the risk-based FALs

  11. Addendum 2 to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical Underground Storage Tank Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2009-05-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical Underground Storage Tank Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, April 1998 as described in the document Supplemental Investigation Report for FFACO Use Restrictions, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (SIR) dated November 2008. The SIR document was approved by NDEP on December 5, 2008. The approval of the SIR document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the SIR document, this addendum consists of: • This page that refers the reader to the SIR document for additional information • The cover, title, and signature pages of the SIR document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the SIR document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the URs for CASs: • 12-25-08, Spill H950524F (from UST 12-B-1) • 12-25-10, Spill H950919A (from UST 12-COMM-1) These URs were established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and were based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996). Since these URs were established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, these URs were re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the URs) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove these URs because contamination is not present at these sites above the risk-based FALs. Requirements for inspecting and maintaining these URs will be

  12. Acetylcholine release elicited by electrical stimulation and its sites of action in smooth muscle of Mytilus.

    PubMed

    Murakami, H; Ishikawa, T; Watanabe, H

    1984-01-01

    The effects of strychnine (ST), BTM-1042, hexamethonium (Hexa), tetraethylammonium (TEA), atropine (AT), benactyzine ( Bena ) and dithiothreitol (DTT) on phasic contraction in response to electrical pulses in Mytilus smooth muscle ( ABRM ) have been examined. ST (10(-7) to 5 X 10(-5) M), BTM-1042 (10(-5) to 10(-3) M), Hexa (10(-5) to 10(-3) M) and TEA (10(-5) to 10(-3) M) dose-dependently depressed the contraction. AT (10(-5) to 10(-3) M) had a little influence on the depression of the contraction, while Bena (5 X 10(-6) to 5 X 10(-4) M) dose-dependently depressed the contraction. DTT (10(-4) to 3 X 10(-3) M) depressed the contraction. These findings suggest that the mechanism of acetylcholine-release from excitatory nerve endings is partly similar to its release in the mammalian smooth muscle, and that the cholinergic receptors in ABRM are more like nicotinic receptors than muscarinic ones.

  13. Analytical data for waters of the Harvard Open Pit, Jamestown Mine, Tuolumne County, California, March 1998-September 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashley, R.P.; Savage, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    The Jamestown mine is located in the Jamestown mining district in western Tuolumne County, California (see Fig. 1). This district is one of many located on or near the Melones fault zone, a major regional suture in the Sierra Nevada foothills. The districts along the Melones fault comprise the Mother Lode gold belt (Clark, 1970). The Harvard pit is the largest of several open pits mined at the Jamestown site by Sonora Mining Corporation between 1986 and 1994 (Fig. 2; Algood, 1990). It is at the site of an historical mine named the Harvard that produced about 100,000 troy ounces of gold, mainly between 1906 and 1916 (Julihn and Horton, 1940). Sonora Mining mined and processed about 17,000,000 short tons of ore, with an overall stripping ratio of about 4.5:1, yielding about 660,000 troy ounces of gold (Nelson and Leicht, 1994). Most of this material came from the Harvard pit, which attained dimensions of about 2700 ft (830 m) in length, 1500 ft (460 m) in width, and 600 ft (185 m) in depth. The bottom of the pit is at an elevation of 870 ft (265 m). Since mining operations ceased in mid-1994, the open pit has been filling with water. As of November, 2000, lake level had reached an elevation of about 1170 ft (357 m). Water quality monitoring data gathered after mine closure showed rising levels of arsenic, sulfate, and other components in the lake, with particularly notable increases accompanying a period of rapid filling in 1995 (County of Tuolumne, 1998). The largest potential source for arsenic in the vicinity of the Harvard pit is arsenian pyrite, the most abundant sulfide mineral related to gold mineralization. A previous study of weathering of arsenian pyrite in similarly mineralized rocks at the Clio mine, in the nearby Jacksonville mining district, showed that arsenic released by weathering of arsenian pyrite is effectively attenuated by adsorption on goethite or coprecipitation with jarosite, depending upon the buffering capacity of the pyrite-bearing rock

  14. Dendrochemistry of multiple releases of chlorinated solvents at a former industrial site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balouet, Jean Christophe; Burken, Joel G.; Karg, Frank; Vroblesky, Don; Smith, Kevin T.; Grudd, Hakan; Rindby, Anders; Beaujard, Francois; Chalot, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Trees can take up and assimilate contaminants from the soil, subsurface, and groundwater. Contaminants in the transpiration stream can become bound or incorporated into the annual rings formed in trees of the temperate zones. The chemical analysis of precisely dated tree rings, called dendrochemistry, can be used to interpret past plant interactions with contaminants. This investigation demonstrates that dendrochemistry can be used to generate historical scenarios of past contamination of groundwater by chlorinated solvents at a site in Verl, Germany. Increment cores from trees at the Verl site were collected and analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) line scanning. The EDXRF profiles showed four to six time periods where tree rings had anomalously high concentrations of chlorine (Cl) as an indicator of potential contamination by chlorinated solvents.

  15. Dendrochemistry of multiple releases of chlorinated solvents at a former industrial site.

    PubMed

    Balouet, Jean Christophe; Burken, Joel G; Karg, Frank; Vroblesky, Don; Smith, Kevin T; Grudd, Håkan; Rindby, Anders; Beaujard, François; Chalot, Michel

    2012-09-01

    Trees can take up and assimilate contaminants from the soil, subsurface, and groundwater. Contaminants in the transpiration stream can become bound or incorporated into the annual rings formed in trees of the temperate zones. The chemical analysis of precisely dated tree rings, called dendrochemistry, can be used to interpret past plant interactions with contaminants. This investigation demonstrates that dendrochemistry can be used to generate historical scenarios of past contamination of groundwater by chlorinated solvents at a site in Verl, Germany. Increment cores from trees at the Verl site were collected and analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) line scanning. The EDXRF profiles showed four to six time periods where tree rings had anomalously high concentrations of chlorine (Cl) as an indicator of potential contamination by chlorinated solvents.

  16. Correlates of retention in HIV care after release from jail: results from a multi-site study.

    PubMed

    Althoff, Amy L; Zelenev, Alexei; Meyer, Jaimie P; Fu, Jeannia; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Vagenas, Panagiotis; Avery, Ann K; Cruzado-Quiñones, Jacqueline; Spaulding, Anne C; Altice, Frederick L

    2013-10-01

    Retention in care is key to effective HIV treatment, but half of PLWHA in the US are continuously engaged in care. Incarcerated individuals are an especially challenging population to retain, and empiric data specific to jail detainees is lacking. We prospectively evaluated correlates of retention in care for 867 HIV-infected jail detainees enrolled in a 10-site demonstration project. Sustained retention in care was defined as having a clinic visit during each quarter in the 6 month post-release period. The following were independently associated with retention: being male (AOR = 2.10, p ≤ 0.01), heroin use (AOR 1.49, p = 0.04), having an HIV provider (AOR 1.67, p = 0.02), and receipt of services: discharge planning (AOR 1.50, p = 0.02) and disease management session (AOR 2.25, p ≤ 0.01) during incarceration; needs assessment (AOR 1.59, p = 0.02), HIV education (AOR 2.03, p ≤ 0.01), and transportation assistance (AOR 1.54, p = 0.02) after release. Provision of education and case management services improve retention in HIV care after release from jail.

  17. Site-specific cation release drives actin filament severing by vertebrate cofilin

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyeran; Bradley, Michael J.; Cao, Wenxiang; Zhou, Kaifeng; Grintsevich, Elena E.; Michelot, Alphée; Sindelar, Charles V.; Hochstrasser, Mark; De La Cruz, Enrique M.

    2014-01-01

    Actin polymerization powers the directed motility of eukaryotic cells. Sustained motility requires rapid filament turnover and subunit recycling. The essential regulatory protein cofilin accelerates network remodeling by severing actin filaments and increasing the concentration of ends available for elongation and subunit exchange. Although cofilin effects on actin filament assembly dynamics have been extensively studied, the molecular mechanism of cofilin-induced filament severing is not understood. Here we demonstrate that actin filament severing by vertebrate cofilin is driven by the linked dissociation of a single cation that controls filament structure and mechanical properties. Vertebrate cofilin only weakly severs Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin filaments lacking this “stiffness cation” unless a stiffness cation-binding site is engineered into the actin molecule. Moreover, vertebrate cofilin rescues the viability of a S. cerevisiae cofilin deletion mutant only when the stiffness cation site is simultaneously introduced into actin, demonstrating that filament severing is the essential function of cofilin in cells. This work reveals that site-specific interactions with cations serve a key regulatory function in actin filament fragmentation and dynamics. PMID:25468977

  18. Structure of eEF3 and the mechanism of transfer RNA release from the E-site.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Christian B F; Becker, Thomas; Blau, Michael; Anand, Monika; Halic, Mario; Balar, Bharvi; Mielke, Thorsten; Boesen, Thomas; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Spahn, Christian M T; Kinzy, Terri Goss; Andersen, Gregers R; Beckmann, Roland

    2006-10-12

    Elongation factor eEF3 is an ATPase that, in addition to the two canonical factors eEF1A and eEF2, serves an essential function in the translation cycle of fungi. eEF3 is required for the binding of the aminoacyl-tRNA-eEF1A-GTP ternary complex to the ribosomal A-site and has been suggested to facilitate the clearance of deacyl-tRNA from the E-site. Here we present the crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae eEF3, showing that it consists of an amino-terminal HEAT repeat domain, followed by a four-helix bundle and two ABC-type ATPase domains, with a chromodomain inserted in ABC2. Moreover, we present the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the ATP-bound form of eEF3 in complex with the post-translocational-state 80S ribosome from yeast. eEF3 uses an entirely new factor binding site near the ribosomal E-site, with the chromodomain likely to stabilize the ribosomal L1 stalk in an open conformation, thus allowing tRNA release.

  19. Light-stimulated cargo release from a core-shell structured nanocomposite for site-specific delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yun; Ling, Li; Li, Xiaofang; Chen, Meng; Su, Likai

    2015-03-01

    This paper reported a core-shell structured site-specific delivery system with a light switch triggered by low energy light (λ=510 nm). Its core was composed of supermagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles for magnetic guiding and targeting. Its outer shell consisted of mesoporous silica molecular sieve MCM-41 which offered highly ordered hexagonal tunnels for cargo capacity. A light switch N1-(4aH-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b‧]dipyridin-5(5aH)-ylidene)benzene-1,4-diamine (CBD) was covalently grafted into these hexagonal tunnels, serving as light stimuli acceptor with loading content of 1.1 μM/g. This composite was fully characterized and confirmed by SEM, TEM, XRD patterns, N2 adsorption/desorption, thermogravimetric analysis, IR, UV-vis absorption and emission spectra. Experimental data suggested that this composite had a core as wide as 150 nm and could be magnetically guided to specific sites. Its hexagonal tunnels were as long as 180 nm. Upon light stimuli of "on" and "off" states, controllable release was observed with short release time of ~900 s (90% capacity).

  20. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiment 1 (SPE-1), Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Margaret; Mercadente, Jennifer

    2014-04-28

    The first Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-1) was conducted in May 2011. The explosive source was a ~100-kilogram TNT-equivalent chemical set at a depth of 60 meters. It was recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 meters) and far-field (more than 100 meters) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes around the shot and a set of singlecomponent vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network comprised a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 meters to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the first Source Physics Experiment and the various types of near-field and far-field data that are available.

  1. On-site gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements of fission gas release in irradiated nuclear fuel.

    PubMed

    Matsson, I; Grapengiesser, B; Andersson, B

    2007-01-01

    An experimental, non-destructive in-pool, method for measuring fission gas release (FGR) in irradiated nuclear fuel has been developed. Using the method, a significant number of experiments have been performed in-pool at several nuclear power plants of the BWR type. The method utilises the 514 keV gamma-radiation from the gaseous fission product (85)Kr captured in the fuel rod plenum volume. A submergible measuring device (LOKET) consisting of an HPGe-detector and a collimator system was utilised allowing for single rod measurements on virtually all types of BWR fuel. A FGR database covering a wide range of burn-ups (up to average rod burn-up well above 60 MWd/kgU), irradiation history, fuel rod position in cross section and fuel designs has been compiled and used for computer code benchmarking, fuel performance analysis and feedback to reactor operators. Measurements clearly indicate the low FGR in more modern fuel designs in comparison to older fuel types.

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Evenson, Grant

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 554, Area 23 Release Site, located in Mercury at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554 is comprised of one corrective action site (CAS): CAS 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 554 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 18 through May 5, 2005, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and Records of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern are present. (2) If contaminants of concern are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 554 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) established in the CAU 554 CAIP for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and trichloroethene (TCE). Specifically: (1) The soil beneath and laterally outward from former underground storage tanks at CAS 23-02-08 contains TPH-diesel-range organics (DRO) above the PAL of 100 milligrams per kilogram, confined vertically from a depth of approximately 400 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs). The

  3. Pits confined in ultrathin cerium(IV) oxide for studying catalytic centers in carbon monoxide oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongfu; Liu, Qinghua; Gao, Shan; Cheng, Hao; Lei, Fengcai; Sun, Zhihu; Jiang, Yong; Su, Haibin; Wei, Shiqiang; Xie, Yi

    2013-11-01

    Finding ideal material models for studying the role of catalytic active sites remains a great challenge. Here we propose pits confined in an atomically thin sheet as a platform to evaluate carbon monoxide catalytic oxidation at various sites. The artificial three-atomic-layer thin cerium(IV) oxide sheet with approximately 20% pits occupancy possesses abundant pit-surrounding cerium sites having average coordination numbers of 4.6 as revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Density-functional calculations disclose that the four- and five-fold coordinated pit-surrounding cerium sites assume their respective role in carbon monoxide adsorption and oxygen activation, which lowers the activation barrier and avoids catalytic poisoning. Moreover, the presence of coordination-unsaturated cerium sites increases the carrier density and facilitates carbon monoxide diffusion along the two-dimensional conducting channels of surface pits. The atomically thin sheet with surface-confined pits exhibits lower apparent activation energy than the bulk material (61.7 versus 122.9 kJ mol-1), leading to reduced conversion temperature and enhanced carbon monoxide catalytic ability.

  4. Pits confined in ultrathin cerium(IV) oxide for studying catalytic centers in carbon monoxide oxidation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongfu; Liu, Qinghua; Gao, Shan; Cheng, Hao; Lei, Fengcai; Sun, Zhihu; Jiang, Yong; Su, Haibin; Wei, Shiqiang; Xie, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Finding ideal material models for studying the role of catalytic active sites remains a great challenge. Here we propose pits confined in an atomically thin sheet as a platform to evaluate carbon monoxide catalytic oxidation at various sites. The artificial three-atomic-layer thin cerium(IV) oxide sheet with approximately 20% pits occupancy possesses abundant pit-surrounding cerium sites having average coordination numbers of 4.6 as revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Density-functional calculations disclose that the four- and five-fold coordinated pit-surrounding cerium sites assume their respective role in carbon monoxide adsorption and oxygen activation, which lowers the activation barrier and avoids catalytic poisoning. Moreover, the presence of coordination-unsaturated cerium sites increases the carrier density and facilitates carbon monoxide diffusion along the two-dimensional conducting channels of surface pits. The atomically thin sheet with surface-confined pits exhibits lower apparent activation energy than the bulk material (61.7 versus 122.9 kJ mol(-1)), leading to reduced conversion temperature and enhanced carbon monoxide catalytic ability.

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 322: Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1

    SciTech Connect

    Boehlecke, Robert

    2004-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 322, Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 322 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 01-25-01 - AST Release Site; (2) 03-25-03 - Mud Plant and AST Diesel Release; and (3) 03-20-05 - Injection Wells and BOP Shop. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 322. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from April 2004 through September 2004, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: (1) Determine if contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to recommend appropriate corrective actions for the CASs. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against appropriate preliminary action levels to identify contaminants of concern for each corrective action site. Radiological field measurements were compared to unrestricted release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities revealed the following: (1) CAS 01-25-01 contains an AST berm contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) diesel-range organics (DRO). (2) CAS 03-25-03 includes two distinct areas: Area A where no contamination remains from a potential spill associated with an AST, and Area B where TPH-DRO contamination associated with various activities at the mud plant was identified. The Area B contamination was found at various locations and depths. (3) CAS 03-25-03 Area B contains TPH-DRO contamination at various locations and

  6. Hanford Site 100-N Area In Situ Bioremediation of UPR-100-N-17, Deep Petroleum Unplanned Release - 13245

    SciTech Connect

    Saueressig, Daniel G.

    2013-07-01

    In 1965 and 1966, approximately 303 m{sup 3} of Number 2 diesel fuel leaked from a pipeline used to support reactor operations at the Hanford Site's N Reactor. N Reactor was Hanford's longest operating reactor and served as the world's first dual purpose reactor for military and power production needs. The Interim Action Record of Decision for the 100-N Area identified in situ bioremediation as the preferred alternative to remediate the deep vadose zone contaminated by this release. A pilot project supplied oxygen into the vadose zone to stimulate microbial activity in the soil. The project monitored respiration rates as an indicator of active biodegradation. Based on pilot study results, a full-scale system is being constructed and installed to remediate the vadose zone contamination. (authors)

  7. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XIII; Appraisal of System-Wide Survival Estimation of Snake River Yearling Chinook Salmon Released in 1997 and 1988, Using PIT-Tags Recovered from Caspian Tern and Double-Crested Cormorant Breeding Colonies on Rice Island, 1997-1998 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, John R.; Perez-Comas, Jose A.

    2000-05-01

    PIT-tags recovered from tern and cormorant breeding colonies at Rice Island and observations from the interrogation systems at John Day and Bonneville Dams were incorporated into survival analyses. Whether the estimates for the upper reaches of the system, between Lower Granite and McNary Dams were as expected (with weighted averages S{sub LGR-LGS} = 0.996, S{sub LGS-LMN} = 0.837, and S{sub LMN-McN} = 0.941), those for the lower reaches, between John Day and Bonneville Dams, appeared positively biased with survival estimates typically greater than 1. Their weighted averages were S{sub McN-JDA} = 0.707 and S{sub JDA-BON} = 1.792 for 1997 releases. For the 1998 releases, they were S{sub McN-JDA} = 0.795 and S{sub JDA-BON} = 1.312. If the estimates for the lower reaches were biased, the estimates for the whole project would also be biased (S{sub LGR-BON} = 0.819). We determined that bias could have arisen if the terns and cormorants of Rice Island fished for salmon yearlings in waters of the BON-Rice reach at low rates (M{sub BON-Rice} {le} 0.2), and the rates of tag-deposition and tag-detection were low (R{sub D} x R{sub R} {le} 0.4). Moreover, unknown levels of uncensored post-detection mortality and scavenging of previously dead salmon yearlings may have also added to the bias.

  8. Cause of pitting in beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Kershaw, R.P.

    1982-04-16

    Light microscopy, bare-film radiography, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, electron microprobe and physical testing were used to examine beryllium specimens exhibiting a stratified, pitted, pattern after chemical milling. The objective was to find the cause of this pattern. Specimens were found to have voids in excess of density specification allowances. These voids are attributed, at least in part, to the sublimation of beryllium fluoride during the vacuum hot pressing operation. The origin of the pattern is attributed to these voids and etching out of fines and associated impurities. Hot isostatic pressing with a subsequent heat treatment close residual porosity and dispersed impurities enough to correct the problem.

  9. Pits and Flutes on Stimpy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The rock 'Stimpy' is seen in this close-up image taken by the Sojourner rover's left front camera on Sol 70 (September 13). Detailed texture on the rock, such as pits and flutes, are clearly visible.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  10. Program plan for evaluation and remediation of the generation and release of flammable gases in Hanford Site waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1991-08-01

    This program plan describes the activities being conducted for the resolution of the flammable gas problem that is associated with 23 high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The classification of the wastes in all of these tanks is not final and some wastes may not be high-level wastes. However, until the characterization and classification is complete, all the tanks are treated as if they contain high-level waste. Of the 23 tanks, Tank 241-SY-101 (referred to as Tank 101-SY) has exhibited significant episodic releases of flammable gases (hydrogen and nitrous oxide) for the past 10 years. The major near-term focus of this program is for the understanding and stabilization of this tank. An understanding of the mechanism for gas generation and the processes for the episodic release will be obtained through sampling of the tank contents, laboratory studies, and modeling of the tank behavior. Additional information will be obtained through new and upgraded instrumentation for the tank. A number of remediation, or stabilization, concepts will be evaluated for near-term (2 to 3 years) applications to Tank 101-SY. Detailed safety assessments are required for all activities that will occur in the tank (sampling, removal of equipment, and addition of new instruments). This program plan presents a discussion of each task, provides schedules for near-term activities, and gives a summary of the expected work for fiscal years 1991, 1992, and 1993. 16 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Risks to the public from historical releases of radionuclides and chemicals at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site.

    PubMed

    Till, John E; Rood, Arthur S; Voillequé, Paul G; McGavran, Patricia D; Meyer, Kathleen R; Grogan, Helen A; Sinclair, Warren K; Aanenson, Jill W; Meyer, H Robert; Mohler, H Justin; Rope, Susan K; Case, Marilyn J

    2002-09-01

    This paper summarizes the methods and results of estimating risks of cancer incidence resulting from plutonium, carbon tetrachloride, and beryllium releases from operations at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado, from 1953 through 1989. The key findings show that people who lived near the facility were exposed to plutonium mainly through inhalation during routine operations, from a major fire in 1957, and from plutonium resuspended from contaminated soil from an outdoor drum storage area, called the 903 Area. Results were presented for five exposure scenarios that were location-independent. Individuals described by the laborer scenario received the highest risk of all scenarios considered. Upper bound (95th percentile) incremental lifetime cancer incidence risks for the laborer scenario were in about the 10(-4) range (1 chance in 10,000) for developing cancer from Rocky Flats plutonium releases during a lifetime. At the 5th percentile level, the maximum cancer risk was about 10(-7) (1 chance in 10 million) for developing cancer during a lifetime. Estimated cancer risks at the 95th percentile level are within the range of for acceptable risks established by the US Environmental Protection Agency of 10(-6) to 10(-4). Carbon tetrachloride was found to be the chemical that presented the highest risk to the public. The 5th and 95th percentile risk values for exposure to carbon tetrachloride were 9.2x10(-7) and 2.5x10(-5), respectively. PMID:12198584

  12. "Opening" the ferritin pore for iron release by mutation of conserved amino acids at interhelix and loop sites.

    PubMed

    Jin, W; Takagi, H; Pancorbo, B; Theil, E C

    2001-06-26

    Ferritin concentrates, stores, and detoxifies iron in most organisms. The iron is a solid, ferric oxide mineral (< or =4500 Fe) inside the protein shell. Eight pores are formed by subunit trimers of the 24 subunit protein. A role for the protein in controlling reduction and dissolution of the iron mineral was suggested in preliminary experiments [Takagi et al. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 18685-18688] with a proline/leucine substitution near the pore. Localized pore disorder in frog L134P crystals coincided with enhanced iron exit, triggered by reduction. In this report, nine additional substitutions of conserved amino acids near L134 were studied for effects on iron release. Alterations of a conserved hydrophobic pair, a conserved ion pair, and a loop at the ferritin pores all increased iron exit (3-30-fold). Protein assembly was unchanged, except for a slight decrease in volume (measured by gel filtration); ferroxidase activity was still in the millisecond range, but a small decrease indicates slight alteration of the channel from the pore to the oxidation site. The sensitivity of reductive iron exit rates to changes in conserved residues near the ferritin pores, associated with localized unfolding, suggests that the structure around the ferritin pores is a target for regulated protein unfolding and iron release.

  13. Seasonal variation of birch and grass pollen loads and allergen release at two sites in the German Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochner, Susanne; Lüpke, Marvin; Laube, Julia; Weichenmeier, Ingrid; Pusch, Gudrun; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Buters, Jeroen T. M.; Menzel, Annette

    2015-12-01

    Less vegetated mountainous areas may provide better conditions for allergy sufferers. However, atmospheric transport can result in medically relevant pollen loads in such regions. The majority of investigations has focused on the pollen load, expressed as daily averages of pollen per cubic meter of air (pollen grains/m³); however, the severity of allergic symptoms is also determined by the actual allergen content of this pollen, its pollen potency, which may differ between high and low altitudes. We analysed airborne birch and grass pollen concentrations along with allergen content (birch: Bet v 1, grass: Phl p 5) at two different altitudes (734 and 2650 m a.s.l.) in the Zugspitze region (2009-2010). Back-trajectories were calculated for the high altitude site and for specific days with abrupt increases in pollen potency. We observed several days with medically relevant pollen concentrations at the highest site. In addition, a few days with pollen were not associated with allergens and vice versa. The calculated seasonal mean allergen release per pollen grain was 1.8-3.3 pg Bet v 1 and 5.7 pg Phl p 5 in the valley and 1.1-3.7 pg Bet v 1 and 0.7-1.5 pg Phl p 5 at the high altitude site. Back-trajectories revealed that high pollen potency at the higher site was generally associated with south-westerly to south-easterly (birch), or northerly (grass) wind directions. By investigating days with sudden increases in pollen potency, however, it was difficult to draw definitive conclusions on long- or short-range transport. Our findings suggest that people allergic to pollen might suffer less at higher altitudes and further indicate that a risk assessment relying on the actual concentration of airborne pollen does not necessarily reflect the actual allergy exposure of individuals.

  14. Geophysical Investigations of the Mound City Borrow Pits, Ross County, Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Blair Elizabeth

    Geophysical subsurface imaging is becoming a common practice in archaeology. Non-invasive geophysical methods provide efficient alternatives to costly and invasive excavations, allowing archaeologists to analyze sites before any excavation is done to identify areas of interest. For my thesis, I investigated two prehistoric borrow pits at the Mound City Group (200 BC - 200 AD) in the Hopewell Culture National Historical Park in south-central Ohio. The primary objective of this study was to determine the presence and spatial extent of a clay lining that was emplaced upon the borrow pits by the Hopewell people. Information gleaned from the geophysical investigation was used to assess the degree of site disturbance from agriculture, construction of Camp Sherman, and modern reconstruction of the earthworks. My analysis included a suite of overlapping geophysical surveys consisting of ground-penetrating radar, magnetometry, electromagnetic induction, and electrical resistivity. The geophysical data was ground-truthed with limited auguring and trenching. Analysis of the first borrow pit data showed strong evidence of historical disturbance within the pit from construction of Camp Sherman, including disturbed soil and a buried utility pipe, leaving little of the clay lining present except around the edges of the borrow pit. The geophysical data for the second borrow pit showed less historical damage that was primarily caused from the re-excavation of the pit during the reconstruction of the park. The second borrow pit still retains about half of the clay lining, a finding supported by the results of auguring and trenching. These results are evidence that the borrow pits at Mound City may have also served a purpose as cultural landscape features. The geophysical methods used in this study proved to be an invaluable source of information with minimal disturbance of the site.

  15. Pit Latrines and Their Impacts on Groundwater Quality: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Polizzotto, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pit latrines are one of the most common human excreta disposal systems in low-income countries, and their use is on the rise as countries aim to meet the sanitation-related target of the Millennium Development Goals. There is concern, however, that discharges of chemical and microbial contaminants from pit latrines to groundwater may negatively affect human health. Objectives: Our goals were to a) calculate global pit latrine coverage, b) systematically review empirical studies of the impacts of pit latrines on groundwater quality, c) evaluate latrine siting standards, and d) identify knowledge gaps regarding the potential for and consequences of groundwater contamination by latrines. Methods: We used existing survey and population data to calculate global pit latrine coverage. We reviewed the scientific literature on the occurrence of contaminants originating from pit latrines and considered the factors affecting transport of these contaminants. Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles, books, and reports identified using Web of ScienceSM, PubMed, Google, and document reference lists. Discussion: We estimated that approximately 1.77 billion people use pit latrines as their primary means of sanitation. Studies of pit latrines and groundwater are limited and have generally focused on only a few indicator contaminants. Although groundwater contamination is frequently observed downstream of latrines, contaminant transport distances, recommendations based on empirical studies, and siting guidelines are variable and not well aligned with one another. Conclusions: In order to improve environmental and human health, future research should examine a larger set of contextual variables, improve measurement approaches, and develop better criteria for siting pit latrines. PMID:23518813

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Evenson, Grant

    2005-07-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 554, Area 23 Release Site, located in Mercury at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554 is comprised of one corrective action site (CAS): (1) CAS 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 554 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 18 through May 5, 2005, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and Records of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern are present. (2) If contaminants of concern are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 554 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) established in the CAU 554 CAIP for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and trichloroethene (TCE). Specifically: (1) The soil beneath and laterally outward from former underground storage tanks at CAS 23-02-08 contains TPH-diesel-range organics (DRO) above the PAL of 100 milligrams per kilogram, confined vertically from a depth of approximately 400 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs). The

  17. Avian mortality at oil pits in the United States: A review of the problem and efforts for its solution.

    PubMed

    Trail, Pepper W

    2006-10-01

    Oil production operations produce waste fluids that may be stored in pits, open tanks, and other sites accessible to wildlife. Birds visit these fluid-filled pits and tanks ("oil pits"), which often resemble water sources, and may become trapped and die. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) has a program to reduce these impacts by locating problem pits, documenting mortality of protected wildlife species, and seeking cleanup or corrective action at problem pits with the help of state and federal agencies regulating the oil industry. Species identification and verification of protected status for birds recovered from oil pits are performed at the USFWS National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory. From 1992 to 2005, a minimum of 2060 individual birds were identified from remains recovered from oil pits, representing 172 species from 44 families. The taxonomic and ecological diversity of these birds indicates that oil pits pose a threat to virtually all species of birds that encounter them. Ninety-two percent of identified bird remains belonged to protected species. Most remains identified at the Forensics Laboratory were from passerines, particularly ground-foraging species. Based on Forensics Laboratory and USFWS field data, oil pits currently cause the deaths of 500,000-1 million birds per year. Although law enforcement and industry efforts have produced genuine progress on this issue, oil pits remain a significant source of mortality for birds in the United States.

  18. Increase of island density via formation of secondary ordered islands on pit-patterned Si (001) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Z.; Schmidt, O.G.; Bauer, G.

    2005-09-26

    Site-controlled groups of Ge islands are grown on pit-patterned Si (001) substrates. By varying the deposited amount of Ge, we find that the growth starts with the formation of a single island at the pit bottom and then proceeds to the formation of a highly symmetric Ge island group around the pit top. A bimodal size distribution of dome-shaped islands at the bottom and at the top corners of the pits is observed. A growth mechanism is proposed to qualitatively explain these phenomena. Our experiments help to promote a further understanding of Ge island growth on patterned substrates.

  19. Data Summary Report D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.R.

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to verify that all analytical data collected at the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits at the Savannah River Site for use in developing risk assessment and potential remediation procedures have been validated at the appropriate level. Any discrepancies or reasons why the data should be rejected for this purpose will be addressed. This report documents the data validation procedures used by Environmental Monitoring Section, Exploration Resources, and RUST Environment {ampersand} Infrastructure for Assigning qualifiers.

  20. Lessons Learned from Pit Viper Integration into Hanford Tank Farm Reality

    SciTech Connect

    Catalan, Michael A.; Bailey, Sharon A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Niebuhr, Daniel P.

    2002-05-11

    The Pit Viper is a tele-operated system intended to enhance worker safety while simultaneously improving the efficiency of pit operations at the Hanford Site. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components were used in an attempt to increase system efficiency. During preparation for initial deployment, the Pit Viper team identified multiple areas where more advanced technology offers substantial improvement in system capabilities. The team also ensured that the system as is, was capable of fulfilling its mission. However, there are valid concerns of the reliability of the technology. Areas where improvement are desired include; operator feedback, manipulator dexterous envelope, and system reliability.

  1. Open pit blasting in India

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, D.A.; Garg, D.D.

    1995-12-31

    Open pit blasting in India uses two types of explosives. First there are bulk explosives for wet and dry holes, and there are packaged explosives. The Indian open pit coal mining is projected to use 190 thousand metric tons of explosives in 1995. This volume is projected to grow for the next ten years, whereas the underground coal mining will hold fairly constant. Bulk explosives started in about 1977 with watergels. In the late 1980s, bulk emulsions and heavy ANFOs were introduced. This system is still being expanded and is replacing packaged products in the larger mines. Packaged products are still popular where the annual consumption is less than 2,000 metric tons per year. Also, packaged products are used in small wet shots. Porous ammonium nitrate prill have recently become available but ANFO is not very common because of the high cost of the prill and the wet blasting conditions. As the market expands there will be a continuing demand for packaged products but an increasing demand for bulk waterproof products, particularly in the larger operations. Dynamites are produced at four plants in India. The annual production of about 45,000 metric tons per year is holding fairly constant, but is likely to decrease in the future. The future blasting in India will primarily use pumped emulsions and heavy ANFO on an increasing basis, but the packaged products will maintain their position.

  2. Short-term microbial release during rain events from on-site sewers and cattle in a surface water source.

    PubMed

    Aström, Johan; Pettersson, Thomas J R; Reischer, Georg H; Hermansson, Malte

    2013-09-01

    The protection of drinking water from pathogens such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia requires an understanding of the short-term microbial release from faecal contamination sources in the catchment. Flow-weighted samples were collected during two rainfall events in a stream draining an area with on-site sewers and during two rainfall events in surface runoff from a bovine cattle pasture. Samples were analysed for human (BacH) and ruminant (BacR) Bacteroidales genetic markers through quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and for sorbitol-fermenting bifidobacteria through culturing as a complement to traditional faecal indicator bacteria, somatic coliphages and the parasitic protozoa Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. analysed by standard methods. Significant positive correlations were observed between BacH, Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, sulphite-reducing Clostridia, turbidity, conductivity and UV254 in the stream contaminated by on-site sewers. For the cattle pasture, no correlation was found between any of the genetic markers and the other parameters. Although parasitic protozoa were not detected, the analysis for genetic markers provided baseline data on the short-term faecal contamination due to these potential sources of parasites. Background levels of BacH and BacR makers in soil emphasise the need to including soil reference samples in qPCR-based analyses for Bacteroidales genetic markers.

  3. Effects of Inclusions in HSLA Carbon Steel on Pitting Corrosion in CaCl2

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ziomek-Moroz; S. Bullard; K. Rozman; J.J. Kruzic

    2011-12-05

    Susceptibility of high strength low alloy steel to localized corrosion was studied in 6.7 M CaCl{sub 2} for oil and natural gas drilling applications. Results of the immersion and electrochemical experiments showed that the steel is susceptible to pitting corrosion. Optical microscopy investigations of the polished samples revealed that 10% of the surface area was occupied by defects in the form of pits. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and wavelength dispersive X-ray (WDX) chemical analyses revealed higher concentrations of Mn and S compared to the metal matrix in defected areas. These areas served as the sites for development of corrosion pits during both immersion and electrochemical experiments. The fatigue results of the corroded samples indicate that if the pit was the most significant defect, the fatigue crack initiated and propagated at this site.

  4. The pitting behavior of structural electrodeposits used in MEMS applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Serna, Lysle M.; Martinez, Michael A.

    2004-10-01

    cell was used to measure pitting potentials at the boundaries and within grains (Figure 3) with the results clearly showing the lowered pit resistance being due to the S-rich boundaries. It is believed that the process used to release the LIGA parts from the Cu substrate acts as a pickling agent for the LIGA parts, resulting in removal of surface impurities and detrimental alloying additions. EIS data from freshly polished samples exposed to the release bath support this hypothesis; RP values for all LIGA materials and for wrought Ni, continuously increase during exposure. Mechanical polishing of LIGA parts prior to electrochemical testing consistently resulted in lowering the pitting potentials to a range bounded by Ni 201 and high purity Ni. The as-received vs. polished behavior also effects the galvanic interactions with noble metals. When as-produced material is coupled to Au, initially the LIGA material acts as the cathode, though eventually the behavior switches such that the LIGA becomes the anode. Overall, the LIGA produced Ni and Ni alloys examined in this work demonstrated pitting behavior similar to wrought Ni, only showing reduced resistance when specific metallurgical and environmental conditions were met.

  5. 7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted... allowances in this subpart is a whole pit or portions of pits computed as follows: (i) A single piece of pit shell, whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is larger than one-half pit shell...

  6. 7 CFR 52.779 - Freedom from pits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Canned red tart pitted cherries that are practically free from pits may be given a score of 18 to 20 points. “Practically free from pits” means that the number of pits that may be present in the drained...) classification. Canned red tart pitted cherries that are reasonably free from pits may be given a score of 16...

  7. New approach to the investigation of groundwater contamination at petroleum release sites in karst aquifers of Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Burman, S.R.; Owens, R.S.

    1997-12-31

    The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) provides technical guidance and regulatory oversight for the investigation and remediation of a large number of petroleum release sites in the state. A significant number of these sites are located in southeastern Minnesota. The carbonate bedrock in this region of the state has been subjected to at least 400 million years of karstification processes. Consequently, all these formations are karstified, with a wide range in the intensity of the karstification. This range is very poorly understood, is not established, and is only now beginning to be mapped in the state. However, this is largely irrelevant to groundwater contamination issues, since the presence of even minor solution features can lead to significant deviations from the porous media approximations on which conventional groundwater investigations are based. Essentially, all of the-unconfined carbonate bedrock aquifers are karst aquifers and both groundwater and contaminant movement is best described and managed under discrete-flow or dual-porosity models. Experience gathered over several years has demonstrated that conventional groundwater investigation techniques were proving to be inadequate and also not cost effective in these areas of the state. Application of conventional groundwater investigation methods had resulted in a large number of incompletely characterized sites, inadequate monitoring networks, and failure of remedial systems. This led the MPCA to develop an alternative approach for groundwater characterization techniques specific to karst areas. In early 1996, this approach was presented to the consulting and regulated communities as draft guidance to be implemented during the forthcoming field season. These guidelines present procedures and techniques that recognize the fact that karst aquifers possess hydrogeologic properties that cannot be characterized by porous media approximations.

  8. Peptide Synthesis through Cell-Free Expression of Fusion Proteins Incorporating Modified Amino Acids as Latent Cleavage Sites for Peptide Release.

    PubMed

    Liutkus, Mantas; Fraser, Samuel A; Caron, Karine; Stigers, Dannon J; Easton, Christopher J

    2016-05-17

    Chlorinated analogues of Leu and Ile are incorporated during cell-free expression of peptides fused to protein, by exploiting the promiscuity of the natural biosynthetic machinery. They then act as sites for clean and efficient release of the peptides simply by brief heat treatment. Dehydro analogues of Leu and Ile are similarly incorporated as latent sites for peptide release through treatment with iodine under cold conditions. These protocols complement enzyme-catalyzed methods and have been used to prepare calcitonin, gastrin-releasing peptide, cholecystokinin-7, and prolactin-releasing peptide prohormones, as well as analogues substituted with unusual amino acids, thus illustrating their practical utility as alternatives to more traditional chemical peptide synthesis. PMID:26918308

  9. Mild and efficient strategy for site-selective aldehyde modification of glycosaminoglycans: tailoring hydrogels with tunable release of growth factor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujiang; Oommen, Oommen P; Yan, Hongji; Varghese, Oommen P

    2013-07-01

    Aldehydes have been used as an important bioorthogonal chemical reporter for conjugation of large polymers and bioactive substances. However, generating aldehyde functionality on carbohydrate-based biopolymers without changing its native chemical structure has always persisted as a challenging task. The common methods employed to achieve this require harsh reaction conditions, which often compromise the structural integrity and biological function of these sensitive molecules. Here we report a mild and simple method to graft aldehydes groups on glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in a site-selective manner without compromising the structural integrity of the biopolymer. This regio-selective modification was achieved by conjugating the amino-glycerol moiety on the carboxylate residue of the polymer, which allowed selective cleavage of pendent diol groups without interfering with the C2-C3 diol groups of the native glucopyranose residue. Kinetic evaluation of this reaction demonstrated significant differences in second-order reaction rate for periodate oxidation (by four-orders of magnitude) between the two types of vicinal diols. We employed this chemistry to develop aldehyde modifications of sulfated and nonsulfated GAGs such as hyaluronic acid (HA), heparin (HP), and chondroitin sulfate (CS). We further utilized these aldehyde grafted GAGs to tailor extracellular matrix mimetic injectable hydrogels and evaluated its rheological properties. The composition of the hydrogels was also found to modulate release of therapeutic protein such as FGF-2, demonstrating controlled release (60%) for over 14 days. In short, our result clearly demonstrates a versatile strategy to graft aldehyde groups on sensitive biopolymers under mild conditions that could be applied for various bioconjugation and biomedical applications such as drug delivery and regenerative medicine. PMID:23721079

  10. Mild and efficient strategy for site-selective aldehyde modification of glycosaminoglycans: tailoring hydrogels with tunable release of growth factor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujiang; Oommen, Oommen P; Yan, Hongji; Varghese, Oommen P

    2013-07-01

    Aldehydes have been used as an important bioorthogonal chemical reporter for conjugation of large polymers and bioactive substances. However, generating aldehyde functionality on carbohydrate-based biopolymers without changing its native chemical structure has always persisted as a challenging task. The common methods employed to achieve this require harsh reaction conditions, which often compromise the structural integrity and biological function of these sensitive molecules. Here we report a mild and simple method to graft aldehydes groups on glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in a site-selective manner without compromising the structural integrity of the biopolymer. This regio-selective modification was achieved by conjugating the amino-glycerol moiety on the carboxylate residue of the polymer, which allowed selective cleavage of pendent diol groups without interfering with the C2-C3 diol groups of the native glucopyranose residue. Kinetic evaluation of this reaction demonstrated significant differences in second-order reaction rate for periodate oxidation (by four-orders of magnitude) between the two types of vicinal diols. We employed this chemistry to develop aldehyde modifications of sulfated and nonsulfated GAGs such as hyaluronic acid (HA), heparin (HP), and chondroitin sulfate (CS). We further utilized these aldehyde grafted GAGs to tailor extracellular matrix mimetic injectable hydrogels and evaluated its rheological properties. The composition of the hydrogels was also found to modulate release of therapeutic protein such as FGF-2, demonstrating controlled release (60%) for over 14 days. In short, our result clearly demonstrates a versatile strategy to graft aldehyde groups on sensitive biopolymers under mild conditions that could be applied for various bioconjugation and biomedical applications such as drug delivery and regenerative medicine.

  11. COPPER PITTING AND PINHOLE LEAK RESEARCH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Localized copper corrosion or pitting is a significant problem at many water utilities across the United States. Copper pinhole leak problems resulting from extensive pitting are widely under reported. Given the sensitive nature of the problem, extent of damage possible, costs o...

  12. Speed, Acceleration, Chameleons and Cherry Pit Projectiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific…

  13. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Dose-per-Unit-Release Factors for Use in Calculating Radionuclide Air Emissions Potential-to-Emit Doses

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2009-06-11

    This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988–Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.

  14. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Dose-per-Unit-Release Factors for Use in Calculating Radionuclide Air Emissions Potential-to-Emit Doses

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2008-09-29

    This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988–Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.

  15. Effects of deoxidizing degree on the pitting corrosion behavior of carbon and manganese steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guo-Liang; Li, Guo-Min; Chen, Shan; Chang, Wan-Shun; Chen, Xue-Qun

    2011-04-01

    Nine steels with different deoxidizing degrees and two comparative steels were selected. Their pitting initiation susceptibility was compared by means of potentiodynamic polarization tests in 3wt% NaCl solution. The pit propagation rate was evaluated in artificial sea water and 3wt% sea salt solution by simulating occluded corrosion cell (SOCC) test and hanging plate test, respectively. The composition of inclusions and corrosive feature were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), and optical microscopy (OM). The results indicate that sulfide inclusions in steel are the sites for pit nucleation. The sulphide inclusions vary in shape from short spindle-like to long strip-like with increasing deoxidizing degree. Under the same conditions, the lower the deoxidizing degree gets, the lower the pitting initiation susceptibility becomes, and the stronger the resistance to pit propagation exhibits. For steels with different deoxidizing degrees, their pitting initiation susceptibility is mainly influenced by thermodynamic stability, while the pit propagation rate is primarily subject to the characteristics of inclusions in steel.

  16. The relationship between induction time for pitting and pitting potential for high purity aluminum.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Vandenavyle, Justin J.; Martinez, Michael A.

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a distribution of pit induction times (from potentiostatic experiments) could be used to predict a distribution of pitting potentials (from potentiodynamic experiments) for high-purity aluminum. Pit induction times were measured for 99.99 Al in 50 mM NaCl at potentials of -0.35, -0.3, -0.25, and -0.2 V vs. saturated calomel electrode. Analysis of the data showed that the pit germination rate generally was an exponential function of the applied potential; however, a subset of the germination rate data appeared to be mostly potential insensitive. The germination rate behavior was used as an input into a mathematical relationship that provided a prediction of pitting potential distribution. Good general agreement was found between the predicted distribution and an experimentally determined pitting potential distribution, suggesting that the relationships presented here provide a suitable means for quantitatively describing pit germination rate.

  17. A Simple Way to Enhance Doxil® Therapy: Drug Release from Liposomes at the Tumor Site by Amphiphilic Block Copolymer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yi; Alakhova, Daria Y.; Kim, Jong Oh; Bronich, Tatiana K.; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2013-01-01

    The antitumor efficacy of Doxil® is hindered by the poor release of the active drug from the liposome at the tumor sites. This study investigates a possibility to enhance drug release from the liposomes and increase therapeutic efficacy of Doxil® by administering Pluronic block copolymers once the liposomal drug accumulates in the tumor sites. In our study, the fluorescence de-quenching experiments were designed to investigate the drug release from liposome by Pluronic P85. MTT cytotoxicity assay and confocal microscopy images were carried out to determine whether Pluronic P85 could facilitate release of Dox from Doxil®. Anti-tumor growth and distribution of drug were evaluated when Pluronic P85 was injected 1 hr, 48 hrs, or 96 hrs after the Doxil® administration in A2780 human ovarian cancer xenografts. Addition of Pluronic P85 resulted in release of Dox from the liposomes accompanied with significant increases of Dox delivery and cytotoxic effect in cancer cells. The greatest anti-tumor effect of single injection of Doxil® was achieved when Pluronic P85 was administered 48 hrs after Doxil®. The Confocal tile scanning images of tumor section showed that copolymer treatment induced the release of the drug in the tumors from the vessels regions to the bulk of the tumor. No release of the drug remaining in circulation was observed. Our study has demonstrated a simple approach for localized release of Dox from liposome by Pluronic P85 at the tumor site, which was therapeutically beneficial. PMID:23474033

  18. Building pit dewatering: application of transient analytic elements.

    PubMed

    Zaadnoordijk, Willem J

    2006-01-01

    Analytic elements are well suited for the design of building pit dewatering. Wells and drains can be modeled accurately by analytic elements, both nearby to determine the pumping level and at some distance to verify the targeted drawdown at the building site and to estimate the consequences in the vicinity. The ability to shift locations of wells or drains easily makes the design process very flexible. The temporary pumping has transient effects, for which transient analytic elements may be used. This is illustrated using the free, open-source, object-oriented analytic element simulator Tim(SL) for the design of a building pit dewatering near a canal. Steady calculations are complemented with transient calculations. Finally, the bandwidths of the results are estimated using linear variance analysis.

  19. Estimation of the release and migration of nickel through soils and groundwater at the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, K.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Lewis, R.E.

    1994-05-01

    An assessment was performed to evaluate release and transport of nickel from large metal components containing nickel-bearing alloys at the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground. The potential for nickel within the components to enter groundwater under the burial site was investigated by examining available data on the site`s geology, geochemistry, and geohydrology to develop a conceptual model for release and transport of nickel from the components. In addition, laboratory studies were performed to provide information needed for the model, but which was not available from existing databases. Estimates of future concentrations of nickel radioisotopes ({sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni) and total elemental nickel in the unconfined aquifer and in the Columbia River were developed based on this information.

  20. Bassoon and the synaptic ribbon organize Ca²+ channels and vesicles to add release sites and promote refilling.

    PubMed

    Frank, Thomas; Rutherford, Mark A; Strenzke, Nicola; Neef, Andreas; Pangršič, Tina; Khimich, Darina; Fejtova, Anna; Fetjova, Anna; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Liberman, M Charles; Harke, Benjamin; Bryan, Keith E; Lee, Amy; Egner, Alexander; Riedel, Dietmar; Moser, Tobias

    2010-11-18

    At the presynaptic active zone, Ca²+ influx triggers fusion of synaptic vesicles. It is not well understood how Ca²+ channel clustering and synaptic vesicle docking are organized. Here, we studied structure and function of hair cell ribbon synapses following genetic disruption of the presynaptic scaffold protein Bassoon. Mutant synapses--mostly lacking the ribbon--showed a reduction in membrane-proximal vesicles, with ribbonless synapses affected more than ribbon-occupied synapses. Ca²+ channels were also fewer at mutant synapses and appeared in abnormally shaped clusters. Ribbon absence reduced Ca²+ channel numbers at mutant and wild-type synapses. Fast and sustained exocytosis was reduced, notwithstanding normal coupling of the remaining Ca²+ channels to exocytosis. In vitro recordings revealed a slight impairment of vesicle replenishment. Mechanistic modeling of the in vivo data independently supported morphological and functional in vitro findings. We conclude that Bassoon and the ribbon (1) create a large number of release sites by organizing Ca²+ channels and vesicles, and (2) promote vesicle replenishment.

  1. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapac, I.G.; Dey, W.S.; Roy, W.R.; Smyth, C.A.; Storment, E.; Sargent, S.L.; Steele, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and ??15N and ??18O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal streptococcus bacteria were detected at least once in groundwater from all monitoring wells at both sites

  2. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Krapac, I G; Dey, W S; Roy, W R; Smyth, C A; Storment, E; Sargent, S L; Steele, J D

    2002-01-01

    Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and delta15N and delta15O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal streptococcus bacteria were detected at least once in groundwater from all monitoring wells at both

  3. Health assessment for Tyler Refrigeration Pit, Smyrna, Delaware, Region 3. CERCLIS No. DED980705545. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-15

    The Tyler Refrigeration Pit site from 1952 until 1969 was used to dispose of metal cleaning solvents and paint room wastes. On-site contamination consists of toluene (25 ppm), 1,1-dichloroethane (10 ppm), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (15 ppm) in soil. Off-site contamination consists of trichloroethylene (70 ppb) in groundwater. The presence of trichloroethylene in the public water supply, exceeding the Safe Drinking Water Act's Maximum Contaminant Level of 5 ppb, is considered to be a public health threat. From the information available, ATSDR cannot comment on the public health implications of the Tyler Refrigeration Pit.

  4. The Immediately Releasable Pool of Mouse Chromaffin Cell Vesicles Is Coupled to P/Q-Type Calcium Channels via the Synaptic Protein Interaction Site

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, Yanina D.; Belingheri, Ana Verónica; Perez Bay, Andrés E.; Javis, Scott E.; Tedford, H. William; Zamponi, Gerald; Marengo, Fernando D.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the immediately releasable pool is a group of readily releasable vesicles that are closely associated with voltage dependent Ca2+ channels. We have previously shown that exocytosis of this pool is specifically coupled to P/Q Ca2+ current. Accordingly, in the present work we found that the Ca2+ current flowing through P/Q-type Ca2+ channels is 8 times more effective at inducing exocytosis in response to short stimuli than the current carried by L-type channels. To investigate the mechanism that underlies the coupling between the immediately releasable pool and P/Q-type channels we transiently expressed in mouse chromaffin cells peptides corresponding to the synaptic protein interaction site of Cav2.2 to competitively uncouple P/Q-type channels from the secretory vesicle release complex. This treatment reduced the efficiency of Ca2+ current to induce exocytosis to similar values as direct inhibition of P/Q-type channels via ω-agatoxin-IVA. In addition, the same treatment markedly reduced immediately releasable pool exocytosis, but did not affect the exocytosis provoked by sustained electric or high K+ stimulation. Together, our results indicate that the synaptic protein interaction site is a crucial factor for the establishment of the functional coupling between immediately releasable pool vesicles and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. PMID:23382986

  5. Dynamin recruitment and membrane scission at the neck of a clathrin-coated pit

    PubMed Central

    Cocucci, Emanuele; Gaudin, Raphaël; Kirchhausen, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Dynamin, the GTPase required for clathrin-mediated endocytosis, is recruited to clathrin-coated pits in two sequential phases. The first is associated with coated pit maturation; the second, with fission of the membrane neck of a coated pit. Using gene-edited cells that express dynamin2-EGFP instead of dynamin2 and live-cell TIRF imaging with single-molecule EGFP sensitivity and high temporal resolution, we detected the arrival of dynamin at coated pits and defined dynamin dimers as the preferred assembly unit. We also used live-cell spinning-disk confocal microscopy calibrated by single-molecule EGFP detection to determine the number of dynamins recruited to the coated pits. A large fraction of budding coated pits recruit between 26 and 40 dynamins (between 1 and 1.5 helical turns of a dynamin collar) during the recruitment phase associated with neck fission; 26 are enough for coated vesicle release in cells partially depleted of dynamin by RNA interference. We discuss how these results restrict models for the mechanism of dynamin-mediated membrane scission. PMID:25232009

  6. MODEL IMPLEMENTATION TO EVALUATE THE COLLECTIVE FUTURE RADIONUCLIDE RELEASES FROM MULTIPLE FACILITIES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R.; Smith, F.; Hamm, L.; Phifer, M.; Swingle, R.

    2009-12-15

    A comprehensive Composite Analysis (CA) has been performed considering 152 sources of residual radioactive material at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As part of the CA a model was developed to perform deterministic base case calculations using the commercial GoldSim software. The model treated transport and decay of radionuclides as they are released at the source location and transported through the source region, vadose zone and aquifer to stream outcrops and from there to the Savannah River. A dose to the public was calculated assuming recreational use of stream water and residential use of river water. The specific results from the GoldSim modeling evaluation conducted as part of the CA indicate that the collective maximum dose resulting from the release of radionuclides from all 152 anticipated SRS End State sources of residual radionuclides demonstrate that maximum exposures expected to occur to any offsite MOP will not approach the 300 uSv/yr (30 mrem/yr) dose constraint, and in fact are currently estimated to be only 10% of this. For each of the POA's evaluated, the highest cumulative dose is realized at the Lower Three Runs POA and is calculated to be 29.7 uSv/yr (2.97 mrem/yr). The major dose contributing radionuclide for all of the POA's, with the exception of Upper Three Runs, was {sup 137}Cs in the contaminated streambed sediments. In Upper Three Runs {sup 237}Np from the H-Area Canyon Building was the major dose contributing radionuclide. The major exposure pathway for the SRS streams (where the Recreational Scenario was evaluated) was by the ingestion of fish. In the Savannah River, where the Residential Scenario was evaluated, ingestion of vegetation was the dominant exposure pathway. The uncertainty evaluation lends added assurance to the conclusion that the 30 mrem/yr dose constraint will not be exceeded, in that even at the 95th Percentile, this performance measure is not expected to be exceeded. It must also be added that these conclusions

  7. Arne - Exploring the Mare Tranquillitatis Pit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Thangavelautham, J.; Wagner, R.; Hernandez, V. A.; Finch, J.

    2014-12-01

    Lunar mare "pits" are key science and exploration targets. The first three pits were discovered within Selene observations [1,2] and were proposed to represent collapses into lava tubes. Subsequent LROC images revealed 5 new mare pits and showed that the Mare Tranquillitatis pit (MTP; 8.335°N, 33.222°E) opens into a sublunarean void at least 20-meters in extent [3,4]. A key remaining task is determining pit subsurface extents, and thus fully understanding their exploration and scientific value. We propose a simple and cost effective reconnaissance of the MTP using a small lander (<130 kg) named Arne, that carries three flying microbots (or pit-bots) [5,6,7]. Key measurement objectives include decimeter scale characterization of the pit walls, 5-cm scale imaging of the eastern floor, determination of the extent of sublunarean void(s), and measurement of the magnetic and thermal environment. After landing and initial surface systems check Arne will transmit full resolution descent and surface images. Within two hours the first pit-bot will launch and fly into the eastern void. Depending on results from the first pit-bot the second and third will launch and perform follow-up observations. The primary mission is expected to last 48-hours; before the Sun sets on the lander there should be enough time to execute ten flights with each pit-bot. The pit-bots are 30-cm diameter spherical flying robots [5,6,7] equipped with stereo cameras, temperature sensors, sensors for obstacle avoidance and a laser rangefinder. Lithium hydride [5,6] and water/hydrogen peroxide power three micro-thrusters and achieve a specific impulse of 350-400 s. Each pit-bot can fly for 2 min at 2 m/s for more than 100 cycles; recharge time is 20 min. Arne will carry a magnetometer, thermometer, 2 high resolution cameras, and 6 wide angle cameras and obstacle avoidance infrared sensors enabling detailed characterization of extant sublunarean voids. [1] Haruyama et al. (2010) 41st LPSC, #1285. [2

  8. An Assessment of Freeze Brand and PIT Tag Recovery Data for Juvenile Salmonids at McNary Dam, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McCutcheon, Clinton Scott

    1990-02-01

    This study evaluated mark recovery data from PIT-tagged and freeze-branded river-run yearling and subyearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye salmon (Q. nerka), and steelhead (0. mykiss) at McNary Dam in 1988. Double-marked (PIT-tagged and freeze-branded) juvenile salmonids were released within the McNary Dam collection system upstream from the PIT-tag detectors and brand sampling system. Results indicate that brands were recovered in smaller proportions than PIT tags and the variability of brand data was considerable. Most of the error associated with brands was attributable to human error inherent in brand detection and interpretation.

  9. Cleanup Verification Package for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Appel

    2007-01-22

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits waste site. This waste site consisted of two earthen trenches thought to have received both radioactive and nonradioactive material related to the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm.

  10. Adsorbate-driven morphological changes on Cu(111) nano-pits

    SciTech Connect

    Mudiyanselage, K.; Xu, F.; Hoffmann, F. M.; Hrbek, J.; Waluyo, I.; Boscoboinik, J. A.; Stacchiola, D. J.

    2014-12-09

    Adsorbate-driven morphological changes of pitted-Cu(111) surfaces have been investigated following the adsorption and desorption of CO and H. The morphology of the pitted-Cu(111) surfaces, prepared by Ar+ sputtering, exposed a few atomic layers deep nested hexagonal pits of diameters from 8 to 38 nm with steep step bundles. The roughness of pitted-Cu(111) surfaces can be healed by heating to 450-500 K in vacuum. Adsorption of CO on the pitted-Cu(111) surface leads to two infrared peaks at 2089-2090 and 2101-2105 cm-1 for CO adsorbed on under-coordinated sites in addition to the peak at 2071 cm-1 for CO adsorbed on atop sites of the close-packed Cu(111) surface. CO adsorbed on under-coordinated sites is thermally more stable than that of atop Cu(111) sites. Annealing of the CO-covered surface from 100 to 300 K leads to minor changes of the surface morphology. In contrast, annealing of a H covered surface to 300 K creates a smooth Cu(111) surface as deduced from infrared data of adsorbed CO and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) imaging. The observation of significant adsorbate-driven morphological changes with H is attributed to its stronger modification of the Cu(111) surface by the formation of a sub-surface hydride with a hexagonal structure, which relaxes into the healed Cu(111) surface upon hydrogen desorption. These morphological changes occur ~150 K below the temperature required for healing of the pitted-Cu(111) surface by annealing in vacuum. In contrast, the adsorption of CO, which only interacts with the top-most Cu layer and desorbs by 160 K, does not significantly change the morphology of the pitted-Cu(111) surface.

  11. Pitted keratolysis, erythromycin, and hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Pranteda, Guglielmo; Carlesimo, Marta; Pranteda, Giulia; Abruzzese, Claudia; Grimaldi, Miriam; De Micco, Sabrina; Muscianese, Marta; Bottoni, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Pitted keratolysis (PK) is a plantar skin disorder mainly caused by coryneform bacteria. A common treatment consists of the topical use of erythromycin. Hyperhidrosis is considered a predisposing factor for bacterial proliferation and, consequently, for the onset of PK. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PK erythromycin and hyperhidrosis. All patients with PK seen in Sant'Andrea Hospital, between January 2009 and December 2011, were collected. PK was clinically and microscopically diagnosed. All patients underwent only topical treatment with erythromycin 3% gel twice daily. At the beginning of the study and after 5 and 10 days of treatment, a clinical evaluation and a gravimetric measurement of plantar sweating were assessed. A total of 97 patients were diagnosed as PK and were included in the study. Gravimetric measurements showed that in 94 of 97 examined patients (96.90%) at the time of the diagnosis, there was a bilateral excessive sweating occurring specifically in the areas affected by PK. After 10 days of antibiotic therapy, hyperhidrosis regressed together with the clinical manifestations. According to these data, we hypothesize that hyperhidrosis is due to an eccrine sweat gland hyperfunction, probably secondary to bacterial infection. PMID:24703267

  12. Cherry Pit Primes Brad Pitt

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Deborah M.; Locantore, Jill Kester; Austin, Ayda A.; Chae, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated why proper names are difficult to retrieve, especially for older adults. On intermixed trials, young and older adults produced a word for a definition or a proper name for a picture of a famous person. Prior production of a homophone (e.g., pit) as the response on a definition trial increased correct naming and reduced tip-of-the-tongue experiences for a proper name (e.g., Pitt) on a picture-naming trial. Among participants with no awareness of the homophone manipulation, older but not young adults showed these homophone priming effects. With a procedure that reduced awareness effects (Experiment 2), prior production of a homophone improved correct naming only for older adults, but speeded naming latency for both age groups. We suggest that representations of proper names are susceptible to weak connections that cause deficits in the transmission of excitation, impairing retrieval especially in older adults. We conclude that homophone production strengthens phonological connections, increasing the transmission of excitation. PMID:15016287

  13. Pitted keratolysis, erythromycin, and hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Pranteda, Guglielmo; Carlesimo, Marta; Pranteda, Giulia; Abruzzese, Claudia; Grimaldi, Miriam; De Micco, Sabrina; Muscianese, Marta; Bottoni, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Pitted keratolysis (PK) is a plantar skin disorder mainly caused by coryneform bacteria. A common treatment consists of the topical use of erythromycin. Hyperhidrosis is considered a predisposing factor for bacterial proliferation and, consequently, for the onset of PK. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PK erythromycin and hyperhidrosis. All patients with PK seen in Sant'Andrea Hospital, between January 2009 and December 2011, were collected. PK was clinically and microscopically diagnosed. All patients underwent only topical treatment with erythromycin 3% gel twice daily. At the beginning of the study and after 5 and 10 days of treatment, a clinical evaluation and a gravimetric measurement of plantar sweating were assessed. A total of 97 patients were diagnosed as PK and were included in the study. Gravimetric measurements showed that in 94 of 97 examined patients (96.90%) at the time of the diagnosis, there was a bilateral excessive sweating occurring specifically in the areas affected by PK. After 10 days of antibiotic therapy, hyperhidrosis regressed together with the clinical manifestations. According to these data, we hypothesize that hyperhidrosis is due to an eccrine sweat gland hyperfunction, probably secondary to bacterial infection.

  14. Modeling pitting corrosion of iron exposed to alkaline solutions containing nitrate and nitrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lifeng

    2001-07-01

    Pitting corrosion could be extremely serious for dilute high-level radioactive waste stored or processed in carbon steel tanks at the Savannah River Site. In these solutions, nitrate is an aggressive ion with respect to pitting of carbon steel while nitrite can be used as an inhibitor. Excessive additions of nitrite increase the risk of generating unstable nitrogen compounds during waste processing, and insufficient additions of nitrite could increase the risk of corrosion-induced failure. Thus there are strong incentives to obtain a fundamental understanding of the role of nitrite in pitting corrosion prevention with these solution chemistries. In this dissertation, both a 1-D and a 2-D model are used to study the pitting mechanism as a function of nitrite/nitrate ratios. The 1-D model used BAND(J) to test a reaction mechanism for the passivation behavior by comparing the predicted Open Circuit Potential (OCP) with OCP data from experiments at different NO2-/NO3- ratio. The model predictions are compared with Cyclic Potentiodynamic Polarization (CPP) experiments. A 2-D model was developed for the propagation of a pit in iron by writing subroutines for finite element software of GAMBIT and FIDAP. Geometrically distributed anodic and cathodic reactions are assumed. The results show three partial explanations describing the inhibition influence of nitrite to iron corrosion: the competing reduction reaction of nitrate to nitrite, the formation of Fe(OH)+, and the function of the porous film. The current distributions and the effect of porosity of the film on pH are also explained. The calculation results also show that rate of pit growth decreases as the pit diameter increases until it reaches a constant value. The profile of the local current density on the pit wall is parabolic for small pits and it changes to a linear distribution for large pits. The model predicts that addition of nitrite will decrease the production of ferrous ions and those can prevent iron from

  15. Efficacy of burning, tillage, and biocides in controlling bacteria released at field sites and effects on indigenous bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Donegan, K; Fieland, V; Fowles, N; Ganio, L; Seidler, R

    1992-04-01

    Decontamination treatments of burning and biocide application, alone and in combination with tillage, were evaluated for their ability to reduce populations of bacteria applied to the leaves of plants in field plots. In addition, the effects of these control methods on indigenous leaf and soil bacteria and fungi were assessed. Field plots of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), sprayed with the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, or Erwinia herbicola, received the following treatments: (i) control, (ii) tillage, (iii) burning, (iv) burning plus tillage (burn-tillage), (v) Kocide (cupric hydroxide), (vi) Kocide plus tillage, (vii) Agri-Strep (streptomycin sulfate), and (viii) Agri-Strep plus tillage. Leaves and soil from the plots were sampled at 1 day before and at 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 30 days after application of the decontamination treatments. The burn and burn-tillage treatments produced the most significant reductions in bacterial populations. The Agri-Strep treatment was more effective than the Kocide treatment in eliminating applied bacteria, but neither biocide produced consistent or persistent control. In contrast, the tillage treatment, alone or in combination with the Agri-Strep or Kocide treatments, had a short-term stimulatory effect and increased populations of applied bacteria and also levels of indigenous fungi and bacteria. Agri-Strep and Kocide treatments caused significant reductions in indigenous bacterial populations up to 14 days after application and in indigenous fungal populations on day 7 after application. Our results suggest that conventional plant disease control methods may not provide satisfactory control of genetically engineered microorganisms and indicate a need for further development of effective and selective methods to control release microorganisms at field sites. PMID:1599240

  16. Surface and Interfacial Properties of Nonaqueous-Phase Liquid Mixtures Released to the Subsurface at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, Scott; Yoon, Hongkyu; Werth, Charlie; Oostrom, Martinus; Valocchi, Albert J.

    2009-05-01

    Surface and interfacial tensions that arise at the interface between different phases are key parameters affecting Nonaqueous Phase Liquid (NAPL) movement and redistribution in the vadose zone after spill events. In this study, the impact of major additive components on surface and interfacial tensions for organic mixtures and wastewater was investigated. Organic mixture and wastewater compositions are based upon carbon tetrachloride (CT) mixtures released at the Hanford site, where CT was discharged simultaneously with dibutyl butyl phosphonate (DBBP), tributyl phosphate (TBP), dibutyl phosphate (DBP), and a machining lard oil (LO). A considerable amount of wastewater consisting primarily of nitrates and metal salts was also discharged. The tension values measured in this study revealed that the addition of these additive components caused a significant lowering of the interfacial tension with water or wastewater and the surface tension of the wastewater phase in equilibrium with the organic mixtures, compared to pure CT, but had minimal effect on the surface tension of the NAPL itself. These results lead to large differences in spreading coefficients for several mixtures, where the additives caused both a higher (more spreading) initial spreading coefficient and a lower (less spreading) equilibrium spreading coefficient. This indicates that if these mixtures migrate into uncontaminated areas, they will tend to spread quickly, but form a higher residual NAPL saturation after equilibrium, as compared to pure CT. Over time, CT likely volatilizes more rapidly than other components in the originally disposed mixtures and the lard oil and phosphates would become more concentrated in the remaining NAPL, resulting in a lower interfacial tension for the mixture. Spreading coefficients are expected to increase and perhaps change the equilibrated organic mixtures from nonspreading to spreading in water-wetting porous media. These results show that the behavior of organic

  17. Efficacy of burning, tillage, and biocides in controlling bacteria released at field sites and effects on indigenous bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Donegan, K; Fieland, V; Fowles, N; Ganio, L; Seidler, R

    1992-01-01

    Decontamination treatments of burning and biocide application, alone and in combination with tillage, were evaluated for their ability to reduce populations of bacteria applied to the leaves of plants in field plots. In addition, the effects of these control methods on indigenous leaf and soil bacteria and fungi were assessed. Field plots of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), sprayed with the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, or Erwinia herbicola, received the following treatments: (i) control, (ii) tillage, (iii) burning, (iv) burning plus tillage (burn-tillage), (v) Kocide (cupric hydroxide), (vi) Kocide plus tillage, (vii) Agri-Strep (streptomycin sulfate), and (viii) Agri-Strep plus tillage. Leaves and soil from the plots were sampled at 1 day before and at 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 30 days after application of the decontamination treatments. The burn and burn-tillage treatments produced the most significant reductions in bacterial populations. The Agri-Strep treatment was more effective than the Kocide treatment in eliminating applied bacteria, but neither biocide produced consistent or persistent control. In contrast, the tillage treatment, alone or in combination with the Agri-Strep or Kocide treatments, had a short-term stimulatory effect and increased populations of applied bacteria and also levels of indigenous fungi and bacteria. Agri-Strep and Kocide treatments caused significant reductions in indigenous bacterial populations up to 14 days after application and in indigenous fungal populations on day 7 after application. Our results suggest that conventional plant disease control methods may not provide satisfactory control of genetically engineered microorganisms and indicate a need for further development of effective and selective methods to control release microorganisms at field sites. PMID:1599240

  18. Okay, Kids, Everyone into the Pit!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belle, Bob; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a typical food chain and the interrelationship between plants and animals. Describes the "Food Chain Pit" game which can be used to help students create food chains of different habitats. (RT)

  19. Changes in pit membrane porosity due to deflection and stretching: the role of vestured pits.

    PubMed

    Choat, Brendan; Jansen, Steven; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Smets, Erik; Holbrook, N Michele

    2004-07-01

    The effect of increasing pressure difference (DeltaP) on intervessel pit membrane porosity was studied in two angiosperm tree species with differing pit architecture. Fraxinus americana L. possesses typical angiosperm bordered pit structure while Sophora japonica L. exhibits well-developed vestures in intervessel pit chambers. It was hypothesized (a) that large DeltaP across intervessel pits would cause the deflection of pit membranes in the stems of F. americana resulting in significant increases in porosity and thus lower cavitation thresholds, and (b) that the presence of vestures would prevent the deflection of pit membranes in S. japonica. To determine if the porosity of pit membranes increased under mechanical stress, suspensions of colloidal gold, 5 nm and 20 nm in diameter, were perfused across intervessel pit membranes at DeltaP ranging from 0.25 MPa to 6.0 MPa. The effect of increasing DeltaP on membrane porosity was also tested by comparing air seeding thresholds (Pa) in stems perfused with water or a solution with lower surface tension. Air seeding and colloidal gold experiments indicated that pit membrane porosity increased significantly with DeltaP in F. americana. In S. japonica, increases in permeability to colloidal gold with DeltaP were small and maximum pore diameters predicted from Pa were independent of DeltaP, suggesting that vestures limited the degree to which the membrane can be deflected from the centre of the pit cavity. This provides the first experimental evidence that vestures reduce the probability of air seeding through pit membranes. PMID:15181107

  20. Pit 9 project: A private sector initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.W.; Hughes, F.P.; Burton, B.N.

    1993-05-01

    This report discusses the Pit 9 Comprehensive Demonstration which is intended to demonstrate a cost-effective approach to remediate an Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) waste disposal pit through a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Interim Action. The remediation will include additional requirements, if needed, to provide high confidence that only minor additional work would be necessary to accomplish the final closure as part of the overall final closure strategy for the INEL`s Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA).

  1. Using pitting and protection potentials to predict pitting behavior: New insights

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    A literature review was performed to identify test methods that have been used to examine pitting susceptibility of alloys in chloride (Cl{sup {minus}}) containing environments. Several techniques were identified and a critical analysis of the validity of the different electrochemical methods was performed with special attention given to the causes of variations observed in the pitting, or breakdown, potential (E{sub pit}) and the protection, or repassivation, potential (E{sub prot}). Experiments were performed on Type 317L stainless steel in three solutions containing high levels of Cl{sup {minus}} and Alloy G3 in two solutions containing high levels of Cl{sup {minus}}. The test solutions were designed to simulate environments present in flue gas desulfurization systems. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) experiments and constant potential-time experiments (up to 60 days) were performed to examine pit initiation and repassivation; and modified ASTM F-746 tests were performed to establish the protection potential as a function of prior pitting history. Analysis of the data suggests that there exists a unique pitting potential (E{sub u}) defined by the stochastic models for pit initiation that equals the most active value of E{sub pit} (long incubation times) and that equals the most noble E{sub prot} value (measured following only minimal pit growth). 24 refs., 34 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  3. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  4. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  5. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  6. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  7. Iodine-131 releases from the Hanford Site, 1944--1947. Volume 1, Text: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.

    1992-10-01

    Releases of fission product iodine-131 from separation plants at the Hanford reservation are calculated for the 1944 through 1947 period. Releases to the atmosphere were from the ventilation stacks of T and B separation plants. A reconstruction of daily separation plant operations forms the basis of the releases. The reconstruction traces the iodine-131 content of each fuel discharge from the B, D, and F Reactors to the dissolving step in the separation plants. Statistical computer modeling techniques are used to estimate hourly release histories based on sampling mathematical distribution functions that express the uncertainties in the source data and timing. The reported daily, monthly, and yearly estimates are averages and uncertainty ranges are based on 100 independent Monte Carlo ``realizations`` of the hourly release histories.

  8. Topical report on release scenario analysis of long-term management of high-level defense waste at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.W.; Landstrom, D.K.; Blair, S.C.; Howes, B.W.; Robkin, M.A.; Benson, G.L.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Walters, W.H.; Zimmerman, M.G.

    1980-11-01

    Potential release scenarios for the defense high-level waste (HLW) on the Hanford Site are presented. Presented in this report are the three components necessary for evaluating the various alternatives under consideration for long-term management of Hanford defense HLW: identification of scenarios and events which might directly or indirectly disrupt radionuclide containment barriers; geotransport calculations of waste migration through the site media; and consequence (dose) analyses based on groundwater and air pathways calculations. The scenarios described in this report provide the necessary parameters for radionuclide transport and consequence analysis. Scenarios are categorized as either bounding or nonbounding. Bounding scenarios consider worst case or what if situations where an actual and significant release of waste material to the environment would happen if the scenario were to occur. Bounding scenarios include both near-term and long-term scenarios. Near-term scenarios are events which occur at 100 years from 1990. Long term scenarios are potential events considered to occur at 1000 and 10,000 years from 1990. Nonbounding scenarios consider events which result in insignificant releases or no release at all to the environment. Three release mechanisms are described in this report: (1) direct exposure of waste to the biosphere by a defined sequence of events (scenario) such as human intrusion by drilling; (2) radionuclides contacting an unconfined aquifer through downward percolation of groundwater or a rising water table; and (3) cataclysmic or explosive release of radionuclides by such mechanisms as meteorite impact, fire and explosion, criticality, or seismic events. Scenarios in this report present ways in which these release mechanisms could occur at a waste management facility. The scenarios are applied to the two in-tank waste management alternatives: in-situ disposal and continued present action.

  9. Adsorbate-driven morphological changes on Cu(111) nano-pits

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mudiyanselage, K.; Xu, F.; Hoffmann, F. M.; Hrbek, J.; Waluyo, I.; Boscoboinik, J. A.; Stacchiola, D. J.

    2014-12-09

    Adsorbate-driven morphological changes of pitted-Cu(111) surfaces have been investigated following the adsorption and desorption of CO and H. The morphology of the pitted-Cu(111) surfaces, prepared by Ar+ sputtering, exposed a few atomic layers deep nested hexagonal pits of diameters from 8 to 38 nm with steep step bundles. The roughness of pitted-Cu(111) surfaces can be healed by heating to 450-500 K in vacuum. Adsorption of CO on the pitted-Cu(111) surface leads to two infrared peaks at 2089-2090 and 2101-2105 cm-1 for CO adsorbed on under-coordinated sites in addition to the peak at 2071 cm-1 for CO adsorbed on atop sitesmore » of the close-packed Cu(111) surface. CO adsorbed on under-coordinated sites is thermally more stable than that of atop Cu(111) sites. Annealing of the CO-covered surface from 100 to 300 K leads to minor changes of the surface morphology. In contrast, annealing of a H covered surface to 300 K creates a smooth Cu(111) surface as deduced from infrared data of adsorbed CO and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) imaging. The observation of significant adsorbate-driven morphological changes with H is attributed to its stronger modification of the Cu(111) surface by the formation of a sub-surface hydride with a hexagonal structure, which relaxes into the healed Cu(111) surface upon hydrogen desorption. These morphological changes occur ~150 K below the temperature required for healing of the pitted-Cu(111) surface by annealing in vacuum. In contrast, the adsorption of CO, which only interacts with the top-most Cu layer and desorbs by 160 K, does not significantly change the morphology of the pitted-Cu(111) surface.« less

  10. Nuclear factor 1 regulates the distal silencer of the human PIT1/GHF1 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Rajas, F; Delhase, M; De La Hoya, M; Verdood, P; Castrillo, J L; Hooghe-Peters, E L

    1998-01-01

    Here we report the characterization of 12 kb genomic DNA upstream of the human PIT1/GHF1 promoter. Different regions involved in the modulation of human PIT1/GHF1 gene expression were defined by transient transfection studies. Two regions, one proximal (-7.1/-2. 3) and one distal (-11.8/-10.9), presented an enhancer activity in pituitary cells when placed upstream of the SV40 promoter. The 0.9 kb distal region was analysed further and found to decrease the basal transcriptional activity of the human PIT1/GHF1 minimal promoter, indicating that this region behaves as a silencer for its own promoter. Three Pit-1/GHF-1-binding sites and two ubiquitous nuclear factor 1 (NF-1)-binding sites were identified by DNase I footprinting in the distal regulatory region. Deletion analysis indicated that NF-1 or NF-1-related protein(s) participate in the down-regulation of human PIT1/GHF1 gene expression by interacting with an NF-1-binding site within the distal regulatory region. PMID:9639565

  11. Soil respiration in pits and mounds following an experimental forest blowdown

    SciTech Connect

    Millikin, C.S.; Bowden, R.D.

    1996-11-01

    Extensive uprooting of trees by windthrow can create areas of severe soil disturbance in temperate forests. Specifically, uprooted trees leave shaded pits and mounds of exposed roots and mineral soil. To assess the contribution of pit and mound microenvironments to overall soil respiration in an experimental hurricane blowdown at the Harvard Forest Long-Term Ecological Research site (MA), summer CO{sub 2} effluxes were measured on pit, mound, and undisturbed microsites. Mean CO{sub 2} effluxes were 45.4, 80.1, and 99.0 mgC m{sup -2} h{sup -1} for pit, mound, and control microsites, respectively. Although soil respiration is lower in areas of disturbed soil than in undisturbed areas, the total efflux contribution (5.3%) form pits and mounds to the overall flux rate at the site was small. The area-weighted soil respiration estimate is 3.1% lower than the estimate obtained using flux measurements from control locations alone. Measurements taken from undisturbed plots represent a small but systematic overestimate of soil respiration across the site. 25 refs., 1 fig.

  12. New strategy for controlled release of drugs. Potential pinpoint targeting with multiresponsive tetraaniline diblock polymer vesicles: site-directed burst release with voltage.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yupeng; Liu, Siwei; Tao, Yangchun; Ma, Chunping; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Jiarui; Wei, Yen

    2014-02-12

    A series of amphiphlic diblock polymers, tetraaniline block with different length of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (TA-b-PNIPAM), have been successfully synthesized. In a suitable solution, the as-synthesized diblock polymers can form stable large compound vesicles (LCVs) with multiple bimolecular-layer structure through self-assembly. These factors, such as the block length, different organic solvent, solvent ratio, pH value, temperature, and voltage, which affect the morphology and properties of the assembled aggregates, are systematically investigated. When the degree of polymerization of PNIPAM block is close to 10, the as-synthesized diblock polymer may form stable LCVs with the uniform size as well as few defects in the mixed solvent of dimethylformamide/water (v/v = 3:7). The assembled LCVs possess the properties of triple-responsive capacity on temperature, pH, and voltage. Variation in any of these factors can cause some changes in the morphology of LCVs. The drug release properties for doxorubicin (DOX) loaded by LCVs affected by temperature, voltage, and different pH values have been investigated. It is interesting that the structure of LCVs can be destructed completely by applying a voltage at 0.6 V. With such an advantage, the drugs loaded by the LCVs could burst release into designated place by using appropriate circuit design or instrument, thus achieving maximum efficacy of the loaded drugs or other bioactive molecules without any unnecessary chemical substances added. This approach allows us to concentrate more on material design aspects only, without regard to the complex targeting issue which is the biggest obstacle of such materials in practical applications.

  13. Pit disassembly and conversion demonstration environmental assessment and research and development activities

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    A significant portion of the surplus plutonium is in the form of pits, a nuclear weapons component. Pits are composed of plutonium which is sealed in a metallic shell. These pits would need to be safely disassembled and permanently converted to an unclassified form that would be suitable for long-term disposition and international inspection. To determine the feasibility of an integrated pit disassembly and conversion system, a Pit Disassembly and Conversion Demonstration is proposed to take place at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This demonstration would be done in existing buildings and facilities, and would involve the disassembly of up to 250 pits and conversion of the recovered plutonium to plutonium metal ingots and plutonium dioxide. This demonstration also includes the conversion of up to 80 kilograms of clean plutonium metal to plutonium dioxide because, as part of the disposition process, some surplus plutonium metal may be converted to plutonium dioxide in the same facility as the surplus pits. The equipment to be used for the proposed demonstration addressed in this EA would use some parts of the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) capability, other existing equipment/capacities, plus new equipment that was developed at other sites. In addition, small-scale R and D activities are currently underway as part of the overall surplus plutonium disposition program. These R and D activities are related to pit disassembly and conversion, MOX fuel fabrication, and immobilization (in glass and ceramic forms). They are described in Section 7.0. On May 16, 1997, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) notified potentially affected states and tribes that this EA would be prepared in accordance with NEPA. This EA has been prepared to provide sufficient information for DOE to determine whether a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) is warranted or whether an EIS must be prepared.

  14. Evaluation through column leaching tests of metal release from contaminated estuarine sediment subject to CO₂ leakages from Carbon Capture and Storage sites.

    PubMed

    Payán, M Cruz; Galan, Berta; Coz, Alberto; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Viguri, Javier R

    2012-12-01

    The pH change and the release of organic matter and metals from sediment, due to the potential CO(2) acidified seawater leakages from a CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) site are presented. Column leaching test is used to simulate a scenario where a flow of acidified seawater is in contact with recent contaminated sediment. The behavior of pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, with liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and pH is analyzed. A stepwise strategy using empirical expressions and a geochemical model was conducted to fit experimental release concentrations. Despite the neutralization capacity of the seawater-carbonate rich sediment system, important acidification and releases are expected at local scale at lower pH. The obtained results would be relevant as a line of evidence input of CCS risk assessment, in an International context where strategies to mitigate the climate change would be applied.

  15. Estimating Groundwater Concentrations from Mass Releases to the Aquifer at Integrated Disposal Facility and Tank Farm Locations Within the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, Marcel P.; Freeman, Eugene J.

    2005-06-09

    This report summarizes groundwater-related numerical calculations that will support groundwater flow and transport analyses associated with the scheduled 2005 performance assessment of the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site. The report also provides potential supporting information to other ongoing Hanford Site risk analyses associated with the closure of single-shell tank farms and related actions. The IDF 2005 performance assessment analysis is using well intercept factors (WIFs), as outlined in the 2001 performance assessment of the IDF. The flow and transport analyses applied to these calculations use both a site-wide regional-scale model and a local-scale model of the area near the IDF. The regional-scale model is used to evaluate flow conditions, groundwater transport, and impacts from the IDF in the central part of the Hanford Site, at the core zone boundary around the 200 East and 200 West Areas, and along the Columbia River. The local-scale model is used to evaluate impacts from transport of contaminants to a hypothetical well 100 m downgradient from the IDF boundaries. Analyses similar to the regional-scale analysis of IDF releases are also provided at individual tank farm areas as additional information. To gain insight on how the WIF approach compares with other approaches for estimating groundwater concentrations from mass releases to the unconfined aquifer, groundwater concentrations were estimated with the WIF approach for two hypothetical release scenarios and compared with similar results using a calculational approach (the convolution approach). One release scenario evaluated with both approaches (WIF and convolution) involved a long-term source release from immobilized low-activity waste glass containing 25,550 Ci of technetium-99 near the IDF; another involved a hypothetical shorter-term release of {approx}0.7 Ci of technetium over 600 years from the S-SX tank farm area. In addition, direct simulation results for both release

  16. Remedial Action Work Plan Amchitka Island Mud Pit Closures

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-04-05

    This remedial action work plan presents the project organization and construction procedures developed for the performance of the remedial actions at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE's) sites on Amchitka Island, Alaska. During the late1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (the predecessor agency to DOE) used Amchitka Island as a site for underground nuclear tests. A total of nine sites on the Island were considered for nuclear testing; however, tests were only conducted at three sites (i.e., Long Shot in 1965, Milrow in 1969, and Cannikin in 1971). In addition to these three sites, large diameter emplacement holes were drilled in two other locations (Sites D and F) and an exploratory hole was in a third location (Site E). It was estimated that approximately 195 acres were disturbed by drilling or preparation for drilling in conjunction with these activities. The disturbed areas include access roads, spoil-disposal areas, mud pits which have impacted the environment, and an underground storage tank at the hot mix plant which was used to support asphalt-paving operations on the island. The remedial action objective for Amchitka Island is to eliminate human and ecological exposure to contaminants by capping drilling mud pits, removing the tank contents, and closing the tank in place. The remedial actions will meet State of Alaska regulations, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuge management goals, address stakeholder concerns, and address the cultural beliefs and practices of the native people. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office will conduct work on Amchitka Island under the authority of the Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Field activities are scheduled to take place May through September 2001. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent Closure Report.

  17. Current-limited imposed-potential technique for inducing and monitoring metastable pitting events

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, F.D.

    1999-11-24

    A technique has been developed to selectively induce metastable pitting while preventing the transition to stable pit growth. The current-limited imposed-potential (CLIP) technique limits available cathodic current to an initiated site using a resistor in series with the working electrode to form a voltage divider. Potentiodynamic CLIP testing yields a distribution of breakdown potentials from a single experiment. Potentiostatic CLIP testing yields induction time data, which can be used as input to a calculation of germination rate. Initial data indicate that a one-to-one correlation exists between electrochemical transients and observed pitting sites. The CLIP technique provides a consistent means of gathering quantitative potential and current transients associated with localized oxide breakdown.

  18. Uranium activity ratio in water and fish from pit lakes in Kurday, Kazakhstan and Taboshar, Tajikistan.

    PubMed

    Strømman, G; Rosseland, B O; Skipperud, L; Burkitbaev, L M; Uralbekov, B; Heier, L S; Salbu, B

    2013-09-01

    Kurday in Kazhakstan and Taboshar in Tajikistan were U mining sites operated during the 1950s and 1960s as part of the USSR nuclear weapon program. Today, they represent sources of potential U contamination of the environment. Within both mining sites, open pits from which U ore was extracted have been filled with water due to ground water inflow and precipitation. These artificial pit lakes contain fish consumed occasionally by the local people, and wild and domestic animals are using the water for drinking purposes. To assess the potential impact from U in these pit lakes, field work was performed in 2006 in Kurday and 2006 and 2008 in Taboshar. Results show that the U concentration in the lake waters were relatively high, about 1 mg/L in Kurday Pit Lake and about 3 mg/L in Taboshar Pit Lake. The influence of U-bearing materials on the lakes and downstream waters were investigated by measuring the U concentration and the (234)U/(238)U activity ratios. In both Kurday and Taboshar, the ratios increased distinctively from about 1 at the pit lakes to >1.5 far downstream the lakes. The concentrations of (238)U in gill, liver, muscle and bones in fish from the pit lakes were much higher than in the reference fish. Peak concentration of U was seen in bones (13 mg/kg w.w.), kidney (9.1 mg/kg w.w.) and gills (8.9 mg/kg w.w.) from Cyprinus auratus caught in the Taboshar Pit Lake. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) calculated for organs from fish caught in the Taboshar Pit Lake, with the same tendency seen in the Kurday Pit Lake, showed that U accumulates most in bone (BCF = 4.8 L/kg w.w.), gills (BCF = 3.6 L/kg w.w.), kidney (BCF = 3.6 L/kg w.w.), and liver (BCF = 2.5 L/kg w.w.), while least was accumulated in the muscle (BCF = 0.12 L/kg w.w.).

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 322: Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-07-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 322, Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 322 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 01-25-01, AST Release (Area 1); 03-25-03, Mud Plant AST Diesel Release (Area 3); 03-20-05, Injection Wells (Area 3). Corrective Action Unit 322 is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. The investigation of three CASs in CAU 322 will determine if hazardous and/or radioactive constituents are present at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  20. A safety assessment for proposed pump mixing operations to mitigate episodic gas releases in tank 241-SY-101: Hanford Site,Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Lentsch, J.W.

    1996-07-01

    This safety assessment addresses each of the elements required for the proposed action to remove a slurry distributor and to install, operate, and remove a mixing pump in Tank 241-SY-101,which is located within the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington.The proposed action is required as part of an ongoing evaluation of various mitigation concepts developed to eliminate episodic gas releases that result in hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space that exceed the lower flammability limit.

  1. Safety assessment for proposed pump mixing operations to mitigate episodic gas releases in tank 241-101-SY: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Lentsch, J.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-16

    This safety assessment addresses each of the elements required for the proposed action to remove a slurry distributor and to install, operate, and remove a mixing pump in Tank 241-SY-101, which is located within the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The proposed action is required as part of an ongoing evaluation of various mitigation concepts developed to eliminate episodic gas releases that result in hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space that exceed the lower flammability limit.

  2. Release of halide ions from the buried active site of the haloalkane dehalogenase LinB revealed by stopped-flow fluorescence analysis and free energy calculations.

    PubMed

    Hladilkova, Jana; Prokop, Zbynek; Chaloupkova, Radka; Damborsky, Jiri; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2013-11-21

    Release of halide ions is an essential step of the catalytic cycle of haloalkane dehalogenases. Here we describe experimentally and computationally the process of release of a halide anion from the buried active site of the haloalkane dehalogenase LinB. Using stopped-flow fluorescence analysis and umbrella sampling free energy calculations, we show that the anion binding is ion-specific and follows the ordering I(-) > Br(-) > Cl(-). We also address the issue of the protonation state of the catalytic His272 residue and its effect on the process of halide release. While deprotonation of His272 increases binding of anions in the access tunnel, we show that the anionic ordering does not change with the switch of the protonation state. We also demonstrate that a sodium cation could relatively easily enter the active site, provided the His272 residue is singly protonated, and replace thus the missing proton. In contrast, Na(+) is strongly repelled from the active site containing the doubly protonated His272 residue. Our study contributes toward understanding of the reaction mechanism of haloalkane dehalogenase enzyme family. Determination of the protonation state of the catalytic histidine throughout the catalytic cycle remains a challenge for future studies.

  3. NELL-1 increases pre-osteoblast mineralization using both phosphate transporter Pit1 and Pit2

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Catherine M.; Zhang, Xinli; James, Aaron W.; Mari Kim, T.; Sun, Nichole; Wu, Benjamin; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 accelerates extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 significantly increases intracellular inorganic phosphate levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 positively regulates osteogenesis but not proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 regulates inorganic phosphate transporter activity. -- Abstract: NELL-1 is a potent osteoinductive molecule that enhances bone formation in multiple animal models through currently unidentified pathways. In the present manuscript, we hypothesized that NELL-1 may regulate osteogenic differentiation accompanied by alteration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) entry into the osteoblast via sodium dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporters. To determine this, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured in the presence of recombinant human (rh)NELL-1 or rhBMP-2. Analysis was performed for intracellular Pi levels through malachite green staining, Pit-1 and Pit-2 expression, and forced upregulation of Pit-1 and Pit-2. Results showed rhNELL-1 to increase MC3T3-E1 matrix mineralization and Pi influx associated with activation of both Pit-1 and Pit-2 channels, with significantly increased Pit-2 production. In contrast, Pi transport elicited by rhBMP-2 showed to be associated with increased Pit-1 production only. Next, neutralizing antibodies against Pit-1 and Pit-2 completely abrogated the Pi influx effect of rhNELL-1, suggesting rhNELL-1 is dependent on both transporters. These results identify one potential mechanism of action for rhNELL-1 induced osteogenesis and highlight a fundamental difference between NELL-1 and BMP-2 signaling.

  4. Environmental aspects of a tritium oxide release from the Savannah River Site on September 2 and 3, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hoel, D.D.; Kurzeja, R.J.; Evans, A.G.

    1990-09-28

    Tritium was released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Plant during an incident on September 2 and 3, 1984 between 10 PM and 3 AM. During this five hour period, 43,800 Ci of tritium, principally in the form of the oxide (HTO), was released. An additional 14,000, Ci was released during subsequent cleanup operations between September 3 and 7. The total amount released from the incident was 57,800 Ci. The HTO cloud initially moved northward and passed near the towns of New Ellenton and Aiken, SC. Two hours after the release began, the wind shifted and carried the cloud toward Columbia, SC. The cloud moved northeast during the daytime on September 3 over the east-central portion of North Carolina. Environmental sampling teams were dispatched by SRL, SRP, and SCDHEC (South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control). SRL collected air and vegetation samples and SRP collected vegetation, water, milk and bioassay samples. SCDHEC collected vegetation, milk, and water samples. The highest activity of HTO measured in vegetation was 501 pCi/mL onsite, 2522 pCi/mL at the plant boundary, and 9859 pCi/mL offsite. These concentrations were approximately 100 times larger than normal values. 13 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Derived release limits for the greek research reactor site based on a diagnostic atmospheric modeling system for irregular terrain.

    PubMed

    Varvayanni, M; Catsaros, N; Antonopoulos-Domis, M

    2005-04-01

    The upper limits for the rate of release of radionuclides into the atmosphere, i.e., the "derived release limits," are calculated for the Greek Research Reactor (GRR-1) in order to determine possible operational schemes compatible with the effective dose limits for the general population. GRR-1 is located at the northwestern foot of Hymettos Mountain and at the eastern border of the urbanized area of Athens basin. Due to the topographic complexity of the region, the meteorological and atmospheric dispersion calculations were based on a numerical modeling system that is especially designed to work over irregular terrains by using a prismatic unstructured grid. The calculation of derived release limits was made using guidelines and methods that conform to the system of dose limits prescribed by the European radiation protection regulations. PMID:15761295

  6. Activated G-protein releases cGMP from high affinity binding sites on PDE from toad rod outer segments (ROS)

    SciTech Connect

    Yuen, P.S.T.; Walseth, T.F.; Panter, S.S.; Sundby, S.R.; Graeff, R.M.; Goldberg, N.D.

    1987-05-01

    cGMP binding proteins in toad ROS were identified by direct photoaffinity labeling (PAL) with /sup 32/P-cGMP and quantified by retention of complexes on nitrocellulose filters. By PAL, high affinity sites were present on the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of the cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) which have MW/sub app/ of 94 and 90 kDa. A doublet was deduced from its photolabeling properties to represent PDE/sub ..gamma../ photocrosslinked with PDE/sub ..cap alpha../ or PDE/sub ..beta../, respectively. cGMP prebound to these high affinity sites was released by light-activated G-protein or its ..cap alpha.. subunit complexed with GTP..gamma..S; this inhibition of cGMP binding to PDE did not result from decreased cGMP availability due to enhanced hydrolysis. A low affinity cGMP binding component identified by PAL is tightly associated with ROS membranes. Apparent ATP/light-dependent stimulation of cGMP binding was shown to result from light activated cGMP hydrolysis in conjunction with ATP-promoted conversion of GMP to GDP/GTP and increased GDP/GTP binding. These findings coincide with a model for light-related regulation of cGMP binding and metabolism predicted from intact and cellfree kinetic measurements: in the dark state the cGMP hydrolic rate is constrained by the availability of cGMP because of its binding to high affinity sites on PDE. Light activated G-protein releases cGMP from these sites and allows for its redistribution to lower affinity sites represented by PDE catalytic site(s) and possible cGMP-dependent membrane cation channels.

  7. Volume Measurements of Laser-generated Pits for In Situ Geochronology using KArLE (Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Miller, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment( KArLE), is composed of two main instruments: a spectrometer as part of the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) method and a Mass Spectrometer (MS). The LIBS laser ablates a sample and creates a plasma cloud, generating a pit in the sample. The LIBS plasma is measured for K abundance in weight percent and the released gas is measured using the MS, which calculates Ar abundance in mols. To relate the K and Ar measurements, total mass of the ablated sample is needed but can be difficult to directly measure. Instead, density and volume are used to calculate mass, where density is calculated based on the elemental composition of the rock (from the emission spectrum) and volume is determined by pit morphology. This study aims to reduce the uncertainty for KArLE by analyzing pit volume relationships in several analog materials and comparing methods of pit volume measurements and their associated uncertainties.

  8. Energy saving ideas for open pit mining

    SciTech Connect

    Rixen, W.; Benecke, K.J.

    1981-05-01

    The increasing cost of diesel fuel is making truck haulage in open pit mines less economic. Belt conveyor systems have much lower operating costs but are not as flexible in their application and require more detailed pit planning. The possibility of combining the flexibility of trucks with the low cost of conveyors is offered by the application of semi-mobile crushing plants followed by belt conveyors for the main haul out of the pit. In the first part of this article. Dr.-Ing W. Rixen describes some of the semi-mobile plants already in operation, while in the second section. Dr.-Ing K.J. Benecke discusses a theoretical case study involving trucks, crushers, and conveyors. Since a belt conveyor cannot transport rocks of a size often produced when blasting hard strata, a crusher must be installed before the belt conveyor to reduce the material to a transportable size. This also serves as a primary crusher. The crushing plant is positioned centrally in the mine and trucks haul overburden and ore from the individual faces to the crusher without having to climb long gradients. Therefore, truck haul distances and operating costs are significantly reduced. The resulting savings in operating costs greatly exceeds the additional capital costs for the crushing plant. The use of fully mobile crushers directly fed by the face shovel is well established. Whereas the partial elimination of truck haulage by semi-mobile in-pit crushers is a more recent development. This latter method restricts truck haulage to in-pit operation only, saving costly haulage of material up-grade out of the pit to the crusher or overburden dump. It is particularly applicable to operations where blending is required. In such cases, the flexibility and adaptability of trucks to frequently changing faces is essential, while the semi-mobile crusher reduces haul distances to a minimum.

  9. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XVI; Alternative Designs for Future Adult PIT-Tag Detection Studies, 2000 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Comas, Jose A.; Skalski, John R.

    2000-09-25

    In the advent of the installation of a PIT-tag interrogation system in the Cascades Island fish ladder at Bonneville Dam (BON), and other CRB dams, this overview describes in general terms what can and cannot be estimated under seven different scenarios of adult PIT-tag detection capabilities in the CRB. Moreover, this overview attempted to identify minimal adult PIT-tag detection configurations required by the ten threatened Columbia River Basin (CRB) chinook and steelhead ESUs. A minimal adult PIT-tag detection configuration will require the installation of adult PIT-tag detection facilities at Bonneville Dam and another dam above BON. Thus, the Snake River spring/summer and fall chinook salmon, and the Snake River steelhead will require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities to guarantee estimates of ''ocean survival'' and at least of one independent, in-river returning adult survival (e.g., adult PIT-tag detection facilities at BON and LGR dams and at any other intermediary dam such as IHR). The Upper Columbia River spring chinook salmon and steelhead will also require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and two other dams on the BON-WEL reach. The current CRB dam system configuration and BPA's and COE's commitment to install adult PIT-tag detectors only in major CRB projects will not allow the estimation of an ''ocean survival'' and of any in-river adult survival for the Lower Columbia River chinook salmon and steelhead. The Middle Columbia River steelhead ESU will require a minimum of two dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and another upstream dam on the BON-McN reach. Finally, in spite of their importance in terms of releases, PIT-tag survival studies for the Upper Willamette chinook and Upper Willamette steelhead ESUs cannot be perform with the current CRB dam system configuration and PIT-tag detection capabilities.

  10. Radiological effluents released from nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests at the Nevada Test Site 1959 through 1969: Fact Book

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, H.N.

    1995-06-01

    Nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests were conducted on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Area 25 and Area 26, about 80 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, from July 1959 through September 1969. This document presents a brief history of the nuclear rocket engine tests, information on the off-site radiological monitoring, and descriptions of the tests.

  11. Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC®) Barrier Application At The North Of Basin F Site, Rocky Mountain Arsenal; Innovative Technology Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Innovative Technology Evaluation Report documents the results of a demonstration of the hydrogen release compound (HRC®) barrier technology developed by Regenesis Bioremediation Products, Inc., of San Clemente, California. HRC® is a proprietary, food-q...

  12. Closure of the Brewer Gold Mine by pit backfilling

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis-Russ, A.; Lupo, J.F.; Bronson, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Brewer Gold Mine, located in north-central South Carolina, is implementing an innovative reclamation plan that includes backfilling the main Brewer open pit with mine waste. The primary goals of the closure are to reduce acid rock drainage and minimize or eliminate long-term operation and maintenance requirements by restoring the site property to approximate pre-mining topography. The plan calls for consolidation of approximately 200 acres of waste into approximately 20 hectares (50 acres). Much of the material to be backfilled into the pit, including spent heap leach material and waste rock, has acid-generating potential. Therefore, the backfill design integrated geochemical properties of the backfill materials with expected post-closure conditions. A prime consideration was the final position of the water table. Since mining at the site started in the early 1800`s, no records exist of the original groundwater levels. Therefore, the design incorporates a large anoxic limestone drain to control the final groundwater level. Additional amendments are to be placed in targeted areas of the backfill to maximize their utilization. A low-permeability cap system that includes a GEOSYNTHETIC clay liner has been designed to limit infiltration into the backfill.

  13. Modular changes of cis-regulatory elements from two functional Pit1 genes in the duplicated genome of Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Kausel, G; Salazar, M; Castro, L; Vera, T; Romero, A; Muller, M; Figueroa, J

    2006-10-15

    The pituitary-specific transcription factor Pit1 is involved in its own regulation and in a network of transcriptional regulation of hypothalamo-hypophyseal factors including prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH). In the ectotherm teleost Cyprinus carpio, Pit1 plays an important role in regulation of the adaptive response to seasonal environmental changes. Two Pit1 genes exist in carp, a tetraploid vertebrate and transcripts of both genes were detected by RT-PCR analysis. Powerful comparative analyses of the 5'-flanking regions revealed copy specific changes comprising modular functional units in the naturally evolved promoters. These include the precise replacement of four nucleotides around the transcription start site embedded in completely conserved regions extending upstream of the TATA-box, an additional transcription factor binding site in the 5'-UTR of gene-I and, instead, duplication of a 9 bp element in gene-II. Binding of nuclear factors was assessed by electro mobility shift assays using extracts from rat pituitary cells and carp pituitary. Binding was confirmed at one conserved Pit1, one conserved CREB and one consensus MTF1. Interestingly, two functional Pit1 sites and one putative MTF1 binding site are unique to the Pit1 gene-I. In situ hybridization experiments revealed that the expression of gene-I in winter carp was significantly stronger than that of gene-II. Our data suggest that the specific control elements identified in the proximal regulatory region are physiologically relevant for the function of the duplicated Pit1 genes in carp and highlight modular changes in the architecture of two Pit1 genes that evolved for at least 12 MYA in the same organism.

  14. Fission product iodine during early Hanford-Site operations: Its production and behavior during fuel processing, off-gas treatment and release to the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, L.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate the radiological dose impact that Hanford Site operations may have made on the local and regional population. This impact is estimated by examining operations involving radioactive materials that were conducted at the Hanford Site from the startup of the first reactor in 1944 to the present. HEDR Project work is divided among several technical tasks. One of these tasks, Source Terms, is designed to develop quantitative estimates of all significant emissions of radionuclides by Hanford Site operations since 1944. Radiation doses can be estimated from these emissions by accounting for specific radionuclide transport conditions and population demography. This document provides technical information to assist in the evaluation of iodine releases. 115 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Understanding the Chronology and Occupation Dynamics of Oversized Pit Houses in the Southern Brazilian Highlands.

    PubMed

    Gregorio de Souza, Jonas; Robinson, Mark; Corteletti, Rafael; Cárdenas, Macarena Lucia; Wolf, Sidnei; Iriarte, José; Mayle, Francis; DeBlasis, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    A long held view about the occupation of southern proto-Jê pit house villages of the southern Brazilian highlands is that these sites represent cycles of long-term abandonment and reoccupation. However, this assumption is based on an insufficient number of radiocarbon dates for individual pit houses. To address this problem, we conducted a programme of comprehensive AMS radiocarbon dating and Bayesian modelling at the deeply stratified oversized pit House 1, Baggio I site (Cal. A.D. 1395-1650), Campo Belo do Sul, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The stratigraphy of House 1 revealed an unparalleled sequence of twelve well preserved floors evidencing a major change in occupation dynamics including five completely burnt collapsed roofs. The results of the radiocarbon dating allowed us to understand for the first time the occupation dynamics of an oversized pit house in the southern Brazilian highlands. The Bayesian model demonstrates that House 1 was occupied for over two centuries with no evidence of major periods of abandonment, calling into question previous models of long-term abandonment. In addition, the House 1 sequence allowed us to tie transformations in ceramic style and lithic technology to an absolute chronology. Finally, we can provide new evidence that the emergence of oversized domestic structures is a relatively recent phenomenon among the southern proto-Jê. As monumental pit houses start to be built, small pit houses continue to be inhabited, evidencing emerging disparities in domestic architecture after AD 1000. Our research shows the importance of programmes of intensive dating of individual structures to understand occupation dynamics and site permanence, and challenges long held assumptions that the southern Brazilian highlands were home to marginal cultures in the context of lowland South America.

  16. Understanding the Chronology and Occupation Dynamics of Oversized Pit Houses in the Southern Brazilian Highlands

    PubMed Central

    Gregorio de Souza, Jonas; Robinson, Mark; Corteletti, Rafael; Cárdenas, Macarena Lucia; Wolf, Sidnei; Iriarte, José; Mayle, Francis; DeBlasis, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    A long held view about the occupation of southern proto-Jê pit house villages of the southern Brazilian highlands is that these sites represent cycles of long-term abandonment and reoccupation. However, this assumption is based on an insufficient number of radiocarbon dates for individual pit houses. To address this problem, we conducted a programme of comprehensive AMS radiocarbon dating and Bayesian modelling at the deeply stratified oversized pit House 1, Baggio I site (Cal. A.D. 1395–1650), Campo Belo do Sul, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The stratigraphy of House 1 revealed an unparalleled sequence of twelve well preserved floors evidencing a major change in occupation dynamics including five completely burnt collapsed roofs. The results of the radiocarbon dating allowed us to understand for the first time the occupation dynamics of an oversized pit house in the southern Brazilian highlands. The Bayesian model demonstrates that House 1 was occupied for over two centuries with no evidence of major periods of abandonment, calling into question previous models of long-term abandonment. In addition, the House 1 sequence allowed us to tie transformations in ceramic style and lithic technology to an absolute chronology. Finally, we can provide new evidence that the emergence of oversized domestic structures is a relatively recent phenomenon among the southern proto-Jê. As monumental pit houses start to be built, small pit houses continue to be inhabited, evidencing emerging disparities in domestic architecture after AD 1000. Our research shows the importance of programmes of intensive dating of individual structures to understand occupation dynamics and site permanence, and challenges long held assumptions that the southern Brazilian highlands were home to marginal cultures in the context of lowland South America. PMID:27384341

  17. Understanding the Chronology and Occupation Dynamics of Oversized Pit Houses in the Southern Brazilian Highlands.

    PubMed

    Gregorio de Souza, Jonas; Robinson, Mark; Corteletti, Rafael; Cárdenas, Macarena Lucia; Wolf, Sidnei; Iriarte, José; Mayle, Francis; DeBlasis, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    A long held view about the occupation of southern proto-Jê pit house villages of the southern Brazilian highlands is that these sites represent cycles of long-term abandonment and reoccupation. However, this assumption is based on an insufficient number of radiocarbon dates for individual pit houses. To address this problem, we conducted a programme of comprehensive AMS radiocarbon dating and Bayesian modelling at the deeply stratified oversized pit House 1, Baggio I site (Cal. A.D. 1395-1650), Campo Belo do Sul, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The stratigraphy of House 1 revealed an unparalleled sequence of twelve well preserved floors evidencing a major change in occupation dynamics including five completely burnt collapsed roofs. The results of the radiocarbon dating allowed us to understand for the first time the occupation dynamics of an oversized pit house in the southern Brazilian highlands. The Bayesian model demonstrates that House 1 was occupied for over two centuries with no evidence of major periods of abandonment, calling into question previous models of long-term abandonment. In addition, the House 1 sequence allowed us to tie transformations in ceramic style and lithic technology to an absolute chronology. Finally, we can provide new evidence that the emergence of oversized domestic structures is a relatively recent phenomenon among the southern proto-Jê. As monumental pit houses start to be built, small pit houses continue to be inhabited, evidencing emerging disparities in domestic architecture after AD 1000. Our research shows the importance of programmes of intensive dating of individual structures to understand occupation dynamics and site permanence, and challenges long held assumptions that the southern Brazilian highlands were home to marginal cultures in the context of lowland South America. PMID:27384341

  18. Pitting within the Martian South Polar Swiss Cheese Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathare, A.; Ingersoll, A.; Cushing, G.; Titus, T.

    2004-12-01

    The morphology of the Martian South Permanent Residual Cap is dominated by enigmatic quasi-circular landforms commonly referred to as "Swiss cheese" terrain. These large Swiss cheese depressions, which typically have widths of more than 100 m and extend down to the base of the layer, are expanding at rates of a few meters per Martian year due to CO2 sublimation. We present high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images detailing extensive "pits," by which we mean small cavities generally less than 10 m in diameter that do not penetrate completely through the Swiss cheese terrain. This pitting is only observed upon the thickest (~10 m) Swiss cheese mesas ("Unit A" as classified by Thomas et al. 2004), and moreover only occurs within 50 meters of the edges of these deposits. We argue that the pits are collapse features caused by the release of CO2 gas from a pressurized layer several meters below the mesa top. As the walls of the mesa retreat due to radiation imbalance, the pressurized layer is exposed, and CO2 vents out laterally, weakening the layer and causing the collapse. We can think of no other process that communicates laterally over distances of 50 meters in one Martian year, which is the time scale over which the pits form. For a layer 6 meters thick, the hydrostatic head is ~200 mbar, which provides an upper bound to the gas pressure in the sealed lower layer. However, for that maximum pressure to be attained, the CO2 in the lower layer must be approximately 30 K warmer than CO2 on the surface. Such a temperature differential is difficult to maintain, though, given that 6 meters is also the thermal skin depth for CO2 over 1 Martian year. We are exploring a number of mechanisms that might continually or cyclically warm this layer and enable rapid venting when the seal is broken. The persistence of polygonal cracks on the mesa tops could be further evidence of subsurface thermal variations.

  19. Biodegradable nanofiber-membrane for sustainable release of lidocaine at the femoral fracture site as a periosteal block: In vitro and in vivo studies in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ying-Chao; Cheng, Yi-Shiun; Hsu, Yung-Heng; Yu, Yi-Hsun; Liu, Shih-Jung

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a biodegradable, lidocaine-embedded, nanofibrous membrane for the sustainable analgesic release onto fragments of a segmental femoral fracture site. Membranes of three different lidocaine concentrations (10%, 30%, and 50%) were produced via an electrospinning technique. In vitro lidocaine release was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. A femoral segmental fracture, with intramedullary Kirschner-wire fixation and polycaprolactone stent enveloping the fracture site, was set-up in a rabbit model for in vivo assessment of post-operative recovery of activity. Eighteen rabbits were randomly assigned to three groups (six rabbits per group): group A comprised of rabbits with femoral fractures and underwent fixation; group B comprised of a comparable fracture model to that of group A with the implantation of lidocaine-loaded nanofibers; and group C, the control group, received only anesthesia. The following variables were measured: change in body weight, food and water intake before and after surgery, and total activity count post-surgery. All membranes eluted effective levels of lidocaine for more than 3 weeks post-surgery. Rabbits in group B showed faster recovery of activity post-operatively, compared with those in group A, which confirmed the pain relief efficacy of the lidocaine-embedded nanofibers. Nanofibers with sustainable lidocaine release have adequate efficacy and durability for pain relief in rabbits with segmental long bone fractures.

  20. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. A conceptual simulation model for release scenario analysis of a hypothetical site in Columbia Plateau Basalts

    SciTech Connect

    Stottlemyre, J.A.; Petrie, G.M.; Benson, G.L.; Zellmer, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    This report is a status report for an evolving methodology for release scenario development for underground nuclear waste repositories. As such, it is intended for use as a reference point and a preliminary description of an evolving geoscience methodology. When completed this methodology will be used as a tool in developing disruptive release scenarios for analyzing the long-term safety of geological nuclear waste repositories. While a basalt environment is used as an example, this report is not intended to reflect an actual site safety assessment for a repository in a media. It is rather intended to present a methodology system framework and to provide discussions of the geological phenomena and parameters that must be addressed in order to develop a methodology for potential release scenarios. It is also important to note that the phenomena, their interrelationships, and their relative importance along with the overall current structure of the model will change as new geological information is gathered through additional peer review, geotechnical input, site specific field work, and related research efforts.

  1. Steamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan For Corrective Action Unit 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29, Spill/Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (November 2001, Rev. 0)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2001-09-24

    This plan addresses the actions necessary for the characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29, Spill/Release Sites, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site, consists of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 12-25-04, UST 12-16-2 Waste Oil Release; CAS 18-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 18-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 18-25-03, Oil Spill; CAS 18-25-04, Spill (Diesel Fuel); CAS 29-44-01, Fuel Spill (a & b). Process knowledge is the basis for the development of the conceptual site models (CSMs). The CSMs describe the most probable scenario for current conditions at each site, and define the assumptions that are the basis for the SAFER plan. The assumptions are formulated from historical information and process knowledge. Vertical migration of contaminant(s) of potential concern (COPCs) is expected to be predominant over lateral migration in the absence of any barrier (with asphalt /concrete being the exception at least two of the CASs). Soil is the impacted or potentially impacted media at all the sites, with asphalt and/or concrete potentially impacted at two of the CASs. Radionuclides are not expected at any CAS; hydrocarbons are the primary COPC at each CAS, and can be used to guide the investigation; future land-use scenarios limit use to various nonresidential uses; and exposure scenarios are limited by future land-use scenarios to site workers. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 394 using the SAFER process. On completion of the field activities, a Closure Report will be prepared and submitted to the NDEP for review and approval.

  2. Lower lip pits in a patient with van der Woude syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baghestani, Shahram; Sadeghi, Naser; Yavarian, Majid; Alghasi, Hekmat

    2010-09-01

    van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is a congenital malformation characterized by lower lip pits with or without cleft lip or cleft palate. It is an autosomal-dominant inherited disorder with variable expression in clinical manifestation. Microdeletion in chromosome bands 1q32-q41 and recently identified mutation in interferon regulatory factor 6 gene (IRF6) have been reported to cause VWS. We report a case of VWS with lower lip pits as its main clinical manifestation without associated cleft in lip or palate. No mutation or deletion was found in the IRF6 gene or promoter site, indicating the heterogeneity of this defect. PMID:20818247

  3. Temperature induced transition from hexagonal to circular pits in graphite oxidation by O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delehouzé, Arnaud; Rebillat, Francis; Weisbecker, Patrick; Leyssale, Jean-Marc; Epherre, Jean-Francois; Labrugère, Christine; Vignoles, Gérard L.

    2011-07-01

    We report on an in-situ monitoring of graphite oxidation using a high temperature environmental scanning electron microscope. A morphological transition is clearly identified around 1040 K between hexagonal pits at low temperatures and circular pits at high temperatures, with apparently no change in the kinetic law. A kinetic Monte Carlo model allows rationalizing these findings in terms of the competitive oxidation of armchair and zig-zag edge sites and provides an estimate of the rate laws associated to these two events. Extended to three dimensions, the model also explains the "in-depth" transition between the stepwise hexagons and the hemispheres observed by atomic force microscopy.

  4. CORRECTIVE ACTION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 322: AREAS 1 AND 3 RELEASE SITES AND INJECTION WELLS, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan is to provide the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in the approved CADD. From April 2004 through September 2004, CAU 322 site characterization activities were conducted. CAU 322 consists of three CASs located in Areas 1 and 3 of the NTS.

  5. COPPER PITTING CORROSION: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Localized or pitting corrosion of copper pipes used in household drinking-water plumbing is a problem for many water utilities and their customers. Extreme attack can lead to pinhole water leaks that may result in water damage, mold growth, and costly repairs. Water quality has b...

  6. Extracting Valuable Data from Classroom Trading Pits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergstrom, Theodore C.; Kwok, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    How well does competitive theory explain the outcome in experimental markets? The authors examined the results of a large number of classroom trading experiments that used a pit-trading design found in Experiments with Economic Principles, an introductory economics textbook by Bergstrom and Miller. They compared experimental outcomes with…

  7. OVERVIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, TO 8750 PIT WITH DRILL SETTING AN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, TO 8750 PIT WITH DRILL SETTING AN EXPLOSIVE CHARGE TO REMOVE OVERBURDEN AND ACCESS COAL SEAMS LOCATED 200 FEET BELOW FOR STRIPPING. - Drummond Coal Company Cedrum Mine, 8750 Pit, County Road 124, Townley, Walker County, AL

  8. LONGITUDINAL VIEW OF THE SOAKING PIT BUILDING INTERIOR WITH OPEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LONGITUDINAL VIEW OF THE SOAKING PIT BUILDING INTERIOR WITH OPEN HEARTH IN BACKGROUND AND FURNACE PIT/ STACK AREA TO THE LEFT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Open Hearth Plant, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  9. Looking west inside of the soaking pit building for the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking west inside of the soaking pit building for the 44" slab mill at a red hot ingot being removed from a pit. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, 44" Slab Mill, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  10. GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING EAST, FROM RECLAIMED PASTURE TO 8750 PIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING EAST, FROM RECLAIMED PASTURE TO 8750 PIT WITH STRIPPING AND RECLAMATION ACTIVITY ONGOING SIDE BY SIDE. - Drummond Coal Company Cedrum Mine, 8750 Pit, County Road 124, Townley, Walker County, AL

  11. Mosh pits and Circle pits: Collective motion at heavy metal concerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierbaum, Matthew; Silverberg, Jesse L.; Sethna, James P.; Cohen, Itai

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metal concerts present an extreme environment in which large crowds (~102 -105) of humans experience very loud music (~ 130 dB) in sync with bright, flashing lights, often while intoxicated. In this setting, we find two types of collective motion: mosh pits, in which participants collide with each other randomly in a manner resembling an ideal gas, and circle pits, in which participants run collectively in a circle forming a vortex of people. We model these two collective behaviors using a flocking model and find qualitative and quantitative agreement with the behaviors found in videos of metal concerts. Futhermore, we find a phase diagram showing the transition from a mosh pit to a circle pit as well as a predicted third phase, lane formation.

  12. Alternatives Analysis Amchitka Island Mud Pit Cap Repair, Amchitka, Alaska January 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Darr, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) manages the Nevada Offsites program, which includes a series of reclaimed drilling mud impoundments on Amchitka Island, Alaska (Figure 1). Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc. is the Legacy Management Support contractor (the Contractor) for LM. The Contractor has procured Tetra Tech, Inc. to provide engineering support to the Amchitka mud pit reclamation project. The mud pit caps were damaged during a 7.9-magnitude earthquake that occurred in 2014. The goals of the current project are to investigate conditions at the mud pit impoundments, identify feasible alternatives for repair of the cover systems and the contents, and estimate relative costs of repair alternatives. This report presents descriptions of the sites and past investigations, existing conditions, summaries of various repair/mitigation alternatives, and direct, unburdened, order-of-magnitude (-15% to +50%) associated costs.

  13. Comparison of Shear-wave Profiles for a Compacted Fill in a Geotechnical Test Pit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvain, M. B.; Pando, M. A.; Whelan, M.; Bents, D.; Park, C.; Ogunro, V.

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the use of common methods for geological seismic site characterization including: i) multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW),ii) crosshole seismic surveys, and iii) seismic cone penetrometer tests. The in-situ tests were performed in a geotechnical test pit located at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte High Bay Laboratory. The test pit has dimensions of 12 feet wide by 12 feet long by 10 feet deep. The pit was filled with a silty sand (SW-SM) soil, which was compacted in lifts using a vibratory plate compactor. The shear wave velocity values from the 3 techniques are compared in terms of magnitude versus depth as well as spatially. The comparison was carried out before and after inducing soil disturbance at controlled locations to evaluate which methods were better suited to captured the induced soil disturbance.

  14. Pitted and fluted rocks in the Western Desert of Egypt - Viking comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccauley, J. F.; Breed, C. S.; Grolier, M. J.; El-Baz, F.; Whitney, M. I.; Ward, A. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Western Desert of Egypt is one of the most arid regions on earth and is probably the closest terrestrial analog to the surface of Mars. An expedition to the area in 1978 revealed an abundance of quartzite and basalt rocks that have been pitted and fluted by wind erosion and deflation of the desert surface. These pitted rocks are internally homogeneous, show no internal holes or vesicles, and are considered an important but neglected type of ventifact. They bear a striking resemblance to the pitted and fluted rocks seen by the Viking Landers, rocks that have generally been interpreted as vesicular basalts only slightly modified by wind erosion. Wind tunnel studies of the air flow over and around nonstreamlined hand specimens from the Western Desert show that windward abrasion coupled with negative flow, secondary flow, and vorticity in a unidirectional wind can explain the complex arrays of pits and flutes. These field and laboratory observations suggest that the pitted rocks at the Viking Lander sites are also ventifacts, and thus the Martian surface may be far more wind eroded than previously thought.

  15. Evapotranspiration Cover for the 92-Acre Area Retired Mixed Waste Pits:Interim CQA Report

    SciTech Connect

    The Delphi Groupe, Inc., and J. A. Cesare and Associates, Inc.

    2011-06-20

    This Interim Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report is for the 92-Acre Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division (WMD) Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for the period of January 20, 2011 to May 12, 2011. This Interim Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report is for the 92-Acre Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division (WMD) Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for the period of January 20, 2011 to May 12, 2011. Construction was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) under the Approval of Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, on January 6, 2011, pursuant to Subpart XII.8a of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The project is located in Area 5 of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly known as the Nevada Test Site, located in southern Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in Nye County. The project site, in Area 5, is located in a topographically closed basin approximately 14 additional miles north of Mercury Nevada, in the north-central part of Frenchman Flat. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. The 92-Acre Area encompasses the southern portion of the Area 5 RWMS, which has been designated for the first final closure operations. This area contains 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes, 16 narrow trenches, and 9 broader pits. With the exception of two active pits (P03 and P06), all trenches and pits in the 92-Acre Area had operational covers approximately 2.4 meters thick, at a minimum, in most areas when this project began. The units within the 92-Acre Area are grouped into the following six informal categories based on physical location

  16. Corrective Action Investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 546: Injection Well and Surface Releases, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-03-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 546 is located in Areas 6 and 9 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 546 is comprised of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: •06-23-02, U-6a/Russet Testing Area •09-20-01, Injection Well These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on November 8, 2007, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process has been used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 546.

  17. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Snake River stock) yearling fall chinook salmon that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam along with yearlings released on-station from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in 1998. The three fall chinook acclimation facilities are operated by the Nez Perce Tribe and located at Pittsburg Landing and Captain John Rapids on the Snake River and at Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River. Yearlings at the Big Canyon facility consisted of two size classes that are referred to in this report as 9.5 fish per pound (fpp) and 30 fpp. The Big Canyon 9.5 fpp were comparable to the yearlings at Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids and Lyons Ferry Hatchery. A total of 9,942 yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Pittsburg Landing. PIT tagged yearlings had a mean fork length of 159.9 mm and mean condition factor of 1.19. Of the 9,942 PIT tagged fish released, a total of 6,836 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental and McNary). A total of 4,926 9.5 fpp and 2,532 30 fpp yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Big Canyon. PIT tagged 9.5 fpp yearlings had a mean fork length of 156.9 mm and mean condition factor of 1.13. PIT tagged 30 fpp yearlings had a mean fork length of 113.1 mm and mean condition factor of 1.18. Of the 4,926 PIT tagged 9.5 fpp yearlings released, a total of 3,042 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams. Of the 2,532 PIT tagged 30 fpp yearlings released, a total of 1,130 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams. A total of 1,253 yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Captain John Rapids. PIT tagged yearlings had a mean fork length of 147.5 mm and mean condition factor of 1.09. Of

  18. 99. ARAIII. Overall view of drilling area in reactor pit. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. ARA-III. Overall view of drilling area in reactor pit. Bridge over pit in use for operations. Shows water in pool, reactor, hoist, operators, and general view of interior of reactor pit area. August 12, 1963. Ineel photo no. 63-4454. Photographer: Benson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. 10. Turbine Pit of Unit 5, view to the north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Turbine Pit of Unit 5, view to the north. Note the difference in configuration within this turbine pit as compared to one of the original pits illustrated in photograph number MT-105-A-11. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  20. 7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... substantially free from any adhering sirup, sugar, or other packing medium. (c) (A) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted cherries that are practically free from pits may be given a score of 18 to 20 points. “Practically free from pits” means that the number of pits that may be present does not exceed the...

  1. 30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56.3131 Section... Mining Methods § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall perimeter. In places where persons work or travel in... stripped back for at least 10 feet from the top of the pit or quarry wall. Other conditions at or near...

  2. Trends in precipitation, streamflow, reservoir pool elevations, and reservoir releases in Arkansas and selected sites in Louisiana, Missouri, and Oklahoma, 1951–2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Daniel M.; Krieger, Joshua D.; Merriman, Katherine R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) conducted a statistical analysis of trends in precipitation, streamflow, reservoir pool elevations, and reservoir releases in Arkansas and selected sites in Louisiana, Missouri, and Oklahoma for the period 1951–2011. The Mann-Kendall test was used to test for trends in annual and seasonal precipitation, annual and seasonal streamflows of 42 continuous-record USGS streamflow-gaging stations, annual pool elevations and releases from 16 USACE reservoirs, and annual releases from 11 dams on the Arkansas River. A statistically significant (p≤0.10) upward trend was observed in annual precipitation for the State, with a Sen slope of approximately 0.10 inch per year. Autumn and winter were the only seasons that had statistically significant trends in precipitation. Five of six physiographic sections and six of seven 4-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC) regions in Arkansas had statistically significant upward trends in autumn precipitation, with Sen slopes of approximately 0.06 to 0.10 inch per year. Sixteen sites had statistically significant upward trends in the annual mean daily streamflow and were located on streams that drained regions with statistically significant upward trends in annual precipitation. Expected annual rates of change corresponding to statistically significant trends in annual mean daily streamflows, which ranged from 0.32 to 0.88 percent, were greater than those corresponding to regions with statistically significant upward trends in annual precipitation, which ranged from 0.19 to 0.28 percent, suggesting that the observed trends in regional annual precipitation do not fully account for the observed trends in annual mean daily streamflows. Trends in annual maximum daily streamflows were similar to trends in the annual mean daily streamflows but were only statistically significant at seven sites. There were more statistically significant trends (28 of 42 sites) in the

  3. Strain buildup and release, earthquake prediction and selection of VLB sites for the margins of the North Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, C. H.; Johnson, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Projects studying different aspects of crustal deformation are discussed. The rifting process at the plate boundary in northern Iceland was investigated using combined seismic, tilt, and displacement measurements. Stresses acting on the Alpine fault, New Zealand, were modeled based on observations of regional variation in metamorphism and argon loss. The relationship between the stress pattern shown by intraplate seismicity and possible stresses on plates arising from litohspheric motion over the asthenosphere was investigated. Small earthquakes in Southern California were studied to determine if subregions of uniform strain release exist and if interaction occurs between faults.

  4. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites: Methodology and data base. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1996-06-01

    This manual describes a dose assessment system used to estimate the population or collective dose commitments received via both airborne and waterborne pathways by persons living within a 2- to 80-kilometer region of a commercial operating power reactor for a specific year of effluent releases. Computer programs, data files, and utility routines are included which can be used in conjunction with an IBM or compatible personal computer to produce the required dose commitments and their statistical distributions. In addition, maximum individual airborne and waterborne dose commitments are estimated and compared to 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix 1, design objectives. This supplement is the last report in the NUREG/CR-2850 series.

  5. Involvement of the Mural Thrombus as a Site of Protease Release and Activation in Human Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Vincent; Jacob, Marie-Paule; Houard, Xavier; Rossignol, Patrick; Plissonnier, Didier; Angles-Cano, Eduardo; Michel, Jean-Baptiste

    2002-01-01

    Acquired abdominal aortic aneurysms are usually associated with a mural thrombus through which blood continues to flow. Some early data suggest that aneurysmal evolution correlates with the biological activity of the thrombus. Our hypothesis was therefore that the thrombus could adsorb blood components and store, release, and participate in the activation of proteases involved in aneurysmal evolution. For this purpose, we have explored both the metalloproteinase and fibrinolytic systems in the thrombus and the wall of human aneurysms. We have first investigated blood clot formation and lysis in vitro. Spontaneous clotting induces a release of promatrix metalloproteinase (pro-MMP)-9 into the serum that was fourfold higher than in paired control plasma (P < 0.001). Fibrinolysis progressively released more MMP-9 in a time-dependent manner (P < 0.01). After selective isolation, we demonstrated that polymorphonuclear leukocytes are the main source of MMP-9 release during clot formation. Protease content was then analyzed in 35 mural thrombi and walls of human abdominal aortic aneurysms sampled during surgical repair. In 15 aneurysms, the liquid phase at the interface between the thrombus and the wall was sampled separately. Both thrombus and wall contained MMP-2 and MMP-9 but the ratio MMP-9/MMP-2 was higher in the thrombus than in the wall. The liquid interface also contained active MMP-9. Immunohistochemistry of the thrombus confirmed these findings, showing the presence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes at the luminal pole of the thrombus, co-localizing with MMP-9 storage. In contrast, MMP-3 and MMP-7 were only present in the aneurysmal wall. Plasminogen was present in the mural thrombus but plasmin activity was present in both thrombus and wall. In the liquid interface, plasmin-α2-anti-plasmin complexes were detected demonstrating in vivo the activation of plasminogen. In contrast, u-PA and t-PA were detectable only in the wall, suggesting that plasminogen present in

  6. Comparison of mussels and semi-permeable membrane devices as intertidal monitors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at oil spill sites.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Paul D; Page, David S; Brown, John S; Neff, Jerry M; Edward Bence, A

    2005-07-01

    Side-by-side comparisons of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in resident blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus) and in semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were made at four sites in Prince William Sound, Alaska. SPMDs were deployed for approximately 30 days on the surface of the beach sediment at three tidal elevations on each shore and in 0.5 m deep open pits in the middle intertidal zone. Total PAH (TPAH) concentrations in mussels and in SPMDs were correlated, but the PAH compositions were different. The lower molecular weight PAH were relatively more abundant in the SPMDs than in the mussels at oiled and HA sites. TPAH concentrations in SPMDs deployed in pits and mussels collected adjacent to those pits at oiled sites were higher than in SPMDs and mussels from non-pitted SPMD locations approximately 3-15 m from the pits. Pitting released buried oil making its PAH bioavailable. SPMDs deployed in the supratidal zone (+4.0 m tidal elevation) were exposed to atmospheric contaminants for a large fraction of the deployment time and accumulated primarily pyrogenic (combustion-sourced) PAH from the atmosphere. The SPMD strips supplied by the manufacturer contained significant amounts (approximately 125 ng/strip) of primarily alkylated 2-3 ring PAH. These blank levels make SPMDs unsuitable for shoreline assessments when environmental PAH concentrations are low. Consequently, where available, mussels are recommended for use in assessments of the bioavailability of buried oil residues sequestered in intertidal sediments following an oil spill. Mussels are the preferred monitoring tool when the assessments involve food-chain effects. At locations where the absence of mussels necessitates the use of SPMDs or other passive sampling devices, their limitations need to be carefully considered in the interpretation of results.

  7. Influence of nest box color and release sites on Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) reproductive success in a commercial almond orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the reduced availability of honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies for commercial pollination and high honey bee rental costs, alternative pollinators could provide pollination insurance against ongoing honey bee losses. In 2011, we studied the impact of two nesting site density treatments (...

  8. Monitoring Production of Methane and Carbon Dioxide and Consumption of Oxygen at Spills of Gasoline at UST Release Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methane is rarely measured at fuel spill sites, and most commonly the measurements are made on samples of ground water. Many ground water monitoring wells are intentionally screened across the water table. This was done to allow them to sample free product. However, if there is s...

  9. High neuropeptide Y release associates with Ewing sarcoma bone dissemination - in vivo model of site-specific metastases

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung-Hyeok; Tilan, Jason U.; Galli, Susana; Izycka-Swieszewska, Ewa; Polk, Taylor; Horton, Meredith; Mahajan, Akanksha; Christian, David; Jenkins, Shari; Acree, Rachel; Connors, Katherine; Ledo, Phuong; Lu, Congyi; Lee, Yi-Chien; Rodriguez, Olga; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.; Albanese, Chris; Kitlinska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) develops in bones or soft tissues of children and adolescents. The presence of bone metastases is one of the most adverse prognostic factors, yet the mechanisms governing their formation remain unclear. As a transcriptional target of EWS-FLI1, the fusion protein driving ES transformation, neuropeptide Y (NPY) is highly expressed and released from ES tumors. Hypoxia up-regulates NPY and activates its pro-metastatic functions. To test the impact of NPY on ES metastatic pattern, ES cell lines, SK-ES1 and TC71, with high and low peptide release, respectively, were used in an orthotopic xenograft model. ES cells were injected into gastrocnemius muscles of SCID/beige mice, the primary tumors excised, and mice monitored for the presence of metastases. SK-ES1 xenografts resulted in thoracic extra-osseous metastases (67%) and dissemination to bone (50%) and brain (25%), while TC71 tumors metastasized to the lungs (70%). Bone dissemination in SK-ES1 xenografts associated with increased NPY expression in bone metastases and its accumulation in bone invasion areas. The genetic silencing of NPY in SK-ES1 cells reduced bone degradation. Our study supports the role for NPY in ES bone invasion and provides new models for identifying pathways driving ES metastases to specific niches and testing anti-metastatic therapeutics. PMID:25714031

  10. Modeling of light intensification by conical pits within multilayer coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, S R; Wolfe, J E; Monterrosa, A; Feit, M D; Pistor, T V; Stolz, C J

    2009-11-02

    Removal of laser-induced damage sites provides a possible mitigation pathway to improve damage resistance of coated multilayer dielectric mirrors. In an effort to determine the optimal mitigation geometry which will not generate secondary damage precursors, the electric field distribution within the coating layers for a variety of mitigation shapes under different irradiation angles has been estimated using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The coating consists of twenty-four alternating layers of hafnia and silica with a quarter-wave reflector design. A conical geometrical shape with different cone angles is investigated in the present study. Beam incident angles range from 0{sup o} to 60{sup o} at 5{sup o} increments. We find that light intensification (square of electric field, |E|{sup 2}) within the multilayers depends strongly on the beam incident direction and the cone angle. By comparing the field intensification for each cone angle under all angles of incidence, we find that a 30{sup o} conical pit generates the least field intensification within the multilayer film. Our results suggest that conical pits with shallow cone angles ({le} 30{sup o}) can be used as potential optimal mitigation structures.

  11. Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

    2010-04-08

    This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 25-ton locomotive is a small, one-of-a-kind locomotive used to move railcars in support of the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application project. This locomotive was identified as having significant historical value by the Nevada State Railroad Museum in Boulder City, Nevada, where it will be used as a display piece. A substantial effort to characterize the radiological conditions of the locomotive was undertaken by the NTS Management and Operations Contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). During this characterization process, seven small areas on the locomotive had contamination levels that exceeded the NTS release criteria (limits consistent with U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] Order DOE O 5400.5, “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment”). The decision was made to perform radiological decontamination of these known accessible impacted areas to further the release process. On February 9, 2010, NSTec personnel completed decontamination of these seven areas to within the NTS release criteria. Although all accessible areas of the locomotive had been successfully decontaminated to within NTS release criteria, it was plausible that inaccessible areas of the locomotive (i.e., those areas on the locomotive where it was not possible to perform radiological surveys) could potentially have contamination above unrestricted release limits. To access the majority of these inaccessible areas, the locomotive would have to be disassembled. A complete disassembly for a full radiological survey could have permanently destroyed parts and would have ruined the historical value of the locomotive. Complete disassembly would also add an unreasonable financial burden for the

  12. A comparative study of fluoride release from two different sealants

    PubMed Central

    Ananda, Shimoga-Raju

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The introduction of fluoride releasing sealants and glass ionomer cements as fissure sealants adds another dimension to prevention of pit and fissure caries. The ability of resin sealants and glass ionomer cements to release fluoride on a long term basis to the sealed enamel and the adjacent unsealed pit and fissure and cuspal incline enamel may allow for further reduction in pit and fissure caries experience for children. Hence, the study was conducted to compare the amount of fluoride release in the plaque after placing fluoride releasing pit and fissure sealants and glass ionomer fissure sealants used in Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach. To compare the fluoride release of both the materials at the different time intervals. Material and Methods: A total of 60 school going children were included in this study. Before application of the sealants, baseline plaque fluoride levels were estimated from all the study subjects. After application of sealants again the same was estimated at an interval of 24 hour, 9 days, 2 weeks and 4 weeks. Results: The peak plaque fluoride levels were achieved at 24 hours after application of fissure sealants in all the groups. Conclusions: Within the limitation of the study, the present study indicated that fluoride releasing fissure sealants may act as a source of fluoride in plaque which will help in preventing pit and fissure and smooth surface caries in the tooth sealed with fissure sealants. Key words:Plaque fluoride, pit and fissures sealants, dental caries. PMID:25674315

  13. Corrosion pitting of SiC by molten salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.; Smialek, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The corrosion of SiC by thin films of Na2CO3 and Na2SO4 at 1000 C is characterized by a severe pitting attack of the SiC substrate. A range of different Si and SiC substrates were examined to isolate the factors critical to pitting. Two types of pitting attack are identified: attack at structural discontinuities and a crater-like attack. The crater-like pits are correlated with bubble formation during oxidation of the SiC. It appears that bubbles create unprotected regions, which are susceptible to enhanced attack and, hence, pit formation.

  14. A comprehensive stochastic model of phyllosilicate dissolution: Structure and kinematics of etch pits formed on muscovite basal face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurganskaya, Inna; Luttge, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    Accurate modeling of phyllosilicate dissolution kinetics is a complex problem involving recognition of the influence of structure, chemical composition, lattice defects, and surface topography on local and global dissolution mechanisms. Previous research has provided a wealth of experimental observations that illustrate the dominant role of etch pits in formation of the steps on the basal face of mica during the dissolution reaction. The shape of the etch pits bears important information on surface reactivity and dissolution rate anisotropy at given environmental conditions. In order to understand the influence of various kinetic factors on etch pit and step morphology, as well as the overall dissolution mechanisms, we have developed a new Kinetic Monte Carlo model simulating dissolution of these minerals. The model considers the effects of chemical composition, structural position, the number of first and second-order nearest neighbors and the steric hindrance of surface atoms on the etch pit morphology and step reactivity. We describe several complexity levels of the model which are characterized by the different ranges of the effects considered. These levels were developed in order to find the most optimal model capable of predicting experimentally observed etch pit morphologies. Our simulation results show that the models based on the sole consideration of the first coordination sphere in general can predict etch pit shape and orientation, while recognition of the site reactivity difference imposed by the steric factors helps us to explain the geometry of monolayer pit superposition. However, the distinction of the ledge and kink sites at all the experimentally observed surface steps is possible only with the use of the second-order neighbors. Based on these findings, we propose a mechanistic scheme explaining the role of the first and second-order coordination numbers in step stabilization and correct prediction of the etch pit structure.

  15. An active site rearrangement within the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme releases nonproductive interactions and allows formation of catalytic interactions.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Raghuvir N; Van Schie, Sabine N S; Giambaşu, George; Dai, Qing; Yesselman, Joseph D; York, Darrin; Piccirilli, Joseph A; Herschlag, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Biological catalysis hinges on the precise structural integrity of an active site that binds and transforms its substrates and meeting this requirement presents a unique challenge for RNA enzymes. Functional RNAs, including ribozymes, fold into their active conformations within rugged energy landscapes that often contain misfolded conformers. Here we uncover and characterize one such "off-pathway" species within an active site after overall folding of the ribozyme is complete. The Tetrahymena group I ribozyme (E) catalyzes cleavage of an oligonucleotide substrate (S) by an exogenous guanosine (G) cofactor. We tested whether specific catalytic interactions with G are present in the preceding E•S•G and E•G ground-state complexes. We monitored interactions with G via the effects of 2'- and 3'-deoxy (-H) and -amino (-NH(2)) substitutions on G binding. These and prior results reveal that G is bound in an inactive configuration within E•G, with the nucleophilic 3'-OH making a nonproductive interaction with an active site metal ion termed MA and with the adjacent 2'-OH making no interaction. Upon S binding, a rearrangement occurs that allows both -OH groups to contact a different active site metal ion, termed M(C), to make what are likely to be their catalytic interactions. The reactive phosphoryl group on S promotes this change, presumably by repositioning the metal ions with respect to G. This conformational transition demonstrates local rearrangements within an otherwise folded RNA, underscoring RNA's difficulty in specifying a unique conformation and highlighting Nature's potential to use local transitions of RNA in complex function.

  16. A Comprehensive and Systematic Approach to Developing and Documenting Conceptual Models of Contaminant Release and Migration at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Last, George V.; Rohay, Virginia J.; Schelling, F J.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Delamare, Michael A.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Hildebrand, R D.; Morse, John G.; Napier, Bruce A.; Riley, Robert G.; Soler, Luis; Thorne, Paul D.

    2004-04-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy?s Richland Operations Office has initiated efforts to adapt and implement the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) methodology (used in scenario development for nuclear waste disposal programs) to the environmental management and remediation problems facing the Hanford Site. These efforts have shown that modification of the FEPs methodology to incorporate the use of Process Relationship Diagrams (PRD) is effective in facilitating the development of conceptual models and selection of potentially relevant factors to be incorporated into a specific performance assessment. In developing this methodology for Hanford, a master PRD was created to provide an organization structure for identifying the potentially relevant factors (i.e. FEPs) and for illustrating the relationships between these factors. This organizational framework was developed to match the organization of current Hanford site-wide performance assessment activities and to facilitate screening of the FEPs relevant to the problems (and conceptual models) that need to be addressed at the site. However, the link between Hanford specific FEPs and the international list of FEPs was maintained to demonstrate completeness and perhaps to expand the usefulness of the international list for other environmental programs.

  17. Dual role of Lys206-Lys296 interaction in human transferrin N-lobe: iron-release trigger and anion-binding site.

    PubMed

    He, Q Y; Mason, A B; Tam, B M; MacGillivray, R T; Woodworth, R C

    1999-07-27

    The unique structural feature of the dilysine (Lys206-Lys296) pair in the transferrin N-lobe (hTF/2N) has been postulated to serve a special function in the release of iron from the protein. These two lysines, which are located in opposite domains, hydrogen bond to each other in the iron-containing hTF/2N at neutral pH but are far apart in the apo-form of the protein. It has been proposed that charge repulsion resulting from the protonation of the dilysines at lower pH may be the trigger to open the cleft and facilitate iron release. The fact that the dilysine pair is positively charged and resides in a location close to the metal-binding center has also led to the suggestion that the dilysine pair is an anion-binding site for chelators. The present report provides comprehensive evidence to confirm that the dilysine pair plays this dual role in modulating release of iron. When either of the lysines is mutated to glutamate or glutamine or when both are mutated to glutamate, release of iron is much slower compared to the wild-type protein. This is due to the fact that the driving force for cleft opening is absent in the mutants or is converted to a lock-like interaction (in the case of the K206E and K296E mutants). Direct titration of the apo-proteins with anions as well as anion-dependent iron release studies show that the dilysine pair is part of an active anion-binding site which exists with the Lys296-Tyr188 interaction as a core. At this site, Lys296 serves as the primary anion-binding residue and Tyr188 is the main reporter for electronic spectral change, with smaller contributions from Lys206, Tyr85, and Tyr95. In iron-loaded hTF/2N, anion binding becomes invisible as monitored by UV-vis difference spectra since the spectral reporters Tyr188 and Tyr95 are bound to iron. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that the apo-hTF/2N exists in equilibrium between the open and closed conformations, because only in the closed form is Lys296 in direct contact with

  18. Characterization of the Near-Field Transport and Dispersion of Vapors Released from the Headspaces of Hanford Site Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, James G.

    2004-07-30

    A parametric air dispersion analysis has been conducted to define the range of tank vapor concentrations from the Hanford Site underground tanks that can potentially occur in the worker breathing zones from active and passive releases from the waste tanks. The potential influences of tank farm specific release characteristics, ambient meteorological conditions, local farm surface roughness, and topographical influences are considered. The parametric approach allows consideration of the full range venting configurations and potential vapor concentration over the range of meteorological conditions at the Hanford Site. The results indicate that occasional short duration exposures of up to several seconds to relatively undiluted headspace air can be expected in the immediate vicinity of the tank vents. Average concentrations which represent diffusion, as well as spatial averaging, fall off rapidly with distance for the passive vents and to a lesser extent for the forced-air stacks. The addition of the influence of the surface roughness elements on the tank farms will result in a faster decrease of concentrations with downwind distance.

  19. Pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    van Rooyen, D.; Bandy, R.

    A pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel comprises 17 to 28 wt. % chromium, 15 to 26 wt. % nickel, 5 to 8 wt. % molybdenum, and 0.3 to 0.5 wt. % nitrogen, the balance being iron, unavoidable impurities, minor additions made in the normal course of melting and casting alloys of this type, and may optionally include up to 10 wt. % of manganese, up to 5 wt. % of silicon, and up to 0.08 wt. % of carbon.

  20. Pits, pipes, ponds--and me.

    PubMed

    Mara, Duncan

    2013-05-01

    My life in low-cost sanitation and low-cost wastewater treatment and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture really has been 'pits, pipes and ponds' - 'pits' are low-cost sanitation technologies (LCST) such as VIP latrines and pour-flush toilets; 'pipes' are low-cost sewerage, principally condominial (simplified) sewerage; and 'ponds' are low-cost wastewater treatment systems, especially waste stabilization ponds, and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture. 'Pits' were mainly working on World Bank LCST research projects, with fieldwork principally in Zimbabwe, 'pipes' were working on condominial sewerage projects in Brazil and disseminating this LCST to a wider global audience, and 'ponds' were waste stabilization ponds, with fieldwork mainly in Brazil, Colombia, Portugal and the United Kingdom, the development of aerated rock filters to polish facultative-pond effluents, and the human-health aspects of treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture, with fieldwork in Brazil and the UK, and the application of quantitative microbial risk analysis. The paper provides a professional perspective and lessons from historical developments and gives recommended future directions based on my career working on low-cost sanitation technologies and treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture.

  1. Pits, pipes, ponds--and me.

    PubMed

    Mara, Duncan

    2013-05-01

    My life in low-cost sanitation and low-cost wastewater treatment and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture really has been 'pits, pipes and ponds' - 'pits' are low-cost sanitation technologies (LCST) such as VIP latrines and pour-flush toilets; 'pipes' are low-cost sewerage, principally condominial (simplified) sewerage; and 'ponds' are low-cost wastewater treatment systems, especially waste stabilization ponds, and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture. 'Pits' were mainly working on World Bank LCST research projects, with fieldwork principally in Zimbabwe, 'pipes' were working on condominial sewerage projects in Brazil and disseminating this LCST to a wider global audience, and 'ponds' were waste stabilization ponds, with fieldwork mainly in Brazil, Colombia, Portugal and the United Kingdom, the development of aerated rock filters to polish facultative-pond effluents, and the human-health aspects of treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture, with fieldwork in Brazil and the UK, and the application of quantitative microbial risk analysis. The paper provides a professional perspective and lessons from historical developments and gives recommended future directions based on my career working on low-cost sanitation technologies and treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture. PMID:23490108

  2. Multilayer deformation planarization by substrate pit suturing.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yingjie; Zhu, Meiping; Xing, Huanbin; Wang, Hu; Cui, Yun; Shao, Jianda

    2016-08-01

    In the pursuit of 1064 nm high-power laser resistance dielectric coatings in the nanosecond region, a group of HfO2/SiO2 high reflectors with and without suture layers were prepared on prearranged fused silica substrates with femtosecond laser pits. Surface morphology, global coating stress, and high-resolution cross sections were characterized to determine the effects of substrate pit suturing. Laser-induced damage resistance was investigated for samples with and without suture layers. Our results indicate considerable stability in terms of the nanosecond 1064 nm laser-induced damage threshold for samples having a suture layer, due to decreased electronic field (e-field) deformation with simultaneous elimination of internal cracks. In addition, a suture layer formed by plasma ion-assisted deposition could effectively improve global mechanical stress of the coatings. By effectively reducing the multilayer deformation using a suture layer, electron-beam high-reflective coatings, whose laser-induced damage resistance was not influenced by the substrate pit, can be prepared. PMID:27472579

  3. Collective secondary cremation in a pit grave: a unique funerary context in Portuguese Chalcolithic burial practices.

    PubMed

    Silva, A M; Leandro, I; Pereira, D; Costa, C; Valera, A C

    2015-02-01

    Perdigões is a large site with a set of ditched enclosures located at Reguengos de Monsaraz, Alentejo, South Portugal. Recently at the central area of this site burnt human remains were found in a pit (#16). This structure had inside human remains, animal bones (namely pig, sheep or goat, cattle, dog, deer and rabbit), shards, ivory idols and arrowheads. All have been subjected to fire and later deposited in that pit, resulting in a secondary disposal of human bones. The recovered fragmented human bones (4845.18 g) correspond to a minimal number of 9 individuals: 6 adults and 3 sub-adults. The aim of this work is to document and interpret this funerary context based on the study of the recovered human remains. For that purpose, observations of all alterations due to fire, such as colour change and type of bone distortion, as well as anthropological data were collected. The data obtained suggest that these human remains were probably intentionally cremated, carefully collected and finally deposited in this pit. The cremation was conducted on probably complete corpses, some of them still fairly fresh and fleshed, as some bones presented thumbnail fractures. The collective cremation of the pit 16 represents an unprecedented funerary context for Portuguese, and Iberian Peninsula, Chalcolithic burial practices. Moreover, it is an example of the increasing diversity of mortuary practices of Chalcolithic human populations described in present Portuguese territory, as well as, in the Iberian Peninsula.

  4. Collective secondary cremation in a pit grave: a unique funerary context in Portuguese Chalcolithic burial practices.

    PubMed

    Silva, A M; Leandro, I; Pereira, D; Costa, C; Valera, A C

    2015-02-01

    Perdigões is a large site with a set of ditched enclosures located at Reguengos de Monsaraz, Alentejo, South Portugal. Recently at the central area of this site burnt human remains were found in a pit (#16). This structure had inside human remains, animal bones (namely pig, sheep or goat, cattle, dog, deer and rabbit), shards, ivory idols and arrowheads. All have been subjected to fire and later deposited in that pit, resulting in a secondary disposal of human bones. The recovered fragmented human bones (4845.18 g) correspond to a minimal number of 9 individuals: 6 adults and 3 sub-adults. The aim of this work is to document and interpret this funerary context based on the study of the recovered human remains. For that purpose, observations of all alterations due to fire, such as colour change and type of bone distortion, as well as anthropological data were collected. The data obtained suggest that these human remains were probably intentionally cremated, carefully collected and finally deposited in this pit. The cremation was conducted on probably complete corpses, some of them still fairly fresh and fleshed, as some bones presented thumbnail fractures. The collective cremation of the pit 16 represents an unprecedented funerary context for Portuguese, and Iberian Peninsula, Chalcolithic burial practices. Moreover, it is an example of the increasing diversity of mortuary practices of Chalcolithic human populations described in present Portuguese territory, as well as, in the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:25500530

  5. A parasitic nematode releases cytokinin that controls cell division and orchestrates feeding site formation in host plants

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Shahid; Radakovic, Zoran S.; De La Torre, Carola M.; Chronis, Demosthenis; Novák, Ondřej; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Holbein, Julia; Matera, Christiane; Hütten, Marion; Gutbrod, Philipp; Anjam, Muhammad Shahzad; Rozanska, Elzbieta; Habash, Samer; Elashry, Abdelnaser; Sobczak, Miroslaw; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Strnad, Miroslav; Schmülling, Thomas; Mitchum, Melissa G.; Grundler, Florian M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary plant-parasitic cyst nematodes are biotrophs that cause significant losses in agriculture. Parasitism is based on modifications of host root cells that lead to the formation of a hypermetabolic feeding site (a syncytium) from which nematodes withdraw nutrients. The host cell cycle is activated in an initial cell selected by the nematode for feeding, followed by activation of neighboring cells and subsequent expansion of feeding site through fusion of hundreds of cells. It is generally assumed that nematodes manipulate production and signaling of the plant hormone cytokinin to activate cell division. In fact, nematodes have been shown to produce cytokinin in vitro; however, whether the hormone is secreted into host plants and plays a role in parasitism remained unknown. Here, we analyzed the spatiotemporal activation of cytokinin signaling during interaction between the cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, and Arabidopsis using cytokinin-responsive promoter:reporter lines. Our results showed that cytokinin signaling is activated not only in the syncytium but also in neighboring cells to be incorporated into syncytium. An analysis of nematode infection on mutants that are deficient in cytokinin or cytokinin signaling revealed a significant decrease in susceptibility of these plants to nematodes. Further, we identified a cytokinin-synthesizing isopentenyltransferase gene in H. schachtii and show that silencing of this gene in nematodes leads to a significant decrease in virulence due to a reduced expansion of feeding sites. Our findings demonstrate the ability of a plant-parasitic nematode to synthesize a functional plant hormone to manipulate the host system and establish a long-term parasitic interaction. PMID:26417108

  6. A parasitic nematode releases cytokinin that controls cell division and orchestrates feeding site formation in host plants.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Shahid; Radakovic, Zoran S; De La Torre, Carola M; Chronis, Demosthenis; Novák, Ondřej; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Holbein, Julia; Matera, Christiane; Hütten, Marion; Gutbrod, Philipp; Anjam, Muhammad Shahzad; Rozanska, Elzbieta; Habash, Samer; Elashry, Abdelnaser; Sobczak, Miroslaw; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Strnad, Miroslav; Schmülling, Thomas; Mitchum, Melissa G; Grundler, Florian M W

    2015-10-13

    Sedentary plant-parasitic cyst nematodes are biotrophs that cause significant losses in agriculture. Parasitism is based on modifications of host root cells that lead to the formation of a hypermetabolic feeding site (a syncytium) from which nematodes withdraw nutrients. The host cell cycle is activated in an initial cell selected by the nematode for feeding, followed by activation of neighboring cells and subsequent expansion of feeding site through fusion of hundreds of cells. It is generally assumed that nematodes manipulate production and signaling of the plant hormone cytokinin to activate cell division. In fact, nematodes have been shown to produce cytokinin in vitro; however, whether the hormone is secreted into host plants and plays a role in parasitism remained unknown. Here, we analyzed the spatiotemporal activation of cytokinin signaling during interaction between the cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, and Arabidopsis using cytokinin-responsive promoter:reporter lines. Our results showed that cytokinin signaling is activated not only in the syncytium but also in neighboring cells to be incorporated into syncytium. An analysis of nematode infection on mutants that are deficient in cytokinin or cytokinin signaling revealed a significant decrease in susceptibility of these plants to nematodes. Further, we identified a cytokinin-synthesizing isopentenyltransferase gene in H. schachtii and show that silencing of this gene in nematodes leads to a significant decrease in virulence due to a reduced expansion of feeding sites. Our findings demonstrate the ability of a plant-parasitic nematode to synthesize a functional plant hormone to manipulate the host system and establish a long-term parasitic interaction.

  7. Nitrification in polluted soil fertilized with fast- and slow-releasing nitrogen: a case study at a refinery landfarming site.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Rainer; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja; Pulkkinen, Janne; Koivunen, Marja; Turpeinen, Anna-Riina; Aarnio, Tuula; Romantschuk, Martin

    2006-09-01

    The nitrifying activity and the effect of fertilization with urea and methylene urea were studied in a landfarming site. The site has been operative over 20 years and maintained by heavy nitrogen fertilization. The landfarming soil contained 4-6% (w/w) oil. The nitrate accumulation was 20-50mg NO3-N day(-1)kg(-1) observed after methylene urea fertilization of 889 g Nm(-2). Nitrification ex situ (in laboratory conditions) was 8.8 mg NO3-N day(-1) kg(-1) in the presence of 380 mg kg(-1) NH4+-N. The half-saturation concentration of nitrification was more than 200 mg NH4+-N kg(-1). The results show that nitrification was active in soil with high oil concentration. Urea fertilization of 893 g Nm(-2) caused an increase of soil NH4+-N concentration up to 5500 mg kg(-1) and pH>8.5. This led to inhibition of nitrification, which persisted after NH4+ concentration decreased below 200mg NH4+ kg(-1).

  8. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiments 2 and 3 (SPE-2 and SPE-3) Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Margaret; Obi, Curtis

    2015-01-26

    The second Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-2) was conducted in Nevada on October 25, 2011, at 1900:00.011623 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The explosive source was 997 kilograms (kg) trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalent of sensitized heavy ammonium fuel oil (SHANFO) detonated at a depth of 45.7 meters (m). The third Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-3) was conducted in Nevada on July 24, 2012, at 1800:00.44835 GMT. The explosive source was 905 kg TNT equivalent of SHANFO detonated at a depth of 45.8 m. Both shots were recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 m) and far-field (100 m or greater) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes at 15, 46, and 55 m depths around the shot and a set of single-component vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network was composed of a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 m to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the second and third Source Physics Experiment shots and the various types of near-field and far-field data that are available.

  9. Release of noble gases and nitrogen from grain-surface sites in lunar ilmenite by closed-system oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frick, U.; Becker, R. H.; Pepin, R. O.

    1986-01-01

    Noble gases and nitrogen were extracted from a 100 to 150 microns ilmenite separate from lunar soil 71501 by closed system stepped heating in approx. 10 torr O2 at 300 C, 400 C, 500 C, 600 C and 630 C, followed by stepped pyrolysis at ten temperatures between 680 C and approx. 1500 C. The five oxidation steps together liberated approx. 65% of the total He-4, 45% of the Ne-20, 23% of the N-14 and Ar-36, 12% of the Kr-84 and 8% of the Xe-132 in the sample; Ne-20/Ar-36 and Ne-20/Ne-22 ratios agree with the solar wind composition experiment, and Kr-84/Ar-36 and Xe-132/Ar-36 are within approx. 10% of Cameron's estimates for the sun and solar wind. The remaining gases, released above 630 C by pyrolysis, are strongly fractionated with respect to the SWC-Cameron solar wind elemental composition. Large concentrations of fractionated noble gases in grain interiors, their virtual absence in the relatively unfractionated surface gas reservoir, and the high N/noble gas ratio all imply that most of the solar wind noble gases initially implanted in grain surfaces are eventually lost by diffusion. Loss limits can be estimated by considering two given scenarios. It is concluded tat approx. 70 to 97% or more of the Ar implanted in 71501 ilmenite grains has diffusively escaped.

  10. Double contingency controls in the pit disassembly and conversion facility

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, L.; Brady-Raap, M.

    2002-01-01

    A Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) will be built and operated at DOE'S Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. The facility will process over three metric tons of plutonium per year. There will be a significant amount of special nuclear material (SNM) moving through the various processing modules in the facility, and this will obviously require well-designed engineering controls to prevent criticality accidents. The PDCF control system will interlock glovebox entry doors closed if the correct amount of SNM has not been removed from the exit enclosure. These same engineering controls will also be used to verify that only plutonium goes to plutonium processing gloveboxes, enriched uranium goes to enriched uranium processing, and that neither goes into non-SNM processing gloveboxes.

  11. Modeling a potential atmospheric release from a waste disposal facility at the savannah river site as an area source.

    PubMed

    Simpkins, A A; Lee, P L

    2006-08-01

    The Saltstone Facility was designed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to treat and dispose of certain low-level liquid radioactive wastes. The final product of Saltstone is several large concrete vaults. As part of the performance assessment for Saltstone, reduction of dose to receptors downwind of the vaults have been estimated for treating the vaults as an area atmospheric source as opposed to a point source. The CAP88 model has the ability to handle area sources, but the methods are not appropriate for receptors close to the source such as those modeled at 100 m. Use of the area source as opposed to the point source can reduce the dose by as much as a factor of 5 depending on vault size. A method for quickly assessing the dose from an area source for near-in exposures is demonstrated here.

  12. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiments 2 and 3 (SPE-2 and SPE-3) Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Margaret; Obi, Curtis

    2015-04-30

    The second Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-2) was conducted in Nevada on October 25, 2011, at 1900:00.011623 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The explosive source was 997 kilograms (kg) trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalent of sensitized heavy ammonium fuel oil (SHANFO) detonated at a depth of 45.7 meters (m). The third Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-3) was conducted in Nevada on July 24, 2012, at 1800:00.44835 GMT. The explosive source was 905 kg TNT equivalent of SHANFO detonated at a depth of 45.8 m. Both shots were recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 m) and far-field (100 m or greater) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes at 15, 46, and 55 m depths around the shot and a set of single-component vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network was composed of a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 m to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the second and third Source Physics Experiment shots and the various types of near-field and farfield data that are available.This revised document includes reports on baseline shift corrections for the SPE-2 and SPE-3 shots that were missing from the original January 2015 version.

  13. Local Release of Antibiotics for Surgical Site Infection Management Using High-Purity Calcium Sulfate: An In Vitro Elution Study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, John J.; Florance, Hannah; Robinson, Matthew T.; Michell, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to characterize the elution of four antibiotics from pharmaceutical-grade calcium sulfate beads and show that the eluted antibiotics retained efficacy. Methods: Calcium sulfate was combined with gentamicin, tobramycin, vancomycin, or rifampicin (ratio: 20 g of calcium sulfate, to 240 mg, 500 mg, 900 mg, and 600 mg of antibiotic, respectively). Three grams of beads were immersed in 4 mL of sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37°C. At each time point (4, 8, 24 h; 2, 7, 14, 28, 42 d), eluates were removed for analysis by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial efficacy of antibiotics combined with calcium sulfate beads after 42 d was tested by a modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay. Results: All samples showed a generally exponential decay in the eluted antibiotic concentration. At the first time point, both gentamicin and tobramycin had eluted to a peak concentration of approximately 10,000 mcg/mL. For rifampicin, the peak concentration occurred at 24 h, whereas for vancomycin, it occurred at 48 h. The eluted concentrations exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration for common periprosthetic joint infection pathogens for the entire span of the 42 study days. Mass spectrometry confirmed all antibiotics were unchanged when eluted from the calcium sulfate carrier. Antimicrobial efficacy was unaltered after 42 d in combination with calcium sulfate at 37°C. Conclusions: Pharmaceutical-grade calcium sulfate has the potential for targeted local release of tobramycin, gentamicin, vancomycin, and rifampicin over a clinically meaningful time period. PMID:25148101

  14. Observation of the molecular organization of calcium release sites in fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscle with nanoscale imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, Isuru D.; Munro, Michelle; Baddeley, David; Launikonis, Bradley S.; Soeller, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Localization microscopy is a fairly recently introduced super-resolution fluorescence imaging modality capable of achieving nanometre-scale resolution. We have applied the dSTORM variation of this method to image intracellular molecular assemblies in skeletal muscle fibres which are large cells that critically rely on nanoscale signalling domains, the triads. Immunofluorescence staining in fixed adult rat skeletal muscle sections revealed clear differences between fast- and slow-twitch fibres in the molecular organization of ryanodine receptors (RyRs; the primary calcium release channels) within triads. With the improved resolution offered by dSTORM, abutting arrays of RyRs in transverse view of fast fibres were observed in contrast to the fragmented distribution on slow-twitch muscle that were approximately 1.8 times shorter and consisted of approximately 1.6 times fewer receptors. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we have quantified the nanometre-scale spatial association between triadic proteins using multi-colour super-resolution, an analysis difficult to conduct with electron microscopy. Our findings confirm that junctophilin-1 (JPH1), which tethers the sarcoplasmic reticulum ((SR) intracellular calcium store) to the tubular (t-) system at triads, was present throughout the RyR array, whereas JPH2 was contained within much smaller nanodomains. Similar imaging of the primary SR calcium buffer, calsequestrin (CSQ), detected less overlap of the triad with CSQ in slow-twitch muscle supporting greater spatial heterogeneity in the luminal Ca2+ buffering when compared with fast twitch muscle. Taken together, these nanoscale differences can explain the fundamentally different physiologies of fast- and slow-twitch muscle. PMID:25100314

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 546: Injection Well and Surface Releases Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 546, Injection Well and Surface Releases, at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 546 is comprised of two corrective action sites (CASs): • 06-23-02, U-6a/Russet Testing Area • 09-20-01, Injection Well The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 546. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from May 5 through May 28, 2008, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 546: Injection Well and Surface Releases, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2008). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: • Determine whether a contaminant of concern is present at a given CAS. • Determine whether sufficient information is available to evaluate potential corrective action alternatives at each CAS. The CAU 546 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Because DQO data needs were met, and corrective actions have been implemented, it has been determined that no further corrective action (based on risk to human receptors) is necessary for the CAU 546 CASs. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office provides the following recommendations: • No further corrective actions are needed for CAU 546 CASs. • No Corrective Action Plan is required. • A Notice of Completion to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site

  16. Drainage pits in cohesionless materials: implications for surface of Phobos.

    PubMed

    Horstman, K C; Melosh, H J

    1989-09-10

    Viking orbiter images show grooves and chains of pits crossing the surface of Phobos, many of which converge toward the large crater Stickney or its antipode. Although it has been proposed that the pits and grooves are chains of secondary craters, their morphology and geometric relations suggest that they are the surface traces of fractures in the underlying solid body of Phobos. Several models have been proposed to explain the pits, of which the most plausible are gas venting and drainage of regolith into open fractures. the latter mechanism is best supported by the image data and is the mechanism studied in this investigation. Drainage pits and fissures are modeled experimentally by using two rigid substrate plates placed edge to edge and covered by uniform thicknesses of dry fragmental debris (simulated regolith). Fracture extension is simulated by drawing the plates apart, allowing drainage of regolith into the newly created void. A typical drainage experiment begins with a shallow depression on the surface of the regolith, above the open fissure. Increased drainage causes local drainage pits to form; continued drainage causes the pits to coalesce, forming a cuspate groove. The resulting experimental patterns of pits and grooves have pronounced similarities to those observed on Phobos. Characteristics such as lack of raised rims, linearity of grooves and chains of pits, uniform spacing of pits, and progression from discrete pits to cuspate grooves are the same in the experiments and on Phobos. In contrast, gas-venting pits occur in irregular chains and have raised rims. These experiments thus indicate that the Phobos grooves and pits formed as drainage structures. The pit spacing in an experiment is measured at the time that the maximum number of pits forms, prior to groove development. The average pit spacing is compared to the regolith thickness for each material. Regression line fits indicate that the average spacing of drainage pits in unconsolidated

  17. Drainage pits in cohesionless materials: implications for surface of Phobos.

    PubMed

    Horstman, K C; Melosh, H J

    1989-09-10

    Viking orbiter images show grooves and chains of pits crossing the surface of Phobos, many of which converge toward the large crater Stickney or its antipode. Although it has been proposed that the pits and grooves are chains of secondary craters, their morphology and geometric relations suggest that they are the surface traces of fractures in the underlying solid body of Phobos. Several models have been proposed to explain the pits, of which the most plausible are gas venting and drainage of regolith into open fractures. the latter mechanism is best supported by the image data and is the mechanism studied in this investigation. Drainage pits and fissures are modeled experimentally by using two rigid substrate plates placed edge to edge and covered by uniform thicknesses of dry fragmental debris (simulated regolith). Fracture extension is simulated by drawing the plates apart, allowing drainage of regolith into the newly created void. A typical drainage experiment begins with a shallow depression on the surface of the regolith, above the open fissure. Increased drainage causes local drainage pits to form; continued drainage causes the pits to coalesce, forming a cuspate groove. The resulting experimental patterns of pits and grooves have pronounced similarities to those observed on Phobos. Characteristics such as lack of raised rims, linearity of grooves and chains of pits, uniform spacing of pits, and progression from discrete pits to cuspate grooves are the same in the experiments and on Phobos. In contrast, gas-venting pits occur in irregular chains and have raised rims. These experiments thus indicate that the Phobos grooves and pits formed as drainage structures. The pit spacing in an experiment is measured at the time that the maximum number of pits forms, prior to groove development. The average pit spacing is compared to the regolith thickness for each material. Regression line fits indicate that the average spacing of drainage pits in unconsolidated

  18. Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of U.S. Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1995 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios for public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1995 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) monitoring were below permitted levels.

  19. Scanning for PIT-tagged flatfish in a coastal area using a sledge equipped with an RFID antenna.

    PubMed

    Sparrevohn, C R; Aarestrup, K; Stenberg, C; Righton, D

    2014-08-01

    A radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna system, build into a sledge that can be towed behind a vessel like a trawl and thereby has the potential to detect the position of a passive inductor technology (PIT)-tagged fish in a wide variety of habitats, is presented. By scanning for hatchery-reared PIT-tagged turbot Psetta maxima released into a natural habitat, the performance of the system was compared to a standard juvenile trawl and results suggested that the efficiency of the sledge was five times that of the trawl, which in absolute values corresponds to 75% of P. maxima lying in the pathway of the sledge.

  20. Detecting pits in tart cherries by hyperspectral transmission imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

    2004-11-01

    The presence of pits in processed cherry products causes safety concerns for consumers and imposes potential liability for the food industry. The objective of this research was to investigate a hyperspectral transmission imaging technique for detecting the pit in tart cherries. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire transmission images from individual cherry fruit for four orientations before and after pits were removed over the spectral region between 450 nm and 1,000 nm. Cherries of three size groups (small, intermediate, and large), each with two color classes (light red and dark red) were used for determining the effect of fruit orientation, size, and color on the pit detection accuracy. Additional cherries were studied for the effect of defect (i.e., bruises) on the pit detection. Computer algorithms were developed using the neural network (NN) method to classify the cherries with and without the pit. Two types of data inputs, i.e., single spectra and selected regions of interest (ROIs), were compared. The spectral region between 690 nm and 850 nm was most appropriate for cherry pit detection. The NN with inputs of ROIs achieved higher pit detection rates ranging from 90.6% to 100%, with the average correct rate of 98.4%. Fruit orientation and color had a small effect (less than 1%) on pit detection. Fruit size and defect affected pit detection and their effect could be minimized by training the NN with properly selected cherry samples.

  1. Cosmogenic 3He production rates revisited from evidences of grain size dependent release of matrix-sited helium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blard, P.-H.; Pik, R.; Lave, J.; Bourles, D.; Burnard, P.G.; Yokochi, R.; Marty, B.; Trusdell, F.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of the cosmogenic 3He (3Hec) content of various size aliquots of exposed olivines show that the fine fraction (<140 μm) has 3Hec concentrations between 14 and 100% lower than that of the coarse fractions (0.14–1 mm). Such differences attest to a grain size dependent partial release of 3Hec from the phenocrysts matrix during the preliminary in vacuo crushing. This result might have important implications since most 3Hec measurements have used for ∼20 yr a standard routine based on the fusion of bulk powdered phenocrysts, whatever their grain size. A suite of new data obtained from coarse olivine grains yielded a mean Sea Level High Latitude 3Hec production rate (SLHL P3) of 128±5 and 136±6 at. g−1 yr−1, depending on the scaling factors used. This new value, which is ∼15% higher than previously published rates, is obtained from 5 ropy flow surfaces of Mt Etna (38°N) and Hawaiian (19°N) volcanoes, at elevations between sea level and 870 m and ranging in age from 1.47±0.05 to 149±23 ka according to independent 14C or K/Ar dating. 3He loss during the crushing step might account for the discrepancy between the standard reference value of 110–115 at. g−1 y−1 and the higher SLHL P3 proposed here. More generally, removal of the powdered fraction before fusion is an important point to consider in further studies in order to avoid any 3Hec systematic underestimates.An altitudinal section has also been sampled on the ropy surface of a ∼1500 yr single flow of Mauna Loa (19°N) which allowed a new empirical atmospheric attenuation length of 149±22 g cm−2 to be documented for 3Hec in olivines between 2400 and 4000 m elevations.

  2. Molecular in situ topology of Aczonin/Piccolo and associated proteins at the mammalian neurotransmitter release site.

    PubMed

    Limbach, Christoph; Laue, Michael M; Wang, Xiaolu; Hu, Bin; Thiede, Nadine; Hultqvist, Greta; Kilimann, Manfred W

    2011-08-01

    The protein machinery of neurotransmitter exocytosis requires efficient orchestration in space and time, for speed and precision of neurotransmission and also for synaptic ontogeny and plasticity. However, its spatial organization in situ is virtually unknown. Aczonin/Piccolo is a putative organizer protein of mammalian active zones. We determined by immunogold electron microscopy (EM) (i) the spatial arrangement (i.e., topology) of 11 segments of the Aczonin polypeptide in situ, and correlated it to (ii) the positioning of Aczonin-interacting domains of Bassoon, CAST/ELKS, Munc13, and RIM and (iii) the ultrastructurally defined presynaptic macromolecular aggregates known as dense projections and synaptic ribbons. At conventional synapses, Aczonin assumes a compact molecular topology within a layer 35 to 80 nm parallel to the plasma membrane (PM), with a "trunk" sitting on the dense projection top and a C-terminal "arm" extending down toward the PM and sideward to the dense projection periphery. At ribbon synapses, Aczonin occupies the whole ribbon area. Bassoon colocalizes with Aczonin at conventional synapses but not at ribbon synapses. At both conventional and ribbon synapses, CAST, Munc13, and RIM are segregated from Aczonin, closer to the PM, and Aczonin is positioned such that it may control the access of neurotransmitter vesicles to the fusion site.

  3. Estimation of the release and migration of lead through soils and groundwater at the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, K.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Lewis, R.E.; Teel, S.S.; Cantrell, K.J.; Serne, R.J.; Smoot, J.L.; Kincaid, C.T.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1992-10-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the potential for transport of lead from the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground to the surrounding surface- and groundwater. Burial of metal components containing nickel alloy steel and lead at this location may eventually result in release of lead to the subsurface environment, including groundwater aquifers that may be used for domestic and agricultural purposes in the future and, ultimately, to the Columbia River. The rate at which lead is transported to downgradient locations depends on a complex set of factors, such as climate, soil and groundwater chemistry, and the geologic and hydrologic configuration of the subsurface region between the burial ground and a potential receptor location. The groundwater transport analysis was conducted using a one-dimensional screening model with a relatively conservative matrix of parameters obtained from the hydrogeologic and geochemical studies.

  4. Estimation of the release and migration of lead through soils and groundwater at the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, K.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Lewis, R.E.; Teel, S.S.; Cantrell, K.J.; Serne, R.J.; Smoot, J.L.; Kincaid, C.T.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1992-10-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the potential for transport of lead from the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground to the surrounding surface- and groundwater. Burial of metal components containing nickel alloy steel and lead at this location may eventually result in release of lead to the subsurface environment, including groundwater aquifers that may be used for domestic and agricultural purposes in the future and, ultimately, to the Columbia River. The rate at which lead is transported to downgradient locations depends on a complex set of factors, such as climate, soil and groundwater chemistry, and the geologic and hydrologic configuration of the subsurface region between the burial ground and a potential receptor location. The groundwater transport analysis was conducted using a one-dimensional screening model with a relatively conservative matrix of parameters obtained from the hydrogeologic and geochemical studies.

  5. Ecotoxicological screen of Potential Release Site 50-006(d) of Operable Unit 1147 of Mortandad Canyon and relationship to the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facilities project

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, G.J.; Newell, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    Potential ecological risk associated with soil contaminants in Potential Release Site (PRS) 50-006(d) of Mortandad Canyon at the Los Alamos National Laboratory was assessed by performing an ecotoxicological risk screen. The PRS surrounds Outfall 051, which discharges treated effluent from the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility. Discharge at the outfall is permitted under the Clean Water Act National Pollution Discharge Elimination System. Radionuclide discharge is regulated by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.5. Ecotoxicological Screening Action Levels (ESALSs) were computed for nonradionuclide constituents in the soil, and human risk SALs for radionuclides were used as ESALs. Within the PRS and beginning at Outfall 051, soil was sampled at three points along each of nine linear transects at 100-ft intervals. Soil samples from 3 depths for each sampling point were analyzed for the concentration of a total of 121 constituents. Only the results of the surface sampling are reported in this report.

  6. A Multi-Site Pilot Study of Extended-Release Injectable Naltrexone Treatment for Previously Opioid-Dependent Parolees and Probationers

    PubMed Central

    Coviello, D.M.; Cornish, J.W.; Lynch, K.G.; Boney, T.Y.; Clark, C.A.; Lee, J.D.; Friedmann, P.D.; Nunes, E.V.; Kinlock, T.W.; Gordon, M.S.; Schwartz, R.P.; Nuwayser, E.S.; O’Brien, C.P.

    2012-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to pilot test the ability of five sites to recruit, treat, and retain opioid-dependent offenders in a trial of extended-release injectable naltrexone (XR-NTX). The participants, 61 previously opioid-dependent individuals under legal supervision in the community, received up to six monthly injections of Depotrex® brand naltrexone and completed a six-month follow-up interview. Six-month outcomes showed that those who completed treatment had significantly fewer opioid-positive urines and were less likely to have been incarcerated than those who had not completed treatment. The findings indicate that XR-NTX holds promise as a feasible, effective treatment option for opioid-dependent offenders. PMID:22263713

  7. Experimental design for the formulation and optimization of novel cross-linked oilispheres developed for in vitro site-specific release of Mentha piperita oil.

    PubMed

    Sibanda, Wilbert; Pillay, Viness; Danckwerts, Michael P; Viljoen, Alvaro M; van Vuuren, Sandy; Khan, Riaz A

    2004-03-12

    A Plackett-Burman design was employed to develop and optimize a novel crosslinked calcium-aluminum-alginate-pectinate oilisphere complex as a potential system for the in vitro site-specific release of Mentha piperita, an essential oil used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. The physicochemical and textural properties (dependent variables) of this complex were found to be highly sensitive to changes in the concentration of the polymers (0%-1.5% wt/vol), crosslinkers (0%-4% wt/vol), and crosslinking reaction times (0.5-6 hours) (independent variables). Particle size analysis indicated both unimodal and bimodal populations with the highest frequency of 2 mm oilispheres. Oil encapsulation ranged from 6 to 35 mg/100 mg oilispheres. Gravimetric changes of the crosslinked matrix indicated significant ion sequestration and loss in an exponential manner, while matrix erosion followed Higuchi's cube root law. Among the various measured responses, the total fracture energy was the most suitable optimization objective (R2 = 0.88, Durbin-Watson Index = 1.21%, Coefficient of Variation (CV) = 33.21%). The Lagrangian technique produced no significant differences (P > .05) between the experimental and predicted total fracture energy values (0.0150 vs 0.0107 J). Artificial Neural Networks, as an alternative predictive tool of the total fracture energy, was highly accurate (final mean square error of optimal network epoch approximately 0.02). Fused-coated optimized oilispheres produced a 4-hour lag phase followed by zero-order kinetics (n > 0.99), whereby analysis of release data indicated that diffusion (Fickian constant k1 = 0.74 vs relaxation constant k2 = 0.02) was the predominant release mechanism. PMID:15198539

  8. Interim Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection for the A-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Randall

    2000-11-17

    The A-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) Operable Unit (OU)(ABRP) is listed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(u) Solid Waste Management Unit/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) unit in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken County, South Carolina. The following media are associated with this OU: surface soil and groundwater. An SRS RCRA permit modification is not required at this time since this is an interim action. However, the final permit modification will (1) include the final selection of remedial alternatives under RCRA, (2) be sought for the entire ABRP with the final Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan (SB/PP), and (3) will include the necessary public involvement and regulatory approvals. This Interim Record of Decision (IROD) also satisfies the RCRA requirements for an Interim Measures Work Plan.

  9. Orientation dependence and bonding during pitting corrosion of HCP metals.

    SciTech Connect

    Lillard, Robert Scott

    2002-01-01

    The orientation dependence of pitting in single crystal beryllium (Be) is compared to the observations for single crystal zinc (Zn) reported by other investigators. The pit walls in stable propagating pits for prism planes were always square; in the (ioio) surface the walls were normal to the [0001] and [{bar 1}2{bar 1}0] directions while in the (110) surface the walls were normal to the [0001] and [{bar 1}100] directions. In addition, for the (ioio) and (11{bar 2}0) surfaces the pit interiors were characterized by crystallographically oriented parallel plates of unattacked Be. The orientation of these lamella was quite different than those observed in Zn. To explain this difference, the electron density distributions in the metal lattices are analyzed. A conceptual model for crystallographic pitting is introduced. In this model it is proposed that the crystallographic pits observed in single crystal hcp metals reflects the bond energy in the lattice.

  10. Coordinate Measuring Machine Pit Artifact Inspection Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Montano, Joshua D.

    2012-07-31

    The goal of this document is to outline a procedure for dimensional measurement of Los Alamos National Laboratory's CMM Pit Artifact. This procedure will be used by the Manufacturing Practice's Inspection Technology Subgroup of the Interagency Manufacturing Operations Group and Joint Operations Weapon Operations Group (IMOG/JOWOG 39) round robin participants. The intent is to assess the state of industry within the Nuclear Weapons Complex for measurements made on this type of part and find which current measurement strategies and techniques produce the best results.

  11. Spontaneous revegetation vs. forestry reclamation in post-mining sand pits.

    PubMed

    Šebelíková, Lenka; Řehounková, Klára; Prach, Karel

    2016-07-01

    Vegetation development of sites restored by two different methods, spontaneous revegetation and forestry reclamation, was compared in four sand pit mining complexes located in the southern part of the Czech Republic, central Europe. The space-for-time substitution method was applied to collect vegetation records in 13 differently aged and sufficiently large sites with known history. The restoration method, age (time since site abandonment/reclamation), groundwater table, slope, and aspect in all sampled plots were recorded in addition to the visual estimation of percentage cover of all present vascular plant species. Multivariate methods and GLM were used for the data elaboration. Restoration method was the major factor influencing species pattern. Both spontaneously revegetated and forestry reclaimed sites developed towards forest on a comparable timescale. Although the sites did not significantly differ in species richness (160 species in spontaneously revegetated vs. 111 in forestry reclaimed sites), spontaneously revegetated sites tended to be more diverse with more species of conservation potential (10 Red List species in spontaneous sites vs. 4 Red List species in forestry reclaimed sites). These results support the use of spontaneous revegetation as an effective and low-cost method of sand pit restoration and may contribute to implementation of this method in practice.

  12. Spontaneous revegetation vs. forestry reclamation in post-mining sand pits.

    PubMed

    Šebelíková, Lenka; Řehounková, Klára; Prach, Karel

    2016-07-01

    Vegetation development of sites restored by two different methods, spontaneous revegetation and forestry reclamation, was compared in four sand pit mining complexes located in the southern part of the Czech Republic, central Europe. The space-for-time substitution method was applied to collect vegetation records in 13 differently aged and sufficiently large sites with known history. The restoration method, age (time since site abandonment/reclamation), groundwater table, slope, and aspect in all sampled plots were recorded in addition to the visual estimation of percentage cover of all present vascular plant species. Multivariate methods and GLM were used for the data elaboration. Restoration method was the major factor influencing species pattern. Both spontaneously revegetated and forestry reclaimed sites developed towards forest on a comparable timescale. Although the sites did not significantly differ in species richness (160 species in spontaneously revegetated vs. 111 in forestry reclaimed sites), spontaneously revegetated sites tended to be more diverse with more species of conservation potential (10 Red List species in spontaneous sites vs. 4 Red List species in forestry reclaimed sites). These results support the use of spontaneous revegetation as an effective and low-cost method of sand pit restoration and may contribute to implementation of this method in practice. PMID:26342299

  13. Environmental data package for ORNL Solid Waste Storage Area Four, the adjacent intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the liquid waste pilot pit area

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Shoun, R.R.

    1986-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Remedial Action Program has determined through its review of past environmental studies that Solid Waste Storage Area Four (SWSA-4) continually releases radioactivity to White Oak Creek and therefore requires application of the site stabilization and remedial actions outlined under the 3004u provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under these provisions, a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) forms the basis for determining the extent of actions. This report assembles available historical and environmental data relative to the SWSA-4 waste area grouping (WAG), which includes the 9.3-ha SWSA-4 site, the adjacent abandoned intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the experimental pilot pit area. The rationale for grouping these three waste management units into the SWSA-4 WAG is the fact that they each lie in the same hydrologic unit and share a common tributary to White Oak Creek. The results of this compilation demonstrate that although a considerable number of studies have been carried out in SWSA-4, needs such as installation of water quality wells and continued monitoring and reporting of hydrologic data still exist. These needs will become even more critical as the RI/FS process proceeds and remedial measures for the site are considered. Fewer studies have been carried out to characterize the extent of contamination at the waste transfer line and the pilot pit area. Alternatives for characterizing and stabilizing these two minor components of the SWSA-4 WAG are presented; however, extensive remedial actions do not appear to be warranted.

  14. Effect of an Antibacterial Monomer on the Antibacterial Activity of a Pit-and-Fissure Sealant

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yan; Zhang, Ling; Sun, Xiang; Liu, Zhengya; Guo, Huihui; Huang, Li; Chen, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    Resin-based pit-and-fissure sealants are often used to form a barrier on the occlusal surface of molars to treat caries lesions; however, bacteria can remain in the pit and fissures without detection, increasing the risk of secondary caries. Sealants with antimicrobial properties or microbial repellent actions might be advantageous. The aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effect of a 2-methacryloxylethyl dodecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-DB)-incorporated sealant against Streptococcus mutans. MAE-DB (4% wt) was incorporated into a commercially available sealant, Eco-S resin-based pit-and-fissure sealant (Vericom Co., Ltd., Korea); a sealant without MAE-DB served as a negative control, and Clinpro™ Sealant (3M™ ESPE™), a fluoride-releasing resin, was used as a commercial control. The effects of the cured sealants and their eluents on the growth of S. mutans were determined according to colony-forming unit counts and metabolic tests. The effects of the cured sealants on the adherence and membrane integrity of S. mutans were investigated using confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) in conjunction with fluorescent indicators. Compared with the negative control and commercial control, the cured MAE-DB-incorporated pit-and-fissure sealant exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of S. mutans (P < 0.05), whereas the eluents did not show any detectable antibacterial activity. The commercial control also showed no detectable bactericidal activity. Moreover, the aged experimental material retained its property of contact inhibition of biofilm formation. The fluorescence analysis of CLSM images demonstrated that the cured MAE-DB-incorporated sealant could hamper the adherence of S. mutans and exert a detrimental effect on bacterial membrane integrity. The incorporation of MAE-DB can render a pit-and-fissure sealant with contact antibacterial activity after polymerization via influencing the growth, adherence, and membrane integrity of S

  15. Lessons Learned from Pit Viper Integration into Hanford Tank Farm Reality

    SciTech Connect

    Catalan, Michael A.; Bailey, Sharon A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Niebuhr, Daniel P.

    2002-05-11

    Application of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle to many tasks across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex logically leads to the realization that remotely operated equipment is highly desirable. The Pit Viper is a tele-operated system intended for pit operations at the Hanford Site. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components were used in an attempt to reduce integration hurdles and increase reliability. One key factor is that only a limited number of available, off-the-shelf robotic manipulator systems are available and all of them have some characteristics that present interfacing challenges. The state-of-the-art in remote technology is not as mature as many might hope. This paper describes the issues (and proposed improvements) that surfaced during the development and first deployment of the Pit Viper System. Important areas are contamination control, operator interface and operator training, adaptation of tools, and workspace interfaces. The Pit Viper, as is, provides significant improvement over the current baseline approaches.

  16. Benthic re-colonization in post-dredging pits in the Puck Bay (Southern Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymelfenig, Maria; Kotwicki, Lech; Graca, Bożena

    2006-07-01

    The stage of benthic re-colonization at a site formed by sand extraction was investigated some 10 years after the cessation of dredging. The examined post-dredging pit is one of five deep (up to 14 m) pits created with a static suction hopper on the sandy, flat and shallow (1-2 m) part of the inner Puck Bay (the southern Baltic Sea). The topography of the dredged area makes a specific trap for different kinds of organic matter. It is created by the small areas of post-dredging pits as compared to their depths. As a result, organic matter accumulation leads to anaerobic conditions and hydrogen sulfide formation. Macrofauna was not found to occur permanently in the deepest part (11 m) of the cup-shaped depression, which was characterized by its small area (0.2 km 2) and steep walls. However, permanent occurrence of meiofauna (max. 180 ind. 10 cm -2, mainly Nematoda) was noted. Undoubtedly, re-colonization of benthic fauna assemblages, typical of shallow and sandy seabed of the Puck Bay, will not follow in a natural way in the area of post-dredging pits. Also, it could not be expected that the re-colonization sequence would result in the formation of a structure similar to that of the natural depression (the Kuźnica Hollow).

  17. Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This report for Calendar Year 1994 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of US Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1994 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios of public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1994 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) monitoring were below permitted levels.

  18. Analysis and cleaning of dirty W48 pits

    SciTech Connect

    LeMay, J.D.

    1996-04-01

    This presentation will summarize the results of an investigation of a dirty W48 pit and the subsequent development of a process for cleaning this class of pits in preparation for long-term storage. The residues of the dirty pit were analyzed for chemical identification and evidence of species known to promote corrosion of the metal cladding. The cleaning process was developed to reduce the potential for future corrosion during long-term storage.

  19. Closure report for CAU No. 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill, Tonopah test range

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This Closure Reports presents the information obtained from corrective and investigative actions performed to affirm the decision for clean closure of Corrective Action Unit No. 400 which includes the Bomblet Pit and the Five Points Landfill, two sites used for disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) and other solid waste at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Tonopah Test Range, located in south-central Nevada. The first phase, or corrective action, for clean closure was performed under the Voluntary Correction Action Work Plan for Ordnance Removal from Five Disposal Sites at the Tonopah Test Range, hereafter referred to as the VCA Work Plan. The second phase consisted of collecting verification samples under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan, CA U No. 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill, Tonopah Test Range, hereafter referred to as the SAFER Plan. Results of the two phases are summarized in this document.

  20. Contaminants, water quality, and wildlife mortality on oil production sites in western South Dakota. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, C.J.; Ruelle, R.

    1993-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate oil pits and other hazards at oil production sites to (1) document the magnitude of wildlife mortality due to exposure to oil and other chemicals, (2) determine the physical and toxic effects of oil pit contents on wildlife, and (3) identify methods to prevent sublethal and lethal impacts to wildlife. Pits at oil production sites in Fall River and Harding Counties of western South Dakota were surveyed for wildlife carcasses by searching the shorelines and raking underwater around the pit edges in April, July, and October 1992. In July, composite water and sediment samples were collected from 26 pits, and analyzed for oil and grease. Bioassays were conducted with two life stages of Hyalella azteca and Daphnia magna to determine pit water toxicity. Seed germination tests were conducted using radish seeds exposed to pit water. Oil and poor water quality appeared to be the primary causes of pit liquid toxicity.

  1. Effects of a 2006 High-Flow Release from Tiber Dam on Channel Morphology at Selected Sites on the Marias River, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auble, Gregor T.; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2008-01-01

    In June 2006, an opportunistic high-flow release was made from Tiber Dam on the Marias River in Mont., to investigate possible alternatives for partially restoring the river's natural flow pattern and variability. At two sites along the river, we measured channel geometry before and after the high-flow release to evaluate channel change and alteration of physical habitat. Streamflow downstream from Tiber Dam has been stabilized by reduction of high flows and augmentation of low flows. This has produced flood-control benefits as well as some possible adverse environmental effects downstream from the dam. The 2006 high-flow release resulted in a downstream hydrograph with high flows of above-average magnitude in the post-dam flow regime of the Marias River. Timing of the peak and the declining limb of the release hydrograph were very similar to a historical, unregulated hydrograph of the Marias River. Furthermore, the high flow produced many of the qualitative elements of ecologically important physical processes that can be diminished or lost due to flow stabilization downstream from a dam. Typically dry back channels were occupied by flowing water. Islands were inundated, resulting in vegetation removal and sediment accretion that produced new disturbance patches of bare, moist substrate. Cut banks were eroded, and large woody debris was added to the river and redistributed. Flood-plain surfaces were inundated, producing substantial increases in wetted perimeter and spatially distinctive patterns of deposition associated with natural levee formation. The scale of the 2006 high flow - in terms of peak magnitude and the lateral extent of bottomland influenced by inundation or lateral channel movement - was roughly an order of magnitude smaller than the scale of an infrequent high flow in the pre-dam regime. Overall extent and composition of riparian vegetation will continue to change under a scaled-down, post-dam flow regime. For example, the importance of the non

  2. 18. DETAIL, INSPECTION PIT Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL, INSPECTION PIT - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  3. Compartmental absorption modeling and site of absorption studies to determine feasibility of an extended-release formulation of an HIV-1 attachment inhibitor phosphate ester prodrug.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jonathan; Chien, Caly; Timmins, Peter; Dennis, Andrew; Doll, Walter; Sandefer, Erik; Page, Richard; Nettles, Richard E; Zhu, Li; Grasela, Dennis

    2013-06-01

    BMS-663068 is a phosphonooxymethyl ester prodrug under development for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. The prodrug is designed to overcome the solubility-limited bioavailability of the active moiety, BMS-626529. BMS-663068 is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and requires enzymatic conversion by alkaline phosphatase to BMS-626529 immediately before absorption. In the light of the known short in vivo half-life of BMS-626529, compartmental absorption modeling was used to predict the potential feasibility of extended-release (ER) delivery to achieve target Cmax :Cmin ratios. To further refine the model with respect to colonic absorption, the regional absorption of BMS-626529 following delivery of BMS-663068 to upper and lower GI sites was characterized through a site of absorption study in human subjects. A refined model was subsequently applied to guide the development of ER tablet formulations. Comparisons of results from the refined model to the in vivo human pharmacokinetic data for three selected ER formulations demonstrate the utility of the model in predicting feasibility of ER delivery and in directing formulation development.

  4. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1: Results of treatability study

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.; Naney, M.T.; Cline, S.R.; Bogle, M.A.; Tixier, J.S.

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993 to apply in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was later extended to include all of Pit 1 and was performed to support a possible Interim Record of Decision or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches beginning as early as FY 1997. This treatability study was carried out to establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability for the overlap of melt settings which will be necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. In April 1996 an expulsion of an estimated 10% of the 196 Mg (216 tons) melt body occurred resulting in significant damage to ISV equipment and, ultimately, led to an indefinite suspension of further ISV operations at Pit 1. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and status of the project in fulfilling these objectives through September 1997.

  5. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XIV; Appraisal of the Relationship between Tag Detection Efficiency at Bonneville Dam and the Precision in Estuarine and Marine Survival Estimates on Returning PIT Tagged Chinook Salmon, 2000 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Comas, Jose A.; Skalski, John R.

    2000-07-01

    In the advent of the installation of a PIT-tag interrogation system in the Cascades Island fish ladder at Bonneville Dam, this report provides guidance on the anticipated precision of salmonid estuarine and marine survival estimates, for various levels of system-wide adult detection probability at Bonneville Dam. Precision was characterized by the standard error of the survival estimates and the coefficient of variation of the survival estimates. The anticipated precision of salmonid estuarine and marine survival estimates was directly proportional to the number of PIT-tagged smolts released and to the system-wide adult detection efficiency at Bonneville Dam, as well as to the in-river juvenile survival above Lower Granite Dam. Moreover, for a given release size and system-wide adult detection efficiency, higher estuarine and marine survivals did also produce more precise survival estimates. With a system-wide detection probability of P{sub BA} = 1 at Bonneville Dam, the anticipated CVs for the estuarine and marine survival ranged between 41 and 88% with release sizes of 10,000 smolts. Only with the 55,000 smolts being released from sites close to Lower Granite Dam and under high estuarine and marine survival, could CVs of 20% be attained with system detection efficiencies of less than perfect detection (i.e., P{sub BA} < 1).

  6. Lessons Learned from Pit Viper System Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Catalan, Michael A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.

    2002-04-11

    Tele-operated and robotic systems operated in unstructured field environments pose unique challenges for tool design. Since field tasks are not always well defined and the robot work area usually cannot be designed for ease of operation, the tools must be versatile. It's important to carefully consider the orientation of the grip the robot takes on the tool, as it's not easily changed in the field. The stiffness of the robot and the possibility of robot positioning errors encourages the use of non-contact or minimal-contact tooling. While normal hand tools can usually be modified for use by the robot, this is not always the most effective approach. It's desirable to have tooling that is relatively independent of the robot; in this case, the robot places the tool near the desired work location and the tool performs its task relatively independently. Here we consider the adaptation of a number of tools for cleanup of a radioactively contaminated piping junction and valve pit. The tasks to be considered are debris removal (small nuts and bolts and pipe up to 100 mm in diameter), size reduction, surface cleaning, and support of past practice crane-based methods for working in the pits.

  7. Introduction to Pits and Weapons Systems (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, D.

    2012-07-02

    A Nuclear Explosive Package includes the Primary, Secondary, Radiation Case and related components. This is the part of the weapon that produces nuclear yield and it converts mechanical energy into nuclear energy. The pit is composed of materials that allow mechanical energy to be converted to electromagnetic energy. Fabrication processes used are typical of any metal fabrication facility: casting, forming, machining and welding. Some of the materials used in pits include: Plutonium, Uranium, Stainless Steel, Beryllium, Titanium, and Aluminum. Gloveboxes are used for three reasons: (1) Protect workers and public from easily transported, finely divided plutonium oxides - (a) Plutonium is very reactive and produces very fine particulate oxides, (b) While not the 'Most dangerous material in the world' of Manhattan Project lore, plutonium is hazardous to health of workers if not properly controlled; (2) Protect plutonium from reactive materials - (a) Plutonium is extremely reactive at ambient conditions with several components found in air: oxygen, water, hydrogen, (b) As with most reactive metals, reactions with these materials may be violent and difficult to control, (c) As with most fabricated metal products, corrosion may significantly affect the mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of the product; and (3) Provide shielding from radioactive decay products: {alpha}, {gamma}, and {eta} are commonly associated with plutonium decay, as well as highly radioactive materials such as {sup 241}Am and {sup 238}Pu.

  8. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer- APPENDICES Appendices-Volume 1A

    SciTech Connect

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    This report consists of all the appendices for the report described below: In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values as appendices. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest

  9. Cloning of the full length pig PIT1 (POU1F1) CDNA and a novel alternative PIT1 transcript, and functional studies of their encoded proteins.

    PubMed

    Yu, T P; Sun, H S; Wahls, S; Sanchez-Serrano, I; Rothschild, M F; Tuggle, C K

    2001-05-01

    PIT1 is an essential regulatory gene of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and thyrotropin beta subunit (TSHbeta). Previously, a partial pig PIT1 cDNA and a genomic clone of the entire 3' end of the PIT1 gene was isolated, and polymorphisms at PIT1 were associated with several performance traits in the pig. In order to understand the biological function of the pig PIT1 gene and its possible application in swine genetics, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to complete the cloning of the full length cDNA for pig PIT1. The pig PIT1 cDNA and its deduced protein sequence have approximately 90% and 95% identity, respectively, with the PIT1 cDNA and protein of other mammals (human, bovine, sheep and rodents). Surprisingly, sequence comparison to other pig PIT1 sequences indicated only approximately 93% identity. Additional sequencing confirmed our sequence, and identified a new polymorphism in exon 4. Phylogenetic analysis of several mammalian PIT1 sequences indicates sequencing errors may account for the discrepancies observed in the other pig sequences reported. Several PIT1 alternative spliced forms were also identified by RT-PCR. They were the delta3PIT1 (missing entire exon 3), delta4PIT1 (missing entire exon 4) and PIT1beta (additional 26 amino acids inserted in front of exon 2) transcripts. The delta4PIT1 and PIT1beta transcripts have been found to encode functionally different proteins in rodents. The delta3PIT1 transcript is a novel isoform of PIT1. Potentially different functions between pig delta3PIT1 and PIT1 were analyzed by expressing these proteins in bacteria. The E. coli-expressed PIT1 and delta3PIT1 proteins were used with rat growth hormone (rGH) and rat prolactin (rPRL) promoter DNA in DNA mobility shift assays. The results showed that pig PIT1 can specifically bind rGH and rPRL promoter regions, but that the pig delta3PIT1 cannot, even at very high protein concentrations. Possible protein-protein interactions between

  10. The control of acid mine drainage at the Summitville Mine Superfund Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ketellapper, V.L.; Williams, L.O.

    1996-11-01

    The Summitville Mine Superfund Site is located about 25 miles south of Del Norte, Colorado, in Rio Grande County. Occurring at an average elevation of 11,500 feet in the San Juan Mountain Range, the mine site is located two miles east of the Continental Divide. Mining at Summitville has occurred since 1870. The mine was most recently operated by Summitville Consolidated Mining Company, Inc. (SCMCI) as an open pit gold mine with extraction by means of a cyanide leaching process. In December of 1992, SCMCI declared bankruptcy and vacated the mine site. At that time, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) took over operations of the water treatment facilities to prevent a catastrophic release of cyanide and metal-laden water from the mine site. Due to high operational costs of water treatment (approximately $50,000 per day), EPA established a goal to minimize active water treatment by reducing or eliminating acid mine drainage (AMD). All of the sources of AMD generation on the mine site were evaluated and prioritized. Of the twelve areas identified as sources of AMD, the Cropsy Waste Pile, the Summitville Dam Impoundment, the Beaver Mud Dump, the Reynolds and Chandler adits, and the Mine Pits were consider to be the most significant contributors to the generation of metal-laden acidic (low pH) water. A two part plan was developed to control AMD from the most significant sources. The first part was initiated immediately to control AMD being released from the Site. This part focused on improving the efficiency of the water treatment facilities and controlling the AMD discharges from the mine drainage adits. The second part of the plan was aimed at reducing the AMD generated in groundwater and surface water runoff from the mine wastes. A lined and capped repository located in the mine pits for acid generating mining waste and water treatment plant sludge was found to be the most feasible alternative.

  11. Engineered covers for mud pit closures Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. D. Madsen

    2000-06-30

    Two abandoned drilling mud pits impacted with petroleum hydrocarbons were determined to require closure action at the Central Nevada Test Area. The UC-4 Mud Pit C is approximately 0.12 hectares (0.3 acres) and 1.2 meters (4 feet) in depth. The UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) is approximately 1.54 hectares (3.8 acres) and 2.4 meters (8 feet) in depth. Both mud pits contain bentonite drilling muds with a thin dry crust, low shear strength, low permeability, and high moisture content. The following closure methodologies were evaluated: stabilization by mixing/injection with soil, fly ash, and lime; excavation and disposal; on-site drying; thermal destruction; wick drains; administrative closure (postings and land-use restrictions); and engineered covers. Based upon regulatory closure criteria, implementation, and cost considerations, the selected remedial alternative was the construction of an engineered cover. A multilayered cover with a geo-grid and geo-synthetic clay liner (GCL) was designed and constructed over the UC-4 Mud Pit C to evaluate the constructability and applicability of the design for the CMP cover. The geo-grid provided structural strength for equipment and material loads during cover construction, and the GCL was used as a moisture infiltration barrier. The design was determined to be constructable and applicable. To reduce project costs for the CMP cover, a vegetative cover was designed with drainage toward the center of the cover rather than the perimeter. The vegetative cover with the internal drainage design resulted in a fill volume reduction of approximately 63 percent compared to the multilayered cover design with a GCL.

  12. Acid Pit Stabilization Project (Volume 1 - Cold Testing) and (Volume 2 - Hot Testing)

    SciTech Connect

    G. G. Loomis; A. P. Zdinak; M. A. Ewanic; J. J. Jessmore

    1998-01-01

    During the summer and fall of Fiscal Year 1997, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study was performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The study involved subsurface stabilization of a mixed waste contaminated soil site called the Acid Pit. This study represents the culmination of a successful technology development effort that spanned Fiscal Years 1994-1996. Research and development of the in situ grout stabilization technique was conducted. Hardware and implementation techniques are currently documented in a patent pending with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The stabilization technique involved using jet grouting of an innovative grouting material to form a monolith out of the contamination zone. The monolith simultaneously provides a barrier to further contaminant migration and closes voids in the soil structure against further subsidence. This is accomplished by chemical incorporation of contaminants into less soluble species and achieving a general reduction in hydraulic conductivity within the monolith. The grout used for this study was TECT-HG, a relatively dense iron oxide-based cementitious grout. The treatability study involved cold testing followed by in situ stabilization of the Acid Pit. Volume 1 of this report discusses cold testing, performed as part of a ''Management Readiness Assessment'' in preparation for going hot. Volume 2 discusses the results of the hot Acid Pit Stabilization phase of this project. Drilling equipment was specifically rigged to reduce the spread of contamination, and all grouting was performed under a concrete block containing void space to absorb any grout returns. Data evaluation included examination of implementability of the grouting process and an evaluation of the contaminant spread during grouting. Following curing of the stabilized pit, cores were obtained and evaluated for toxicity characteristic leach ing

  13. Survival of Seaward-Migrating PIT and Acoustic-Tagged Juvenile Chinook Salmon in the Snake and Columbia Rivers: An Evaluation of Length-Specific Tagging Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Oldenburg, Eric W.; Seaburg, Adam; Cook, Katrina V.; Skalski, John R.; Eppard, M. B.; Deters, Katherine A.

    2013-06-12

    Studies examining the survival of juvenile salmon as they emigrate to the ocean provide important information regarding the management of regulated river systems. Acoustic telemetry is a widely used tool for evaluating the behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River basin. Thus, it is important to understand how the surgical tagging process and the presence of a transmitter affect survival so any biases can be accounted for or eliminated. This study evaluated the effects of fish len