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Sample records for placebo-controlled dose escalation

  1. Effects of voluntary dose escalation in a placebo-controlled, flexible-dose trial of fesoterodine in subjects with overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Staskin, David; Khullar, Vik; Michel, Martin C; Morrow, Jon D; Sun, Franklin; Guan, Zhonghong; Dmochowski, Roger

    2011-11-01

    To characterize the response to fesoterodine treatment for overactive bladder (OAB) in subjects who did or did not choose to dose escalate in a flexible-dose study. Subjects were randomized to fesoterodine 4  mg or placebo. At week 2, subjects could remain on 4  mg (non-escalators) or choose to increase to 8  mg (escalators) for the remaining 10 weeks (sham escalation for placebo). Subjects completed 3-day bladder diaries at baseline, week 2 and week 12 noting micturitions, urgency episodes, and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes. Sixty-three per cent of 438 subjects randomized to fesoterodine and 73% of 445 randomized to placebo dose escalated. At baseline, fesoterodine escalators had significantly more micturitions and urgency episodes than fesoterodine non-escalators (P < 0.001); at week 2, before dose escalation, diary-dry rate and improvement in micturitions and urgency episodes were significantly greater among fesoterodine non-escalators versus escalators (P < 0.001); and by week 12, after dose escalation, diary-dry rate and improvements in micturitions and UUI episodes were similar between fesoterodine non-escalators and escalators (P > 0.05). The placebo escalator group did not demonstrate a similar response over placebo non-escalators following the dose escalation decision point. A rapid and robust response to fesoterodine 4  mg was demonstrated in non-escalators. Subjects who chose to dose escalate to fesoterodine 8  mg at week 2 showed significant improvement by week 12 versus baseline and week 2 (prior to escalation), as well as versus placebo. Dose escalation to 8  mg fesoterodine provided subjects with efficacy and tolerability similar to those who were satisfied with the 4-mg dose. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Safety, tolerability, and immunologic effects of a food allergy herbal formula in food allergic individuals: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, dose escalation, phase 1 study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Julie; Patil, Sangita P; Yang, Nan; Ko, Jimmy; Lee, Joohee; Noone, Sally; Sampson, Hugh A; Li, Xiu-Min

    2010-07-01

    Food allergy is a common and serious health problem. A new herbal product, called food allergy herbal formula 2 (FAHF-2), has been demonstrated to have a high safety profile and potent long-term efficacy in a murine model of peanut-induced anaphylaxis. To evaluate the safety and tolerability of FAHF-2 in patients with food allergy. In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, dose escalation, phase 1 trial, patients received 1 of 3 doses of FAHF-2 or placebo: 2.2 g (4 tablets), 3.3 g (6 tablets), or 6.6 g (12 tablets) 3 times a day for 7 days. Four active and 2 placebo patients were treated at each dose level. Vital signs, physical examination results, laboratory data, pulmonary function test results, and electrocardiogram data were monitored. Immunomodulatory studies were also performed. Nineteen food allergic participants were included in the study. Two patients (1 in the FAHF-2 group and 1 in the placebo group) reported mild gastrointestinal symptoms. One patient withdrew from the study because of an allergic reaction that was unlikely related to the study medication. No significant differences were found in vital signs, physical examination results, laboratory data, pulmonary function test results, and electrocardiogram data obtained before and after treatment visits. Significantly decreased interleukin (IL) 5 levels were found in the active treatment group after 7 days. In vitro studies of peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultured with FAHF-2 also demonstrated a significant decrease in IL-5 and an increase in culture supernatant interferon gamma and IL-10 levels. FAHF-2 appeared to be safe and well tolerated in patients with food allergy.

  3. Treatment of Common Cold Patients with the Shi-Cha Capsule: A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Escalation Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jing; Dong, Shou-Jin; She, Bin; Zhang, Rui-Ming; Meng, Mao-Bin; Xu, Yan-Ling; Wan, Li-Ling; Shi, Ke-Hua; Pan, Jun-Hun; Mao, Bing

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the therapeutic efficacy and safety of the Shi-cha capsule, a Chinese herbal formula, in the treatment of patients with wind-cold type common cold. In our multi-center, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial, patients with wind-cold type common cold received 0.6 g of Shi-cha capsule plus 0.6 g placebo (group A), 1.2 g of Shi-cha capsule (group B), or 1.2 g placebo (group C), three times daily for 3 days and followed up to 10 days. The primary end point was all symptom duration. The secondary end points were main symptom duration, minor symptom duration, the changes in cumulative symptom score, main symptom score, and minor symptom score 4 days after the treatment, as well as adverse events. A total of 377 patients were recruited and 360 met the inclusive criteria; 120 patients constituted each treatment group. Compared with patients in group C, patients in groups A and B had significant improvement in the all symptom duration, main symptom duration, minor symptom duration, as well as change from baseline of cumulative symptom score, main symptom score, and minor symptom score at day 4. The symptom durations and scores showed slight superiority of group B over group A, although these differences were not statistically significant. There were no differences in adverse events. The Shi-cha capsule is efficacious and safe for the treatment of patients with wind-cold type common cold. Larger trials are required to fully assess the benefits and safety of this treatment for common cold. PMID:23346193

  4. Recombinant T-Cell Receptor Ligand (RTL) for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 1, Dose-Escalation Study

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Vijayshree; Bourdette, Dennis N.; Bowen, James D.; Lynch, Sharon G.; Mattson, David; Preiningerova, Jana; Bever, Christopher T.; Simon, Jack; Goldstein, Andrew; Burrows, Gregory G.; Offner, Halina; Ferro, Al J.; Vandenbark, Arthur A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Recombinant T-cell receptor ligand 1000 (RTL1000) is a single-chain protein construct containing the outer two domains of HLA-DR2 linked to myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein- (MOG-) 35–55 peptide. Analogues of RTL1000 induce T-cell tolerance, reverse clinical and histological disease, and promote repair in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in DR2 transgenic, C57BL/6, and SJL/J mice. Objective. Determining the maximum tolerated dose, safety, and tolerability of RTL1000 in multiple sclerosis (MS) subjects. Methods. This was a multicenter, Phase I dose-escalation study in HLA-DR2+ MS subjects. Consecutive cohorts received RTL1000 doses of 2, 6, 20, 60, 200, and 100 mg, respectively. Subjects within each cohort randomly received a single intravenous infusion of RTL1000 or placebo at a 4 : 2 ratio. Safety monitoring included clinical, laboratory, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluations. Results. Thirty-four subjects completed the protocol. All subjects tolerated the 2–60 mg doses of RTL1000. Doses ≥100 mg caused hypotension and diarrhea in 3 of 4 subjects, leading to discontinuation of further enrollment. Conclusions. The maximum tolerated dose of RTL1000 in MS subjects is 60 mg, comparable to effective RTL doses in EAE. RTL1000 is a novel approach for MS treatment that may induce immunoregulation without immunosuppression and promote neural repair. PMID:22548151

  5. A Phase 1B, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, multiple-dose escalation study of NSI-189 phosphate, a neurogenic compound, in depressed patients

    PubMed Central

    Fava, M; Johe, K; Ereshefsky, L; Gertsik, L G; English, B A; Bilello, J A; Thurmond, L M; Johnstone, J; Dickerson, B C; Makris, N; Hoeppner, B B; Flynn, M; Mischoulon, D; Kinrys, G; Freeman, M P

    2016-01-01

    We wanted to examine tolerability and efficacy of NSI-189, a benzylpiperizine-aminiopyridine neurogenic compound for treating major depressive disorder (MDD). This was a Phase 1B, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, multiple-dose study with three cohorts. The first cohort received 40 mg q.d. (n=6) or placebo (n=2), the second cohort 40 mg b.i.d. (n=6) or placebo (n=2), and the third cohort 40 mg t.i.d. (n=6) or placebo (n=2). Twenty-four patients with MDD were recruited, with the diagnosis and severity confirmed through remote interviews. Eligible patients received NSI-189 or placebo for 28 days in an inpatient setting with assessments for safety, pharmacokinetics (PK) and efficacy. Outpatient follow-up visits were conducted until day 84 (±3). NSI-189 was relatively well tolerated at all doses, with no serious adverse effects. NSI-189 area under the curve increased in a dose-related and nearly proportional manner across the three cohorts, with a half-life of 17.4–20.5 h. The exploratory efficacy measurements, including Symptoms Of Depression Questionnaire (SDQ), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS), Clinical Global Impressions—Improvement (CGI-I), and The Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cognitive and Physical Functioning Questionnaire (CPFQ) showed a promising reduction in depressive and cognitive symptoms across all measures for NSI-189, with significant improvement in the SDQ and CPFQ, and a medium to large effect size for all measures. These improvements persisted during the follow-up phase. In summary, NSI-189 shows potential as a treatment for MDD in an early phase study. The main limitation of this preliminary study was the small sample size of each cohort. PMID:26643541

  6. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Single, Escalating Oral Doses of JDTic

    PubMed Central

    Buda, Jeffrey J; Carroll, F I; Kosten, Thomas R; Swearingen, Dennis; Walters, Bradford B

    2015-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that kappa opioid receptor antagonists (KORAn) potentially could treat a wide variety of addictive and depressive disorders. We assessed the KORAn JDTic for safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial evaluating single oral doses in healthy adult males. Predose and postdose safety assessments included orthostatic vital signs; 6-lead continuous telemetry monitoring (approximately 16 h predose to 24 h postdose); 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs); clinical chemistry, hematology, coagulation, and urinalysis; psychomotor functioning (using the Wayne Saccadic Fixator (WSF)); and adverse events. As a potential indicator of JDTic effects on affect, the POMS Standard instrument was administered predose and daily postdose Days 1–6. At 1 mg, 2 of the 6 JDTic (and 0/6 placebo) subjects experienced a single, asymptomatic event of multiple beats of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT). Their events were temporally similar with respect to time postdose (and the postdose timing of an NSVT event in a monkey). These events triggered a study stopping rule. No differences were observed between the placebo and JDTic subjects with respect to clinical chemistry, hematology, coagulation, urinalysis, orthostatic vital signs, WSF, or 12-lead ECG parameters. Plasma JDTic levels were below the lower limit of quantitation (0.1 nM) in all subjects. There were no significant differences in POMS scores between the placebo and JDTic groups. Although the evidence is circumstantial, it suggests that NSVT is a potential JDTic toxicity in humans. Given the therapeutic potential of KORAn, further investigation is needed to determine whether a significant JDTic human cardiac effect indeed exists, and if so, whether it is specific to JDTic or represents a KORAn class effect. PMID:25628006

  7. A Phase I Clinical Study of a Live Attenuated Bordetella pertussis Vaccine - BPZE1; A Single Centre, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Escalating Study of BPZE1 Given Intranasally to Healthy Adult Male Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Thorstensson, Rigmor; Trollfors, Birger; Al-Tawil, Nabil; Jahnmatz, Maja; Bergström, Jakob; Ljungman, Margaretha; Törner, Anna; Wehlin, Lena; Van Broekhoven, Annie; Bosman, Fons; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Mielcarek, Nathalie; Locht, Camille

    2014-01-01

    Background Acellular pertussis vaccines do not control pertussis. A new approach to offer protection to infants is necessary. BPZE1, a genetically modified Bordetella pertussis strain, was developed as a live attenuated nasal pertussis vaccine by genetically eliminating or detoxifying 3 toxins. Methods We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study of BPZE1 given intranasally for the first time to human volunteers, the first trial of a live attenuated bacterial vaccine specifically designed for the respiratory tract. 12 subjects per dose group received 103, 105 or 107 colony-forming units as droplets with half of the dose in each nostril. 12 controls received the diluent. Local and systemic safety and immune responses were assessed during 6 months, and nasopharyngeal colonization with BPZE1 was determined with repeated cultures during the first 4 weeks after vaccination. Results Colonization was seen in one subject in the low dose, one in the medium dose and five in the high dose group. Significant increases in immune responses against pertussis antigens were seen in all colonized subjects. There was one serious adverse event not related to the vaccine. Other adverse events were trivial and occurred with similar frequency in the placebo and vaccine groups. Conclusions BPZE1 is safe in healthy adults and able to transiently colonize the nasopharynx. It induces immune responses in all colonized individuals. BPZE1 can thus undergo further clinical development, including dose optimization and trials in younger age groups. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01188512 PMID:24421886

  8. A phase 2a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, sequential dose-escalation study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ASP015K, a novel Janus kinase inhibitor, in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Papp, K; Pariser, D; Catlin, M; Wierz, G; Ball, G; Akinlade, B; Zeiher, B; Krueger, J G

    2015-09-01

    Many immune-mediated disorders, including psoriasis, involve cytokine signalling via Janus kinase (JAK) enzymes. ASP015K (also designated JNJ-54781532), a novel oral JAK inhibitor, has shown moderate selectivity for JAK3 over JAK1 and JAK2 in enzyme assays. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of escalating, sequentially grouped, doses of ASP015K vs. placebo in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. This phase 2a multicentre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study (NCT01096862) enrolled 124 patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Five sequential ASP015K cohorts were enrolled, consisting of four twice-daily dosing groups (10, 25, 60, 100 mg) and one once-daily dosing group (50 mg) for 6 weeks. The primary efficacy end point [mean change in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score from baseline to end of treatment (EOT; day 42)] significantly favoured ASP015K (overall treatment effect; P < 0.001) vs. placebo, with greater improvements at higher doses. By EOT, the secondary end points [Physician Static Global Assessment (PSGA) score, percentage of patients achieving PSGA success, and change in percentage, body surface area (BSA)] also improved with ASP015K vs. placebo (P < 0.001 for PSGA score and BSA; P < 0.01 for PSGA success). Epidermal thickness and proliferation decreased from baseline with ASP015K vs. placebo. ASP015K was generally well tolerated, with no serious adverse events (AEs) reported. In patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, ASP015K demonstrated dose-dependent improvements in clinical and histological measures of severity over 6 weeks of treatment. At all doses, ASP015K was well tolerated, with no reported serious AEs. © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. A randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study to determine the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an HPV-16 therapeutic vaccine in HIV-positive participants with oncogenic HPV infection of the anus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jonathan S; Hoy, Jennifer; Hillman, Richard; Barnden, Megan; Eu, Beng; McKenzie, Andrew; Gittleson, Charmaine

    2009-11-01

    Study aimed to assess safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of novel therapeutic HPV-16 E6E7 ISCOMATRIX vaccine for treatment of human papilloma virus (HPV)-related anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected men who have sex with men with moderate immunosuppression. Randomized, multicenter, blinded, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study investigating 3 different doses of vaccine and different dose schedule. Primary objective to determine safety and tolerability, including clinical status, maintenance of virological control, and CD4 cell count for more than 252 days. Thirty-five men who have sex with men enrolled; median age 47 years; current CD4 count 627 cells per milliliter; nadir CD4 count 154 cells per milliliter; 94% current antiretrovirals; 100% high-risk HPV types; 69% abnormal anal cytology; and 34% anal intraepithelial neoplasia 1-3 on high-resolution anoscopy. No dose-limiting toxicities or serious adverse events in HPV-16 vaccine recipients. Most HPV-16 vaccine recipients reported moderate/severe short-term injection site reactions and systemic reactions including headache, myalgia, and fatigue. CD4 cell counts remained stable. Five participants had transiently detectable viral loads. Ninety-six percent of vaccine recipients had at least a 4-fold increase in HPV-16 antibody from prevaccination levels. Seventy-one percent had at least a 3-fold increase in interferon-gamma responses to E6E7 peptides. The novel therapeutic HPV-16 E6E7 ISCOMATRIX vaccine seemed safe and reasonably well tolerated. The therapeutic vaccine induces strong and durable antibody responses and moderate interferon-gamma levels that fell to prevaccination levels by week 24.

  10. Phase Ib Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Dose Escalation Study of Polyphenon E in Patients with Barrett’s Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Andrew K.; Schnoll-Sussman, Felice; Bresalier, Robert S.; Abrams, Julian A.; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Cheung, Ken; Friedman, Richard A.; Yang, Chung S.; Milne, Ginger L.; Liu, Diane D.; Lee, J. Jack; Abdul, Kazeem; Bigg, Michelle; Foreman, Jessica; Su, Tao; Wang, Xiaomei; Ahmed, Aqeel; Neugut, Alfred I.; Akpa, Esther; Lippman, Scott M.; Perloff, Marjorie; Brown, Powel H.; Lightdale, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of the green-tea derived Polyphenon E (Poly E) in patients with Barrett’s Esophagus (BE). Subjects were randomized to a 6-month, twice daily (BID) oral treatment of placebo or Poly E (200 mg, 400 mg, or 600 mg). Endoscopic evaluation, including biopsies, was performed before and after treatment. The primary objective was to demonstrate safety; secondary objectives investigated catechin accumulation and effects in clinical specimens. Of the 44 enrolled subjects, 11 received placebo, and 33 received Poly E. No dose-limiting toxicities were encountered, and a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was not reached. The recommended phase 2 dose was 600 mg BID. The most common treatment-related adverse events (AEs) in Poly E-treated subjects were grade 1–2 nausea, grade 1 belching, and grade 1 LDH elevation. No treatment-related AEs were reported in placebo-treated subjects, aside from grade 1 laboratory abnormalities. Pill counts and subject diaries were not consistently collected, and compliance was difficult to determine. However, based on an intention-to-treat analysis there was a significant relationship between Poly E dose and esophageal EGCG level – mean changes (pmol/g) of 0.79 (placebo), 6.06 (200 mg), 35.67 (400 mg), and 34.95 (600 mg); p=0.005. There was a possible relationship between Poly E dose and urine PGE-M concentration. In conclusion, Poly E was well-tolerated, and treatment with Poly E (400 mg and 600 mg) but not Poly E (200 mg) or placebo resulted in clinically relevant and detectable EGCG accumulation in the target organ, esophageal mucosa. PMID:26471236

  11. Lack of QT Prolongation for 2'-O-Methoxyethyl-Modified Antisense Oligonucleotides Based on Retrospective Exposure/Response Analysis of Ten Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Placebo-Controlled Studies in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rosie Z; Gunawan, Rudy; Geary, Richard S; Hughes, Steven G; Henry, Scott P; Wang, Yanfeng

    2017-10-01

    The potential of QT prolongation of ten 2'-O-methoxyethyl-modified (2'-MOE) antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) was evaluated retrospectively via exposure/response (ER) analysis using data from Phase 1 clinical studies in healthy subjects. All Phase 1 studies were double-blind, placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending dose studies designed to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics of the ASOs in healthy subjects. The active doses in these studies ranged from 50 to 450 mg administered by subcutaneous (SC) injection in single and multiple ascending dose cohorts. Two of the ten studies also included 2-h intravenous (IV) infusions up to 600 mg. Electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements were performed at baseline and selected time points (including Tmax). The correlation between QTcF intervals corrected for baseline (ΔQTcF) and the mean time-matched placebo (ΔΔQTcF) with PK plasma exposure when available was evaluated using a linear mixed-effects approach. There was no evidence for QTc prolongation associated with increasing plasma concentrations in healthy subjects, including exposures with treatment up to 450 mg administered SC or 600 mg by IV infusions, and concentrations that are 4-20 times the Cmax of the therapeutic dose, as assessed by both ΔQTcF and ΔΔQTcF. The ER analysis of the relationship between drug plasma concentration and ΔΔQTcF showed that the slope of the regression line was close to zero, and the upper bound of the 90% confidence interval at twice the mean observed (or predicted) Cmax (2 × Cmax) of the clinical therapeutic dose (ie, the highest clinically relevant plasma concentration) was well below 10 ms for all 10 compounds evaluated. Therefore, no concentration-dependent effect on QT prolongation was observed for any one of the ten 2'-MOE ASOs evaluated in Phase 1 studies. These results confirmed that 2'-MOE ASOs, as a chemical class, do not cause QT prolongation at clinically relevant

  12. MOR103, a human monoclonal antibody to granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor, in the treatment of patients with moderate rheumatoid arthritis: results of a phase Ib/IIa randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Frank; Tak, Paul P; Østergaard, Mikkel; Stoilov, Rumen; Wiland, Piotr; Huizinga, Thomas W; Berenfus, Vadym Y; Vladeva, Stoyanka; Rech, Juergen; Rubbert-Roth, Andrea; Korkosz, Mariusz; Rekalov, Dmitriy; Zupanets, Igor A; Ejbjerg, Bo J; Geiseler, Jens; Fresenius, Julia; Korolkiewicz, Roman P; Schottelius, Arndt J; Burkhardt, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the safety, tolerability and signs of efficacy of MOR103, a human monoclonal antibody to granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Patients with active, moderate RA were enrolled in a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial of intravenous MOR103 (0.3, 1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg) once a week for 4 weeks, with follow-up to 16 weeks. The primary outcome was safety. Results Of the 96 randomised and treated subjects, 85 completed the trial (n=27, 24, 22 and 23 for pooled placebo and MOR103 0.3, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg, respectively). Treatment emergent adverse events (AEs) in the MOR103 groups were mild or moderate in intensity and generally reported at frequencies similar to those in the placebo group. The most common AE was nasopharyngitis. In two cases, AEs were classified as serious because of hospitalisation: paronychia in a placebo subject and pleurisy in a MOR103 0.3 mg/kg subject. Both patients recovered fully. In exploratory efficacy analyses, subjects in the MOR103 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg groups showed significant improvements in Disease Activity Score-28 scores and joint counts and significantly higher European League Against Rheumatism response rates than subjects receiving placebo. MOR103 1.0 mg/kg was associated with the largest reductions in disease activity parameters. Conclusions MOR103 was well tolerated and showed preliminary evidence of efficacy in patients with active RA. The data support further investigation of this monoclonal antibody to GM-CSF in RA patients and potentially in those with other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Trial registration number NCT01023256 PMID:24534756

  13. MOR103, a human monoclonal antibody to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, in the treatment of patients with moderate rheumatoid arthritis: results of a phase Ib/IIa randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Frank; Tak, Paul P; Østergaard, Mikkel; Stoilov, Rumen; Wiland, Piotr; Huizinga, Thomas W; Berenfus, Vadym Y; Vladeva, Stoyanka; Rech, Juergen; Rubbert-Roth, Andrea; Korkosz, Mariusz; Rekalov, Dmitriy; Zupanets, Igor A; Ejbjerg, Bo J; Geiseler, Jens; Fresenius, Julia; Korolkiewicz, Roman P; Schottelius, Arndt J; Burkhardt, Harald

    2015-06-01

    To determine the safety, tolerability and signs of efficacy of MOR103, a human monoclonal antibody to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients with active, moderate RA were enrolled in a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial of intravenous MOR103 (0.3, 1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg) once a week for 4 weeks, with follow-up to 16 weeks. The primary outcome was safety. Of the 96 randomised and treated subjects, 85 completed the trial (n=27, 24, 22 and 23 for pooled placebo and MOR103 0.3, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg, respectively). Treatment emergent adverse events (AEs) in the MOR103 groups were mild or moderate in intensity and generally reported at frequencies similar to those in the placebo group. The most common AE was nasopharyngitis. In two cases, AEs were classified as serious because of hospitalisation: paronychia in a placebo subject and pleurisy in a MOR103 0.3 mg/kg subject. Both patients recovered fully. In exploratory efficacy analyses, subjects in the MOR103 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg groups showed significant improvements in Disease Activity Score-28 scores and joint counts and significantly higher European League Against Rheumatism response rates than subjects receiving placebo. MOR103 1.0 mg/kg was associated with the largest reductions in disease activity parameters. MOR103 was well tolerated and showed preliminary evidence of efficacy in patients with active RA. The data support further investigation of this monoclonal antibody to GM-CSF in RA patients and potentially in those with other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. NCT01023256. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Use of ChAd3-EBO-Z Ebola virus vaccine in Malian and US adults, and boosting of Malian adults with MVA-BN-Filo: a phase 1, single-blind, randomised trial, a phase 1b, open-label and double-blind, dose-escalation trial, and a nested, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Milagritos D; Sow, Samba O; Lyke, Kirsten E; Haidara, Fadima Cheick; Diallo, Fatoumata; Doumbia, Moussa; Traore, Awa; Coulibaly, Flanon; Kodio, Mamoudou; Onwuchekwa, Uma; Sztein, Marcelo B; Wahid, Rezwanul; Campbell, James D; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Moorthy, Vasee; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Rampling, Tommy; Roman, Francois; De Ryck, Iris; Bellamy, Abbie R; Dally, Len; Mbaya, Olivier Tshiani; Ploquin, Aurélie; Zhou, Yan; Stanley, Daphne A; Bailer, Robert; Koup, Richard A; Roederer, Mario; Ledgerwood, Julie; Hill, Adrian V S; Ballou, W Ripley; Sullivan, Nancy; Graham, Barney; Levine, Myron M

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 west African Zaire Ebola virus epidemic prompted worldwide partners to accelerate clinical development of replication-defective chimpanzee adenovirus 3 vector vaccine expressing Zaire Ebola virus glycoprotein (ChAd3-EBO-Z). We aimed to investigate the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of ChAd3-EBO-Z in Malian and US adults, and assess the effect of boosting of Malians with modified vaccinia Ankara expressing Zaire Ebola virus glycoprotein and other filovirus antigens (MVA-BN-Filo). In the phase 1, single-blind, randomised trial of ChAd3-EBO-Z in the USA, we recruited adults aged 18-65 years from the University of Maryland medical community and the Baltimore community. In the phase 1b, open-label and double-blind, dose-escalation trial of ChAd3-EBO-Z in Mali, we recruited adults 18-50 years of age from six hospitals and health centres in Bamako (Mali), some of whom were also eligible for a nested, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of MVA-BN-Filo. For randomised segments of the Malian trial and for the US trial, we randomly allocated participants (1:1; block size of six [Malian] or four [US]; ARB produced computer-generated randomisation lists; clinical staff did randomisation) to different single doses of intramuscular immunisation with ChAd3-EBO-Z: Malians received 1 × 10(10) viral particle units (pu), 2·5 × 10(10) pu, 5 × 10(10) pu, or 1 × 10(11) pu; US participants received 1 × 10(10) pu or 1 × 10(11) pu. We randomly allocated Malians in the nested trial (1:1) to receive a single dose of 2 × 10(8) plaque-forming units of MVA-BN-Filo or saline placebo. In the double-blind segments of the Malian trial, investigators, clinical staff, participants, and immunology laboratory staff were masked, but the study pharmacist (MK), vaccine administrator, and study statistician (ARB) were unmasked. In the US trial, investigators were not masked, but participants were. Analyses were per protocol. The primary outcome was safety, measured

  15. New validated recipes for double-blind placebo-controlled low-dose food challenges.

    PubMed

    Winberg, Anna; Nordström, Lisbeth; Strinnholm, Åsa; Nylander, Annica; Jonsäll, Anette; Rönmark, Eva; West, Christina E

    2013-05-01

    Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges are considered the most reliable method to diagnose or rule out food allergy. Despite this, there are few validated challenge recipes available. The present study aimed to validate new recipes for low-dose double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges in school children, by investigating whether there were any sensory differences between the active materials containing cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat or cod, and the placebo materials. The challenge materials contained the same hypoallergenic amino acid-based product, with or without added food allergens. The test panels consisted of 275 school children, aged 8-10 and 14-15 yr, respectively, from five Swedish schools. Each participant tested at least one recipe. Standardized blinded triangle tests were performed to investigate whether any sensory differences could be detected between the active and placebo materials. In our final recipes, no significant differences could be detected between the active and placebo materials for any challenge food (p > 0.05). These results remained after stratification for age and gender. The taste of challenge materials was acceptable, and no unfavourable side effects related to test materials were observed. In summary, these new validated recipes for low-dose double-blinded food challenges contain common allergenic foods in childhood; cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat and cod. All test materials contain the same liquid vehicle, which facilitates preparation and dosing. Our validated recipes increase the range of available recipes, and as they are easily prepared and dosed, they may facilitate the use of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges in daily clinical practice.

  16. A double-blind, placebo controlled trial of high-dose lecithin in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Little, A; Levy, R; Chuaqui-Kidd, P; Hand, D

    1985-01-01

    The first long-term double-blind placebo controlled trial of high dose lecithin in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type is reported. Fifty one subjects were given 20-25 g/day of purified soya lecithin (containing 90% phosphatidyl plus lysophosphatidyl choline) for six months and followed up for at least a further six months. Plasma choline levels were monitored throughout the treatment period. There were no differences between the placebo group and the lecithin group but there was an improvement in a subgroup of relatively poor compliers. These were older and had intermediate levels of plasma choline. It is suggested that the effects of lecithin are complex but that there may be a "therapeutic window" for the effects of lecithin in the condition and that this may be more evident in older patients. PMID:3897460

  17. Intrathecal Baclofen in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Finding Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoving, Marjanke A.; van Raak, Elisabeth P. M.; Spincemaille, Geert H. J. J.; Palmans, Liesbeth J.; Sleypen, Frans A. M.; Vles, Johan S. H.

    2007-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy can be very effective in the treatment of intractable spasticity, but its effectiveness and safety have not yet been thoroughly studied in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aims of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study were to select children eligible for continuous ITB…

  18. Intrathecal Baclofen in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Finding Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoving, Marjanke A.; van Raak, Elisabeth P. M.; Spincemaille, Geert H. J. J.; Palmans, Liesbeth J.; Sleypen, Frans A. M.; Vles, Johan S. H.

    2007-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy can be very effective in the treatment of intractable spasticity, but its effectiveness and safety have not yet been thoroughly studied in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aims of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study were to select children eligible for continuous ITB…

  19. Safety and Immunogenicity of EBA-175 RII-NG Malaria Vaccine Administered Intramuscularly in Semi-Immune Adults: A Phase 1, Double-Blinded Placebo Controlled Dosage Escalation Study

    PubMed Central

    Koram, Kwadwo A.; Ocran, Josephine; Karikari, Yaa S.; Adu-Amankwah, Susan; Ntiri, Michael; Abuaku, Benjamin; Dodoo, Daniel; Gyan, Ben; Kronmann, Karl C.; Nkrumah, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The erythrocyte binding antigen region II (EBA-175 RII) is a Plasmodium falciparum ligand that mediates erythrocyte invasion and is considered an important malaria vaccine candidate. A phase Ia trial in malaria naïve adults living in the United States found the recombinant non-glycosylated vaccine antigen, EBA-175 RII-NG adjuvanted with aluminium phosphate to be safe, immunogenic and capable of inducing biologically active antibodies that can inhibit parasite growth in vitro. The aim of the current study was to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine in malaria exposed semi-immune healthy adults living in a malaria endemic country, Ghana. In this double-blinded, placebo controlled, dose escalation phase I trial, eighteen subjects per group received ascending dose concentrations (5 μg, 20 μg or 80 μg) of the vaccine intramuscularly at 0, 1 and 6 months, while 6 subjects received placebo (normal saline). The primary end point was the number of subjects experiencing Grade 3 systemic or local adverse events within 14 days post-vaccination. Serious adverse events were assessed throughout the study period. Blood samples for immunological analyses were collected at days 0, 14, 28, 42, 180 and 194. A total of 52 subjects received three doses of the vaccine in the respective groups. No serious adverse events were reported. The majority of all adverse events reported were mild to moderate in severity, with local pain and tenderness being the most common. All adverse events, irrespective of severity, resolved without any sequelae. Subjects who received any of the EBA-175 RII-NG doses had high immunoglobulin G levels which moderately inhibited P. falciparum growth in vitro, compared to those in the placebo group. In conclusion, the EBA-175 RII-NG vaccine was safe, well tolerated and immunogenic in malaria semi-immune Ghanaian adults. Its further development is recommended. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01026246 PMID:27644034

  20. Individualized Tamoxifen Dose Escalation: Confirmation of Feasibility, Question of Utility.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Daniel L; Rae, James M

    2016-07-01

    Tamoxifen may require metabolic activation to endoxifen for efficacy in treating hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Dose escalation in patients with low endoxifen concentrations could enhance treatment efficacy. This approach is clinically feasible, and successfully increases endoxifen concentrations; however, it is unknown whether patients benefit from individualized tamoxifen dose escalation. Clin Cancer Res; 22(13); 3121-3. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Fox et al., p. 3164.

  1. Flexible-dose fesoterodine in elderly adults with overactive bladder: results of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of fesoterodine in an aging population trial.

    PubMed

    Wagg, Adrian; Khullar, Vik; Marschall-Kehrel, Daniela; Michel, Martin C; Oelke, Matthias; Darekar, Amanda; Bitoun, Caty E; Weinstein, David; Osterloh, Ian

    2013-02-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of flexible-dose fesoterodine in elderly adults with overactive bladder (OAB). Twelve-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Sixty-one outpatient clinics in Europe, Israel, and Turkey. Seven hundred ninety-four individuals aged 65 and older (47% male) with OAB symptoms for 3 months or longer, mean of eight or more micturitions and three or more urgency episodes per 24 hours, at least some moderate problems on Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 20 or greater. Participants were randomized to fesoterodine or placebo for 12 weeks, with stratification according to age (>75 vs ≤ 75) and dosing time (morning vs evening). Participants receiving fesoterodine started on 4 mg and could increase to 8 mg at week 4 or 8 and de-escalate to 4 mg at week 8 (sham escalation for placebo). Changes from baseline in bladder-diary variables (primary endpoint, urgency episodes) and patient-reported outcomes including OAB Questionnaire, Treatment Benefit Scale (TBS), PPBC, Urgency Perception Scale (UPS), and OAB Satisfaction Questionnaire (OAB-S); all observed or reported adverse events. By week 8, 64% of fesoterodine-treated and 71% of placebo-treated participants opted for dose escalation. At week 12, the fesoterodine group had statistically significantly greater improvement than the placebo group in urgency episodes, micturitions, nocturnal micturitions, incontinence pad use, and OAB Questionnaire scores but not urgency urinary incontinence episodes. Responder rates on TBS, PPBC, UPS, and OAB-S were statistically significantly higher with fesoterodine. Improvements in most diary variables and participant-reported outcomes were greater with fesoterodine than placebo in participants in both age groups and when administered in the morning and evening. Rates of dry mouth and constipation were 34% and 9% with fesoterodine and 5% and 3% with placebo, respectively. Rates of

  2. Systemic treatment of venous leg ulcers with high doses of pentoxifylline: efficacy in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Falanga, V; Fujitani, R M; Diaz, C; Hunter, G; Jorizzo, J; Lawrence, P F; Lee, B Y; Menzoian, J O; Tretbar, L L; Holloway, G A; Hoballah, J; Seabrook, G R; McMillan, D E; Wolf, W

    1999-01-01

    Several small studies have indicated that the systemic administration of pentoxifylline may accelerate healing of venous leg ulcers. The goal of this study was to further evaluate these findings in a larger scale placebo controlled trial and to explore the effect of the dose of pentoxifylline on healing. The study used a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group placebo controlled design in a multicenter outpatient setting. Patients with one or more venous ulcer were enrolled, with all patients receiving standardized compression bandaging for treatment for their ulcers. Patients were also randomized to receive either pentoxifylline 400 mg, pentoxifylline 800 mg (two 400 mg tablets), or placebo tablets three times a day for up to 24 weeks. The main outcome measure was time to complete healing of all leg ulcers, using life table analysis. The study was completed as planned in 131 patients. Patients receiving 800 mg three times a day of pentoxifylline healed faster than placebo (p = 0.043, Wilcoxon test). The median time to complete healing was 100, 83, and 71 days for placebo, pentoxifylline 400 mg, and pentoxifylline 800 mg three times a day, respectively. Over half of all patients were ulcer free at week 16 (placebo) and at week 12 in both pentoxifylline groups. Whereas the placebo group had only achieved complete healing in half of the cases by week 16, all of the subjects remaining in the group receiving the high dose of pentoxifylline had healed completely. Treatment with pentoxifylline was well tolerated with similar drop-out rates in all three treatment groups. Complete wound closure occurred at least 4 weeks earlier in the majority of patients treated with pentoxifylline by comparison to placebo. A higher dose of pentoxifylline (800 mg three times a day) was more effective than the lower dose. We conclude that pentoxifylline is effective in accelerating healing of leg ulcers.

  3. Factors associated with dose escalation of fesoterodine for treatment of overactive bladder in people >65 years of age: A post hoc analysis of data from the SOFIA study.

    PubMed

    Wagg, Adrian; Darekar, Amanda; Arumi, Daniel; Khullar, Vik; Oelke, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    To investigate factors which may influence dose escalation of antimuscarinics for overactive bladder (OAB) in older patients and how dose escalation affects treatment efficacy. A post hoc analysis of data from the 12-week randomized, placebo controlled phase of the SOFIA study investigating treatment with fesoterodine in older people with OAB. Predictors and outcomes in patients aged ≥65 years with OAB who did or did not choose to escalate from fesoterodine 4 to 8 mg before the first dose-escalation choice point (week 4) and at the end of the study (week 12) were assessed. Variables which significantly increased likelihood of dose escalation were, at baseline, body mass index (OR: 1.06, 95% CI 1.01, 1.12; P = 0.0222), and male gender (OR: 2.06, 95% CI 1.28, 3.32; P = 0.0028) and at week 4, change from baseline in urgency episodes (OR: 1.12, 95% CI 1.05, 1.20; P = 0.0008), patient perception of bladder control (PPBC) (OR: 1.44, 95% CI 1.12, 1.84; P = 0.004). At week 12, dose escalation was associated with slightly reduced treatment outcomes compared to week 4 non-escalators. No baseline disease related factor associated with dose escalation was identified. Magnitude of change in urgency episodes and reduction in PPBC at 4 weeks were associated with dose escalation. These data may be of use to healthcare providers as they allow judgement to be made in individual patients, allowing treatment decisions to be made. At end of treatment, improvements in efficacy and quality of life were achieved in both escalators and non-escalators. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Placebo-controlled pilot trial testing dose titration and intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous routes for ketamine in depression.

    PubMed

    Loo, C K; Gálvez, V; O'Keefe, E; Mitchell, P B; Hadzi-Pavlovic, D; Leyden, J; Harper, S; Somogyi, A A; Lai, R; Weickert, C S; Glue, P

    2016-07-01

    This pilot study assessed the feasibility, efficacy and safety of an individual dose-titration approach, and of the intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) routes for treating depression with ketamine. Fifteen treatment-refractory depressed participants received ketamine or midazolam (control treatment) in a multiple crossover, double-blind study. Ketamine was administered by IV (n = 4), IM (n = 5) or SC (n = 6) injection. Dose titration commenced at 0.1 mg/kg, increasing by 0.1 mg/kg up to 0.5 mg/kg, given in separate treatment sessions separated by ≥1 week, with one placebo control treatment randomly inserted. Mood, psychotomimetic and hemodynamic effects were assessed and plasma ketamine concentrations assayed. Twelve participants achieved response and remission criteria, achieved at doses as low as 0.1 mg/kg. All three routes of administration resulted in comparable antidepressant effects. Fewest adverse effects were noted with the SC route. Antidepressant response, adverse effects and ketamine concentrations were dose-related. Antidepressant response occurred at a range of doses and at <0.5 mg/kg. The dose-titration approach is a practical method for optimizing the efficacy - side-effects trade-off on an individual patient basis. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence for SC injection as a practical, feasible and efficacious treatment approach. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Pregabalin in patients with central neuropathic pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a flexible-dose regimen.

    PubMed

    Vranken, J H; Dijkgraaf, M G W; Kruis, M R; van der Vegt, M H; Hollmann, M W; Heesen, M

    2008-05-01

    The effective treatment of patients suffering from central neuropathic pain remains a clinical challenge, despite a standard pharmacological approach in combination with anticonvulsants and antidepressants. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the effects of pregabalin on pain relief, tolerability, health status, and quality of life in patients with central neuropathic pain caused by brain or spinal cord injuries. At baseline and 4 weeks after the start of treatment subjects were evaluated with standard measures of efficacy: pain intensity measured by visual analog scale, health status (Pain Disability Index and EQ-5D) and quality of life (SF-36). Forty patients received escalating doses of either pregabalin (150, 300, and 600mg/day) or matching placebo capsules. In both groups, patients started with 1 capsule per day (either 150mg of pregabalin or placebo). If pain relief was insufficient, patients were titrated to a higher dose. There was a statistically significant decrease in mean pain score at endpoint for pregabalin treatment, compared with placebo (P=0.016). Follow-up observation showed no significant difference in Pain Disability Index scores between the two groups. The pregabalin group, however, showed a statistically significant improvement for the EQ-5D. Pregabalin treatment led to a significant improvement in the bodily pain domain of the SF36. In the other domains, more favorable scores were reported without reaching statistical significance. Pregabalin, in a flexible-dose regime, produced clinically significant reductions in pain, as well as improvements in health status in patients suffering from severe central neuropathic pain.

  6. A randomized, placebo-controlled repeat-dose thorough QT study of inhaled loxapine in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Cassella, James V.; Spyker, Daniel A.; Yeung, Paul P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This randomized, double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled, crossover, thorough QT study assessed the effect of two inhaled loxapine doses on cardiac repolarization as measured by corrected QT (QTc) interval in healthy subjects (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01854710). Methods: Subjects received two doses of inhaled loxapine (10 mg) 2 hours apart + oral placebo, two doses of inhaled placebo + oral placebo, or two doses of inhaled placebo + oral moxifloxacin (400 mg; positive control), with ≥ 3 days washout between treatments. Two-sided 90% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated around least-squares mean predose placebo-subtracted individually corrected QT durations (ΔΔQTcIs) at 12 time points throughout 24 hours after dosing. A ΔΔQTcI 95% upper CI exceeding 10 msec was the threshold indicating QTc prolongation (primary endpoint). Secondary endpoints included Fridericia- and Bazett-corrected QT duration and QTcI outliers. Pharmacokinetics and adverse events (AEs) were also assessed. Results: Of 60 subjects enrolled (mean age, 33.8 years; 52% male), 44 completed the study. Post loxapine dosing, no ΔΔQTcI 95% upper CI exceeded 10 msec; the largest was 6.31 msec 5 minutes post dose 2. Methodology was validated by ΔΔQTcI 95% lower CIs exceeding 5 msec at 9 of 12 time points after moxifloxacin dosing. Loxapine plasma concentrations increased rapidly (mean Cmax, 177 ng/mL; median tmax 2 minutes after dose 2, 2.03 hours after dose 1). There were no deaths, serious AEs, or AEs leading to discontinuation, and one severe AE. Conclusions: Primary and secondary endpoints indicated two therapeutic doses of inhaled loxapine did not cause threshold QTc prolongation in this study. PMID:26501204

  7. High-Dose Pyridoxine and Magnesium Administration in Children with Autistic Disorder: An Absence of Salutary Effects in a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findling, Robert L.; Maxwell, Kathleen; Scotese-Wojtila, Lynette; Huang, Jie; Yamashita, Toyoko; Wiznitzer, Max

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of high doses of pyridoxine and magnesium in a 10-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial with 10 patients (mean age 6 years) having autism concluded that the high doses used were ineffective in ameliorating autistic behaviors. (DB)

  8. High-Dose Pyridoxine and Magnesium Administration in Children with Autistic Disorder: An Absence of Salutary Effects in a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findling, Robert L.; Maxwell, Kathleen; Scotese-Wojtila, Lynette; Huang, Jie; Yamashita, Toyoko; Wiznitzer, Max

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of high doses of pyridoxine and magnesium in a 10-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial with 10 patients (mean age 6 years) having autism concluded that the high doses used were ineffective in ameliorating autistic behaviors. (DB)

  9. Phase I randomized double-blind placebo-controlled single-dose safety studies of Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate

    PubMed Central

    LIN, LILIE L.; MICK, ROSEMARIE; WARE, JEFFREY; METZ, JAMES; LUSTIG, ROBERT; VAPIWALA, NEHA; RENGAN, RAMESH; KENNEDY, ANN R.

    2014-01-01

    In previously performed animal studies and Phase I–II human trials, Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate (BBIC) appeared to be a promising cancer chemopreventive agent. The present study describes the results of two phase I randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials performed in male subjects to assess the safety and toxicity of the original and new formulations of BBIC administered in a single dose as a suspension in orange juice. The dose of BBIC varied from 800–2,000 chymotrypsin inhibitor (CI) units. The BBI concentration in the serum samples collected from the subjects was analyzed by a dot-blot analysis procedure using the 5G2 monoclonal antibody, which is specific for reduced BBI. A total of 41 subjects were enrolled, 20 in the initial BBIC study and 21 in the second BBIC study. In these human trials, no clinically relevant changes in hematological or biochemical parameters were observed. Overall, BBIC was found to be well-tolerated. For these BBIC single-dose phase I trials, there was no dose-limiting toxicity for BBIC, even at the highest dose evaluated, and there were no apparent differences between the clinical trial results for the two formulations of BBIC. The bioavailability of BBI in the second clinical trial, which used the new BBIC formulation, was approximately 40 to 43% of the BBI bioavailability reached in the first clinical trial, which used the original BBIC formulation. The observed bioavailability difference was attributed to the different BBIC formulations used in these two clinical trials. These trials demonstrated that BBIC is safe when administered in a single dose of up to 2,000 CI units. Therefore, the results from the two trials indicate that a multi-dose trial of BBIC may be safely performed with doses of up to 2,000 CI units per day. PMID:24944684

  10. Rotation to methadone after opioid dose escalation: How should individualization of dosing occur?

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Camilla; Seccareccia, Dori; Booth, Christopher M; Cottrell, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    Methadone is a synthetic opioid agonist and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that is being increasingly used in pain management, particularly for pain that is resistant to conventional opioids. We describe two patients with neurotoxic side effects on escalating doses of parenteral hydromorphone with uncontrolled cancer pain who were successfully converted to oral methadone at a dose much smaller than predicted. The phenomenon of increasing pain despite opioid dose escalation is discussed and the rationale for the use of methadone in this situation is described. While methadone is useful for patients with unremitting pain on another opioid, existing conversion regimens do not specifically take into account the setting of dose escalation. Clinical guidelines for rotation to methadone after dose escalation of the previous opioid are needed to avoid toxicity including respiratory depression. A possible conversion method for rotation to methadone for patients with escalating pain and opioid use is suggested.

  11. Ophthalmological results from a placebo controlled comparative 3-dose ivermectin study in the treatment of onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Dadzie, K Y; Awadzi, K; Bird, A C; Schulz-Key, H

    1989-09-01

    One hundred and ninety eight patients with moderate to heavy infection with Onchocerca volvulus and with eye involvement in most, were allocated randomly to treatment with 100, 150 or 200 mcg/kg body weight of ivermectin or placebo given as a single oral dose in a double-blind dose finding study. The patients were drawn from an area under over ten years of vector control in Northern Ghana by the Onchocerciasis Control Programme, OCP. They underwent detailed clinical, laboratory and ophthalmological examination before treatment and in the review period of one year in hospital. Ivermectin given in a dose of 100, 150 or 200 mcg/kg eliminated microfilariae similarly slowly over 3-6 months and was associated with inflammatory reaction in the anterior segment which resolved without treatment. No changes in the fundus of the eye was detected by fluorescein angiography and no no-table other adverse eye reaction was observed. The ceiling of therapeutic activity of ivermectin in the eye is therefore put at 100 mcg/kg which is lower than the level fo 150 mcg/kg found in the skin. The apparent discrepancy may be due to different dose requirements on account of different mechanisms of action of ivermectin at the two sites. In the skin there is active killing while in the eye it is presumed there is a passive elimination of microfilariae.

  12. Dose-dependent reduction of hazardous alcohol use in a placebo-controlled trial of naltrexone for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Stephanie S; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; McKee, Sherry A; Leeman, Robert F; Cooney, Ned L; Meandzija, Boris; Wu, Ran; Makuch, Robert W

    2009-06-01

    The opiate antagonist naltrexone (Ntx) has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of alcohol dependence and as a component of treatment to reduce heavy drinking. At present, there are no published dose-ranging clinical trials of the oral preparation for treatment of problem drinking. The present study evaluated the effects of Ntx on alcohol use among the subset of hazardous drinkers (n=102) who participated in a placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial of oral Ntx (25-mg, 50-mg and 100-mg doses) combined with open-label transdermal nicotine patch for enhancing smoking cessation. On the primary outcome--no hazardous drinking (drinking that exceeded weekly or daily limits) during treatment--25 mg and 50 mg Ntx were superior to placebo (each p<0.05). These findings remained after controlling for baseline predictors or smoking abstinence during treatment. Time to remission of hazardous drinking was examined as a secondary outcome with definitions of hazardous drinking based on weekly limits, daily limits and the combination of weekly and daily limits and the results were consistent with the primary findings. In conclusion, the findings suggest that Ntx can reduce the risk of hazardous drinking in smokers who are not seeking or receiving alcohol treatment, providing strong evidence for the pharmacological effects of Ntx on drinking. This effect appears to favour lower doses that may be better tolerated and less expensive than the higher 100-mg dose. Given its efficacy and favourable side-effect profile, the 25-mg dose should be considered for future studies of combination therapy.

  13. Dose Dependent Reduction of Hazardous Alcohol Use in a Placebo-Controlled Trial of Naltrexone for Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; McKee, Sherry A.; Leeman, Robert F.; Cooney, Ned L.; Meandzija, Boris; Wu, Ran; Makuch, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    The opiate antagonist naltrexone has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of alcohol dependence and as a component of treatment to reduce heavy drinking. At present, there are no published dose-ranging clinical trials of the oral preparation for treatment of problem drinking. The present study evaluated the effects of naltrexone on alcohol use among the subset of hazardous drinkers (N = 102) who participated in a placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial of oral naltrexone (25 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg doses) combined with open-label transdermal nicotine patch for enhancing smoking cessation. On the primary outcome—no hazardous drinking (drinking that exceeded weekly or daily limits) during treatment—25 mg and 50 mg naltrexone were superior to placebo (each p < 0.05). These findings remained after controlling for baseline predictors or smoking abstinence during treatment. Time to remission of hazardous drinking was examined as a secondary outcome with definitions of hazardous drinking based on weekly limits, daily limits and the combination of weekly and daily limits and the results were consistent with the primary findings. In conclusion, the findings suggest that naltrexone can reduce the risk of hazardous drinking in smokers who are not seeking or receiving alcohol treatment, providing strong evidence for the pharmacological effects of naltrexone on drinking. This effect appears to favor lower doses that may be better tolerated and less expensive than the higher 100 mg dose. Given its efficacy and favorable side effect profile, the 25 mg dose should be considered for future studies of combination therapy. PMID:18796184

  14. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of single-dose amphetamine formulations in ADHD.

    PubMed

    James, R S; Sharp, W S; Bastain, T M; Lee, P P; Walter, J M; Czarnolewski, M; Castellanos, F X

    2001-11-01

    To compare the efficacy and time course of single morning doses of Adderall, extended-release, and immediate-release dextroamphetamine sulfate. Thirty-five children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, combined type, were given Adderall, immediate-release dextroamphetamine, dextroamphetamine Spansules, and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Behavior ratings, locomotor activity measurements, and academic measures were obtained over a period of 8 weeks. All three drugs exhibited robust efficacy versus placebo on nearly all measures. The effects of dextroamphetamine Spansules were less robust in the morning, particularly compared with Adderall, but they lasted 3 to 6 hours longer, depending on the measure. Although parent behavior ratings and locomotor activity showed improvements up to 12 hours after single doses of all three drugs, the number of math problems attempted and completed correctly 4 hours after dosing were only robustly increased by Spansules. Both immediate-release amphetamines demonstrated earlier onset of effects, but dextroamphetamine Spansules showed more sustained effects that were present on a wider range of measures.

  15. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of escalating high doses of ivermectin in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Cynthia A; Furtek, Christine I; Porras, Arturo G; Chen, Cong; Tipping, Robert; Clineschmidt, Coleen M; Sciberras, David G; Hsieh, John Y K; Lasseter, Kenneth C

    2002-10-01

    Safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of the antiparasitic drug ivermectin, administered in higher and/or more frequent doses than currently approved for human use, were evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalation study. Subjects (n = 68) were assigned to one of four panels (3:1, ivermectin/placebo): 30 or 60 mg (three times a week) or 90 or 120 mg (single dose). The 30 mg panel (range: 34 7-594 microg/kg) also received a single dose with food after a 1-week washout. Safety assessments addressed both known ivermectin CNS effects and general toxicity. The primary safety endpoint was mydriasis, accurately quantitated by pupillometry. Ivermectin was generally well tolerated, with no indication of associated CNS toxicity for doses up to 10 times the highest FDA-approved dose of 200 microg/kg. All dose regimens had a mydriatic effect similar to placebo. Adverse experiences were similar between ivermectin and placebo and did not increase with dose. Following single doses of 30 to 120 mg, AUC and Cmax were generally dose proportional, with t(max) approximately 4 hours and t1/2 approximately 18 hours. The geometric mean AUC of 30 mg ivermectin was 2.6 times higher when administered with food. Geometric mean AUC ratios (day 7/day 1) were 1.24 and 1.40 for the 30 and 60 mg doses, respectively, indicating that the accumulation of ivermectin given every fourth day is minimal. This study demonstrated that ivermectin is generally well tolerated at these higher doses and more frequent regimens.

  16. Aspirin in episodic tension-type headache: placebo-controlled dose-ranging comparison with paracetamol.

    PubMed

    Steiner, T J; Lange, R; Voelker, M

    2003-02-01

    Most people with episodic tension-type headache (TTH) treat themselves with over-the-counter analgesics. In the absence of clear evidence of dose-related efficacy of the two most commonly used analgesics, aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and paracetamol (acetaminophen), this study compared two doses of each with placebo. In a double-blind, double-dummy, randomized parallel-groups comparative trial, 638 consenting subjects aged 16-65 years with episodic TTH (but not migraine) by IHS criteria were recruited from the UK general population by advertisement. They treated one episode of moderate or severe TTH with a single dose of 500 or 1000 mg aspirin, 500 or 1000 mg paracetamol or placebo. The primary objective was to compare aspirin 1000 mg with placebo, and the primary end-point was subjective pain relief (total or worthwhile) 2 h after treatment ('response'). Additionally, pain intensity on a 100-mm visual analogue scale and functional impairment were monitored regularly for 4 h and at 24 h, although rescue medication was allowed after 2 h. The analysis was of the intention-to-treat population of 542 who took treatment (all providing outcome data). Treatment groups were matched at baseline. Aspirin 1000 mg (75.7% response rate; P = 0.0009) and to a lesser extent aspirin 500 mg (70.3%; P = 0.011) and paracetamol 1000 mg (71.2%; P = 0.007), but not paracetamol 500 mg (63.8%; P = 0.104), were statistically more effective than placebo despite a high placebo-response rate (54.5%). Outcome was not affected by headache intensity at baseline. Secondary end-points including functional recovery (by median times of 4.0-13.5 h) were consistent with these findings, although a minority of subjects recorded long-duration functional impairment (37-54 h). Adverse events reported by 13.4-18.9% of subjects were mild or moderate, and transient. No safety concerns arose.

  17. Placebo-controlled comparison of three dose-regimens of 5-hydroxytryptophan challenge test in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Gijsman, Harm J; van Gerven, Joop M A; de Kam, Marieke L; Schoemaker, Rik C; Pieters, Monique S M; Weemaes, Margo; de Rijk, Roel; van der Post, Jeroen; Cohen, Adam F

    2002-04-01

    Single-dose administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is regularly used as a challenge test of the serotonergic system. The use of 5-HTP has been limited by an apparent small window between the occurrence of neuroendocrine endpoints and the occurrence of side effects. Therefore, many dosing strategies have been tried with and without concurrent administration of carbidopa, a peripheral inhibitor of the decarboxylation from 5-HTP to serotonin. The aim of the current study was to assess the relation between pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 5-HTP. Twelve healthy male volunteers were included in a placebo-controlled, randomized, four-way crossover, double-blind, single-dose investigation of oral 5-HTP with or without coadministration of carbidopa. The four dose regimens were placebo, 5-HTP 100 mg, 5-HTP 200 mg, and 5-HTP 100 mg with coadministration of carbidopa 100 mg and 50 mg at 3 hours before and 3 hours after the administration of 5-HTP, respectively. The last regimen resulted in a doubling of the elimination half-life, an apparent clearance at least 14 times smaller, and a 15.4 times greater area under the curve compared with 5-HTP 100 mg without carbidopa. Furthermore, it was the only regimen to induce a significant change in cortisol and prolactin. It did not induce any change in subjective psychologic symptoms or cardiovascular parameters, but it was the only regimen to induce some nausea in three participants. The authors conclude that this regimen of 5-HTP 100 mg plus carbidopa is a relatively simple, effective, and tolerable challenge of the presynaptic serotonergic system. Further increase of the dose of 5-HTP might improve the size of the effect on endpoints as long as the tolerability remains good.

  18. High-dose baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence (BACLAD study): a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian A; Geisel, Olga; Pelz, Patricia; Higl, Verena; Krüger, Josephine; Stickel, Anna; Beck, Anne; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Hellweg, Rainer; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Previous randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of the selective γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-B receptor agonist baclofen in the treatment of alcohol dependence have reported divergent results, possibly related to the low to medium dosages of baclofen used in these studies (30-80mg/d). Based on preclinical observations of a dose-dependent effect and positive case reports in alcohol-dependent patients, the present RCT aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of individually titrated high-dose baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Out of 93 alcohol-dependent patients initially screened, 56 were randomly assigned to a double-blind treatment with individually titrated baclofen or placebo using dosages of 30-270mg/d. The multiple primary outcome measures were (1) total abstinence and (2) cumulative abstinence duration during a 12-week high-dose phase. More patients of the baclofen group maintained total abstinence during the high-dose phase than those receiving placebo (15/22, 68.2% vs. 5/21, 23.8%, p=0.014). Cumulative abstinence duration was significantly higher in patients given baclofen compared to patients of the placebo group (mean 67.8 (SD 30) vs. 51.8 (SD 29.6) days, p=0.047). No drug-related serious adverse events were observed during the trial. Individually titrated high-dose baclofen effectively supported alcohol-dependent patients in maintaining alcohol abstinence and showed a high tolerability, even in the event of relapse. These results provide further evidence for the potential of baclofen, thereby possibly extending the current pharmacological treatment options in alcohol dependence.

  19. Misonidazole with dexamethasone rescue: an escalating dose toxicity study

    SciTech Connect

    Tanasichuk, H.; Urtasun, R.C.; Fulton, D.S.; Raleigh, J.

    1984-09-01

    Neurotoxicity induced by misonidazole (MISO) and desmethylmisonidazole (DMM) has become the dose limiting factor in clinical work. In 1981, the authors reported a preliminary study suggestive that Dexamethasone (DEXA) does have a protective effect against peripheral neuropathies (PN) resulting from toxicity of misonidazole. The authors are presently investigating the use of DEXA, with escalating doses of MISO in an attempt to modify its neurotoxicity. To date, 16 patients have been registered to receive total doses of MISO given in 9 equally divided doses over 3 weeks. DEXA is given 3 days prior to the first dose and continues for the duration of therapy. All patients receive palliative radiation. No toxicity was seen at the total dose of 13.5 gm/M/sub 2/. One grade I PN occurred in the first four patients receiving 15.5 gm/M/sub 2/. Six additional patients were entered at this dose level and no further incidence of PN was observed.

  20. Dose-escalation study of octanoic acid in patients with essential tremor

    PubMed Central

    Voller, Bernhard; Lines, Emily; McCrossin, Gayle; Tinaz, Sule; Lungu, Codrin; Grimes, George; Starling, Judith; Potti, Gopal; Haubenberger, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Recently, 1-octanol has been shown to have efficacy in treating patients with essential tremor (ET). The primary metabolite of 1-octanol is octanoic acid (OA), which is now thought to be the active substance that mediates tremor suppression. Our aim was to describe the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of oral OA in patients with ET and assess the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) profile of OA. METHODS. The MTD was studied using an open-label, single-ascending 3 + 3 dose–escalation design. Predefined single doses ranged from 8 to 128 mg/kg, with grade 2 adverse events (AEs) defined as dose-limiting toxicity. Tremor was assessed using accelerometry, digital spiral analysis, and a standard clinical rating scale at baseline and up to 600 minutes after intake. Safety assessments and PK sampling were also performed. RESULTS. Dose-limiting toxicity was not reached. The most frequent AE was mild abdominal discomfort. Exposure (AUC) increased linearly with the dose. Secondary efficacy measures suggested a dose-dependent reduction of tremor. Accordingly, a single unified PK/PD model with an effect compartment and sigmoid maximum effect (Emax) response could be built that accounted well for the time profiles of plasma concentrations as well as effects on tremor severity across the 5 dose levels. CONCLUSION. Although our trial did not reach an MTD, a dose-dependent effect was demonstrated in the PK/PD model as well as in secondary efficacy outcomes. Future studies are needed to explore the safety in higher dose ranges and to confirm dose-dependent efficacy in a placebo-controlled design. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01468948 FUNDING. NINDS Intramural Research Program; TG Therapeutics Inc. PMID:26927672

  1. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of flexible-dose fesoterodine in subjects with overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Dmochowski, Roger R; Peters, Kenneth M; Morrow, Jon D; Guan, Zhonghong; Gong, Jason; Sun, Franklin; Siami, Paul; Staskin, David R

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of flexible-dose fesoterodine vs placebo in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB). In a 12-week double-blind trial, subjects were randomized to fesoterodine 4 mg or placebo once daily, taken within 4 hours of bedtime. At week 2, subjects could increase the fesoterodine dose to 8 mg (sham escalation for placebo). Subjects completed 3-day bladder diaries, Patient Perception of Bladder Condition, and Urgency Perception Scale at baseline and weeks 2, 6, and 12 as well as OAB Questionnaire at baseline and week 12. Of 883 subjects, 63% and 73% of the fesoterodine (n = 438) and placebo (n = 445) groups, respectively, opted for dose escalation. Week 12 improvements from baseline in total micturitions, urgency episodes, urgency urinary incontinence episodes, frequency-urgency sum, and all OAB Questionnaire scales and domains, but not nocturnal micturitions or nocturnal urgency episodes, were significantly greater with fesoterodine than placebo (all P <.05). Treatment differences in micturitions and frequency-urgency sum were significant by week 2 and in urgency urinary incontinence and urgency episodes by week 6. Significantly greater percentages of subjects taking fesoterodine had improved Patient Perception of Bladder Condition and Urgency Perception Scale scores at weeks 2, 6, and 12 (P <.05). Dry mouth (fesoterodine, 26%; placebo, 8%) and constipation (fesoterodine, 11%; placebo, 6%) were the most common adverse events. In both groups, 87% of the subjects completed the trial; 8% and 5% of the fesoterodine and placebo groups, respectively, discontinued because of an adverse event. Flexible-dose fesoterodine was efficacious and generally well tolerated for treatment of OAB symptoms. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial of tafenoquine for weekly prophylaxis against Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Hale, Braden R; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Fryauff, David J; Koram, Kwadwo A; Adjuik, Martin; Oduro, Abraham R; Prescott, W Roy; Baird, J Kevin; Nkrumah, Francis; Ritchie, Thomas L; Franke, Eileen D; Binka, Fred N; Horton, John; Hoffman, Stephen L

    2003-03-01

    Tafenoquine is a promising new 8-aminoquinoline drug that may be useful for malaria prophylaxis in nonpregnant persons with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) function. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled chemoprophylaxis trial was conducted with adult residents of northern Ghana to determine the minimum effective weekly dose of tafenoquine for the prevention of infection by Plasmodium falciparum. The primary end point was a positive malaria blood smear result during the 13 weeks of study drug coverage. Relative to the placebo, all 4 tafenoquine dosages demonstrated significant protection against P. falciparum infection: for 25 mg/week, protective efficacy was 32% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20%-43%); for 50 mg/week, 84% (95% CI, 75%-91%); for 100 mg/week, 87% (95% CI, 78%-93%); and for 200 mg/week, 86% (95% CI, 76%-92%). The mefloquine dosage of 250 mg/week also demonstrated significant protection against P. falciparum infection (protective efficacy, 86%; 95% CI, 72%-93%). There was little difference between study groups in the adverse events reported, and there was no evidence of a relationship between tafenoquine dosage and reports of physical complaints or the occurrence of abnormal laboratory parameters. Tafenoquine dosages of 50, 100, and 200 mg/week were safe, well tolerated, and effective against P. falciparum infection in this study population.

  3. Dose dependent sun protective effect of topical melatonin: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Scheuer, Cecilie; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2016-11-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) by sunlight results in an increasing number of skin conditions. Earlier studies have suggested a protective effect of topical treatment with the pineal hormone melatonin. However, this protective effect has never been evaluated in natural sunlight, and the optimal dosing has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the sun protective effect of topical treatment with three different doses of melatonin (0.5%, 2.5%, 12.5%) against erythema induced by natural sunlight. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three healthy volunteers, 8 male and 15 female, were enrolled. The protective effect of three different doses of melatonin cream (0.5%, 2.5%, 12.5%) against erythema induced by natural sunlight was tested. All participants had their backs exposed to sun from 1:22 PM to 2:02 PM local time and UV-index was 9. Primary outcome was reduction in erythema evaluated by chromatography after sun exposure, when treated with topical melatonin cream (0.5%, 2.5%, 12.5%) versus placebo and no treatment. The erythema reaction was evaluated with chromatography and visual scoring at baseline, one, four, eight and 24h after exposure. Significant difference in erythema formation was found between areas treated with melatonin cream 12.5% and areas receiving placebo or no treatment (repeated measures ANOVA p=0.001). No differences were found between placebo and the 0.5% and 2.5% concentrations. Application of melatonin cream 12.5% protects against natural sunlight induced erythema. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Caffeine in Parkinson's disease: a pilot open-label, dose-escalation study.

    PubMed

    Altman, Robert D; Lang, Anthony E; Postuma, Ronald B

    2011-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies consistently find an inverse association between caffeine use and PD. Numerous explanations exist, but are difficult to evaluate as caffeine's symptomatic effect and tolerability in PD are unknown. We designed an open-label, 6-week dose-escalation study of caffeine to establish dose tolerability and evaluate potential motor/nonmotor benefits. Caffeine was started at 200 mg daily and was increased to a maximum of 1,000 mg. Of 25 subjects, 20 tolerated 200 mg, 17 tolerated 400 mg, 7 tolerated 800 mg, and 3 tolerated 1,000 mg. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal discomfort, anxiety, and worsening/emerging tremor. At 400 mg daily, we found potential improvements in motor manifestations and somnolence (UPDRS III: -4.5 ± 4.6, P = 0.003; Epworth: -2.0 ± 3.0, P = 0.015). Maximum dose tolerability for caffeine in PD appears to be 100 to 200 mg BID. We found pilot preliminary evidence that caffeine may improve some motor and nonmotor aspects of PD, which must be confirmed in longer term, placebo-controlled, clinical trials. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  5. A placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study of aripiprazole in children and adolescents with irritability associated with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Ronald N; Owen, Randall; Kamen, Lisa; Manos, George; McQuade, Robert D; Carson, William H; Aman, Michael G

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder. Two hundred eighteen children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years) with a diagnosis of autistic disorder, and with behaviors such as tantrums, aggression, self-injurious behavior, or a combination of these symptoms, were randomized 1:1:1:1 to aripiprazole (5, 10, or 15 mg/day) or placebo in this 8-week double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Efficacy was evaluated using the caregiver-rated Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability subscale (primary efficacy measure) and the clinician-rated Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement score. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. At week 8, all aripiprazole doses produced significantly greater improvement than placebo in mean Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability subscale scores (5 mg/day, -12.4; 10 mg/day, -13.2; 15 mg/day, -14.4; versus placebo, -8.4; all p < .05). All aripiprazole doses demonstrated significantly greater improvements in mean Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement score than placebo at week 8. Discontinuation rates due to adverse events were as follows: placebo 7.7%, aripiprazole 5 mg/day 9.4%, 10 mg/day 13.6%, and 15 mg/day 7.4%. The most common adverse event leading to discontinuation was sedation. There were two serious adverse events: presyncope (5 mg/day) and aggression (10 mg/day). At week 8, mean weight change (last observation carried forward) was as follows: placebo +0.3 kg, aripiprazole 5 mg/day +1.3 kg, 10 mg/day +1.3 kg, and 15 mg/day +1.5 kg; all p < .05 versus placebo. Aripiprazole was efficacious and generally safe and well tolerated in the treatment of children and adolescents with irritability associated with autistic disorder.

  6. Low-dose budesonide for maintenance of clinical remission in collagenous colitis: a randomised, placebo-controlled, 12-month trial

    PubMed Central

    Münch, Andreas; Bohr, Johan; Miehlke, Stephan; Benoni, Cecilia; Olesen, Martin; Öst, Åke; Strandberg, Lars; Hellström, Per M; Hertervig, Erik; Armerding, Peter; Stehlik, Jiri; Lindberg, Greger; Björk, Jan; Lapidus, Annika; Löfberg, Robert; Bonderup, Ole; Avnström, Sören; Rössle, Martin; Dilger, Karin; Mueller, Ralph; Greinwald, Roland; Tysk, Curt; Ström, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Objective This 1-year study aimed to assess low-dose budesonide therapy for maintenance of clinical remission in patients with collagenous colitis. Design A prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled study beginning with an 8-week open-label induction phase in which patients with histologically confirmed active collagenous colitis received budesonide (Budenofalk, 9 mg/day initially, tapered to 4.5 mg/day), after which 92 patients in clinical remission were randomised to budesonide (mean dose 4.5 mg/day; Budenofalk 3 mg capsules, two or one capsule on alternate days) or placebo in a 12-month double-blind phase with 6 months treatment-free follow-up. Primary endpoint was clinical remission throughout the double-blind phase. Results Clinical remission during open-label treatment was achieved by 84.5% (93/110 patients). The median time to remission was 10.5 days (95% CI (9.0 to 14.0 days)). The maintenance of clinical remission at 1 year was achieved by 61.4% (27/44 patients) in the budesonide group versus 16.7% (8/48 patients) receiving placebo (treatment difference 44.5% in favour of budesonide; 95% CI (26.9% to 62.7%), p<0.001). Health-related quality of life was maintained during the 12-month double-blind phase in budesonide-treated patients. During treatment-free follow-up, 82.1% (23/28 patients) formerly receiving budesonide relapsed after study drug discontinuation. Low-dose budesonide over 1 year resulted in few suspected adverse drug reactions (7/44 patients), all non-serious. Conclusions Budesonide at a mean dose of 4.5 mg/day maintained clinical remission for at least 1 year in the majority of patients with collagenous colitis and preserved health-related quality of life without safety concerns. Treatment extension with low-dose budesonide beyond 1 year may be beneficial given the high relapse rate after budesonide discontinuation. Trial registration numbers http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01278082) and http

  7. Low dose aspirin in the prevention of recurrent spontaneous preterm labour - the APRIL study: a multicenter randomized placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Visser, Laura; de Boer, Marjon A; de Groot, Christianne J M; Nijman, Tobias A J; Hemels, Marieke A C; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Bosmans, Judith E; Kok, Marjolein; van Laar, Judith O; Sueters, Marieke; Scheepers, Hubertina; van Drongelen, Joris; Franssen, Maureen T M; Sikkema, J Marko; Duvekot, Hans J J; Bekker, Mireille N; van der Post, Joris A M; Naaktgeboren, Christiana; Mol, Ben W J; Oudijk, Martijn A

    2017-07-14

    Preterm birth (birth before 37 weeks of gestation) is a major problem in obstetrics and affects an estimated 15 million pregnancies worldwide annually. A history of previous preterm birth is the strongest risk factor for preterm birth, and recurrent spontaneous preterm birth affects more than 2.5 million pregnancies each year. A recent meta-analysis showed possible benefits of the use of low dose aspirin in the prevention of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth. We will assess the (cost-)effectiveness of low dose aspirin in comparison with placebo in the prevention of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth in a randomized clinical trial. Women with a singleton pregnancy and a history of spontaneous preterm birth in a singleton pregnancy (22-37 weeks of gestation) will be asked to participate in a multicenter, randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled trial. Women will be randomized to low dose aspirin (80 mg once daily) or placebo, initiated from 8 to 16 weeks up to maximal 36 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome measure will be preterm birth, defined as birth at a gestational age (GA) < 37 weeks. Secondary outcomes will be a composite of adverse neonatal outcome and maternal outcomes, including subgroups of prematurity, as well as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and costs from a healthcare perspective. Preterm birth will be analyzed as a group, as well as separately for spontaneous or indicated onset. Analysis will be performed by intention to treat. In total, 406 pregnant women have to be randomized to show a reduction of 35% in preterm birth from 36 to 23%. If aspirin is effective in preventing preterm birth, we expect that there will be cost savings, because of the low costs of aspirin. To evaluate this, a cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed comparing preventive treatment with aspirin with placebo. This trial will provide evidence as to whether or not low dose aspirin is (cost-) effective in reducing recurrence of spontaneous

  8. Otilonium bromide in irritable bowel syndrome: A dose-ranging randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chmielewska-Wilkoń, Danuta; Reggiardo, Giorgio; Egan, Colin Gerard

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To examine the efficacy and safety of otilonium bromide (OB) in treatment-sensitive functional irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) clinical parameters. METHODS: Ninety-three patients (44.8 ± 12.6 years, 69% female) with IBS symptoms complying with Rome II criteria participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, dose-ranging phase I/II study. Patients were administered OB 20 mg (n = 24), 40mg (n = 23) and 80 mg (n = 23) tid or placebo (n = 23) in 4 parallel groups for 4 wk. Primary efficacy variables included abdominal discomfort, intestinal habits, number of daily evacuations and stool consistency. Secondary efficacy measures included return to regular intestinal habits and global discomfort. Safety was also assessed. RESULTS: Baseline clinical characteristics were similar among the 4 groups. Although individual parameters such as intensity and frequency of abdominal discomfort, bloating or pain were reduced by OB over the 4 wk, no significant differences were observed between groups. Similarly, no difference was observed between OB treatment or placebo for mucus in stool and incomplete or difficulty of evacuation. However, evacuation frequency was significantly reduced after 4 wk by 80 mg OB compared to placebo (-8.36% for placebo vs -41.9% for 80 mg OB, P < 0.01). While 21.7% of patients in the placebo group experienced regular intestinal habits after 4 wk, this improvement was greater for patients treated with 40 mg OB (P < 0.01 vs placebo). Furthermore, a dose-dependent reduction in frequency of diarrhoea (χ2-test for trend = 11.5, P < 0.001) and an increase in normal stool frequency was observed. Combining individual variables into a global discomfort index revealed significant improvement among increasing OB doses, favouring 40 mg (P = 0.013) and 80mg OB (P = 0.001) over placebo. No difference was observed between frequency of adverse events for placebo vs OB. CONCLUSION: This dose-ranging study demonstrates that OB at 40 and 80 mg can

  9. Otilonium bromide in irritable bowel syndrome: a dose-ranging randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chmielewska-Wilkoń, Danuta; Reggiardo, Giorgio; Egan, Colin Gerard

    2014-09-14

    To examine the efficacy and safety of otilonium bromide (OB) in treatment-sensitive functional irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) clinical parameters. Ninety-three patients (44.8 ± 12.6 years, 69% female) with IBS symptoms complying with Rome II criteria participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, dose-ranging phase I/II study. Patients were administered OB 20 mg (n = 24), 40 mg (n = 23) and 80 mg (n = 23) tid or placebo (n = 23) in 4 parallel groups for 4 wk. Primary efficacy variables included abdominal discomfort, intestinal habits, number of daily evacuations and stool consistency. Secondary efficacy measures included return to regular intestinal habits and global discomfort. Safety was also assessed. Baseline clinical characteristics were similar among the 4 groups. Although individual parameters such as intensity and frequency of abdominal discomfort, bloating or pain were reduced by OB over the 4 wk, no significant differences were observed between groups. Similarly, no difference was observed between OB treatment or placebo for mucus in stool and incomplete or difficulty of evacuation. However, evacuation frequency was significantly reduced after 4 wk by 80 mg OB compared to placebo (-8.36% for placebo vs -41.9% for 80 mg OB, P < 0.01). While 21.7% of patients in the placebo group experienced regular intestinal habits after 4 wk, this improvement was greater for patients treated with 40 mg OB (P < 0.01 vs placebo). Furthermore, a dose-dependent reduction in frequency of diarrhoea (χ(2)-test for trend = 11.5, P < 0.001) and an increase in normal stool frequency was observed. Combining individual variables into a global discomfort index revealed significant improvement among increasing OB doses, favouring 40 mg (P = 0.013) and 80 mg OB (P = 0.001) over placebo. No difference was observed between frequency of adverse events for placebo vs OB. This dose-ranging study demonstrates that OB at 40 and 80 mg can improve individual and global

  10. Quarter-dose quadruple combination therapy for initial treatment of hypertension: placebo-controlled, crossover, randomised trial and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chow, Clara K; Thakkar, Jay; Bennett, Alex; Hillis, Graham; Burke, Michael; Usherwood, Tim; Vo, Kha; Rogers, Kris; Atkins, Emily; Webster, Ruth; Chou, Michael; Dehbi, Hakim-Moulay; Salam, Abdul; Patel, Anushka; Neal, Bruce; Peiris, David; Krum, Henry; Chalmers, John; Nelson, Mark; Reid, Christopher M; Woodward, Mark; Hilmer, Sarah; Thom, Simon; Rodgers, Anthony

    2017-03-11

    Globally, most patients with hypertension are treated with monotherapy, and control rates are poor because monotherapy only reduces blood pressure by around 9/5 mm Hg on average. There is a pressing need for blood pressure-control strategies with improved efficacy and tolerability. We aimed to assess whether ultra-low-dose combination therapy could meet these needs. We did a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial of a quadpill-a single capsule containing four blood pressure-lowering drugs each at quarter-dose (irbesartan 37·5 mg, amlodipine 1·25 mg, hydrochlorothiazide 6·25 mg, and atenolol 12·5 mg). Participants with untreated hypertension were enrolled from four centres in the community of western Sydney, NSW, Australia, mainly by general practitioners. Participants were randomly allocated by computer to either the quadpill or matching placebo for 4 weeks; this treatment was followed by a 2-week washout, then the other study treatment was administered for 4 weeks. Study staff and participants were unaware of treatment allocations, and masking was achieved by use of identical opaque capsules. The primary outcome was placebo-corrected 24-h systolic ambulatory blood pressure reduction after 4 weeks and analysis was by intention to treat. We also did a systematic review of trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of quarter-standard-dose blood pressure-lowering therapy against placebo. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN12614001057673. The trial ended after 1 year and this report presents the final analysis. Between November, 2014, and December, 2015, 55 patients were screened for our randomised trial, of whom 21 underwent randomisation. Mean age of participants was 58 years (SD 11) and mean baseline office and 24-h systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were 154 (14)/90 (11) mm Hg and 140 (9)/87 (8) mm Hg, respectively. One individual declined participation after

  11. Pharmacokinetics of Escalating Doses of Oral Psilocybin in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Brown, Randall T; Nicholas, Christopher R; Cozzi, Nicholas V; Gassman, Michele C; Cooper, Karen M; Muller, Daniel; Thomas, Chantelle D; Hetzel, Scott J; Henriquez, Kelsey M; Ribaudo, Alexandra S; Hutson, Paul R

    2017-03-28

    Psilocybin is a psychedelic tryptamine that has shown promise in recent clinical trials for the treatment of depression and substance use disorders. This open-label study of the pharmacokinetics of psilocybin was performed to describe the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of psilocybin in sequential, escalating oral doses of 0.3, 0.45, and 0.6 mg/kg in 12 healthy adults. Eligible healthy adults received 6-8 h of preparatory counseling in anticipation of the first dose of psilocybin. The escalating oral psilocybin doses were administered at approximately monthly intervals in a controlled setting and subjects were monitored for 24 h. Blood and urine samples were collected over 24 h and assayed by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for psilocybin and psilocin, the active metabolite. The pharmacokinetics of psilocin were determined using both compartmental (NONMEM) and noncompartmental (WinNonlin) methods. No psilocybin was found in plasma or urine, and renal clearance of intact psilocin accounted for less than 2% of the total clearance. The pharmacokinetics of psilocin were linear within the twofold range of doses, and the elimination half-life of psilocin was 3 h (standard deviation 1.1). An extended elimination phase in some subjects suggests hydrolysis of the psilocin glucuronide metabolite. Variation in psilocin clearance was not predicted by body weight, and no serious adverse events occurred in the subjects studied. The small amount of psilocin renally excreted suggests that no dose reduction is needed for subjects with mild-moderate renal impairment. Simulation of fixed doses using the pharmacokinetic parameters suggest that an oral dose of 25 mg should approximate the drug exposure of a 0.3 mg/kg oral dose of psilocybin. Although doses of 0.6 mg/kg are in excess of likely therapeutic doses, no serious physical or psychological events occurred during or within 30 days of any dose. NCT02163707.

  12. Dose escalation studies with caspofungin against Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Domán, Marianna; Kovács, Renátó; Perlin, David S; Kardos, Gábor; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Juhász, Béla; Bozó, Aliz; Majoros, László

    2015-09-01

    Echinocandins are recommended as first-line agents against invasive fungal infections caused by Candida glabrata, which still carry a high mortality rate. Dose escalation of echinocandins has been suggested to improve the clinical outcome against C. glabrata. To address this possibility, we performed in vitro and in vivo experiments with caspofungin against four WT C. glabrata clinical isolates, a drug-susceptible ATCC 90030 reference strain and two echinocandin-resistant strains with known FKS mutations. MIC values for the clinical isolates in RPMI 1640 were ≤ 0.03 mg l(-1 ) but increased to 0.125-0.25 mg l(-1 )in RPMI 1640+50% serum. In RPMI 1640+50% serum, the replication of C. glabrata was weaker than in RPMI 1640.Caspofungin in RPMI 1640 at 1 and 4 mg l(-1) showed a fungicidal effect within 7 h against three of the four clinical isolates but was only fungistatic at 16 and 32 mg l(-1) (paradoxically decreased killing activity). In RPMI 1640+50% serum, caspofungin at ≥ 1 mg l(-1) was rapidly fungicidal (within 3.31 h) against three of the four isolates. In a profoundly neutropenic murine model, all caspofungin doses (1, 2, 3, 5 and 20 mg kg(-1) daily) decreased the fungal tissue burdens significantly (P < 0.05-0.001) without statistical differences between doses, but the mean fungal tissue burdens never fell below 105 cells (g tissue)(-1). The echinocandin-resistant strains were highly virulent in animal models and all doses were ineffective. These results confirm the clinical experience that caspofungin dose escalation does not improve efficacy.

  13. Long-Term Effects of Low-Dose Spironolactone on Chronic Dialysis Patients: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, ChongTing; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, HuiFang; Lin, AiXia

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this 2-year multicentric, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the long-term effects and adverse effects of spironolactone on chronic dialysis patients. A total of 253 non-heart failure dialysis patients with end-stage renal disease were randomly assigned to 2-year treatment with spironolactone (25 mg once daily, n=125) or a matching placebo (n=128) as add-on therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiocerebrovascular (CCV) events, aborted cardiac arrest, and sudden cardiac death, and the secondary outcome was death from all causes. Other CCV-related indexes such as left ventricular mass index, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart rate variability, vascular endothelial function, and blood pressure-lowering effect were analyzed for patients who completed the whole 2-year follow-up study. Sociodemographic, clinical, and relevant laboratory data were also collected. During the 2-year follow-up, the primary outcome occurred less frequently in the spironolactone group vs the control group (7.2% vs 18.0%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.78). Death from CCV events occurred in 4.0% of patients in the spironolactone group and in 11.7% of patients in the control group. Neither aborted cardiac arrest nor sudden cardiac death was significantly reduced by spironolactone treatment. The secondary outcome occurred less frequently in the spironolactone group vs the control group (9.6% vs 19.5%; adjusted HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.29-0.94). Other CCV-related indexes except for heart rate variability were significantly improved. This study demonstrates that use of low-dose spironolactone in non-heart failure dialysis patients can effectively reduce the risks of both CCV morbidity and mortality with few side effects. Moreover, the beneficial effect was mediated through improving the endothelial function or reducing left ventricular size independent of blood pressure changes, rather than mediation

  14. A randomised, controlled, double blind, escalating dose study of alicaforsen enema in active ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    van Deventer, S J H; Tami, J A; Wedel, M K

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of an enema formulation of alicaforsen, an antisense inhibitor of intercellular adhesion molecule, after 1, 3, and 6 months. Methods: This was a randomised, placebo controlled, double blind, escalating dose multicentre study in 40 patients with mild to moderately active distal ulcerative colitis (disease activity index (DAI) 4–10). Patients were assigned to four dosing cohorts of 10 patients each (eight active, two placebo). Each patient received 60 ml of alicaforsen enema (0.1, 0.5, 2, or 4 mg/ml or placebo) once daily for 28 consecutive days. Safety and efficacy (DAI and clinical activity index) scores were evaluated up to six months after initiation of dosing. Results: At day 29, alicaforsen enema resulted in dose dependent improvement in DAI (overall p = 0.003). Alicaforsen 4 mg/ml improved DAI by 70% compared with the placebo response of 28% (p = 0.004). Alicaforsen 2 and 4 mg/ml improved DAI status by 72% and 68% compared with a placebo response of 11.5% at month 3 (p = 0.016 and 0.021, respectively). Specifically, DAI improved from 5.6 to 1.6 and from 6.3 to 2.5 in the 2 and 4 mg/ml groups compared with placebo (7.5 to 6.1). None of the patients in the 4 mg/ml group compared with 4/8 placebo patients required additional medical or surgical intervention over baseline during the six month period after starting the enema treatment. The safety profile was favourable. Conclusions: Alicaforsen enema showed promising acute and long term benefit in patients with mild to moderate descending ulcerative colitis. Alicaforsen enemas had a favourable safety profile. These findings require verification in larger randomised controlled clinical trials. PMID:15479686

  15. Feasibility Study of Intra-patient Sorafenib Dose-Escalation or Re-Escalation in Patients with Previously Treated Advanced Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Semrad, Thomas J.; Eddings, Courtney; Pan, Chong-Xian; Lau, Derick H.; Gandara, David; Beckett, Laurel; Lara, Primo N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine if intra-patient dose escalation of the multi-targeted kinase inhibitor sorafenib is feasible in patients with advanced pretreated solid malignancies. Methods An intra-patient dose escalation scheme starting at 400 mg BID was employed in this prospective trial. Doses were escalated to 600 mg BID for the second cycle and to 800 mg BID for the third cycle in the absence of grade 3+ adverse events. In the event of grade 3+ adverse events during cycle 1, doses were reduced to 400 mg daily through cycle 2. Dose re-escalation for cycle 3 was allowed in the absence of grade 3+ adverse events during cycle 2. Further dose escalation was prohibited. The primary endpoint was the overall percentage of patients tolerating dose escalation to 600 mg BID through cycle 2 or tolerating re-escalation to 400 mg BID through cycle 3. Results Fifty eligible patients with various solid tumors and a median of 3 prior therapies were enrolled. Eleven patients (22%) tolerated primary dose escalation or re-escalation. Only 14 patients (28%) completed cycle 1 without dose modification or discontinuing treatment. Seven of 13 patients tolerated primary dose escalation through cycle 2. Four of 5 patients tolerated dose re-escalation through cycle 3. Reasons for escalation failure included tumor progression (42%) and adverse events (26%). Common grade 3+ adverse events included hand-foot skin reaction, hypertension, and hypophosphatemia. Conclusions Intra-patient dose escalation and/or re-escalation of sorafenib were not feasible in pretreated solid tumor patients. Sorafenib dose escalation remains an investigational approach. PMID:22015991

  16. Randomized, double-blind, dose-escalation trial of triptorelin for ovary protection in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Hermine I; Silva, Clovis A; Reiff, Andreas; Higgins, Gloria C; Imundo, Lisa; Williams, Calvin B; Wallace, Carol A; Aikawa, Nadia E; Nelson, Shannen; Klein-Gitelman, Marisa S; Rose, Susan R

    2015-05-01

    To determine the dose of triptorelin that is sufficient to maintain complete ovarian suppression in female patients with childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who require cyclophosphamide therapy, to determine the length of time needed to achieve ovarian suppression after initiation of triptorelin treatment, and to investigate the safety of triptorelin. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study, female patients ages <21 years were randomized 4:1 to receive triptorelin (n = 25) or placebo (n = 6). The starting doses of triptorelin were 25, 50, 75, and 100 μg/kg, and the dose was escalated until complete ovarian suppression was maintained. The primary outcome was the weight-adjusted dose of triptorelin that provided complete ovarian suppression in at least 90% of the patients, as determined by gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist stimulation testing. The secondary outcome was the period of time required to achieve ovarian suppression, as measured by unstimulated follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels after the initiation of triptorelin treatment. Treatment with triptorelin at a weight-adjusted dose of 120 μg/kg body weight provided sustained complete ovarian suppression in 90% of the patients. After administration of the initial dose of triptorelin, 22 days were required to achieve complete ovarian suppression. The rates of adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs) per 100 patient-months of followup were not higher in the triptorelin group compared with the placebo group (for AEs, 189 versus 362; for SAEs, 2.1 versus 8.5). High doses of triptorelin are needed to achieve and maintain complete ovarian suppression, but such doses appear to be well tolerated in adolescent female patients with childhood-onset SLE. Our data suggest that a lag time of 22 days after initiation of triptorelin treatment is required before cyclophosphamide therapy is started or continued. © 2015

  17. Increasing Use of Dose-Escalated External Beam Radiation Therapy for Men With Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Mitra, Nandita; Woo, Kaitlin; Smaldone, Marc; Uzzo, Robert; Bekelman, Justin E.

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To examine recent practice patterns, using a large national cancer registry, to understand the extent to which dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) has been incorporated into routine clinical practice for men with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study using the National Cancer Data Base, a nationwide oncology outcomes database in the United States. We identified 98,755 men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between 2006 and 2011 who received definitive EBRT and classified patients into National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk groups. We defined dose-escalated EBRT as total prescribed dose of ≥75.6 Gy. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined the association of patient, clinical, and demographic characteristics with the use of dose-escalated EBRT. Results: Overall, 81.6% of men received dose-escalated EBRT during the study period. The use of dose-escalated EBRT did not vary substantially by NCCN risk group. Use of dose-escalated EBRT increased from 70.7% of patients receiving treatment in 2006 to 89.8% of patients receiving treatment in 2011. On multivariable analysis, year of diagnosis and use of intensity modulated radiation therapy were significantly associated with receipt of dose-escalated EBRT. Conclusions: Our study results indicate that dose-escalated EBRT has been widely adopted by radiation oncologists treating prostate cancer in the United States. The proportion of patients receiving dose-escalated EBRT increased nearly 20% between 2006 and 2011. We observed high utilization rates of dose-escalated EBRT within all disease risk groups. Adoption of intensity modulated radiation therapy was strongly associated with use of dose-escalated treatment.

  18. Antisense oligonucleotides targeting apolipoprotein(a) in people with raised lipoprotein(a): two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trials.

    PubMed

    Viney, Nicholas J; van Capelleveen, Julian C; Geary, Richard S; Xia, Shuting; Tami, Joseph A; Yu, Rosie Z; Marcovina, Santica M; Hughes, Steven G; Graham, Mark J; Crooke, Rosanne M; Crooke, Stanley T; Witztum, Joseph L; Stroes, Erik S; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2016-11-05

    Elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) is a highly prevalent (around 20% of people) genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease and calcific aortic valve stenosis, but no approved specific therapy exists to substantially lower Lp(a) concentrations. We aimed to assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of two unique antisense oligonucleotides designed to lower Lp(a) concentrations. We did two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. In a phase 2 trial (done in 13 study centres in Canada, the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, and the UK), we assessed the effect of IONIS-APO(a)Rx, an oligonucleotide targeting apolipoprotein(a). Participants with elevated Lp(a) concentrations (125-437 nmol/L in cohort A; ≥438 nmol/L in cohort B) were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio in cohort A and in a 4:1 ratio in cohort B) with an interactive response system to escalating-dose subcutaneous IONIS-APO(a)Rx (100 mg, 200 mg, and then 300 mg, once a week for 4 weeks each) or injections of saline placebo, once a week, for 12 weeks. Primary endpoints were mean percentage change in fasting plasma Lp(a) concentration at day 85 or 99 in the per-protocol population (participants who received more than six doses of study drug) and safety and tolerability in the safety population. In a phase 1/2a first-in-man trial, we assessed the effect of IONIS-APO(a)-LRx, a ligand-conjugated antisense oligonucleotide designed to be highly and selectively taken up by hepatocytes, at the BioPharma Services phase 1 unit (Toronto, ON, Canada). Healthy volunteers (Lp[a] ≥75 nmol/L) were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of 10-120 mg IONIS-APO(a)LRx subcutaneously in an ascending-dose design or placebo (in a 3:1 ratio; single-ascending-dose phase), or multiple doses of 10 mg, 20 mg, or 40 mg IONIS-APO(a)LRx subcutaneously in an ascending-dose design or placebo (in an 8:2 ratio) at day 1, 3, 5, 8, 15, and 22 (multiple-ascending-dose phase). Primary endpoints were mean percentage change in

  19. Randomized Double-Blinded Dose Escalation Trial of Triptorelin for Ovary Protection in Childhood-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Hermine I.; Silva, Clovis A; Reiff, Andreas; Higgins, Gloria C.; Imundo, Lisa; Williams, Calvin B.; Wallace, Carol A; Aikawa, Nadia E.; Nelson, Shannen; Klein-Gitelman, Marisa S.; Rose, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine for females with childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) who require cyclophosphamide the dose of triptorelin that suffices to maintain complete ovarian suppression (COS); measure the time needed to achieve ovarian suppression after triptorelin initiation, and explore the safety of triptorelin. Methods In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled dose-escalation study females (< 21 years) were randomized 4:1 to receive triptorelin or placebo (25 triptorelin, 6 placebo). Starting doses of triptorelin between 25 and 100 microgram/kg/dose were used. Triptorelin dosage was escalated until COS was maintained. The primary outcome was the weight-adjusted dose of triptorelin that for at least 90% of the patients provides COS based on Gonadotropin-releasing-hormone Agonist Stimulation Testing. Secondary outcomes were time to ovarian suppression measured by unstimulated FSH and LH levels after study drug initiation. Results Triptorelin dosed at 120 microgram/kg bodyweight led to sustained COS in 90% of the patients. After the initial dose of triptorelin 22 days were needed for achieve COS. Rates of adverse events (AE) and serious adverse events (SAE) per 100 patient-month of follow-up were not higher in the triptorelin group as compared to the placebo group (triptorelin vs. placebo; AE: 189 vs. 362; SAE: 2.05 vs. 8.48). Conclusions For achieving and maintaining COS high doses of triptorelin are needed but appear to be well tolerated in adolescent females with cSLE. Our data suggest that a lag time of 22 days after triptorelin initiation is required before starting or continuing cyclophosphamide-therapy. Trial Registration Number clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00124514 PMID:25676588

  20. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-dose evaluation of the acute behavioural effects of guaraná in humans.

    PubMed

    Haskell, C F; Kennedy, D O; Wesnes, K A; Milne, A L; Scholey, A B

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to systematically assess acute, dose-related behavioural effects of an extract of guaraná plant for the first time in humans. This double-blind, counterbalanced, placebo-controlled study (n=26) assessed the acute mood and cognitive effects throughout the day of four different doses (37.5 mg, 75 mg, 150 mg and 300 mg) of a standardised guaraná extract (PC-102). Assessment included the Cognitive Drug Research computerized test battery and Bond-Lader mood scales. Guaraná improved secondary memory performance and increased alert and content mood ratings. The two lower doses produced more positive cognitive effects than the higher doses. This research supports previous findings of cognitive improvements following 75 mg guaraná and provides the first exploration of different dose effects of guaraná in humans. The findings suggest that the effects cannot be attributed to caffeine alone.

  1. A single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial of oral hepatic-directed vesicle insulin add-on to oral antidiabetic treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Geho, W Blair; Rosenberg, Len N; Schwartz, Sherwyn L; Lau, John R; Gana, Theophilus J

    2014-05-01

    The dose response of postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) to add-on, premeal oral hepatic-directed vesicle-insulin (HDV-I), an investigational lipid bio-nanoparticle hepatocyte-targeted insulin delivery system, was evaluated in a 3-test-meal/day model in type 2 diabetes patients. The single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating trial enrolled 6 patients with HbA(1c) 8.6 ± 2.0% (70.0 ± 21.9 mmol/mol) and on stable metformin therapy. Patients received oral HDV-I capsules daily 30 minutes before breakfast, lunch, and dinner as follows: placebo capsules, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 U/kg on days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Outcome measures were PPG and incremental PPG area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). All 4 doses of oral HDV-I statistically significantly lowered mean PPG (P ≤ .0110 each) and incremental PPG (P ≤ .0352 each) AUC compared to placebo. A linear dose response was not observed. The 0.05 U/kg dose was the minimum effective dose in the dosage range studied. Three adverse events unrelated to treatment were observed. Add-on oral HDV-I 0.05-0.4 U/kg significantly lowered PPG excursions and the dose response curve was flat. These results are consistent with the lack of a linear dose response between portal and systemic plasma insulin concentrations in previous animal and human studies. Oral HDV-I was safe and well tolerated.

  2. Radiation Dose Escalation in Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Terakedis, Breanne; Sause, William

    2011-01-01

    For patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer with unresectable or inoperable tumors, definitive chemoradiotherapy is often utilized. Historically, local control and overall survival rates have been poor. In an effort to improve local control, new chemotherapeutic agents in combination with higher doses of radiotherapy have been investigated. Early dose escalation trials date back to the 1980s, and the feasibility and efficacy of dose escalation for patients with inoperable stage III lung cancer continue to be topics of investigation. Herein, we review the evolution of chemotherapy as it relates to treatment of unresectable stage III lung cancer, and we outline the early and the more recent dose escalation studies. While dose escalation appears to provide a modest benefit in terms of preventing local failure and improving overall survival, advances in diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy treatment have possibly resulted in selection of a more favorable patient population. These variables make statements regarding the benefit of dose escalation challenging. PMID:22645713

  3. Image guided dose escalated prostate radiotherapy: still room to improve

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jarad M; Bayley, Andrew; Bristow, Robert; Chung, Peter; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Menard, Cynthia; Milosevic, Michael; Rosewall, Tara; Warde, Padraig R; Catton, Charles N

    2009-01-01

    Background Prostate radiotherapy (RT) dose escalation has been reported to result in improved biochemical control at the cost of greater late toxicity. We report on the application of 79.8 Gy in 42 fractions of prostate image guided RT (IGRT). The primary objective was to assess 5-year biochemical control and potential prognostic factors by the Phoenix definition. Secondary endpoints included acute and late toxicity by the Radiotherapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scoring scales. Methods From October/2001 and June/2003, 259 men were treated with at least 2-years follow-up. 59 patients had low, 163 intermediate and 37 high risk disease. 43 had adjuvant hormonal therapy (HT), mostly for high- or multiple risk factor intermediate-risk disease (n = 25). They received either 3-dimensional conformal RT (3DCRT, n = 226) or intensity modulated RT (IMRT) including daily on-line IGRT with intraprostatic fiducial markers. Results Median follow-up was 67.8 months (range 24.4-84.7). There was no severe (grade 3-4) acute toxicity, and grade 2 acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity was unusual (10.1%). The 5-year incidence of grade 2-3 late GI and genitourinary (GU) toxicity was 13.7% and 12.1%, with corresponding grade 3 figures of 3.5% and 2.0% respectively. HT had an association with an increased risk of grade 2-3 late GI toxicity (11% v 21%, p = 0.018). Using the Phoenix definition for biochemical failure, the 5 year-bNED is 88.4%, 76.5% and 77.9% for low, intermediate and high risk patients respectively. On univariate analysis, T-category and Gleason grade correlated with Phoenix bNED (p = 0.006 and 0.039 respectively). Hormonal therapy was not a significant prognostic factor on uni- or multi-variate analysis. Men with positive prostate biopsies following RT had a lower chance of bNED at 5 years (34.4% v 64.3%; p = 0.147). Conclusion IGRT to 79.8 Gy results in favourable rates of late toxicity compared with published non-IGRT treated cohorts. Future avenues of investigation for

  4. A placebo-controlled dose response study of the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a live cold-recombinant influenza B virus vaccine in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ganzinger, U; Bachmayer, H; Liehl, E; Martindale, J J; Hamilton, F; Kuwert, E K

    1988-06-01

    A live cold-recombinant influenza B virus vaccine (RB77) was given intranasally in a placebo-controlled, double blind study to volunteers in dosages of 10(7.9) EID50/ml, 10(7.25) EID50/ml, 10(5.7) EID50/ml. The tolerability, safety, and immunogenicity of the vaccine were investigated. No revertant virus was found in nasal swabs taken after immunisation. Local reactions were mild and showed a significant increase over the placebo only in the highest dose group. Systemic reactions were not different from the placebo. A significant increase in haemagglutinin inhibition titre was found in the highest dose group against the immunising strain (RB77) and the two wild strains B/TEC and B/Sing.

  5. Randomised clinical trial: study of escalating doses of NRL001 given in rectal suppositories of different weights.

    PubMed

    Bell, D; Pediconi, C; Jacobs, A

    2014-03-01

    The application of α-adrenoceptor agonists can improve faecal incontinence symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic and systemic effects of NRL001 administered as different strengths in 1 or 2 g suppositories. This randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study included 48 healthy subjects. Group 1 consisted of two cohorts of 12 subjects administered either four single doses of 1 or 2 g rectal suppository with either 5, 7.5 or 10 mg NRL001, or matching placebo. Group 2 consisted of two cohorts of 12 subjects administered either four single doses of 1 or 2 g rectal suppository with either 10, 12.5 or 15 mg NRL001, or matching placebo. Doses were given in an escalating manner with placebo at a random position within the sequence. Tmax was at ~4.5 h post-dose for all NRL001 doses. Median AUC0-tz , AUC0-∞ and Cmax increased with increasing dose for both suppository sizes. The estimate of ratios of geometric means comparing 2 g with 1 g suppository, and regression analysis for dose proportionality, was close to 1 for the variables AUC0-tz , AUC0-∞ and Cmax (P > 0.05). For both suppository sizes, 20-min mean pulse rate was significantly decreased compared with placebo with all doses (P < 0.05). Blood pressure decreased overall. There were 144 adverse events (AEs) and no serious AEs reported during the study. All AEs were mild in severity. The regression analysis concluded that the doses were dose proportional. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. Dose Escalation during the First Year of Long-Term Opioid Therapy for Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Stephen G.; Wilsey, Barth L.; Melnikow, Joy A.; Iosif, Ana-Maria

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify patient factors and health care utilization patterns associated with dose escalation during the first year of long-term opioid therapy for chronic pain DESIGN Retrospective cohort study using electronic health record data SETTING University health system SUBJECTS Opioid naïve adults with musculoskeletal pain who received a new outpatient opioid prescription between July 1, 2011 and June 30, 2012 and stayed on opioids for one year METHODS Mixed-effects regression was used to estimate patients’ rate of opioid dose escalation. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and healthcare utilization for patients with and without dose escalation were compared. RESULTS Twenty-three (9%) of 246 patients in the final cohort experienced dose escalation (defined as an increase in mean daily opioid dose of ≥30 mg morphine equivalents over 1 year). Compared to patients without dose escalation, patients with escalation had higher rates of substance use diagnoses (17% versus 1%, P = 0.01) and more total outpatient encounters (51 versus 35, P = 0.002) over 1 year. Differences in outpatient encounters were largely due to more non face-to-face encounters (e.g., telephone calls, emails) among patients with dose escalation. Differences in age, race, concurrent benzodiazepine use, and mental health diagnoses between patients with and without dose escalation were not statistically significant. Primary care clinicians prescribed 89% of opioid prescriptions. CONCLUSIONS Dose escalation during the first year of long-term opioid therapy is associated with higher rates of substance use disorders and more frequent outpatient encounters, especially non face-to-face encounters. PMID:25529548

  7. Strategy for stochastic dose-rate induced enhanced elimination of malignant tumour without dose escalation.

    PubMed

    Paul, Subhadip; Roy, Prasun Kumar

    2016-09-01

    The efficacy of radiation therapy, a primary modality of cancer treatment, depends in general upon the total radiation dose administered to the tumour during the course of therapy. Nevertheless, the delivered radiation also irradiates normal tissues and dose escalation procedure often increases the elimination of normal tissue as well. In this article, we have developed theoretical frameworks under the premise of linear-quadratic-linear (LQL) model using stochastic differential equation and Jensen's inequality for exploring the possibility of attending to the two therapeutic performance objectives in contraposition-increasing the elimination of prostate tumour cells and enhancing the relative sparing of normal tissue in fractionated radiation therapy, within a prescribed limit of total radiation dose. Our study predicts that stochastic temporal modulation in radiation dose-rate appreciably enhances prostate tumour cell elimination, without needing dose escalation in radiation therapy. However, constant higher dose-rate can also enhance the elimination of tumour cells. In this context, we have shown that the sparing of normal tissue with stochastic dose-rate is considerably more than the sparing of normal tissue with the equivalent constant higher dose-rate. Further, by contrasting the stochastic dose-rate effects under LQL and linear-quadratic (LQ) models, we have also shown that the LQ model over-estimates stochastic dose-rate effect in tumour and under-estimates the stochastic dose-rate effect in normal tissue. Our study indicates the possibility of utilizing stochastic modulation of radiation dose-rate for designing enhanced radiation therapy protocol for cancer.

  8. The Role of Age on Dose Limiting Toxicities (DLTs) in Phase I Dose-escalation Trials

    PubMed Central

    Schwandt, A; Harris, P. J.; Hunsberger, S.; Deleporte, A.; Smith, G. L.; Vulih, D.; Anderson, B. D.; Ivy, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Elderly oncology patients are not enrolled in early phase trials in proportion to the numbers of geriatric patients with cancer. There may be concern that elderly patients will not tolerate investigational agents as well as younger patients resulting in a disproportionate number of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs). Recent single-institution studies provide conflicting data on the relationship between age and DLT. Experimental Design We retrospectively reviewed data about patients treated on single-agent, dose-escalation, phase I clinical trials sponsored by the Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP) of the National Cancer Institute. Patients’ dose levels were described as percentage of maximum tolerated dose (%MTD), the highest dose level at which <33% of patients had a DLT, or recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Mixed-effect logistic regression models were used to analyze relationships between the probability of a DLT and age and other explanatory variables. Results Increasing dose, increasing age, and worsening performance status (PS) were significantly related to an increased probability of a DLT in this model (p<0.05). There was no association between dose level administered and age (p=0.57). Conclusions This analysis of phase I dose-escalation trials involving over 500 patients older than 70 years of age, is the largest reported. As age and dose level increased and PS worsened, the probability of a DLT increased. While increasing age was associated with occurrence of DLT, this risk remained within accepted thresholds of risk for phase I trials. There was no evidence of age bias on enrollment of patients on low or high dose levels. PMID:25028396

  9. Rupatadine does not potentiate the CNS depressant effects of lorazepam: randomized, double-blind, crossover, repeated dose, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    García-Gea, Consuelo; Ballester, Maria Rosa; Martínez, Juan; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Donado, Esther; Izquierdo, Iñaki; Barbanoj, Manuel-José

    2010-06-01

    The main objective was to assess whether benzodiazepine intake when rupatadine plasma concentrations were at steady-state would increase the CNS depressant effects. Rupatadine is a new H(1)-antihistamine which also inhibits platelet activating factor (PAF) release and has been shown to be clinically effective at doses of 10 mg. Sixteen healthy young volunteers took part in a crossover, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial comprising two experimental periods (repeated administration for 7 days of rupatadine 10 mg or placebo as single oral daily doses, separated by a washout of 14 days). On days 5 and 7, according to a fully balanced design, a single oral dose of lorazepam 2 mg or placebo was added. CNS effects were evaluated on these days by seven objective tests of psychomotor performance and eight subjective visual analogue scales (VAS) at pre-dose and several times after drug intake. Four treatment conditions were evaluated: placebo, rupatadine 10 mg, lorazepam 2 mg and rupatadine 10 mg + lorazepam 2 mg. Significant CNS effects, either impairment of psychomotor performance or subjective sedation, were observed when lorazepam was administered, either alone or in combination with steady state concentrations of rupatadine. No significant differences were found between these two conditions. In addition, rupatadine was not different from placebo. All treatments were well tolerated. Repeated doses of rupatadine (10 mg orally) did not enhance the CNS depressant effects of lorazepam (2 mg orally, single dose) either in objective psychomotor tasks or in subjective evaluations.

  10. Rupatadine does not potentiate the CNS depressant effects of lorazepam: randomized, double-blind, crossover, repeated dose, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    García-Gea, Consuelo; Ballester, Maria Rosa; Martínez, Juan; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Donado, Esther; Izquierdo, Iñaki; Barbanoj, Manuel-José

    2010-01-01

    AIM The main objective was to assess whether benzodiazepine intake when rupatadine plasma concentrations were at steady-state would increase the CNS depressant effects. Rupatadine is a new H1-antihistamine which also inhibits platelet activating factor (PAF) release and has been shown to be clinically effective at doses of 10 mg. METHODS Sixteen healthy young volunteers took part in a crossover, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial comprising two experimental periods (repeated administration for 7 days of rupatadine 10 mg or placebo as single oral daily doses, separated by a washout of 14 days). On days 5 and 7, according to a fully balanced design, a single oral dose of lorazepam 2 mg or placebo was added. CNS effects were evaluated on these days by seven objective tests of psychomotor performance and eight subjective visual analogue scales (VAS) at pre-dose and several times after drug intake. Four treatment conditions were evaluated: placebo, rupatadine 10 mg, lorazepam 2 mg and rupatadine 10 mg + lorazepam 2 mg. RESULTS Significant CNS effects, either impairment of psychomotor performance or subjective sedation, were observed when lorazepam was administered, either alone or in combination with steady state concentrations of rupatadine. No significant differences were found between these two conditions. In addition, rupatadine was not different from placebo. All treatments were well tolerated. CONCLUSION Repeated doses of rupatadine (10 mg orally) did not enhance the CNS depressant effects of lorazepam (2 mg orally, single dose) either in objective psychomotor tasks or in subjective evaluations. PMID:20565458

  11. A booster dose of an inactivated enterovirus 71 vaccine in chinese young children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Shenyu, Wang; Jingxin, Li; Zhenglun, Liang; Xiuling, Li; Qunying, Mao; Fanyue, Meng; Hua, Wang; Yuntao, Zhang; Fan, Gao; Qinghua, Chen; Yuemei, Hu; Xin, Yao; Huijie, Guo; Fengcai, Zhu

    2014-10-01

    A significant waning of enterovirus 71 (EV71) antibody titer after priming immunization with an inactivated EV71 vaccine implied the potential need for a booster dose. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we recruited participants who had received at least 1 dose of priming EV71 vaccine in an early phase 2 clinical trial that was conducted in healthy infants and children aged 6-35 months. All participants were grouped according to the priming EV71 vaccine formulations (160 U, 320 U, and 640 U with adjuvant and 640 U without adjuvant) and then randomly assigned (ratio, 2:1) to receive a booster dose of vaccine or placebo within each formulation group. The primary end point was the geometric mean titer 28 days after the booster dose. A total of 773 participants were enrolled. Significantly greater immunological responses were induced by the booster shot of all 4 formulations of EV71 vaccine, compared with that induced by placebo (P < .0001). The frequencies of adverse reactions were similar between vaccine and placebo groups within each formulation group. A booster dose of EV71 vaccine 1 year after the priming EV71 immunization shows excellent immunogenicity and good safety profile. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01734408. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A Single Dose of Amoxicillin and Dexamethasone for Prevention of Postoperative Complications in Third Molar Surgery: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Capella, Diogo Lenzi; Barbieri, Tharzon; Pagliarini, Micheli; Cavalieri, Talita; Manfro, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a single prophylactic dose of amoxicillin and/or dexamethasone in preventing postoperative complications (PC) after a surgical removal of a single mandibular third molar (M3). Methods This study is a randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial. Four groups were included: Group 1 (G1) included a prophylactic dose of 2 g of amoxicillin and 8 mg of dexamethasone; Group 2 (G2) included a prophylactic dose of 2 g of amoxicillin and 8 mg of placebo; Group 3 (G3) included a prophylactic dose of 8 mg of dexamethasone and 2 g of placebo and; Group 4 (G4) placebo. Results Fifty patients were included. It was observed one case of alveolar infection (2%) and two of alveolar osteitis (4%) resulting in three PC (6%). No statistical differences were observed between therapeutic groups for development of PC, trismus, pain and edema. The use of antibiotics showed an absolute risk reduction (ARR) for PC development of 3.52% and the number needed to treat (NNT) was 29. Conclusion Prophylactic antibiotics and corticoid in a single dose regimen did not bring any benefit on M3 surgeries. PMID:23390473

  13. A Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Study of ASP2409, a Selective T-Cell Costimulation Inhibitor, in Stable Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients on Methotrexate Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenhui; Kernstock, Robert M; Karrer, Erik E; Cohen, Stanley B; Chindalore, Vishala L; Kivitz, Alan J; Blahunka, Paul C; Delgado-Herrera, Leticia; Zeiher, Bernhardt G; Samberg, Nancy L; Garg, Jay P

    2016-07-01

    ASP2409 represents a new class of CTLA4-Ig molecules with higher binding avidity and selectivity to CD86. This first-in-human study was to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics of ASP2409 in stable rheumatoid arthritis patients on methotrexate therapy with a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-escalation study design. Patients were enrolled and randomized in each of 8 dose-escalation cohorts ranging from 0.001 to 3.0 mg/kg to receive either ASP2409 or placebo in a sequential manner. Escalation to higher dose levels occurred in the absence of dose-limiting toxicity. A total of 57 patients completed the study. ASP2409 showed nonlinear PK over the dose range of 0.01 to 3.0 mg/kg following a single intravenous administration, indicating target-mediated drug disposition. Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax ) increased at a greater than dose-proportional rate. The half-life of ASP2409 increased dose dependently and ranged from 1.57 to 6.68 days. ASP2409 showed a dose-dependent increase in the extent and duration of CD86 receptor occupancy. There were no clinically relevant safety issues up to a single dose of 3.0 mg/kg. No maximum tolerated dose was reached. The incidence and duration of antidrug antibodies did not correlate with adverse events. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02171143.

  14. Risperidone Dosing in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Disorder: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Justine M.; Kushner, Stuart; Ning, Xiaoping; Karcher, Keith; Ness, Seth; Aman, Michael; Singh, Jaskaran; Hough, David

    2013-01-01

    Efficacy and safety of 2 risperidone doses were evaluated in children and adolescents with autism. Patients (N = 96; 5-17 years), received risperidone (low-dose: 0.125 mg/day [20 to <45 kg], 0.175 mg/day [>45 kg] or high-dose: 1.25 mg/day [20 to <45 kg], 1.75 mg/day [>45 kg]) or placebo. Mean baseline (range 27-29) to endpoint change…

  15. Risperidone Dosing in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Disorder: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Justine M.; Kushner, Stuart; Ning, Xiaoping; Karcher, Keith; Ness, Seth; Aman, Michael; Singh, Jaskaran; Hough, David

    2013-01-01

    Efficacy and safety of 2 risperidone doses were evaluated in children and adolescents with autism. Patients (N = 96; 5-17 years), received risperidone (low-dose: 0.125 mg/day [20 to <45 kg], 0.175 mg/day [>45 kg] or high-dose: 1.25 mg/day [20 to <45 kg], 1.75 mg/day [>45 kg]) or placebo. Mean baseline (range 27-29) to endpoint change…

  16. Effects of low-dose estrogen replacement during childhood on pubertal development and gonadotropin concentrations in patients with Turner syndrome: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Charmian A; Wan, Xiaohai; Garg, Sipi; Kowal, Karen; Cutler, Gordon B; Ross, Judith L

    2014-09-01

    The optimal approach to estrogen replacement in girls with Turner syndrome has not been determined. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of an individualized regimen of low-dose ethinyl estradiol (EE2) during childhood from as early as age 5, followed by a pubertal induction regimen starting after age 12 and escalating to full replacement over 4 years. This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The study was conducted at two US pediatric endocrine centers. Girls with Turner syndrome (n = 149), aged 5.0-12.5 years, were enrolled; data from 123 girls were analyzable for pubertal onset. Interventions comprised placebo or recombinant GH injections three times a week, with daily oral placebo or oral EE2 during childhood (25 ng/kg/d, ages 5-8 y; 50 ng/kg/d, ages >8-12 y); after age 12, all patients received escalating EE2 starting at a nominal dosage of 100 ng/kg/d. Placebo/EE2 dosages were reduced by 50% for breast development before age 12 years, vaginal bleeding before age 14 years, or undue advance in bone age. The main outcome measures for this report were median ages at Tanner breast stage ≥2, median age at menarche, and tempo of puberty (Tanner 2 to menarche). Patterns of gonadotropin secretion and impact of childhood EE2 on gonadotropins also were assessed. Compared with recipients of oral placebo (n = 62), girls who received childhood low-dose EE2 (n = 61) had significantly earlier thelarche (median, 11.6 vs 12.6 y, P < 0.001) and slower tempo of puberty (median, 3.3 vs 2.2 y, P = 0.003); both groups had delayed menarche (median, 15.0 y). Among childhood placebo recipients, girls who had spontaneous breast development before estrogen exposure had significantly lower median FSH values than girls who did not. In addition to previously reported effects on cognitive measures and GH-mediated height gain, childhood estrogen replacement significantly normalized the onset and tempo of puberty. Childhood low-dose

  17. Effects of Low-Dose Estrogen Replacement During Childhood on Pubertal Development and Gonadotropin Concentrations in Patients With Turner Syndrome: Results of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xiaohai; Garg, Sipi; Kowal, Karen; Cutler, Gordon B.; Ross, Judith L.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The optimal approach to estrogen replacement in girls with Turner syndrome has not been determined. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the effects of an individualized regimen of low-dose ethinyl estradiol (EE2) during childhood from as early as age 5, followed by a pubertal induction regimen starting after age 12 and escalating to full replacement over 4 years. Design: This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Setting: The study was conducted at two US pediatric endocrine centers. Subjects: Girls with Turner syndrome (n = 149), aged 5.0–12.5 years, were enrolled; data from 123 girls were analyzable for pubertal onset. Intervention(s): Interventions comprised placebo or recombinant GH injections three times a week, with daily oral placebo or oral EE2 during childhood (25 ng/kg/d, ages 5–8 y; 50 ng/kg/d, ages >8–12 y); after age 12, all patients received escalating EE2 starting at a nominal dosage of 100 ng/kg/d. Placebo/EE2 dosages were reduced by 50% for breast development before age 12 years, vaginal bleeding before age 14 years, or undue advance in bone age. Main Outcome Measures: The main outcome measures for this report were median ages at Tanner breast stage ≥2, median age at menarche, and tempo of puberty (Tanner 2 to menarche). Patterns of gonadotropin secretion and impact of childhood EE2 on gonadotropins also were assessed. Results: Compared with recipients of oral placebo (n = 62), girls who received childhood low-dose EE2 (n = 61) had significantly earlier thelarche (median, 11.6 vs 12.6 y, P < 0.001) and slower tempo of puberty (median, 3.3 vs 2.2 y, P = 0.003); both groups had delayed menarche (median, 15.0 y). Among childhood placebo recipients, girls who had spontaneous breast development before estrogen exposure had significantly lower median FSH values than girls who did not. Conclusions: In addition to previously reported effects on cognitive measures and GH

  18. Risperidone dosing in children and adolescents with autistic disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kent, Justine M; Kushner, Stuart; Ning, Xiaoping; Karcher, Keith; Ness, Seth; Aman, Michael; Singh, Jaskaran; Hough, David

    2013-08-01

    Efficacy and safety of 2 risperidone doses were evaluated in children and adolescents with autism. Patients (N = 96; 5-17 years), received risperidone (low-dose: 0.125 mg/day [20 to <45 kg], 0.175 mg/day [>45 kg] or high-dose: 1.25 mg/day [20 to <45 kg], 1.75 mg/day [>45 kg]) or placebo. Mean baseline (range 27-29) to endpoint change in Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability (primary endpoint) was significantly greater in the high-dose-(-12.4 [6.5]; p < 0.001), but not low-dose (-7.4 [8.1]; p = 0.164) group, versus placebo (-3.5 [10.7]). Clinical Global Impressions-Severity and Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale scores improved significantly only in the high-dose group, consistent with ABC-I results. Somnolence, sedation and increased appetite occurred more frequently in high-versus low-dose groups. Overall, increased appetite occurred most frequently.

  19. Low-Dose Adrenaline, Promethazine, and Hydrocortisone in the Prevention of Acute Adverse Reactions to Antivenom following Snakebite: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Silva, H. Asita; Pathmeswaran, Arunasalam; Ranasinha, Channa D.; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Samarakoon, Senarath B.; Hittharage, Ariyasena; Kalupahana, Ranjith; Ratnatilaka, G. Asoka; Uluwatthage, Wimalasiri; Aronson, Jeffrey K.; Armitage, Jane M.; Lalloo, David G.; de Silva, H. Janaka

    2011-01-01

    Background Envenoming from snakebites is most effectively treated by antivenom. However, the antivenom available in South Asian countries commonly causes acute allergic reactions, anaphylactic reactions being particularly serious. We investigated whether adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone prevent such reactions in secondary referral hospitals in Sri Lanka by conducting a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Methods and Findings In total, 1,007 patients were randomized, using a 2×2×2 factorial design, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of adrenaline (0.25 ml of a 1∶1,000 solution subcutaneously), promethazine (25 mg intravenously), and hydrocortisone (200 mg intravenously), each alone and in all possible combinations. The interventions, or matching placebo, were given immediately before infusion of antivenom. Patients were monitored for mild, moderate, or severe adverse reactions for at least 96 h. The prespecified primary end point was the effect of the interventions on the incidence of severe reactions up to and including 48 h after antivenom administration. In total, 752 (75%) patients had acute reactions to antivenom: 9% mild, 48% moderate, and 43% severe; 89% of the reactions occurred within 1 h; and 40% of all patients were given rescue medication (adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone) during the first hour. Compared with placebo, adrenaline significantly reduced severe reactions to antivenom by 43% (95% CI 25–67) at 1 h and by 38% (95% CI 26–49) up to and including 48 h after antivenom administration; hydrocortisone and promethazine did not. Adding hydrocortisone negated the benefit of adrenaline. Conclusions Pretreatment with low-dose adrenaline was safe and reduced the risk of acute severe reactions to snake antivenom. This may be of particular importance in countries where adverse reactions to antivenom are common, although the need to improve the quality of available antivenom cannot be overemphasized

  20. Design of a prospective, dose-escalation study evaluating the Safety of Pioglitazone for Hematoma Resolution in Intracerebral Hemorrhage (SHRINC).

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Nicole R; Shah, Jharna; Sangha, Navdeep; Sosa, Lenis; Martinez, Rebecca; Shen, Loren; Kasam, Mallikarjunarao; Morales, Miriam M; Hossain, M Monir; Barreto, Andrew D; Savitz, Sean I; Lopez, George; Misra, Vivek; Wu, Tzu-Ching; El Khoury, Ramy; Sarraj, Amrou; Sahota, Preeti; Hicks, William; Acosta, Indrani; Sline, M Rick; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Zhao, Xiurong; Aronowski, Jaroslaw; Grotta, James C

    2013-07-01

    RATIONALE : Preclinical work demonstrates that the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma plays an important role in augmenting phagocytosis while modulating oxidative stress and inflammation. We propose that targeted stimulation of phagocytosis to promote efficient removal of the hematoma without harming surrounding brain cells may be a therapeutic option for intracerebral hemorrhage. AIMS : The primary objective is to assess the safety of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, pioglitazone, in increasing doses for three-days followed by a maintenance dose, when administered to patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage within 24 h of symptom onset compared with standard care. We will determine the maximum tolerated dose of pioglitazone. STUDY DESIGN : This is a prospective, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation safety trial in which patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage are randomly allocated to placebo or treatment. The Continual Reassessment Method for dose finding is used to determine the maximum tolerated dose of pioglitazone. Hematoma and edema resolution is evaluated with serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at specified time points. Functional outcome will be evaluated at three- and six-months. OUTCOMES : The primary safety outcome is mortality at discharge. Secondary safety outcomes include mortality at three-months and six-months, symptomatic cerebral edema, clinically significant congestive heart failure, edema, hypoglycemia, anemia, and hepatotoxicity. Radiographic outcomes will explore the time frame for resolution of 25%, 50%, and 75% of the hematoma. Clinical outcomes are measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), the Barthel Index, modified Rankin Scale, Stroke Impact Scale-16, and EuroQol at three- and six-months.

  1. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Single-Ascending-Dose Study of BMS-791325, a Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) NS5B Polymerase Inhibitor, in HCV Genotype 1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lemm, Julie; Eley, Timothy; Liu, Menping; Berglind, Anna; Sherman, Diane; Lawitz, Eric; Vutikullird, Apinya B.; Tebas, Pablo; Gao, Min; Pasquinelli, Claudio; Grasela, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    BMS-791325 is a nonnucleoside inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase with low-nanomolar potency against genotypes 1a (50% effective concentration [EC50], 3 nM) and 1b (EC50, 7 nM) in vitro. BMS-791325 safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral activity were evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-ascending-dose study in 24 patients (interferon naive and experienced) with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection, randomized (5:1) to receive a single dose of BMS-791325 (100, 300, 600, or 900 mg) or placebo. The prevalence and phenotype of HCV variants at baseline and specific posttreatment time points were assessed. Antiviral activity was observed in all cohorts, with a mean HCV RNA decline of ≈2.5 log10 copies/ml observed 24 h after a single 300-mg dose. Mean plasma half-life among cohorts was 7 to 9 h; individual 24-hour levels exceeded the protein-adjusted EC90 for genotype 1 at all doses. BMS-791325 was generally well tolerated, with no serious adverse events or discontinuations. Enrichment for resistance variants was not observed at 100 to 600 mg. At 900 mg, variants (P495L/S) associated with BMS-791325 resistance in vitro were transiently observed in one patient, concurrent with an observed HCV RNA decline of 3.4 log10 IU/ml, but were replaced with wild type by 48 h. Single doses of BMS-791325 were well tolerated; demonstrated rapid, substantial, and exposure-related antiviral activity; displayed dose-related increases in exposure; and showed viral kinetic and pharmacokinetic profiles supportive of once- or twice-daily dosing. These results support its further development in combination with other direct-acting antivirals for HCV genotype 1 infection. (This trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00664625.) PMID:24733462

  2. Randomized, placebo-controlled, single-ascending-dose study of BMS-791325, a hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase inhibitor, in HCV genotype 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Sims, Karen D; Lemm, Julie; Eley, Timothy; Liu, Menping; Berglind, Anna; Sherman, Diane; Lawitz, Eric; Vutikullird, Apinya B; Tebas, Pablo; Gao, Min; Pasquinelli, Claudio; Grasela, Dennis M

    2014-06-01

    BMS-791325 is a nonnucleoside inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase with low-nanomolar potency against genotypes 1a (50% effective concentration [EC50], 3 nM) and 1b (EC50, 7 nM) in vitro. BMS-791325 safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral activity were evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-ascending-dose study in 24 patients (interferon naive and experienced) with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection, randomized (5:1) to receive a single dose of BMS-791325 (100, 300, 600, or 900 mg) or placebo. The prevalence and phenotype of HCV variants at baseline and specific posttreatment time points were assessed. Antiviral activity was observed in all cohorts, with a mean HCV RNA decline of ≈2.5 log10 copies/ml observed 24 h after a single 300-mg dose. Mean plasma half-life among cohorts was 7 to 9 h; individual 24-hour levels exceeded the protein-adjusted EC90 for genotype 1 at all doses. BMS-791325 was generally well tolerated, with no serious adverse events or discontinuations. Enrichment for resistance variants was not observed at 100 to 600 mg. At 900 mg, variants (P495L/S) associated with BMS-791325 resistance in vitro were transiently observed in one patient, concurrent with an observed HCV RNA decline of 3.4 log10 IU/ml, but were replaced with wild type by 48 h. Single doses of BMS-791325 were well tolerated; demonstrated rapid, substantial, and exposure-related antiviral activity; displayed dose-related increases in exposure; and showed viral kinetic and pharmacokinetic profiles supportive of once- or twice-daily dosing. These results support its further development in combination with other direct-acting antivirals for HCV genotype 1 infection. (This trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00664625.).

  3. Effects of Low Dose Metformin in Adolescents with Type I Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Double-Blinded Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, Kristen; Chow, Kelsey; Alam, Lyla; Lindquist, Kara; Cambell, Sarah; McFann, Kim; Klingensmith, Georgeanna; Walravens, Phillipe

    2014-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance increases during adolescence in those with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), complicating glycemic control and potentially increasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Metformin, typically used in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), is a possible adjunct therapy in T1DM to help improve glycemic control and insulin sensitivity. Objective We hypothesized that metformin would improve metabolic parameters in adolescents with T1DM. Design, Setting, and Participants This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial included 74 pubertal adolescents (ages 13–20 years) with T1DM. Participants were randomized to receive either metformin or placebo for six months. HbA1c, insulin dose, waist circumference, BMI, and blood pressure were measured at baseline, 3 and 6 months, with fasting lipids measured at baseline and 6 months. Results Total daily insulin dose, BMI Z-score and waist circumference significantly decreased at 3 and 6 months compared to baseline within the metformin group, even among normal-weight participants. In placebo group, total insulin dose and systolic blood pressure increased significantly at 3 months and total insulin dose increased significantly at 6 months. No significant change was observed in HbA1c at any time point between metformin and placebo groups or within either group. Conclusions Low-dose metformin likely improves BMI as well as insulin sensitivity in T1DM adolescents, as indicated by a decrease in total daily insulin dose. The decrease in waist circumference indicates that fat distribution is also likely impacted by metformin in T1DM. Further studies with higher metformin doses and more detailed measurements are needed to confirm these results, their underlying mechanisms, and potential impact on CVD in T1DM youth. PMID:24698216

  4. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of fixed-dose desvenlafaxine 50 and 100 mg/day for major depressive disorder in a placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Patrice; Montgomery, Stuart; Lepola, Ulla; Germain, Jean-Michel; Brisard, Claudine; Ganguly, Rita; Padmanabhan, Sudharshan K; Tourian, Karen A

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of desvenlafaxine (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate) 50 and 100 mg/day for major depressive disorder (MDD). A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in Europe and South Africa. Outpatients with MDD received fixed-dose desvenlafaxine (50 or 100 mg/day) or placebo for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression total score; secondary measures included Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scores. The intent-to-treat population included 483 patients: desvenlafaxine 50 mg (n=164), desvenlafaxine 100 mg (n=158), and placebo (n=161). At the last-observation-carried-forward analysis (final evaluation) using analysis of covariance, adjusted mean changes from baseline on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression were significantly greater for both desvenlafaxine 50 mg (-13.2; P=0.002) and 100 mg (-13.7; P<0.001) versus placebo (-10.7). Significant differences on the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scores were observed for desvenlafaxine 50 mg (P=0.002) and 100 mg (P<0.001) versus placebo. Both doses of desvenlafaxine were generally well tolerated. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were nausea, dizziness, insomnia, constipation, fatigue, anxiety, and decreased appetite. Fixed doses of desvenlafaxine 50 and 100 mg/day are safe, generally well tolerated, and effective at a clinically relevant level for the treatment of MDD.

  5. Low-dose naltrexone for the treatment of fibromyalgia: findings of a small, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, crossover trial assessing daily pain levels.

    PubMed

    Younger, Jarred; Noor, Noorulain; McCue, Rebecca; Mackey, Sean

    2013-02-01

    To determine whether low dosages (4.5 mg/day) of naltrexone reduce fibromyalgia severity as compared with the nonspecific effects of placebo. In this replication and extension study of a previous clinical trial, we tested the impact of low-dose naltrexone on daily self-reported pain. Secondary outcomes included general satisfaction with life, positive mood, sleep quality, and fatigue. Thirty-one women with fibromyalgia participated in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, crossover study. During the active drug phase, participants received 4.5 mg of oral naltrexone daily. An intensive longitudinal design was used to measure daily levels of pain. When contrasting the condition end points, we observed a significantly greater reduction of baseline pain in those taking low-dose naltrexone than in those taking placebo (28.8% reduction versus 18.0% reduction; P = 0.016). Low-dose naltrexone was also associated with improved general satisfaction with life (P = 0.045) and with improved mood (P = 0.039), but not improved fatigue or sleep. Thirty-two percent of participants met the criteria for response (defined as a significant reduction in pain plus a significant reduction in either fatigue or sleep problems) during low-dose naltrexone therapy, as contrasted with an 11% response rate during placebo therapy (P = 0.05). Low-dose naltrexone was rated equally tolerable as placebo, and no serious side effects were reported. The preliminary evidence continues to show that low-dose naltrexone has a specific and clinically beneficial impact on fibromyalgia pain. The medication is widely available, inexpensive, safe, and well-tolerated. Parallel-group randomized controlled trials are needed to fully determine the efficacy of the medication. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  6. Successful Treatment of Dry Mouth and Dry Eye Symptoms in Sjögren's Syndrome Patients With Oral Pilocarpine: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Adjustment Study.

    PubMed

    Papas, Athena S; Sherrer, Yvonne S; Charney, Michael; Golden, Harvey E; Medsger, Thomas A; Walsh, Bridget T; Trivedi, Madhu; Goldlust, Barry; Gallagher, Susan C

    2004-08-01

    : Sjögren's syndrome is characterized by the presence of xerostomia and/or xerophthalmia. Pilocarpine, a muscarinic cholinergic agonist, has been proven to be efficacious in treating radiation-induced xerostomia (up to 30 mg/day) and symptoms of dry mouth in Sjögren's patients (up to 20 mg/day). : To compare the safety and efficacy of oral pilocarpine (dose-adjusted) versus placebo in the treatment of dry eye and dry mouth symptoms in Sjögren's syndrome at 6 and 12 weeks. : In this 11-center, 256-patient placebo-controlled study, the safety and efficacy of oral pilocarpine (20 mg to 30 mg daily) for relief of Sjögren's-related dry mouth and dry eye symptoms was assessed. Changes in symptoms and salivary flow were measured over 12 weeks. : Compared with placebo, salivary flow was significantly increased in the pilocarpine group (Pdose and throughout the study. Significant improvement in patients' global assessment of dry mouth (Pdose), but at 12 weeks (5- to 7.5-mg dose), the pilocarpine group demonstrated both significant improvement in global assessment of dry eyes (Pdoses. The most common pilocarpine-related side effects were sweating, urinary frequency, flushing, and chills. : Significant relief in dry mouth symptoms was noted at 20 mg/day, and significant relief in ocular symptoms, including lower artificial tear requirement, was noted after the dose was increased to 30 mg/day.

  7. Dose-dependent protection by azelastine eye drops against pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Horak, F; Berger, U E; Menapace, R; Toth, J; Stübner, P U; Marks, B

    1998-04-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of azelastine (CAS 58581-89-8) eye drops at three different doses (0.025%, 0.05% and 0.1%) were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 24 subjects with a history of allergic conjunctivitis/rhinoconjunctivitis, who were challenged, out of season, by airbone allergen in the "Vienna Challenge Chamber" (VCC). Subjects received a single dose of azelastine eye drops 60 min before the start of a 4 h challenge in the VCC. Additional local challenge, mimicking a gust of wind, was administered 15 min before the end of the session. Each of the 4 study days was separated by a 2 week washout period. Azelastine eye drops showed a dose-dependent inhibition of the development of itching of the eyes. The effect was most pronounced 15 min after the additional local challenge. A maximal effect was achieved at a dose of 0.05%. Similar effects were observed on lacrimation. Azelastine eye drops also dose-dependently inhibited the degree of conjunctival redness, measured by digital imaging, and tended to reduce the low incidence of chemosis observed. Ranking of the results of all symptoms for each treatment group confirmed the optimal effect at a dose of 0.05%. Azelastine eye drops had no effect on nasal and bronchial symptoms or on measurements of airways function (FEV1). No adverse effects of the treatments were reported. The data support the use of 0.05% azelastine eye drops in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis/rhinoconjunctivitis.

  8. Fixed-Dose Subcutaneous Methylnaltrexone in Patients with Advanced Illness and Opioid-Induced Constipation: Results of a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study and Open-Label Extension

    PubMed Central

    Wellman, Charles V.; Israel, Robert J.; Barrett, Andrew C.; Paterson, Craig; Forbes, William P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Subcutaneous methylnaltrexone (MNTX), dosed based on body weight, is efficacious and well tolerated in inducing bowel movements in patients with advanced illness and opioid-induced constipation (OIC); however, fixed-dose administration of MNTX may improve ease of administration. Objective: The study objective was to assess safety and efficacy of fixed-dose MNTX in two phase 4 trials. Methods: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (RCT), patients with advanced illness and OIC received MNTX (8 mg or 12 mg by body weight [38 kg to <62 kg or ≥62 kg, respectively]) or placebo every other day (QOD) for two weeks. Patients completing the RCT could enroll in an open-label extension (OLE) study with MNTX administered as needed (PRN). The primary endpoint was percentage of patients with a rescue-free bowel movement (RFBM) within four hours after ≥2 of the first 4 doses in the first week. Results: In the RCT, 116 and 114 patients received MNTX and placebo, respectively, and 149 patients continued to the OLE study. The percentage of patients achieving primary endpoint was 62.9% and 9.6% for MNTX and placebo groups, respectively (p<0.0001). Median time to RFBM after the first dose was 0.8 hour and 23.6 hours in MNTX and placebo groups, respectively (p<0.0001). Efficacy results during the OLE study were consistent with the RCT. MNTX demonstrated a favorable safety profile in the RCT and OLE study. Conclusion: Fixed-dose MNTX administered QOD in the RCT and PRN in the OLE study demonstrated robust efficacy and was well tolerated in treating OIC in patients with advanced illness. PMID:25973526

  9. Effects of atorvastatin on bone in postmenopausal women with dyslipidemia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial.

    PubMed

    Bone, Henry G; Kiel, Douglas P; Lindsay, Robert S; Lewiecki, E Michael; Bolognese, Michael A; Leary, Elizabeth T; Lowe, Wing; McClung, Michael R

    2007-12-01

    In preclinical models, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase have been shown to positively affect bone remodeling balance. Observational studies and secondary analyses from lipid-lowering trials have yielded inconsistent results regarding the effect of these agents on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Our objective was to determine whether clinically significant skeletal benefits result from hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibition in postmenopausal women. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging comparative clinical trial at 62 sites in the United States. Participants included 626 postmenopausal women with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of at least 130 mg/dl (3.4 mmol/liter) and less than 190 mg/dl (4.9 mmol/liter), and lumbar (L1-L4) spine bone mineral density T-score between 0.0 and -2.5. Once-daily placebo or 10, 20, 40, or 80 mg atorvastatin was administered. We assessed percent change from baseline in lumbar (L1-L4) spine bone mineral density with each dose of atorvastatin compared with placebo. At 52 wk, there was no significant difference between each atorvastatin and placebo group or change from baseline at any tested dose of atorvastatin or placebo in lumbar (L1-L4) spine bone mineral density. Nor did atorvastatin produce a significant change in bone mineral density at any other site. Changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover did not differ significantly between each atorvastatin and placebo group. All doses of atorvastatin were generally well tolerated, with similar incidences of adverse events across all dose groups and placebo. Clinically relevant doses of atorvastatin that lower lipid levels had no effect on bone mineral density or biochemical indices of bone metabolism in this study, suggesting that such oral agents are not useful in the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis.

  10. Dose escalation in permanent brachytherapy for prostate cancer: dosimetric and biological considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. Allen; Wang, Jian Z.; Stewart, Robert D.; Di Biase, Steven J.

    2003-09-01

    No prospective dose escalation study for prostate brachytherapy (PB) with permanent implants has been reported. In this work, we have performed a dosimetric and biological analysis to explore the implications of dose escalation in PB using 125I and 103Pd implants. The concept of equivalent uniform dose (EUD), proposed originally for external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT), is applied to low dose rate brachytherapy. For a given 125I or 103Pd PB, the EUD for tumour that corresponds to a dose distribution delivered by EBRT is calculated based on the linear quadratic model. The EUD calculation is based on the dose volume histogram (DVH) obtained retrospectively from representative actual patient data. Tumour control probabilities (TCPs) are also determined in order to compare the relative effectiveness of different dose levels. The EUD for normal tissue is computed using the Lyman model. A commercial inverse treatment planning algorithm is used to investigate the feasibility of escalating the dose to prostate with acceptable dose increases in the rectum and urethra. The dosimetric calculation is performed for five representative patients with different prostate sizes. A series of PB dose levels are considered for each patient using 125I and 103Pd seeds. It is found that the PB prescribed doses (minimum peripheral dose) that give an equivalent EBRT dose of 64.8, 70.2, 75.6 and 81 Gy with a fraction size of 1.8 Gy are 129, 139, 150 and 161 Gy for 125I and 103, 112, 122 and 132 Gy for 103Pd implants, respectively. Estimates of the EUD and TCP for a series of possible prescribed dose levels (e.g., 145, 160, 170 and 180 Gy for 125I and 125, 135, 145 and 155 for 103Pd implants) are tabulated. The EUD calculation was found to depend strongly on DVHs and radiobiological parameters. The dosimetric calculations suggest that the dose to prostate can be escalated without a substantial increase in both rectal and urethral dose. For example, increasing the PB prescribed dose from 145 to

  11. Randomized, placebo-controlled comparison of early use of frovatriptan in a migraine attack versus dosing after the headache has become moderate or severe.

    PubMed

    Cady, Roger; Elkind, Arthur; Goldstein, Jerome; Keywood, Charlotte

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate whether frovatriptan would provide greater relief if given early during a migraine attack. Adults with a history of migraine of at least 1 year, and who had 2-8 headaches in the previous month were recruited from 19 US centres for a prospective, placebo-controlled crossover study over 2 migraine attacks. Dose 1 was taken at the onset of mild migraine headache, Dose 2 was taken at least 2 h later if the headache progressed to moderate/severe. Patients were randomized to receive Dose 1 frovatriptan then Dose 2 placebo or Dose 1 placebo followed by Dose 2 frovatriptan. Treatment order was reversed for the second attack. This schedule enabled a comparison of frovatriptan with placebo and a comparison of early and later treatment with frovatriptan. Freedom from pain at 2 h for frovatriptan versus placebo as Dose 1; use of Dose 2 and/or rescue medication, pain severity, functional impairment and headache recurrence. In 241 patients who each treated 2 migraine attacks, Dose 1 frovatriptan was more effective than placebo in terms of the proportion of patients who were pain free at 2 h (28% vs 20%, p = 0.04). This benefit was sustained up to 4 h post-dose (p = 0.003). Early use of frovatriptan significantly reduced re-medication (p < 0.001). Twenty-four-hour headache recurrence was low in both early (4%) and later use (6%) groups. Sustained pain-free response occurred in 40% of frovatriptan early use patients compared with 31% of later use patients (p < 0.05). Early use prevented headache progression: 69%-78% had mild/no headache 2-4 h after Dose 1 frovatriptan compared with 54%-63% taking Dose 1 placebo (p < 0.001). Early use reduced pain burden and functional disability (p < or = 0.001). More patients rated early use of frovatriptan as excellent or good (57% vs 46%). Early use of frovatriptan resulted in a higher, earlier and sustained pain-free response, prevented progression to moderate/severe headache and reduced pain burden and functional disability.

  12. A dose-finding, placebo-controlled study on extended-release felodipine once daily in treatment of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Cambell, L M; Ross, J R; Goves, J R; Lees, C T; McCullagh, A; Barnes, P; Timerick, S J; Richardson, P D

    1989-12-01

    Hypertensive patients received a beta-blocker plus placebo once daily for 4 weeks. If their diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was then 95-115 mm Hg, they were randomized to receive, in addition to the beta-blocker, placebo (n = 36), felodipine-extended release (ER) 10 mg (n = 36), or felodipine-ER 20 mg (n = 37) in a 4-week double-blind parallel-group trial. All medication was administered once daily and, when BP was measured 24 h after the last dose, felodipine-ER 10 mg reduced DBP by 14 +/- 9 mm Hg (mean +/- SD) from a mean of 103 mm Hg and felodipine-ER 20 mg reduced DBP by 18 +/- 9 mm Gg from 101 mm Hg. The reductions in DBP with both doses of felodipine were greater than reductions with placebo (5 +/- 8 mm Hg, from 102 mm Hg--both p less than 0.001). At the end of the study, 21% of patients receiving placebo had a DBP less than or equal to 90 mm Hg. In contrast, 69% of patients receiving felodipine-ER 10 mg and 82% receiving 20 mg attained this level. More than 90% of patients receiving 10 mg felodipine-ER once daily had a reduction in DBP greater than 5 mm Hg 24 h postdose. Felodipine-ER was well tolerated. Felodipine-ER once daily is an effective antihypertensive drug for patients who require therapy in addition to a beta-blocker; the tolerability in this study was good, and a starting dose greater than 10 mg once daily is not indicated.

  13. Escalation to High-Dose Defibrotide in Patients with Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease.

    PubMed

    Triplett, Brandon M; Kuttab, Hani I; Kang, Guolian; Leung, Wing

    2015-12-01

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is a serious complication of high-dose chemotherapy regimens, such as those used in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients. Defibrotide is considered a safe and effective treatment when dosed at 25 mg/kg/day. However, patients who develop VOD still have increased mortality despite the use of defibrotide. Data are limited on the use of doses above 60 mg/kg/day for persistent VOD. In this prospective clinical trial 34 patients received escalating doses of defibrotide. For patients with persistent VOD despite doses of 60 mg/kg/day, doses were increased to a maximum of 110 mg/kg/day. Increased toxicity was not observed until doses rose beyond 100 mg/kg/day. Patients receiving doses between 10 and 100 mg/kg/day experienced an average of 3 bleeding episodes per 100 days of treatment, whereas those receiving doses >100 mg/kg/day experienced 13.2 bleeding episodes per 100 days (P = .008). Moreover, dose reductions due to toxicity were needed at doses of 110 mg/kg/day more often than at lower doses. Defibrotide may be safely escalated to doses well above the current standard without an increase in bleeding risk. However, the efficacy of this dose-escalation strategy remains unclear, because outcomes were similar to published cohorts of patients receiving standard doses of defibrotide for VOD.

  14. A phase 2, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study of the calcium-sensing receptor antagonist MK-5442 in the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Halse, Johan; Greenspan, Susan; Cosman, Felicia; Ellis, Graham; Santora, Arthur; Leung, Albert; Heyden, Norman; Samanta, Suvajit; Doleckyj, Steven; Rosenberg, Elizabeth; Denker, Andrew E

    2014-11-01

    MK-5442 is an orally bioavailable calcium-sensing receptor antagonist that is hypothesized to stimulate bone formation by stimulating endogenous secretion of a pulse of PTH. Earlier clinical and preclinical studies demonstrated increased bone mineral density (BMD) after treatment. Our objective was to identify a dose of MK-5442 that produces osteoanabolic effects without excessive hypercalcemia. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial of private or institutional practice. In total, 383 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were administered daily oral MK-5442 (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, or 15 mg) or placebo. Serum PTH and calcium, bone turnover markers, areal BMD, and safety were evaluated. A dose-dependent transient increase in PTH occurred after an MK-5442 dose and lasted more than 3.5 hours. Compared with placebo, significant increases in bone formation markers (serum procollagen 1 N-terminal peptide and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) were observed by 6 months, whereas bone resorption markers (serum C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen, urine N-telopeptides of type 1 collagen) initially decreased but were also significantly increased by 6 months. Despite the biochemical marker changes suggestive of an anabolic response, there were no statistically significant differences between any dose of MK-5442 and placebo in percent change from baseline at month 6 in any of the BMD endpoints. The frequency of hypercalcemia (trough serum calcium ≥ 10.8 mg/dL) was greater with higher MK-5442 doses. In postmenopausal women with low bone mass, treatment with MK-5442 resulted in transient pulses of PTH. Bone formation markers increased quickly and bone resorption markers decreased temporarily, suggestive of an anabolic window. However, there were no increases in BMD versus placebo.

  15. A Phase 2, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Ranging Study of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor Antagonist MK-5442 in the Treatment of Postmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Greenspan, Susan; Cosman, Felicia; Ellis, Graham; Santora, Arthur; Leung, Albert; Heyden, Norman; Samanta, Suvajit; Doleckyj, Steven; Rosenberg, Elizabeth; Denker, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: MK-5442 is an orally bioavailable calcium-sensing receptor antagonist that is hypothesized to stimulate bone formation by stimulating endogenous secretion of a pulse of PTH. Earlier clinical and preclinical studies demonstrated increased bone mineral density (BMD) after treatment. Objective: Our objective was to identify a dose of MK-5442 that produces osteoanabolic effects without excessive hypercalcemia. Design and Setting: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial of private or institutional practice. Participants and Intervention: In total, 383 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were administered daily oral MK-5442 (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, or 15 mg) or placebo. Main Outcome Measures: Serum PTH and calcium, bone turnover markers, areal BMD, and safety were evaluated. Results: A dose-dependent transient increase in PTH occurred after an MK-5442 dose and lasted more than 3.5 hours. Compared with placebo, significant increases in bone formation markers (serum procollagen 1 N-terminal peptide and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) were observed by 6 months, whereas bone resorption markers (serum C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen, urine N-telopeptides of type 1 collagen) initially decreased but were also significantly increased by 6 months. Despite the biochemical marker changes suggestive of an anabolic response, there were no statistically significant differences between any dose of MK-5442 and placebo in percent change from baseline at month 6 in any of the BMD endpoints. The frequency of hypercalcemia (trough serum calcium ≥10.8 mg/dL) was greater with higher MK-5442 doses. Conclusion: In postmenopausal women with low bone mass, treatment with MK-5442 resulted in transient pulses of PTH. Bone formation markers increased quickly and bone resorption markers decreased temporarily, suggestive of an anabolic window. However, there were no increases in BMD versus placebo. PMID:25166719

  16. Randomized placebo-controlled dose-ranging and pharmacodynamics study of roxadustat (FG-4592) to treat anemia in nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) patients.

    PubMed

    Besarab, Anatole; Provenzano, Robert; Hertel, Joachim; Zabaneh, Raja; Klaus, Stephen J; Lee, Tyson; Leong, Robert; Hemmerich, Stefan; Yu, Kin-Hung Peony; Neff, Thomas B

    2015-10-01

    Roxadustat (FG-4592) is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor that stimulates erythropoiesis. This Phase 2a study tested efficacy (Hb response) and safety of roxadustat in anemic nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) subjects. NDD-CKD subjects with hemoglobin (Hb) ≤11.0 g/dL were sequentially enrolled into four dose cohorts and randomized to roxadustat or placebo two times weekly (BIW) or three times weekly (TIW) for 4 weeks, in an approximate roxadustat:placebo ratio of 3:1. Efficacy was assessed by (i) mean Hb change (ΔHb) from baseline (BL) and (ii) proportion of Hb responders (ΔHb ≥ 1.0 g/dL). Pharmacodynamic evaluation was performed in a subset of subjects. Safety was evaluated by adverse event frequency/severity. Of 116 subjects receiving treatment, 104 completed 4 weeks of dosing and 96 were evaluable for efficacy. BL characteristics for roxadustat and placebo groups were comparable. In roxadustat-treated subjects, Hb levels increased from BL in a dose-related manner in the 0.7, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg groups. Maximum ΔHb within the first 6 weeks was significantly higher in the 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg groups than in the placebo subjects. Hb responder rates were dose dependent and ranged from 30% in the 0.7 mg/kg BIW group to 100% in the 2.0 mg/kg BIW and TIW groups versus 13% in placebo. Roxadustat transiently and moderately increased endogenous erythropoietin and reduced hepcidin. Adverse events were similar in the roxadustat and placebo groups. Roxadustat produced dose-dependent increases in blood Hb among anemic NDD-CKD patients in a placebo-controlled trial. Clintrials.gov #NCT00761657. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  17. Randomized placebo-controlled dose-ranging and pharmacodynamics study of roxadustat (FG-4592) to treat anemia in nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) patients

    PubMed Central

    Besarab, Anatole; Provenzano, Robert; Hertel, Joachim; Zabaneh, Raja; Klaus, Stephen J.; Lee, Tyson; Leong, Robert; Hemmerich, Stefan; Yu, Kin-Hung Peony; Neff, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Roxadustat (FG-4592) is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor that stimulates erythropoiesis. This Phase 2a study tested efficacy (Hb response) and safety of roxadustat in anemic nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) subjects. Methods NDD-CKD subjects with hemoglobin (Hb) ≤11.0 g/dL were sequentially enrolled into four dose cohorts and randomized to roxadustat or placebo two times weekly (BIW) or three times weekly (TIW) for 4 weeks, in an approximate roxadustat:placebo ratio of 3:1. Efficacy was assessed by (i) mean Hb change (ΔHb) from baseline (BL) and (ii) proportion of Hb responders (ΔHb ≥ 1.0 g/dL). Pharmacodynamic evaluation was performed in a subset of subjects. Safety was evaluated by adverse event frequency/severity. Results Of 116 subjects receiving treatment, 104 completed 4 weeks of dosing and 96 were evaluable for efficacy. BL characteristics for roxadustat and placebo groups were comparable. In roxadustat-treated subjects, Hb levels increased from BL in a dose-related manner in the 0.7, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg groups. Maximum ΔHb within the first 6 weeks was significantly higher in the 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg groups than in the placebo subjects. Hb responder rates were dose dependent and ranged from 30% in the 0.7 mg/kg BIW group to 100% in the 2.0 mg/kg BIW and TIW groups versus 13% in placebo. Conclusions Roxadustat transiently and moderately increased endogenous erythropoietin and reduced hepcidin. Adverse events were similar in the roxadustat and placebo groups. Roxadustat produced dose-dependent increases in blood Hb among anemic NDD-CKD patients in a placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Trials Registration Clintrials.gov #NCT00761657. PMID:26238121

  18. A placebo-controlled study of three agomelatine dose regimens (10 mg, 25 mg, 25-50 mg) in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Sidney H; Avedisova, Alla; Giménez-Montesinos, Natalia; Belaïdi, Carole; de Bodinat, Christian

    2014-04-01

    A randomised placebo-controlled "dose relation study" was conducted in 549 patients who met the criteria for major depressive disorder, to evaluate the efficacy and safety of three doses regimens of agomelatine during 6 weeks: low fixed dosage (10 mg/day, n=133), fixed dosage (25 mg/day, n=138) and a flexible dosage with up-titration in case of insufficient improvement at week 2 (25-50 mg/day, n=137). At last post-baseline assessment, there were significant and incremental placebo-agomelatine differences on mean HAM-D₁₇ total scores in favour of each agomelatine dose regimen (2.46 ± 0.76 points, p=0.001 at 10 mg; 4.71+0.75 points, p<0.0001 at 25 mg and 4.92 ± 0.76 points, p<0.0001 at 25-50 mg) with statistically significant differences between 25 mg and 25-50 mg dose regimens compared to the 10 mg dose. The response rate according to HAM-D₁₇ was significantly higher in patients taking agomelatine than those taking placebo (difference of 16.1% at 10 mg p=0.005; 25.9% and 27.4% respectively at 25 mg and 25-50 mg, p<0.0001). The benefit of agomelatine was demonstrated in the subgroup of severely depressed patients in the 25 mg and 25-50 mg/day regimens. Consistent clinical response according to CGI variables and better social functioning were found in patients receiving agomelatine. All dose regimens of agomelatine were well tolerated and no unexpected adverse event was reported. This study provides evidence of a dose effect for agomelatine between 10 mg and the therapeutic dose regimen of agomelatine 25-50 mg: the efficacy of the higher dose regimens being more efficacious than the lowest (10 mg) daily dose. The data support a definitive statement regarding the utility of 25 mg as the threshold dose for initiating agomelatine in depressed patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  19. Biological equivalent dose studies for dose escalation in the stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy clinical trials

    SciTech Connect

    Prezado, Y.; Fois, G.; Edouard, M.; Nemoz, C.; Renier, M.; Requardt, H.; Esteve, F.; Adam, JF.; Elleaume, H.; Bravin, A.

    2009-03-15

    Synchrotron radiation is an innovative tool for the treatment of brain tumors. In the stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy (SSRT) technique a radiation dose enhancement specific to the tumor is obtained. The tumor is loaded with a high atomic number (Z) element and it is irradiated in stereotactic conditions from several entrance angles. The aim of this work was to assess dosimetric properties of the SSRT for preparing clinical trials at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). To estimate the possible risks, the doses received by the tumor and healthy tissues in the future clinical conditions have been calculated by using Monte Carlo simulations (PENELOPE code). The dose enhancement factors have been determined for different iodine concentrations in the tumor, several tumor positions, tumor sizes, and different beam sizes. A scheme for the dose escalation in the various phases of the clinical trials has been proposed. The biological equivalent doses and the normalized total doses received by the skull have been calculated in order to assure that the tolerance values are not reached.

  20. Phase I dose escalation trial of feverfew with standardized doses of parthenolide in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Curry, Eardie A; Murry, Daryl J; Yoder, Christy; Fife, Karen; Armstrong, Victoria; Nakshatri, Harikrishna; O'Connell, Michael; Sweeney, Christopher J

    2004-08-01

    Feverfew is a botanical product that contains parthenolide. Parthenolide has in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic activity. Feverfew has been used extensively without any formal pharmacokinetic analysis. A Phase I trial was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of parthenolide given as a component of "feverfew." Feverfew (Tanacet trade mark ) was administered as a daily oral tablet in a 28-day cycle. A starting dose of 1 mg per day was explored with subsequent dose escalations to 2, 3, and 4 mg. Assessment of plasma pharmacokinetics was performed on patients accrued to the trial. Solid phase extraction and mass spectroscopy were used to evaluate parthenolide plasma concentrations. The limit of detection for parthenolide in plasma was 0.5 ng/ml. Patients were evaluated for response after every two cycles. Feverfew given on this schedule had no significant toxicity, and the maximum tolerated dose was not reached. When parthenolide was administered at doses up to 4 mg as a daily oral capsule in the feverfew preparation, there was not detectable concentration in the plasma. Because of this, parthenolide pharmacokinetics were not able to be completed. Feverfew, with up to 4 mg of parthenolide, given daily as an oral tablet is well tolerated without dose-limiting toxicity, but does not provide detectable plasma concentrations. Purification of parthenolide for administration of higher doses will be needed.

  1. Dose response to vitamin D supplementation in African Americans: results of a 4-arm, randomized, placebo-controlled trial1234

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kimmie; Scott, Jamil B; Drake, Bettina F; Chan, Andrew T; Hollis, Bruce W; Chandler, Paulette D; Bennett, Gary G; Giovannucci, Edward L; Gonzalez-Suarez, Elizabeth; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Emmons, Karen M; Fuchs, Charles S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Association studies have suggested that lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in African Americans may partially underlie higher rates of cardiovascular disease and cancer in this population. Nonetheless, the relation between vitamin D supplementation and 25(OH)D concentrations in African Americans remains undefined. Objective: Our primary objective was to determine the dose-response relation between vitamin D and plasma 25(OH)D. Design: A total of 328 African Americans in Boston, MA, were enrolled over 3 winters from 2007 to 2010 and randomly assigned to receive a placebo or 1000, 2000, or 4000 IU vitamin D3/d for 3 mo. Subjects completed sociodemographic and dietary questionnaires, and plasma samples were drawn at baseline and 3 and 6 mo. Results: Median plasma 25(OH)D concentrations at baseline were 15.1, 16.2, 13.9, and 15.7 ng/mL for subjects randomly assigned to receive the placebo or 1000, 2000, or 4000 IU/d, respectively (P = 0.63). The median plasma 25(OH)D concentration at 3 mo differed significantly between supplementation arms at 13.7, 29.7, 34.8, and 45.9 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.001). An estimated 1640 IU vitamin D3/d was needed to raise the plasma 25(OH)D concentration to ≥20 ng/mL in ≥97.5% of participants, whereas a dose of 4000 IU/d was needed to achieve concentrations ≥33 ng/mL in ≥80% of subjects. No significant hypercalcemia was seen in a subset of participants. Conclusions: Within African Americans, an estimated 1640 IU vitamin D3/d was required to achieve concentrations of plasma 25(OH)D recommended by the Institute of Medicine, whereas 4000 IU/d was needed to reach concentrations predicted to reduce cancer and cardiovascular disease risk in prospective observational studies. These results may be helpful for informing future trials of disease prevention. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00585637. PMID:24368437

  2. Symptomatic treatment of the common cold with a fixed-dose combination of paracetamol, chlorphenamine and phenylephrine: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Picon, Paulo Dornelles; Costa, Marisa Boff; da Veiga Picon, Rafael; Fendt, Lucia Costa Cabral; Suksteris, Maurício Leichter; Saccilotto, Indara Carmanim; Dornelles, Alicia Dorneles; Schmidt, Luis Felipe Carissimi

    2013-11-22

    The common cold and other viral airway infections are highly prevalent in the population, and their treatment often requires the use of medications for symptomatic relief. Paracetamol is as an analgesic and antipyretic; chlorphenamine is an antihistamine; and phenylephrine, a vasoconstrictor and decongestant. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of paracetamol, chlorphenamine and phenylephrine in the symptomatic treatment of the common cold and flu-like syndrome in adults. This study enrolled 146 individuals aged 18 to 60 years who had moderate to severe flu-like syndrome or common cold. After clinical examination and laboratory tests, individuals were randomly assigned to receive the fixed-dose combination (73) or placebo (73), five capsules per day for 48 to 72 hours. The primary efficacy endpoint was the sum of the scores of 10 symptoms on a four-point Likert-type scale. To evaluate treatment safety, the occurrence of adverse events was also measured. Mean age was 33.5 (±9.5) years in the placebo group and 33.8 (±11.5) in the treatment group. There were 55 women and 18 men in the placebo group, and 46 women and 27 men in the treatment group. Comparison of overall symptom scores in the two groups revealed a significantly greater reduction in the treatment group than in the placebo group (p = 0.015). Analysis at the first 13 dose intervals (± 66 h of treatment) showed a greater reduction of symptom scores in the treatment group than in the placebo group (p < 0.05). The number and distribution of adverse events were similar in both groups. A fixed-dose combination of paracetamol, chlorphenamine and phenylephrine was safe and more effective than placebo in the symptomatic treatment of the common cold or flu-like syndrome in adults. NCT01389518.

  3. Pregabalin add-on therapy using a flexible, optimized dose schedule in refractory partial epilepsies: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung In; Yi, Sangdoe; Hong, Seung Bong; Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Lee, Sang Ahm; Lee, Sang Kun; Shin, Dong-Jin; Kim, Jae Moon; Song, Hong Ki; Heo, Kyoung; Lowe, Wing; Leon, Teresa

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pregabalin (PGB) as adjunctive therapy, using a flexible-dosing schedule in Korean patients with refractory partial-onset seizures. This randomized, double-blind (DB), placebo-controlled trial consists of a 6-week baseline, a 12-week DB treatment, and a 1-week taper phase. Patients having recurrent partial seizures (>or=4 seizures during baseline phase) under adequate pharmacotherapy were recruited to be randomized to PGB or placebo (PLC) in a 2 to 1 ratio. Starting dose was 150 mg/day, increased every 2 weeks by 150-mg/day increments up to maximum dose of 600 mg/day. The primary efficacy parameter was response ratio (RRatio) for all partial seizures. A total of 178 patients (119 in PGB, 59 in PLC) were assigned to the study. Median daily doses of PGB and PLC were 367 and 420 mg/day, respectively. RRatio least squares (LS) mean was -35.8 in the PGB group and -23.2 in the PLC group, with estimated difference in RRatios being -12.6 [95% confidence interval (CI): -22.7 to -2.5, p = 0.015] in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Analysis of secondary efficacy measures showed a general trend favoring PGB over PLC. Seventy-seven patients (64.7%) in the PGB group and 18 patients (30.5%) in the PLC group developed adverse events (AEs) related to the study drug. Seven patients (5.9%) in the PGB group discontinued the study prematurely because of AEs. In the post hoc analysis, a significant weight gain (>or=7% of baseline body weight) was found in 24.8% of patients taking PGB, which was more frequent in patients with a lower body mass index (BMI

  4. Bupropion in the treatment of pathological gambling: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose study.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Arndt, Stephan; Coryell, William H; Argo, Tami; Forbush, Kelsie T; Shaw, Martha C; Perry, Paul; Allen, Jeff

    2007-04-01

    We tested the efficacy of bupropion in the treatment of persons with pathological gambling (PG). Nondepressed, healthy subjects with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition PG were randomly assigned to placebo or flexibly dosed bupropion in a 12-week double-blind trial. Outcome measures included the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale modified for PG, the Gambling Severity Assessment Scale, the Clinical Global Impression Improvement and Severity Scales, the Global Assessment Scale, the Timeline Follow Back, the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale, and the Sheehan Disability Scale. Thirty-nine subjects (28 men, 11 women) were randomized to bupropion (n = 18) or placebo (n = 21). The 2 groups were similar on demographic and clinical measures. There were few differences between the treatment groups on any primary or secondary outcome measure, although subjects in each cell experienced significant improvement. Of subjects with at least 1 postrandomization visit, 35.7% of bupropion and 47.1% of placebo recipients experienced "much" or "very much" improvement on the Clinical Global Impression Improvement Scale. The trial was complicated by a high noncompletion rate (43.6%). Bupropion was well tolerated. Bupropion and placebo recipients did equally well in a short-term trial, with improvement seen as early as the first week of treatment. The high placebo response rate and the high noncompletion rate each reflect the challenge inherent in treating persons with PG.

  5. Cost of dose escalation in people with rheumatoid arthritis treated with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors across Europe.

    PubMed

    Holden, Sarah E; Currie, Craig J; Lennon, Martin; Reynolds, Alan V; Moots, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate the marginal cost of dose escalation in people with rheumatoid arthritis treated with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors across Europe. The proportion of people who escalate their dose of TNF inhibitor and the average percentage increase in TNF inhibitor cost associated with escalators versus non-escalators was calculated from previously published estimates, weighted by the sample size for each study. The number of people with rheumatoid arthritis treated with TNF inhibitors and the corresponding total drug sales were obtained for five European countries from Decision Resources' Pharmacor Market Forecast. Method 1 assumed that total sales of a TNF inhibitor represented the cost of an escalator multiplied by the number of escalators plus the cost of a non-escalator multiplied by the number of non-escalators. Method 2 assumed that the drug cost per day used to forecast total sales was calculated using the dose of TNF inhibitor used by non-escalators. The marginal cost of TNF inhibitor dose escalation was estimated by multiplying the difference in cost between escalators and non-escalators by the number of escalators. The estimated increase in TNF inhibitor costs associated with dose escalation in people with rheumatoid arthritis across five European countries (Germany, France, UK, Spain and Italy) was €51.5-54.4 million for adalimumab, €44.8-52.8 million for infliximab and €5.8-5.9 million for etanercept. Dose escalation of the TNF inhibitors adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab in people with rheumatoid arthritis has resulted in an increase in TNF inhibitor costs across five European countries.

  6. Vilazodone in patients with generalized anxiety disorder: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose study

    PubMed Central

    Forero, Giovanna; Mathews, Maju; Nunez, Rene; Tang, Xiongwen; Durgam, Suresh; Sambunaris, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Vilazodone is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and a 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist that is approved for treatment of major depressive disorder in adults in the USA and Mexico. The efficacy, safety, and tolerability of vilazodone for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) were investigated in a clinical trial (NCT01766401 ClinicalTrials.gov). Participants (18–70 years, inclusive) who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text revision, criteria for GAD were randomized (1 : 1) to placebo or flexible-dose vilazodone (20–40 mg/day) for 8 weeks of double-blind treatment. Primary and secondary efficacy parameters were changes from baseline to week 8 in Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Sheehan Disability Scale total scores, respectively. Analysis was based on a mixed-effects model for repeated measures approach on the intent-to-treat population. The intent-to-treat population comprised 395 patients (placebo=197, vilazodone=198); 77% completed the study. The least squares mean difference in change from baseline to week 8 in the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety total score was statistically significant for vilazodone versus placebo [−1.50 (−2.96, −0.04), P=0.0438]. The mean change from baseline to week 8 in the Sheehan Disability Scale total score for vilazodone versus placebo was not statistically significant. Adverse events were reported in 60% of placebo-treated and 83% of vilazodone-treated patients. This was a positive clinical trial of 20–40 mg/day vilazodone versus placebo in the treatment of GAD. PMID:26291335

  7. Vilazodone in patients with generalized anxiety disorder: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose study.

    PubMed

    Gommoll, Carl; Forero, Giovanna; Mathews, Maju; Nunez, Rene; Tang, Xiongwen; Durgam, Suresh; Sambunaris, Angelo

    2015-11-01

    Vilazodone is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and a 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist that is approved for treatment of major depressive disorder in adults in the USA and Mexico. The efficacy, safety, and tolerability of vilazodone for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) were investigated in a clinical trial (NCT01766401 ClinicalTrials.gov). Participants (18-70 years, inclusive) who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text revision, criteria for GAD were randomized (1:1) to placebo or flexible-dose vilazodone (20-40 mg/day) for 8 weeks of double-blind treatment. Primary and secondary efficacy parameters were changes from baseline to week 8 in Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Sheehan Disability Scale total scores, respectively. Analysis was based on a mixed-effects model for repeated measures approach on the intent-to-treat population. The intent-to-treat population comprised 395 patients (placebo=197, vilazodone=198); 77% completed the study. The least squares mean difference in change from baseline to week 8 in the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety total score was statistically significant for vilazodone versus placebo [-1.50 (-2.96, -0.04), P=0.0438]. The mean change from baseline to week 8 in the Sheehan Disability Scale total score for vilazodone versus placebo was not statistically significant. Adverse events were reported in 60% of placebo-treated and 83% of vilazodone-treated patients. This was a positive clinical trial of 20-40 mg/day vilazodone versus placebo in the treatment of GAD.

  8. MD1003 (high-dose biotin) for the treatment of progressive multiple sclerosis: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Tourbah, Ayman; Lebrun-Frenay, Christine; Edan, Gilles; Clanet, Michel; Papeix, Caroline; Vukusic, Sandra; De Sèze, Jerome; Debouverie, Marc; Gout, Olivier; Clavelou, Pierre; Defer, Gilles; Laplaud, David-Axel; Moreau, Thibault; Labauge, Pierre; Brochet, Bruno; Sedel, Frédéric; Pelletier, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Background: Treatment with MD1003 (high-dose biotin) showed promising results in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) in a pilot open-label study. Objective: To confirm the efficacy and safety of MD1003 in progressive MS in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Methods: Patients (n = 154) with a baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of 4.5–7 and evidence of disease worsening within the previous 2 years were randomised to 12-month MD1003 (100 mg biotin) or placebo thrice daily, followed by 12-month MD1003 for all patients. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with disability reversal at month 9, confirmed at month 12, defined as an EDSS decrease of ⩾1 point (⩾0.5 for EDSS 6–7) or a ⩾20% decrease in timed 25-foot walk time compared with the best baseline among screening or randomisation visits. Results: A total of 13 (12.6%) MD1003-treated patients achieved the primary endpoint versus none of the placebo-treated patients (p = 0.005). MD1003 treatment also reduced EDSS progression and improved clinical impression of change compared with placebo. Efficacy was maintained over follow-up, and the safety profile of MD1003 was similar to that of placebo. Conclusion: MD1003 achieves sustained reversal of MS-related disability in a subset of patients with progressive MS and is well tolerated. PMID:27589059

  9. Single-dose intra-articular bupivacaine plus morphine after knee arthroscopic surgery: a meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-lun; Zeng, Chao; Xie, Dong-xing; Yang, Ye; Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; Li, Hui; Lei, Guang-hua

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of single-dose intra-articular bupivacaine plus morphine after knee arthroscopic surgery. Design Meta-analysis. Data sources and study eligibility criteria A comprehensive literature search, using Medline (1966–2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Embase databases, was conducted to identify randomised placebo-controlled trials that used a combination of single-dose intra-articular bupivacaine and morphine for postoperative pain relief. Results 12 articles were included in this meta-analysis. The mean visual analogue scale (VAS) scores of the bupivacaine plus morphine group were significantly lower than those of the placebo group (weighted mean difference (WMD) −1.75; 95% CI −2.16 to −1.33; p<0.001). The VAS scores at the last follow-up time point (last VAS scores) of the bupivacaine plus morphine group were also significantly lower than those of the placebo group (WMD −1.46; 95% CI −1.63 to −1.29; p<0.001). The number of patients requiring supplementary analgesia was also significantly reduced (RR 0.60; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.93; p=0.02), while there was no significant difference in the time to first analgesic request (WMD 3.46; 95% CI −1.81 to 8.72; p=0.20) or short-term side effects (RR 1.67; 95% CI 0.65 to 4.26; p=0.29). Conclusions The administration of single-dose intra-articular bupivacaine plus morphine after knee arthroscopic surgery is effective for pain relief, and its short-term side effects remain similar to saline placebo. PMID:26078306

  10. Digestive tolerance of inulin-type fructans: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, dose-ranging, randomized study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bruhwyler, Jacques; Carreer, Fabienne; Demanet, Etienne; Jacobs, Heidi

    2009-03-01

    Similar to other indigestible carbohydrates or dietary fibres, a consumption of too large quantities of inulin-type fructans may cause some digestive problems. To compare the digestive tolerance of inulin-type fructans, administered during 2 weeks, at different doses. Eighty-four healthy volunteers (aged 18-45 years, mean body mass index 25.1 kg/m2 and mean total fibre consumption 12 g) were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over study comparing Fibrulose F97 (5 and 20 g/day), Fibruline Instant (5, 10 and 20 g/day) and Fibruline XL (10 g/day) (degrees of polymerization respectively equal to 2-20, 2-60 with an average of 10, and 2-60 with an average >20) to placebo. The study was decomposed into five 2-week periods: placebo run-in, treatment 1, placebo washout, treatment 2, placebo run-out. The following symptoms were assessed using visual analogue scales: flatulence, rumbling, bloating, abdominal pain, abdominal cramps, nausea, stool frequency and stool consistency. The primary variable was the mean difference between treatment and placebo in terms of tolerance (sum of the eight visual analogue scales). The three products tended to increase digestive symptoms whatever the dose but the change was mild (maximum, +19 mm on the 800-mm scale) and significant (P<0.001) for Fibruline Instant at 20 g/day only. At 20 g/day, a statistically significant difference between Fibruline Instant and Fibrulose F97 was demonstrated (P=0.011). There was a dose-effect relationship both for Fibrulose F97 (P>0.05) and Fibruline Instant (P=0.042). All the other tendencies were non-significant. The three different inulin-type fructans were very well tolerated.

  11. Absence of psychostimulant effects of a supratherapeutic dose of tianeptine: a placebo-controlled study versus methylphenidate in young healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Katy; Penelaud, Pierre-François; Mocaër, Elisabeth; Donazzolo, Yves

    2011-08-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to assess the potential psychostimulant effect of a single oral supratherapeutic dose of tianeptine (75 mg in 1 shot) in young healthy volunteers compared with methylphenidate (40 mg) and placebo. Eighteen healthy young male and female volunteers with no history of psychostimulant abuse completed this balanced, crossover, placebo-controlled study. Subjective and behavioral effects were assessed before treatment and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 hours after drug intake. Subjective effects of the drugs were recorded using self-questionnaire Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI 49). In addition, the Profile of Mood Scale, Visual Analog Scale, and attention/vigilance tests (choice reaction time and critical flicker fusion test) were used to evaluate mood state, subjective feeling, and sustained attention, respectively. Analysis on changes from baseline, from 1 to 8 hours, showed statistically significant differences between treatment groups for 2 of the 5 ARCI subscales: amphetamine and morphine benzedrine scales. A trend to significance was observed for Lysergic Acid Diethylamide scale. Indeed, although tianeptine did not significantly change any ARCI scores, methylphenidate significantly increased amphetamine and morphine benzedrine scores of the ARCI compared with placebo. No significant treatment effect was observed on the Profile of Mood Scale and the visual analog scale. Analyses of attention and vigilance tests showed a psychostimulant effect for methylphenidate on choice reaction time (decrease of recognition time) and critical flicker fusion test (higher frequency). A single administration of a supratherapeutic dose of tianeptine does not induce psychostimulant effect in young healthy volunteers in contrast to methylphenidate at a therapeutic dose. These findings suggest an absence of psychostimulant liability of tianeptine in a therapeutic situation.

  12. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of 2-pyridylacetic acid, a major metabolite of betahistine, in a phase 1 dose escalation study in subjects with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Moorthy, Ganesh; Sallee, Floyd; Gabbita, Prasad; Zemlan, Frank; Sallans, Larry; Desai, Pankaj B

    2015-10-01

    Betahistine, a potent histamine H3 receptor antagonist, is being developed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that manifests with symptoms such as hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. This study describes the pharmacokinetics of betahistine in ADHD subjects at doses higher than 50 mg. These assessments were made during a randomized, placebo-controlled, single blind, dose escalation study to determine the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of once daily doses of 50 mg, 100 mg and 200 mg of betahistine in subjects with ADHD. Plasma levels of 2-pyridylacetic acid (2-PAA), a major metabolite of betahistine were quantified using a validated LC-MS/MS method and used for pharmacokinetic analysis and dose proportionality of betahistine. A linear relationship was observed in Cmax and AUC0-4 of 2-PAA with the betahistine dose (R2 0.9989 and 0.9978, respectively) and dose proportionality coefficients (β) for the power model were 0.8684 (Cmax) and 1.007 (AUC0-4). A population pharmacokinetic model with first-order absorption of betahistine and metabolism to 2-PAA, followed by a first-order elimination of 2-PAA provides estimates of clearance that underscored the linear increase in systemic exposure with dose. There were no serious adverse events reported in the study, betahistine was safe and well tolerated at all the dose levels tested.

  13. Preventing ICU Subsyndromal Delirium Conversion to Delirium with Low Dose IV Haloperidol: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qadheeb, Nada S.; Skrobik, Yoanna; Schumaker, Greg; Pacheco, Manuel; Roberts, Russel; Ruthazer, Robin; Devlin, John W

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of scheduled low-dose, haloperidol vs. placebo for the prevention of delirium [Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC) ≥ 4)] administered to critically ill adults with subsyndromal delirium (ICDSC = 1-3). Design Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting Three 10-bed ICUs (2 medical; 1 surgical) at an academic medical center in the U.S. Patients Sixty-eight mechanically ventilated patients with subsyndromal delirium without complicating neurologic conditions, cardiac surgery or requiring deep sedation. Interventions Patients were randomly assigned to receive intravenous haloperidol 1 mg or placebo every six hours until either delirium (ICDSC ≥ 4 with psychiatric confirmation), therapy ≥ 10 days or ICU discharge occurred. Measurements and Main Results Baseline characteristics were similar between the haloperidol (n=34) and placebo (n=34) groups. A similar number of patients given haloperidol [12/34 (35%)] and placebo [8/34 (23%)] patients developed delirium (p=0.29). Haloperidol use reduced the hours per study day spent agitated (SAS ≥ 5) (p=0.008), but did not influence the proportion of 12-hour ICU shifts patients’ spent alive without coma (SAS ≤ 2) or delirium (p=0.36), the time to first delirium occurrence (p=0.22) nor delirium duration (p=0.26). Days of mechanical ventilation (p=0.80), ICU mortality (p=0.55) and ICU patient disposition (p=0.22) were similar in the two groups. The proportion of patients who developed QTc-interval prolongation (p=0.16), extrapyramidal symptoms (p=0.31), excessive sedation (p=0.31) or new-onset hypotension (p=1.0) that resulted in study drug discontinuation was comparable between the two groups. Conclusions Low-dose scheduled haloperidol, initiated early in the ICU stay, does not prevent delirium and has little therapeutic advantage in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adults with subsyndromal delirium. PMID:26540397

  14. A DOUBLE-BLIND, RANDOMIZED, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED, FIXED-DOSE PHASE III STUDY OF VILAZODONE IN PATIENTS WITH GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Gommoll, Carl; Durgam, Suresh; Mathews, Maju; Forero, Giovanna; Nunez, Rene; Tang, Xiongwen; Thase, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Background Vilazodone, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, is approved for treating major depressive disorder in adults. This study (NCT01629966 ClinicalTrials.gov) evaluated the efficacy and safety of vilazodone in adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods A multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study in patients with GAD randomized (1:1:1) to placebo (n = 223), or vilazodone 20 mg/day (n = 230) or 40 mg/day (n = 227). Primary and secondary efficacy parameters were total score change from baseline to week 8 on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAMA) and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), respectively, analyzed using a predefined mixed-effect model for repeated measures (MMRM). Safety outcomes were presented by descriptive statistics. Results The least squares mean difference (95% confidence interval) in HAMA total score change from baseline (MMRM) was statistically significant for vilazodone 40 mg/day versus placebo (–1.80 [–3.26, –0.34]; P = .0312 [adjusted for multiple comparisons]), but not for vilazodone 20 mg/day versus placebo. Mean change from baseline in SDS total score was not significantly different for either dose of vilazodone versus placebo when adjusted for multiplicity; significant improvement versus placebo was noted for vilazodone 40 mg/day without adjustment for multiplicity (P = .0349). The incidence of adverse events was similar for vilazodone 20 and 40 mg/day (∼71%) and slightly lower for placebo (62%). Nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, vomiting, and fatigue were reported in ≥5% of patients in either vilazodone group and at least twice the rate of placebo. Conclusions Vilazodone was effective in treating anxiety symptoms of GAD. No new safety concerns were identified. PMID:25891440

  15. Effects of protease-treated royal jelly on muscle strength in elderly nursing home residents: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ge; Wang, Honglei; Pei, Yinghua; Li, Yanmei; Wu, Hongmei; Song, Yanqi; Guo, Qi; Guo, Hui; Fukushima, Shinobu; Tatefuji, Tomoki; Wang, Jiazhong; Du, Huanmin; Su, Qian; Zhang, Wen; Shen, Suxing; Wang, Xiuyang; Dong, Renwei; Han, Peipei; Okazaki, Tatsuma; Nagatomi, Ryoichi; Wang, Jianhua; Huang, Guowei; Sun, Zhong; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2017-09-12

    Although we have found that protease-treated royal jelly (pRJ) benefit for the skeletal muscle mass and strength in the aged animals, the potential beneficial effects have not been evaluated in humans. The aim of this study was to determine whether pRJ intake had beneficial effects on muscle strength in elderly nursing home residents. One hundred and ninety-four subjects enrolled into this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Subjects received either placebo(Group 1), pRJ 1.2 g/d(Group 2), or 4.8 g/d(Group 3). Data through 1 year are reported for 163 subjects. The primary outcome measure is handgrip strength. Secondary outcomes include several physical performance tests (six-minute walk test, timed up and go test, and standing on one leg with eyes closed). The dropout rate was 16.0%. The means (95% confidence interval) of change in handgrip strength for placebo, low-dose, and high-dose groups are -0.98(-2.04,0.08), 0.50(-0.65,1.65) and 1.03(-0.37,2.44) kg (P = 0.06, P for trend = 0.02), respectively. No significant effects of the interventions were observed for physical performances. These findings suggest that pRJ treatment might not improve, but rather attenuate the progression of decrease in muscle strength in elderly people. In addition, we have not found that pRJ intervention can achieve improvement or attenuating the decrease in physical performance.

  16. Dose escalation pharmacokinetics of intranasal scopolamine gel formulation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Boyd, Jason L; Daniels, Vernie; Wang, Zuwei; Chow, Diana S-L; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2015-02-01

    Astronauts experience Space Motion Sickness requiring treatment with an anti-motion sickness medication, scopolamine during space missions. Bioavailability after oral administration of scopolamine is low and variable, and absorption form transdermal patch is slow and prolonged. Intranasal administration achieves faster absorption and higher bioavailability of drugs that are subject to extrahepatic, first pass metabolism after oral dosing. We examined pharmacokinetics of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg doses of the Investigational New Drug formulation of intranasal scopolamine gel (INSCOP) in 12 healthy subjects using a randomized, double-blind cross-over study design. Subjects received one squirt of 0.1 g of gel containing either 0.1 mg or 0.2 mg/0.1 mL scopolamine or placebo in each nostril. Serial blood samples and total urine voids were collected after dosing and drug concentrations were determined using a modified LC-MS-MS method. Results indicate dose-linear pharmacokinetics of scopolamine with linear increases in Cmax and AUC within the dose range tested. Plasma drug concentrations were significantly lower in females than in males after administration of 0.4 dose. All three doses were well tolerated with no unexpected or serious adverse side effects reported. These results suggest that intranasal scopolamine gel formulation (INSCOP) offers a fast, reliable, and safe alternative for the treatment of motion sickness.

  17. Famotidine for the prevention of peptic ulcers and oesophagitis in patients taking low-dose aspirin (FAMOUS): a phase III, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Taha, Ali S; McCloskey, Caroline; Prasad, Rakesh; Bezlyak, Vladimir

    2009-07-11

    There are few therapeutic options for the prevention of gastrointestinal mucosal damage caused by low-dose aspirin. We therefore investigated the efficacy of famotidine, a well-tolerated histamine H(2)-receptor antagonist, in the prevention of peptic ulcers and erosive oesophagitis in patients receiving low-dose aspirin for vascular protection. Adult patients (aged >/=18 years) from the cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and diabetes clinics at Crosshouse Hospital, Kilmarnock, UK, were eligible for enrolment in this phase III, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial if they were taking aspirin 75-325 mg per day with or without other cardioprotective drugs. Patients without ulcers or erosive oesophagitis on endoscopy at baseline were randomly assigned by computer-generated randomisation sequence to receive famotidine 20 mg twice daily (n=204) or placebo twice daily (n=200). Patients had a final endoscopic examination at 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the development of new ulcers in the stomach or duodenum or erosive oesophagitis at 12 weeks after randomisation. Analysis was by intention to treat, including all randomised patients who received at least one dose of study drug (famotidine or placebo). This trial is registered as an International Standard Randomised Clinical Trial, number ISRCTN96975557. All randomised patients received at least one dose and were included in the ITT population. 82 patients (famotidine, n=33; placebo, n=49) did not have the final endoscopic examination and were assumed to have had normal findings; the main reason for participant withdrawal was refusal to continue. At 12 weeks, comparing patients assigned to famotidine with patients assigned to placebo, gastric ulcers had developed in seven (3.4%) of 204 patients compared with 30 (15.0%) of 200 patients (odds ratio [OR] 0.20, 95% CI 0.09-0.47; p=0.0002); duodenal ulcers had developed in one (0.5%) patient compared with 17 (8.5%; OR 0.05, 0.01-0.40; p=0.0045); and erosive

  18. Efficacy of single-dose, extended-release naproxen sodium 660 mg in postsurgical dental pain: two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Laurora, Irene; An, Robert

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a novel formulation of extended-release/immediate-release (ER) naproxen sodium over 24 h in a dental pain model. Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in moderate to severe pain after extraction of one or two impacted third molars (at least one partial mandibular bony impaction). Treatment comprised oral ER naproxen sodium 660 mg (single dose), placebo (both studies) or immediate-release (IR) naproxen sodium 220 mg tid (study 2). Primary efficacy endpoint: 24-h summed pain intensity difference (SPID). Secondary variables included total pain relief (TOTPAR), use of rescue medication. All treatment-emergent adverse events were recorded. NCT00720057 (study 1), NCT01389284 (study 2). Primary efficacy analyses: pain intensity was significantly lower over 24 h with ER naproxen sodium vs. placebo (p < 0.001), with significant relief from 15 min (study 2). In study 2, ER naproxen sodium was non-inferior to IR naproxen sodium, reducing pain intensity to a comparable extent over 24 h. TOTPAR was significantly greater with ER and IR naproxen sodium vs. placebo at all time points, with generally comparable differences between active treatments. Significantly more placebo patients required rescue medication vs. ER and IR naproxen sodium from 2-24 h post-dose. Once daily ER naproxen sodium was generally safe and well tolerated, with a similar safety profile to IR naproxen sodium tid. The studies were single dose, with limited ability to assess efficacy or safety of multiple doses over time. As the imputed pain score meant that estimated treatment differences may have been biased in favor of ER naproxen sodium, a post hoc analysis evaluated the robustness of the results for pain relief. A single dose of ER naproxen sodium 660 mg significantly reduced moderate to severe dental pain vs. placebo and was comparable to IR naproxen sodium 220 mg tid. Significant pain relief was experienced from 15 min and sustained

  19. Esophageal Cancer Dose Escalation Using a Simultaneous Integrated Boost Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, James; Palmer, Matthew B.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Liao Zhongxing; Swisher, Steven G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Allen, Pamela K.; Settle, Steven H.; Gomez, Daniel; Likhacheva, Anna; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We previously showed that 75% of radiation therapy (RT) failures in patients with unresectable esophageal cancer are in the gross tumor volume (GTV). We performed a planning study to evaluate if a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique could selectively deliver a boost dose of radiation to the GTV in patients with esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using four different approaches (two-dimensional conformal radiotherapy [2D-CRT] to 50.4 Gy, 2D-CRT to 64.8 Gy, intensity-modulated RT [IMRT] to 50.4 Gy, and SIB-IMRT to 64.8 Gy) and optimized for 10 patients with distal esophageal cancer. All plans were constructed to deliver the target dose in 28 fractions using heterogeneity corrections. Isodose distributions were evaluated for target coverage and normal tissue exposure. Results: The 50.4 Gy IMRT plan was associated with significant reductions in mean cardiac, pulmonary, and hepatic doses relative to the 50.4 Gy 2D-CRT plan. The 64.8 Gy SIB-IMRT plan produced a 28% increase in GTV dose and comparable normal tissue doses as the 50.4 Gy IMRT plan; compared with the 50.4 Gy 2D-CRT plan, the 64.8 Gy SIB-IMRT produced significant dose reductions to all critical structures (heart, lung, liver, and spinal cord). Conclusions: The use of SIB-IMRT allowed us to selectively increase the dose to the GTV, the area at highest risk of failure, while simultaneously reducing the dose to the normal heart, lung, and liver. Clinical implications warrant systematic evaluation.

  20. Safety and efficacy of flexible-dose fesoterodine in British subjects with overactive bladder: insights into factors associated with dose escalation.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Linda; Hall, Timothy; Ryan, John; Ebel Bitoun, Caty; Kausar, Imran; Darekar, Amanda; Wagg, Adrian

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of flexible-dose fesoterodine and factors associated with dose escalation in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB). In this 12-week, open-label study, 331 adults with OAB symptoms for ≥3 months, ≥8 micturitions and ≥3 urgency episodes per 24 h and who reported at least "some moderate" bladder-related problems were treated with fesoterodine 4 mg once daily for 4 weeks, with the option to escalate to 8 mg for the remaining 8 weeks based on discussion of efficacy and tolerability with the investigator. Factors influencing dose escalation were identified using stepwise logistic regression. Efficacy was assessed via 3-day bladder diaries and patient-reported outcomes. Of the subjects, 59 % dose escalated at week 4; 93 % of escalators cited insufficient clinical response. The decision to escalate was most often made by the subject (alone or with the investigator). Improvements from baseline were observed in diary and patient-reported outcomes at weeks 4 and 12. Smaller improvements in micturition frequency and worse bladder-related problems at week 4 were significantly associated with increased likelihood of dose escalation; baseline micturition frequency, age, sex, body mass index, antimuscarinic-associated adverse events and OAB symptom duration were not. Non-escalators had greater improvement from baseline to week 4 than escalators; by week 12, improvement was similar among escalators and non-escalators. Fesoterodine was well tolerated. Treatment with flexible-dose fesoterodine improved bladder diary and patient-reported outcomes. Lower clinical response was related to dose escalation; after escalation, response in escalators approached that of non-escalators.

  1. Do equivalent doses of escitalopram and citalopram have similar efficacy? A pooled analysis of two positive placebo-controlled studies in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Lepola, Ulla; Wade, Alan; Andersen, Henning Friis

    2004-05-01

    Escitalopram is the S-enantiomer of citalopram. In this study, we compared the efficacy of equivalent dosages of escitalopram and citalopram in the treatment of moderate to severe major depressive disorder (MDD), based on data from two, pooled, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of escitalopram in which citalopram was the active reference. The primary efficacy parameter was the mean change from baseline in the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score. Significant differences in favour of escitalopram were observed for the MADRS [P<0.05, observed cases (OC)/last observation carried forward (LOCF)] and Clinical Global Improvement-Severity of Illness scores (CGI-S; P<0.05, OC/LOCF). Escitalopram separated from placebo at week 1 on the primary efficacy parameter, whereas citalopram first separated from placebo at week 6. An analysis of time to response showed that escitalopram-treated patients responded significantly faster to treatment than citalopram-treated patients (P<0.01). More patients responded to and achieved remission with escitalopram than to citalopram (P<0.05, OC). The HAMD scale was only used in the fixed-dose study, where escitalopram-treated patients had a significant reduction in HAMD-17 total score at week 8 compared to citalopram-treated patients (P<0.05, OC/LOCF). In the pooled subpopulation of severely ill patients (MADRS> or = 30), escitalopram-treated patients showed greater improvement than citalopram-treated patients (P<0.05, LOCF/OC). Escitalopram showed consistently superior efficacy compared to citalopram in the treatment of moderate to severe MDD on all efficacy parameters, and was similarly well tolerated.

  2. The effect of low-dose naltrexone on quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sharafaddinzadeh, Naser; Moghtaderi, Ali; Kashipazha, Davood; Majdinasab, Nastaran; Shalbafan, Bita

    2010-08-01

    Low-dose naltrexone (LDN) may promote psychological well-being as well as generalized health especially in autoimmune disorders. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of LDN on the Quality of Life (QoL) of patients with relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) using the scales and composite scores of the MSQoL-54 questionnaire. A 17-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, crossover-design clinical trial was conducted in two universities. A total of 96 adult patients aged between 15 and 65 years with relapsing-remitting (RR) or secondary progressive (SP) clinically definite MS with disease duration longer than 6 months enrolled into the study. The primary outcome of the study was comparison of the scores of physical and mental health by conducting independent t-test of the results obtained in the middle and at the end of study between the two groups. Variables including presence of pain, energy, emotional well-being, social, cognitive, and sexual functions, role limitation due to physical and emotional problems, health distress, and overall QoL did not show any meaningful statistically difference between the two groups. Factor analysis revealed that health perception scores were statistically different between the groups before starting, in the middle, and at the end of the study. The study clearly illustrates that LDN is a relatively safe therapeutic option in RRMS and SPMS but its efficacy is under question and probably a long duration trial is needed in the future.

  3. A randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial of a fixed dose of N-acetyl cysteine in children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Dean, Olivia M; Gray, Kylie M; Villagonzalo, Kristi-Ann; Dodd, Seetal; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Vick, Tanya; Tonge, Bruce J; Berk, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Oxidative stress, inflammation and heavy metals have been implicated in the aetiology of autistic disorder. N-acetyl cysteine has been shown to modulate these pathways, providing a rationale to trial N-acetyl cysteine for autistic disorder. There are now two published pilot studies suggesting efficacy, particularly in symptoms of irritability. This study aimed to explore if N-acetyl cysteine is a useful treatment for autistic disorder. This was a placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial of 500 mg/day oral N-acetyl cysteine over 6 months, in addition to treatment as usual, in children with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision diagnosis of autistic disorder. The study was conducted in Victoria, Australia. The primary outcome measures were the Social Responsiveness Scale, Children's Communication Checklist-Second Edition and the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised. Additionally, demographic data, the parent-completed Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Social Communication Questionnaire and clinician-administered Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule were completed. A total of 102 children were randomised into the study, and 98 (79 male, 19 female; age range: 3.1-9.9 years) attended the baseline appointment with their parent/guardian, forming the Intention to Treat sample. There were no differences between N-acetyl cysteine and placebo-treated groups on any of the outcome measures for either primary or secondary endpoints. There was no significant difference in the number and severity of adverse events between groups. This study failed to demonstrate any benefit of adjunctive N-acetyl cysteine in treating autistic disorder. While this may reflect a true null result, methodological issues particularly the lower dose utilised in this study may be confounders.

  4. Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges in children with alleged cow’s milk allergy: prevention of unnecessary elimination diets and determination of eliciting doses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Children with cow’s milk allergy (CMA) need a cow’s milk protein (CMP) free diet to prevent allergic reactions. For this, reliable allergy-information on the label of food products is essential to avoid products containing the allergen. On the other hand, both overzealous labeling and misdiagnosis that result in unnecessary elimination diets, can lead to potentially hazardous health situations. Our objective was to evaluate if excluding CMA by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) prevents unnecessary elimination diets in the long term. Secondly, to determine the minimum eliciting dose (MED) for an acute allergic reaction to CMP in DBPCFC positive children. Methods All children with suspected CMA under our care (Oct’05 - Jun’09) were prospectively enrolled in a DBPCFC. Placebo and verum feedings were administered on two randomly assigned separate days. The MED was determined by noting the ‘lowest observed adverse effect level’ (LOAEL) in DBPCFC-positive children. Based on the outcomes of the DBPCFC a dietary advice was given. Parents were contacted by phone several months later about the diet of their child. Results 116 children were available for analysis. In 76 children CMA was rejected. In 60 of them CMP was successfully reintroduced, in 2 the parents refused introduction, in another 3 the parents stopped reintroduction. In 9 children CMA symptoms reappeared. In 40 children CMA was confirmed. Infants aged ≤ 12 months in our study group have a higher cumulative distribution of MED than older children. Conclusions Excluding CMA by DBPCFC successfully stopped unnecessary elimination diets in the long term in most children. The MEDs form potential useful information for offering dietary advice to patients and their caretakers. PMID:23394146

  5. Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges in children with alleged cow's milk allergy: prevention of unnecessary elimination diets and determination of eliciting doses.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Wendy M; de Kort, Ellen H M; Blom, W Marty; Houben, Geert F; de Vries, Esther

    2013-02-08

    Children with cow's milk allergy (CMA) need a cow's milk protein (CMP) free diet to prevent allergic reactions. For this, reliable allergy-information on the label of food products is essential to avoid products containing the allergen. On the other hand, both overzealous labeling and misdiagnosis that result in unnecessary elimination diets, can lead to potentially hazardous health situations. Our objective was to evaluate if excluding CMA by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) prevents unnecessary elimination diets in the long term. Secondly, to determine the minimum eliciting dose (MED) for an acute allergic reaction to CMP in DBPCFC positive children. All children with suspected CMA under our care (Oct'05-Jun'09) were prospectively enrolled in a DBPCFC. Placebo and verum feedings were administered on two randomly assigned separate days. The MED was determined by noting the 'lowest observed adverse effect level' (LOAEL) in DBPCFC-positive children. Based on the outcomes of the DBPCFC a dietary advice was given. Parents were contacted by phone several months later about the diet of their child. 116 children were available for analysis. In 76 children CMA was rejected. In 60 of them CMP was successfully reintroduced, in 2 the parents refused introduction, in another 3 the parents stopped reintroduction. In 9 children CMA symptoms reappeared. In 40 children CMA was confirmed. Infants aged ≤ 12 months in our study group have a higher cumulative distribution of MED than older children. Excluding CMA by DBPCFC successfully stopped unnecessary elimination diets in the long term in most children. The MEDs form potential useful information for offering dietary advice to patients and their caretakers.

  6. Randomized, placebo-controlled, pilot study evaluating aprepitant single dose plus palonosetron and dexamethasone for the prevention of acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Herrington, Jon D; Jaskiewicz, Adam D; Song, Juhee

    2008-05-01

    The combination of palonosetron and aprepitant is safe and effective in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced emesis (CIE). The purpose of this pilot study was to ascertain the effectiveness of 1-day versus 3-day aprepitant in the prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting in patients who were receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. This study was institutional review board-approved and informed consent was obtained before this study was begun. This was a pilot, single-institution, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that evaluated 3 different treatment arms. All groups received palonosetron 0.25 mg intravenously on Day 1 and dexamethasone on Days 1-4. Arm A received aprepitant 125 mg orally on Day 1 followed by 80 mg on Days 2-3. Arm B received aprepitant 125 mg orally on Day 1 and placebo on Days 2-3. Arm C received placebos on Days 1-3. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the proportion of patients with acute and delayed emesis within each group. Seventy-five patients were included in the analysis. The study commenced with 3 groups; however, an interim analysis displayed unacceptable emesis events in Arm C, and this group was terminated. There were no significant differences between Arms A and B for emesis, nausea, or the use of breakthrough antiemetics. In Arms A and B, 93% of patients were emesis-free from Days 1-5 compared with only 50% in Arm C. From this pilot study of patients who were receiving palonosetron, aprepitant, and dexamethasone for highly emetogenic chemotherapy, a single dose of aprepitant displayed similar effectiveness compared with 3-day aprepitant.

  7. Naproxen effects on brain response to painful pressure stimulation in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-dose study.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Mónica; Pujol, Jesús; Ali, Zahid; López-Solà, Marina; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Deus, Joan; Ortiz, Héctor; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Llorente-Onaindia, Jone; Monfort, Jordi

    2014-11-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of naproxen, an antiinflammatory analgesic drug, on brain response to painful stimulation on the affected knee in chronic osteoarthritis (OA) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. A sample of 25 patients with knee OA received naproxen (500 mg), placebo, or no treatment in 3 separate sessions in a randomized manner. Pressure stimulation was applied to the medial articular interline of the knee during the fMRI pain sequence. We evaluated subjective pain ratings at every session and their association with brain responses to pain. An fMRI control paradigm was included to discard global brain vascular effects of naproxen. We found brain activation reductions under naproxen compared to no treatment in different cortical and subcortical core pain processing regions (p≤0.001). Compared to placebo, naproxen triggered an attenuation of amygdala activation (p=0.001). Placebo extended its attenuation effects beyond the classical pain processing network (p≤0.001). Subjective pain scores during the fMRI painful task differed between naproxen and no treatment (p=0.037). Activation attenuation under naproxen in different regions (i.e., ventral brain, cingulate gyrus) was accompanied by an improvement in the subjective pain complaints (p≤0.002). Naproxen effectively reduces pain-related brain responses involving different regions and the attenuation is related to subjective pain changes. Our current work yields further support to the utility of fMRI to objectify the acute analgesic effects of a single naproxen dose in patients affected by knee OA. The trial was registered at the EuropeanClinicalTrials Database, "EudraCT Number 2008-004501-33".

  8. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effect of repeated oral doses of pazopanib on cardiac conduction in patients with solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Heath, Elisabeth I; Infante, Jeffrey; Lewis, Lionel D; Luu, Thehang; Stephenson, Joe; Tan, Antoinette R; Kasubhai, Saifuddin; LoRusso, Patricia; Ma, Bo; Suttle, A Benjamin; Kleha, Joseph F; Ball, Howard A; Dar, Mohammed M

    2013-03-01

    As tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been associated with cardiotoxicity, we evaluated the effect of pazopanib, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and c-Kit, on electrocardiographic parameters in patients with cancer. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study randomized patients (N = 96) to moxifloxacin (positive control) or placebo on Day 1 followed by pazopanib or placebo 800 mg/day (fasted) on Days 2-8 and 1,600 mg (with food) on Day 9. Treatment effects were evaluated by baseline-adjusted, time-matched, serial Holter electrocardiograms. Sixty-five patients were evaluable for preplanned analyses. On Day 1, the maximum mean difference in baseline-adjusted, time-matched Fridericia-corrected QT (QTcF) interval in moxifloxacin-treated patients versus placebo was 10.6 ms (90% confidence interval [CI]: 4.2, 17.0). The administration scheme increased plasma pazopanib concentrations approximately 1.3- to 1.4-fold versus the recommended 800 mg once-daily dose. Pazopanib caused clinically significant increases from baseline in blood pressure, an anticipated class effect, and an unexpected reduction in heart rate from baseline that correlated with pazopanib exposure. On Day 9, the maximum mean difference in baseline-adjusted, time-matched QTcF interval in pazopanib-treated patients versus placebo was 4.4 ms (90% CI: -2.4, 11.2). Mixed-effects modeling indicated no significant concentration-dependent effect of pazopanib or its metabolites on QTcF interval. Pazopanib as administered in this study achieved supratherapeutic concentrations, produced a concentration-dependent decrease in heart rate, and caused a small, concentration-independent prolongation of the QTcF interval.

  9. Positron Emission Tomography for Pre-Clinical Sub-Volume Dose Escalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, Christopher Paul

    Purpose: This dissertation focuses on establishment of pre-clinical methods facilitating the use of PET imaging for selective sub-volume dose escalation. Specifically the problems addressed are 1.) The difficulties associated with comparing multiple PET images, 2.) The need for further validation of novel PET tracers before their implementation in dose escalation schema and 3.) The lack of concrete pre-clinical data supporting the use of PET images for guidance of selective sub-volume dose escalations. Methods and materials: In order to compare multiple PET images the confounding effects of mispositioning and anatomical change between imaging sessions needed to be alleviated. To mitigate the effects of these sources of error, deformable image registration was employed. A deformable registration algorithm was selected and the registration error was evaluated via the introduction of external fiducials to the tumor. Once a method for image registration was established, a procedure for validating the use of novel PET tracers with FDG was developed. Nude mice were used to perform in-vivo comparisons of the spatial distributions of two PET tracers, FDG and FLT. The spatial distributions were also compared across two separate tumor lines to determine the effects of tumor morphology on spatial distribution. Finally, the research establishes a method for acquiring pre-clinical data supporting the use of PET for image-guidance in selective dose escalation. Nude mice were imaged using only FDG PET/CT and the resulting images were used to plan PET-guided dose escalations to a 5 mm sub-volume within the tumor that contained the highest PET tracer uptake. These plans were then delivered using the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) and the efficacy of the PET-guided plans was observed. Results and Conclusions: The analysis of deformable registration algorithms revealed that the BRAINSFit B-spline deformable registration algorithm available in SLICER3D was capable of

  10. A phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose study of levomilnacipran extended-release in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Sambunaris, Angelo; Bose, Anjana; Gommoll, Carl P; Chen, Changzheng; Greenberg, William M; Sheehan, David V

    2014-02-01

    Levomilnacipran (1S, 2R-milnacipran) is a potent and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor; an extended-release (ER) formulation allows for once-daily dosing. This phase III study (NCT01034462) evaluated the efficacy, the safety, and the tolerability of 40 to 120 mg/d of levomilnacipran ER versus placebo in the treatment of patients (18-80 y) with major depressive disorder. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, flexible-dose study comprised a 1-week single-blind, placebo run-in period; an 8-week double-blind treatment; and a 2-week double-blind down-taper period. The primary efficacy parameter was total score change from baseline to week 8 on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); the secondary efficacy was the Sheehan Disability Scale. Analysis was performed using the mixed-effects model for repeated measures on a modified intent-to-treat population. A total of 434 patients received at least 1 dose of double-blind treatment (safety population); 429 patients also had 1 or more postbaseline MADRS assessments (modified intent-to-treat population). The least squares mean differences and 95% confidence interval were statistically significant in favor of levomilnacipran ER versus placebo for the MADRS total score (-3.095 [-5.256, -0.935]; P = 0.0051) and the SDS total score (-2.632 [-4.193, -1.070]; P = 0.0010) change from baseline to week 8. Adverse events were reported in 61.8% of the placebo patients and in 81.6% of the levomilnacipran ER patients. Frequently reported adverse events (≥ 5% in levomilnacipran ER and twice the rate of placebo) were nausea, dizziness, constipation, tachycardia, urinary hesitation, hyperhidrosis, insomnia, vomiting, hypertension, and ejaculation disorder. In conclusion, there was a statistically significant difference in the score change from baseline to week 8 between levomilnacipran ER and placebo on several depression rating scales, reflecting symptomatic

  11. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Single-Dose, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter, Polysomnographic Study of Gabapentin in Transient Insomnia Induced by Sleep Phase Advance

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Russell P.; Hull, Steven G.; Lankford, D. Alan; Mayleben, David W.; Seiden, David J.; Furey, Sandy A.; Jayawardena, Shyamalie; Roth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the effects of single doses of gabapentin 250 and 500 mg on polysomnographic (PSG) and participant-reported sleep measures in a 5-h phase advance insomnia model. Methods: Adults reporting occasional disturbed sleep received gabapentin 500 mg (n = 125), 250 mg (n = 125), or placebo (n = 127) 30 min prior to bedtime and were in bed from 17:00 to 01:00, ∼5 h before their habitual bedtime. Sleep was assessed by PSG, post-sleep questionnaire, and the Karolinska Sleep Diary (KSD). Next-day residual effects (Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST] and Stanford Sleepiness Scale [SSS]) and tolerability were assessed. Results: Demographics were comparable among groups. Among PSG endpoints, wake after sleep onset (primary endpoint) (135.7 [placebo], 100.7 [250 mg], and 73.2 [500 mg] min) was significantly lower and total sleep time (TST) (311.4, 356.5, and 378.7 min) significantly greater in both gabapentin groups versus placebo. Latency to persistent sleep was not significantly different among groups. Percent slow wave sleep (12.6%, 15.4%, and 17.0%, respectively) was significantly greater and percent stage 1 (15.1%, 11.8%, and 10.8%, respectively) significantly lower relative to placebo. Gabapentin was associated with significantly higher values of KSD Sleep Quality Index and reported TST versus placebo; no other reported outcomes were significant. Neither gabapentin dose produced evidence of next-day residual effects as measured by DSST and SSS. Adverse events were infrequent (< 5%). Conclusion: Participants with occasional disturbed sleep treated with gabapentin showed significantly longer sleep duration and greater depth (versus placebo) in response to a phase advance manipulation known to disrupt sleep maintenance. Citation: Rosenberg RP, Hull SG, Lankford DA, Mayleben DW, Seiden DJ, Furey SA, Jayawardena S, Roth T. A randomized, double-blind, single-dose, placebo-controlled, multicenter, polysomnographic study of gabapentin in transient

  12. Efficacy and safety of low- and high-dose cariprazine in acute and mixed mania associated with bipolar I disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Joseph R; Keck, Paul E; Starace, Anju; Lu, Kaifeng; Ruth, Adam; Laszlovszky, István; Németh, György; Durgam, Suresh

    2015-03-01

    This phase 3 trial evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of low- and high-dose cariprazine in patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for acute manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, fixed/flexible-dose study was conducted from February 2010 to December 2011. Patients were randomly assigned to placebo, cariprazine 3-6 mg/d, or cariprazine 6-12 mg/d for 3 weeks of double-blind treatment. Primary and secondary efficacy parameters were change from baseline to week 3 in Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness (CGI-S) score, respectively. Post hoc analysis examined change from baseline to week 3 in YMRS single items. A total of 497 patients were randomized; 74% completed the study. The least squares mean difference (LSMD) for change from baseline to week 3 in YMRS total score was statistically significant in favor of both cariprazine groups versus placebo (LSMD [95% CI]: 3-6 mg/d, -6.1 [-8.4 to -3.8]; 6-12 mg/d, -5.9 [-8.2, -3.6]; P < .001 [both]). Both cariprazine treatment groups showed statistically significant superiority to placebo on all 11 YMRS single items (all comparisons, P < .05). Change from baseline in CGI-S scores was statistically significantly greater in both cariprazine groups compared with placebo (LSMD [95% CI]: 3-6 mg/d, -0.6 [-0.9 to -0.4]; 6-12 mg/d, -0.6 [-0.9 to -0.3]; P < .001 [both]). The most common (≥ 5% and twice the rate of placebo) treatment-related adverse events for cariprazine were akathisia (both groups) and nausea, constipation, and tremor (6-12 mg/d only). Results of this study demonstrated that both low- and high-dose cariprazine were more effective than placebo in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. Cariprazine was generally well tolerated, although the incidence of akathisia was greater with cariprazine than with placebo

  13. Prostate Dose Escalation by Innovative Inverse Planning-Driven IMRT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    capable of obtaining low-dose, high-resolution radiography, fluoroscopy and CBCT. The system is mounted on the treatment machine via robotically controlled...motion assessed with cine -magnetic resonance imaging ( cine -MRI)," Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 62, 406-417 (2005). 9 R. Mohan, X. Zhang, H. Wang, Y...institutions). Fast cine MRI is also becoming increasingly available and may offer physicians an alternative for imaging the temporal 3 process of

  14. Studying the efficacy of escalated dose conformal radiation therapy in prostate carcinoma - Pakistan experience.

    PubMed

    Zamir, Asad; Farooq, Ahmad; Nisar, Hasan; Fatima, Ismat; Khan, Irfan Ullah; Masood, Misbah; Shahid, Abubaker

    2017-09-14

    Our objective in this study was to evaluate the role and benefits in terms of local toxicity and biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) following escalated-dose conformal radiation therapy in prostate adenocarcinoma. The study population was composed of 53 patients with histologically proven T1b-T4, NO, MO prostate adenocarcinoma, having any Gleason score with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of less than 50 ng/mL at diagnosis, given escalated dose EBRT (74 Gy) during the period between January 2011 and December 2013, retrospectively and evaluated for a period of 2 years post-radiation. Patients were followed up for a period of 2 years, beginning after completion of escalated dose external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for biochemical failure as defined in ASTRO consensus committee guidelines 1996 and investigated for gastrointestinal, genitourinary skin toxicity. Out of 53 patients, 35 showed no biochemical failure at the end of 2 years following the completion of definitive escalated dose conformal radiotherapy while 18 were observed to have biochemical relapse. Acute gastrointestinal grade 1 toxicity was found in 26 patients, grade 2 in 24, and grade 3 only in 3 patients. Late gastrointestinal grade 0 toxicity was found in 16 patients, grade 1 in 28, grade 2 in 7 and grade 3 only in 2 patients. Grade 1 acute genitourinary toxicity was the highest in frequency observed in 28 of the total population followed by grade 2 in 21, grade 0 and grade 3 each, only in 2 patients. Late genitourinary Grade 0 toxicity was observed in 32 patients, grade 1 in 19, grade 2 and 3 only in 1 patient of the total population, respectively. Our data were comparable to international studies of dose escalation using 3D and beneficial as compared to conventional radiation therapy delivered by 2D in terms of biochemical failure rate and treatment related toxicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  15. Safety and pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin dry powder for inhalation in cystic fibrosis: a phase I, randomized, single-dose, dose-escalation study.

    PubMed

    Stass, Heino; Delesen, Heinz; Nagelschmitz, Johannes; Staab, Doris

    2015-04-01

    Reliable, reproducible deposition to the lung is a major prerequisite for the clinical use of inhaled drugs. Ciprofloxacin dry powder for inhalation (ciprofloxacin DPI; Bayer HealthCare AG, Leverkusen, Germany) is an antibacterial therapy in development using Novartis' PulmoSphere™ technology (Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland) for the targeted delivery of ciprofloxacin to the lung via a T-326 inhaler. This randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study investigated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of single-dose ciprofloxacin DPI (32.5 mg [n=6] or 65 mg [n=6]) and matching placebo (n=4) in adult patients with cystic fibrosis and stable pulmonary status (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec ≥30%) who were colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Peak sputum concentrations of 34.9 mg/L (range 2.03-229) and 376 mg/L (8.95-1283) for ciprofloxacin 32.5 mg and 65 mg, respectively, indicated targeting of ciprofloxacin DPI to the lung. This contrasted with low systemic exposure (peak plasma concentrations: 0.0790 mg/L [32.5 mg] and 0.182 mg/L [65 mg]). Single-dose ciprofloxacin DPI 32.5 mg or 65 mg was well tolerated with similar incidences of adverse events across all groups. No deaths, discontinuations, treatment-related serious adverse events, or clinically relevant changes in laboratory parameters, vital signs, or lung function tests were reported. Lung targeting with high pulmonary concentrations of ciprofloxacin combined with low systemic exposure was confirmed. These results support further study of ciprofloxacin DPI as a potentially more convenient alternative to nebulized antibiotic solutions for managing chronic lung infections.

  16. The effect of a slower than standard dose escalation scheme for dipyridamole on headaches in secondary prevention therapy of strokes: a randomized, open-label trial (DOSE).

    PubMed

    de Vos-Koppelaar, N C Martine; Kerkhoff, Henk; de Vogel, Ed M; Zock, Elles; Dieleman, Hetty G

    2014-01-01

    Combination therapy with acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole is first-line treatment in secondary prevention of strokes. Approximately 40% of patients report headache as a side effect of dipyridamole. Dose escalation of dipyridamole reduces this side effect. In practice, different dose escalation schemes are used. In theory, slower dose escalation than a standard scheme reduces headaches even more. This study aimed to find the best dose escalation scheme for prevention of headaches as a side effect of dipyridamole in the secondary prevention of strokes. In this randomized, open-label, 4-week trial, 114 patients who had an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were randomized to receive either a standard or slow dose escalation scheme of dipyridamole. Participants were asked to report the four most common side effects of dipyridamole in a study diary on study days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28. They were asked to score headache intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS). Participants were unaware that the trial was focused on headaches. Primary end point was to determine if a slow dose escalation scheme reduces the percentage of patients with headaches. Secondary objective was to determine the number of patients who discontinued treatment with dipyridamole because of headaches. Overall 37 patients (38%) of the final population reported headache, 19 (39%) in the standard dose escalation group and 18 (37%) in the slow dose escalation group (p = 1.0). In the standard dose escalation group patients scored headaches (VAS >4) on an average of 3.3 days and patients in the slow dose escalation group on 3.6 days (p = 0.82). Mean VAS scores on study days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 ranged from 1.4 to 3.7 in both groups. These scores did not differ significantly. However, on day 28 patients scored a significantly lower mean VAS score in the standard dose escalation group than in the slow dose escalation group (2.5 vs. 4.8; p = 0.05). In the standard dose escalation group 6

  17. Multi-modality functional image guided dose escalation in the presence of uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Alber, Markus; Thorwarth, Daniela

    2014-06-01

    In order to increase local tumour control by radiotherapy without increasing toxicity, it appears promising to harness functional imaging (FI) to guide dose to sub-volumes of the target with a high tumour load and perhaps de-escalate dose to low risk volumes, in order to maximise the efficiency of the deposited radiation dose. A number of problems have to be solved to make focal dose escalation (FDE) efficient and safe: (1) how to combine ambiguous information from multiple imaging modalities; (2) how to take into account uncertainties of FI based tissue classification; (3) how to account for geometric uncertainties in treatment delivery; (4) how to add complementary FI modalities to an existing scheme. A generic optimisation concept addresses these points and is explicitly designed for clinical efficacy and for lowering the implementation threshold to FI-guided FDE. It combines classic tumour control probability modelling with a multi-variate logistic regression model of FI accuracy and an uncomplicated robust optimisation method. Its key elements are (1) that dose is deposited optimally when it achieves equivalent expected effect everywhere in the target volume and (2) that one needs to cap the certainty about the absence of tumour anywhere in the target region. For illustration, an example of a PET/MR-guided FDE in prostate cancer is given. FDE can be safeguarded against FI uncertainties, at the price of a limit on the sensible dose escalation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The Impact of Dose Escalation on Secondary Cancer Risk After Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Uwe . E-mail: uwe.schneider@psi.ch; Lomax, Antony; Besserer, Juergen; Pemler, Peter; Lombriser, Norbert; Kaser-Hotz, Barbara D.V.M.

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: To estimate secondary cancer risk due to dose escalation in patients treated for prostatic carcinoma with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated RT (IMRT), and spot-scanned proton RT. Methods and Materials: The organ equivalent dose (OED) concept with a linear-exponential, a plateau, and a linear dose-response curve was applied to dose distributions of 23 patients who received RT of prostate cancer. Conformal RT was used in 7 patients, 8 patients received IMRT with 6- and 15-MV photons, and 8 patients were treated with spot-scanned protons. We applied target doses ranging from 70 Gy to 100 Gy. Cancer risk was estimated as a function of target dose and tumor control probability. Results: At a 100-Gy target dose the secondary cancer risk relative to the 3D treatment plan at 70 Gy was +18.4% (15.0% for a plateau model, 22.3% for a linear model) for the 6-MV IMRT plan, +25.3% (17.0%, 14.1%) for the 15-MV IMRT plan, and -40.7% (-41.3%, -40.0%) for the spot-scanned protons. The increasing risk of developing a radiation-associated malignancy after RT with increasing dose was balanced by the enhanced cure rates at a larger dose. Conclusions: Cancer risk after dose escalation for prostate RT is expected to be equal to or lower than for conventional 3D treatment at 70 Gy, independent of treatment modality or dose-response model. Spot-scanned protons are the treatment of choice for dose escalation because this therapy can halve the risk of secondary cancers.

  19. Effect of low dose ω-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids on cognitive status among older people: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment is a prevalent health problem in older people and its global prevalence tends to increase parallel to the extended life expectancy in world. The beneficial effect of ω-3 PUFAs on cognitive impairment has been demonstrated in some experimental and cohort studies. In this study we aimed to assess the effect of low dose docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) supplementation on cognitive status in the elderly. Methods In a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study, 199 individuals aged ≥65 years with normal or mild to moderate cognition impairment were assigned to receive either 180 mg of DHA plus 120 mg of EPA or placebo for 180 days. Cognitive status was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT) score. Results MMSE and AMT scores were not different at the time of allocation [18.84 (5.37), 18.55 (5.12), (P = 0.70) and 4.81 (2.79) and 4.64 (2.77), (P = 0.67) respectively] and over 6 months between the ω-3 PUFA- and placebo- treated groups [18.57 (5.21), 18.39 (5.10), (P = 0.80) and 4.64 (2.77) and 4.48 (2.69) and (P = 0.67)]. The participants were categorized based on MMSE score into normal cognition, mild and moderate cognitive impairment. After multivariate adjustment, there was no significant difference among categorized groups regarding the ω-3 PUFA effect except in normal cognition group, that amount of decline in AMT in ω-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was less than placebo group. Conclusions It seems that prescription of low dose ω-3 PUFAs for 6 months had no significant beneficial effects on improvement of cognition or prevention of cognitive decline in older people. PMID:24507770

  20. Efficacy and safety of premedication with single dose of oral pregabalin in children with dental anxiety: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Eskandarian, Tahereh; Eftekharian, Hamidreza; Soleymanzade, Rojin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental anxiety is a relatively frequent problem that can lead to more serious problems such as a child entering a vicious cycle as he/she becomes reluctant to accept the required dental treatments. The aim of this randomized double-blind clinical trial study was to evaluate the anxiolytic and sedative effect of pregabalin in children. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five children were randomized to a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Two visits were scheduled for each patient. At the first visit, 75 mg pregabalin or placebo was given randomly, and the alternative was administered at the next visit. Anxiolytic and sedative effects were measured using the visual analogue scale. The child's behavior was rated with the Frankl behavioral rating scale and the sedation level during the dental procedure was scored using the Ramsay sedation scale. The unpaired, two-tailed Student's t-test was used to compare the mean changes of visual analog scale (VAS) for anxiety in the pregabalin group with that of the placebo group. A repeated measures MANOVA model was used to detect differences in sedation level in the pregabalin and placebo groups regarding the interaction of 3-time measurements; sub-group analysis was performed using Student's t-test. The Mann–Whitney U-test was used to analyze the nonparametric data of the Frankl and Ramsay scales. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The reduction of the VAS-anxiety score from 2 h post-dose was statistically significant in the pregabalin group. From 2 h to 4 h post-dose, the VAS-sedation score increased significantly in the pregabalin group. The child's behavior rating was not significantly different between the groups. The number of “successful” treatment visits was higher in the pregabalin group compared to the placebo group. Conclusion: Significant anxiolytic and sedative effects can be anticipated 2 h after oral administration of pregabalin without serious side effects. PMID

  1. The effect of dose on the safety and immunogenicity of the VSV Ebola candidate vaccine: a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1/2 trial.

    PubMed

    Huttner, Angela; Dayer, Julie-Anne; Yerly, Sabine; Combescure, Christophe; Auderset, Floriane; Desmeules, Jules; Eickmann, Markus; Finckh, Axel; Goncalves, Ana Rita; Hooper, Jay W; Kaya, Gürkan; Krähling, Verena; Kwilas, Steve; Lemaître, Barbara; Matthey, Alain; Silvera, Peter; Becker, Stephan; Fast, Patricia E; Moorthy, Vasee; Kieny, Marie Paule; Kaiser, Laurent; Siegrist, Claire-Anne

    2015-10-01

    Safe and effective vaccines against Ebola could prevent or control outbreaks. The safe use of replication-competent vaccines requires a careful dose-selection process. We report the first safety and immunogenicity results in volunteers receiving 3 × 10(5) plaque-forming units (pfu) of the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based candidate vaccine expressing the Zaire Ebola virus glycoprotein (rVSV-ZEBOV; low-dose vaccinees) compared with 59 volunteers who had received 1 ×10(7) pfu (n=35) or 5 × 10(7) pfu (n=16) of rVSV-ZEBOV (high-dose vaccinees) or placebo (n=8) before a safety-driven study hold. The Geneva rVSV-ZEBOV study, an investigator-initiated phase 1/2, dose-finding, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial conducted at the University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland, enrolled non-pregnant, immunocompetent, and otherwise healthy adults aged 18-65 years. Participants from the low-dose group with no plans to deploy to Ebola-aff5cted regions (non-deployable) were randomised 9:1 in a double-blind fashion using randomly permuted blocks of varying sizes to a single injection of 3 × 10(5) pfu or placebo, whereas deployable participants received single-injection 3 × 10(5) pfu open-label. Primary safety and immunogenicity outcomes were the incidence of adverse events within 14 days of vaccination and day-28 antibody titres, respectively, analysed by intention to treat. After viral oligoarthritis was observed in 11 of the first 51 vaccinees (22%) receiving 10(7) or 5 × 10(7) pfu, 56 participants were given a lower dose (3 × 10(5) pfu, n=51) or placebo (n=5) to assess the effect of dose reduction on safety and immunogenicity. This trial is ongoing with a follow-up period of 12 months; all reported results are from interim databases. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02287480. Between Jan 5 and Jan 26, 2015, 43 non-deployable participants received low-dose rVSV-ZEBOV (3 × 10(5) pfu) or placebo in a

  2. Steepness of the radiation dose-response curve for dose-per-fraction escalation keeping the number of fractions fixed.

    PubMed

    Bentzen, Søren M

    2005-01-01

    Clinically, there is growing interest in strategies for intensifying radiation therapy by escalating the dose per fraction. This paper considers the steepness of the dose-response curve in this case. The steepness of a radiation dose-response curve is most conveniently quantified by the normalized dose-response gradient, gamma. Under the assumption of a linear-quadratic dose-effect model, a simple analytical relationship is derived between the gamma-value for a dose-response curve generated by varying the total dose while keeping the number of fractions constant, i.e. escalating the dose per fraction, and the gamma-value for a dose-response curve generated by varying the total dose while keeping the dose per fraction constant. This formulation is compared with clinical dose-response data from the literature and shown to be in good agreement with the observations. Some implications of this formulation for non-uniform dose distributions delivered using 3D conformal radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) are briefly discussed.

  3. A product of independent beta probabilities dose escalation design for dual-agent phase I trials.

    PubMed

    Mander, Adrian P; Sweeting, Michael J

    2015-04-15

    Dual-agent trials are now increasingly common in oncology research, and many proposed dose-escalation designs are available in the statistical literature. Despite this, the translation from statistical design to practical application is slow, as has been highlighted in single-agent phase I trials, where a 3 + 3 rule-based design is often still used. To expedite this process, new dose-escalation designs need to be not only scientifically beneficial but also easy to understand and implement by clinicians. In this paper, we propose a curve-free (nonparametric) design for a dual-agent trial in which the model parameters are the probabilities of toxicity at each of the dose combinations. We show that it is relatively trivial for a clinician's prior beliefs or historical information to be incorporated in the model and updating is fast and computationally simple through the use of conjugate Bayesian inference. Monotonicity is ensured by considering only a set of monotonic contours for the distribution of the maximum tolerated contour, which defines the dose-escalation decision process. Varied experimentation around the contour is achievable, and multiple dose combinations can be recommended to take forward to phase II. Code for R, Stata and Excel are available for implementation.

  4. Dose-escalation designs in oncology: ADEPT and the CRM.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jianfen; O'Quigley, John

    2008-11-20

    The ADEPT software package is not a statistical method in its own right as implied by Gerke and Siedentop (Statist. Med. 2008; DOI: 10.1002/sim.3037). ADEPT implements two-parameter CRM models as described in O'Quigley et al. (Biometrics 1990; 46(1):33-48). All of the basic ideas (use of a two-parameter logistic model, use of a two-dimensional prior for the unknown slope and intercept parameters, sequential estimation and subsequent patient allocation based on minimization of some loss function, flexibility to use cohorts instead of one by one inclusion) are strictly identical. The only, and quite trivial, difference arises in the setting of the prior. O'Quigley et al. (Biometrics 1990; 46(1):33-48) used priors having an analytic expression whereas Whitehead and Brunier (Statist. Med. 1995; 14:33-48) use pseudo-data to play the role of the prior. The question of interest is whether two-parameter CRM works as well, or better, than the one-parameter CRM recommended in O'Quigley et al. (Biometrics 1990; 46(1):33-48). Gerke and Siedentop argue that it does. The published literature suggests otherwise. The conclusions of Gerke and Siedentop stem from three highly particular, and somewhat contrived, situations. Unlike one-parameter CRM (Biometrika 1996; 83:395-405; J. Statist. Plann. Inference 2006; 136:1765-1780; Biometrika 2005; 92:863-873), no statistical properties appear to have been studied for two-parameter CRM. In particular, for two-parameter CRM, the parameter estimates are inconsistent. This ought to be a source of major concern to those proposing its use. Worse still, for finite samples the behavior of estimates can be quite wild despite having incorporated the kind of dampening priors discussed by Gerke and Siedentop. An example in which we illustrate this behavior describes a single patient included at level 1 of 6 levels and experiencing a dose limiting toxicity. The subsequent recommendation is to experiment at level 6! Such problematic behavior is not

  5. Phase I dose escalation of doxorubicin chemotherapy in tumor-bearing equidae.

    PubMed

    Théon, A P; Pusterla, N; Magdesian, K G; Wilson, W D

    2013-01-01

    There is no information on the use of doxorubicin in horses with tumors. To determine dose-limiting toxicosis (DLT) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of doxorubicin in tumor-bearing horses. Seventeen horses with 34 localized or multicentric advanced tumors. Two-stage dose-ranging design involving intrapatient and interpatient dose escalation. Treatment protocol included 6 treatment cycles given at 3-week intervals with dosages ranging from 40 to 85 mg/m(2). Clinical signs, hematologic, and nonhematologic changes were evaluated. Total doses ranged from 1,127 to 2,900 mg in 12 horses that completed the assigned treatment protocols. The MTD was 75 mg/m(2). Hypersensitivity reactions and neutropenia were dose limiting. Hypersensitivity was dose-dependent but schedule invariant. Neutropenia was dose- and cycle-dependent but dose-escalation schedule invariant. Cardiotoxicity was not observed. The recommended dosage of doxorubicin to treat horses is 70 mg/m(2) given at 3-week intervals as single agent. Adjunctive treatment with antihistamines and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is recommended to control hypersensitivity. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. [Epidural anaesthesia: Simulated intravascular test dose with S(+) ketamine, lidocaine and adrenaline. A prospective, randomized, double blind and placebo controlled study].

    PubMed

    Higueras, R; Errando, C L; Soriano-Bru, J L

    2015-02-01

    The use of a test dose in epidural anaesthesia is a safety recommendation. However specificity and sensitivity of the drugs used with this indication have been not conclusive. The main objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness and the adverse effects of a simulated intravascular test dose of adrenaline, lidocaine and S(+)-ketamine. A prospective, randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled study was designed. ASA I patients scheduled for elective surgery were included. These were randomized to the following study groups: S(+)-ketamine 0.5 mg.kg-1 (S+K group), 5% lidocaine 1.5 mg.kg-1 (L5% group), adrenaline 15μg (ADR group), and physiological saline 3 ml (SF group; control group). An evaluation was made during the first 15 minutes after the study drug was administered. Variables including heart rate (HR) systolic and diastolic blood pressure (sBP and dBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and SpO2 were recorded at 0 min (baseline) and at 2, 5, 8, 10 and 15 minutes after drug injection. An increase of at least 20 beats per minute (bpm) in relation to the baseline measurement was considered a positive result, as was an increase sBP >15 mmHg. The clinical effects described as related to iv injection of the study drugs recorded were: sedation-hypnosis, dizziness, nystagmus, metallic taste perception, perioral or facial paresthesias, tinnitus, as well as any other effect the patients mentioned. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated as was the percent increase in the parameters in order to see if these were clinically useful. A total of 80 patients, 20 per group, were included. The sBP, dBP, and MAP were significantly raised at the 2, 5, 8 and 10 minutes measurements in the S(+)K group compared to the rest of the groups (P<.05), as well as HR in the 2, 5, 8, 10 and 15 minute measurements in the S(+)K compared to the rest of the groups (P<.05). Sensitivity and specificity were high, and significant in the S(+)K group from minute 2 to minute 8

  7. Dose-escalated liver stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) at the mean respiratory position

    PubMed Central

    Velec, Michael; Moseley, Joanne L.; Dawson, Laura A.; Brock, Kristy K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The dosimetric impact of dose-probability based PTV margins for liver cancer patients receiving SBRT was compared to standard PTV based on the internal target volume (ITV). Plan robustness was evaluated by accumulating the treatment dose to ensure delivery of the intended plan. Methods and Materials Twenty patients planned on exhale CT for 27–50 Gy in 6 fractions using an ITV-based PTV and treated free-breathing were retrospectively evaluated. Iso-toxic, dose-escalated plans were created on mid-position CT, representing the mean breathing position, using a dose-probability PTV. The delivered doses were accumulated using biomechanical deformable registration of the daily cone-beam CT based on liver targeting at the exhale or mean breathing position, for the exhale and mid-position CT plans respectively. Results The dose-probability PTVs were on average 38% smaller than the ITV-based PTV enabling an average±standard deviation increase in the planned dose to 95% of the PTV of 4.0±2.8 Gy (9±5%) on the mid-position CT (p<0.01). For both plans, the delivered minimum GTV doses were greater than the planned nominal prescribed dose in all 20 patients and greater than the planned dose to 95% of the PTV in 18 (90%) patients. Nine patients (45%) had one or more GTVs with a delivered minimum dose more than 5 Gy higher with the mid-position CT plan using dose-probability PTV, compared to the delivered dose with the exhale CT plan using ITV-based PTV. Conclusions For iso-toxic liver SBRT planned and delivered at the mean respiratory, reduced dose-probability PTV enables a mean escalation of 4 Gy (9%) in 6 fractions over ITV-based PTV. This may potentially improve local control without increasing the risk of tumor under-dosing. PMID:25035217

  8. Moderate dose escalation with volumetric modulated arc therapy improves outcome in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Stuyck, Cedric; Wegge, Marilyn; Bulens, Philippe; Joye, Ines; Haustermans, Karin

    2017-08-22

    Locally advanced rectal cancer is frequently treated with a long course of preoperative chemoradiotherapy. We investigated the effect of moderate dose escalation with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) up to 50 Gy in 25 fractions compared to 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to 45 Gy in 25 fractions in rectal cancer patients. Dose-volume parameters, acute toxicity, and complete response rates were compared. For both groups, 65 patients were selected from our database through availability. Dose-volume parameters and acute toxicity data were compared using a Mann-Whitney U-test. Univariate and multivariate analyses correcting for tumor and nodal stage, distance to the mesorectal fascia and interval to surgery were used to compare complete response rates. Lower mean doses to the small and large bowel were observed in the VMAT group compared to the 3D-CRT group (21 Gy vs. 29 Gy [p < .001] and 26 Gy vs. 30 Gy [p = .002], respectively). Similar beneficial dose-volume parameters were observed for the bladder, sacrum and femoral heads. Furthermore, patients receiving VMAT experienced significantly less diarrhea, flatulence, non-infective cystitis, urinary frequency, dermatitis, and fatigue. In univariate analysis, a significant increase in complete response rate after moderate dose escalation with VMAT was observed (34% vs. 15%, p = .015). However, this did not remain significant when corrected for tumor and nodal stage, distance to the mesorectal fascia, and interval to surgery. Moderate dose escalation with VMAT resulted in superior dose-volume parameters compared to 3D-CRT, translating into lower acute toxicity. Additionally, improved tumor response after VMAT up to 50 Gy might contribute to a higher percentage of patients achieving a complete response.

  9. Dose Escalated Liver Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy at the Mean Respiratory Position

    SciTech Connect

    Velec, Michael; Moseley, Joanne L.; Dawson, Laura A.; Brock, Kristy K.

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: The dosimetric impact of dose probability based planning target volume (PTV) margins for liver cancer patients receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) was compared with standard PTV based on the internal target volume (ITV). Plan robustness was evaluated by accumulating the treatment dose to ensure delivery of the intended plan. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients planned on exhale CT for 27 to 50 Gy in 6 fractions using an ITV-based PTV and treated free-breathing were retrospectively evaluated. Isotoxic, dose escalated plans were created on midposition computed tomography (CT), representing the mean breathing position, using a dose probability PTV. The delivered doses were accumulated using biomechanical deformable registration of the daily cone beam CT based on liver targeting at the exhale or mean breathing position, for the exhale and midposition CT plans, respectively. Results: The dose probability PTVs were on average 38% smaller than the ITV-based PTV, enabling an average ± standard deviation increase in the planned dose to 95% of the PTV of 4.0 ± 2.8 Gy (9 ± 5%) on the midposition CT (P<.01). For both plans, the delivered minimum gross tumor volume (GTV) doses were greater than the planned nominal prescribed dose in all 20 patients and greater than the planned dose to 95% of the PTV in 18 (90%) patients. Nine patients (45%) had 1 or more GTVs with a delivered minimum dose more than 5 Gy higher with the midposition CT plan using dose probability PTV, compared with the delivered dose with the exhale CT plan using ITV-based PTV. Conclusions: For isotoxic liver SBRT planned and delivered at the mean respiratory, reduced dose probability PTV enables a mean escalation of 4 Gy (9%) in 6 fractions over ITV-based PTV. This may potentially improve local control without increasing the risk of tumor underdosing.

  10. Dose escalated liver stereotactic body radiation therapy at the mean respiratory position.

    PubMed

    Velec, Michael; Moseley, Joanne L; Dawson, Laura A; Brock, Kristy K

    2014-08-01

    The dosimetric impact of dose probability based planning target volume (PTV) margins for liver cancer patients receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) was compared with standard PTV based on the internal target volume (ITV). Plan robustness was evaluated by accumulating the treatment dose to ensure delivery of the intended plan. Twenty patients planned on exhale CT for 27 to 50 Gy in 6 fractions using an ITV-based PTV and treated free-breathing were retrospectively evaluated. Isotoxic, dose escalated plans were created on midposition computed tomography (CT), representing the mean breathing position, using a dose probability PTV. The delivered doses were accumulated using biomechanical deformable registration of the daily cone beam CT based on liver targeting at the exhale or mean breathing position, for the exhale and midposition CT plans, respectively. The dose probability PTVs were on average 38% smaller than the ITV-based PTV, enabling an average ± standard deviation increase in the planned dose to 95% of the PTV of 4.0 ± 2.8 Gy (9 ± 5%) on the midposition CT (P<.01). For both plans, the delivered minimum gross tumor volume (GTV) doses were greater than the planned nominal prescribed dose in all 20 patients and greater than the planned dose to 95% of the PTV in 18 (90%) patients. Nine patients (45%) had 1 or more GTVs with a delivered minimum dose more than 5 Gy higher with the midposition CT plan using dose probability PTV, compared with the delivered dose with the exhale CT plan using ITV-based PTV. For isotoxic liver SBRT planned and delivered at the mean respiratory, reduced dose probability PTV enables a mean escalation of 4 Gy (9%) in 6 fractions over ITV-based PTV. This may potentially improve local control without increasing the risk of tumor underdosing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Escalating doses of donor lymphocytes for incipient graft rejection following SCT for thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Frugnoli, I; Cappelli, B; Chiesa, R; Biral, E; Noè, A; Evangelio, C; Fossati, M; Napolitano, S; Ciceri, F; Roncarolo, M G; Marktel, S

    2010-06-01

    Mixed chimerism (MC) and secondary graft failure are frequent events following SCT for thalassemia. There is limited information regarding the outcome of donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) to prevent rejection, mainly from case reports describing only successful cases. We describe a series of seven children affected by beta-thalassemia treated with escalating doses of DLI for level 2-3 MC (donor<90%) following myeloablative SCT from a matched family donor. The infusions were safe and no acute or chronic GVHD were documented; five patients experienced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia resolving spontaneously. DLI was successful in converting to full donor chimerism two patients stratified in the low-risk class (Pesaro class II). Conversely, for five high-risk patients, DLI was not effective in preventing secondary graft failure. This limited series suggests that escalating doses of DLI are safe in thalassemia patients post myeloablative therapy but efficacy may be jeopardized by rapidly growing anti-donor alloimmunity in high-risk patients. We suggest giving escalating doses of donor T cells to attempt a graft-versus-thalassemia as soon as level 2-3 MC is detected.

  12. Successful Within-patient Dose Escalation of Olipudase Alfa in Acid Sphingomyelinase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wasserstein, Melissa P.; Jones, Simon A.; Soran, Handrean; Diaz, George A.; Lippa, Natalie; Thurberg, Beth L.; Culm-Merdek, Kerry; Shamiyeh, Elias; Inguilizian, Haig; Cox, Gerald F.; Puga, Ana Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Background Olipudase alfa, a recombinant human acid sphingomyelinase (rhASM), is an investigational enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for patients with ASM deficiency [ASMD; Niemann-Pick Disease (NPD) A and B]. This open-label phase 1b study assessed the safety and tolerability of olipudase alfa using within-patient dose escalation to gradually debulk accumulated sphingomyelin and mitigate the rapid production of metabolites, which can be toxic. Secondary objectives were pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and exploratory efficacy. Methods Five adults with nonneuronopathic ASMD (NPD B) received escalating doses (0.1 to 3.0 mg/kg) of olipudase alfa intravenously every 2 weeks for 26 weeks. Results All patients successfully reached 3.0 mg/kg without serious or severe adverse events. One patient repeated a dose (2.0 mg/kg) and another had a temporary dose reduction (1.0 to 0.6 mg/kg). Most adverse events (97%) were mild and all resolved without sequelae. The most common adverse events were headache, arthralgia, nausea and abdominal pain. Two patients experienced single acute phase reactions. No patient developed hypersensitivity or anti-olipudase alfa antibodies. The mean circulating half-life of olipudase alfa ranged from 20.9 to 23.4 hours across doses without accumulation. Ceramide, a sphingomyelin catabolite, rose transiently in plasma after each dose, but decreased over time. Reductions in sphingomyelin storage, spleen and liver volumes, and serum chitotriosidase activity, as well as improvements in infiltrative lung disease, lipid profiles, platelet counts, and quality of life assessments, were observed. Conclusions This study provides proof-of-concept for the safety and efficacy of within-patient dose escalation of olipudase alfa in patients with nonneuronopathic ASMD. PMID:26049896

  13. Effects of low dose versus high dose human growth hormone on body composition and lipids in adults with GH deficiency: a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Newman, Connie B; Carmichael, John D; Kleinberg, David L

    2015-06-01

    Doses of growth hormone in adults with growth hormone deficiency are now lower than previously. However, it is not clear they are as effective as higher doses. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess efficacy of low to moderate dose (LD) GH replacement on standard endpoints of GH compared to higher doses. A meta-analysis was carried out using PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases from 1960 to 9/23/12. Three reviewers identified randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of 6 months duration. Of 173 publications, 28 representing 22 trials (591 GH-treated patients and 562 placebo) were included. Data were independently extracted by three reviewers. Endpoints were analyzed if ≥4 studies per dose group reported baseline and 6 month data. Mean lean body mass (LBM) increased by 2.61 kg in GH-treated subjects versus 0.04 in the placebo group (P < 0.0001). Fat mass (FM) was reduced by -2.19 kg versus 0.31 (GH vs. placebo) (P = 0.0002). Changes in LBM and FM were dose-related (P = 0.02 and 0.007, respectively), high dose (HD) being more effective than low dose (LBM P = 0.03 and FM P = 0.04). In contrast, treatment with GH reduced total cholesterol -0.38 mmol/L versus. 0.01 (placebo) (P < 0.0001), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) -0.42 mmol/L versus -0.1 (P = 0.0009), but there were no differences between LD and HD GH. LDs of hGH improve total- and LDL-C, and body composition. Higher doses are more effective on body composition, but not lipids.

  14. Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Therapeutic and Supratherapeutic Doses of Tramadol Hydrochloride in Healthy Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Multiple-Ascending-Dose Study.

    PubMed

    DeLemos, Byron; Richards, Henry M; Vandenbossche, Joris; Ariyawansa, Jay; Natarajan, Jaya; Alexander, Binu; Ramakrishna, Tage; Murtaugh, Thomas; Stahlberg, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-09-07

    This randomized, double-blind, parallel-group multiple-ascending-dose study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of tramadol hydrochloride in healthy adults to inform dosage and design for a subsequent QT/QTc study. Healthy men and women, 18 to 45 years old (inclusive), were sequentially assigned to the tramadol 200, 400, or 600 mg/day treatment cohort and within each cohort, randomized (4:1) to either tramadol or placebo every 6 hours for 9 oral doses. Of the 24 participants randomized to tramadol (n = 8/cohort), 22 (91.7%) completed the study. The AUCtau,ss of tramadol increased approximately 2.2- and 3.6-fold for the (+) enantiomer and 2.0- and 3.5-fold for the (-) enantiomer with increasing dose from 200 to 400  and 600 mg/day, whereas the Cmax,ss increased 2.1- and 3.3-fold for the (+) enantiomer and 2.0- and 3.2-fold for the (-) enantiomer. Overall, 21 participants (87.5%) participants reported ≥1 treatment-emergent adverse event; most frequent were nausea (17 of 24, 70.8%) and vomiting (7 of 24, 29.2%). Vomiting (affected participants and events) increased with increasing dose from 200 to 600 mg/day but was mild (5 of 24) or moderate (2 of 24) in severity. All tested dosage regimens of tramadol showed acceptable safety and tolerability profile for further investigation in a thorough QT/QTc study. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  15. Escalation with Overdose Control is More Efficient and Safer than Accelerated Titration for Dose Finding

    PubMed Central

    Rogatko, André; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Tighiouart, Mourad; Piantadosi, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The standard 3 + 3 or “modified Fibonacci” up-and-down (MF-UD) method of dose escalation is by far the most used design in dose-finding cancer trials. However, MF-UD has always shown inferior performance when compared with its competitors regarding number of patients treated at optimal doses. A consequence of using less effective designs is that more patients are treated with doses outside the therapeutic window. In June 2012, the U S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rejected the proposal to use Escalation with Overdose Control (EWOC), an established dose-finding method which has been extensively used in FDA-approved first in human trials and imposed a variation of the MF-UD, known as accelerated titration (AT) design. This event motivated us to perform an extensive simulation study comparing the operating characteristics of AT and EWOC. We show that the AT design has poor operating characteristics relative to three versions of EWOC under several practical scenarios. From the clinical investigator's perspective, lower bias and mean square error make EWOC designs preferable than AT designs without compromising safety. From a patient's perspective, uniformly higher proportion of patients receiving doses within an optimal range of the true MTD makes EWOC designs preferable than AT designs. PMID:27156869

  16. Radiobiological Determination of Dose Escalation and Normal Tissue Toxicity in Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy for Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Samantha; Partridge, Mike; Carrington, Rhys; Hurt, Chris; Crosby, Thomas; Hawkins, Maria A.

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the trade-off in tumor coverage and organ-at-risk sparing when applying dose escalation for concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT) of mid-esophageal cancer, using radiobiological modeling to estimate local control and normal tissue toxicity. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with mid-esophageal cancer were selected from the SCOPE1 database (International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials number 47718479), with a mean planning target volume (PTV) of 327 cm{sup 3}. A boost volume, PTV2 (GTV + 0.5 cm margin), was created. Radiobiological modeling of tumor control probability (TCP) estimated the dose required for a clinically significant (+20%) increase in local control as 62.5 Gy/25 fractions. A RapidArc (RA) plan with a simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) to PTV2 (RA{sub 62.5}) was compared to a standard dose plan of 50 Gy/25 fractions (RA{sub 50}). Dose-volume metrics and estimates of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for heart and lungs were compared. Results: Clinically acceptable dose escalation was feasible for 16 of 21 patients, with significant gains (>18%) in tumor control from 38.2% (RA{sub 50}) to 56.3% (RA{sub 62.5}), and only a small increase in predicted toxicity: median heart NTCP 4.4% (RA{sub 50}) versus 5.6% (RA{sub 62.5}) P<.001 and median lung NTCP 6.5% (RA{sub 50}) versus 7.5% (RA{sub 62.5}) P<.001. Conclusions: Dose escalation to the GTV to improve local control is possible when overlap between PTV and organ-at-risk (<8% heart volume and <2.5% lung volume overlap for this study) generates only negligible increase in lung or heart toxicity. These predictions from radiobiological modeling should be tested in future clinical trials.

  17. Image-guided adaptive brachytherapy dose escalation for cervix cancer via fractionation compensation.

    PubMed

    Shaw, William; Rae, William I D; Alber, Markus L

    In image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT), dose distributions are optimized for each fraction. Optimum fractional dose can be constant or adapted to previous fractions and a conjecture about the future ones. We evaluate the efficacy of different fraction size schemes, derived from total IGABT dose constraints, against constant per-fraction constraints. This retrospective planning study included 20 IGABT patients where four different fractionation schedules were compared based on modern planning recommendations. A total high-risk-clinical target volume D90 (minimum dose in 90% of the volume) dose aim of 90.0 Gy with constant per-fraction organs at risk (OARs) dose constraint planning (CONST) was compared with conservative and aggressive fractionation compensation (COMP) techniques. COMP allows variations in the per-fraction dose constraints. Dose accumulation was performed through dose summation at a given volume and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) worst-case dose estimates. No significant differences were identifiable between dose metrics of CONST and COMP in the total patient population. However, a subgroup of patients with alternating dose-limiting OARs had significant benefit from COMP. Median high-risk-clinical target volume dose escalation ranged from 5% to 12%, whereas OAR dose increases were lower and ranged from 3% to 8%. EUD-based planning delivered similar tumor doses, although slightly lower OAR doses. By distributing the treatment aim over an increased number of treatment fractions, median tumor dose could be increased by a further 8% per additional treatment fraction at the same OAR dose levels for both CONST and COMP. COMP is effective in patients with alternating dose-limiting OARs and is enhanced using more treatment fractions and EUD constraints. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intravenous immunoglobulins for the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: a phase II, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding trial

    PubMed Central

    Dodel, Richard; Rominger, Axel; Bartenstein, Peter; Barkhof, Frederik; Blennow, Kai; Förster, Stefan; Winter, Yaroslav; Bach, Jan-Philipp; Popp, Julius; Alferink, Judith; Wiltfang, Jens; Buerger, Katharina; Otto, Markus; Antuono, Piero; Jacoby, Michael; Richter, Ralph; Stevens, James; Melamed, Isaac; Goldstein, Jerome; Haag, Stefan; Wietek, Stefan; Farlow, Martin; Jessen, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background Three small trials have suggested effects of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) on biomarkers and symptoms of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We explored the safety, the effective dose, and the infusion interval for Octagam®10% in this patients’ group. Methods The study was a 24-week multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial with 8 treatment arms at 7 sites in the USA and 5 sites in Germany. Participants aged 50–85 years were randomised (using a computer-generated randomisation sequence) to either 4 weekly infusions (n=22) (0.2 g/0.5 g/0.8 g/kg body weight), 2 weekly infusions (0.1g/0.25 g/0.4 g/kg) (n=21) or to placebo (n=7, 4-weekly, n=8, 2 weekly). The primary endpoint was the mean area under the curve (AUC) of plasma Aβ1–40 after the last infusion for one infusion interval. We considered the AUC of plasma Aβ1–40 being more representative of the potential effect of IVIG than a single time point measurement. Secondary outcomes included changes in (a) the concentrations of Aβ1–40, Aβ1–42, anti-Aβ autoantibodies in CSF/plasma and tau/ptau181 in CSF, (b) cognitive and functional scales, and (c) brain imaging (MRI/FDG-PET). Patients’ safety was assessed by recording of adverse events, clinical examinations, MRI investigations, electrocardiography and laboratory tests. The infusions were performed by site personnel who were otherwise not involved in any other assessments; therefore, the patients, caregivers, and investigators were blinded to the treatment allocations. The study medication was blinded by using intransparent overpouches and infusion lines. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00812565) and controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN64846759). Findings Fifty-six patients were randomized. AUC of plasma Aβ1–40, was not significantly different from the placebo for five of the six IVIG arms (median with range: −18.00 [−1347.0; 1068.5] for 0.2 g/kg; 364.25 [−5834.5; 1953.5] for 0.5 g

  19. Preliminary results of radiation dose escalation for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong, Dora L.W. . E-mail: dlwkwong@hkucc.hku.hk; Sham, Jonathan S.T.; Leung, Lucullus H.T.; Cheng, Ashley C.K.; Ng, W.M.; Kwong, Philip W.K.; Lui, W.M.; Yau, C.C.; Wu, P.M.; Wei, William; Au, Gordon

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To study the safety and efficacy of dose escalation in tumor for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: From September 2000 to June 2004, 50 patients with T3-T4 NPC were treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Fourteen patients had Stage III and 36 patients had Stage IVA-IVB disease. The prescribed dose was 76 Gy to gross tumor volume (GTV), 70 Gy to planning target volume (PTV), and 72 Gy to enlarged neck nodes (GTVn). All doses were given in 35 fractions over 7 weeks. Thirty-four patients also had concurrent cisplatin and induction or adjuvant PF (cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil). Results: The average mean dose achieved in GTV, GTVn, and PTV were 79.5 Gy, 75.3 Gy, and 74.6 Gy, respectively. The median follow-up was 25 months, with 4 recurrences: 2 locoregional and 2 distant failures. All patients with recurrence had IMRT alone without chemotherapy. The 2-year locoregional control rate, distant metastases-free and disease-free survivals were 95.7%, 94.2%, and 93.1%, respectively. One treatment-related death caused by adjuvant chemotherapy occurred. The 2-year overall survival was 92.1%. Conclusions: Dose escalation to 76 Gy in tumor is feasible with T3-T4 NPC and can be combined with chemotherapy. Initial results showed good local control and survival.

  20. Empirical evidence against placebo controls.

    PubMed

    Batra, Sadhvi; Howick, Jeremy

    2017-08-09

    The revised Declaration of Helsinki allows placebo-controlled trials to be used even when there is an established therapy, provided there are adequate 'methodological' reasons for doing so. This seems to violate the principle of beneficence: where there is an established therapy, physicians treating patients with a placebo are withholding a known effective therapy. Because of this problem, we hypothesised that clinical researchers may be unwilling to risk violating the principle of beneficence and employ placebo-controlled trials in cases where there is an established therapy. In this paper, we began to investigate this hypothesis. After summarising the arguments for and against using placebo controls in clinical practice, we exploredthe extent to which placebo-controlled trials are used in cases where there is an established therapy. To do this, we conducted as systematic search for all placebo-controlled trials published in 2015 in the five highest impact general medical journals. We identified 70 placebo-controlled trials. Of these, 66 were for indications where there was no established effective therapy. Only four used a placebo control in spite of there being an available effective therapy. The infrequent use of placebo controlled trials where established therapy exists highlights a seeming discrepancy between what the Declaration of Helsinki allows and what clinical investigators believe to be ethically acceptable. The evidence presented in this paper suggests that the Declaration of Helsinki be reconsidered, and perhaps revised, in light of actual practice. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Vaginal dose de-escalation in image guided adaptive brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Sandy; Lindegaard, Jacob Christian; de Leeuw, Astrid A C; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina; Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Kirisits, Christian; Pötter, Richard; Tanderup, Kari

    2016-09-01

    Vaginal stenosis is a major problem following radiotherapy in cervical cancer. We investigated a new dose planning strategy for vaginal dose de-escalation (VDD). Fifty consecutive locally advanced cervical cancer patients without lower or middle vaginal involvement at diagnosis from 3 institutions were analysed. External beam radiotherapy was combined with MRI-guided brachytherapy. VDD was obtained by decreasing dwell times in ovoid/ring and increasing dwell times in tandem/needles. The aim was to maintain the target dose (D90 of HR-CTV⩾85Gy EQD2) while reducing the dose to the surface of the vagina to <140% of the physical fractional brachytherapy dose corresponding to a total EQD2 of 85Gy. The mean vaginal loading (ovoid/ring) was reduced from 51% to 33% of the total loading with VDD, which significantly reduced the dose to the vaginal dose points (p<0.001) without compromising the target dose. The dose to the ICRU recto-vaginal point was reduced by a mean of 4±4Gy EQD2 (p<0.001), while doses to bladder and rectum (D2cm(3)) were reduced by 2±2Gy and 3±2Gy, respectively (p<0.001). VDD significantly reduces dose to the upper vagina which is expected to result in reduction of vaginal stenosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. New-onset depression following stable, slow, and rapid rate of prescription opioid dose escalation.

    PubMed

    Salas, Joanne; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Schneider, Frank David; Sullivan, Mark D; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Burroughs, Thomas; Copeland, Laurel A; Ahmedani, Brian K; Lustman, Patrick J

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that longer durations of opioid use, independent of maximum morphine equivalent dose (MED) achieved, is associated with increased risk of new-onset depression (NOD). Conversely, other studies, not accounting for duration, found that higher MED increased probability of depressive symptoms. To determine whether rate of MED increase is associated with NOD, a retrospective cohort analysis of Veterans Health Administration data (2000-2012) was conducted. Eligible patients were new, chronic (>90 days) opioid users, aged 18 to 80, and without depression diagnoses for 2 years before start of follow-up (n = 7051). Mixed regression models of MED across follow-up defined 4 rate of dose change categories: stable, decrease, slow increase, and rapid increase. Cox proportional hazard models assessed the relationship of rate of dose change and NOD, controlling for pain, duration of use, maximum MED, and other confounders using inverse probability of treatment-weighted propensity scores. Incidence rate for NOD was 14.1/1000PY (person-years) in stable rate, 13.0/1000PY in decreasing, 19.3/1000PY in slow increasing, and 27.5/1000PY in rapid increasing dose. Compared with stable rate, risk of NOD increased incrementally for slow (hazard ratio = 1.22; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.42) and rapid (hazard ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval: 1.30-1.93) rate of dose increase. Faster rates of MED escalation contribute to NOD, independent of maximum dose, pain, and total opioid duration. Dose escalation may be a proxy for loss of control or undetected abuse known to be associated with depression. Clinicians should avoid rapid dose increase when possible and discuss risk of depression with patients if dose increase is warranted for pain.

  3. An Hourly Dose-Escalation Desensitization Protocol for Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Justin R; Buchmiller, Brett L; Khan, David A

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin desensitization followed by maintenance therapy effectively improves symptom control in patients with aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). The majority of current desensitization protocols use 3-hour dosing intervals and often require 2 to 3 days to complete. We evaluated hourly dose escalations in a subset of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and asthma who historically reacted to aspirin within 1 hour or were avoiding aspirin with the goal of developing a safe and efficient desensitization protocol. Fifty-seven aspirin desensitizations were performed under the hourly protocol. All patients had refractory nasal polyposis as an indication for aspirin desensitization. The clinical characteristics of each subject were analyzed in relation to aspects of his or her reactions during the procedure. Ninety-eight percent of study patients were successfully treated under the hourly protocol, including those with a history of severe reactions and intubation. None required further medication than is available in an outpatient allergy clinic. A total of 96% of reactors recorded a bronchial or naso-ocular reaction within 1 hour of the preceding dose. Of the total patients on this protocol, 40% were able to complete the procedure in a single day, and 60% within 2 days. Patients with AERD who have a history of symptoms less than 1 hour after aspirin exposure can be safely desensitized with a 1-hour dose-escalation protocol that can often be completed in a single day. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. SU-E-T-622: Identification and Improvement of Patients Eligible for Dose Escalation with Matched Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, K; Holcombe, C; Kapp, D; Buyyounouski, M; Hancock, S; Xing, L; Atwood, T; King, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Radiation-therapy dose-escalation beyond 80Gy may improve tumor control rates for patients with localized prostate cancer. Since toxicity remains a concern, treatment planners must achieve dose-escalation while still adhering to dose-constraints for surrounding structures. Patientmatching is a machine-learning technique that identifies prior patients that dosimetrically match DVH parameters of target volumes and critical structures prior to actual treatment planning. We evaluated the feasibility of patient-matching in (1)identifying candidates for safe dose-escalation; and (2)improving DVH parameters for critical structures in actual dose-escalated plans. Methods: We analyzed DVH parameters from 319 historical treatment plans to determine which plans could achieve dose-escalation (8640cGy) without exceeding Zelefsky dose-constraints (rectal and bladder V47Gy<53%, and V75.6Gy<30%, max-point dose to rectum of 8550cGy, max dose to PTV< 9504cGy). We then estimated the percentage of cases that could achieve safe dose-escalation using software that enables patient matching (QuickMatch, Siris Medical, Mountain View, CA). We then replanned a case that had violated DVH constraints with DVH parameters from patient matching, in order to determine whether this previously unacceptable plan could be made eligible with this automated technique. Results: Patient-matching improved the percentage of patients eligible for dose-escalation from 40% to 63% (p=4.7e-4, t-test). Using a commercial optimizer augmented with patient-matching, we demonstrated a case where patient-matching improved the toxicity-profile such that dose-escalation would have been possible; this plan was rapidly achieved using patientmatching software. In this patient, all lower-dose constraints were met with both the denovo and patient-matching plan. In the patient-matching plan, maximum dose to the rectum was 8385cGy, while the denovo plan failed to meet the maximum rectal constraint at 8571c

  5. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of high-dose rebamipide treatment for low-dose aspirin-induced moderate-to-severe small intestinal damage.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Toshio; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Handa, Osamu; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Naito, Yuji; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose aspirin (LDA) frequently causes small bowel injury. While some drugs have been reported to be effective in treating LDA-induced small intestinal damage, most studies did not exclude patients with mild damage thought to be clinically insignificant. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy of a high dose of rebamipide, a gastroprotective drug, for LDA-induced moderate-to-severe enteropathy. We enrolled patients who received 100 mg of enteric-coated aspirin daily for more than 3 months and were found to have more than 3 mucosal breaks (i.e., erosions or ulcers) in the small intestine by capsule endoscopy. Eligible patients were assigned to receive either rebamipide 300 mg (triple dose) 3 times daily or placebo for 8 weeks in a 2:1 ratio. Capsule endoscopy was then repeated. The primary endpoint was the change in the number of mucosal breaks from baseline to 8 weeks. Secondary endpoints included the complete healing of mucosal breaks at 8 weeks and the change in Lewis score (an endoscopic score assessing damage severity) from baseline to 8 weeks. The study was completed by 38 patients (rebamipide group: n = 25, placebo group: n = 13). After 8 weeks of treatment, rebamipide, but not placebo, significantly decreased the number of mucosal breaks (p = 0.046). While the difference was not significant (p = 0.13), the rate of complete mucosal break healing in the rebamipide group (32%, 8 of 25) tended to be higher than that in the placebo group (7.7%, 1 of 13). Rebamipide treatment significantly improved intestinal damage severity as assessed by the Lewis score (p = 0.02), whereas placebo did not. The triple dose of rebamipide was well tolerated. High-dose rebamipide is effective for the treatment of LDA-induced moderate-to-severe enteropathy. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000003463.

  6. A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of High-Dose Rebamipide Treatment for Low-Dose Aspirin-Induced Moderate-to-Severe Small Intestinal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Toshio; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Handa, Osamu; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Naito, Yuji; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    Background Low-dose aspirin (LDA) frequently causes small bowel injury. While some drugs have been reported to be effective in treating LDA-induced small intestinal damage, most studies did not exclude patients with mild damage thought to be clinically insignificant. Aim We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy of a high dose of rebamipide, a gastroprotective drug, for LDA-induced moderate-to-severe enteropathy. Methods We enrolled patients who received 100 mg of enteric-coated aspirin daily for more than 3 months and were found to have more than 3 mucosal breaks (i.e., erosions or ulcers) in the small intestine by capsule endoscopy. Eligible patients were assigned to receive either rebamipide 300 mg (triple dose) 3 times daily or placebo for 8 weeks in a 2:1 ratio. Capsule endoscopy was then repeated. The primary endpoint was the change in the number of mucosal breaks from baseline to 8 weeks. Secondary endpoints included the complete healing of mucosal breaks at 8 weeks and the change in Lewis score (an endoscopic score assessing damage severity) from baseline to 8 weeks. Results The study was completed by 38 patients (rebamipide group: n = 25, placebo group: n = 13). After 8 weeks of treatment, rebamipide, but not placebo, significantly decreased the number of mucosal breaks (p = 0.046). While the difference was not significant (p = 0.13), the rate of complete mucosal break healing in the rebamipide group (32%, 8 of 25) tended to be higher than that in the placebo group (7.7%, 1 of 13). Rebamipide treatment significantly improved intestinal damage severity as assessed by the Lewis score (p = 0.02), whereas placebo did not. The triple dose of rebamipide was well tolerated. Conclusions High-dose rebamipide is effective for the treatment of LDA-induced moderate-to-severe enteropathy. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000003463 PMID:25874951

  7. Acute quetiapine dose-dependently exacerbates anhedonia induced by withdrawal from escalating doses of d-amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Zhornitsky, Simon; Potvin, Stéphane; Stip, Emmanuel; Rompré, Pierre-Paul

    2010-10-01

    Recent clinical studies show that the atypical antipsychotic medication, quetiapine, may be beneficial in the treatment of substance abuse by alleviating the withdrawal-negative affect stage of addiction. Since the effect of quetiapine on central reward function is largely unknown we studied its effects on brain stimulation reward in animals under withdrawal from escalating doses of d-amphetamine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to produce an operant response to receive a short train of electrical stimulation to the lateral hypothalamus. Measures of reward threshold were determined with the curve-shift method in different groups of rats before, and during four days after treatment with escalating doses (1 to 10mg/kg, i.p.) of d-amphetamine or its vehicle. At 24h of withdrawal, the effects of two doses of quetiapine (2 and 10mg/kg i.p.) were tested. Animals treated with d-amphetamine showed a 25% reward deficit at 24h of withdrawal, an effect that decreased progressively over the next three days. Quetiapine attenuated reward in the vehicle-control animals, and amplified the anhedonia at the moderate, but not the low, dose in the animals under withdrawal. These results show that acute treatment with clinically relevant doses of quetiapine for the treatment of schizophrenia may exacerbate anhedonia induced by amphetamine withdrawal. Further research should investigate whether repeated treatment with quetiapine has the ability to reverse amphetamine withdrawal-induced anhedonia.

  8. Dose Escalation of Whole-Brain Radiotherapy for Brain Metastases From Melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk; Heisterkamp, Christine; Huttenlocher, Stefan; Bohlen, Guenther; Dunst, Juergen; Haatanen, Tiina; Schild, Steven E.

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: The majority of patients with brain metastases from melanoma receive whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT). However, the results are poor. Hypofractionation regimens failed to improve the outcome of these patients. This study investigates a potential benefit from escalation of the WBRT dose beyond the 'standard' regimen 30 Gy in 10 fractions (10x3 Gy). Methods and Materials: Data from 51 melanoma patients receiving WBRT alone were retrospectively analyzed. A dosage of 10x3 Gy (n = 33) was compared with higher doses including 40 Gy/20 fractions (n = 11) and 45 Gy/15 fractions (n = 7) for survival (OS) and local (intracerebral) control (LC). Additional potential prognostic factors were evaluated: age, gender, performance status, number of metastases, extracerebral metastases, and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class. Results: At 6 months, OS rates were 27% after 10x3 Gy and 50% after higher doses (p = 0.009). The OS rates at 12 months were 4% and 20%. On multivariate analysis, higher WBRT doses (p = 0.010), fewer than four brain metastases (p = 0.012), no extracerebral metastases (p = 0.006), and RPA class 1 (p = 0.005) were associated with improved OS. The LC rates at 6 months were 23% after 10x3 Gy and 50% after higher doses (p = 0.021). The LC rates at 12 months were 0% and 13%. On multivariate analysis, higher WBRT doses (p = 0.020) and fewer than brain metastases (p = 0.002) were associated with better LC. Conclusions: Given the limitations of a retrospective study, the findings suggest that patients with brain metastases from melanoma receiving WBRT alone may benefit from dose escalation beyond 10x3 Gy. The hypothesis generated by this study must be confirmed in a randomized trial stratifying for significant prognostic factors.

  9. Safety and pharmacokinetics of escalating daily doses of the antituberculosis drug rifapentine in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Dooley, K E; Bliven-Sizemore, E E; Weiner, M; Lu, Y; Nuermberger, E L; Hubbard, W C; Fuchs, E J; Melia, M T; Burman, W J; Dorman, S E

    2012-05-01

    Rifapentine (RP T) is an antituberculosis drug that may shorten treatment duration when substituted for rifampin (RI F).The maximal tolerated daily dose of RP T and its potential for cytochrome 3A4 induction and autoinduction at clinically relevant doses are unknown. In this phase I, dose-escalation study among healthy volunteers, daily doses as high asa prespecified maximum of 20 mg/kg/day were well tolerated. Steady-state RP T concentrations increased with dose from 5 to 15 mg/kg, but area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AU C0–24) and maximum concentration (Cmax)were similar in the 15- and 20-mg/kg cohorts. Although RP T pharmacokinetics (PK) appeared to be time-dependent,accumulation occurred with daily dosing. The mean AU C0–12 of oral midazolam (MDZ), a cytochrome 3A (CYP 3A) probe drug, was reduced by 93% with the coadministration of RPT and by 74% with the coadministration of RIF (P < 0.01).Changes in the oral clearance of MDZ did not vary by RP T dose. In conclusion, RP T was tolerated at doses as high as20 mg/kg/day, its PK were less than dose-proportional, and its CYP 3A induction was robust.

  10. Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Escalating Daily Doses of the Antituberculosis Drug Rifapentine in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, KE; Bliven-Sizemore, EE; Weiner, M; Lu, Y; Nuermberger, EL; Hubbard, WC; Fuchs, EJ; Melia, MT; Burman, WJ; Dorman, SE

    2013-01-01

    Rifapentine (RPT) is an antituberculosis drug that may shorten treatment duration when substituted for rifampin (RIF). The maximal tolerated daily dose of RPT and its potential for cytochrome 3A4 induction and autoinduction at clinically relevant doses are unknown. In this phase I, dose-escalation study among healthy volunteers, daily doses as high as a prespecified maximum of 20 mg/kg/day were well tolerated. Steady-state RPT concentrations increased with dose from 5 to 15 mg/kg, but area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC0–24) and maximum concentration (Cmax) were similar in the 15- and 20-mg/kg cohorts. Although RPT pharmacokinetics (PK) appeared to be time-dependent, accumulation occurred with daily dosing. The mean AUC0–12 of oral midazolam (MDZ), a cytochrome 3A (CYP3A) probe drug, was reduced by 93% with the coadministration of RPT and by 74% with the coadministration of RIF (P < 0.01). Changes in the oral clearance of MDZ did not vary by RPT dose. In conclusion, RPT was tolerated at doses as high as 20 mg/kg/day, its PK were less than dose-proportional, and its CYP3A induction was robust. PMID:22472995

  11. Impact of dose escalation and adaptive radiotherapy for cervical cancers on tumour shrinkage—a modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Røthe Arnesen, Marius; Paulsen Hellebust, Taran; Malinen, Eirik

    2017-03-01

    Tumour shrinkage occurs during fractionated radiotherapy and is regulated by radiation induced cellular damage, repopulation of viable cells and clearance of dead cells. In some cases additional tumour shrinkage during external beam therapy may be beneficial, particularly for locally advanced cervical cancer where a small tumour volume may simplify and improve brachytherapy. In the current work, a mathematical tumour model is utilized to investigate how local dose escalation affects tumour shrinkage, focusing on implications for brachytherapy. The iterative two-compartment model is based upon linear-quadratic radiation response, a doubling time for viable cells and a half-time for clearance of dead cells. The model was individually fitted to clinical tumour volume data from fractionated radiotherapy of 25 cervical cancer patients. Three different fractionation patterns for dose escalation, all with an additional dose of 12.2 Gy, were simulated and compared to standard fractionation in terms of tumour shrinkage. An adaptive strategy where dose escalation was initiated after one week of treatment was also considered. For 22 out of 25 patients, a good model fit was achieved to the observed tumour shrinkage. A large degree of inter-patient variation was seen in predicted volume reduction following dose escalation. For the 10 best responding patients, a mean tumour volume reduction of 34  ±  3% (relative to standard treatment) was estimated at the time of brachytherapy. Timing of initiating dose escalation had a larger impact than the number of fractions applied. In conclusion, the model was found useful in evaluating the impact from dose escalation on tumour shrinkage. The results indicate that dose escalation could be conducted from the start of external beam radiotherapy in order to obtain additional tumour shrinkage before brachytherapy.

  12. Methamphetamine influences on recognition memory: comparison of escalating and single-day dosing regimens.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Annabelle M; Feinstein, Erin M; O'Dell, Steven J; Marshall, John F

    2008-05-01

    Methamphetamine (mAMPH) is an addictive drug that produces memory and recall impairments in humans. Animals subjected to a binge mAMPH dosing regimen that damages brain dopamine and serotonin terminals show impairments in an object recognition (OR) task. Earlier research demonstrated that preceding a single-day mAMPH binge regimen with several days of increasing mAMPH doses greatly attenuates its neurotoxicity in rats. The escalating dose (ED) paradigm appears to mimic the human pattern of escalating drug intake. The current aim was to test whether an ED plus binge mAMPH regimen produces OR impairments. In addition to its translational value, this experiment helps address whether monoaminergic neurotoxicity accounts for OR impairments seen after mAMPH administration. To further address this issue, a separate experiment investigated both OR impairments and monoamine transporter integrity in groups of rats treated with a range of mAMPH doses during a single day. An ED mAMPH regimen attenuated the acute hyperthermic response to the subsequent mAMPH binge and prevented the OR impairments and reductions in [125 I]RTI-55 binding to monoamine transporters in striatum, hippocampus (HC), and perirhinal cortex (pRh) that otherwise occur 1 week after the mAMPH binge. Single-day mAMPH regimens (4 x 1mg/kg to 4 x 4 mg/kg, s.c.) dose-dependently produced acute hyperthermia and, 1 week post-mAMPH, produced dose-dependent impairments in OR and reductions in monoamine transporter binding. The OR impairments of single-day mAMPH-treated rats correlated with monoaminergic transporter loss in ventral caudate-putamen, HC, and pRh. In aggregate, these findings suggest a correspondence between mAMPH-induced monoaminergic injury and the resulting OR deficits.

  13. Caspofungin dose escalation for invasive candidiasis due to resistant Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Nathan P; Najvar, Laura K; Bocanegra, Rosie A; Kirkpatrick, William R; Patterson, Thomas F

    2011-07-01

    Previous in vivo studies have reported caspofungin dose escalation to be effective against Candida glabrata with reduced susceptibility. We hypothesized that higher doses of caspofungin would be effective against invasive candidiasis caused by the more virulent species Candida albicans, including isolates resistant to this echinocandin. Immunocompetent mice were inoculated with one of three C. albicans isolates, including one susceptible and two resistant isolates with different FKS1 hot spot 1 point mutations. Mice received daily caspofungin treatment for 7 days and were then followed off therapy for 2 weeks to assess survival. Kidney tissue and blood were collected, and fungal burden and serum (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan were measured. Significant differences in virulence were observed among the three C. albicans isolates, which translated into differences in responses to caspofungin. The most virulent of the resistant isolates studied (isolate 43001; Fks1p F641S) did not respond to caspofungin doses of up to 10 mg/kg of body weight, as there were no differences in survival (survival range, 0 to 12% with treatment), tissue burden, or (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan concentration compared to those for untreated controls. Higher doses of caspofungin did improve survival against the second resistant isolate (53264; Fks1p S645P) that demonstrated reduced virulence (5 and 10 mg/kg; 80% survival). In contrast, caspofungin doses as low as 1 mg/kg improved survival (85 to 95%) and reduced tissue burden and (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan concentration against the susceptible isolate (ATCC 90028). These data suggest that caspofungin dose escalation for invasive candidiasis may not be consistently effective against resistant C. albicans isolates, and this may be associated with the virulence of the strain.

  14. Mesalamine dose escalation reduces fecal calprotectin in patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Osterman, Mark T; Aberra, Faten N; Cross, Raymond; Liakos, Steven; McCabe, Robert; Shafran, Ira; Wolf, Douglas; Hardi, Robert; Nessel, Lisa; Brensinger, Colleen; Gilroy, Erin; Lewis, James D

    2014-11-01

    Among patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis (UC), lower fecal concentrations of calprotectin are associated with lower rates of relapse. We performed an open-label, randomized controlled trial to investigate whether increasing doses of mesalamine reduce concentrations of fecal calprotectin (FC) in patients with quiescent UC. We screened 119 patients with UC in remission on the basis of Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index scores, FC >50 μg/g, and intake of no more than 3 g/day mesalamine. Participants taking mesalamine formulations other than multimatrix mesalamine were switched to multimatrix mesalamine (2.4 g/day) for 6 weeks; 52 participants were then randomly assigned (1:1) to a group that continued its current dose of mesalamine (controls, n = 26) or a group that increased its dose by 2.4 g/day for 6 weeks (n = 26). The primary outcome was continued remission with FC <50 μg/g. Secondary outcomes were continued remission with FC <100 μg/g or <200 μg/g (among patients with pre-randomization values above these levels). The primary outcome was achieved by 3.8% of controls and 26.9% of the dose escalation group (P = .0496). More patients in the dose escalation group reduced FC to below 100 μg/g (P = .04) and 200 μg/g (P = .005). Among the patients who were still in remission after the randomization phase, clinical relapse occurred sooner in patients with FC >200 μg/g compared with those with FC <200 μg/g (P = .01). Among patients with quiescent UC and increased levels of FC, increasing the dose of mesalamine by 2.4 g/day reduced fecal concentrations of calprotectin to those associated with lower rates of relapse. Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT00652145. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiation Therapy Dose Escalation for Glioblastoma Multiforme in the Era of Temozolomide

    SciTech Connect

    Badiyan, Shahed N.; Markovina, Stephanie; Simpson, Joseph R.; Robinson, Clifford G.; DeWees, Todd; Tran, David D.; Linette, Gerry; Jalalizadeh, Rohan; Dacey, Ralph; Rich, Keith M.; Chicoine, Michael R.; Dowling, Joshua L.; Leuthardt, Eric C.; Zipfel, Gregory J.; Kim, Albert H.; Huang, Jiayi

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To review clinical outcomes of moderate dose escalation using high-dose radiation therapy (HDRT) in the setting of concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), compared with standard-dose radiation therapy (SDRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients aged <70 years with biopsy-proven GBM were treated with SDRT (60 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction) or with HDRT (>60 Gy) and TMZ from 2000 to 2012. Biological equivalent dose at 2-Gy fractions was calculated for the HDRT assuming an α/β ratio of 5.6 for GBM. Results: Eighty-one patients received SDRT, and 128 patients received HDRT with a median (range) biological equivalent dose at 2-Gy fractions of 64 Gy (61-76 Gy). Overall median follow-up time was 1.10 years, and for living patients it was 2.97 years. Actuarial 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates for patients that received HDRT versus SDRT were 12.4% versus 13.2% (P=.71), and 5.6% versus 4.1% (P=.54), respectively. Age (P=.001) and gross total/near-total resection (GTR/NTR) (P=.001) were significantly associated with PFS on multivariate analysis. Younger age (P<.0001), GTR/NTR (P<.0001), and Karnofsky performance status ≥80 (P=.001) were associated with improved OS. On subset analyses, HDRT failed to improve PFS or OS for those aged <50 years or those who had GTR/NTR. Conclusion: Moderate radiation therapy dose escalation above 60 Gy with concurrent TMZ does not seem to improve clinical outcomes for patients with GBM.

  16. Escalation of radiation dose beyond 30 Gy in 10 fractions for metastatic spinal cord compression

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk . E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net; Karstens, Johann H.; Hoskin, Peter J.; Rudat, Volker; Veninga, Theo; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: In many centers worldwide, radiotherapy for metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) is performed with 30 Gy in 10 fractions. This study investigated the potential benefit of dose escalation. Methods and Materials: Data from 922 patients with carcinomas causing MSCC were retrospectively evaluated. The outcome of 345 patients treated with 10 fractions of 3 Gy in 2 weeks was compared with the outcomes of 577 patients treated with 37.5 Gy in 15 fractions within 3 weeks or 40 Gy in 20 fractions within 4 weeks. Additionally, 10 potential prognostic factors were investigated: age, gender, performance status, tumor type, interval between cancer diagnosis and MSCC, number of involved vertebrae, other bone and visceral metastases, ambulatory status, and the interval to the development of motor deficits before radiotherapy. Results: Motor function improved in 19% of patients after 30 Gy in 10 fractions and in 22% after greater doses (p = 0.31). The local control (p = 0.28) and survival (p = 0.85) rates were not significantly different with doses >30 Gy. Better functional outcome was associated with the absence of visceral metastases, an interval between tumor diagnosis and MSCC of >12 months, ambulatory status, and an interval to the development of motor deficits of >7 days. Improved local control was significantly associated with no visceral metastases, improved survival with favorable histologic features (breast or prostate cancer), no visceral metastases, ambulatory status, an interval between cancer diagnosis and MSCC of >12 months, and an interval to the development of motor deficits of >7days. Conclusion: Escalation of the radiation dose to >30 Gy in 10 fractions did not improve the outcomes in terms of motor function, local control, or survival but did increase the treatment time for these frequently debilitated patients. Therefore, doses >30 Gy in 10 fractions are not recommended.

  17. Dose Escalation for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression in Patients With Relatively Radioresistant Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk; Freundt, Katja; Meyners, Thekla; Bajrovic, Amira; Basic, Hiba; Karstens, Johann H.; Adamietz, Irenaeus A.; Wildfang, Ingeborg; Rudat, Volker; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy alone is the most common treatment for metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) from relatively radioresistant tumors such as renal cell carcinoma, colorectal cancer, and malignant melanoma. However, the results of the 'standard' regimen 30 Gy/10 fractions need to be improved with respect to functional outcome. This study investigated whether a dose escalation beyond 30 Gy can improve treatment outcomes. Methods and Materials: A total of 91 patients receiving 30 Gy/10 fractions were retrospectively compared to 115 patients receiving higher doses (37.5 Gy/15 fractions, 40 Gy/20 fractions) for motor function and local control of MSCC. Ten further potential prognostic factors were evaluated: age, gender, tumor type, performance status, number of involved vertebrae, visceral or other bone metastases, interval from tumor diagnosis to radiotherapy, pretreatment ambulatory status, and time developing motor deficits before radiotherapy. Results: Motor function improved in 18% of patients after 30 Gy and in 22% after higher doses (p = 0.81). On multivariate analysis, functional outcome was associated with visceral metastases (p = 0.030), interval from tumor diagnosis to radiotherapy (p = 0.010), and time developing motor deficits (p < 0.001). The 1-year local control rates were 76% after 30 Gy and 80% after higher doses, respectively (p = 0.64). On multivariate analysis, local control was significantly associated with visceral metastases (p = 0.029) and number of involved vertebrae (p = 0.043). Conclusions: Given the limitations of a retrospective study, escalation of the radiation dose beyond 30 Gy/10 fractions did not significantly improve motor function and local control of MSCC in patients with relatively radioresistant tumors.

  18. Dose-Escalation Study of Single-Fraction Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Liver Malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Karyn A.; Wiegner, Ellen A.; Maturen, Katherine E.; Zhang Zhigang; Mo Qianxing; Yang, George; Gibbs, Iris C.; Fisher, George A.; Koong, Albert C.

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: We performed a Phase I dose-escalation study to explore the feasibility and safety of treating primary and metastatic liver tumors with single-fraction stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Between February 2004 and February 2008, 26 patients were treated for 40 identifiable lesions. Nineteen patients had hepatic metastases, 5 had intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, and 2 had recurrent hepatocellular carcinomas. The prescribed radiation dose was escalated from 18 to 30 Gy at 4-Gy increments with a planned maximum dose of 30 Gy. Cumulative incidence functions accounted for competing risks to estimate local failure (LF) incidence over time under the competing risk of death. Results: All patients tolerated the single-fraction SBRT well without developing a dose-limiting toxicity. Nine acute Grade 1 toxicities, one acute Grade 2 toxicity, and two late Grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities were observed. After a median of 17 months follow-up (range, 2-55 months), the cumulative risk of LF at 12 months was 23%. Fifteen patients have died: 11 treated for liver metastases and 4 with primary liver tumors died. The median survival was 28.6 months, and the 2-year actuarial overall survival was 50.4%. Conclusions: It is feasible and safe to deliver single-fraction, high-dose SBRT to primary or metastatic liver malignancies measuring {<=}5 cm. Moreover, single-fraction SBRT for liver lesions demonstrated promising local tumor control with minimal acute and long-term toxicity. Single-fraction SBRT appears to be a viable nonsurgical option, but further studies are warranted to evaluate both control rates and impact on quality of life.

  19. What is the optimal dose of botulinum toxin A in the treatment of cervical dystonia? Results of a double blind, placebo controlled, dose ranging study using Dysport®

    PubMed Central

    Poewe, W; Deuschl, G; Nebe, A; Feifel, E; Wissel, J; Benecke, R; Kessler, K; Ceballos-Baumann, A; Ohly, A; Oertel, W; Kunig, G

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Botulinum toxin injections have become a first line therapeutic approach in cervical dystonia. Nevertheless, published dosing schedules, responder rates, and frequency of adverse events vary widely. The present prospective multicentre placebo controlled double blind dose ranging study was performed in a homogenous group of previously untreated patients with rotational torticollis to obtain objective data on dose-response relations.
METHODS—Seventy five patients were randomly assigned to receive treatment with placebo or total doses of 250, 500, and 1000 Dysport® units divided between one splenius capitis (0, 175, 350, 700 units) and the contralateral sternocleidomastoid (0, 75, 150, 300 units) muscle. Assessments were obtained at baseline and weeks 2, 4,and 8 after treatment and comprised a modified Tsui scale, a four point pain scale, a checklist of adverse events, global assessment of improvement, and a global rating taking into account efficacy and adverse events. At week 8 the need for retreatment was assessed and then the code was unblinded. For those still responding, there was an open follow up until retreatment to assess the duration of effect.
RESULTS—seventy nine per cent reported subjective improvement at one or more follow up visits. Decreases in the modified Tsui score were significant at week 4 for the 500 and 1000 unit groups versus placebo (p<0.05). Additionally positive dose-response relations were found for the degree of subjective improvement, duration of improvement, improvement on clinical global rating, and need for reinjection at eight weeks. A significant dose relation was also established for the number of adverse events overall and for the incidence of neck muscle weakness and voice changes.
CONCLUSION—Magnitude and duration of improvement was greatest after injections of 1000 units Dysport®; however, at the cost of significantly more adverse events. Therefore a lower starting dose of 500 units Dysport® is

  20. Sorafenib Dose Escalation is Not Uniformly Associated with Blood Pressure Elevations in Normotensive Patients with Advanced Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Karovic, Sanja; Wen, Yujia; Karrison, Theodore G.; Bakris, George L.; Levine, Matthew R.; House, Larry K.; Wu, Kehua; Thomeas, Vasiliki; Rudek, Michelle A.; Wright, John J.; Cohen, Ezra E.W.; Fleming, Gini F.; Ratain, Mark J.; Maitland, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibitors is associated with superior treatment outcomes for advanced cancer patients. To determine whether increased doses of sorafenib cause incremental increases in blood pressure (BP) we measured 12-hour ambulatory BP in 41 normotensive advanced solid tumor patients in a randomized dose escalation study. After 7 days’ sorafenib (400mg BID) mean diastolic BP (DBP) increased in both study groups. After dose escalation, group A (400mg TID) had marginally significant further increase in 12-hour mean DBP (p=0.053) but group B (600mg BID) did not achieve statistically significant increases (p=0.25). Within groups, individuals varied in BP response to sorafenib dose escalation, but these differences did not correlate with changes in steady state plasma sorafenib concentrations. These findings in normotensive patients suggest BP is a complex pharmacodynamic biomarker of VEGF inhibition. Patients have intrinsic differences in sensitivity to the BP elevating effects of sorafenib. PMID:24637941

  1. Efficacy and Safety of High-Dose Ivermectin for Reducing Malaria Transmission (IVERMAL): Protocol for a Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Finding Trial in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ochomo, Eric; Aljayyoussi, Ghaith; Kwambai, Titus; Abong'o, Bernard; Bayoh, Nabie; Gimnig, John; Samuels, Aaron; Desai, Meghna; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Kariuki, Simon; Wang, Duolao; Ward, Steve; ter Kuile, Feiko O

    2016-01-01

    Background Innovative approaches are needed to complement existing tools for malaria elimination. Ivermectin is a broad spectrum antiparasitic endectocide clinically used for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis control at single doses of 150 to 200 mcg/kg. It also shortens the lifespan of mosquitoes that feed on individuals recently treated with ivermectin. However, the effect after a 150 to 200 mcg/kg oral dose is short-lived (6 to 11 days). Modeling suggests higher doses, which prolong the mosquitocidal effects, are needed to make a significant contribution to malaria elimination. Ivermectin has a wide therapeutic index and previous studies have shown doses up to 2000 mcg/kg (ie, 10 times the US Food and Drug Administration approved dose) are well tolerated and safe; the highest dose used for onchocerciasis is a single dose of 800 mcg/kg. Objective The aim of this study is to determine the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of ivermectin doses of 0, 300, and 600 mcg/kg/day for 3 days, when provided with a standard 3-day course of the antimalarial dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), on mosquito survival. Methods This is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, 3-arm, dose-finding trial in adults with uncomplicated malaria. Monte Carlo simulations based on pharmacokinetic modeling were performed to determine the optimum dosing regimens to be tested. Modeling showed that a 3-day regimen of 600 mcg/kg/day achieved similar median (5 to 95 percentiles) maximum drug concentrations (Cmax) of ivermectin to a single of dose of 800 mcg/kg, while increasing the median time above the lethal concentration 50% (LC50, 16 ng/mL) from 1.9 days (1.0 to 5.7) to 6.8 (3.8 to 13.4) days. The 300 mcg/kg/day dose was chosen at 50% of the higher dose to allow evaluation of the dose response. Mosquito survival will be assessed daily up to 28 days in laboratory-reared Anopheles gambiae s.s. populations fed on patients’ blood taken at days 0, 2 (Cmax), 7

  2. A dose-escalation study of combretastatin A4-phosphate in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Abma, E; Smets, P; Daminet, S; Cornelis, I; De Clercq, K; Ni, Y; Vlerick, L; de Rooster, H

    2017-06-16

    Combretastatin A4-Phosphate (CA4P) is a vascular disrupting agent revealing promising results in cancer treatments for humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and adverse events of CA4P in healthy dogs as a prerequisite to application of CA4P in dogs with cancer. Ten healthy dogs were included. The effects of escalating doses of CA4P on physical, haematological and biochemical parameters, systolic arterial blood pressure, electrocardiogram, echocardiographic variables and general wellbeing were characterised. Three different doses were tested: 50, 75 and 100 mg m(-2) . At all 3 CA4P doses, nausea, abdominal discomfort as well as diarrhoea were observed for several hours following administration. Likewise, a low-grade neutropenia was observed in all dogs. Doses of 75 and 100 mg m(-2) additionally induced vomiting and elevation of serum cardiac troponine I levels. At 100 mg m(-2) , low-grade hypertension and high-grade neurotoxicity were also observed. In healthy dogs, doses up to 75 mg m(-2) seem to be well tolerated. The severity of the neurotoxicity observed at 100 mg m(-2) , although transient, does not invite to use this dose in canine oncology patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Measuring the incentive value of escalating doses of heroin in heroin-dependent Fischer rats during acute spontaneous withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Brian; Ho, Ann; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Rationale/objectives Although continued heroin use and relapse are thought to be motivated, in part, by the positive incentive-motivational value attributed to heroin, little is understood about heroin’s incentive value during the relapse-prone state of withdrawal. This study uses place preference to measure the incentive value attributed to escalating-dose heroin in the context of heroin dependence. Methods Male Fischer rats were exposed chronically to escalating doses of heroin in the homecage and during place preference conditioning sessions. Conditioned preference for the context paired with escalating-dose heroin was tested after homecage exposure was discontinued and rats entered acute spontaneous withdrawal. Individuals’ behavioral and locomotor responses to heroin and somatic withdrawal signs were recorded. Results Conditioned preference for the heroin-paired context was strong in rats that received chronic homecage exposure to escalating-dose heroin and were tested in acute withdrawal. Behavioral responses to heroin (e.g., stereotypy) varied widely across individuals, with rats that expressed stronger heroin preference also expressing stronger behavioral activation in response to heroin. Individual differences in preference were also related to locomotor responses to heroin but not to overt somatic withdrawal signs. Conclusions Escalating doses of heroin evoked place preference in rats, suggesting that positive incentive-motivational value is attributed to this clinically relevant pattern of drug exposure. This study offers an improved preclinical model for studying dependence and withdrawal and provides insight into individual vulnerabilities to addiction-like behavior. PMID:21748254

  4. Disposition, behavioural and physiological effects of escalating doses of intravenously administered fentanyl to young foals.

    PubMed

    Knych, H K; Steffey, E P; Casbeer, H C; Mitchell, M M

    2015-09-01

    Foal responses to a broader range of plasma fentanyl concentrations than currently reported are desirable to support (or not) clinical use. To describe fentanyl plasma concentrations following an escalating i.v. fentanyl dosing schedule in foals aged 5-13 days and describe selected, associated dose- and time-related behavioural and physiological responses to plasma fentanyl concentration. Experimental. Fentanyl was administered i.v. in an escalating fashion (2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 μg/kg bwt) at 10-min intervals. Blood samples were collected before and at selected times until 24 h post administration. Blood samples were analysed for fentanyl and metabolite concentrations and correlated with behavioural and physiological observations and selected blood analytes. Foals mostly appeared to be unaffected following 2 μg/kg bwt (1.09 ± 0.41 μg/l; average maximal plasma concentration) of fentanyl, but 6 of the 8 foals appeared to be sedated following 4 μg/kg bwt (3.07 ± 1.11 μg/l). Ataxia with increased locomotor activity, muscle rigidity and head pressing posture was observed in many foals at 8 (7.24 ± 3.22 μg/l) and 16 μg/kg bwt (17.4 ± 5.67 μg/l). All foals were heavily sedated after 32 μg/kg bwt (34.5 ± 10.3 μg/l); 3 of the 8 foals became recumbent. The average (± s.d.) terminal half-life following administration of the final dose was 44.2 ± 9.85 min. Behavioural and physiological responses to i.v. fentanyl in young foals are dose related. As with mature horses, the window of fentanyl plasma concentrations related to possible clinically desirable actions appears relatively narrow. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Age, gender, and earlier opioid requirement associations with the rate of dose escalation in long-term opioid therapy.

    PubMed

    Han, Huijun; Kass, Philip H; Wilsey, Barth L; Li, Chin-Shang

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association of risk factors, age, gender, and earlier opioid requirement with the rate of dose escalation in long-term opioid therapy. This is a retrospective cohort study of 1,922 individuals identified from California's prescription drug monitoring program database who continuously used opioids from 1999 to 2007. A linear mixed-effects model was used to examine the association of age, gender, and baseline dose requirement with the rate of subsequent opioid dose change. Because of different reporting requirements before and after January 1, 2005, the analyses were conducted separately for patients' opioid use in two periods (6 years between 1999 and 2004 and 3 years between 2005 and 2007). Both the 6-year and the 3-year data showed a significant age association, with younger patients having a higher rate of dose escalation than older patients (p = 0.021 and <0.0001, respectively). Females had a lower rate of dose escalation than males, although the result did not achieve statistical significance in the 6-year data (p = 0.165 and 0.013, respectively). The higher the dose requirement a patient had at baseline, the lower the rate of dose escalation (p < 0.0001 in both periods). Age, gender, and earlier dose requirement were associated with the rate of dose change in 9-year long-term opioid therapy. Patients aged 75-100 years, being female or having large dose requirement at an earlier stage of therapy may experience a slower dose escalation or even dose decline.

  6. Can we avoid high levels of dose escalation for high-risk prostate cancer in the setting of androgen deprivation?

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, Thomas P; Wilcox, Shea W; Aherne, Noel J

    2016-01-01

    Both dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (DE-EBRT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improve outcomes in patients with high-risk prostate cancer. However, there is little evidence specifically evaluating DE-EBRT for patients with high-risk prostate cancer receiving ADT, particularly for EBRT doses >74 Gy. We aimed to determine whether DE-EBRT >74 Gy improves outcomes for patients with high-risk prostate cancer receiving long-term ADT. Patients with high-risk prostate cancer were treated on an institutional protocol prescribing 3-6 months neoadjuvant ADT and DE-EBRT, followed by 2 years of adjuvant ADT. Between 2006 and 2012, EBRT doses were escalated from 74 Gy to 76 Gy and then to 78 Gy. We interrogated our electronic medical record to identify these patients and analyzed our results by comparing dose levels. In all, 479 patients were treated with a 68-month median follow-up. The 5-year biochemical disease-free survivals for the 74 Gy, 76 Gy, and 78 Gy groups were 87.8%, 86.9%, and 91.6%, respectively. The metastasis-free survivals were 95.5%, 94.5%, and 93.9%, respectively, and the prostate cancer-specific survivals were 100%, 94.4%, and 98.1%, respectively. Dose escalation had no impact on any outcome in either univariate or multivariate analysis. There was no benefit of DE-EBRT >74 Gy in our cohort of high-risk prostate patients treated with long-term ADT. As dose escalation has higher risks of radiotherapy-induced toxicity, it may be feasible to omit dose escalation beyond 74 Gy in this group of patients. Randomized studies evaluating dose escalation for high-risk patients receiving ADT should be considered.

  7. Can we avoid high levels of dose escalation for high-risk prostate cancer in the setting of androgen deprivation?

    PubMed Central

    Shakespeare, Thomas P; Wilcox, Shea W; Aherne, Noel J

    2016-01-01

    Aim Both dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (DE-EBRT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improve outcomes in patients with high-risk prostate cancer. However, there is little evidence specifically evaluating DE-EBRT for patients with high-risk prostate cancer receiving ADT, particularly for EBRT doses >74 Gy. We aimed to determine whether DE-EBRT >74 Gy improves outcomes for patients with high-risk prostate cancer receiving long-term ADT. Patients and methods Patients with high-risk prostate cancer were treated on an institutional protocol prescribing 3–6 months neoadjuvant ADT and DE-EBRT, followed by 2 years of adjuvant ADT. Between 2006 and 2012, EBRT doses were escalated from 74 Gy to 76 Gy and then to 78 Gy. We interrogated our electronic medical record to identify these patients and analyzed our results by comparing dose levels. Results In all, 479 patients were treated with a 68-month median follow-up. The 5-year biochemical disease-free survivals for the 74 Gy, 76 Gy, and 78 Gy groups were 87.8%, 86.9%, and 91.6%, respectively. The metastasis-free survivals were 95.5%, 94.5%, and 93.9%, respectively, and the prostate cancer-specific survivals were 100%, 94.4%, and 98.1%, respectively. Dose escalation had no impact on any outcome in either univariate or multivariate analysis. Conclusion There was no benefit of DE-EBRT >74 Gy in our cohort of high-risk prostate patients treated with long-term ADT. As dose escalation has higher risks of radiotherapy-induced toxicity, it may be feasible to omit dose escalation beyond 74 Gy in this group of patients. Randomized studies evaluating dose escalation for high-risk patients receiving ADT should be considered. PMID:27274277

  8. Low-dose dexamethasone as a treatment for women with heavy menstrual bleeding: protocol for response-adaptive randomised placebo-controlled dose-finding parallel group trial (DexFEM)

    PubMed Central

    Warner, P; Weir, C J; Hansen, C H; Douglas, A; Madhra, M; Hillier, S G; Saunders, P T K; Iredale, J P; Semple, S; Walker, B R; Critchley, H O D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) diminishes individual quality-of-life and poses substantial societal burden. In HMB endometrium, inactivation of cortisol (by enzyme 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2)), may cause local endometrial glucocorticoid deficiency and hence increased angiogenesis and impaired vasoconstriction. We propose that ‘rescue’ of luteal phase endometrial glucocorticoid deficiency could reduce menstrual bleeding. Methods and analysis DexFEM is a double-blind response-adaptive parallel-group placebo-controlled trial in women with HMB (108 to be randomised), with active treatment the potent oral synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone, which is relatively resistant to 11βHSD2 inactivation. Participants will be aged over 18 years, with mean measured menstrual blood loss (MBL) for two screening cycles ≥50 mL. The primary outcome is reduction in MBL from screening. Secondary end points are questionnaire assessments of treatment effect and acceptability. Treatment will be for 5 days in the mid-luteal phases of three treatment menstrual cycles. Six doses of low-dose dexamethasone (ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 mg twice daily) will be compared with placebo, to ascertain optimal dose, and whether this has advantage over placebo. Statistical efficiency is maximised by allowing randomisation probabilities to ‘adapt’ at five points during enrolment phase, based on the response data available so far, to favour doses expected to provide greatest additional information on the dose–response. Bayesian Normal Dynamic Linear Modelling, with baseline MBL included as covariate, will determine optimal dose (re reduction in MBL). Secondary end points will be analysed using generalised dynamic linear models. For each dose for all end points, a 95% credible interval will be calculated for effect versus placebo. Ethics and dissemination Dexamethasone is widely used and hence well-characterised safety-wise. Ethical approval has been

  9. Adalimumab Maintenance Treatment in Ulcerative Colitis: Outcomes by Prior Anti-TNF Use and Efficacy of Dose Escalation.

    PubMed

    Taxonera, Carlos; Iglesias, Eva; Muñoz, Fernando; Calvo, Marta; Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel; Busquets, David; Calvet, Xavier; Rodríguez, Antonio; Pajares, Ramón; Gisbert, Javier P; López-Serrano, Pilar; Pérez-Calle, José Luís; Ponferrada, Ángel; De la Coba, Cristóbal; Bermejo, Fernando; Chaparro, María; Olivares, David; Alba, Cristina; Fernández-Blanco, Ignacio

    2017-02-01

    The impact of prior anti-TNF use on "real-life" outcomes of adalimumab therapy in ulcerative colitis (UC) is not well known. To compare the influence of prior anti-TNF use on the outcomes of adalimumab maintenance treatment in UC patients. We also assessed the effectiveness of adalimumab dose escalation. This retrospective multicenter cohort study included consecutive UC who advanced to an adalimumab maintenance regimen. Patients in whom adalimumab was discontinued prior to week eight of treatment were excluded. The co-primary efficacy endpoints were the cumulative probabilities of adalimumab failure-free survival and colectomy-free survival. We also assessed the need for and the effectiveness of adalimumab dose escalation. Of 184 UC on maintenance treatment with adalimumab, 116 (63%) had previous anti-TNF use. After a median follow-up of 23 months (interquartile range 13-49), 112 patients (60%) maintained corticosteroid-free clinical response. Sixty-nine patients (37%) had adalimumab failure, and 22 (12%) needed colectomy. Anti-TNF-naïve patients had significantly lower adjusted rates of adalimumab failure (hazard ratio [HR] 0.65; p < 0.001), adalimumab dose escalation (HR 0.35; p = 0.002), and need for colectomy (HR 0.26; p < 0.004). Seventy-six patients (41%) needed dose escalation after secondary loss of response, and 47% of these regained response after escalation. Short-term response after escalation was identified as a significant predictor of colectomy avoidance (HR 0.53; p = 0.007). In this "real-life" cohort of UC patients on maintenance treatment with adalimumab, anti-TNF-naïve patients had significantly better long-term outcomes. Adalimumab dose escalation enabled recovery of response in nearly half of patients.

  10. The dose-dependent efficiency of radial shock wave therapy for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: a prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Ming-Jen; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Chou, Yu-Ching; Li, Tsung-Ying; Chu, Heng-Yi; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Wu, Yung-Tsan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been shown to be a novel therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, previous studies did not examine the diverse effects of different-session ESWT for different-grades CTS. Thus, we conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study. Sixty-nine patients (90 wrists) with mild to moderate CTS were randomized into 3 groups. Group A and C patients received one session of radial ESWT (rESWT) and sham eESWT per week for 3 consecutive weeks, respectively; Group B patients received a single session of rESWT. The night splint was also used in all patients. The primary outcome was Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ) points, whereas secondary outcomes included the sensory nerve conduction velocity and cross-sectional area of the median nerve. Evaluations were performed at 4, 10, and 14 weeks after the first session of rESWT. Compared to the control group, the three-session rESWT group demonstrated significant BCTQ point reductions at least 14 weeks, and the effect was much longer lasting in patients with moderate CTS than mild CTS. In contrast, the effect of single-session rESWT showed insignificant comparison. rESWT is a valuable strategy for treating CTS and multiple-session rESWT has a clinically cumulative effect. PMID:27910920

  11. The dose-dependent efficiency of radial shock wave therapy for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: a prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ke, Ming-Jen; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Chou, Yu-Ching; Li, Tsung-Ying; Chu, Heng-Yi; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Wu, Yung-Tsan

    2016-12-02

    Recently, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been shown to be a novel therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, previous studies did not examine the diverse effects of different-session ESWT for different-grades CTS. Thus, we conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study. Sixty-nine patients (90 wrists) with mild to moderate CTS were randomized into 3 groups. Group A and C patients received one session of radial ESWT (rESWT) and sham eESWT per week for 3 consecutive weeks, respectively; Group B patients received a single session of rESWT. The night splint was also used in all patients. The primary outcome was Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ) points, whereas secondary outcomes included the sensory nerve conduction velocity and cross-sectional area of the median nerve. Evaluations were performed at 4, 10, and 14 weeks after the first session of rESWT. Compared to the control group, the three-session rESWT group demonstrated significant BCTQ point reductions at least 14 weeks, and the effect was much longer lasting in patients with moderate CTS than mild CTS. In contrast, the effect of single-session rESWT showed insignificant comparison. rESWT is a valuable strategy for treating CTS and multiple-session rESWT has a clinically cumulative effect.

  12. Dose-Escalation Study for Cardiac Radiosurgery in a Porcine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Blanck, Oliver; Bode, Frank; Gebhard, Maximilian; Hunold, Peter; Brandt, Sebastian; Bruder, Ralf; Grossherr, Martin; Vonthein, Reinhard; Rades, Dirk; Dunst, Juergen

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To perform a proof-of-principle dose-escalation study to radiosurgically induce scarring in cardiac muscle tissue to block veno-atrial electrical connections at the pulmonary vein antrum, similar to catheter ablation. Methods and Materials: Nine mini-pigs underwent pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of heart function and electrophysiology assessment by catheter measurements in the right superior pulmonary vein (RSPV). Immediately after examination, radiosurgery with randomized single-fraction doses of 0 and 17.5-35 Gy in 2.5-Gy steps were delivered to the RSPV antrum (target volume 5-8 cm{sup 3}). MRI and electrophysiology were repeated 6 months after therapy, followed by histopathologic examination. Results: Transmural scarring of cardiac muscle tissue was noted with doses ≥32.5 Gy. However, complete circumferential scarring of the RSPV was not achieved. Logistic regressions showed that extent and intensity of fibrosis significantly increased with dose. The 50% effective dose for intense fibrosis was 31.3 Gy (odds ratio 2.47/Gy, P<.01). Heart function was not affected, as verified by MRI and electrocardiogram evaluation. Adjacent critical structures were not damaged, as verified by pathology, demonstrating the short-term safety of small-volume cardiac radiosurgery with doses up to 35 Gy. Conclusions: Radiosurgery with doses >32.5 Gy in the healthy pig heart can induce circumscribed scars at the RSPV antrum noninvasively, mimicking the effect of catheter ablation. In our study we established a significant dose-response relationship for cardiac radiosurgery. The long-term effects and toxicity of such high radiation doses need further investigation in the pursuit of cardiac radiosurgery for noninvasive treatment of atrial fibrillation.

  13. Biological dose escalation and hypofractionation: what is there to be gained and how will it best be done?

    PubMed

    Tree, A C; Alexander, E J; Van As, N J; Dearnaley, D P; Khoo, V

    2013-08-01

    The evidence supporting dose escalation for localised prostate cancer is widely accepted, but in tandem with improvements in biochemical control, dose escalation increases side-effects. In a scenario where most patients achieve control of their cancer, quality of life concerns predominate. Here we examine the biological ways in which an effective dose can be escalated without an unacceptable increase in toxicity. Possible avenues include exploiting the unusual radiobiology of prostate cancer by hypofractionation, the use of image guidance, adaptive planning and prostate motion management. We await with anticipation the results of large randomised trials of hypofractionation, moderate and profound, to establish whether we can further improve the balance between cure and quality of life.

  14. Daptomycin pharmacokinetics and safety following administration of escalating doses once daily to healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Dvorchik, Barry H; Brazier, David; DeBruin, Michael F; Arbeit, Robert D

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the pharmacokinetics and safety of escalating, once-daily doses of daptomycin, a novel lipopeptide antibiotic active against gram-positive pathogens, including those resistant to methicillin and vancomycin. This phase 1, multiple-dose, double-blind study involved 24 healthy subjects in three dose cohorts (4, 6, and 8 mg/kg of body weight) who were randomized to receive daptomycin or the control at a 3:1 ratio and administered the study medication by a 30-min intravenous infusion every 24 h for 7 to 14 days. Daptomycin pharmacokinetics was assessed by blood and urine sampling. Safety and tolerability were evaluated by monitoring adverse events (AEs) and laboratory parameters. Daptomycin pharmacokinetics was linear through 6 mg/kg, with a slight ( approximately 20%) nonlinearity in the area under the curve and trough concentration at the highest dose studied (8 mg/kg). The pharmacokinetic parameters measured on the median day of the study period, (day 7) were half-life ( approximately 9 h), volume of distribution ( approximately 0.1 liters/kg), systemic clearance ( approximately 8.2 ml/h/kg), and percentage of the drug excreted intact in urine from 0 to 24 h ( approximately 54%). Daptomycin protein binding (mean amount bound, 91.7%) was independent of the drug concentration. No gender effect was observed. All subjects who received daptomycin completed the study. The frequencies and distributions of treatment-emergent AEs were similar for the subjects who received daptomycin and the control subjects. There were no serious AEs and no pattern of dose-related events. The pharmacokinetics of once-daily administration of daptomycin was linear through 6 mg/kg. For all three doses, plasma daptomycin concentrations were consistent and predictable throughout the dosing interval. Daptomycin was well tolerated when it was administered once daily at a dose as high as 8 mg/kg for 14 days.

  15. Low-dose atorvastatin reduces ambulatory blood pressure in patients with mild hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kanaki, A I; Sarafidis, P A; Georgianos, P I; Stafylas, P C; Kanavos, K; Tziolas, I M; Lasaridis, A N

    2012-10-01

    Among several beneficial cardiovascular actions of statins, experimental studies have suggested that statins may also induce a mild blood pressure (BP) reduction. However, clinical data were controversial and the potential hypotensive statin effect remains uncertain. This study aimed to investigate the effect of atorvastatin on ambulatory BP in patients with mild hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. A total of 50 patients with mild hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia participated in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomized to either 10 mg atorvastatin or placebo for 26 weeks. Background antihypertensive treatment, if any, remained unchanged during follow-up. At baseline and study-end (26 weeks), ambulatory BP monitoring and blood sampling for determination of standard biochemical and safety parameters were performed in all participants. BP loads were defined as the percentage of BP measurements exceeding the hypertension threshold of 140/90 mm Hg for daytime and 125/75 mm Hg nighttime period. Atorvastatin significantly reduced 24-h systolic and diastolic BP (DBP; median (range)) as compared with placebo (-5.0 (-21.0, 4.0) vs +1.0 (-6.0, 7.0) mm Hg, P<0.001 and -3.0 (-16.0, 2.0) vs +0.1 (-7, 4) mm Hg, P<0.01, respectively). Reductions in systolic and DBP loads during follow-up were also evident in the atorvastatin, but not in the placebo group. BP-lowering effects of atorvastatin were consistent in both daytime and nighttime periods. This study shows a mild, but consistent throughout the 24-h period BP-lowering effect of atorvastatin in patients with mild hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. This beneficial effect of atorvastatin on BP may represent another pathway through which this drug class provides cardiovascular risk reduction.

  16. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study adding high dose vitamin D to analgesic regimens in patients with musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Gendelman, O; Itzhaki, D; Makarov, S; Bennun, M; Amital, H

    2015-04-01

    The current mode of therapy for many patients with musculoskeletal pain is unsatisfactory. We aimed to assess the impact of adding 4000 IU of vitamin D on pain and serological parameters in patients with musculoskeletal pain. This was a randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled study assessing the effect of 4000 IU of orally given vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) (four gel capsules of 1000 IU, (SupHerb, Israel) vs. placebo on different parameters of pain. Eighty patients were enrolled and therapy was given for 3 months. Parameters were scored at three time points: prior to intervention, at week 6 and week 12. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores of pain perception were recorded following 6 and 12 weeks. We also measured serum levels of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by ELISA. The group receiving vitamin D achieved a statistically significant larger decline of their VAS measurement throughout the study compared with the placebo group. The need for analgesic 'rescue therapy' was significantly lower among the vitamin D-treated group. TNFα levels decreased by 54.3% in the group treated with vitamin D and increased by 16.1% in the placebo group. PGE2 decreased by39.2% in the group treated with vitamin D and increased by 16% in the placebo group. LTB4 levels decreased in both groups by 24% (p < 0.05). Adding 4000 IU of vitamin D for patients with musculoskeletal pain may lead to a faster decline of consecutive VAS scores and to a decrease in the levels of inflammatory and pain-related cytokines. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. The influence of established and new antiepileptic drugs on visual perception. 1. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, single-dose study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Steinhoff, B J; Freudenthaler, N; Paulus, W

    1997-12-01

    The influence of single oral dosages of carbamazepine (CBZ), valproic acid, vigabatrin (VGB), lamotrigine (LTG), gabapentin (GBP), and losigamone (LSG) on visual perception was investigated in ten healthy volunteers according to a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study design. The test battery comprised visual acuity, the Lanthony-D-15-désaturé colour perception test, increment, postadaptation and transient tritanopia threshold measurements, perception threshold assessment for monochromatic and chromatic gaussian dots, monochromatic gratings and gratings of differing spatial frequency, and critical flicker fusion tests with various stimuli. The only consistent and partly significant effects were seen after VGB and GBP. After VGB, increment, postadaptation and transient tritanopia thresholds and the critical flicker fusion increased, whereas GBP led to a somewhat converse profile. The other tests were not influenced consistently by any antiepileptic drug (AED). We conclude that: (i) gamma-amino-butyric acid-(GABA)-related properties as under the prototype drug VGB result in specific alterations of the transient tritanopia phenomenon which is consistent with the physiological hypothesis for this retinal paradigm based on extracellular recordings in primates. The possible mechanisms why VGB improved critical flicker fusion as the only AED in this trial are discussed. The profile of GBP indicates a unique mechanism of action. We have not observed specific influences on visual perception under AEDs which act mainly via alterations of ion membrane conductance. The transient tritanopia and flicker fusion paradigms we used appear to be promising to investigate antiepileptic drugs with hitherto unknown modes of actions in human noninvasively.

  18. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Active-Reference, Double-Blind, Flexible-Dose Study of the Efficacy of Vortioxetine on Cognitive Function in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Mahableshwarkar, Atul R; Zajecka, John; Jacobson, William; Chen, Yinzhong; Keefe, Richard S E

    2015-07-01

    This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-referenced (duloxetine 60 mg), parallel-group study evaluated the short-term efficacy and safety of vortioxetine (10-20 mg) on cognitive function in adults (aged 18-65 years) diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) who self-reported cognitive dysfunction. Efficacy was evaluated using ANCOVA for the change from baseline to week 8 in the digit symbol substitution test (DSST)-number of correct symbols as the prespecified primary end point. The patient-reported perceived deficits questionnaire (PDQ) and physician-assessed clinical global impression (CGI) were analyzed in a prespecified hierarchical testing sequence as key secondary end points. Additional predefined end points included the objective performance-based University of San Diego performance-based skills assessment (UPSA) (ANCOVA) to measure functionality, MADRS (MMRM) to assess efficacy in depression, and a prespecified multiple regression analysis (path analysis) to calculate direct vs indirect effects of vortioxetine on cognitive function. Safety and tolerability were assessed at all visits. Vortioxetine was statistically superior to placebo on the DSST (P < 0.05), PDQ (P < 0.01), CGI-I (P < 0.001), MADRS (P < 0.05), and UPSA (P < 0.001). Path analysis indicated that vortioxetine's cognitive benefit was primarily a direct treatment effect rather than due to alleviation of depressive symptoms. Duloxetine was not significantly different from placebo on the DSST or UPSA, but was superior to placebo on the PDQ, CGI-I, and MADRS. Common adverse events (incidence ⩾ 5%) for vortioxetine were nausea, headache, and diarrhea. In this study of MDD adults who self-reported cognitive dysfunction, vortioxetine significantly improved cognitive function, depression, and functionality and was generally well tolerated.

  19. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of 2 doses of vortioxetine in adults with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Mahableshwarkar, Atul R; Jacobsen, Paula L; Serenko, Michael; Chen, Yinzhong; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2015-05-01

    This 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, conducted August 2010-May 2012 in the United States, evaluated the safety and efficacy of vortioxetine 10 mg and 15 mg in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The mechanism of action of vortioxetine is thought to be related to direct modulation of serotonin (5-HT) receptor activity and inhibition of the serotonin transporter. Adults aged 18-75 years with MDD (DSM-IV-TR) and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score ≥ 26 were randomized (1:1:1) to receive vortioxetine 10 mg or 15 mg or placebo once daily, with the primary efficacy end point being change from baseline at week 8 in MADRS analyzed by mixed model for repeated measures. Adverse events were recorded during the study, suicidal ideation and behavior were assessed using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), and sexual dysfunction was assessed using the Arizona Sexual Experience (ASEX) scale. Of the 1,111 subjects screened, 469 subjects were randomized: 160 to placebo, 157 to vortioxetine 10 mg, and 152 to vortioxetine 15 mg. Differences from placebo in the primary efficacy end point were not statistically significant for vortioxetine 10 mg or vortioxetine 15 mg. Nausea, headache, dry mouth, constipation, diarrhea, vomiting, dizziness, and flatulence were reported in ≥ 5% of subjects receiving vortioxetine. Discontinuation due to adverse events occurred in 7 subjects (4.4%) in the placebo group, 8 (5.2%) in the vortioxetine 10 mg group, and 12 (7.9%) in the vortioxetine 15 mg group. ASEX total scores were similar across groups. There were no clinically significant trends within or between treatment groups on the C-SSRS, laboratory values, electrocardiogram, or vital sign parameters. In this study, vortioxetine did not differ significantly from placebo on MADRS total score after 8 weeks of treatment in MDD subjects. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01179516. © Copyright 2015 Physicians

  20. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Active-Reference, Double-Blind, Flexible-Dose Study of the Efficacy of Vortioxetine on Cognitive Function in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mahableshwarkar, Atul R; Zajecka, John; Jacobson, William; Chen, Yinzhong; Keefe, Richard SE

    2015-01-01

    This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-referenced (duloxetine 60 mg), parallel-group study evaluated the short-term efficacy and safety of vortioxetine (10–20 mg) on cognitive function in adults (aged 18–65 years) diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) who self-reported cognitive dysfunction. Efficacy was evaluated using ANCOVA for the change from baseline to week 8 in the digit symbol substitution test (DSST)–number of correct symbols as the prespecified primary end point. The patient-reported perceived deficits questionnaire (PDQ) and physician-assessed clinical global impression (CGI) were analyzed in a prespecified hierarchical testing sequence as key secondary end points. Additional predefined end points included the objective performance-based University of San Diego performance-based skills assessment (UPSA) (ANCOVA) to measure functionality, MADRS (MMRM) to assess efficacy in depression, and a prespecified multiple regression analysis (path analysis) to calculate direct vs indirect effects of vortioxetine on cognitive function. Safety and tolerability were assessed at all visits. Vortioxetine was statistically superior to placebo on the DSST (P<0.05), PDQ (P<0.01), CGI-I (P<0.001), MADRS (P<0.05), and UPSA (P<0.001). Path analysis indicated that vortioxetine's cognitive benefit was primarily a direct treatment effect rather than due to alleviation of depressive symptoms. Duloxetine was not significantly different from placebo on the DSST or UPSA, but was superior to placebo on the PDQ, CGI-I, and MADRS. Common adverse events (incidence ⩾5%) for vortioxetine were nausea, headache, and diarrhea. In this study of MDD adults who self-reported cognitive dysfunction, vortioxetine significantly improved cognitive function, depression, and functionality and was generally well tolerated. PMID:25687662

  1. Escalating dose pretreatment induces pharmacodynamic and not pharmacokinetic tolerance to a subsequent high-dose methamphetamine binge.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Meghan L; Kuczenski, Ronald; Segal, David S; Cho, Arthur K; Lacan, Goran; Melega, William P

    2006-11-01

    A major feature of human methamphetamine (METH) abuse is the gradual dose escalation that precedes high-dose exposure. The period of escalating doses (EDs) is likely associated with development of tolerance to aspects of METH's pharmacologic and toxic effects but the relative contributions of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors have not been well defined. In our prior studies in rats, we showed that pretreatment with an ED-METH regimen (0.1-4.0 mg/kg over 14 days) attenuated the toxicity of a subsequently administered high-dose METH binge (4 x 6 mg/kg at 2 h interval) that itself produced behavioral stereotypy, increases in core temperature, and decreases in DA system phenotypic markers in caudate-putamen (CP). Using those ED-METH and binge protocols in the present studies, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters that may have contributed to the apparent neuroprotection afforded by ED-METH were assessed. The ED-METH regimen itself reduced [(3)H]WIN35,428 (WIN) binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT) by 15% in CP, but did not affect DA content. During the METH binge, ED-METH pretreated animals showed attenuated increases in core temperature while concurrent microdialysis studies in CP showed a reduced DA response despite unaltered extracellular levels of METH. At 1 h after the binge, concentrations of METH and its metabolite amphetamine in brain and plasma were unaffected by the ED-METH. The results show that ED-METH pretreatment produces reductions in DAT binding and the DA response during a subsequent METH binge by altering pharmacodynamic and not pharmacokinetic parameters.

  2. Dose-Escalated Robotic SBRT for Stage I-II Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Meier, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is the precise external delivery of very high-dose radiotherapy to targets in the body, with treatment completed in one to five fractions. SBRT should be an ideal approach for organ-confined prostate cancer because (I) dose-escalation should yield improved rates of cancer control; (II) the unique radiobiology of prostate cancer favors hypofractionation; and (III) the conformal nature of SBRT minimizes high-dose radiation delivery to immediately adjacent organs, potentially reducing complications. This approach is also more convenient for patients, and is cheaper than intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Several external beam platforms are capable of delivering SBRT for early-stage prostate cancer, although most of the mature reported series have employed a robotic non-coplanar platform (i.e., CyberKnife). Several large studies report 5-year biochemical relapse rates which compare favorably to IMRT. Rates of late GU toxicity are similar to those seen with IMRT, and rates of late rectal toxicity may be less than with IMRT and low-dose rate brachytherapy. Patient-reported quality of life (QOL) outcomes appear similar to IMRT in the urinary domain. Bowel QOL may be less adversely affected by SBRT than with other radiation modalities. After 5 years of follow-up, SBRT delivered on a robotic platform is yielding outcomes at least as favorable as IMRT, and may be considered appropriate therapy for stage I-II prostate cancer.

  3. Dose-Escalated Robotic SBRT for Stage I–II Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is the precise external delivery of very high-dose radiotherapy to targets in the body, with treatment completed in one to five fractions. SBRT should be an ideal approach for organ-confined prostate cancer because (I) dose-escalation should yield improved rates of cancer control; (II) the unique radiobiology of prostate cancer favors hypofractionation; and (III) the conformal nature of SBRT minimizes high-dose radiation delivery to immediately adjacent organs, potentially reducing complications. This approach is also more convenient for patients, and is cheaper than intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Several external beam platforms are capable of delivering SBRT for early-stage prostate cancer, although most of the mature reported series have employed a robotic non-coplanar platform (i.e., CyberKnife). Several large studies report 5-year biochemical relapse rates which compare favorably to IMRT. Rates of late GU toxicity are similar to those seen with IMRT, and rates of late rectal toxicity may be less than with IMRT and low-dose rate brachytherapy. Patient-reported quality of life (QOL) outcomes appear similar to IMRT in the urinary domain. Bowel QOL may be less adversely affected by SBRT than with other radiation modalities. After 5 years of follow-up, SBRT delivered on a robotic platform is yielding outcomes at least as favorable as IMRT, and may be considered appropriate therapy for stage I–II prostate cancer. PMID:25905037

  4. Negative clinical results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of two doses of immunologically enhanced, grass subcutaneous immunotherapy despite dose-dependent immunological response.

    PubMed

    Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Walmar, Mikkel; Bitsch-Jensen, Klaus; Decot, Elke; Pfaar, Oliver; de Rojas, Dolores Hernández Fernández; Rodriguez, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    Specific immunotherapy is the only treatment for the underlying allergic disease in patients with respiratory allergies. The primary objective of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two maintenance doses of immunologically enhanced, standardised quality (SQ+) grass subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) [4,000 SQ+ and 15,000 SQ+; AVANZ(®) Phleum pratense (ALK)] compared with placebo. This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II/III trial. The primary evaluation was based on the combined rhinoconjunctivitis score during the entire grass pollen season. Adult subjects with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis interfering with usual activities or sleep despite symptomatic medication use, were enrolled. Four hundred and fifty subjects were randomised to receive either 4,000 SQ+ (n = 150), 15,000 SQ+ (n = 152) or placebo (n = 148). The average grass pollen exposure was 27 grains/m(3)/day. No statistically significant differences between the active groups and the placebo group were found for clinical endpoints (p > 0.05). Highly statistically significant (p < 0.001) increases in IgG4 and IgE-blocking factor were found for both active groups versus placebo. The most frequently reported adverse events were mild-to-moderate local injection-site reactions; events were generally more frequent with 15,000 SQ+ than with 4,000 SQ+ and placebo. The most common adverse events leading to premature discontinuation from the trial were anaphylactic reactions (one subject from the placebo group and five subjects from the 15,000 SQ+ group). The inconclusive results were most probably influenced by a very low grass pollen season. Other factors such as the extent of the pre-seasonal treatment could potentially have contributed. The tolerability profile was acceptable for further development.

  5. Iranian Low-dose Escalating Prophylaxis Regimen in Children with Severe Hemophilia A and B.

    PubMed

    Eshghi, Peyman; Sadeghi, Elham; Tara, S Zahra; Habibpanah, Behnaz; Hantooshzadeh, Razieh

    2017-01-01

    Establishing an appropriate prophylaxis regimen for children with hemophilia is a critical challenge in developing countries. Barriers including availability and affordability, catheter-related complications, and inhibitor development risks have led to the introduction of new tailored prophylaxis regimens in different countries. This study emphasizes on the benefits of the Iranian low-dose escalating prophylaxis regimen in a Hemophilia Comprehensive Care Center in Iran. Referred patients with hemophilia less than 15 years of age, who were subject to prophylaxis regimen, are studied retrospectively. A once-weekly prophylaxis regimen of 25 IU/kg was started for the patients primarily. Their prophylaxis regimen was changed to 25 IU/kg twice a week and then 3 times a week when they experienced 3 joint bleedings, 4 soft tissue bleedings, or a 1 life-threatening bleed without a specific trauma history. Overall, 25 patients with severe hemophilia and at least 6-month history of on-demand (OD) treatment were studied. A mean of 1754 IU/kg/yr of coagulation factors, used for OD and prophylaxis purposes, was sufficient to decrease the mean annual bleeding rate (ABR) to 1.86 after prophylaxis. It also reduced the mean hospitalization days and the mean number of target joints to 0.24 and 0.16, respectively. Overall, 19 (76%) patients were continuing their once-weekly regimen at the end of the follow-up. None of the patients needed 3-times-a-week regimen or central venous catheterization and none developed inhibitors in the follow-up. Benefits of the Iranian low-dose escalating prophylaxis regimen prove equal to some of the previous 3-times-a-week prophylaxis regimens in reducing the ABR and hospitalizations.

  6. Chemoradiation of Hepatic Malignancies: Prospective, Phase 1 Study of Full-Dose Capecitabine With Escalating Doses of Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, Ryan; Mulcahy, Mary F.; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Gates, Vanessa L.; Vouche, Michael; Habib, Ali; Kircher, Sheetal; Newman, Steven; Nimeiri, Halla; Benson, Al B.; Salem, Riad

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: Radiosensitizing chemotherapy improves the outcomes in comparison with radiation alone for gastrointestinal cancers. The delivery of radiation therapy with yttrium90 ({sup 90}Y) radioembolization, in combination with the radiosensitizing chemotherapeutic agent capecitabine, provides the opportunity to enhance the effects of radiation on hepatic malignancies. This phase 1 study sought to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of {sup 90}Y plus capecitabine in patients with cholangiocarcinoma or liver metastases confined to the liver. Methods and Materials: Patients were given initial treatment at full-dose capecitabine during days 1 to 14 of a 21-day cycle. At days 1 to 7 of the second cycle, whole-liver {sup 90}Y was given at the test dose, after which time capecitabine was continued. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was determined 6 weeks after {sup 90}Y infusion. If a DLT was not observed, the {sup 90}Y dose was escalated. The planned dose cohorts were 110, 130, 150, and 170 Gy. The primary endpoint was to determine the MTD of {sup 90}Y with full-dose capecitabine. Results: Sixteen patients were treated according to the study protocol. Two patients experienced DLTs. Nine patients required capecitabine dose reduction as a result of toxicities attributable to capecitabine alone. The criteria for establishing {sup 90}Y MTD were not met, indicating an MTD of >170 Gy. Conclusion: The MTD of {sup 90}Y delivered in conjunction with capecitabine in the setting of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma or metastatic disease confined to the liver exceeds 170 Gy. This is the highest {sup 90}Y dose reported to date and has important implications on combined therapy with the radiosensitizing oral chemotherapeutic capecitabine. Further studies are under way.

  7. Safety and efficacy of tocotrienol supplementation for bone health in postmenopausal women: protocol for a dose-response double-blinded placebo-controlled randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Mo, Huanbiao; Yang, Shengping; Wang, Shu; Felton, Carol K; Tomison, Michael D; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana

    2016-12-23

    Osteoporosis is a major health concern in postmenopausal women, and oxidative stress contributes to the development of bone loss. Cellular studies and ovariectomised rat model mimicking bone loss in postmenopausal women show the bone-protective effect of tocotrienols (TTs) with antioxidant capability. We aim to access the safety and efficacy of TT consumption for bone health in postmenopausal women. In this 12-week randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled trial for the effects of dietary TT supplementation in postmenopausal women, postmenopausal women aged 45 years and older with at least 1 year after menopause and bone mineral density T-score at the spine and/or hip 2.5 or more below the reference values will be randomly assigned to 3 daily supplements: (1) placebo group receiving 860 mg olive oil, (2) low TT group receiving 430 mg of 70% pure TTs (containing 300 mg TT) and (3) high TT group receiving 860 mg of 70% pure TTs (600 mg TT). The primary outcome measure will be urinary N-terminal telopeptide. The secondary outcome measures will be serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, osteoprotegerin, urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and quality of life. At 0, 6 and 12 weeks, the following will be assessed: (1) primary and secondary outcome measures; (2) serum TT and tocopherol concentrations; (3) physical activity and food frequency questionnaires. Liver function will be monitored every 6 weeks for safety. 'Intent-to-treat' principle will be employed for data analysis. A model of repeated measurements with random effect error terms will be applied. Analysis of covariance, χ(2) analysis and regression will be used for comparisons. This study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center. The findings of this trial will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal in the areas of bone or nutrition and international conferences. NCT02058420; results

  8. Escalating doses of transdermal nicotine in heavy smokers: effects on smoking behavior and craving.

    PubMed

    Selby, Peter; Andriash, Katherine; Zawertailo, Laurie; Persad, Desmond; Zack, Martin; Busto, Usoa E

    2013-10-01

    Fixed-dose nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is efficacious for smoking cessation in the general population of smokers. However, it is less effective in populations with psychiatric comorbidities and/or severe tobacco dependence where the percent nicotine replacement is suboptimal. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the effectiveness of nicotine patch dose titration in response to continued smoking in heavily dependent smokers with psychiatric comorbidity. In a single-arm, open-label study adult smokers (mean cigarettes per day, 25.4 ± 13.4; range, 14-43; n = 12) willing to quit were treated with escalating doses of transdermal nicotine and brief counseling intervention if they continued to smoke over a 9-week treatment period. Plasma nicotine and cotinine, along with expired carbon monoxide levels, and the subjective effects of smoking, urge to smoke, demand elasticity, and mood symptoms were also assessed. The mean NRT dose was 32.7 (SD, 16.4) mg/d (range, 7-56 mg/d). Smokers reported significant reductions in both cigarettes per day (mean decrease, 18.4 ± 11.5) confirmed by expired carbon monoxide (mean decrease, 13.5 ± 13.0) with no significant changes in plasma nicotine concentrations during the course of NRT dose titration. There were significant effects on the subjective effects of smoking and measures of smoking behavior. Most commonly reported adverse events were respiratory infections, skin irritation at patch site, nausea, and sleep disturbances, which were generally mild and transient. Titrating doses of NRT to effect with brief intervention hold promise as an effective clinical strategy to assist heavily dependent psychiatrically ill smokers to change their smoking behavior.

  9. A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects of two doses of a valerian preparation on the sleep, cognitive and psychomotor function of sleep-disturbed older adults.

    PubMed

    Diaper, A; Hindmarch, I

    2004-10-01

    One of the most popular herbal remedies for the alleviation of sleep problems is valerian. However, research into valerian is sparse, and studies differ greatly with respect to design, measures, and preparations used. This clinical study used standardized sleep EEG and psychometric tests to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a valerian preparation (Li 156). A placebo-controlled three way crossover clinical trial was completed using 16 (5 male and 11 female) sleep-disturbed participants (aged 50 to 64 years, mean age 55.9, SD 4.68). Participants slept overnight in a sleep laboratory, following a 21:00 hours dose of valerian 300 mg, valerian 600 mg, or placebo (double-blind). EEG sleep was recorded for each participant at 23:00 hours until 07:00 hours, when a psychometric evaluation was performed the morning after dose. Test periods were separated by six days washout period. Results showed no significant effect between valerian 300 mg, valerian 600 mg or placebo on any EEG parameter or psychometric measure. This suggests valerian at these doses is ineffective as an acute dose for sleep problems. However, valerian is widely used, and is traditionally sedative. Therefore, more research is required into therapeutic dose, types of valerian preparation, and the optimum period of use for therapeutic effect.

  10. Effect of Two or Six Doses 800 mg of Albendazole Every Two Months on Loa loa Microfilaraemia: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kamgno, Joseph; Nguipdop-Djomo, Patrick; Gounoue, Raceline; Téjiokem, Mathurin; Kuesel, Annette C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Loiasis is a parasitic infection endemic in the African rain forest caused by the filarial nematode Loa loa. Loiasis can be co-endemic with onchocerciasis and/or lymphatic filariasis. Ivermectin, the drug used in the control of these diseases, can induce serious adverse reactions in patients with high L loa microfilaraemia (LLM). A drug is needed which can lower LLM below the level that represents a risk so that ivermectin mass treatment to support onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis elimination can be implemented safely. Methodology Sixty men and women from a loiasis endemic area in Cameroon were randomized after stratification by screening LLM (≤30000, 30001–50000, >50000) to three treatment arms: two doses albendazole followed by 4 doses matching placebo (n = 20), six doses albendazole (n = 20) albendazole or 6 doses matching placebo (n = 20) administered every two months. LLM was measured before each treatment and 14, 18, 21 and 24 months after the first treatment. Monitoring for adverse events occurred three and seven days as well as 2 months after each treatment. Principal Findings None of the adverse events recorded were considered treatment related. The percentages of participants with ≥ 50% decrease in LLM from pre-treatment for ≥ 4 months were 53%, 17% and 11% in the 6-dose, 2-dose and placebo treatment arms, respectively. The difference between the 6-dose and the placebo arm was significant (p = 0.01). The percentages of participants with LLM < 8100 mf/ml for ≥4 months were 21%, 11% and 0% in the 6-dose, 2-dose and placebo treatment arms, respectively. Conclusions/ Significance The 6-dose regimen reduced LLM significantly, but the reduction was insufficient to eliminate the risk of severe and/or serious adverse reactions during ivermectin mass drug administration in loiasis co-endemic areas. PMID:26967331

  11. Effect of Two or Six Doses 800 mg of Albendazole Every Two Months on Loa loa Microfilaraemia: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kamgno, Joseph; Nguipdop-Djomo, Patrick; Gounoue, Raceline; Téjiokem, Mathurin; Kuesel, Annette C

    2016-03-01

    Loiasis is a parasitic infection endemic in the African rain forest caused by the filarial nematode Loa loa. Loiasis can be co-endemic with onchocerciasis and/or lymphatic filariasis. Ivermectin, the drug used in the control of these diseases, can induce serious adverse reactions in patients with high L loa microfilaraemia (LLM). A drug is needed which can lower LLM below the level that represents a risk so that ivermectin mass treatment to support onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis elimination can be implemented safely. Sixty men and women from a loiasis endemic area in Cameroon were randomized after stratification by screening LLM (≤ 30000, 30001-50000, >50000) to three treatment arms: two doses albendazole followed by 4 doses matching placebo (n = 20), six doses albendazole (n = 20) albendazole or 6 doses matching placebo (n = 20) administered every two months. LLM was measured before each treatment and 14, 18, 21 and 24 months after the first treatment. Monitoring for adverse events occurred three and seven days as well as 2 months after each treatment. None of the adverse events recorded were considered treatment related. The percentages of participants with ≥ 50% decrease in LLM from pre-treatment for ≥ 4 months were 53%, 17% and 11% in the 6-dose, 2-dose and placebo treatment arms, respectively. The difference between the 6-dose and the placebo arm was significant (p = 0.01). The percentages of participants with LLM < 8100 mf/ml for ≥ 4 months were 21%, 11% and 0% in the 6-dose, 2-dose and placebo treatment arms, respectively. The 6-dose regimen reduced LLM significantly, but the reduction was insufficient to eliminate the risk of severe and/or serious adverse reactions during ivermectin mass drug administration in loiasis co-endemic areas.

  12. Prospective, Randomized Study of Radiation Dose Escalation With Combined Proton-Photon Therapy for Benign Meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Nina N; Yeap, Beow Y; Larvie, Mykol; Daartz, Juliane; Munzenrider, John E; Liebsch, Norbert J; Fullerton, Barbara; Pan, Elizabeth; Loeffler, Jay S; Shih, Helen A

    2017-07-12

    To assess the outcomes of benign meningiomas (BM) treated to two radiation dose levels. We randomly assigned patients (1:1) with incompletely resected or recurrent BM to 2 radiation doses: 55.8 Gy(relative biological effectiveness [RBE]) and 63.0 Gy(RBE) of fractionated combined proton-photon radiation therapy. The primary endpoint was local control with hypothesis of improved tumor control with higher dose. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival, overall survival, and rates of treatment-related toxicities. Between 1991 and 2000, 47 patients were randomized. Three patients were excluded for nonbenign histology; therefore, 44 patients were analyzed: 22 who received 55.8 Gy(RBE) and 22 who received 63.0 Gy(RBE). The median follow-up was 17.1 years. Local control for the entire cohort was 98% at 10 years and 90% at 15 years. Of the 5 patients with local recurrence, 4 occurred after 10 years of follow-up, and 3 were in the lower dose group (P=.322). In the modified intention to treat analysis, there was no difference in progression-free survival (P=.234) and overall survival (P=.271) between arms. A total of 26 patients (59%) experienced a grade 2 or higher late toxicity, including 9 patients (20%) incurring a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), 7 of which were deemed at least possibly attributable to irradiation. The median time between completion of radiation therapy and CVA was 5.6 years (range, 1.4-14.0 years). Fractionated combined proton-photon radiation therapy is effective for BM, with no apparent benefit in dose escalation. Further investigation is needed to better define the risk of late toxicities, including CVA after cranial radiation therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Phase II Dose Escalation Study of Caspofungin for Invasive Aspergillosis ▿ §

    PubMed Central

    Cornely, O. A.; Vehreschild, J. J.; Vehreschild, M. J. G. T.; Würthwein, G.; Arenz, D.; Schwartz, S.; Heussel, C. P.; Silling, G.; Mahne, M.; Franklin, J.; Harnischmacher, U.; Wilkens, A.; Farowski, F.; Karthaus, M.; Lehrnbecher, T.; Ullmann, A. J.; Hallek, M.; Groll, A. H.

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the maximum tolerated dose of caspofungin for invasive aspergillosis (IA). The safety and pharmacokinetics of escalating dosages of caspofungin were investigated in IA. Eight patients each received caspofungin 70, 100, 150, or 200 mg once a day (QD). Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as the same non-hematological treatment-related adverse event of grade ≥4 in 2 of 8 patients or ≥3 in 4 of 8 patients in a cohort. A total of 46 patients (median age, 61 years; 21 female; 89% with hematological malignancies) received caspofungin (9, 8, 9, and 20 patients in the 70-, 100-, 150-, and 200-mg cohorts) for a median of 24.5 days. Plasma pharmacokinetics were linear across the investigated dosages and followed a two-compartment model, with weight as the covariate on clearance and sex as the covariate on central volume of distribution. Simulated peak plasma concentrations at steady state ranged from 14.2 to 40.6 mg/liter (28%), trough concentrations from 4.1 to 11.8 mg/liter (58%), and area under the concentration-time curve from 175 to 500 mg/liter/h (32%) (geometric mean, geometric coefficient of variation). Treatment was well tolerated without dose-limiting toxicity. The rate of complete or partial responses was 54.3%, and the overall mortality at 12-week follow-up was 28.3%. In first-line treatment of invasive aspergillosis, daily doses of up to 200 mg caspofungin were well tolerated and the maximum tolerated dose was not reached. Pharmacokinetics was linear. Response rates were similar to those previously reported for voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin. PMID:21911573

  14. Phase Ib, Dose Escalation Study of Oral LDE225 in Combination With BKM120 in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-18

    Dose Escalation; Safety; Preliminary Efficacy; Advanced Solid Tumors; Metastatic Breast Cancer; Advanced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Metastatic Colorectal Cancer; Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme; Gastric Cancer; Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer; Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Hormone Receptor Positive (ER+/PR+, and Her2-) Metastatic Breast Cancer

  15. IL-6 is an independent predictive factor of drug survival after dose escalation of infliximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Takasugi, Koji; Nishida, Keiichiro; Natsumeda, Masamitsu; Yamashita, Misuzu; Yamamoto, Wataru; Ezawa, Kazuhiko

    2017-08-22

    We aimed to investigate factors predictive of increased serum infliximab (IFX) concentration with improvement of disease activity, as well as better 1-year continuation rate after dose escalation, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who showed inadequate response to 3 mg/kg IFX. Among 42 patients allotted to receive 3 mg/kg IFX, 13 patients showed adequate response (DAS28 < 3.2) and 29 patients required dose escalation to 4.5 or 6 mg/kg after inadequate response (DAS28 ≥ 3.2) to 3 mg/kg IFX. DAS28, mHAQ, serum level of CRP, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, anti-infliximab antibody (AIA) titers and IFX concentration before and on average 2.7 months after dose escalation were examined to explore the baseline factors predictive of a clinically beneficial increase of serum IFX concentration and drug survival. One year after IFX dose escalation, 25 patients completed the study protocol, and 16 patients (64%) continued to show a good response for one year, while 9 patients (36%) required switching of biologics because of inadequate response. Multivariate analyses revealed that a serum IL-6 level of less than 4.0 pg/mL at baseline was the only factor predictive of a clinically beneficial increase of serum IFX concentration in patients who required dose escalation. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that 5.16 pg/mL of IL-6 was the cut-off value with sensitivity 0.833 and specificity of 0.769 (95%CI for AUC: 0.712-1.006). In patients with IL-6 levels of less than 5.16 pg/mL at baseline, the serum IFX concentration significantly increased after dose escalation with adequate response. The 1-year drug survival rates of patients with IL-6 levels less than 5.16 pg/mL and in those with levels greater than or equal to 5.16 pg/mL at baseline were 83.3% and 30.8%, respectively (log-rank test, p = .011). The results of our study indicated that a baseline serum level of IL-6 below 5.16 pg/mL might be a predictive factor for a

  16. Acute psychological and physiological effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-effect study.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Felix; Grimberg, Ulrike; Benz, Marco A; Huber, Theo; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2004-03-01

    Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptors play an important role in perception, affect regulation and attention. Pharmacological challenge with the 5-HT(2A) agonist psilocybin (PY) is useful in studying the neurobiological basis of cognition and consciousness. Investigation of dose-dependent effects of PY on psycho(patho)logical and physiological parameters. Eight subjects received placebo (PL), and 45 ("very low dose, VLD"), 115 ("low dose, LD"), 215 ("medium dose, MD"), and 315 ("high dose, HD") microg/kg body weight PY. The "Altered States of Consciousness Rating Scale" (5D-ASC), the "Frankfurt Attention Inventory" (FAIR), and the "Adjective Mood Rating Scale" (AMRS) were used to assess the effects of PY on psycho(patho)logical core dimensions, attention, and mood. A 24-h electrocardiogram (EKG) was recorded and blood pressure was measured. Plasma concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL), cortisol (CORT), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and standard clinical chemical parameters were determined. PY dose dependently increased scores of all 5D-ASC core dimensions. Only one subject reacted with transient anxiety to HD PY. Compared with PL, MD and HD PY led to a 50% reduction of performance in the FAIR test. "General inactivation", "emotional excitability", and "dreaminess" were the only domains of the AMRS showing increased scores following MD and HD PY. The mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was moderately elevated only 60 min following administration of HD PY. Neither EKG nor body temperature was affected by any dose of PY. TSH, ACTH, and CORT plasma levels were elevated during peak effects of HD PY, whereas PRL plasma levels were increased following MD and HD PY. PY affects core dimensions of altered states of consciousness and physiological parameters in a dose-dependent manner. Our study provided no cause for concern that PY is hazardous with respect to somatic health.

  17. Radiation Dose Escalation in Esophageal Cancer Revisited: A Contemporary Analysis of the National Cancer Data Base, 2004 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Brower, Jeffrey V; Chen, Shuai; Bassetti, Michael F; Yu, Menggang; Harari, Paul M; Ritter, Mark A; Baschnagel, Andrew M

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of radiation dose escalation on overall survival (OS) for patients with nonmetastatic esophageal cancer treated with concurrent radiation and chemotherapy. Patients diagnosed with stage I to III esophageal cancer treated from 2004 to 2012 were identified from the National Cancer Data Base. Patients who received concurrent radiation and chemotherapy with radiation doses of ≥50 Gy and did not undergo surgery were included. OS was compared using Cox proportional hazards regression and propensity score matching. A total of 6854 patients were included; 3821 (55.7%) received 50 to 50.4 Gy and 3033 (44.3%) received doses >50.4 Gy. Univariate analysis revealed no significant difference in OS between patients receiving 50 to 50.4 Gy and those receiving >50.4 Gy (P=.53). The dose analysis, binned as 50 to 50.4, 51 to 54, 55 to 60, and >60 Gy, revealed no appreciable difference in OS within any group compared with 50 to 50.4 Gy. Subgroup analyses investigating the effect of dose escalation by histologic type and in the setting of intensity modulated radiation therapy also failed to reveal a benefit. Propensity score matching confirmed the absence of a statistically significant difference in OS among the dose levels. The factors associated with improved OS on multivariable analysis included female sex, lower Charlson-Deyo comorbidity score, private insurance, cervical/upper esophagus location, squamous cell histologic type, lower T stage, and node-negative status (P<.01 for all analyses). In this large national cohort, dose escalation >50.4 Gy did not result in improved OS among patients with stage I to III esophageal cancer treated with definitive concurrent radiation and chemotherapy. These data suggest that despite advanced contemporary treatment techniques, OS for patients with esophageal cancer remains unaltered by escalation of radiation dose >50.4 Gy, consistent with the results of the INT-0123 trial. Furthermore, these data highlight

  18. Effect of large doses of parenteral vitamin D on glycaemic control and calcium/phosphate metabolism in patients with stable type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomised, placebo-controlled, prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jehle, Sigrid; Lardi, Alessia; Felix, Barbara; Hulter, Henry N; Stettler, Christoph; Krapf, Reto

    2014-03-20

    Vitamin D (D₃) status is reported to correlate negatively with insulin production and insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, few placebo-controlled intervention data are available. We aimed to assess the effect of large doses of parenteral D3 on glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(₁c)) and estimates of insulin action (homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance: HOMA-IR) in patients with stable T2DM. We performed a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study at a single university care setting in Switzerland. Fifty-five patients of both genders with T2DM of more than 10 years were enrolled and randomised to either 300,000 IU D₃ or placebo, intramuscularly. The primary endpoint was the intergroup difference in HbA(₁c) levels. Secondary endpoints were: changes in insulin sensitivity, albuminuria, calcium/phosphate metabolism, activity of the renin-aldosterone axis and changes in 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure values. After 6 months of D₃ supply, there was a significant intergroup difference in the change in HbA(₁c) levels (relative change [mean ± standard deviation] +2.9% ± 1.5% in the D₃ group vs +6.9% ± 2.1% the in placebo group, p = 0.041) as HOMA-IR decreased by 12.8% ± 5.6% in the D₃ group and increased by 10% ± 5.4% in the placebo group (intergroup difference, p = 0.032). Twenty-four-hour urinary albumin excretion decreased in the D₃ group from 200 ± 41 to 126 ± 39, p = 0.021). There was no significant intergroup difference for the other secondary endpoints. D₃ improved insulin sensitivity (based on HOMA-IR) and affected the course of HbA(₁c) positively compared with placebo in patients with T2DM.

  19. Positron Emission Tomography-Guided, Focal-Dose Escalation Using Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Madani, Indira . E-mail: indira@krtkg1.ugent.be; Duthoy, Wim; Derie, Cristina R.N.; De Gersem, Werner Ir.; Boterberg, Tom; Saerens, Micky; Jacobs, Filip Ir.; Gregoire, Vincent; Lonneux, Max; Vakaet, Luc; Vanderstraeten, Barbara; Bauters, Wouter; Bonte, Katrien; Thierens, Hubert; Neve, Wilfried de

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using positron emission tomography (PET)-guided dose escalation, and to determine the maximum tolerated dose in head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: A Phase I clinical trial was designed to escalate the dose limited to the [{sup 18}-F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET)-delineated subvolume within the gross tumor volume. Positron emission tomography scanning was performed in the treatment position. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy with an upfront simultaneously integrated boost was employed. Two dose levels were planned: 25 Gy (level I) and 30 Gy (level II), delivered in 10 fractions. Standard IMRT was applied for the remaining 22 fractions of 2.16 Gy. Results: Between 2003 and 2005, 41 patients were enrolled, with 23 at dose level I, and 18 at dose level II; 39 patients completed the planned therapy. The median follow-up for surviving patients was 14 months. Two cases of dose-limiting toxicity occurred at dose level I (Grade 4 dermitis and Grade 4 dysphagia). One treatment-related death at dose level II halted the study. Complete response was observed in 18 of 21 (86%) and 13 of 16 (81%) evaluated patients at dose levels I and II (p < 0.7), respectively, with actuarial 1-year local control at 85% and 87% (p n.s.), and 1-year overall survival at 82% and 54% (p = 0.06), at dose levels I and II, respectively. In 4 of 9 patients, the site of relapse was in the boosted {sup 18}F-FDG-PET-delineated region. Conclusions: For head and neck cancer, PET-guided dose escalation appears to be well-tolerated. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached at the investigated dose levels.

  20. Dose Escalation and Dosimetry of First in Human Alpha Radioimmunotherapy with 212Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Ruby; Torgue, Julien; Shen, Sui; Fisher, Darrell R.; Banaga, Eileen; Bunch, Patty; Morgan, Desiree; Fan, Jinda; Straughn, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose was to study the safety, distribution, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity and tumor response of intraperitoneal (IP) 212Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab (TCMC is S-2-(4-isothiocyantobenzl)-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraaza-1, 4, 7, 10=tetra (2-carbamoylmethl) cyclododecane) in patients with HER-2 expressing malignancy. Methods In a standard 3+3 Phase 1 design for dose escalation, 212Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab was delivered IP less than 4 hours after giving 4mg/kg IV trastuzumab to patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis who had failed standard therapies. Results Five dosage levels (7.4, 9.6, 12.6, 16.3, 21.1 MBq/m2) showed minimal toxicity at >1 year for the first group and >4 months for others. The lack of substantial toxicity was consistent with the dosimetry assessments (mean equivalent dose to marrow = 0.18 mSv/MBq). Radiation dosimetry assessment was performed using pharmacokinetics data obtained in the initial cohort (n=3). Limited redistribution of radioactivity out of the peritoneal cavity to circulating blood, which cleared via urinary excretion and no specific uptake in major organs was observed in 24 hours. Maximum serum concentration of the radiolabeled antibody was 22.9% at 24h (decay corrected to injection time) and 500 Bq/mL (decay corrected to collection time). Non-decay corrected cumulative urinary excretion was ≤6% in 24h (2.3 half lives). Dose rate measurements performed at 1m from the patient registered less than 5μSv/hr (using portable detectors) in the latest cohort, significantly less than what is normally observed using nuclear medicine imaging agents. Anti-drug antibody assays performed on serum from the first 4 cohorts were all negative. Conclusions Five dose levels of IP 212Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab treatment of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis showed little agent related toxicity, consistent with the dosimetry calculations. PMID:25157044

  1. A Multiple-Dose, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group QT/QTc Study to Evaluate the Electrophysiologic Effects of THC/CBD Spray.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Edward M; Schoedel, Kerri; Bartlett, Cindy; Romach, Myroslava; Russo, Ethan B; Stott, Colin G; Wright, Stephen; White, Linda; Duncombe, Paul; Chen, Chien-Feng

    2013-07-01

    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray has proved efficacious in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis and chronic pain. A thorough QT/QTc study was performed to investigate the effects of THC/CBD spray on electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters in compliance with regulatory requirements, evaluating the effect of a recommended daily dose (8 sprays/day) and supratherapeutic doses (24 or 36 sprays/day) of THC/CBD spray on the QT/QTc interval in 258 healthy volunteers. The safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic profile of THC/CBD spray were also evaluated. Therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of THC/CBD spray had no effect on cardiac repolarization with primary and secondary endpoints of QTcI and QTcF/QTcB, respectively, showing similar results. There was no indication of any effect on heart rate, atrioventricular conduction, or cardiac depolarization and no new clinically relevant morphological changes were observed. Overall, 19 subjects (25.0%) in the supratherapeutic (24/36 daily sprays of THC/CBD spray) dose group and one (1.6%) in the moxifloxacin group withdrew early due to intolerable AEs. Four psychiatric serious adverse events (AEs) in the highest dose group resulted in a reduction in the surpatherapeutic dose to 24 sprays/day. In conclusion, THC/CBD spray does not significantly affect ECG parameters. Additionally, THC/CBD spray is well tolerated at therapeutic doses with an AE profile similar to previous clinical studies. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. A single dose of the serotonin neurotransmission agonist paroxetine enhances motor output: double-blind, placebo-controlled, fMRI study in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Loubinoux, Isabelle; Pariente, Jérémie; Boulanouar, Kader; Carel, Christophe; Manelfe, Claude; Rascol, Olivier; Celsis, Pierre; Chollet, François

    2002-01-01

    Since serotonin (5-HT) stimulates motor function, pharmacological potentiation of 5-HT neurotransmission may improve motor function in healthy subjects and, possibly, recovery in post-stroke patients. Indeed, fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), increased activation in executive motor areas of healthy subjects as fenozolone, a releaser of monoamines (including noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin) from intracellular stores. This study is intended to test the hypothesis that paroxetine can likewise modulate brain motor activity in a dose-dependent manner in healthy subjects. In a double-blind counterbalanced study, six subjects underwent functional MRI examinations on three sessions 1 week apart (E1, E2, and E3) at the time of peak plasma concentrations (5 h after drug intake, i.e., either 20 or 60 mg of paroxetine or placebo) with a complex sequential opposition task. Rest and activation alternated in a block design. During activation, subjects performed, with the right hand, a 1-Hz-paced task that alternated two fist closings with a sequential opposition task. Paroxetine elicited effects similar to those reported for fluoxetine; notable changes were hyperactivation in the contralateral S1/M1, and posterior SMA and widespread hypoactivation of basal ganglia and cerebellum. There was an inverse correlation between dose and effect: significantly greater effects were observed with the 20-mg dose compared with 60 mg. Paroxetine dose-dependently modulates activation of the entire motor pathway in a way that favors motor output. Thus, a single dose of the SSRI paroxetine reorganized motor processing.

  3. Barnidipine, a novel calcium antagonist for once-daily treatment of hypertension: a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study. Dutch Barnidipine Multicenter Study Group.

    PubMed

    Hart, W; Holwerda, N J

    1997-11-01

    The antihypertensive effects and tolerance of once-daily barnidipine, a novel dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, were evaluated. A total of 190 patients with a sitting diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 95-114 mmHg were investigated in this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study. After a 4-week single-blind placebo run-in period, patients were randomized to placebo or barnidipine (10 mg, 20 mg, or 30 mg modified release capsules) once daily for 6 weeks. Nonresponders (sitting DBP > or =90 mmHg and a decrease of < 10 mmHg) were treated for an additional 6 weeks with a dose increase of 10 mg. At each clinic visit, sitting and standing blood pressure and heart rate were measured approximately 24 hours after the last dose of study drug was taken. Compared with placebo, barnidipine lowered blood pressure, with a trend toward a dose-response relationship over the dose range 10-30 mg. A dose increment of 10 mg in nonresponders resulted in additional reductions in blood pressure. At the end of the active treatment period, the responder rates were 41% and 57% for 10 mg and 20 mg barnidipine, respectively. Heart rate in both sitting and standing positions was not affected by barnidipine. Treatment with barnidipine was well tolerated, and the incidence of adverse events was dose related and consistent with vasodilatation. In conclusion, barnidipine (10-30 mg) administered once daily is well tolerated and reduces blood pressure in patients with mild to moderate hypertension.

  4. Effect of fat on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels after a single oral dose of vitamin D in young healthy adults: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Raimundo, Fabiana Viegas; Lang, Maria Augusta Britto; Scopel, Luciano; Marcondes, Natália Aydos; Araújo, Mirna Griselda Anocibar; Faulhaber, Gustavo Adolpho Moreira; Furlanetto, Tania Weber

    2015-04-01

    This double-blind placebo-controlled trial evaluated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels after the oral intake of a single dose of cholecalciferol during one of the three meals, containing different amounts of fat or placebo. Sixty-four healthy medical residents or students of a university hospital in Porto Alegre, latitude 30° S, Brazil, were divided into four groups. Three groups received a single 50,000 IU oral dose of cholecalciferol during a meal containing 0 g (Group 1), 15 g (Group 2) or 30 g (Group 3) of fat, and one group received placebo (Group 4), according to randomization. Serum 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone, total calcium, albumin, magnesium, and creatinine levels, and urinary calcium, magnesium, and creatinine levels were measured at baseline and after 14 days. Baseline mean serum 25(OH)D levels were low in all groups. Vitamin D given during breakfast increased the mean change of serum 25(OH)D levels, when compared to placebo. Furthermore, the intake of fat with vitamin D increased the mean change of serum 25(OH)D levels. A single oral dose of vitamin D given with food increased mean serum 25(OH)D levels, after 2 weeks, and the mean increase was larger, when the meal had at least 15 g of fat. These findings can have important implications to oral vitamin D supplementation.

  5. Rapid effect of single-dose rosiglitazone treatment on endothelial function in healthy men with normal glucose tolerance: data from a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Walcher, Thomas; Walcher, Daniel; Hetzel, Jürgen; Mielke, Catrin; Rau, Matthias; Rittig, Kilian; Balletshofer, Bernd; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Hombach, Vinzenz; Böger, Rainer H; Koenig, Wolfgang; Marx, Nikolaus

    2010-07-01

    Antidiabetic thiazolidinediones (TZDs) improve endothelial function in patients with or without type 2 diabetes. The present randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study examined the time course of a single dose of rosiglitazone on flow-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation (FMD), metabolic parameters, and its effect on inflammatory markers in non-diabetic men. Forty non-obese, healthy men with normal glucose tolerance were randomised to a single dose of rosiglitazone (8 mg) or placebo, and FMD was assessed at baseline as well as after 6 h and 24 h. Rosiglitazone did not significantly affect blood glucose and insulin levels or lipid parameters after 6 and 24 h compared with placebo. Treatment with rosiglitazone significantly increased FMD after 6 h from 4.3% (3.3; 4.9) to 7.6% (5.6; 9.2) (p<0.0001 vs. baseline) resulting in a highly significant effect compared with placebo (p<0.0001 for difference between groups). After 24 h FMD was still significantly higher in the rosiglitazone group compared with baseline (p=0.001), but the effect was no longer statistically significant versus placebo (p=0.171). Our study shows a very rapid effect of single dose rosiglitazone treatment on endothelial function in non-diabetic healthy men, underscoring the hypothesis that TZDs may exhibit direct effect in the vasculature independent of their metabolic action.

  6. Evaluation of sedative effects of single and repeated doses of 50 mg and 150 mg tolperisone hydrochloride. Results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dulin, J; Kovács, L; Ramm, S; Horvath, F; Ebeling, L; Kohnen, R

    1998-07-01

    Sedative effects of single and repeated doses of 50 mg and 150 mg tolperisone hydrochloride (Mydocalm), a centrally active muscle-relaxing agent, were evaluated in a placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial. A total of 72 healthy young adults balanced by sex were randomized to receive 50 mg or 150 mg tolperisone hydrochloride or placebo t.i.d. for a period of 8 days. Control examinations were performed in the mornings of days 1 and 8 before intake of the morning dose and at 1.5, 4 and 6 hours postdose. The psychomotoric test battery used in this trial revealed no sedative effects of tolperisone hydrochloride in the given doses at any control examination. Subjective mood ratings quantified by the Welzel Colored Scales were not impaired either. The lack of differences in sedative potentials of tolperisone hydrochloride and placebo was confirmed by tests on differences and by tests on equivalence using 95% CI. The present study substantiates clinical experience and previous clinical trials demonstrating that tolperisone hydrochloride, though being a centrally active muscle relaxant, does not cause any sedation and does not impair reaction times.

  7. [Focal dose escalation in the treatment of prostate cancer : Long-term results of HDR brachytherapy].

    PubMed

    Cordes, J; Broschk, J; Sommerauer, M; Jocham, D; Merseburger, A S; Melchert, C; Kovács, G

    2017-02-01

    We prospectively examined the effect and the safety of intensity-modulated HDR brachytherapy (IMBT) with focal dose escalation. A total of 139 patients undergoing primary therapy for prostate cancer and 11 patients with recurrence were included. Data analysis focused on the following factors: date of primary diagnosis, Gleason score, initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value, PSA nadir, volume of the prostate in the transrectal ultrasound, biopsy of the prostate gland, androgen deprivation, chemotherapy, uroflowmetry, pre- and postoperative post-void residual urine (PVR), number of the needles in the prostate lobes and analysis of follow-up data. In the primary therapy group, 87.6 % of the patients had a PSA of 0-4 ng/ml at the time of follow-up, while in the recurrence group 81.8 % of patients were within this range. Overall, 55.8 % of patients in the primary group had a PSA nadir under 0.1 ng/ml, 37.2 % under 1 ng/ml, 5.8 % under 5 ng/ml and 1.2 % (1 patient) over 5 ng/ml. In the recurrence group, 100 % had a PSA nadir under 0.1 ng/dl. Fifty patients of the primary group reported grade 1 toxicity (Common Toxicity Criteria): 29 localized to the bladder and 21 to the rectum. Seventeen patients had grade 2 toxicity of the bladder and 1 patient had grade 3 toxicity of the bladder. Finally there was one grade 4 toxicity due to perforation of the sigmoid colon. In the recurrence group, 3 patients with grade 1 toxicity were observed (2 bladder and 1 bowl). Also 3 patients had grade 2 toxicity of the bladder, 1 patient had a grade 3 bladder toxicity and 1 patient had grade 4 toxicity due to bowl fistula. There were no grade 5 toxicities. The modifications of the "Kiel method" with focal dose escalation was proven as effective in locally advanced prostate carcinoma and in local recurrences of the disease with low level toxicity.

  8. Efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram in 12- and 24-week treatment of social anxiety disorder: randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study.

    PubMed

    Lader, Malcolm; Stender, Karina; Bürger, Vera; Nil, Rico

    2004-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the pharmacological treatment of choice for the treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The efficacy and tolerability of fixed doses of escitalopram were compared to those of placebo in the long-term treatment of generalised SAD, using paroxetine as an active reference. Patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of SAD between 18-65 years of age were randomised to 24 weeks of double-blind treatment with placebo (n = 166), 5 mg escitalopram (n = 167), 10 mg escitalopram (n = 167), 20 mg escitalopram (n = 170), or 20 mg paroxetine (n = 169). Based on the primary efficacy parameter, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) total score at Week 12 (LOCF), a significantly superior therapeutic effect compared to placebo was seen for 5 and 20 mg escitalopram and for all doses for the OC analyses. Further improvement in LSAS scores was seen at Week 24 (OC and LOCF), with significant superiority over placebo for all doses of escitalopram, and 20 mg escitalopram was significantly superior to 20 mg paroxetine. Response to treatment (assessed by a Clinical Global Impression-Improvement score < or = 2) was significantly higher for all active treatments than for placebo at Week 12. Clinical relevance was supported by a significant decrease in all the Sheehan disability scores, and the good tolerability of escitalopram treatment. It is concluded that doses of 5-20 mg escitalopram are effective and well tolerated in the short- and long-term treatment of generalised SAD.

  9. Urodynamic results and clinical outcomes with intradetrusor injections of onabotulinumtoxinA in a randomized, placebo-controlled dose-finding study in idiopathic overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Rovner, Eric; Kennelly, Michael; Schulte-Baukloh, Heinrich; Zhou, Jihao; Haag-Molkenteller, Cornelia; Dasgupta, Prokar

    2011-04-01

    We assessed the effects of onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX®) on clinical and urodynamic variables in patients with idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB) and urinary urgency incontinence (UUI) with or without detrusor overactivity (DO), inadequately managed with anticholinergics. Three hundred thirteen patients with OAB were randomized to double-blind intradetrusor injection with placebo (n = 44) or 1 of 5 onabotulinumtoxinA doses (50-300 U; n = 269). Primary efficacy variable was change from baseline in UUI episodes/week at week 12. Urodynamic assessments at baseline and weeks 12 and 36 included maximum cystometric capacity (MCC) and volume at first involuntary detrusor contraction (IDC). 76.0% of patients had baseline DO. Changes from baseline in MCC and volume at first IDC with onabotulinumtoxinA ≥100 U were superior to placebo at week 12, generally decreasing by week 36. Significant dose-dependent increases in MCC were observed for all onabotulinumtoxinA doses at week 12, and for 150, 200, and 300 U at week 36. Data suggested a dose-response relationship. At week 12 on diary, 15.9% of placebo and 29.8-57.1% of onabotulinumtoxinA 50-300 U recipients, respectively, did not demonstrate UUI. OnabotulinumtoxinA doses >150 U were more commonly associated with post-void residual urine volumes >200 ml. Improvements in urodynamic parameters and clinical outcomes generally trended together following onabotulinumtoxinA treatment. This therapy improved key urodynamic parameters in patients with idiopathic OAB and UUI, with no differences in outcomes between those with and those without baseline DO. Therefore, successful idiopathic OAB treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA does not appear to be related to pretreatment finding of DO. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Efficacy of pregabalin in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of BID versus TID dosing.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Robert B; Feltner, Douglas E; Fieve, Ronald R; Pande, Atul C

    2005-04-01

    Pregabalin is a new anxiolytic that acts as a presynaptic inhibitor of the release of excessive levels of excitatory neurotransmitters by selectively binding to the alpha2-delta subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels. The current study evaluated the anxiolytic efficacy of BID versus TID dosing of pregabalin in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Outpatients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition generalized anxiety disorder and having baseline Hamilton Anxiety (HAM-A) total scores > or =20 were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with pregabalin 200 mg/d (BID; N = 78), 400 mg/d (BID; N = 89), or 450 mg/d (TID; N = 88) or placebo (N = 86). Mean improvement in HAM-A total score at last observation carried forward end point was significantly greater on pregabalin 200 (P = 0.006), 400 (P = 0.001), and 450 mg/d (P = 0.005) compared with placebo. Pairwise comparisons of BID versus TID dosing found no difference in HAM-A change score at end point. All 3 pregabalin dosage groups showed significantly greater efficacy versus placebo at end point on the HAM-A psychic and somatic anxiety factor scores. Improvement on both factors was rapid: significance versus placebo was achieved as early as the first assessment at week 1, with > or =30% reduction in HAM-A severity and equal or greater improvement for every subsequent visit in > or =38% of patients in all 3 pregabalin dosage groups (P < or = 0.001). Pregabalin was well tolerated, and despite the fixed-dose study design, discontinuations caused by adverse events ranged from 9% to 13%--comparable with that observed with placebo (8%). This study demonstrates that pregabalin is an effective treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, with BID dosing showing similar efficacy and comparable tolerability with TID dosing.

  11. Phase I Escalating-Dose Trial of CAR-T Therapy Targeting CEA(+) Metastatic Colorectal Cancers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengcheng; Wang, Zhe; Yang, Zhi; Wang, Meiling; Li, Shiqi; Li, Yunyan; Zhang, Rui; Xiong, Zhouxing; Wei, Zhihao; Shen, Junjie; Luo, Yongli; Zhang, Qianzhen; Liu, Limei; Qin, Hong; Liu, Wei; Wu, Feng; Chen, Wei; Pan, Feng; Zhang, Xianquan; Bie, Ping; Liang, Houjie; Pecher, Gabriele; Qian, Cheng

    2017-05-03

    Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells have shown promising efficacy in treatment of hematological malignancies, but its applications in solid tumors need further exploration. In this study, we investigated CAR-T therapy targeting carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA)-positive colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with metastases to evaluate its safety and efficacy. Five escalating dose levels (DLs) (1 × 10(5) to 1 × 10(8)/CAR(+)/kg cells) of CAR-T were applied in 10 CRC patients. Our data showed that severe adverse events related to CAR-T therapy were not observed. Of the 10 patients, 7 patients who experienced progressive disease (PD) in previous treatments had stable disease after CAR-T therapy. Two patients remained with stable disease for more than 30 weeks, and two patients showed tumor shrinkage by positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and MRI analysis, respectively. Decline of serum CEA level was apparent in most patients even in long-term observation. Furthermore, we observed persistence of CAR-T cells in peripheral blood of patients receiving high doses of CAR-T therapy. Importantly, we observed CAR-T cell proliferation especially in patients after a second CAR-T therapy. Taken together, we demonstrated that CEA CAR-T cell therapy was well tolerated in CEA(+) CRC patients even in high doses, and some efficacy was observed in most of the treated patients. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Phase II, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Dose-Response Trial of the Melatonin Effect on the Pain Threshold of Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Luciana Cadore; Muller, Suzana; Torres, Iraci L. S.; Razzolini, Bruna; Rozisky, Joanna R.; Fregni, Felipe; Markus, Regina; Caumo, Wolnei

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that melatonin may produce antinociception through peripheral and central mechanisms. Based on the preliminary encouraging results of studies of the effects of melatonin on pain modulation, the important question has been raised of whether there is a dose relationship in humans of melatonin on pain modulation. Objective The objective was to evaluate the analgesic dose response of the effects of melatonin on pressure and heat pain threshold and tolerance and the sedative effects. Methods Sixty-one healthy subjects aged 19 to 47 y were randomized into one of four groups: placebo, 0.05 mg/kg sublingual melatonin, 0.15 mg/kg sublingual melatonin or 0.25 mg/kg sublingual melatonin. We determine the pressure pain threshold (PPT) and the pressure pain tolerance (PPTo). Quantitative sensory testing (QST) was used to measure the heat pain threshold (HPT) and the heat pain tolerance (HPTo). Sedation was assessed with a visual analogue scale and bispectral analysis. Results Serum plasma melatonin levels were directly proportional to the melatonin doses given to each subject. We observed a significant effect associated with dose group. Post hoc analysis indicated significant differences between the placebo vs. the intermediate (0.15 mg/kg) and the highest (0.25 mg/kg) melatonin doses for all pain threshold and sedation level tests. A linear regression model indicated a significant association between the serum melatonin concentrations and changes in pain threshold and pain tolerance (R2 = 0.492 for HPT, R2 = 0.538 for PPT, R2 = 0.558 for HPTo and R2 = 0.584 for PPTo). Conclusions The present data indicate that sublingual melatonin exerts well-defined dose-dependent antinociceptive activity. There is a correlation between the plasma melatonin drug concentration and acute changes in the pain threshold. These results provide additional support for the investigation of melatonin as an analgesic agent. Brazilian Clinical

  13. Two Phase 1, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Single-Ascending-Dose Studies To Investigate the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of an Anti-Influenza A Virus Monoclonal Antibody, MHAA4549A, in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Rong; Derby, Michael A.; Larouche, Richard; Horn, Priscilla; Anderson, Malia; Maia, Mauricio; Carrier, Stephanie; Pelletier, Isabelle; Burgess, Tracy; Kulkarni, Priya; Newton, Elizabeth; Tavel, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Hospitalized patients with severe influenza are at significant risk for morbidity and mortality. MHAA4549A is a human monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 antibody that binds to a highly conserved stalk region of the influenza A virus hemagglutinin protein and neutralizes all tested seasonal human influenza A virus strains. Two phase 1 trials examined the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of MHAA4549A in healthy volunteers. Both single ascending-dose trials were randomized, double blinded, and placebo controlled. Trial 1 randomized 21 healthy adults into four cohorts receiving a single intravenous dose of 1.5, 5, 15, or 45 mg/kg MHAA4549A or placebo. Trial 2 randomized 14 healthy adults into two cohorts receiving a single intravenous fixed dose of 8,400 mg or 10,800 mg of MHAA4549A or placebo. Subjects were followed for 120 days after dosing. No subject was discontinued in either trial, and no serious adverse events were reported. The most common adverse event in both studies was mild headache (trial 1, 4/16 subjects receiving MHAA4549A and 1/5 receiving placebo; trial 2, 4/8 subjects receiving MHAA4549A and 2/6 receiving placebo). MHAA4549A produced no relevant time- or dose-related changes in laboratory values or vital signs compared to those with placebo. No subjects developed an antitherapeutic antibody response following MHAA4549A administration. MHAA4549A showed linear serum pharmacokinetics, with a mean half-life of 22.5 to 23.7 days. MHAA4549A is safe and well tolerated in healthy volunteers up to a single intravenous dose of 10,800 mg and demonstrates linear serum pharmacokinetics consistent with those of a human IgG1 antibody lacking known endogenous targets in humans. (These trials have been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01877785 and NCT02284607). PMID:27381392

  14. A placebo controlled double-blind evaluation of the pharmacodynamics of fengabine vs amitriptyline following single and multiple doses in elderly volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Fairweather, D B; Kerr, J S; Hilton, S; Hindmarch, I

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of fengabine were compared with those of amitriptyline in healthy elderly volunteers. Doses were administered double-blind and assessments were made before and after ingestion. 2. Psychomotor performance and cognitive ability were measured using tests of choice reaction time, tracking, critical flicker fusion threshold, memory scanning and word recognition. Subjective feelings were assessed using the Leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire (LSEQ) and line analogue rating scales (LARS). 3. Pharmacokinetic data suggest that fengabine may induce its own metabolism following repeated dosing. 4. The findings of this study show that fengabine 200 mg and 400 mg does not produce any noticeable behavioural toxicity in elderly volunteers, in contrast to amitriptyline which had a disruptive effect throughout. PMID:8471403

  15. Low-dose interleukin 2 in patients with type 1 diabetes: a phase 1/2 randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hartemann, Agnès; Bensimon, Gilbert; Payan, Christine A; Jacqueminet, Sophie; Bourron, Olivier; Nicolas, Nathalie; Fonfrede, Michèle; Rosenzwajg, Michelle; Bernard, Claude; Klatzmann, David

    2013-12-01

    An improper balance of regulatory/effector T (Treg/Teff) cells is central to the development of autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes. We previously showed that low-dose interleukin 2 (IL2) induced Treg cell expansion and activation and clinical improvement in patients with hepatitis-C-virus-induced vasculitis. We aimed to establish which low doses of IL2 would be safe and induce Treg cells in patients with type 1 diabetes, considering that: (1) type 1 diabetes might be linked to alteration of the IL2/IL2R activation pathway; (2) activation of pathogenic Teff cells by IL2 could exacerbate disease; and (3) the safety of low-dose IL2 is not known in type 1 diabetes. This was a single-centre phase 1/2 study. 24 adult patients (18-55 years) with established insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes and at least one diabetes-related autoantibody were enrolled and randomly assigned (in a 1:1:1:1 ratio, by computer-generated randomisation list, with block size four) to placebo or IL2 at 0.33 MIU/day, 1 MIU/day, or 3 MIU/day for a 5-day course and were followed up for 60 days. All investigators and participants were masked to assignment. The primary outcome was change in Treg cells, measured by flow cytometry, and expressed as a percentage of CD4+ T cells, from day 1 to day 60. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01353833. Six patients were assigned to each group between June 1, 2011, and Feb 3, 2012. IL2 was well tolerated at all doses, with no serious adverse events. However, there was a dose-response association for non-serious adverse events during the treatment phase (days 1-6); one patient in the placebo group, three patients in the 0.33 MIU group, five patients in the 1 MIU group, and six patients in the 3 MIU group had non-serious adverse events. The most common adverse events in the treatment phase were injection-site reaction (no patients with placebo vs three patients with 0.33 MIU and 1 MIU vs two patients with 3 MIU) and influenza

  16. Image-guided adaptive radiation therapy (IGART): Radiobiological and dose escalation considerations for localized carcinoma of the prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Song, William; Schaly, Bryan; Bauman, Glenn; Battista, Jerry; Van Dyk, Jake

    2005-07-15

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of various image-guided adaptive radiation therapy (IGART) techniques to deliver and escalate dose to the prostate in the presence of geometric uncertainties. Five prostate patients with 15-16 treatment CT studies each were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were planned with an 18 MV, six-field conformal technique with a 10 mm margin size and an initial prescription of 70 Gy in 35 fractions. The adaptive strategy employed in this work for patient-specific dose escalation was to increase the prescription dose in 2 Gy-per-fraction increments until the rectum normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) reached a level equal to that of the nominal plan NTCP (i.e., iso-NTCP dose escalation). The various target localization techniques simulated were: (1) daily laser-guided alignment to skin tattoo marks that represents treatment without image-guidance, (2) alignment to bony landmarks with daily portal images, and (3) alignment to the clinical target volume (CTV) with daily CT images. Techniques (1) and (3) were resimulated with a reduced margin size of 5 mm to investigate further dose escalation. When delivering the original clinical prescription dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractions, the 'CTV registration' technique yielded the highest tumor control probability (TCP) most frequently, followed by the 'bone registration' and 'tattoo registration' techniques. However, the differences in TCP among the three techniques were minor when the margin size was 10 mm ({<=}1.1%). Reducing the margin size to 5 mm significantly degraded the TCP values of the 'tattoo registration' technique in two of the five patients, where a large difference was found compared to the other techniques ({<=}11.8%). The 'CTV registration' technique, however, did maintain similar TCP values compared to their 10 mm margin counterpart. In terms of normal tissue sparing, the technique producing the lowest NTCP varied from patient to patient. Reducing the

  17. Placebo-controlled dose-ranging phase 2 study of subcutaneously administered LHRH antagonist cetrorelix in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Debruyne, Frans; Gres, Arkadij A; Arustamov, Dmitrii L

    2008-07-01

    Pilot studies with daily dosing suggested the use of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist cetrorelix (CET) for the treatment of symptoms from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). To assess efficacy and safety of three dosing schemes of CET in patients with symptomatic BPH. After a run-in period with 4 weekly injections of placebo, 140 patients with an international prostate symptoms score (IPSS) > or =13 and a peak urinary flow rate (PFR) 5-13ml/s were randomly allocated to 4 treatment groups; patients with residual urine volume of >350ml were excluded. Patients received either CET at dosages of 5mg/wkx4, 10mg/2 wkx2 or 10mg/wkx4 or placebo. IPSS, PFR and mean uroflow, residual urinary volume, prostate volume, plasma testosterone, quality of life, and sexual function were evaluated over a total of 20 wk after randomization. Of 140 randomized patients, one patient did not complete treatment, 5 others dropped out off-treatment, before week 12 evaluation of the primary end point. In all CET groups a rapid improvement in mean IPSS was obtained, with a peak effect of -5.4 to -5.9 (placebo: -2.8). After all dosages of CET given, changes from baseline and differences to placebo were statistically significant up to week 20. Similarly, secondary parameters showed a significant, rapid, and persistent improvement for all CET dosages. All dosage regimens were well tolerated. The study evaluated a single treatment course only; further studies with repeated treatment courses will be required to establish a dose regimen for long-term disease management. At all dosage regimens tested, CET was safe and effective in patients with symptomatic BPH, with a trend towards a more rapid onset of effect for the CET 10mg/wkx4 regimen. Response persisted up to the end of follow-up, 16 wk after the last dose.

  18. Adjunctive aripiprazole in the treatment of risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing-Xu; Su, Yun-Ai; Bian, Qing-Tao; Wei, Li-He; Zhang, Rong-Zhen; Liu, Yan-Hong; Correll, Christoph; Soares, Jair C; Yang, Fu-De; Wang, Shao-Li; Zhang, Xiang-Yang

    2015-08-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is an unwanted adverse effect associated with several antipsychotics. The addition of partial dopamine receptor agonist aripiprazole may attenuate antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia effectively. However, the ideal dosing regimen for this purpose is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the dose effects of adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole on prolactin levels and hyperprolactinemia in schizophrenia patients. Stable subjects 18-45 years old with schizophrenia and hyperprolactinemia (i.e., >24 ng/ml for females and >20 ng/ml for males) were randomly assigned to receive 8 weeks of placebo (n=30) or oral aripiprazole 5mg/day (n=30), 10mg/day (n=29), or 20mg/day (n=30) added on to fixed dose risperidone treatment. Serum prolactin levels were measured at baseline and after 2, 4 and 8 weeks; clinical symptoms and side effects were assessed at baseline and week 8 using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impressions Severity scale, Barnes Akathisia Scale, Simpson-Angus Scale and UKU Side Effects Rating Scale. Of 119 randomized patients, 107 (89.9%) completed the 8-week study. At study end, all three aripiprazole doses resulted in significantly lower prolactin levels (beginning at week 2), higher response rates (≥30% prolactin reduction) and higher prolactin normalization rates than placebo. Effects were significantly greater in the 10 and 20mg/day groups than the 5mg/day group. No significant changes were observed in any treatment groups regarding psychopathology and adverse effect ratings. Adjunctive aripiprazole treatment was effective and safe for resolving risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia, producing significant and almost maximal improvements by week 2 without significant effects on psychopathology and side effects.

  19. High dose Vitamin D intake and quality of life in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ashtari, Fereshteh; Toghianifar, Nafiseh; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Mansourian, Marjan

    2016-10-01

    Low level of vitamin D is associated with a more severe course and low quality of life in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Low dose vitamin D intake has improved quality of life in RRMS patients. This study explored the effect of high dose vitamin D intake on quality of life in RRMS patients in a double blind randomized clinical trial. 94 RRMS patients were randomized to two groups. One group received 50,000 IU vitamin D3 every five days for 3 months. The other group received placebo. Interferon-β (IFN-β) continued as the main treatment in both groups. Quality of life was assessed using MSQOL-54 Persian version at the beginning and at the end of the study. After 3 months, the vitamin D group had a significant difference in mental health composite with placebo group, 62.41 ± 13.99 vs. 60.99 ± 17.99 (p-value = 0.041). Change in health was 75.74 ± 25.73 and 70.59 ± 26.45 in vitamin D and placebo group, respectively (p-value = 0.036). Mental QOL improved significantly after taking high dose vitamin D for 3 months in vitamin D group relative to placebo.

  20. Novel Sublingual Low-Dose Zolpidem Tablet Reduces Latency to Sleep Onset following Spontaneous Middle-of-the-Night Awakening in Insomnia in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Outpatient Study

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Thomas; Krystal, Andrew; Steinberg, Frank J.; Singh, Nikhilesh N.; Moline, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate efficacy and safety of 3.5-mg zolpidem tartrate sublingual tablets (ZST) on latency to sleep onset after middle-of-the-night (MOTN) awakenings in patients with insomnia characterized by difficulty returning to sleep after MOTN awakenings. Design: Multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group. Setting: Outpatient. Patients: There were 295 adults (median age 43 y; 68.1% female) with primary insomnia and difficulty returning to sleep after MOTN awakenings (three or more MOTN awakenings/wk during screening). Interventions: After a 2-wk, single-blind placebo eligibility period, participants were randomized 1:1 to as-needed MOTN dosing with 3.5 mg ZST or placebo for 28 nights. An interactive voice response system determined if the study drug could be taken and recorded sleep/wake efficacy measures. Results: ZST significantly (P < 0.0001) decreased latency to sleep onset over 4 wk (baseline 68.1 min; ZST 38.2 min) compared with placebo (baseline 69.4 min; placebo 56.4 min). Ratings of morning sleepiness/alertness significantly (P = 0.0041) favored the ZST group on nights medication was taken but not on other nights. Participants in the ZST group took the study drug on 62% of nights during the 4 wk; members of the placebo group took study medication on 64% of nights. Adverse events were generally mild and at the same rate (19.3% of participants) in both groups. There were no treatment-related serious adverse events (SAEs), and one adverse event-related study discontinuation from the placebo group. Dosing/week did not increase across the study. Conclusions: 3.5 mg ZST used as needed significantly reduced latency to return to sleep in comparison with placebo in these patients with insomnia. Sleep quality was improved, and morning sleepiness/alertness scores also improved. ZST was well tolerated. These data demonstrate the utility of a sleep-promoting agent when used as needed in the MOTN. Clinical Trial Information

  1. Therapeutic effect of high-dose green tea extract on weight reduction: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Ju; Liu, Chia-Yu; Chiu, Jung-Peng; Hsu, Chung-Hua

    2016-06-01

    To examine the effect and safety of high-dose green tea extract (Epigallocatechin gallate, EGCG) at a daily dosage of 856.8 mg on weight reduction and changes of lipid profile and obesity-related hormone peptides in women with central obesity. We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier no. NCT02147041. A total of 115 women with central obesity were screened at our clinic. 102 of them with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 27 kg/m(2) and a waist circumference (WC) ≥ 80 cm were eligible for the study. These women were randomly assigned to either a high-dose green tea group or placebo group. The total treatment time was 12 weeks. The main outcome measures were anthropometric measurements, lipid profiles, and obesity related hormone peptides including leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, and insulin. Significant weight loss, from 76.8 ± 11.3 kg to 75.7 ± 11.5 kg (p = 0.025), as well as decreases in BMI (p = 0.018) and waist circumference (p = 0.023) were observed in the treatment group after 12 weeks of high-dose EGCG treatment. This study also demonstrated a consistent trend of decreased total cholesterol, reaching 5.33%, and decreased LDL plasma levels. There was good tolerance of the treatment among subjects without any side effects or adverse events. Significantly lower ghrelin levels and elevated adiponectin levels were detected in the study group than in the placebo group. 12 weeks of treatment with high-dose green tea extract resulted in significant weight loss, reduced waist circumference, and a consistent decrease in total cholesterol and LDL plasma levels without any side effects or adverse effects in women with central obesity. The antiobestic mechanism of high-dose green tea extract might be associated in part with ghrelin secretion inhibition, leading to increased adiponectin levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Hypocretin receptor 2 antagonism dose-dependently reduces escalated heroin self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Schmeichel, Brooke E; Barbier, Estelle; Misra, Kaushik K; Contet, Candice; Schlosburg, Joel E; Grigoriadis, Dimitri; Williams, John P; Karlsson, Camilla; Pitcairn, Caleb; Heilig, Markus; Koob, George F; Vendruscolo, Leandro F

    2015-03-13

    The hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) system has been associated with both positive and negative drug reinforcement, implicating HCRT receptor 1 (HCRT-R1) signaling in drug-related behaviors for all major drug classes, including opioids. However, to date there are limited studies investigating the role of HCRT receptor 2 (HCRT-R2) signaling in compulsive-like drug seeking. Escalation of drug intake with extended access has been suggested to model the transition from controlled drug use to compulsive-like drug seeking/taking. The current study examined the effects of a HCRT-R2 antagonist, NBI-80713, on heroin self-administration in rats allowed short- (1 h; ShA) or long- (12 h; LgA) access to intravenous heroin self-administration. Results indicate that systemically administered NBI-80713 dose-dependently decreased heroin self-administration in LgA, but not in ShA, animals. Quantitative PCR analyses showed an increase in Hcrtr2 mRNA levels in the central amygdala, a stress-related brain region, of LgA rats. These observations suggest a functional role for HCRT-R2 signaling in compulsive-like heroin self-administration associated with extended access and indicate HCRT-R2 antagonism as a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of heroin dependence.

  3. A Phase II Randomized Dose Escalation Trial of Sorafenib in Patients With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pressiani, Tiziana; Boni, Corrado; Carnaghi, Carlo; Rota Caremoli, Elena; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Foa, Paolo; Salvagni, Stefania; Cortesi, Enrico; Chiara Tronconi, Maria; Personeni, Nicola; Bozzarelli, Silvia; Chiara Banzi, Maria; Fanello, Silvia; Romano Lutman, Fabio; Giordano, Laura; Santoro, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Background. Sorafenib has proven survival benefits in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The viability of continuing sorafenib at a higher dosage in patients who experienced radiologic disease progression was investigated. Methods. Patients who experienced disease progression while on sorafenib 400 mg twice daily were randomized to sorafenib 600 mg twice daily (n = 49) or best supportive care (n = 52). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Time to progression, overall survival, and safety were also evaluated. Results. The study did not meet its primary end point. The difference in PFS between the sorafenib arm (3.91 months) and the best supportive care arm (2.69 months) did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.086). Adverse events were mainly grade 1–2 and similar across both groups. In the sorafenib arm, the most frequent events were diarrhea (80%), weight loss (75%), fatigue (67%), hand-foot-skin reaction (49%), abdominal pain (37%), and stomatitis (26%). Conclusions. Escalated-dose sorafenib in patients with advanced HCC who progressed while on sorafenib, failed to provide any clinical benefit. Second-line treatment still remains an open issue to be explored in appropriate clinical trials. PMID:23580239

  4. Hypocretin Receptor 2 Antagonism Dose-Dependently Reduces Escalated Heroin Self-Administration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schmeichel, Brooke E; Barbier, Estelle; Misra, Kaushik K; Contet, Candice; Schlosburg, Joel E; Grigoriadis, Dimitri; Williams, John P; Karlsson, Camilla; Pitcairn, Caleb; Heilig, Markus; Koob, George F; Vendruscolo, Leandro F

    2015-01-01

    The hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) system has been associated with both positive and negative drug reinforcement, implicating HCRT receptor 1 (HCRT-R1) signaling in drug-related behaviors for all major drug classes, including opioids. However, to date there are limited studies investigating the role of HCRT receptor 2 (HCRT-R2) signaling in compulsive-like drug seeking. Escalation of drug intake with extended access has been suggested to model the transition from controlled drug use to compulsive-like drug seeking/taking. The current study examined the effects of a HCRT-R2 antagonist, NBI-80713, on heroin self-administration in rats allowed short- (1 h; ShA) or long- (12 h; LgA) access to intravenous heroin self-administration. Results indicate that systemically administered NBI-80713 dose-dependently decreased heroin self-administration in LgA, but not in ShA, animals. Quantitative PCR analyses showed an increase in Hcrtr2 mRNA levels in the central amygdala, a stress-related brain region, of LgA rats. These observations suggest a functional role for HCRT-R2 signaling in compulsive-like heroin self-administration associated with extended access and indicate HCRT-R2 antagonism as a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of heroin dependence. PMID:25367502

  5. Long-Term Response and Possible Cure of Patients With B-Cell Malignancies With Dose-Escalated Rituximab

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Lauren M.; Wiernik, Peter H.; Dutcher, Janice P.; Muxi, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Rituximab (R), a chimeric monoclonal antibody targeting CD20 antigen on B-cells, has become a standard of care in the treatment of B-cell malignancies, most often in conjunction with cytotoxic chemotherapy. Activity has been demonstrated in many subtypes of B-cell lymphoma, including diffuse large cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma (FL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, and Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM). Additionally, dose escalation of R as a single agent has demonstrated improved activity in previously treated/poor prognosis CLL. We present 4 cases of B-cell malignancy (2 CLL variants/MCL, 1 FL, 1 WM) who received dose-escalated R as a single agent and achieved complete response (3 patients) and stable disease/partial response (1 patient) of 6.5+ to 15+ years duration. They have been off treatment for 6.5+ to 15+ years. Toxicity was minimal, with initial infusion reactions similar to those observed with standard dose infusions. There were no serious treatment-related adverse events or infections. Dose escalated R as a single agent may possibly be curative for some patients with B-cell malignancies, unlike the standard empiric dose of 375 mg/m2, and deserves further study. PMID:28203581

  6. Postradiotherapy PSA nadirs fail to support dose escalation study in patients with pretreatment PSA values < 10 ng/ml.

    PubMed

    Herold, D; Hanks, G; Movsas, B; Hanlon, A

    1997-01-01

    With three-dimensional conformal therapy, doses > 75 Gy have been delivered to the prostate with acceptable levels of morbidity; however, higher doses do appear to increase late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) morbidity. Because patients with pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values < 10 ng/ml can achieve 3-year actuarial bNED control rates of 90% after treatment with external beam radiotherapy to doses < 71 Gy, one might question the need for further dose escalation in this population. In this report, we examined the relationship between dose and PSA nadir for 90 patients with pretreatment PSA values < 10 ng/ml entered into a dose escalation study from March 1987 to October 1992. We wanted to see if nadir response data would predict a different outcome from our 3-year bNED control reports. All patients were treated with external beam radiotherapy to ICRU reporting point doses of 6,598 cGy to 7,895 cGy (median of 7,068 cGy). Minimum follow-up was 36 months (median, 47 months). Seven hundred thirty-nine posttreatment PSA nadir values were analyzed, yielding an average of 8.2 values per patient. Estimates of rates of bNED control and time to reach a posttreatment PSA of 1.0 ng/ml were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier product limit method. The log-rank test was used to evaluate differences in rates according to dose levels. Linear regression and Cox proportional hazard modeling were used to relate dose to bNED control on a continuum. Escalating doses from 66 to 79 Gy failed to increase the percentage of patients achieving nadir values < 1 ng/ml and similarly failed to increase the 3-year actuarial bNED control. Linear regression (P = .81) and the chi-square test of association (P = .23) supported the lack of a dose effect on nadir continuously and categorically, respectively, and the Cox regression model supported the conclusion that dose on a continuum has no effect on bNED control (P = .34). Furthermore, time to reach a posttreatment PSA

  7. Low dose high frequency ultrasound therapy for stellate ganglion blockade in complex regional pain syndrome type I: a randomised placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Askin, Ayhan; Savas, Serpil; Koyuncuoglu, Hasan Rifat; Baloglu, Hale Hekim; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Background: We aimed to determine the sympatholytic and clinical effects of low dose high frequency ultrasound (US) applied on stellate ganglion in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type I patients. Material and method: Fourty-five patients with CRPS type I were randomly allocated into three groups. Pharmacological treatment, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), contrast bath and exercise were applied to all groups for 20 sessions. In addition to this treatment protocol, low dose high frequency US was applied on stellate ganglion as 0.5 watts/cm2 in group I; 3 watts/cm2 in group II and as placebo in group III. Forty age and sex matched healthy controls were served as controls. Sympathetic skin response (SSR) was used for determining the sympatholytic effects of US. Pain was assessed with visual analog scale (VAS), limitation of total finger flexion was assessed with finger pulp-distal crease distance, muscle strength was assessed with measuring the grip strength, upper extremity disability was assessed with Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scale before and after the treatment. Results: All groups evalueted in terms of VAS score, finger pulp-distal crease distance, grip strength and DASH score after the treatment. The improvements in those parameters were not statistically significant between the groups (P > 0.05). SSR latency was significantly shorter in CRPS patients than controls (P < 0.05). Pre- and post-treatment SSR amplitude and latency values were not different within patient groups (P > 0.05). The differences in pre- and post-treatment SSR amplitude and latency values were not statistically different between patient groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Low dose high frequency US applied on stellate ganglion did not make a sympathetic blockade and was not of further benefit for pain, range of motion, grip strength and upper extremity disability in CRPS type I patients. PMID:25664079

  8. Oral high dose ascorbic acid treatment for one year in young CMT1A patients: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background High dose oral ascorbic acid substantially improved myelination and locomotor function in a Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A mouse model. A phase II study was warranted to investigate whether high dose ascorbic acid also has such a substantial effect on myelination in Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A patients and whether this treatment is safe. Methods Patients below age 25 years were randomly assigned to receive placebo or ascorbic acid (one gram twice daily) in a double-blind fashion during one year. The primary outcome measure was the change over time in motor nerve conduction velocity of the median nerve. Secondary outcome measures included changes in minimal F response latencies, compound muscle action potential amplitude, muscle strength, sensory function, Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy score, and disability. Results There were no significant differences between the six placebo-treated (median age 16 years, range 13 to 24) and the five ascorbic acid-treated (19, 14 to 24) patients in change in motor nerve conduction velocity of the median nerve (mean difference ascorbic acid as opposed to placebo treatment of 1.3 m/s, confidence interval -0.3 to 3.0 m/s, P = 0.11) or in change of any of the secondary outcome measures over time. One patient in the ascorbic acid group developed a skin rash, which led to discontinuation of the study medication. Conclusion Oral high dose ascorbic acid for one year did not improve myelination of the median nerve in young Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A patients. Treatment was relatively safe. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN56968278, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00271635. PMID:19909499

  9. Different doses of supplemental vitamin D maintain interleukin-5 without altering skeletal muscle strength: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in vitamin D sufficient adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Supplemental vitamin D modulates inflammatory cytokines and skeletal muscle function, but results are inconsistent. It is unknown if these inconsistencies are dependent on the supplemental dose of vitamin D. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the influence of different doses of supplemental vitamin D on inflammatory cytokines and muscular strength in young adults. Methods Men (n = 15) and women (n = 15) received a daily placebo or vitamin D supplement (200 or 4000 IU) for 28-d during the winter. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), cytokine concentrations and muscular (leg) strength measurements were performed prior to and during supplementation. Statistical significance of data were assessed with a two-way (time, treatment) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures, followed by a Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference to test multiple pairwise comparisons. Results Upon enrollment, 63% of the subjects were vitamin D sufficient (serum 25(OH)D ≥ 30 ng/ml). Serum 25(OH)D and interleukin (IL)-5 decreased (P < 0.05) across time in the placebo group. Supplemental vitamin D at 200 IU maintained serum 25(OH)D concentrations and increased IL-5 (P < 0.05). Supplemental vitamin D at 4000 IU increased (P < 0.05) serum 25(OH)D without altering IL-5 concentrations. Although serum 25(OH)D concentrations correlated (P < 0.05) with muscle strength, muscle strength was not changed by supplemental vitamin D. Conclusion In young adults who were vitamin D sufficient prior to supplementation, we conclude that a low-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D prevents serum 25(OH)D and IL-5 concentration decreases, and that muscular strength does not parallel the 25(OH)D increase induced by a high-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D. Considering that IL-5 protects against viruses and bacterial infections, these findings could have a broad physiological importance regarding the ability of vitamin D sufficiency to mediate the immune systems protection

  10. Effect on LDL-cholesterol of a large dose of a dietary supplement with plant extracts in subjects with untreated moderate hypercholesterolaemia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Barrat, Emmanuel; Zaïr, Yassine; Sirvent, Pascal; Chauveau, Patrice; Maudet, Corinne; Housez, Béatrice; Derbord, Elodie; Lescuyer, Jean-François; Bard, Jean-Marie; Cazaubiel, Murielle; Peltier, Sébastien L

    2013-12-01

    To determine the effect of 4 weeks of supplementation, then, withdrawal of a dietary supplement (DS) containing red yeast rice extract, policosanol and artichoke leaf extract at twice the recommended daily dose (6 tablets, 6-TAB) compared to the usual dose (3-TAB) or to a placebo (PLA), on blood lipid profiles and safety biomarkers. Forty-five healthy subjects (15 per group), with untreated hypercholesterolaemia, were included in this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. After 4 weeks of supplementation, LDL-C was significantly lower in 6-TAB (-0.21 g/l; 95 % CI -0.38 to -0.03 g/l; p = 0.0217) and 3-TAB (-0.25 g/l; 95 % CI -0.42 to -0.07 g/l; p = 0.0071) compared to PLA, although no difference in LDL-cholesterol was observed between the two groups, while no effect was seen on triacylglycerol and HDL-cholesterol. Four weeks after the end of supplementation, no difference in LDL-C was seen between the PLA group and the DS-treated groups. The muscle breakdown biomarkers, as well as biomarkers of liver and renal function, were altered by neither dose of the DS. Acute application of the DS on permeabilised skeletal muscle fibres of rats did not induce deleterious effects on mitochondrial function. Supplementation with twice the recommended dose of the DS was effective in reducing LDL-cholesterol and appeared safe, but according to the present results, no additional benefit could be achieved compared to the recommended dose.

  11. An acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of 320 mg and 640 mg doses of a special extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on sustained cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Downey, Luke A; Kean, James; Nemeh, Fiona; Lau, Angela; Poll, Alex; Gregory, Rebecca; Murray, Margaret; Rourke, Johanna; Patak, Brigit; Pase, Matthew P; Zangara, Andrea; Lomas, Justine; Scholey, Andrew; Stough, Con

    2013-09-01

    Standardized extracts of the traditional Ayurvedic medicine Bacopa monnieri (BM) (Brahmi) have been recently shown to have cognitive enhancing effects in chronic administration studies. Pre-clinical work has also identified a number of acute anxiolytic, nootropic, and cardiovascular effects of BM. There has, however, been little research on the acute effects of BM on cognitive function. The current study aimed to assess the acute effects of a specific extract of BM (KeenMind®-CDRI 08) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in normal healthy participants who completed a cognitively demanding series of tests. Twenty-four healthy volunteers completed six repetitions of the Cognitive Demand Battery (CDB) after consuming a placebo, 320 mg BM or 640 mg of BM in a cross-over design and provided cardiovascular and mood assessments before and after treatment. Change from baseline scores indicated that the 320 mg dose of BM improved performance at the first, second, and fourth repetition post-dosing on the CDB, and the treatments had no effect upon cardiovascular activity or in attenuating task-induced ratings of stress and fatigue. It was concluded that assessment of an earlier pharmacological window and use of less memory-specific cognitive tests together with more temporally sensitive measures of brain activity may improve our understanding of the acute neurocognitive properties of BM.

  12. Placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial on the immunomodulating activities of low- and high-dose bromelain after oral administration - new evidence on the antiinflammatory mode of action of bromelain.

    PubMed

    Müller, Silke; März, Reinhard; Schmolz, Manfred; Drewelow, Bernd; Eschmann, Klaus; Meiser, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Bromelain has been used for treatment of inflammatory diseases for decades. However, the exact mechanism of action remains poorly understood. While in vitro investigations have shown conflicting effects on the release of various cytokines, no in vivo data were available. In this study, the effects on inflammation-related cytokines of two doses of bromelain were tested in a single dose placebo-controlled 3 × crossover randomized clinical trial. Cytokine circadian profiles were used to investigate the effects of bromelain on the human immune system by using stimulated whole-blood leukocytes. The effects seen in these cultures demonstrated a significant shift in the circadian profiles of the Th1 cell mediator interferon gamma (IFNγ; p < 0.043) after bromelain 3000 FIP (Fédération Internationale Pharmaceutique) units, and trends in those of the Th2-type cytokine IL-5 as well as the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. This suggests a general effect on the antigen-specific (T cell) compartment of the human immune system. This is the first time that bromelain has been shown to modulate the cellular responses of lymphocyte after oral use. It is postulated that the immunomodulating effect of bromelain observed in this trial is part of its known antiinflammatory activities. Further investigations will be necessary to verify the relevance of these findings to a diseased immune system.

  13. Decision regret in men undergoing dose-escalated radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Steer, Anna N; Aherne, Noel J; Gorzynska, Karen; Hoffman, Matthew; Last, Andrew; Hill, Jacques; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2013-07-15

    Decision regret (DR) is a negative emotion associated with medical treatment decisions, and it is an important patient-centered outcome after therapy for localized prostate cancer. DR has been found to occur in up to 53% of patients treated for localized prostate cancer, and it may vary depending on treatment modality. DR after modern dose-escalated radiation therapy (DE-RT) has not been investigated previously, to our knowledge. Our primary aim was to evaluate DR in a cohort of patients treated with DE-RT. We surveyed 257 consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer who had previously received DE-RT, by means of a validated questionnaire. There were 220 responses (85.6% response rate). Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy was given in 85.0% of patients and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy in 15.0%. Doses received included 73.8 Gy (34.5% patients), 74 Gy (53.6%), and 76 Gy (10.9%). Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (AD) was given in 51.8% of patients and both neoadjuvant and adjuvant AD in 34.5%. The median follow-up time was 23 months (range, 12-67 months). In all, 3.8% of patients expressed DR for their choice of treatment. When asked whether they would choose DE-RT or AD again, only 0.5% probably or definitely would not choose DE-RT again, compared with 8.4% for AD (P<.01). Few patients treated with modern DE-RT express DR, with regret appearing to be lower than in previously published reports of patients treated with radical prostatectomy or older radiation therapy techniques. Patients experienced more regret with the AD component of treatment than with the radiation therapy component, with implications for informed consent. Further research should investigate regret associated with individual components of modern therapy, including AD, radiation therapy and surgery. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Decision Regret in Men Undergoing Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Steer, Anna N.; Aherne, Noel J.; Gorzynska, Karen; Hoffman, Matthew; Last, Andrew; Hill, Jacques; Shakespeare, Thomas P.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: Decision regret (DR) is a negative emotion associated with medical treatment decisions, and it is an important patient-centered outcome after therapy for localized prostate cancer. DR has been found to occur in up to 53% of patients treated for localized prostate cancer, and it may vary depending on treatment modality. DR after modern dose-escalated radiation therapy (DE-RT) has not been investigated previously, to our knowledge. Our primary aim was to evaluate DR in a cohort of patients treated with DE-RT. Methods and Materials: We surveyed 257 consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer who had previously received DE-RT, by means of a validated questionnaire. Results: There were 220 responses (85.6% response rate). Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy was given in 85.0% of patients and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy in 15.0%. Doses received included 73.8 Gy (34.5% patients), 74 Gy (53.6%), and 76 Gy (10.9%). Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (AD) was given in 51.8% of patients and both neoadjuvant and adjuvant AD in 34.5%. The median follow-up time was 23 months (range, 12-67 months). In all, 3.8% of patients expressed DR for their choice of treatment. When asked whether they would choose DE-RT or AD again, only 0.5% probably or definitely would not choose DE-RT again, compared with 8.4% for AD (P<.01). Conclusion: Few patients treated with modern DE-RT express DR, with regret appearing to be lower than in previously published reports of patients treated with radical prostatectomy or older radiation therapy techniques. Patients experienced more regret with the AD component of treatment than with the radiation therapy component, with implications for informed consent. Further research should investigate regret associated with individual components of modern therapy, including AD, radiation therapy and surgery.

  15. The efficacy and safety of Tanacetum parthenium (feverfew) in migraine prophylaxis--a double-blind, multicentre, randomized placebo-controlled dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Pfaffenrath, V; Diener, H C; Fischer, M; Friede, M; Henneicke-von Zepelin, H H

    2002-09-01

    Tanacetum parthenium (feverfew), is a well-known herb for the prophylactic treatment of migraine. The primary objective was to show a dose-response of a new stable extract (MIG-99) reproducibly manufactured with supercritical CO2 from feverfew (T. parthenium). Furthermore, the study should provide data on the safety and tolerability of MIG-99. In a randomized, double-blind, multicentre, controlled trial with an adaptive design, the clinical efficacy and safety of three dosages of MIG-99 (2.08 mg; 6.25 mg; 18.75 mg t.i.d.) were compared with placebo. The patients (n = 147) suffered from migraine with and without aura according to International Headache Society (IHS) criteria and were treated with one of the study medications for 12 weeks after a 4-week baseline period. The primary efficacy parameter was the number of migraine attacks during the last 28 days of the treatment period compared with baseline. Secondary endpoints were total and average duration and intensity of migraine attacks, mean duration of the single attack, number of days with accompanying migraine symptoms, number of days with inability to work due to migraine as well as type and amount of additionally taken medications for the treatment of migraine attacks. The design of the study included a pre-planned adaptive interim analysis for patients with at least four migraine attacks within the baseline period. With respect to the primary and secondary efficacy parameter, a statistically significant difference was not found between the overall and the confirmatory intention-to-treat (ITT) sample in the exploratorily analysed four treatment groups. The frequency of migraine attacks for the predefined confirmatory subgroup of patients (n = 49) with at least four migraine attacks during the baseline period decreased in a dose-dependent manner (P = 0.001). The highest absolute change of migraine attacks was observed under treatment with 6.25 mg t.i.d. (mean +/- SD = -1.8 +/- 1.5 per 28 days) compared with

  16. Efficacy of a single 40-mg intravenous dose of parecoxib for postoperative pain control after elective cesarean delivery: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Inthigood, Nittaya; Lertbunnaphong, Tripop; Jaishuen, Atthapon

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a single 40-mg intravenous (i.v.) dose of parecoxib as an adjunctive analgesia to intrathecal morphine after elective cesarean delivery (CD). A total of 82 low-risk term pregnant women who were scheduled for elective CD during the June 2014-June 2015 study period were enrolled. Two hours after surgery, subjects were randomly assigned to receive either i.v. injection of 2 mL (40 mg) parecoxib (study group; n = 41) or 2 mL normal saline solution (control group; n = 41). Patient randomization into groups was determined by the hospital's central computer system. Outcome measurements included total postoperative supplemental meperidine consumption, recorded pain score by numeric pain rating scale at 6, 12, 18, and 24 h, postoperatively, and patient satisfaction. Patient characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were comparable between groups. Total postoperative meperidine consumption was not significantly different between groups (12.7 ± 18.8 mg vs 8.3 ± 16.7 mg; P > 0.05). Compared with control, the study group was significantly less likely to experience moderate to severe postoperative pain (score ≥ 4) at 6 h (0% vs 21.9%; P = 0.002). Study group patients reported higher satisfaction than control group patients (median score: 8 vs 6; P < 0.01). No patients in either group reported adverse effects from their assigned intervention. Parecoxib did not demonstrate effectiveness in reducing patient requirement for supplementary meperidine after CD. However, administration of a single 40-mg dose of i.v. parecoxib after elective CD demonstrated effectiveness in reducing pain scores, with a resulting increase in patient satisfaction. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Perioperative Bromelain Therapy after Wisdom Teeth Extraction - A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blinded, Three-Armed, Cross-Over Dose-Finding Study.

    PubMed

    Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Weber, Kristina; Kloppenburg, Heike; Koch, Armin; Meiser, Peter; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius

    2016-12-01

    Reduction in postoperative edema and inflammatory reactions is the key to the posttraumatic regeneration process. Use of bromelain is well established in this indication, but there is some controversy with regard to the optimal dosing of this drug. The aim of our study was therefore to investigate the efficacy of dosage-dependent therapy with bromelain in patients after wisdom teeth extraction by comparing the registered dosage 1000 FIP (Fédération Internationale Pharmaceutique) against higher dosages of 3000 FIP and 4500 FIP. A total of 75 patients were randomized to one of the three dosage arms, and 68 of these patients were finally analyzed in the modified intention-to-treat population. Patients involved underwent two surgery sessions: one study period being conducted under treatment with bromelain and the other with placebo. Postoperative swelling determined by a 3D face scanning system was defined as the primary endpoint; further efficacy parameters were maximum swelling, pain, difficulty in swallowing, and use of analgesics. A superiority of treatment with 3000 FIP and 4500 FIP versus 1000 FIP could not be demonstrated. The analysis of pooled bromelain treatments versus placebo did, however, show a clear trend in favor of bromelain for all assessments. Adverse events did not occur more frequently under bromelain therapy compared with placebo. This study thus clearly supports the clinical relevance of treatment of postoperative conditions with bromelain, and the recommended daily dose was sufficiently effective in this trial and indication. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, linear dose, crossover study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a green coffee bean extract in overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Vinson, Joe A; Burnham, Bryan R; Nagendran, Mysore V

    2012-01-01

    Adult weight gain and obesity have become worldwide problems. Issues of cost and potential side effects of prescription weight loss drugs have led overweight and obese adults to try nutraceuticals that may aid weight loss. One promising nutraceutical is green coffee extract, which contains high concentrations of chlorogenic acids that are known to have health benefits and to influence glucose and fat metabolism. A 22-week crossover study was conducted to examine the efficacy and safety of a commercial green coffee extract product GCA™ at reducing weight and body mass in 16 overweight adults. Subjects received high-dose GCA (1050 mg), low-dose GCA (700 mg), or placebo in separate six-week treatment periods followed by two-week washout periods to reduce any influence of preceding treatment. Treatments were counterbalanced between subjects. Primary measurements were body weight, body mass index, and percent body fat. Heart rate and blood pressure were also measured. Significant reductions were observed in body weight (-8.04 ± 2.31 kg), body mass index (-2.92 ± 0.85 kg/m(2)), and percent body fat (-4.44% ± 2.00%), as well as a small decrease in heart rate (-2.56 ± 2.85 beats per minute), but with no significant changes to diet over the course of the study. Importantly, the decreases occurred when subjects were taking GCA. Body mass index for six subjects shifted from preobesity to the normal weight range (<25.00 kg/m(2)). The results are consistent with human and animal studies and a meta-analysis of the efficacy of green coffee extract in weight loss. The results suggest that GCA may be an effective nutraceutical in reducing weight in preobese adults, and may be an inexpensive means of preventing obesity in overweight adults.

  19. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, linear dose, crossover study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a green coffee bean extract in overweight subjects

    PubMed Central

    Vinson, Joe A; Burnham, Bryan R; Nagendran, Mysore V

    2012-01-01

    Background Adult weight gain and obesity have become worldwide problems. Issues of cost and potential side effects of prescription weight loss drugs have led overweight and obese adults to try nutraceuticals that may aid weight loss. One promising nutraceutical is green coffee extract, which contains high concentrations of chlorogenic acids that are known to have health benefits and to influence glucose and fat metabolism. A 22-week crossover study was conducted to examine the efficacy and safety of a commercial green coffee extract product GCA™ at reducing weight and body mass in 16 overweight adults. Methods Subjects received high-dose GCA (1050 mg), low-dose GCA (700 mg), or placebo in separate six-week treatment periods followed by two-week washout periods to reduce any influence of preceding treatment. Treatments were counterbalanced between subjects. Primary measurements were body weight, body mass index, and percent body fat. Heart rate and blood pressure were also measured. Results Significant reductions were observed in body weight (−8.04 ± 2.31 kg), body mass index (−2.92 ± 0.85 kg/m2), and percent body fat (−4.44% ± 2.00%), as well as a small decrease in heart rate (−2.56 ± 2.85 beats per minute), but with no significant changes to diet over the course of the study. Importantly, the decreases occurred when subjects were taking GCA. Body mass index for six subjects shifted from preobesity to the normal weight range (<25.00 kg/m2). Conclusion The results are consistent with human and animal studies and a meta-analysis of the efficacy of green coffee extract in weight loss. The results suggest that GCA may be an effective nutraceutical in reducing weight in preobese adults, and may be an inexpensive means of preventing obesity in overweight adults. PMID:22291473

  20. SU-C-BRB-02: Automatic Planning as a Potential Strategy for Dose Escalation for Pancreas SBRT?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S; Zheng, D; Ma, R; Lin, C; Zhu, X; Lei, Y; Enke, C; Zhou, S

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been suggested to provide high rates of local control for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. However, the close proximity of highly radiosensitive normal tissues usually causes the labor-intensive planning process, and may impede further escalation of the prescription dose. The present study evaluates the potential of an automatic planning system as a dose escalation strategy. Methods: Ten pancreatic cancer patients treated with SBRT were studied retrospectively. SBRT was delivered over 5 consecutive fractions with 6 ∼ 8Gy/fraction. Two plans were generated by Pinnacle Auto-Planning with the original prescription and escalated prescription, respectively. Escalated prescription adds 1 Gy/fraction to the original prescription. Manually-created planning volumes were excluded in the optimization goals in order to assess the planning efficiency and quality simultaneously. Critical organs with closest proximity were used to determine the plan normalization to ensure the OAR sparing. Dosimetric parameters including D100, and conformity index (CI) were assessed. Results: Auto-plans directly generate acceptable plans for 70% of the cases without necessity of further improvement, and two more iterations at most are necessary for the rest of the cases. For the pancreas SBRT plans with the original prescription, autoplans resulted in favorable target coverage and PTV conformity (D100 = 96.3% ± 1.48%; CI = 0.88 ± 0.06). For the plans with the escalated prescriptions, no significant target under-dosage was observed, and PTV conformity remains reasonable (D100 = 93.3% ± 3.8%, and CI = 0.84 ± 0.05). Conclusion: Automatic planning, without substantial human-intervention process, results in reasonable PTV coverage and PTV conformity on the premise of adequate OAR sparing for the pancreas SBRT plans with escalated prescription. The results highlight the potential of autoplanning as a dose escalation strategy for pancreas

  1. Sex Differences in Dose Escalation and Overdose Death during Chronic Opioid Therapy: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaplovitch, Eric; Gomes, Tara; Camacho, Ximena; Dhalla, Irfan A.; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Juurlink, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of opioids for noncancer pain is widespread, and more than 16,000 die of opioid-related causes in the United States annually. The patients at greatest risk of death are those receiving high doses of opioids. Whether sex influences the risk of dose escalation or opioid-related mortality is unknown. Methods and Findings We conducted a cohort study using healthcare records of 32,499 individuals aged 15 to 64 who commenced chronic opioid therapy for noncancer pain between April 1, 1997 and December 31, 2010 in Ontario, Canada. Patients were followed from their first opioid prescription until discontinuation of therapy, death from any cause or the end of the study period. Among patients receiving chronic opioid therapy, 589 (1.8%) escalated to high dose therapy and n = 59 (0.2%) died of opioid-related causes while on treatment. After multivariable adjustment, men were more likely than women to escalate to high-dose opioid therapy (adjusted hazard ratio 1.44; 95% confidence interval 1.21 to 1.70) and twice as likely to die of opioid-related causes (adjusted hazard ratio 2.04; 95% confidence interval 1.18 to 3.53). These associations were maintained in a secondary analysis of 285,520 individuals receiving any opioid regardless of the duration of therapy. Conclusions Men are at higher risk than women for escalation to high-dose opioid therapy and death from opioid-related causes. Both outcomes were more common than anticipated. PMID:26291716

  2. High-dose albumin treatment for acute ischaemic stroke (ALIAS): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ginsberg, Myron D.; Palesch, Yuko Y.; Hill, Michael D.; Martin, Renee H.; Moy, Claudia S.; Barsan, William G.; Waldman, Bonnie D.; Tamariz, Diego; Ryckborst, Karla J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In animal models of ischaemic stroke, 25% albumin reduced brain infarction and improved neurobehavioral outcome. In a pilot clinical trial, albumin doses as high as 2 g per kg were safely tolerated. Trial Design and Methods This was a randomised, parallel-group, double-blind trial to test the superiority of 25% albumin (dose 2 g [8 ml] per kg; maximum, 750 ml) over an equivalent volume of isotonic saline in improving the outcome of acute ischaemic stroke. Eligibility criteria were an ischaemic (i.e., non-haemorrhagic) stroke with baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 6 or above, ability to treat within 5 hours of onset, age 18 through 83 years, and written informed consent. The major exclusion criteria were cardiovascular. The objective was to test the hypothesis that the primary outcome (defined as either a modified Rankin Scale score of 0 or 1, or a NIHSS score of 0 or 1, or both, at 90 days) with albumin treatment was superior to saline by an absolute margin of 10 percentage points. Centralised web-based randomisation was by a minimisation-plus-biased-coin algorithm. Thrombolytic therapies were permitted. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT00235495. Findings The trial was stopped prematurely for futility after 841 participants were randomised (422 patients to albumin and 419 to saline). The primary outcome did not differ by treatment assignment (albumin, 44.1%; saline, 44.2%; relative benefit, 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84 – 1.10 adjusted for baseline NIHSS score and thrombolysis stratum). Secondary outcomes were also neutral. The chief adverse event was mild-to-moderate pulmonary edema, which was more common with albumin than saline (13.1% and 1.2%, respectively), as was symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage within 24 hours (albumin, 4.1%; saline, 1.7%). While the favourable outcome rate in albumin-treated subjects remained consistent at 44–45% over the course of the trial, the

  3. Intravenous augmentative citalopram versus clomipramine in partial/nonresponder depressed patients: a short-term, low dose, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Altamura, Alfredo Carlo; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Buoli, Massimiliano; Zanoni, Silvia; Mundo, Emanuela

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of short-term low-dose intravenous augmentative citalopram (10 mg/d) versus clomipramine (25 mg/d) versus placebo in a sample of patients with MDE and partial or no response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Fifty-four patients with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, MDE and partial or no response to SSRIs per os (21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAM-D21] score reduction, <50% or < or =25%, respectively, compared with pretreatment scores) were selected and randomized to citalopram (n = 18), clomipramine (n = 18), or placebo (n = 18) intravenous augmentation. The augmentation regimen lasted 5 days during which patients were maintained on their previous treatment with oral SSRIs. Analyses of variance with repeated measures on HAM-D(21), collected daily in blind-raters design, were performed to detect any change of depressive symptoms between the 3 groups. In addition, the number of responders and remitters was computed in the 3 groups of treatment. At end point, a significant treatment effect (F= 4.57; P = 0.015) and time-by-treatment effect (F = 11.22; P < 0.0001) were found on HAM-D21 total scores in favor of citalopram and clomipramine versus placebo, with a superiority of citalopram over clomipramine on overall symptoms (P = 0.05) as well as on anxiety-somatization symptoms (P = 0.027). The number of responders was significantly superior in the active treatment groups versus the placebo group ([chi](2)(2) = 16.36; P < 0.0001). The same result was found, considering the number of remitters ([chi](2)(2) = 13.50; P < 0.0001). Present findings suggest that both clomipramine and citalopram intravenous augmentation at low doses and for a short period are well tolerated and superior to placebo in major depressives with partial or no response to oral SSRIs with a possible superiority of citalopram over clomipramine with regard to

  4. Strategies of dose escalation in the treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: image guidance and beyond.

    PubMed

    Chi, Alexander; Nguyen, Nam Phong; Welsh, James S; Tse, William; Monga, Manish; Oduntan, Olusola; Almubarak, Mohammed; Rogers, John; Remick, Scot C; Gius, David

    2014-01-01

    Radiation dose in the setting of chemo-radiation for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been historically limited by the risk of normal tissue toxicity and this has been hypothesized to correlate with the poor results in regard to local tumor recurrences. Dose escalation, as a means to improve local control, with concurrent chemotherapy has been shown to be feasible with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in early phase studies with good clinical outcome. However, the potential superiority of moderate dose escalation to 74 Gy has not been shown in phase III randomized studies. In this review, the limitations in target volume definition in previous studies; and the factors that may be critical to safe dose escalation in the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC, such as respiratory motion management, image guidance, intensity modulation, FDG-positron emission tomography incorporation in the treatment planning process, and adaptive radiotherapy, are discussed. These factors, along with novel treatment approaches that have emerged in recent years, are proposed to warrant further investigation in future trials in a more comprehensive and integrated fashion.

  5. Strategies of Dose Escalation in the Treatment of Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Image Guidance and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Alexander; Nguyen, Nam Phong; Welsh, James S.; Tse, William; Monga, Manish; Oduntan, Olusola; Almubarak, Mohammed; Rogers, John; Remick, Scot C.; Gius, David

    2014-01-01

    Radiation dose in the setting of chemo-radiation for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been historically limited by the risk of normal tissue toxicity and this has been hypothesized to correlate with the poor results in regard to local tumor recurrences. Dose escalation, as a means to improve local control, with concurrent chemotherapy has been shown to be feasible with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in early phase studies with good clinical outcome. However, the potential superiority of moderate dose escalation to 74 Gy has not been shown in phase III randomized studies. In this review, the limitations in target volume definition in previous studies; and the factors that may be critical to safe dose escalation in the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC, such as respiratory motion management, image guidance, intensity modulation, FDG–positron emission tomography incorporation in the treatment planning process, and adaptive radiotherapy, are discussed. These factors, along with novel treatment approaches that have emerged in recent years, are proposed to warrant further investigation in future trials in a more comprehensive and integrated fashion. PMID:24999451

  6. A high polymerized grass pollen extract is efficacious and safe in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study using a novel up-dosing cluster-protocol.

    PubMed

    Klimek, L; Uhlig, J; Mösges, R; Rettig, K; Pfaar, O

    2014-12-01

    Cluster immunotherapy represents an interesting alternative to conventional up-dosing schedules because it allows achieving the maintenance dose within a shorter time interval. In this study, the efficacy and safety of cluster immunotherapy with a high polymerized allergen extract of a grass/rye pollen mixture have been evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. In total, 121 patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis due to grass pollen were randomized 1 : 1 to verum or placebo group. A short cluster up-dosing schedule of only 1 week was applied to achieve the maintenance dose which was administered monthly during the study period of 1 year. Total combined symptom and medication score (TCS) was defined as primary outcome parameter. Secondary outcome parameters were individual symptom and medication scores, 'well days,' global improvement as well as immunological effects and nasal allergen challenge. The safety profile was evaluated based on the European academy of allergy and clinical immunology grading system. Significant reduction in the verum compared to the placebo group (intention-to-treat, population, verum: n = 55; placebo: n = 47) was found regarding TCS (P = 0.005), rhinoconjunctivitis total symptom score (RTSS, P = 0.006), and total rescue medication score (TRMS, P = 0.002). Additionally, secondary outcomes such as 'well days,' nasal challenge results, and increase of specific IgG4 were in favor of the active treatment. All systemic adverse reactions (0.8% of all injections in the verum group) were of mild intensity. No severe reactions related to the study medication were observed. Cluster immunotherapy with high polymerized grass pollen extracts resulted in significant clinical efficacy and has been shown to be a safe treatment for grass pollen-allergic patients. © 2014 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Clinical Safety of a High Dose of Phycocyanin-Enriched Aqueous Extract from Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis: Results from a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study with a Focus on Anticoagulant Activity and Platelet Activation.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Gitte S; Drapeau, Cassandra; Lenninger, Miki; Benson, Kathleen F

    2016-07-01

    The goal for this study was to evaluate safety regarding anticoagulant activity and platelet activation during daily consumption of an aqueous cyanophyta extract (ACE), containing a high dose of phycocyanin. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design, 24 men and women were enrolled after informed consent, and consumed either ACE (2.3 g/day) or placebo daily for 2 weeks. The ACE dose was equivalent to ∼1 g phycocyanin per day, chosen based on the highest dose Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Consuming ACE did not alter markers for platelet activation (P-selectin expression) or serum P-selectin levels. No changes were seen for activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin clotting time, or fibrinogen activity. Serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) showed a significant reduction after 2 weeks of ACE consumption (P < .001), in contrast to placebo where no changes were seen; the difference in AST levels between the two groups was significant at 2 weeks (P < .02). Reduced levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) were also seen in the group consuming ACE (P < .08). Previous studies showed reduction of chronic pain when consuming 1 g ACE per day. The higher dose of 2.3 g/day in this study was associated with significant reduction of chronic pain at rest and when physically active (P < .05). Consumption of ACE showed safety regarding markers pertaining to anticoagulant activity and platelet activation status, in conjunction with rapid and robust relief of chronic pain. Reduction in AST and ALT suggested improvement in liver function and metabolism.

  8. Efficacy and safety of guaifenesin for upper back, neck, and shoulder pain: a Phase II proof-of-concept, multicenter, placebo-controlled, repeat-dose, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Collaku, Agron; Yue, Yong; Reed, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Background/objective Guaifenesin, an over-the-counter (OTC) expectorant, has exhibited muscle relaxant effects preclinically and clinically. This proof-of-principle study explored whether OTC doses of guaifenesin can provide relief from acute upper back, neck, or shoulder muscle spasm and pain. Methods This multicenter, placebo-controlled, repeat-dose, parallel study randomly assigned adults experiencing acute pain and muscle spasm in their upper back, neck, or shoulder to guaifenesin 600 or 1200 mg or matched placebo twice daily (BID) in a 2:2:1:1 ratio for 7 days. The primary end point was the change from baseline in muscle spasm relief, measured using an 11-point numeric rating scale (0=not present to 10=unbearable) recorded twice daily and averaged over the 7-day treatment period. Analyses were performed using a linear mixed model that included treatment as a fixed effect and site as a random effect. Results A total of 77 subjects were included in the 4 treatment groups. Least squares mean muscle spasm score over 7 days was 1.77 with guaifenesin 1200 mg, 1.42 with its matched placebo, 1.53 with guaifenesin 600 mg, and 1.74 with its matched placebo. Treatment with guaifenesin 1200 mg BID provided 25% greater reduction in mean muscle spasm over its matched placebo and 16% greater reduction than guaifenesin 600 mg BID. These differences were not statistically significant. Based on comparisons of absolute mean values, a consistent directional change in effect was observed, suggesting some benefit from placebo to lower-to-upper doses of guaifenesin with regard to muscle spasm, tension, pain, discomfort, and relaxation. No severe or serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion Results suggest the potential for OTC dose of guaifenesin 1200 mg BID to provide symptomatic relief of upper back musculoskeletal pain and spasm. Confirmation of this preliminary result in a larger, adequately powered study is needed. PMID:28356767

  9. Efficacy and safety of guaifenesin for upper back, neck, and shoulder pain: a Phase II proof-of-concept, multicenter, placebo-controlled, repeat-dose, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Collaku, Agron; Yue, Yong; Reed, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Guaifenesin, an over-the-counter (OTC) expectorant, has exhibited muscle relaxant effects preclinically and clinically. This proof-of-principle study explored whether OTC doses of guaifenesin can provide relief from acute upper back, neck, or shoulder muscle spasm and pain. This multicenter, placebo-controlled, repeat-dose, parallel study randomly assigned adults experiencing acute pain and muscle spasm in their upper back, neck, or shoulder to guaifenesin 600 or 1200 mg or matched placebo twice daily (BID) in a 2:2:1:1 ratio for 7 days. The primary end point was the change from baseline in muscle spasm relief, measured using an 11-point numeric rating scale (0=not present to 10=unbearable) recorded twice daily and averaged over the 7-day treatment period. Analyses were performed using a linear mixed model that included treatment as a fixed effect and site as a random effect. A total of 77 subjects were included in the 4 treatment groups. Least squares mean muscle spasm score over 7 days was 1.77 with guaifenesin 1200 mg, 1.42 with its matched placebo, 1.53 with guaifenesin 600 mg, and 1.74 with its matched placebo. Treatment with guaifenesin 1200 mg BID provided 25% greater reduction in mean muscle spasm over its matched placebo and 16% greater reduction than guaifenesin 600 mg BID. These differences were not statistically significant. Based on comparisons of absolute mean values, a consistent directional change in effect was observed, suggesting some benefit from placebo to lower-to-upper doses of guaifenesin with regard to muscle spasm, tension, pain, discomfort, and relaxation. No severe or serious adverse events were reported. Results suggest the potential for OTC dose of guaifenesin 1200 mg BID to provide symptomatic relief of upper back musculoskeletal pain and spasm. Confirmation of this preliminary result in a larger, adequately powered study is needed.

  10. A Novel Highly Bioavailable Curcumin Formulation Improves Symptoms and Diagnostic Indicators in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Two-Dose, Three-Arm, and Parallel-Group Study.

    PubMed

    Amalraj, Augustine; Varma, Karthik; Jacob, Joby; Divya, Chandradhara; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B; Stohs, Sidney J; Gopi, Sreeraj

    2017-08-29

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune, chronic systemic inflammatory disorder. The long-term use of currently available drugs for the treatment of RA has many potential side effects. Natural phytonutrients may serve as alternative strategies for the safe and effective treatment of RA, and curcuminoids have been used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of inflammatory conditions for centuries. In this study, a novel, highly bioavailable form of curcumin in a completely natural turmeric matrix was evaluated for its ability to improve the clinical symptoms of RA. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-arm, parallel-group study was conducted to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two different doses of curcumin with that of a placebo in active RA patients. Twelve patients in each group received placebo, 250 or 500 mg of the curcumin product twice daily for 90 days. The responses of the patients were assessed using the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) response, visual analog scale (VAS), C-reactive protein (CRP), Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and rheumatoid factor (RF) values. RA patients who received the curcumin product at both low and high doses reported statistically significant changes in their clinical symptoms at the end of the study. These observations were confirmed by significant changes in ESR, CPR, and RF values in patients receiving the study product compared to baseline and placebo. The results indicate that this novel curcumin in a turmeric matrix acts as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent for the management of RA at a dose as low as 250 mg twice daily as evidenced by significant improvement in the ESR, CRP, VAS, RF, DAS28, and ACR responses compared to placebo. Both doses of the study product were well tolerated and without side effects.

  11. Clinical Safety of a High Dose of Phycocyanin-Enriched Aqueous Extract from Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis: Results from a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study with a Focus on Anticoagulant Activity and Platelet Activation

    PubMed Central

    Drapeau, Cassandra; Lenninger, Miki; Benson, Kathleen F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The goal for this study was to evaluate safety regarding anticoagulant activity and platelet activation during daily consumption of an aqueous cyanophyta extract (ACE), containing a high dose of phycocyanin. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design, 24 men and women were enrolled after informed consent, and consumed either ACE (2.3 g/day) or placebo daily for 2 weeks. The ACE dose was equivalent to ∼1 g phycocyanin per day, chosen based on the highest dose Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Consuming ACE did not alter markers for platelet activation (P-selectin expression) or serum P-selectin levels. No changes were seen for activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin clotting time, or fibrinogen activity. Serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) showed a significant reduction after 2 weeks of ACE consumption (P < .001), in contrast to placebo where no changes were seen; the difference in AST levels between the two groups was significant at 2 weeks (P < .02). Reduced levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) were also seen in the group consuming ACE (P < .08). Previous studies showed reduction of chronic pain when consuming 1 g ACE per day. The higher dose of 2.3 g/day in this study was associated with significant reduction of chronic pain at rest and when physically active (P < .05). Consumption of ACE showed safety regarding markers pertaining to anticoagulant activity and platelet activation status, in conjunction with rapid and robust relief of chronic pain. Reduction in AST and ALT suggested improvement in liver function and metabolism. PMID:27362442

  12. A placebo-controlled study evaluating the efficacy and safety of flexible-dose desvenlafaxine treatment in outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Feiger, Alan D; Tourian, Karen A; Rosas, Gregory R; Padmanabhan, S Krishna

    2009-01-01

    This research compares the efficacy and safety of desvenlafaxine (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate) versus placebo in treating major depressive disorder. In this randomized, double-blind study, outpatients with major depressive disorder > or =18 years of age received desvenlafaxine 200-400 mg/day or placebo for 8 weeks. Efficacy endpoints included (primary) change in 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score at the final evaluation (last observation carried forward, analysis of covariance) and (secondary) Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement and -Severity of Illness scales. The difference between desvenlafaxine (n==) and placebo (n==) on the primary endpoint was not significant (-9.1 vs -7.5, P=.078). Week 8 observed cases (desvenlafaxine, n=80; placebo, n=94) results were significant (-10.7 vs -7.9, P=.008). Differences at the final evaluation (last observation carried forward) were significant for Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (2.9 vs 2.5, P=.037) and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness (-1.9 vs -1.2, P=.041). Discontinuation rates due to adverse events (AEs) were 12% and 3% for desvenlafaxine and placebo, respectively (P=.008). The most frequently reported AE associated with desvenlafaxine was nausea (36% vs 9% [placebo]). In this study, the primary analysis did not show significant differences between desvenlafaxine and placebo; discontinuations due to AEs associated with the desvenlafaxine dose range may have contributed to the lack of statistical separation.

  13. Low-dose naltrexone effects on plasma chemistries and clinical symptoms in autism: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bouvard, M P; Leboyer, M; Launay, J M; Recasens, C; Plumet, M H; Waller-Perotte, D; Tabuteau, F; Bondoux, D; Dugas, M; Lensing, P

    1995-10-16

    The effect of month-long naltrexone (NTX) treatment at a daily oral dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day was contrasted with placebo (PLC) in a double-blind study with conjoint clinical and biochemical evaluations of therapeutic effects. Modest clinical benefits were achieved with both PLC and NTX, with marginally better overall results following NTX, and degree of improvement appeared to be related to plasma chemical profiles. Massively elevated levels of beta-endorphin were observed in all children with assays using C-terminal antibody but not with an N-terminal antibody assay. In addition, 70% of the children exhibited abnormally low levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone, and smaller subsets exhibited elevated norepinephrine (60%), arginine-vasopressin (50%), and serotonin (20%). The best clinical responders exhibited the clearest normalization of the elevated plasma chemistries, especially in C-terminal-beta-endorphin and serotonin. There was some evidence of therapeutic carry-over effects in both clinical and biochemical measures in those children who received NTX before PLC. The results suggest that NTX only benefits a subgroup of autistic children, who may be identified by the presence of certain plasma abnormalities. These results suggest a possible linkage between abnormal plasma chemistries, especially those related to the pro-opiomelanocortin system, and autistic symptoms.

  14. Comparison of chocolate to cacao-free white chocolate in Parkinson's disease: a single-dose, investigator-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Wolz, Martin; Schleiffer, Christine; Klingelhöfer, Lisa; Schneider, Christine; Proft, Florian; Schwanebeck, Uta; Reichmann, Heinz; Riederer, Peter; Storch, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    A previous questionnaire study suggests an increased chocolate consumption in Parkinson's disease (PD). The cacao ingredient contains caffeine analogues and biogenic amines, such as β-phenylethylamine, with assumed antiparkinsonian effects. We thus tested the effects of 200 g of chocolate containing 80 % of cacao on UPDRS motor score after 1 and 3 h in 26 subjects with moderate non-fluctuating PD in a mono-center, single-dose, investigator-blinded crossover study using cacao-free white chocolate as placebo comparator. At 1 h after chocolate intake, mean UPDRS motor scores were mildly decreased compared to baseline in both treatments with significant results only for dark chocolate [-1.3 (95 % CI 0.18-2.52, RMANOVA F = 4.783, p = 0.013¸ Bonferroni p = 0.021 for 1 h values)]. A 2 × 2-cross-over analysis revealed no significant differences between both treatments [-0.54 ± 0.47 (95 % CI -1.50 to 0.42), p = 0.258]. Similar results were obtained at 3 h after intake. β-phenylethylamine blood levels were unaltered. Together, chocolate did not show significant improvement over white cacao-free chocolate in PD motor function.

  15. The addition of a small-dose ketamine infusion to tramadol for postoperative analgesia: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Webb, Ashley R; Skinner, Bradley S; Leong, Samuel; Kolawole, Helen; Crofts, Tyron; Taverner, Murray; Burn, Sara J

    2007-04-01

    There are few data on combining ketamine with tramadol for postoperative analgesia in humans. We tested the hypothesis that adding ketamine to tramadol would improve analgesia after major abdominal surgery. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, adult patients (n = 120) having elective laparotomy were randomly assigned to a ketamine group (intraoperative ketamine 0.3 mg/kg and postoperative infusion at 0.1 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1) or control group (equivalent volume/rate of normal saline). All patients received intraoperative tramadol 3 mg/kg and a tramadol infusion (0.2 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1) for 48 h postoperatively and had morphine patient-controlled analgesia available for rescue analgesia. The ketamine group had less pain at rest (P = 0.01) and with movement (P = 0.02) and required less morphine (P = 0.003) throughout the 48-h study period. In the 0-24 h period, ketamine improved subjective analgesic efficacy (P = 0.008), was less sedating (P = 0.03), and required fewer physician interventions to manage severe pain (P = 0.01). Hallucinations were more common in ketamine patients, but other side effects were similar. Small-dose ketamine was a useful addition to tramadol and morphine after major abdominal surgery.

  16. Comparison of bronchoprotective and bronchodilator effects of a single dose of formoterol delivered by hydrofluoroalkane and chlorofluorocarbon aerosols and dry powder in a double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, C M; Langley, S J; Singh, S D; Holden, J; Monici Preti, A P; Acerbi, D; Poli, G; Woodcock, A

    2004-01-01

    Background In response to the phasing out of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) inhalers, a metered dose hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) formulation, Modulite (Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A, Parma, Italy), to be delivered with a pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI), has been developed. Modulite is a HFA formulation technology that has been designed to provide stable and uniform dose delivery of HFA-based formulations to enable an easy transition from CFC to HFA inhalers. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the bronchoprotective and bronchodilator effects of a single dose of 12 µg of formoterol from the HFA Modulite inhaler with the Foradil Aerolizer (dry powder inhaler, DPI) and the Foradil CFC inhalers (Novartis Health Consumer, Basel, Switzerland). Methods This was a double blind, double dummy, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study conducted in 38 subjects with mild to moderate asthma (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1] 87.5% predicted). The primary endpoint was methacholine challenge provocative dose required for 20% fall in the FEV1 (PD20) 90 min post dose. Bronchodilation was assessed with spirometry (FEV1, FVC, FEF25–75) and impulse oscillometry (resistance at 5 and 20 Hz, reactance at 5 Hz and resonant frequency) over the 90 min post dose. In a subset of 12 subjects formoterol plasma levels, serum potassium and glucose were determined up to 480 min post dose. Results The three formoterol formulations demonstrated significant (P ≤ 0.05) improvements in bronchoprotection compared to placebo and non-inferiority of the HFA preparation compared to the CFC and DPI preparations was demonstrated. Geometric mean PD20 values were 0.51 mg with HFA, 0.62 mg with DPI, 0.62 mg with CFC and 0.2 mg with placebo. The log transformed mean differences in PD20 doubling dose between HFA and (a) DPI was −0.28 (95% CI −0.84–0.29, P = 0.57) (b) CFC was −0.28 (95% CI −0.84–0.28, P = 0.57) and (c) placebo was 1.38 (95% CI 0.82–1.94, P < 0.001). Serum

  17. Feasibility of dose escalation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy in posthysterectomy cervical carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    D'Souza, Warren D. . E-mail: wdsou001@umaryland.edu; Ahamad, Anesa A.; Iyer, Revathy B.; Salehpour, Mohammad R.; Jhingran, Anuja; Eifel, Patricia J.

    2005-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate retrospectively the utility of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in reducing the volume of normal tissues receiving radiation at varying dose levels when the female pelvis after hysterectomy is treated to doses of 50.4 Gy and 54 Gy. Methods and materials: Computed tomography scans from 10 patients who had previously undergone conventional postoperative RT were selected. The clinical tumor volume (vaginal apex and iliac nodes) and organs at risk were contoured. Margins were added to generate the planning tumor volume. The Pinnacle and Corvus planning systems were used to develop conventional and IMRT plans, respectively. Conventional four-field plans were prescribed to deliver 45 Gy (4F{sub 45Gy}) or 50.4 Gy; eight-field IMRT plans were prescribed to deliver 50.4 Gy (IMRT{sub 50.4Gy}) or 54 Gy (IMRT{sub 54Gy}) to the planning tumor volume. All plans were normalized so that {>=}97% of the planning tumor volume received the prescribed dose. Student's t test was used to compare the volumes of organs at risk receiving the same doses with different plans. Results: The mean volume of bowel receiving {>=}45 Gy was lower with the IMRT{sub 50.4Gy} (33% lower) and IMRT{sub 54Gy} (18% lower) plans than with the 4F{sub 45Gy} plan. The mean volume of rectum receiving {>=}45 Gy or {>=}50 Gy was also significantly reduced with the IMRT plans despite an escalation of the prescribed dose from 45 Gy with the conventional plans to 54 Gy with IMRT. The mean volume of bladder treated to 45 Gy was the same or slightly lower with the IMRT{sub 50.4Gy} and IMRT{sub 54Gy} plans compared with the 4F{sub 45Gy} plan. Compared with the 4F{sub 45Gy} plan, the IMRT{sub 50.4Gy} plan resulted in a smaller volume of bowel receiving 35-45 Gy and a larger volume of bowel receiving 50-55 Gy. Compared with the 4F{sub 45Gy} plan, the IMRT{sub 54Gy} plan resulted in smaller volumes of bowel receiving 45-50 Gy; however, small volumes of bowel received 55-60 Gy with the IMRT plan

  18. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, flexible-dose study of venlafaxine extended release capsules in adult outpatients with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Liebowitz, Michael R; Asnis, Gregory; Mangano, Richard; Tzanis, Evan

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of venlafaxine extended release (ER) in short-term treatment of panic disorder. In this multicenter, double-blind study, conducted from April 2001 to December 2002, 343 adult outpatients who met criteria for panic disorder (with and without agoraphobia) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, were randomly assigned to flexible-dose venlafaxine ER (75-225 mg/d) or placebo for 10 weeks (N = 155 per group, intent-to-treat population). The primary outcome measure was the percentage of panic-free patients as assessed using the Sheehan Panic and Anticipatory Anxiety Scale. Key secondary measures included the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) score and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale response (score = 1 or 2). Last-observation-carried-forward data were analyzed, and statistical significance was set at p

  19. A randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled study to evaluate an effective ciclosporin dose for the treatment of feline hypersensitivity dermatitis.

    PubMed

    King, Stephen; Favrot, Claude; Messinger, Linda; Nuttall, Tim; Steffan, Jean; Forster, Sophie; Seewald, Wolfgang

    2012-10-01

    Hypersensitivity dermatitides (HD) are frequently suspected in cats, but there are few clinical studies on safe and effective treatments in the published literature. To establish a safe and effective dose of ciclosporin in the treatment of feline HD. One hundred client-owned cats with feline HD. Double-blind study, with cats randomly assigned to receive ciclosporin at either 7.0 mg/kg once daily (n = 33) or 2.5 mg/kg once daily (n = 32) or a placebo (n = 35) for 6 weeks. Mean Total Lesion Scores with 7.0 mg/kg ciclosporin were significantly lower than with 2.5 mg/kg ciclosporin (P = 0.0047) or placebo (P = 0.0003) at study end. Individual Total Lesion Scores improved by >50% in 70% of the 7.0 mg/kg group, compared with 47% in the 2.5 mg/kg group and 23% in the placebo group (P = 0.0006). The investigators' Global Assessment of Improvement was 'excellent' or 'good' in 61% of cats treated with 7.0 mg/kg ciclosporin, compared with 47% of cats given 2.5 mg/kg and 23% given placebo. The improvement in Investigator Pruritus Scores was significantly greater in cats treated with 7.0 mg/kg ciclosporin (54%) compared with both 2.5 mg/kg ciclosporin (32%; P = 0.0232) and placebo (21%; P = 0.0063). Mild gastrointestinal disorders were the most common adverse events, but these did not require cessation of therapy. Results suggest that 7.0 mg/kg ciclosporin once daily in food or per os for 6 weeks is effective and well tolerated in feline HD. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2012 ESVD and ACVD.

  20. Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of Fulranumab as an Adjunctive Therapy in Patients With Inadequately Controlled, Moderate-to-Severe Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Dose-ranging, Dose-loading Phase II Study.

    PubMed

    Sanga, Panna; Polverejan, Elena; Wang, Steven; Kelly, Kathleen M; Thipphawong, John

    2016-06-01

    Fulranumab is an investigational, fully human recombinant monoclonal antibody (IgG2) that neutralizes the biological actions of human nerve growth factor. Low back pain is a common cause of noncancer chronic pain and represents one of the most significant socioeconomic health-related problems in developed countries. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic effect of fulranumab in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain. Patients (aged 18-80 years) were randomized to receive subcutaneous injections every 4 weeks in 1 of 5 parallel treatment groups: placebo or fulranumab 1mg (1mgQ4wk), 3mg (3mgQ4wk), 3mg after a 6mg loading dose (6mgLD+3mgQ4wk), or 10mg (10mgQ4wk) every 4 weeks. A total of 385 patients (median age, 53 years; women, 54%) received at least 1 injection of study medication. No statistically significant differences were observed in improvement of pain intensity scores between the fulranumab treatment regimens and the placebo group at week 12 (primary end point; mean [SD], placebo: -2.0 [2.17], 1mgQ4wk: -1.9 [2.14], 3mgQ4wk: -2.2 [1.89], 6mgLD+3mgQ4wk: -2.0 [1.72] and 10mgQ4wk: -2.1 [2.18]). Results for secondary efficacy parameters (change in the Oswestry Disability Index, Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form, and Patient Global Assessment scales) were consistent with the primary outcome. A placebo effect was observed; the overall percentage of patients with treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) was similar between the placebo (76%) and fulranumab treatment groups (77%-90%). Across all phases, the most common TEAEs in at least 10% of patients (combined fulranumab group vs placebo) were arthralgia (15% vs 12%), back pain (15% vs 18%), upper respiratory tract infection (15% vs 8%), paresthesia (14% vs 8%), diarrhea (12% vs 4%), headache (12% vs 8%), hypoesthesia (11% vs 5%), pain in extremity (11% vs 8%), sinusitis (10% vs 5%), and nasopharyngitis (10% vs 9%). Across all phases, neurologic

  1. Optimizing Collimator Margins for Isotoxically Dose-Escalated Conformal Radiation Therapy of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Samantha; Panettieri, Vanessa; Panakis, Niki; Bates, Nicholas; Lester, Jason F.; Jain, Pooja; Landau, David B.; Nahum, Alan E.; Mayles, W. Philip M.; Fenwick, John D.

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: Isotoxic dose escalation schedules such as IDEAL-CRT [isotoxic dose escalation and acceleration in lung cancer chemoradiation therapy] (ISRCTN12155469) individualize doses prescribed to lung tumors, generating a fixed modeled risk of radiation pneumonitis. Because the beam penumbra is broadened in lung, the choice of collimator margin is an important element of the optimization of isotoxic conformal radiation therapy for lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients with stage I-III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were replanned retrospectively using a range of collimator margins. For each plan, the prescribed dose was calculated according to the IDEAL-CRT isotoxic prescription method, and the absolute dose (D{sub 99}) delivered to 99% of the planning target volume (PTV) was determined. Results: Reducing the multileaf collimator margin from the widely used 7 mm to a value of 2 mm produced gains of 2.1 to 15.6 Gy in absolute PTV D{sub 99}, with a mean gain ± 1 standard error of the mean of 6.2 ± 1.1 Gy (2-sided P<.001). Conclusions: For NSCLC patients treated with conformal radiation therapy and an isotoxic dose prescription, absolute doses in the PTV may be increased by using smaller collimator margins, reductions in relative coverage being offset by increases in prescribed dose.

  2. Effects of withdrawal from an escalating dose schedule of d-amphetamine on sexual behavior in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Barr, A M; Fiorino, D F; Phillips, A G

    1999-11-01

    The present study sought to determine the effect of withdrawal from an escalating dose schedule of d-amphetamine on sexual behavior in male rats. Tests were conducted every 5 days until stable levels of sexual behavior were obtained. With repeated testing, male rats displayed an increase in their exploration of the testing chambers prior to the introduction of an estrous female. Half of the male rats were then subjected to a 4-day escalating dose schedule of d-amphetamine administration (1-12 mg/kg), while half received vehicle. Twelve hours after the final drug injection, subjects were tested for sexual behavior. Withdrawal from the drug was associated with decrements in several motivational components of sexual behavior, including decreased anticipatory locomotor and increased postejaculatory intervals, while consummatory measures remained largely unaffected. This pattern of sexual deficits resembles those seen in human depressive disorders, and therefore, provides additional support for the use of psychostimulant withdrawal as a rodent model of depression.

  3. A Phase II, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Ranging Study of Belimumab in Patients With Active Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Daniel J.; Stohl, William; Furie, Richard A.; Lisse, Jeffrey R.; McKay, James D.; Merrill, Joan T.; Petri, Michelle A.; Ginzler, Ellen M.; Chatham, W. Winn; McCune, W. Joseph; Fernandez, Vivian; Chevrier, Marc R.; Zhong, John; Freimuth, William W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety, tolerability, biological activity, and efficacy of belimumab in combination with standard of care therapy (SOC) in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Patients with SELENA-SLEDAI score≥4 (N=449) were randomly assigned to belimumab (1, 4, 10 mg/kg) or placebo in a 52-week study. Co-primary endpoints were: 1) percentage change in the SELENA-SLEDAI score at week 24; 2) time to the first SLE flare. Results Significant differences between the treatment and placebo groups were not attained for either primary endpoint and no dose response was observed. Reduction in SELENA-SLEDAI score from baseline was 19.5% in the combined belimumab group versus 17.2% in the placebo group. The median time to first SLE flare was 67 days in the combined belimumab group versus 83 days in the placebo group. However, the median time to first SLE flare during weeks 24–52 was significantly longer with belimumab treatment (154 versus 108 days; P=0.0361). In the subgroup (71.5%) of serologically active patients (ANA ≥1:80 and/or anti-dsDNA ≥30 IU/mL), belimumab treatment resulted in significantly better responses at week 52 than placebo for SELENA-SLEDAI (−28.8% versus −14.2%; P=0.0435); PGA (−32.7% versus −10.7%; P=0.0011); and SF-36 PCS (+3.0 versus +1.2 points; P=0.0410). Treatment with belimumab resulted in 63–71% depletion of naive, activated, and plasmacytoid CD20+ B cells and a 29.4% reduction in anti-dsDNA titers (P ≤0.0017) by week 52. The rates of adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs were similar in the belimumab and placebo groups. Conclusion Belimumab was biologically active and well tolerated. Belimumab effect on the reduction of SLE disease activity or flares was not significant. However, serologically active SLE patients responded significantly better to belimumab therapy plus SOC than SOC alone. PMID:19714604

  4. Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in adolescents aged 14-18 y: a dose-response, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Smith, Taryn J; Tripkovic, Laura; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Mølgaard, Christian; Ritz, Christian; Wilson-Barnes, Saskia L; Dowling, Kirsten G; Hennessy, Áine; Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Mairead; Lanham-New, Susan A; Hart, Kathryn H

    2016-11-01

    Adolescents are a population group at high risk of low vitamin D status, yet the evidence base for establishing dietary vitamin D requirements remains weak. The aim was to establish the distribution of vitamin D intakes required to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations above proposed cutoffs (25, 30, 40, and 50 nmol/L) during winter in white males and females (14-18 y of age) in the United Kingdom (51°N). In a dose-response trial, 110 adolescents (aged 15.9 ± 1.4 y; 43% males) were randomly assigned to receive 0, 10, or 20 μg vitamin D3 supplements/d for 20 wk during winter. A nonlinear regression model was fit to total vitamin D intake and postintervention serum 25(OH)D concentrations, and regression-predicted values estimated the vitamin D intakes required to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentrations above specific cutoffs. Mean ± SD serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased from 49.2 ± 12.0 to 56.6 ± 12.4 nmol/L and from 51.7 ± 13.4 to 63.9 ± 10.6 nmol/L in the 10- and 20-μg/d groups, respectively, and decreased in the placebo group from 46.8 ± 11.4 to 30.7 ± 8.6 nmol/L (all P ≤ 0.001). Vitamin D intakes required to maintain 25(OH)D concentrations >25 and >30 nmol/L in 97.5% of adolescents were estimated to be 10.1 and 13.1 μg/d, respectively, and 6.6 μg/d to maintain 50% of adolescents at concentrations >40 nmol/L. Because the response of 25(OH)D reached a plateau at 46 nmol/L, there is uncertainty in estimating the vitamin D intake required to maintain 25(OH)D concentrations >50 nmol/L in 97.5% of adolescents, but it exceeded 30 μg/d. Vitamin D intakes between 10 and ∼30 μg/d are required by white adolescents during winter to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentrations >25-50 nmol/L, depending on the serum 25(OH)D threshold chosen. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02150122 and as International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN40736890. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Focal Radiation Therapy Dose Escalation Improves Overall Survival in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients Receiving Induction Chemotherapy and Consolidative Chemoradiation

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Sunil; Chadha, Awalpreet S.; Suh, Yelin; Chen, Hsiang-Chun; Rao, Arvind; Das, Prajnan; Minsky, Bruce D.; Mahmood, Usama; Delclos, Marc E.; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O.; Beddar, Sam; Katz, Matthew H.; Fleming, Jason B.; Javle, Milind M.; Varadhachary, Gauri R.; Wolff, Robert A.; Crane, Christopher H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To review outcomes of locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) patients treated with dose-escalated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with curative intent. Methods and Materials A total of 200 patients with LAPC were treated with induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation between 2006 and 2014. Of these, 47 (24%) having tumors >1 cm from the luminal organs were selected for dose-escalated IMRT (biologically effective dose [BED] >70 Gy) using a simultaneous integrated boost technique, inspiration breath hold, and computed tomographic image guidance. Fractionation was optimized for coverage of gross tumor and luminal organ sparing. A 2- to 5-mm margin around the gross tumor volume was treated using a simultaneous integrated boost with a microscopic dose. Overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), local-regional and distant RFS, and time to local-regional and distant recurrence, calculated from start of chemoradiation, were the outcomes of interest. Results Median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (BED = 59.47 Gy) with a concurrent capecitabine-based (86%) regimen. Patients who received BED >70 Gy had a superior OS (17.8 vs 15.0 months, P = .03), which was preserved throughout the follow-up period, with estimated OS rates at 2 years of 36% versus 19% and at 3 years of 31% versus 9% along with improved local-regional RFS (10.2 vs 6.2 months, P = .05) as compared with those receiving BED ≤70 Gy. Degree of gross tumor volume coverage did not seem to affect outcomes. No additional toxicity was observed in the high-dose group. Higher dose (BED) was the only predictor of improved OS on multivariate analysis. Conclusion Radiation dose escalation during consolidative chemoradiation therapy after induction chemotherapy for LAPC patients improves OS and local-regional RFS. PMID:26972648

  6. Safety and Dose Escalation Study of Intravenous Zinc Supplementation in Pediatric Critical Illness.

    PubMed

    Cvijanovich, Natalie Z; King, Janet C; Flori, Heidi R; Gildengorin, Ginny; Vinks, Alexander A; Wong, Hector R

    2016-08-01

    Critically ill children have low plasma zinc (pZn), correlating with organ failure. Since Zn influences inflammation, immune function, and glucose control, Zn supplementation is a plausible therapeutic modality. We sought to determine a safe dose of intravenous (IV) Zn to restore pZn in critically ill children. Stepwise dose escalation study of IV Zn supplementation at a tertiary children's hospital. All children (<10 years) admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with a Pediatric Risk of Mortality III score >5, or ≥1 new organ failure were eligible. After consent, patients were sequentially enrolled into 4 dosing groups: (1) no zinc, (2) Zn250: 250 mcg/kg/d ZnSO4, (3) Zn500: 500 mcg/kg/d ZnSO4, or (4) Zn750: 750 mcg/kg/d ZnSO4 ZnSO4 was administered 3 times daily for 7 days. pZn was measured at baseline, end of first ZnSO4 infusion, 1 hour postinfusion, and 7 hours postinfusion on day 1, then daily through days 2-7. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and lymphocyte subsets were measured on days 1 and 3. Glucose was measured 3 times daily for 7 days. Twenty-four patients were enrolled. Baseline demographics were similar among groups. Baseline pZn was low in all patients (mean [SD], 41.8 [16.0] mcg/dL). pZn increased over the study period in supplemented groups; however, mean pZn in the Zn750 group exceeded the 50th percentile. pZn was not associated with IL-6, CRP, or lymphocyte subsets among groups. Degree of hyperglycemia did not differ among groups. No patient had a study-related adverse event. IV zinc supplementation at 500 mcg/kg/d restores pZn to near the 50th percentile and is well tolerated. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  7. Results of bococizumab, a monoclonal antibody against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, from a randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study in statin-treated subjects with hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Christie M; Neutel, Joel; Cropp, Anne; Duggan, William; Wang, Ellen Q; Plowchalk, David; Sweeney, Kevin; Kaila, Nitin; Vincent, John; Bays, Harold

    2015-05-01

    Bococizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody binding proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, which may be a potential therapeutic option for reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia. In this 24-week, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study (NCT01592240), subjects with LDL-C levels≥80 mg/dl on stable statin therapy were randomized to Q14 days subcutaneous placebo or bococizumab 50, 100, or 150 mg or Q28 days subcutaneous placebo or bococizumab 200 or 300 mg. Doses of bococizumab were reduced if LDL-C levels persistently decreased to ≤25 mg/dl. The primary end point was the absolute change in LDL-C levels from baseline to week 12 after placebo or bococizumab administration. Continuation of bococizumab administration through to week 24 enabled the collection of safety data over an extended period. Of the 354 subjects randomized, 351 received treatment (placebo [n=100] or bococizumab [n=251]). The most efficacious bococizumab doses were 150 mg Q14 days and 300 mg Q28 days. Compared with placebo, bococizumab 150 mg Q14 days reduced LDL-C at week 12 by 53.4 mg/dl and bococizumab 300 mg Q28 days reduced LDL-C by 44.9 mg/dl; this was despite dose reductions in 32.5% and 34.2% of subjects at week 10 or 8, respectively. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model-based simulation assuming no dose reductions predicted that bococizumab would lower LDL-C levels by 72.2 and 55.4 mg/dl, respectively. Adverse events were similar across placebo and bococizumab groups. Few subjects (n=7; 2%) discontinued treatment because of treatment-related adverse events. In conclusion, bococizumab significantly reduced LDL-C across all doses despite dose reductions in many subjects. Model-based simulations predicted greater LDL-C reduction in the absence of bococizumab dose reduction. The Q14 days regimen is being evaluated in phase 3 clinical trials.

  8. Update of Dutch Multicenter Dose-Escalation Trial of Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mamgani, Abrahim Putten, Wim L.J. van; Heemsbergen, Wilma D.; Leenders, Geert J.L.H. van; Slot, Annerie; Dielwart, Michel F.H.; Incrocci, Luca; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To update the analysis of the Dutch dose-escalation trial of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 669 patients with localized prostate cancer were randomly assigned to receive 68 or 78 Gy. The patients were stratified by age, institution, use of neoadjuvant or adjuvant hormonal therapy, and treatment group. The primary endpoint was freedom from failure (FFF), with failure defined as clinical or biochemical failure. Two definitions of biochemical failure were used: the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition (three consecutive increases in prostate-specific antigen level) and the Phoenix definition (nadir plus 2 {mu}g/L). The secondary endpoints were freedom from clinical failure, overall survival, and genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity. Results: After a median follow-up of 70 months, the FFF using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition was significantly better in the 78-Gy arm than in the 68-Gy arm (7-year FFF rate, 54% vs. 47%, respectively; p = 0.04). The FFF using the Phoenix definition was also significantly better in the 78-Gy arm than in the 68-Gy arm (7-year FFF rate, 56% vs. 45%, respectively; p = 0.03). However, no differences in freedom from clinical failure or overall survival were observed. The incidence of late Grade 2 or greater genitourinary toxicity was similar in both arms (40% and 41% at 7 years; p = 0.6). However, the cumulative incidence of late Grade 2 or greater gastrointestinal toxicity was increased in the 78-Gy arm compared with the 68-Gy arm (35% vs. 25% at 7 years; p = 0.04). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown a statistically significant improvement in FFF in prostate cancer patients treated with 78 Gy but with a greater rate of late gastrointestinal toxicity.

  9. A blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose determination trial of lokivetmab (ZTS-00103289), a caninized, anti-canine IL-31 monoclonal antibody in client owned dogs with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Michels, Gina M; Ramsey, Deborah S; Walsh, Kelly F; Martinon, Olivier M; Mahabir, Sean P; Hoevers, Jacquelien D; Walters, Rodney R; Dunham, Steven A

    2016-12-01

    Pruritus is the hallmark clinical sign of atopic dermatitis (AD) in dogs. Lokivetmab, a caninized anti-canine IL-31 monoclonal antibody, reduced pruritus and associated inflammatory skin lesions in a proof-of-concept study in dogs with AD. The objective was to describe lokivetmab dose response in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinicians at 15 referral clinics enrolled 211 client owned dogs with a history of chronic AD. Dogs were randomized to treatment with lokivetmab (0.125, 0.5 or 2.0 mg/kg) or placebo administered subcutaneously once on Day 0. Dog owners assessed visual analog scale (VAS) scores of pruritus on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56. Clinicians assessed Canine AD Extent and Severity Index (CADESI-03) scores on days 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 56. Treatment with lokivetmab (2 mg/kg) resulted in a greater percentage reduction from baseline in owner assessed pruritus (days 1-49) and clinician assessed CADESI-03 scores (days 7-56) compared to placebo (P < 0.05); differences were achieved in lower dose groups but at later time points and for shorter duration for both owner assessed pruritus (0.5 mg/kg, days 2-35; 0.125 mg/kg, days 7-21) and clinician assessed CADESI-03 scores (0.5 mg/kg and 0.125 mg/kg, Day 14). Lokivetmab (0.5, 2.0 mg/kg) reduced pruritus compared to placebo for at least 1 month. Level and duration of response increased with increasing dose. Further studies are needed to better understand variability in individual responses across a broader population of dogs with AD. © 2016 Zoetis LLC. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.

  10. Anuvasan Basti in escalating dose is an alternative for Snehapana before Vamana and Virechana: Trends from a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kadus, Priyadarshani Arvind; Vedpathak, Surendra M.

    2014-01-01

    Oral administration of medicated fats (oil or ghee) is termed as Snehapana. It is an essential step before Vamana (therapeutic emesis) and Virechana (therapeutic purgation). Ayurveda physicians often experience a poor compliance in 10-15% patients for oral administration of medicated fats especially in escalating doses. Incomplete Snehapana sometimes creates a problem for a physician to prepare the patient for these processes. These inconveniences made us think about effective alternatives to counter drawbacks and improve acceptance of Snehapana. The present study was planned to assess the efficacy of Anuvasana Basti (oil enema) in escalating doses as an alternative for Snehapana. Anuvasana Basti of medicated sesame oil with rock salt was administered in 10 patients for three to seven days till they showed signs and symptoms of complete Snehana. The symptoms of Snehana like semisolid or loose stools, feeling exhausted without much exertion, lightness of body and oiliness of skin were observed. Though the Snehana symptoms varied in intensity, they were similar as they are produced after oral administration of fats. This trend suggests Anuvasana Basti in escalating dose is an alternative for Snehapana before administration of Shodhana therapy like Vamana or Virechana. PMID:25624700

  11. Phase I dose-escalation studies of roniciclib, a pan-cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, in advanced malignancies.

    PubMed

    Bahleda, Rastislav; Grilley-Olson, Juneko E; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Barlesi, Fabrice; Greillier, Laurent; Perol, Maurice; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Strumberg, Dirk; Schultheis, Beate; Dy, Grace K; Zalcman, Gérard; Weiss, Glen J; Walter, Annette O; Kornacker, Martin; Rajagopalan, Prabhu; Henderson, David; Nogai, Hendrik; Ocker, Matthias; Soria, Jean-Charles

    2017-06-06

    To evaluate safety, pharmacokinetics, and maximum tolerated dose of roniciclib in patients with advanced malignancies, with dose expansion to evaluate clinical benefit at the recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Two phase I dose-escalation studies evaluated two roniciclib dosing schedules: 3 days on/4 days off or 4 weeks on/2 weeks off. The expansion phase included patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), ovarian cancer, or tumour mutations involving the CDK signalling pathway. Ten patients were evaluable in the 4 weeks on/2 weeks off schedule (terminated following limited tolerability) and 47 in the 3 days on/4 days off schedule dose-escalation cohorts. On the 3 days on/4 days off schedule, RP2D was 5 mg twice daily in solid tumours (n=40); undetermined in lymphoid malignancies (n=7). Common roniciclib-related adverse events included nausea (76.6%), fatigue (65.8%), diarrhoea (63.1%), and vomiting (57.7%). Roniciclib demonstrated rapid absorption and dose-proportional increase in exposure. One partial response (1.0%) was observed. In RP2D expansion cohorts, the disease control rate (DCR) was 40.9% for patients with ovarian cancer (n=25), 17.4% for patients with SCLC (n=33), and 33.3% for patients with CDK-related tumour mutations (n=6). Roniciclib demonstrated an acceptable safety profile and moderate DCR in 3 days on/4 days off schedule.

  12. Dose Escalation for Prostate Cancer Using the Three-Dimensional Conformal Dynamic Arc Technique: Analysis of 542 Consecutive Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A. Vavassori, Andrea; Fodor, Cristiana; Santoro, Luigi; Zerini, Dario; Cattani, Federica; Garibaldi, Cristina; Cambria, Raffaella; Fodor, Andrei; Boboc, Genoveva Ionela; Vitolo, Viviana; Ivaldi, Giovanni Battista; Musi, Gennaro; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Orecchia, Roberto

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To present the results of dose escalation using three-dimensional conformal dynamic arc radiotherapy (3D-ART) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Five hundred and forty two T1-T3N0M0 prostate cancer patients were treated with 3D-ART. Dose escalation (from 76 Gy/38 fractions to 80 Gy/40 fractions) was introduced in September 2003; 32% of patients received 80 Gy. In 366 patients, androgen deprivation was added to 3D-ART. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria and Houston definition (nadir + 2) were used for toxicity and biochemical failure evaluation, respectively. Median follow-up was 25 months. Results: Acute toxicity included rectal (G1-2 28.9%; G3 0.5%) and urinary events (G1-2 57.9%; G3-4 2.4%). Late toxicity included rectal (G1-2 15.8%; G3-4 3.1%) and urinary events (G1-2 26.9%; G3-4 1.6%). Two-year failure-free survival and overall survival rates were 94.1% and 97.9%, respectively. Poor prognostic group (GS, iPSA, T), transurethral prostate resection, and dose >76 Gy showed significant association to high risk of progression in multivariate analysis (p = 0.014, p = 0.045, and p 0.04, respectively). The negative effect of dose >76 Gy was not observed (p 0.10), when the analysis was limited to 353 patients treated after September 2003 (when dose escalation was introduced). Higher dose was not associated with higher late toxicity. Conclusions: Three-dimensional-ART is a feasible modality allowing for dose escalation (no increase in toxicity has been observed with higher doses). However, the dose increase from 76 to 80 Gy was not associated with better tumor outcome. Further investigation is warranted for better understanding of the dose effect for prostate cancer.

  13. Efficacy and safety of a phospholipid emulsion (GR270773) in Gram-negative severe sepsis: results of a phase II multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dellinger, R Phillip; Tomayko, John F; Angus, Derek C; Opal, Steven; Cupo, Michael A; McDermott, Sharon; Ducher, Annie; Calandra, Thierry; Cohen, Jonathan

    2009-11-01

    To assess the survival benefit and safety profile of low-dose (850 mg/kg) and high-dose (1350 mg/kg) phospholipid emulsion vs. placebo administered as a continuous 3-day infusion in patients with confirmed or suspected Gram-negative severe sepsis. Preclinical and ex vivo studies show that lipoproteins bind and neutralize endotoxin, and experimental animal studies demonstrate protection from septic death when lipoproteins are administered. Endotoxin neutralization correlates with the amount of phospholipid in the lipoprotein particles. A three-arm, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Conducted at 235 centers worldwide between September 2004 and April 2006. A total of 1379 patients participated in the study, 598 patients received low-dose phospholipid emulsion, and 599 patients received placebo. The high-dose phospholipid emulsion arm was stopped, on the recommendation of the Independent Data Monitoring Committee, due to an increase in life-threatening serious adverse events at the fourth interim analysis and included 182 patients. A 28-day all-cause mortality and new-onset organ failure. There was no significant treatment benefit for low- or high-dose phospholipid emulsion vs. placebo for 28-day all-cause mortality, with rates of 25.8% (p = .329), 31.3% (p = .879), and 26.9%, respectively. The rate of new-onset organ failure was not statistically different among groups at 26.3%, 31.3%, 20.4% with low- and high-dose phospholipid emulsion, and placebo, respectively (one-sided p = .992, low vs. placebo; p = .999, high vs. placebo). Of the subjects treated, 45% had microbiologically confirmed Gram-negative infections. Maximal changes in mean hemoglobin levels were reached on day 10 (-1.04 g/dL) and day 5 (-1.36 g/dL) with low- and high-dose phospholipid emulsion, respectively, and on day 14 (-0.82 g/dL) with placebo. Treatment with phospholipid emulsion did not reduce 28-day all-cause mortality, or reduce the onset of new organ failure in patients with

  14. SU-E-T-183: Feasibility of Extreme Dose Escalation for Glioblastoma Multiforme Using 4π Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D; Rwigema, J; Yu, V; Kaprealian, T; Kupelian, P; Selch, M; Low, D; Sheng, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: GBM recurrence primarily occurs inside or near the high-dose radiation field of original tumor site requiring greater than 100 Gy to significantly improve local control. We utilize 4π non-coplanar radiotherapy to test the feasibility of planning target volume (PTV) margin expansions or extreme dose escalations without incurring additional radiation toxicities. Methods: 11 GBM patients treated with VMAT to a prescription dose of 59.4 Gy or 60 Gy were replanned with 4π. Original VMAT plans were created with 2 to 4 coplanar or non-coplanar arcs using 3 mm hi-res MLC. The 4π optimization, using 5 mm MLC, selected and inverse optimized 30 beams from a candidate pool of 1162 beams evenly distributed through 4π steradians. 4π plans were first compared to clinical plans using the same prescription dose. Two more studies were then performed to respectively escalate the GTV and PTV doses to 100 Gy, followed by a fourth plan expanding the PTV by 5 mm and maintaining the prescription dose. Results: The standard 4π plan significantly reduced (p<0.01) max and mean doses to critical structures by a range of 47.0–98.4% and 61.0–99.2%, respectively. The high dose PTV/high dose GTV/expanded PTV studies showed a reduction (p<0.05) or unchanged* (p>0.05) maximum dose of 72.1%/86.7%/77.1% (chiasm), 7.2%*/27.7%*/30.7% (brainstem), 39.8%*/84.2%/51.9%* (spinal cord), 69.0%/87.0%/66.9% (L eye), 76.2%/88.1%/84.1% (R eye), 95.0%/98.6%/97.5% (L lens), 93.9%/98.8%/97.6% (R lens), 74.3%/88.5%/72.4% (L optical nerve), 80.4%/91.3%/75.7% (R optical nerve), 64.8%/84.2%/44.9%* (L cochlea), and 85.2%/93.0%/78.0% (R cochlea), respectively. V30 and V36 for both brain and (brain - PTV) were reduced for all cases except the high dose PTV plan. PTV dose coverage increased for all 4π plans. Conclusion: Extreme dose escalation or further margin expansion is achievable using 4π, maintaining or reducing OAR doses. This study indicates that clinical trials employing 4π delivery using

  15. Effects of single therapeutic doses of promethazine, fexofenadine and olopatadine on psychomotor function and histamine-induced wheal- and flare-responses: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Hiroyuki; Isaji, Ami; Noda, Yukihiro; Ishikawa, Kazuhiro; Senzaki, Koji; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Sugiura, Kazumitsu; Tomita, Yasushi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2012-05-01

    Since most first-generation antihistamines have undesirable sedative effects on the central nervous systems (CNS), newer (second-generation) antihistamines have been developed to improve patients' quality of life. However, there are few reports that directly compare the antihistaminic efficacy and impairment of psychomotor functions. We designed a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover study to concurrently compare the clinical effectiveness of promethazine, a first-generation antihistamine, and fexofenadine and olopatadine, second-generation antihistamines, by measuring their potency as peripheral inhibitors of histamine-induced wheal and flare. Further, we investigated their sedative effects on the CNS using a battery of psychomotor tests. When single therapeutic doses of fexofenadine (60 mg), olopatadine (5 mg) and promethazine (25 mg) were given in a double-blind manner to 24 healthy volunteers, all antihistamines produced a significant reduction in the wheal and flare responses induced by histamine. In the comparison among antihistamines, olopatadine showed a rapid inhibitory effect compared with fexofenadine and promethazine, and had a potent effect compared with promethazine. In a battery of psychomotor assessments using critical flicker fusion, choice reaction time, compensatory tracking, rapid visual information processing and a line analogue rating scale as a subjective assessment of sedation, promethazine significantly impaired psychomotor function. Fexofenadine and olopatadine had no significant effect in any of the psychomotor tests. Promethazine, fexofenadine and olopatadine did not affect behavioral activity, as measured by wrist actigraphy. These results suggest that olopatadine at a therapeutic dose has greater antihistaminergic activity than promethazine, and olopatadine and fexofenadine did not cause cognitive or psychomotor impairment.

  16. Explorative Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Intervention Study with Low Doses of Inhaled Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol Reveals No Effect on Sweet Taste Intensity Perception and Liking in Humans.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Suzanne E M; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Jager, Gerry

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays an important role in food reward. For example, in humans, liking of palatable foods is assumed to be modulated by endocannabinoid activity. Studies in rodents suggest that the ECS also plays a role in sweet taste intensity perception, but it is unknown to what extent this can be extrapolated to humans. Therefore, this study aimed at elucidating whether Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or cannabidiol (CBD) affects sweet taste intensity perception and liking in humans, potentially resulting in alterations in food preferences. Materials and Methods: In a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study, 10 healthy males participated in three test sessions that were 2 weeks apart. During the test sessions, participants received THC-rich, CBD-rich, or placebo Cannabis by inhalation divided over two doses (4 + 1 mg THC; 25 + 10 mg CBD). Participants tasted seven chocolate milk-like drinks that differed in sugar concentration and they rated sweet taste intensity and liking of the drinks. They were then asked to rank the seven drinks according to how much they liked the drinks and were offered ad libitum access to their favorite drink. In addition, they completed a computerized food preference task and completed an appetite questionnaire at the start, midway, and end of the test sessions. Results: Inhalation of the Cannabis preparations did not affect sweet taste intensity perception and liking, ranking order, or ad libitum consumption of the favorite drink. In addition, food preferences were not influenced by the interventions. Reported fullness was lower, whereas desire to eat was higher throughout the THC compared to the CBD condition. Conclusions: These results suggest that administration of Cannabis preparations at the low doses tested does not affect sweet taste intensity perception and liking, nor does it influence food preferences in humans.

  17. Explorative Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Intervention Study with Low Doses of Inhaled Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol Reveals No Effect on Sweet Taste Intensity Perception and Liking in Humans

    PubMed Central

    de Bruijn, Suzanne E.M.; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F.; Jager, Gerry

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays an important role in food reward. For example, in humans, liking of palatable foods is assumed to be modulated by endocannabinoid activity. Studies in rodents suggest that the ECS also plays a role in sweet taste intensity perception, but it is unknown to what extent this can be extrapolated to humans. Therefore, this study aimed at elucidating whether Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or cannabidiol (CBD) affects sweet taste intensity perception and liking in humans, potentially resulting in alterations in food preferences. Materials and Methods: In a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study, 10 healthy males participated in three test sessions that were 2 weeks apart. During the test sessions, participants received THC-rich, CBD-rich, or placebo Cannabis by inhalation divided over two doses (4 + 1 mg THC; 25 + 10 mg CBD). Participants tasted seven chocolate milk-like drinks that differed in sugar concentration and they rated sweet taste intensity and liking of the drinks. They were then asked to rank the seven drinks according to how much they liked the drinks and were offered ad libitum access to their favorite drink. In addition, they completed a computerized food preference task and completed an appetite questionnaire at the start, midway, and end of the test sessions. Results: Inhalation of the Cannabis preparations did not affect sweet taste intensity perception and liking, ranking order, or ad libitum consumption of the favorite drink. In addition, food preferences were not influenced by the interventions. Reported fullness was lower, whereas desire to eat was higher throughout the THC compared to the CBD condition. Conclusions: These results suggest that administration of Cannabis preparations at the low doses tested does not affect sweet taste intensity perception and liking, nor does it influence food preferences in humans. PMID:28861511

  18. The Efficacy and Safety of Evekeo, Racemic Amphetamine Sulfate, for Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms: A Multicenter, Dose-Optimized, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Laboratory Classroom Study.

    PubMed

    Childress, Ann C; Brams, Matthew; Cutler, Andrew J; Kollins, Scott H; Northcutt, Jo; Padilla, Americo; Turnbow, John M

    2015-06-01

    The study goal was to determine the efficacy and safety of an optimal dose of Evekeo, racemic amphetamine sulfate, 1:1 d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine (R-AMPH), compared to placebo in treating children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a laboratory classroom setting. A total of 107 children ages 6-12 years were enrolled in this multicenter, dose-optimized, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. After 8 weeks of open-label dose optimization, 97 subjects were randomized to 2 weeks of double-blind treatment in the sequence of R-AMPH followed by placebo (n=47) or placebo followed by R-AMPH (n=50). Efficacy measures included the Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham (SKAMP) Rating Scale and Permanent Product Measure of Performance (PERMP) administered predose and at 0.75, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 hours postdose on 2 laboratory classroom days. Safety assessments included physical examination, chemistry, hematology, vital signs, and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Compared to placebo, a single daily dose of R-AMPH significantly improved SKAMP-Combined scores (p<0.0001) at each time point tested throughout the laboratory classroom days, with effect onset 45 minutes postdose and extending through 10 hours. R-AMPH significantly improved PERMP number of problems attempted and correct (p<0.0001) throughout the laboratory classroom days. During the twice-daily dose-optimization open-label phase, improvements were observed with R-AMPH in scores of the ADHD-Rating Scale IV and Clinical Global Impressions Severity and Improvement Scales. TEAEs and changes in vital signs associated with R-AMPH were generally mild and not unexpected. The most common TEAEs in the open-label phase were decreased appetite (27.6%), upper abdominal pain (14.3%), irritability (14.3%), and headache (13.3%). Compared to placebo, R-AMPH was effective in treating children aged 6-12 years with ADHD, beginning at 45 minutes and continuing through 10 hours

  19. Pharmacokinetics of two 6-day frovatriptan dosing regimens used for the short-term prevention of menstrual migraine: A phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover, single-centre study in healthy female volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wade, Andrew; Pawsey, Stephen; Whale, Holly; Boyce, Malcolm; Warrington, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of once- and twice-daily frovatriptan given for 6 days, a regimen that has previously been reported to reduce the incidence and severity of menstrual migraine when administered during the perimenstrual period. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study carried out in healthy premenopausal female volunteers aged >or=18 years (equal number taking or not taking estrogen-containing contraceptives [ECCs]) who were admitted to a clinical pharmacology unit. Women alternately received frovatriptan once daily (day 1: 5 mg; days 2-6: 2.5 mg) and twice daily (day 1: 5 mg [10 mg total]; days 2-6: 2.5 mg [5 mg total]) in a randomized treatment sequence. Dosing was also random with respect to the menstrual cycle. Whole blood samples were obtained on days 1 and 6 (predose and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 [before evening dose], 13, 14, 16 and 18 hours post-dose) and on days 2-5 (samples were taken before the morning dose). A final sample was drawn at 24 hours after the last treatment on day 6. A fully validated liquid chromatography assay coupled to a tandem mass spectroscopy assay measured drug concentrations (simultaneous measurement of frovatriptan and its metabolites). Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a noncompartmental approach. Safety and tolerability were measured by monitoring adverse events, haematology and biochemistry, vital signs, ECG results and physical examination findings. Twenty-six healthy women participated in the study and 24 (12 ECC users and 12 ECC nonusers) completed the study. One ECC user during period 1 and one nonuser during period 2 withdrew before completion; both were taking frovatriptan once daily. Most women were White (n = 21), three were Black, and one each was Hispanic or Asian; mean +/- SD age was 25.4 +/- 4.9 years; and mean +/- SD weight was 61.9 +/- 6.5 kg. For both once- and twice-daily dosing, time to reach maximum blood concentration

  20. Adjuvant therapy with high dose vitamin D following primary treatment of melanoma at high risk of recurrence: a placebo controlled randomised phase II trial (ANZMTG 02.09 Mel-D).

    PubMed

    Saw, Robyn P M; Armstrong, Bruce K; Mason, Rebecca S; Morton, Rachael L; Shannon, Kerwin F; Spillane, Andrew J; Stretch, Jonathan R; Thompson, John F

    2014-10-24

    Patients with primary cutaneous melanomas that are ulcerated and >2 mm in thickness, >4 mm in thickness and those with nodal micrometastases at diagnosis, have few options for adjuvant treatment. Recent studies have suggested a role for vitamin D to delay melanoma recurrence and improve overall prognosis. This is a pilot placebo-controlled randomised phase II trial to assess the feasibility, safety and toxicity of an oral loading dose of Vitamin D (500,000 IU) followed by an oral dose of 50,000 IU of Vitamin D monthly for 2 years in patients who have been treated for cutaneous melanoma by wide excision of the primary. Patients aged 18-79 years who have completed primary surgical treatment and have Stage IIb, IIc, IIIa (N1a, N2a) or IIIb (N1a, N2a) disease are eligible for randomisation 2:1 to active treatment or placebo. The primary endpoints are sufficiency of dose, adherence to study medication and safety of the drug. The secondary endpoints are participation and progression free survival. The study has been approved by the Ethics Review Committee (RPAH Zone) of the Sydney Local Health District, protocol number X09-0138. Effective, non-toxic adjuvant therapy for high risk primary melanoma is not currently available. Favorable outcomes of this phase II study will form the basis for a multi-centre phase III study to assess whether the addition of oral high-dose vitamin D therapy in patients who have completed primary treatment for melanoma and are at high risk of recurrence will: 1. prolong time to recurrence within 5 years 2. improve overall survival at 5 years and 3. be both safe and tolerable. 62 patients have been randomised since the study commenced in December 2010. Target accrual for the study has been met with 75 patients randomised between December 2010 and August 2014.The Mel-D trial is conducted by the Australia and New Zealand Melanoma Trials Group (ANZMTG 02.09) TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN

  1. What is the ideal dose and power output of low-level laser therapy (810 nm) on muscle performance and post-exercise recovery? Study protocol for a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies involving phototherapy applied prior to exercise have demonstrated positive results regarding the attenuation of muscle fatigue and the expression of biochemical markers associated with recovery. However, a number of factors remain unknown, such as the ideal dose and application parameters, mechanisms of action and long-term effects on muscle recovery. The aims of the proposed project are to evaluate the long-term effects of low-level laser therapy on post-exercise musculoskeletal recovery and identify the best dose andapplication power/irradiation time. Design and methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial with be conducted. After fulfilling the eligibility criteria, 28 high-performance athletes will be allocated to four groups of seven volunteers each. In phase 1, the laser power will be 200 mW and different doses will be tested: Group A (2 J), Group B (6 J), Group C (10 J) and Group D (0 J). In phase 2, the best dose obtained in phase 1 will be used with the same distribution of the volunteers, but with different powers: Group A (100 mW), Group B (200 mW), Group C (400 mW) and Group D (0 mW). The isokinetic test will be performed based on maximum voluntary contraction prior to the application of the laser and after the eccentric contraction protocol, which will also be performed using the isokinetic dynamometer. The following variables related to physical performance will be analyzed: peak torque/maximum voluntary contraction, delayed onset muscle soreness (algometer), biochemical markers of muscle damage, inflammation and oxidative stress. Discussion Our intention, is to determine optimal laser therapy application parameters capable of slowing down the physiological muscle fatigue process, reducing injuries or micro-injuries in skeletal muscle stemming from physical exertion and accelerating post-exercise muscle recovery. We believe that, unlike drug therapy, LLLT has a biphasic dose–response pattern. Trial

  2. The effect of low-dose omega 3 fatty acids on the treatment of mild to moderate depression in the elderly: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Tajalizadekhoob, Yaser; Sharifi, Farshad; Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Mirarefin, Mojde; Ghaderpanahi, Maryam; Badamchizade, Zohre; Azimipour, Solaleh

    2011-12-01

    Due to the rise in the social and economic costs of depression, new antidepressant medication with fewer side effects should be found. Several studies have shown that an association exists between ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) and depression. However, this association has not been clear enough in the elderly with mild to moderate depression. Sixty-six inhabitants of Kahrizak Charity Foundation participated in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Each participant was ≥ 65 years of age, had a Mini Mental State Exam of ≥ 22, and had scores ranging from 5 to 11 on the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15). During the 6 months, the drug group was treated daily with one gram of fish oil capsule containing 300 mg of both eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. No significant differences were noted between the groups in regard to level of education, use of antidepressant drugs, alcohol, tobacco use, history of chronic diseases, age, body mass index (BMI), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), total cholesterol, and GDS-15 scores at baseline. After adjusting for cholesterol, BMI, and history of thyroid dysfunctions, a statistically significant difference was seen in GDS-15 scores between both groups. Furthermore, treatment with ω-3 PUFAs was clinically more effective in treating depression in comparison with the placebo. In this study, low-dose ω-3 PUFAs had some efficacy in the treatment of mild to moderate depression in elderly participants.

  3. A fixed-dose combination of naproxen and esomeprazole magnesium has comparable upper gastrointestinal tolerability to celecoxib in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: results from two randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Cryer, Byron L; Sostek, Mark B; Fort, John G; Svensson, Ola; Hwang, Clara; Hochberg, Marc C

    2011-12-01

    BACKGROUND. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are associated with poor upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tolerability and increased ulcer risk, but patient adherence to gastroprotective co-therapy is frequently inadequate. A fixed-dose combination of enteric-coated naproxen 500 mg and immediate-release esomeprazole magnesium 20 mg was evaluated: efficacy is reported by Hochberg et al. (Curr Med Res Opin 2011;27:1243-53); tolerability findings are reported here. PATIENTS AND METHODS. In two 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, phase III studies (PN400-307 and PN400-309), patients aged ≥ 50 years with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis randomly (2:2:1) received naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium BID, celecoxib 200 mg QD, or placebo. Tolerability end-points included: modified Severity of Dyspepsia Assessment (mSODA); heartburn severity; and UGI adverse events (AEs). RESULTS. Overall, 619 (PN400-307) and 615 (PN400-309) patients were randomized; mSODA scores improved (baseline to week 12) in each group, with no significant treatment differences between naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium and celecoxib (95% CIs: PN400-307: -0.4, 1.9; PN400-309: -1.8, 0.6). Naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium-treated patients reported significantly more heartburn-free days versus celecoxib (95% CIs: PN400-307: 2.1, 12.7; PN400-309: 2.5, 13.4). UGI AE incidence (PN400-307: 17.3%; PN400-309: 20.3%) was similar between treatment groups. UGI AEs resulted in few discontinuations (< 4%, either study). CONCLUSIONS. Naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium has comparable UGI tolerability to celecoxib in patients with osteoarthritis.

  4. Results of a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, single-dose study comparing the fixed combination of acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid, and caffeine with ibuprofen for acute treatment of patients with severe migraine.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Jerome; Hagen, Martina; Gold, Morris

    2014-11-01

    In a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, single-dose study (n = 1555), a fixed combination of acetaminophen 500 mg, acetylsalicylic acid 500 mg, and caffeine 130 mg (AAC) was compared with ibuprofen 400 mg (IB) and placebo (PLA) for acute treatment of migraine. An exploratory post-hoc analysis compared AAC with IB and PLA in the subset of patients with severe pain at baseline (n = 660). At most time points, AAC and IB relieved the pain and associated symptoms of severe migraine significantly better than PLA (p ≤ 0.05). AAC was significantly superior to IB for pain relief at 45 minutes and at one, two, three, and four hours postdose (p < 0.04); pain intensity difference from one hour through three hours (p < 0.05); headache response at two hours (p = 0.04); functional disability reduced to little or none at three hours (p = 0.013); freedom from phonophobia at three hours (p = 0.04) and photophobia at 15 minutes postdose (p = 0.03); and use of rescue medication (p = 0.018). AAC patients also reported meaningful pain relief 16 minutes faster than IB patients (132 minutes vs 148 minutes, p = 0.026). In patients with severe baseline migraine pain, AAC and IB are significantly more effective than PLA, and AAC provides significantly faster and more effective pain relief than IB. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Intake of a fermented soymilk beverage containing moderate levels of isoflavone aglycones enhances bioavailability of isoflavones in healthy premenopausal Japanese women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    NAGINO, Takayuki; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; MASUOKA, Norie; KAGA, Chiaki; ANBE, Michitoshi; MIYAZAKI, Kouji; KAMACHI, Keiko; ISOZAKI, Mariko; SUZUKI, Chigusa; KASUGA, Chikako; TANAKA, Akira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the bioavailability of serum isoflavones after the intake of soymilk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota containing 32.5% isoflavone aglycones (FSM) or placebo soymilk containing no isoflavone aglycones (SM). In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, crossover trial, 7 healthy premenopausal Japanese women (mean age: 35.3 ± 11.0) consumed FSM or SM on day 1 and crossed over to the other soymilk after a 6-day washout period. Serum isoflavones in blood samples collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hr after intake were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The area under the curve (AUC) values for the serum concentrations of genistein and total isoflavones were significantly higher, by about 1.4-fold, up to 5 hr after FSM intake compared with SM intake (each p<0.05), and that of daidzein tended to be higher after FSM intake. In addition, AUC analysis of total isoflavones for individual subjects revealed that 5 out of 7 subjects had higher AUC values after FSM intake compared with SM intake and that the 2 remaining subjects had similar AUC values. These 2 subjects had higher AUC values after SM intake (mean, 2,502 ± 348) than those of the other subjects (mean, 1,158 ± 269). These results indicate that the bioavailability of isoflavones, especially genistein, is enhanced after the intake of FSM containing 32.5% isoflavone aglycones compared with intake of SM containing no isoflavone aglycones and that the enhancement is observed in healthy premenopausal Japanese women whose isoflavone absorption capacity is low after SM intake. PMID:26858926

  6. Effect of a single dose of the interleukin-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab on inflammation and troponin T release in patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Kleveland, Ola; Kunszt, Gabor; Bratlie, Marte; Ueland, Thor; Broch, Kaspar; Holte, Espen; Michelsen, Annika E; Bendz, Bjørn; Amundsen, Brage H; Espevik, Terje; Aakhus, Svend; Damås, Jan Kristian; Aukrust, Pål; Wiseth, Rune; Gullestad, Lars

    2016-08-07

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) contributes to atherosclerotic plaque destabilization and is involved in myocardial injury during ischaemia-reperfusion. Interleukin-6 is therefore a potential therapeutic target in myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that the IL-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab would attenuate inflammation, and secondarily reduce troponin T (TnT) release in non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI). In a two-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 117 patients with NSTEMI were randomized at a median of 2 days after symptom onset to receive placebo (n = 59) or tocilizumab (n = 58), administered as a single dose prior to coronary angiography. High sensitivity (hs) C-reactive protein and hsTnT were measured at seven consecutive timepoints between Days 1 and 3. The area under the curve (AUC) for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was the primary endpoint. The median AUC for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein during hospitalization was 2.1 times higher in the placebo than in the tocilizumab group (4.2 vs. 2.0 mg/L/h, P < 0.001). Also, the median AUC for hsTnT during hospitalization was 1.5 times higher in the placebo group compared with the tocilizumab group (234 vs. 159 ng/L/h, P = 0.007). The differences between the two treatment groups were observed mainly in (i) patients included ≤2 days from symptom onset and (ii) patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). No safety issues in the tocilizumab group were detected during 6 months of follow-up. Tocilizumab attenuated the inflammatory response and primarily PCI-related TnT release in NSTEMI patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Effects of low-dose propofol vs ketamine on emergence cough in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy with sevoflurane-remifentanil anesthesia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Tulun; Acıkel, Arzu; Yılmaz, Ozge; Topçu, Ismet; Çevıkkalp, Eralp; Yuksel, Hasan

    2016-12-01

    To determine the effects of low-dose ketamine and propofol on cough during emergence and the recovery period when administered at emergence in children undergoing fiberoptic bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage (FOBL) with sevoflurane-remifentanil anesthesia. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Operating room, postoperative recovery area. Sixty-eight children aged 1 to 8 years old undergoing elective diagnostic FOBL. After discontinuation of anesthetics at the end of FOBL, patients were randomly divided into 3 groups: in group K, children were administered 0.5 mg/kg of ketamine; in group P, 0.5 mg/kg of propofol; and in group C, 0.1 mL/kg of normal saline. Anesthesia time, procedure time, emergence time, and recovery time were recorded. Coughing and delirium scores were recorded as the patient fully emerged from anesthesia (time 0) and 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes later. The percentage of children with moderate or severe cough during emergence was similar in all groups. Mean delirium scores at emergence (T0) were significantly lower in group K than those in group P and in group C (P = .0001 and P = .02). Mean delirium score at 5 minutes in group K (6 [5-10]) was significantly lower than that of group C (P = .02) and similar to that of group P. The recovery time of group K was significantly longer than that of group C and group P (P = .01 and P = .03, respectively). Ketamine or propofol given at the end of sevoflurane-remifentanil general anesthesia in children undergoing FOBL did not decrease cough more than normal saline during the emergence period. Ketamine and propofol, compared to normal saline, had a beneficial effect on decreasing the incidence of emergence delirium. Ketamine lengthened recovery time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficacy and safety of duloxetine for treatment of fibromyalgia in patients with or without major depressive disorder: Results from a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose trial.

    PubMed

    Russell, I Jon; Mease, Philip J; Smith, Timothy R; Kajdasz, Daniel K; Wohlreich, Madelaine M; Detke, Michael J; Walker, Daniel J; Chappell, Amy S; Arnold, Lesley M

    2008-06-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy and safety of duloxetine for reducing pain severity in fibromyalgia patients with or without current major depressive disorder. This was a 6-month, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. In total, 520 patients meeting American College of Rheumatology criteria for fibromyalgia were randomly assigned to duloxetine (20 mg/day, 60 mg/day, or 120 mg/day) or placebo, administered once daily, for 6 months (after 3 months, the duloxetine 20-mg/day group titrated to 60 mg/day). The co-primary outcome measures were the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) average pain severity score and Patient Global Impressions of Improvement (PGI-I) score. Safety was assessed via treatment-emergent adverse events, and changes in vital sign, laboratory, and ECG measures. Compared with placebo-treated patients, those patients treated with duloxetine 120 mg/day improved significantly more on the co-primary outcome measures at 3 months (change in BPI score [-2.31 vs -1.39, P<0.001] and PGI-I [2.89 vs 3.39, P=0.004]) and at 6 months (change in BPI [-2.26 vs -1.43, P=0.003] and PGI-I [2.93 vs 3.37, P=0.012]). Compared with placebo, treatment with duloxetine 60 mg/day also significantly improved the co-primary measures at 3 months and BPI at 6 months. Duloxetine was efficacious in patients both with and without major depressive disorder. There were no clinically significant differences between treatment groups in changes in vital signs, laboratory measures, or ECG measures. Study results demonstrated that duloxetine at doses of 60 mg/day and 120 mg/day appears to be safe and efficacious in patients with fibromyalgia.

  9. No evidence for differential dose effects of hydrocortisone on intrusive memories in female patients with complex post-traumatic stress disorder--a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Ludäscher, Petra; Schmahl, Christian; Feldmann, Robert E; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Schneider, Miriam; Bohus, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is characterized by intrusive traumatic memories. Presently, a controversial debate is ongoing regarding whether reduced cortisol secretion in post-traumatic stress disorder promotes an automatic retrieval of trauma-associated memories. Hence, a pharmacological elevation of cortisol was proposed to decrease post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, particularly intrusions. The present study investigated the impact of two different doses of hydrocortisone on automatic memory retrieval using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 30 inpatients with post-traumatic stress disorder. All participants were female and received various psychotropic medications. They were randomly assigned to one of two groups within a crossover design: they received either 1 week placebo followed by 1 week hydrocortisone 10/d, followed by 1 week placebo, followed by hydrocortisone 30 mg/d (15 participants) or 1 week hydrocortisone 30 mg/d, followed by 1 week placebo, followed by 1 week hydrocortisone 10 mg/d, followed by 1 week placebo (15 participants). The outcome measures were the frequency and the intensity of intrusions, the overall symptomatology of post-traumatic stress disorder and the general psychopathology. We did not find any differences in the frequency and the intensity of post-traumatic stress disorder-related intrusions between the 10 mg hydrocortisone, the 30 mg hydrocortisone and the placebo condition. All effect sizes for the hydrocortisone condition vs. placebo were very small. Additionally, the overall symptomatology of post-traumatic stress disorder and the general psychopathology did not differ between the hydrocortisone therapies and placebo. Our results do not show any effect of the hydrocortisone administration on intrusions in complex post-traumatic stress disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Tolerance and the effect of high doses of wheat bran extract, containing arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides, and oligofructose on faecal output: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    François, Isabelle E J A; Lescroart, Olivier; Veraverbeke, Wim S; Windey, Karen; Verbeke, Kristin; Broekaert, Willem F

    2014-01-01

    Wheat bran extract (WBE) is a food-grade soluble fibre preparation that is highly enriched in arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides. In this placebo-controlled cross-over human intervention trial, tolerance to WBE as well as the effects of WBE on faecal parameters, including faecal output and bowel habits, were studied. After a 2-week run-in period, twenty healthy volunteers consumed WBE (15 g/d in the first week, 30 g/d in the second week), oligofructose (15 g/d in the first week, 30 g/d in the second week) and placebo (for 2 weeks) in a random order, with 2-week washout periods between each treatment period. Subjects collected a 72 h stool sample for analysis of faecal output, stool pH and stool moisture concentration. Additionally, the volunteers completed questionnaires scoring occurrence frequency and distress severity of eighteen gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. An overall GI symptom measure was calculated to analyse the overall effect of WBE and oligofructose on GI symptoms. Intake of both 30 g/d WBE and 30 g/d oligofructose lowered stool pH, indicative of increased colonic fermentation, and increased stool moisture concentration as compared with placebo intake. Intake of 30 g/d oligofructose increased the overall GI symptom measure by 1·9-fold as compared with placebo intake. Intake of WBE at doses up to 30 g/d did not affect the overall GI symptom measure. WBE exerts beneficial effects on stool characteristics and is well tolerated at up to 30 g/d. Oligofructose exerts comparable beneficial effects on stool characteristics. However, intake of 30 g/d oligofructose appears to cause GI discomfort to some extent.

  11. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over single dose study of the bronchodilator duration of action of combination fluticasone furoate/vilanterol inhaler in adult asthma.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Irene; Williams, Mathew; Power, Sharon; Pilcher, Janine; Weatherall, Mark; Baines, Amanda; Moynihan, Jackie; Kempsford, Rodger; Beasley, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Fluticasone furoate (FF)/vilanterol (VI) is a once-daily maintenance treatment for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The duration of bronchodilation beyond 24 h has not been determined previously. Adults aged 18-65 (n = 32), with asthma and reversibility to salbutamol (≥15% and ≥200 mL increase in forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Patients were admitted to a clinical trials unit for 72 h, and inhaled, in random order, placebo or FF/VI 100/25 mcg via ELLIPTA dry powder inhaler on two occasions 7-14 days apart. FEV1 was measured at baseline, 15 and 30 min, 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h. The differences in change in FEV1 from baseline between treatments and corresponding two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated at each time point. FF/VI produced a rapid onset of bronchodilation (adjusted mean difference in change from baseline in FEV1 versus placebo at 15 min, 252 mL [95% CI 182-322]). Maximum bronchodilation was observed at 12 h (adjusted mean difference in the change from baseline in FEV1, 383 mL [95% CI 285-481]). Bronchodilation was maintained throughout the 72-h assessment period (adjusted mean difference in the change in FEV1 from baseline at 72 h, 108 mL (95% CI 15-200]). FF/VI was well tolerated and no serious side effects were reported. A single dose of FF/VI 100/25 mcg showed evidence of a 72-h bronchodilator duration of action in adults with asthma. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. A Phase I clinical and pharmacology study using amifostine as a radioprotector in dose-escalated whole liver radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Mary; Smith, David E.; Normolle, Daniel P.; Knol, James A.; Pan, Charlie C.; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Lu, Zheng; Feng, Meihua R.; Chen, Jun; Ensminger, William; Lawrence, Theodore S.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Diffuse intrahepatic tumors are difficult to control. Whole liver radiotherapy has been limited by toxicity, most notably radiation-induced liver disease (RILD). Amifostine is a prodrug free-radical scavenger that selectively protects normal tissues and, in a preclinical model of intrahepatic cancer, systemic amifostine reduced normal liver radiation damage without compromising tumor effect.(1) We hypothesized that amifostine would permit escalation of whole liver radiation dose to potentially control microscopic disease. We also aimed to characterize the pharmacokinetics of amifostine and its active metabolite WR-1065 to optimize timing of radiotherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS We conducted a radiation dose escalation trial for patients with diffuse, intrahepatic cancer treated with whole liver radiation and intravenous amifostine. Radiation dose was assigned using the Time-to-Event Continual Reassessment Method. A companion pharmacokinetic study was performed. RESULTS 23 patients were treated, with a maximum dose of 40 Gy. Using a logistical regression model, compared to our previously treated patients, amifostine increased liver tolerance by 3.3 ± 1.1 Gy (p=0.007) (approximately 10%) with similar response rates. Peak concentrations of WR-1065 were 25 μM with an elimination half life of 1.5 hours; these levels are consistent with radioprotective effects of amifostine in patients. CONCLUSION These findings demonstrate for the first time that amifostine is a normal liver radioprotector. They further suggest that it may be useful to combine amifostine with fractionated or stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with focal intrahepatic cancer. PMID:22440042

  13. Phase I dose-escalation study of helical intensity-modulated radiotherapy-based stereotactic body radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Won; Seong, Jinsil; Lee, Ik Jae; Woo, Joong Yeol; Han, Kwang-Hyub

    2016-01-01

    Background Phase I trial was conducted to determine feasibility and toxicity of helical intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)-based stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Results Eighteen patients (22 lesions) were enrolled. With no DLT at 52 Gy (13 Gy/fraction), protocol was amended for further escalation to 60 Gy (15 Gy/fraction). Radiologic complete response rate was 88.9%. Two outfield intrahepatic, 2 distant, 4 concurrent local and outfield, and 1 concurrent local, outfield and distant failures (no local failure at dose levels 3–4) occurred. The worst toxicity was grade 3 hematologic in five patients, with no gastrointestinal toxicity > grade 1. At median follow-up of 28 months for living patients, 2-year local control, progression-free (PFS), and overall survival rates were 71.3%, 49.4% and 69.3%, respectively. Multi-segmental recurrences prior to SBRT was independent prognostic factor for PFS (p = 0.033). Materials and Methods Eligible patients had Child-Pugh's class A or B, unresectable HCC, ≤ 3 lesions, and cumulative tumor diameter ≤ 6 cm. Starting at 36 Gy in four fractions, dose was escalated with 2 Gy/fraction per dose-level. CTCAE v 3.0 ≥ grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity and radiation induced liver disease defined dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). Conclusions Helical IMRT-based SBRT was tolerable and showed encouraging results. Confirmatory phase II trial is underway. PMID:27213593

  14. Phase I dose-escalation and pharmacokinetic study of oral gefitinib and irinotecan in children with refractory solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, R. C.; Furman, W.; Mao, S.; Wu, J.; Turner, D. C.; Stewart, C. F.; Santana, V.; McGregor, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This phase I study endeavored to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and describe the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of oral irinotecan with gefitinib in children with refractory solid tumors. Methods Oral irinotecan was administered on days 1-5 and 8-12 with oral gefitinib (fixed dose, 150mg/m2/day) on days 1-12 of a 21-day course. The Escalation with Overdose Control (EWOC) method guided irinotecan dose escalation (7 dose levels, range 5mg/m2/day to 40mg/m2/day). Results Sixteen of 19 patients were evaluable, with serial pharmacokinetic studies in 10 patients. Diagnoses included osteosarcoma (N=5), neuroblastoma (N=3), sarcoma (N=3), and others (N=5). Patients received a median of two courses (range 1-20), with at least two patients treated on dose levels 2-7. Three patients had five DLTs; the most common being metabolic (hypokalemia, N=2 and hypophosphatemia, N=1) at dose levels two (10mg/m2) and four (20mg/m2). One patient experienced grade 3 diarrhea (40mg/m2). Irinotecan bioavailability was 2.5-fold higher when co-administered with gefitinib while the conversion rate of irinotecan to SN-38 lactone was unaffected. The study closed due to poor accrual before evaluation of the next recommended irinotecan dose level (35mg/m2). Of eleven patients receiving at least two courses of therapy, three had stable disease (SD) lasting two to four courses and one patient maintained a complete response through 18 courses. Conclusions The combination of oral gefitinib and irinotecan has acceptable toxicity and anti-tumor activity in pediatric patients with refractory solid tumors. Pharmacokinetic analysis confirms that co-administration of gefitinib increases irinotecan bioavailability leading to an increased SN-38 lactone systemic exposure. PMID:25257509

  15. A Phase I Dose-Escalation Study (ISIDE-BT-1) of Accelerated IMRT With Temozolomide in Patients With Glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Morganti, Alessio G.; Balducci, Mario; Salvati, Maurizio; Esposito, Vincenzo; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Ferro, Marica; Calista, Franco; Digesu, Cinzia; Macchia, Gabriella; Ianiri, Massimo; Deodato, Francesco; Cilla, Savino; Piermattei, Angelo M.P.; Valentini, Vincenzo; Cellini, Numa; Cantore, Gian Paolo

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of fractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with temozolomide (TMZ) in patients with glioblastoma. Methods and Materials: A Phase I clinical trial was performed. Eligible patients had surgically resected or biopsy-proven glioblastoma. Patients started TMZ (75 mg/day) during IMRT and continued for 1 year (150-200 mg/day, Days 1-5 every 28 days) or until disease progression. Clinical target volume 1 (CTV1) was the tumor bed +- enhancing lesion with a 10-mm margin; CTV2 was the area of perifocal edema with a 20-mm margin. Planning target volume 1 (PTV1) and PTV2 were defined as the corresponding CTV plus a 5-mm margin. IMRT was delivered in 25 fractions over 5 weeks. Only the dose for PTV1 was escalated (planned dose escalation: 60 Gy, 62.5 Gy, 65 Gy) while maintaining the dose for PTV2 (45 Gy, 1.8 Gy/fraction). Dose limiting toxicities (DLT) were defined as any treatment-related nonhematological adverse effects rated as Grade >=3 or any hematological toxicity rated as >=4 by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria. Results: Nineteen consecutive glioblastoma were treated with step-and-shoot IMRT, planned with the inverse approach (dose to the PTV1: 7 patients, 60 Gy; 6 patients, 62.5 Gy; 6 patients, 65 Gy). Five coplanar beams were used to cover at least 95% of the target volume with the 95% isodose line. Median follow-up time was 23 months (range, 8-40 months). No patient experienced DLT. Grade 1-2 treatment-related neurologic and skin toxicity were common (11 and 19 patients, respectively). No Grade >2 late neurologic toxicities were noted. Conclusion: Accelerated IMRT to a dose of 65 Gy in 25 fractions is well tolerated with TMZ at a daily dose of 75 mg.

  16. Dose escalation in brachytherapy for cervical cancer: impact on (or increased need for) MRI-guided plan optimisation

    PubMed Central

    Paton, A M; Chalmers, K E; Coomber, H; Cameron, A L

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the impact of dose escalation on the proportion of patients requiring MR image-guided optimisation rather than standard Manchester-based CT-guided planning, and the level of escalation achievable. Methods 30 patients with cervical cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy and image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) had MR images acquired at the first fraction of IGBT. Gross tumour volume and high-risk clinical target volume (HR CTV) were contoured and treatment plans retrospectively produced for a range of total 2-Gy equivalent (EQD2) prescription doses from 66 Gyα/β=10 to 90 Gyα/β=10 (HR CTV D90). Standard Manchester system-style plans were produced, prescribed to point A and then optimised where necessary with the aim of delivering at least the prescription dose to the HR CTV D90 while respecting organ-at-risk (OAR) tolerances. Results Increasing the total EQD2 from 66 Gyα/β=10 to 90 Gyα/β=10 increased the number of plans requiring optimisation from 13.3% to 90%. After optimisation, the number of plans achieving the prescription dose ranged from 93.3% (66 Gyα/β=10) to 63.3% (90 Gyα/β=10) with the mean±standard deviation for HR CTV D90 EQD2 from 78.4±12.4 Gyα/β=10 (66 Gyα/β=10) to 94.1±19.9 Gyα/β=10 (90 Gyα/β=10). Conclusion As doses are escalated, the need for non-standard optimised planning increases, while benefits in terms of increased target doses actually achieved diminish. The maximum achievable target dose is ultimately limited by proximity of OARs. Advances in knowledge This work represents a guide for other centres in determining the highest practicable prescription doses while considering patient throughput and maintaining acceptable OAR doses. PMID:23175490

  17. Effects of low-dose oral enoximone administration on mortality, morbidity, and exercise capacity in patients with advanced heart failure: the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group ESSENTIAL trials.

    PubMed

    Metra, Marco; Eichhorn, Eric; Abraham, William T; Linseman, Jennifer; Böhm, Michael; Corbalan, Ramon; DeMets, David; De Marco, Teresa; Elkayam, Uri; Gerber, Michael; Komajda, Michel; Liu, Peter; Mareev, Vyacheslev; Perrone, Sergio V; Poole-Wilson, Philip; Roecker, Ellen; Stewart, Jennifer; Swedberg, Karl; Tendera, Michal; Wiens, Brian; Bristow, Michael R

    2009-12-01

    Use of inotropic agents in patients with heart failure (HF) has been limited by adverse effects on outcomes. However, administration of positive inotropes at lower doses and concomitant treatment with beta-blockers might increase benefit-risk ratio. We investigated the effects of low doses of the positive inotrope enoximone on symptoms, exercise capacity, and major clinical outcomes in patients with advanced HF who were also treated with beta-blockers and other guideline-recommended background therapy. The Studies of Oral Enoximone Therapy in Advanced HF (ESSENTIAL) programme consisted of two identical, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials that differed only by geographic location (North and South America: ESSENTIAL-I; Europe: ESSENTIAL-II). Patients with New York Heart Association class III-IV HF symptoms, left ventricular ejection fraction < or = 30%, and one hospitalization or two ambulatory visits for worsening HF in the previous year were eligible for participation in the trials. The trials had three co-primary endpoints: (i) the composite of time to all-cause mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization, analysed in the two ESSENTIAL trials combined; (ii) the 6 month change from baseline in the 6 min walk test distance (6MWTD); and (iii) the Patient Global Assessment (PGA) at 6 months, both analysed in each trial separately. ESSENTIAL-I and -II randomized 1854 subjects at 211 sites in 16 countries. In the combined trials, all-cause mortality and the composite, first co-primary endpoint did not differ between the two treatment groups [hazard ratio (HR) 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-1.17; and HR 0.98; 95% CI 0.86-1.12, respectively, for enoximone vs. placebo]. The two other co-primary endpoints were analysed separately in the two ESSENTIAL trials, as prospectively designed in the protocol. The 6MWTD increased with enoximone, compared with placebo, in ESSENTIAL-I (P = 0.025, not reaching, however, the pre-specified criterion for

  18. Short-term effects of high-dose oral vitamin D3 in critically ill vitamin D deficient patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Amrein, Karin; Sourij, Harald; Wagner, Gerit; Holl, Alexander; Pieber, Thomas R; Smolle, Karl Heinz; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Schnedl, Christian; Dobnig, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is encountered frequently in critically ill patients and might be harmful. Current nutrition guidelines recommend very low vitamin D doses. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single oral high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in an intensive care setting over a one-week observation period. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study in a medical ICU at a tertiary care university center in Graz, Austria. Twenty-five patients (mean age 62 ± 16 yrs) with vitamin D deficiency [25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) ≤ 20 ng/ml] and an expected stay in the ICU >48 hours were included and randomly received either 540,000 IU (corresponding to 13.5 mg) of cholecalciferol (VITD) dissolved in 45 ml herbal oil or matched placebo (PBO) orally or via feeding tube. The mean serum 25(OH)D increase in the intervention group was 25 ng/ml (range 1-47 ng/ml). The highest 25(OH)D level reached was 64 ng/ml, while two patients showed a small (7 ng/ml) or no response (1 ng/ml). Hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria did not occur in any patient. From day 0 to day 7, total serum calcium levels increased by 0.10 (PBO) and 0.15 mmol/L (VITD; P < 0.05 for both), while ionized calcium levels increased by 0.11 (PBO) and 0.05 mmol/L (VITD; P < 0.05 for both). Parathyroid hormone levels decreased by 19 and 28 pg/ml (PBO and VITD, ns) over the seven days, while 1,25(OH)D showed a transient significant increase in the VITD group only. This pilot study shows that a single oral ultra-high dose of cholecalciferol corrects vitamin D deficiency within 2 days in most patients without causing adverse effects like hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria. Further research is needed to confirm our results and establish whether vitamin D supplementation can affect the clinical outcome of vitamin D deficient critically ill patients. EUDRACT NUMBER: 2009-012080-34 GERMAN CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTER (DRKS): DRKS00000750.

  19. Positive benefits of theophylline in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study of low-dose, slow-release theophylline in the treatment of COPD for 1 year.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yumin; Wang, Xiaoping; Zeng, Xiangyi; Qiu, Rong; Xie, Junfeng; Liu, Shengming; Zheng, Jingping; Zhong, Nanshan; Ran, Pixin

    2006-09-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that low-dose theophylline has anti-inflammatory benefits and is safe in the treatment of COPD. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-dose, slow-release oral theophylline administered over a 1-year period in patients with COPD. A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial was carried out. In total, 110 participants with COPD were randomly assigned to receive slow-release theophylline (100 mg b.i.d.) or placebo for 1 year. Use of medicine and symptoms recorded by diary cards; pulmonary function, exacerbations of COPD, quality of life and the use of rescue medicine were evaluated. Superiority test was used to estimate the efficacy. Of 110 participants, 85 (77.3%) complied with the protocol, with 42 subjects in theophylline and 43 subjects on placebo. In both intention-to-treat and per-protocol population analysis, greater improvement in pre-bronchodilator FEV(1) (P = 0.038 and P = 0.070, respectively), lower frequency of COPD exacerbations (P = 0.047 and P = 0.035, respectively), fewer days of COPD exacerbations (P = 0.045 and P = 0.046, respectively), lower frequency of clinical visits (P = 0.017 and P = 0.039, respectively), greater improvement in satisfaction with treatment (P = 0.014 and P = 0.004, respectively) were found in the theophylline group than in the placebo group. In per-protocol population, greater improvements in quality of life (P = 0.047) were also observed in the theophylline group and the mean time to the first exacerbation was delayed in theophylline group in comparison with placebo group (P = 0.047). Drug-related adverse events such as stomach discomfort (3.51%), headache (3.51%), insomnia (1.75%) and palpitation (1.75%) were found in the theophylline group. Low-dose, slow-release oral theophylline is effective and well-tolerated in the long term treatment of stable COPD, although it does not improve post-bronchodilator lung function.

  20. Effects of low-dose oral enoximone administration on mortality, morbidity, and exercise capacity in patients with advanced heart failure: the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group ESSENTIAL trials

    PubMed Central

    Metra, Marco; Eichhorn, Eric; Abraham, William T.; Linseman, Jennifer; Böhm, Michael; Corbalan, Ramon; DeMets, David; De Marco, Teresa; Elkayam, Uri; Gerber, Michael; Komajda, Michel; Liu, Peter; Mareev, Vyacheslev; Perrone, Sergio V.; Poole-Wilson, Philip; Roecker, Ellen; Stewart, Jennifer; Swedberg, Karl; Tendera, Michal; Wiens, Brian; Bristow, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Use of inotropic agents in patients with heart failure (HF) has been limited by adverse effects on outcomes. However, administration of positive inotropes at lower doses and concomitant treatment with beta-blockers might increase benefit–risk ratio. We investigated the effects of low doses of the positive inotrope enoximone on symptoms, exercise capacity, and major clinical outcomes in patients with advanced HF who were also treated with beta-blockers and other guideline-recommended background therapy. Methods and results The Studies of Oral Enoximone Therapy in Advanced HF (ESSENTIAL) programme consisted of two identical, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials that differed only by geographic location (North and South America: ESSENTIAL-I; Europe: ESSENTIAL-II). Patients with New York Heart Association class III–IV HF symptoms, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤30%, and one hospitalization or two ambulatory visits for worsening HF in the previous year were eligible for participation in the trials. The trials had three co-primary endpoints: (i) the composite of time to all-cause mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization, analysed in the two ESSENTIAL trials combined; (ii) the 6 month change from baseline in the 6 min walk test distance (6MWTD); and (iii) the Patient Global Assessment (PGA) at 6 months, both analysed in each trial separately. ESSENTIAL-I and -II randomized 1854 subjects at 211 sites in 16 countries. In the combined trials, all-cause mortality and the composite, first co-primary endpoint did not differ between the two treatment groups [hazard ratio (HR) 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80–1.17; and HR 0.98; 95% CI 0.86–1.12, respectively, for enoximone vs. placebo]. The two other co-primary endpoints were analysed separately in the two ESSENTIAL trials, as prospectively designed in the protocol. The 6MWTD increased with enoximone, compared with placebo, in ESSENTIAL-I (P = 0.025, not reaching, however, the pre

  1. Prognostic Significance of Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 in Unresectable Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Treated With Dose-Escalated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Full-Dose Gemcitabine: Analysis of a Prospective Phase 1/2 Dose Escalation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Vainshtein, Jeffrey M.; Schipper, Matthew; Zalupski, Mark M.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Abrams, Ross; Francis, Isaac R.; Khan, Gazala; Leslie, William; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Although established in the postresection setting, the prognostic value of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) in unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) is less clear. We examined the prognostic utility of CA19-9 in patients with unresectable LAPC treated on a prospective trial of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose escalation with concurrent gemcitabine. Methods and Materials: Forty-six patients with unresectable LAPC were treated at the University of Michigan on a phase 1/2 trial of IMRT dose escalation with concurrent gemcitabine. CA19-9 was obtained at baseline and during routine follow-up. Cox models were used to assess the effect of baseline factors on freedom from local progression (FFLP), distant progression (FFDP), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Stepwise forward regression was used to build multivariate predictive models for each endpoint. Results: Thirty-eight patients were eligible for the present analysis. On univariate analysis, baseline CA19-9 and age predicted OS, CA19-9 at baseline and 3 months predicted PFS, gross tumor volume (GTV) and black race predicted FFLP, and CA19-9 at 3 months predicted FFDP. On stepwise multivariate regression modeling, baseline CA19-9, age, and female sex predicted OS; baseline CA19-9 and female sex predicted both PFS and FFDP; and GTV predicted FFLP. Patients with baseline CA19-9 ≤90 U/mL had improved OS (median 23.0 vs 11.1 months, HR 2.88, P<.01) and PFS (14.4 vs 7.0 months, HR 3.61, P=.001). CA19-9 progression over 90 U/mL was prognostic for both OS (HR 3.65, P=.001) and PFS (HR 3.04, P=.001), and it was a stronger predictor of death than either local progression (HR 1.46, P=.42) or distant progression (HR 3.31, P=.004). Conclusions: In patients with unresectable LAPC undergoing definitive chemoradiation therapy, baseline CA19-9 was independently prognostic even after established prognostic factors were controlled for, whereas CA19-9 progression

  2. A phase I dose-escalation study of MSC1992371A, an oral inhibitor of aurora and other kinases, in advanced hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Graux, Carlos; Sonet, Anne; Maertens, Johan; Duyster, Justus; Greiner, Jochen; Chalandon, Yves; Martinelli, Giovanni; Hess, Dagmar; Heim, Dominik; Giles, Francis J; Kelly, Kevin R; Gianella-Borradori, Athos; Longerey, Blandine; Asatiani, Ekaterine; Rejeb, Narmyn; Ottmann, Oliver G

    2013-09-01

    A phase I dose-escalation study of MSC1992371A, an oral aurora kinase inhibitor, was carried out in patients with hematologic malignancies. Patients received escalating doses either on days 1-3 and 8-10 (n=36) or on days 1-6 (n=39) of a 21-day cycle. The maximum tolerated doses were 37 and 28 mg/m(2)/day, respectively. Dose-limiting toxicities included severe neutropenia with infection and sepsis, mucositis/stomatitis, and diarrhea. Complete responses occurred in 3 patients. Four disease-specific expansion cohorts then received the dose and schedule dictated by the escalation phase but the study was prematurely discontinued due to hematologic and gastrointestinal toxicity at clinically effective doses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy and speed of onset of pain relief of fast-dissolving paracetamol on postsurgical dental pain: two randomized, single-dose, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yong; Collaku, Agron; Brown, Jean; Buchanan, William L; Reed, Kenneth; Cooper, Stephen A; Otto, James

    2013-09-01

    Paracetamol (APAP), also known as acetaminophen, is the most commonly used over-the-counter analgesic for the treatment of mild-to-moderate pain. However, the speed of onset of pain relief is limited mainly to the standard, immediate-release formulation. Efficacy and speed of onset of pain relief are critical in acute pain situations such as postsurgical dental pain, because reducing pain can improve clinical outcome and reduce the risk of transition from acute pain to more chronic pain. Efficacy and rapid onset also reduce the risk of excessive dosing with the analgesic. We sought to investigate the dose-response efficacy and speed of onset of pain relief of a fast-dissolving APAP formulation compared with lower doses of APAP and placebo in dental patients after impacted third molar extraction. Two single-center, single-dose, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group studies (Study I and Study II) were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and speed of onset of pain relief of different doses of a fast-dissolving APAP tablet (FD-APAP), standard APAP, and placebo in patients with postsurgical dental pain following third molar extraction. In Study I, a single dose of FD-APAP 1000 mg, FD-APAP 500 mg, or placebo was given to 300 patients; in Study II, a single dose of FD-APAP 1000 mg, standard APAP 650 mg, or placebo was given to 401 patients. All 701 patients from both studies were included in the analysis and safety assessment. FD-APAP 1000 mg demonstrated significantly greater effect compared with FD-APAP 500 mg, APAP 650 mg, and placebo for all efficacy measurements, including sum of pain relief and pain intensity difference, total pain relief, sum of pain intensity difference, pain intensity difference, and pain relief score during 6 hours after the dose. Onset of confirmed first perceptible relief in subjects treated with FD-APAP 1000 mg was 15 minutes, which was 32% and 25% significantly shorter than onset of pain relief of FD

  4. A Dose-Escalation Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and Efficacy of 2 and 4 Weeks of Twice-Daily Ocular Trabodenoson in Adults with Ocular Hypertension or Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Sall, Kenneth N.; DuBiner, Harvey; Slomowitz, Natanya; McVicar, William; Rich, Cadmus C.; Baumgartner, Rudolf A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the safety and ocular hypotensive efficacy of 4 trabodenoson doses administered twice daily over 14 or 28 days in subjects with ocular hypertension or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation Phase 2 study, patients received unilateral topical twice-daily trabodenoson (50, 100, or 200 mcg) or placebo for 14 days, or 500 mcg trabodenoson or placebo for 28 days. Ocular and systemic safety and tolerability were assessed by examinations, clinical and laboratory studies. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was assessed using Goldmann tonometry. Results: Trabodenoson was well tolerated; no clinically meaningful ocular or systemic side effects were identified. Trabodenoson produced a dose-dependent IOP reduction. IOP reductions in the 500 mcg group were significantly greater than placebo at all time points at Day 28. Mean IOP reductions from diurnal baseline ranged from −3.5 to −5.0 mmHg with a mean change of −4.1 mmHg in the 500 mcg group compared −1.0 to −2.5 mmHg with a mean change of −1.6 mmHg for the placebo group, and the Day 28 drop was significantly greater than at Day 14 (P = 0.0163) indicating improvement in IOP lowering with longer treatment time. IOP remained significantly reduced 24 h after the final 500 mcg dose (P = 0.048). Conclusion: Twice-daily ocular doses of trabodenoson, from 50 to 500 mcg, were well tolerated and showed a dose-related decrease in IOP that was statistically significant and clinically relevant at 500 mcg in patients with ocular hypertension or POAG. PMID:27002298

  5. A Dose-Escalation Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and Efficacy of 2 and 4 Weeks of Twice-Daily Ocular Trabodenoson in Adults with Ocular Hypertension or Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jonathan S; Sall, Kenneth N; DuBiner, Harvey; Slomowitz, Natanya; McVicar, William; Rich, Cadmus C; Baumgartner, Rudolf A

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the safety and ocular hypotensive efficacy of 4 trabodenoson doses administered twice daily over 14 or 28 days in subjects with ocular hypertension or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). In this multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation Phase 2 study, patients received unilateral topical twice-daily trabodenoson (50, 100, or 200 mcg) or placebo for 14 days, or 500 mcg trabodenoson or placebo for 28 days. Ocular and systemic safety and tolerability were assessed by examinations, clinical and laboratory studies. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was assessed using Goldmann tonometry. Trabodenoson was well tolerated; no clinically meaningful ocular or systemic side effects were identified. Trabodenoson produced a dose-dependent IOP reduction. IOP reductions in the 500 mcg group were significantly greater than placebo at all time points at Day 28. Mean IOP reductions from diurnal baseline ranged from -3.5 to -5.0 mmHg with a mean change of -4.1 mmHg in the 500 mcg group compared -1.0 to -2.5 mmHg with a mean change of -1.6 mmHg for the placebo group, and the Day 28 drop was significantly greater than at Day 14 (P = 0.0163) indicating improvement in IOP lowering with longer treatment time. IOP remained significantly reduced 24 h after the final 500 mcg dose (P = 0.048). Twice-daily ocular doses of trabodenoson, from 50 to 500 mcg, were well tolerated and showed a dose-related decrease in IOP that was statistically significant and clinically relevant at 500 mcg in patients with ocular hypertension or POAG.

  6. Safety and immunogenicity of a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored Ebola vaccine in healthy adults: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding, phase 1/2a study.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Olga; Audran, Régine; Pothin, Emilie; Warpelin-Decrausaz, Loane; Vallotton, Laure; Wuerzner, Grégoire; Cochet, Camille; Estoppey, Daniel; Steiner-Monard, Viviane; Lonchampt, Sophie; Thierry, Anne-Christine; Mayor, Carole; Bailer, Robert T; Mbaya, Olivier Tshiani; Zhou, Yan; Ploquin, Aurélie; Sullivan, Nancy J; Graham, Barney S; Roman, François; De Ryck, Iris; Ballou, W Ripley; Kieny, Marie Paule; Moorthy, Vasee; Spertini, François; Genton, Blaise

    2016-03-01

    The ongoing Ebola outbreak led to accelerated efforts to test vaccine candidates. On the basis of a request by WHO, we aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the monovalent, recombinant, chimpanzee adenovirus type-3 vector-based Ebola Zaire vaccine (ChAd3-EBO-Z). We did this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding, phase 1/2a trial at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland. Participants (aged 18-65 years) were randomly assigned (2:2:1), via two computer-generated randomisation lists for individuals potentially deployed in endemic areas and those not deployed, to receive a single intramuscular dose of high-dose vaccine (5 × 10(10) viral particles), low-dose vaccine (2·5 × 10(10) viral particles), or placebo. Deployed participants were allocated to only the vaccine groups. Group allocation was concealed from non-deployed participants, investigators, and outcome assessors. The safety evaluation was not masked for potentially deployed participants, who were therefore not included in the safety analysis for comparison between the vaccine doses and placebo, but were pooled with the non-deployed group to compare immunogenicity. The main objectives were safety and immunogenicity of ChAd3-EBO-Z. We did analysis by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02289027. Between Oct 24, 2014, and June 22, 2015, we randomly assigned 120 participants, of whom 18 (15%) were potentially deployed and 102 (85%) were non-deployed, to receive high-dose vaccine (n=49), low-dose vaccine (n=51), or placebo (n=20). Participants were followed up for 6 months. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. We recorded local adverse events in 30 (75%) of 40 participants in the high-dose group, 33 (79%) of 42 participants in the low-dose group, and five (25%) of 20 participants in the placebo group. Fatigue or malaise was the most common systemic adverse event, reported in 25 (62

  7. A Phase I Dose Escalation Study of Hypofractionated IMRT Field-in-Field Boost for Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Monjazeb, Arta M.; Ayala, Deandra; Jensen, Courtney; Case, L. Douglas; Bourland, J. Daniel; Ellis, Thomas L.; McMullen, Kevin P.; Chan, Michael D.; Tatter, Stephen B.; Lesser, Glen J.; Shaw, Edward G.

    2012-02-01

    Objectives: To describe the results of a Phase I dose escalation trial for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) using a hypofractionated concurrent intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) boost. Methods: Twenty-one patients were enrolled between April 1999 and August 2003. Radiotherapy consisted of daily fractions of 1.8 Gy with a concurrent boost of 0.7 Gy (total 2.5 Gy daily) to a total dose of 70, 75, or 80 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was not permitted. Seven patients were enrolled at each dose and dose limiting toxicities were defined as irreversible Grade 3 or any Grade 4-5 acute neurotoxicity attributable to radiotherapy. Results: All patients experienced Grade 1 or 2 acute toxicities. Acutely, 8 patients experienced Grade 3 and 1 patient experienced Grade 3 and 4 toxicities. Of these, only two reversible cases of otitis media were attributable to radiotherapy. No dose-limiting toxicities were encountered. Only 2 patients experienced Grade 3 delayed toxicity and there was no delayed Grade 4 toxicity. Eleven patients requiring repeat resection or biopsy were found to have viable tumor and radiation changes with no cases of radionecrosis alone. Median overall and progression-free survival for this cohort were 13.6 and 6.5 months, respectively. One- and 2-year survival rates were 57% and 19%. At recurrence, 15 patients received chemotherapy, 9 underwent resection, and 5 received radiotherapy. Conclusions: Using a hypofractionated concurrent IMRT boost, we were able to safely treat patients to 80 Gy without any dose-limiting toxicity. Given that local failure still remains the predominant pattern for GBM patients, a trial of dose escalation with IMRT and temozolomide is warranted.

  8. Dose finding with drug combinations in cancer phase I clinical trials using conditional escalation with overdose control.

    PubMed

    Tighiouart, Mourad; Piantadosi, Steven; Rogatko, André

    2014-09-28

    We present a Bayesian adaptive design for dose finding of a combination of two drugs in cancer phase I clinical trials. The goal is to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) as a curve in the two-dimensional Cartesian plane. We use a logistic model to describe the relationship between the doses of the two agents and the probability of dose limiting toxicity. The model is re-parameterized in terms of parameters clinicians can easily interpret. Trial design proceeds using univariate escalation with overdose control, where at each stage of the trial, we seek a dose of one agent using the current posterior distribution of the MTD of this agent given the current dose of the other agent. At the end of the trial, an estimate of the MTD curve is proposed as a function of Bayes estimates of the model parameters. We evaluate design operating characteristics in terms of safety of the trial design and percent of dose recommendation at dose combination neighborhoods around the true MTD curve. We also examine the performance of the approach under model misspecifications for the true dose-toxicity relationship.

  9. Dose Escalation of Total Marrow Irradiation With Concurrent Chemotherapy in Patients With Advanced Acute Leukemia Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.; Forman, Stephen; Somlo, George; Liu An; Schultheiss, Timothy; Radany, Eric; Palmer, Joycelynne; Stein, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We have demonstrated that toxicities are acceptable with total marrow irradiation (TMI) at 16 Gy without chemotherapy or TMI at 12 Gy and the reduced intensity regimen of fludarabine/melphalan in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This article reports results of a study of TMI combined with higher intensity chemotherapy regimens in 2 phase I trials in patients with advanced acute myelogenous leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (AML/ALL) who would do poorly on standard intent-to-cure HCT regimens. Methods and Materials: Trial 1 consisted of TMI on Days -10 to -6, etoposide (VP16) on Day -5 (60 mg/kg), and cyclophosphamide (CY) on Day -3 (100 mg/kg). TMI dose was 12 (n=3 patients), 13.5 (n=3 patients), and 15 (n=6 patients) Gy at 1.5 Gy twice daily. Trial 2 consisted of busulfan (BU) on Days -12 to -8 (800 {mu}M min), TMI on Days -8 to -4, and VP16 on Day -3 (30 mg/kg). TMI dose was 12 (n=18) and 13.5 (n=2) Gy at 1.5 Gy twice daily. Results: Trial 1 had 12 patients with a median age of 33 years. Six patients had induction failures (IF), and 6 had first relapses (1RL), 9 with leukemia blast involvement of bone marrow ranging from 10%-98%, 5 with circulating blasts (24%-85%), and 2 with chloromas. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Eleven patients achieved complete remission at Day 30. With a median follow-up of 14.75 months, 5 patients remained in complete remission from 13.5-37.7 months. Trial 2 had 20 patients with a median age of 41 years. Thirteen patients had IF, and 5 had 1RL, 2 in second relapse, 19 with marrow blasts (3%-100%) and 13 with peripheral blasts (6%-63%). Grade 4 dose-limiting toxicities were seen at 13.5 Gy (stomatitis and hepatotoxicity). Stomatitis was the most frequent toxicity in both trials. Conclusions: TMI dose escalation to 15 Gy is possible when combined with CY/VP16 and is associated with acceptable toxicities and encouraging outcomes. TMI dose escalation is not possible with BU/VP16 due to

  10. A randomised controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of allopurinol dose escalation to achieve target serum urate in people with gout.

    PubMed

    Stamp, Lisa K; Chapman, Peter T; Barclay, Murray L; Horne, Anne; Frampton, Christopher; Tan, Paul; Drake, Jill; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2017-09-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of allopurinol dose escalation using a treat-to-target serum urate (SU) approach. A randomised, controlled, parallel-group, comparative clinical trial was undertaken. People with gout receiving at least creatinine clearance (CrCL)-based allopurinol dose for ≥1 month and SU ≥6 mg/dL were recruited. Participants were randomised to continue current dose (control) or allopurinol dose escalation for 12 months. In the dose escalation group, allopurinol was increased monthly until SU was <6 mg/dL. The primary endpoints were reduction in SU and adverse events (AEs). 183 participants (93 control, 90 dose escalation) were recruited. At baseline, mean (SD) urate was 7.15 (1.6) mg/dL and allopurinol dose 269 mg/day. 52% had CrCL<60 mL/min. Mean changes in SU at the final visit were -0.34 mg/dL in the control group and -1.5 mg/dL in the dose escalation group (p<0.001) with a mean difference of 1.2 mg/dL (95% CI 0.67 to 1.5, p<0.001). At month 12, 32% of controls and 69% in the dose escalation had SU <6 mg/dL. There were 43 serious AEs in 25 controls and 35 events in 22 dose escalation participants. Only one was considered probably related to allopurinol. Five control and five dose escalation participants died; none was considered allopurinol related. Mild elevations in LFTs were common in both groups, a few moderate increases in gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were noted. There was no difference in renal function changes between randomised groups. Higher than CrCL-based doses of allopurinol can effectively lower SU to treatment target in most people with gout. Allopurinol dose escalation is well tolerated. ANZCTR12611000845932; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Is Androgen Deprivation Therapy Necessary in All Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Treated in the Dose Escalation Era?

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, Katherine O.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Levy, Lawrence B.; Lee, Andrew K.; Choi, Seungtaek; Nguyen, Quynh N.; Frank, Steven J.; Pugh, Thomas J.; McGuire, Sean E.; Kuban, Deborah A.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: The benefit of adding androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) to dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT) for men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer is unclear; therefore, we assessed the impact of adding ADT to dose-escalated RT on freedom from failure (FFF). Methods: Three groups of men treated with intensity modulated RT or 3-dimensional conformal RT (75.6-78 Gy) from 1993-2008 for prostate cancer were categorized as (1) 326 intermediate-risk patients treated with RT alone, (2) 218 intermediate-risk patients treated with RT and ≤6 months of ADT, and (3) 274 low-risk patients treated with definitive RT. Median follow-up was 58 months. Recursive partitioning analysis based on FFF using Gleason score (GS), T stage, and pretreatment PSA concentration was applied to the intermediate-risk patients treated with RT alone. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate 5-year FFF. Results: Based on recursive partitioning analysis, intermediate-risk patients treated with RT alone were divided into 3 prognostic groups: (1) 188 favorable patients: GS 6, ≤T2b or GS 3+4, ≤T1c; (2) 71 marginal patients: GS 3+4, T2a-b; and (3) 68 unfavorable patients: GS 4+3 or T2c disease. Hazard ratios (HR) for recurrence in each group were 1.0, 2.1, and 4.6, respectively. When intermediate-risk patients treated with RT alone were compared to intermediate-risk patients treated with RT and ADT, the greatest benefit from ADT was seen for the unfavorable intermediate-risk patients (FFF, 74% vs 94%, respectively; P=.005). Favorable intermediate-risk patients had no significant benefit from the addition of ADT to RT (FFF, 94% vs 95%, respectively; P=.85), and FFF for favorable intermediate-risk patients treated with RT alone approached that of low-risk patients treated with RT alone (98%). Conclusions: Patients with favorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer did not benefit from the addition of ADT to dose-escalated RT, and their FFF was nearly as good as patients with low-risk disease

  12. Efficacy and safety of betahistine treatment in patients with Meniere’s disease: primary results of a long term, multicentre, double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, dose defining trial (BEMED trial)

    PubMed Central

    Adrion, Christine; Fischer, Carolin Simone; Wagner, Judith; Gürkov, Robert; Mansmann, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Study question What is the long term efficacy of betahistine dihydrochloride on the incidence of vertigo attacks in patients with Meniere’s disease, compared with placebo? Methods The BEMED trial is a multicentre, double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, three arm, parallel group, phase III, dose defining superiority trial conducted in 14 German tertiary referral centres (for neurology or ear, nose, and throat). Adults aged 21-80 years (mean age 56 years) with definite unilateral or bilateral Meniere’s disease were recruited from March 2008 to November 2012. Participants received placebo (n=74), low dose betahistine (2×24 mg daily, (n=73)), or high dose betahistine (3×48 mg daily, (n=74)) over nine months. The primary outcome was the number of attacks per 30 days, based on patients’ diaries during a three month assessment period at months seven to nine. An internet based randomisation schedule performed a concealed 1:1:1 allocation, stratified by study site. Secondary outcomes included the duration and severity of attacks, change in quality of life scores, and several observer-reported parameters to assess changes in audiological and vestibular function. Study answer and limitations Incidence of attacks related to Meniere’s disease did not differ between the three treatment groups (P=0.759). Compared with placebo, attack rate ratios were 1.036 (95% confidence interval 0.942 to 1.140) and 1.012 (0.919 to 1.114) for low dose and high dose betahistine, respectively. The overall monthly attack rate fell significantly by the factor 0.758 (0.705 to 0.816; P<0.001). The population based, mean monthly incidence averaged over the assessment period was 2.722 (1.304 to 6.309), 3.204 (1.345 to 7.929), and 3.258 (1.685 to 7.266) for the placebo, low dose betahistine, and high dose betahistine groups, respectively. Results were consistent for all secondary outcomes. Treatment was well tolerated with no unexpected safety findings. Without a control group of

  13. Effect of single-dose low-level helium-neon laser irradiation on orthodontic pain: a split-mouth single-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sobouti, Farhad; Khatami, Maziar; Chiniforush, Nasim; Rakhshan, Vahid; Shariati, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Pain is the most common complication of orthodontic treatment. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been suggested as a new analgesic treatment free of the adverse effects of analgesic medications. However, it is not studied thoroughly, and the available studies are quite controversial. Moreover, helium neon (He-Ne) laser has not been assessed before. This split-mouth placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was performed on 16 male and 14 female orthodontic patients requiring bilateral upper canine retraction. The study was performed at a private clinic in Sari, Iran, in 2014. It was single blind: patients, orthodontist, and personnel were blinded of the allocations, but the laser operator (periodontist) was not blinded. Once canine retractor was activated, a randomly selected maxillary quarter received a single dose of He-Ne laser irradiation (632.8 nm, 10 mw, 6 j/cm(2) density). The other quarter served as the placebo side, treated by the same device but powered off. In the first, second, fourth, and seventh days, blinded patients rated their pain sensed on each side at home using visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaires. There was no harm identified during or after the study. Pain changes were analyzed using two- and one-way repeated-measures ANOVA, Bonferroni, and t-test (α = 0.01, β > 0.99). This trial was not registered. It was self-funded by the authors. Sixteen males and 11 females remained in the study (aged 12-21). Average pain scores sensed in all 4 intervals on control and laser sides were 4.06 ± 2.85 and 2.35 ± 1.77, respectively (t-test P < 0.0001). One-way ANOVA showed significant pain declines over time, in each group (P < 0.0001). Two-way ANOVA showed significant effects for LLLT (P < 0.0001) and time (P = <0.0001). Single-dose He-Ne laser therapy might reduce orthodontic pain caused by retracting maxillary canines.

  14. Novel sublingual low-dose zolpidem tablet reduces latency to sleep onset following spontaneous middle-of-the-night awakening in insomnia in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, outpatient study.

    PubMed

    Roth, Thomas; Krystal, Andrew; Steinberg, Frank J; Singh, Nikhilesh N; Moline, Margaret

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate efficacy and safety of 3.5-mg zolpidem tartrate sublingual tablets (ZST) on latency to sleep onset after middle-of-the-night (MOTN) awakenings in patients with insomnia characterized by difficulty returning to sleep after MOTN awakenings. Multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group. Outpatient. There were 295 adults (median age 43 y; 68.1% female) with primary insomnia and difficulty returning to sleep after MOTN awakenings (three or more MOTN awakenings/wk during screening). After a 2-wk, single-blind placebo eligibility period, participants were randomized 1:1 to as-needed MOTN dosing with 3.5 mg ZST or placebo for 28 nights. An interactive voice response system determined if the study drug could be taken and recorded sleep/wake efficacy measures. ZST significantly (P < 0.0001) decreased latency to sleep onset over 4 wk (baseline 68.1 min; ZST 38.2 min) compared with placebo (baseline 69.4 min; placebo 56.4 min). Ratings of morning sleepiness/alertness significantly (P = 0.0041) favored the ZST group on nights medication was taken but not on other nights. Participants in the ZST group took the study drug on 62% of nights during the 4 wk; members of the placebo group took study medication on 64% of nights. Adverse events were generally mild and at the same rate (19.3% of participants) in both groups. There were no treatment-related serious adverse events (SAEs), and one adverse event-related study discontinuation from the placebo group. Dosing/week did not increase across the study. 3.5 mg ZST used as needed significantly reduced latency to return to sleep in comparison with placebo in these patients with insomnia. Sleep quality was improved, and morning sleepiness/alertness scores also improved. ZST was well tolerated. These data demonstrate the utility of a sleep-promoting agent when used as needed in the MOTN. NCT00466193: "A Study of Zolpidem Tartrate Tablet in Adult Patients with Insomnia" http

  15. Mirtazapine in essential tremor: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pahwa, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E

    2003-05-01

    We sought to determine whether mirtazapine is safe and well-tolerated as a treatment for essential tremor (ET). We studied mirtazapine in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of 17 ET patients. Patients were started with 15 mg per day of either mirtazapine or placebo for 1 week and the dose was escalated weekly until the targeted dose of 45 mg per day was achieved. This dose was maintained for 2 weeks. Tremor was assessed at baseline and after 14 days of 45 mg of mirtazapine or placebo. There was a minimum washout period of 14 days between the two arms of the study. Tremor assessments included global improvement, Fahn Tolosa Marin Tremor Rating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory and the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39. Patient global improvement ratings indicated that in the placebo condition 12 patients were unchanged and 1 patient was mildly improved. In the mirtazapine condition, 10 patients were unchanged, 2 were moderately improved and 1 was markedly improved. There was no significant improvement with mirtazapine or placebo compared to baseline as measured by the Tremor Rating Scale. Adverse effects were more common in the mirtazapine group and included drowsiness, confusion, dry mouth, weight gain, polyuria, itching, nausea, gait and balance problems, blurred vision, and bad taste. We conclude that the majority of the ET patients do not benefit from mirtazapine. Mirtazapine has significant adverse effects and should be used cautiously in ET patients.

  16. Prospective evaluation of a hydrogel spacer for rectal separation in dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As dose-escalation in prostate cancer radiotherapy improves cure rates, a major concern is rectal toxicity. We prospectively assessed an innovative approach of hydrogel injection between prostate and rectum to reduce the radiation dose to the rectum and thus side effects in dose-escalated prostate radiotherapy. Methods Acute toxicity and planning parameters were prospectively evaluated in patients with T1-2 N0 M0 prostate cancer receiving dose-escalated radiotherapy after injection of a hydrogel spacer. Before and after hydrogel injection, we performed MRI scans for anatomical assessment of rectal separation. Radiotherapy was planned and administered to 78 Gy in 39 fractions. Results From eleven patients scheduled for spacer injection the procedure could be performed in ten. In one patient hydrodissection of the Denonvillier space was not possible. Radiation treatment planning showed low rectal doses despite dose-escalation to the target. In accordance with this, acute rectal toxicity was mild without grade 2 events and there was complete resolution within four to twelve weeks. Conclusions This prospective study suggests that hydrogel injection is feasible and may prevent rectal toxicity in dose-escalated radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Further evaluation is necessary including the definition of patients who might benefit from this approach. Trial registration: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00003273. PMID:23336502

  17. A dosimetric analysis of dose escalation using two intensity-modulated radiation therapy techniques in locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Michael W.; Ning, Holly; Arora, Barbara; Albert, Paul S.; Poggi, Matthew; Camphausen, Kevin; Citrin, Deborah . E-mail: citrind@mail.nih.gov

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To perform an analysis of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), sequential boost intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRTs), and integrated boost IMRT (IMRTi) for dose escalation in unresectable pancreatic carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Computed tomography images from 15 patients were used. Treatment plans were generated using 3D-CRT, IMRTs, and IMRTi for dose levels of 54, 59.4, and 64.8 Gy. Plans were analyzed for target coverage, doses to liver, kidneys, small bowel, and spinal cord. Results: Three-dimensional-CRT exceeded tolerance to small bowel in 1 of 15 (6.67%) patients at 54 Gy, and 4 of 15 (26.7%) patients at 59.4 and 64.8 Gy. 3D-CRT exceeded spinal cord tolerance in 1 of 15 patients (6.67%) at 59.4 Gy and liver constraints in 1 of 15 patients (6.67%) at 64.8 Gy; no IMRT plans exceeded tissue tolerance. Both IMRT techniques reduced the percentage of total kidney volume receiving 20 Gy (V20), the percentage of small bowel receiving 45 Gy (V45), and the percentage of liver receiving 35 Gy (V35). IMRTi appeared superior to IMRTs in reducing the total kidney V20 (p < 0.0001), right kidney V20 (p < 0.0001), and small bowel V45 (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Sequential boost IMRT and IMRTi improved the ability to achieve normal tissue dose goals compared with 3D-CRT. IMRTi allowed dose escalation to 64.8 Gy with acceptable normal tissue doses and superior dosimetry compared with 3D-CRT and IMRTs.

  18. Safety and immunogenicity of the PRAME cancer immunotherapeutic in metastatic melanoma: results of a phase I dose escalation study

    PubMed Central

    Gutzmer, R; Rivoltini, L; Levchenko, E; Testori, A; Utikal, J; Ascierto, P A; Demidov, L; Grob, J J; Ridolfi, R; Schadendorf, D; Queirolo, P; Santoro, A; Loquai, C; Dreno, B; Hauschild, A; Schultz, E; Lesimple, T P; Vanhoutte, N; Salaun, B; Gillet, M; Jarnjak, S; De Sousa Alves, P M; Louahed, J; Brichard, V G; Lehmann, F F

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The PRAME tumour antigen is expressed in several tumour types but in few normal adult tissues. A dose-escalation phase I/II study (NCT01149343) assessed the safety, immunogenicity and clinical activity of the PRAME immunotherapeutic (recombinant PRAME protein (recPRAME) with the AS15 immunostimulant) in patients with advanced melanoma. Here, we report the phase I dose-escalation study segment. Patients and methods Patients with stage IV PRAME-positive melanoma were enrolled to 3 consecutive cohorts to receive up to 24 intramuscular injections of the PRAME immunotherapeutic. The RecPRAME dose was 20, 100 or 500 µg in cohorts 1, 2 and 3, respectively, with a fixed dose of AS15. Adverse events (AEs), including predefined dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and the anti-PRAME humoral response (ELISA), were coprimary end points. Cellular immune responses were evaluated using in vitro assays. Results 66 patients were treated (20, 24 and 22 in the respective cohorts). AEs considered by the investigator to be causally related were mostly grade 1 or 2 injection site symptoms, fatigue, chills, fever and headache. Two DLTs (grade 3 brain oedema and proteinuria) were recorded in two patients in two cohorts (cohorts 2 and 3). All patients had detectable anti-PRAME antibodies after four immunisations. Percentages of patients with predefined PRAME-specific-CD4+T-cell responses after four immunisations were similar in each cohort. No CD8+ T-cell responses were detected. Conclusions The PRAME immunotherapeutic had an acceptable safety profile and induced similar anti-PRAME-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in all cohorts. As per protocol, the phase II study segment was initiated to further evaluate the 500 µg PRAME immunotherapeutic dose. Trial registration number NCT01149343, Results. PMID:27843625

  19. Phase 1 Study of Dose Escalation in Hypofractionated Proton Beam Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Daniel R.; Gillin, Michael; Liao, Zhongxing; Wei, Caimiao; Lin, Steven H.; Swanick, Cameron; Alvarado, Tina; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; Chang, Joe Y.

    2013-07-15

    Background: Many patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cannot undergo concurrent chemotherapy because of comorbidities or poor performance status. Hypofractionated radiation regimens, if tolerable, may provide an option to these patients for effective local control. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients were enrolled in a phase 1 dose-escalation trial of proton beam therapy (PBT) from September 2010 through July 2012. Eligible patients had histologically documented lung cancer, thymic tumors, carcinoid tumors, or metastatic thyroid tumors. Concurrent chemotherapy was not allowed, but concurrent treatment with biologic agents was. The dose-escalation schema comprised 15 fractions of 3 Gy(relative biological effectiveness [RBE])/fraction, 3.5 Gy(RBE)/fraction, or 4 Gy(RBE)/fraction. Dose constraints were derived from biologically equivalent doses of standard fractionated treatment. Results: The median follow-up time for patients alive at the time of analysis was 13 months (range, 8-28 months). Fifteen patients received treatment to hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes. Two patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity possibly related to treatment; 1 received 3.5-Gy(RBE) fractions and experienced an in-field tracheoesophageal fistula 9 months after PBT and 1 month after bevacizumab. The other patient received 4-Gy(RBE) fractions and was hospitalized for bacterial pneumonia/radiation pneumonitis 4 months after PBT. Conclusion: Hypofractionated PBT to the thorax delivered over 3 weeks was well tolerated even with significant doses to the lungs and mediastinal structures. Phase 2/3 trials are needed to compare the efficacy of this technique with standard treatment for locally advanced NSCLC.

  20. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding trial of a long-acting formulation of octreotide in promoting weight loss in obese adults with insulin hypersecretion

    PubMed Central

    Lustig, RH; Greenway, F; Velasquez-Mieyer, P; Heimburger, D; Schumacher, D; Smith, D; Smith, W; Soler, N; Warsi, G; Berg, W; Maloney, J; Benedetto, J; Zhu, W; Hohneker, J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare changes in weight in obese patients who received long-acting octreotide (octreotide LAR) at one of three dose levels (20, 40, or 60 mg) or placebo over 6 months and to identify the lowest dose of octreotide LAR that safely achieved optimal weight loss. Design Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of octreotide LAR at three dose levels. Patients A total of 172 adults (28 men and 144 women) with at least moderate obesity (body mass index (BMI) range 30–65 kg/m2) and evidence of insulin hypersecretion were enrolled. Patients were predominantly either Caucasian (50.0%) or African American (45.3%). The mean age (38±11 year), weight (110.7±23 kg), and BMI (39.8±6.5 kg/m2) were similar across the four treatment groups. Measurements Efficacy measures included weight, BMI, fasting serum glucose; triglycerides; percentage of total body fat and abdominal fat as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; skin fold thickness; waist-to-hip circumference; leptin; percentage of carbohydrates, fat, and protein ingested; nutritional evaluation (including dietary analysis – 3-day food record); quality of life (QoL; using the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite™); Beck Depression Inventory; and Carbohydrate Craving Questionnaire. Safety measures included medical history, vital signs, physical examinations, hematology, blood chemistries, thyroid function tests, hemoglobin A1c, gallbladder ultrasound, electrocardiograms, and adverse events. Results After 6 months of treatment, patients receiving 40 or 60 mg of octreotide LAR experienced statistically significant weight loss compared to baseline, with mean differences from placebo in percent weight change of −1.98 and −1.87%, respectively. This finding was accompanied by statistically significant mean decreases in BMI compared to baseline, that is, a mean decrease of 0.73 and 0.79 kg/m2 for the 40 and 60 mg treatment arms, respectively. The observed weight loss was progressive during

  1. Dose and time responses of vitamin D biomarkers to monthly vitamin D3 supplementation in overweight/obese African Americans with suboptimal vitamin d status: a placebo controlled randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bhagatwala, Jigar; Zhu, Haidong; Parikh, Samip J; Guo, De-Huang; Kotak, Ishita; Huang, Ying; Havens, Robyn; Pham, Michael; Afari, Eric; Kim, Susan; Cutler, Christopher; Pollock, Norman K; Dong, Yutong; Raed, Anas; Dong, Yanbin

    2015-01-01

    A critical need exists to better understand the physiological sequel of vitamin D supplementation in obese individuals and African Americans. The aim was to comprehensively evaluate dose- and time-responses of a panel of vitamin D biomarkers to vitamin D supplements in this population. We conducted a 16-week randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight/obese African Americans (age 13-45 years, 84 % females) with 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations ≤20 ng/mL were randomly assigned to receive a supervised monthly oral vitamin D3 of 18,000 IU (~600 IU/day, n = 17), 60,000 IU (~2000 IU/day, n = 18), 120,000 IU (~4000 IU/day, n = 18), or placebo (n = 17). There were significant dose- and time-responses of circulating 25(OH)D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), but not fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), phosphorus and urine calcium to the vitamin D supplements. The mean 25(OH)D concentrations in the 2000 IU and 4000 IU groups reached ≥30 ng/mL as early as 8-weeks and remained at similar level at 16-weeks. The increase of 25(OH)D was significantly higher in the 4000 IU group than all the other groups at 8-weeks. The increase of 1,25(OH)2D was significantly higher in the 2000 IU and 4000 IU groups than the placebo at 8-weeks. Only the 4000 IU compared to the placebo significantly reduced iPTH at 8- and 16-weeks. Our RCT, for the first time, comprehensively evaluated time- and dose- responses of vitamin D supplementation in overweight/obese African Americans with suboptimal vitamin D status. Circulating 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, and iPTH, but not FGF-23, phosphorus and urine calcium, respond to vitamin D supplementation in a time- and dose-response manner. By monthly dosing, 2000 IU appears to be sufficient in achieving a 25(OH)D level of 30 ng/mL in this population. However, importantly, 4000 IU, rather than 2000 IU, seems to suppress iPTH. If

  2. Dose Escalation and Quality of Life in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy: Long-Term Results of the Dutch Randomized Dose-Escalation Trial (CKTO 96-10 Trial)

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Putten, Wim L.J. van; Wielen, Gerard J. van der; Levendag, Peter C.; Incrocci, Luca

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the impact of dose escalation of radiotherapy on quality of life (QoL) in prostate cancer patients. Patients and Methods: Three hundred prostate cancer patients participating in the Dutch randomized trial (CKTO 69-10) comparing 68 Gy with 78 Gy were the subject of this analysis. These patients filled out the SF-36 QoL questionnaire before radiotherapy (baseline) and 6, 12, 24, and 36 months thereafter. Changes in QoL over time of {>=}10 points were considered clinically relevant. Repeated-measures regression analyses were applied to estimate and test the QoL changes over time, the differences between the two arms, and for association with a number of covariates. Results: At 3-year follow-up, the summary score physical health was 73.2 for the 68-Gy arm vs. 71.6 for the 78-Gy arm (p = 0.81), and the summary score mental health was 76.7 for the 68-Gy arm vs. 76.1 for the 78-Gy arm (p = 0.97). Statistically significant (p < 0.01) deterioration in QoL scores over time was registered in both arms in six scales. The deterioration over time was more pronounced in the high-dose arm for most scales. However, clinically relevant deterioration (>10 points) was seen for only two scales. None of the tested covariates were significantly correlated with QoL scores. Conclusion: Dose escalation did not result in significant deterioration of QoL in prostate cancer patients. In both randomization arms, statistically significant decreases in QoL scores over time were seen in six scales. The deterioration of QoL was more pronounced in the physical than in the mental health domain and in some scales more in the high- than in the low-dose arm, but the differences between arms were not statistically significant.

  3. Effect of monthly high-dose vitamin D supplementation on falls and non-vertebral fractures: secondary and post-hoc outcomes from the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled ViDA trial.

    PubMed

    Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stewart, Alistair W; Waayer, Debbie; Lawes, Carlene M M; Toop, Les; Camargo, Carlos A; Scragg, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Adults with low concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) in blood have an increased risk of falls and fractures, but randomised trials of vitamin D supplementation have had inconsistent results. We aimed to assess the effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on fractures and falls. The Vitamin D Assessment (ViDA) Study was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of healthy volunteers aged 50-84 years conducted at one centre in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either an initial oral dose of 200 000 IU (5·0 mg) colecalciferol (vitamin D3) followed by monthly 100 000 IU (2·5 mg) colecalciferol or equivalent placebo dosing. The prespecified primary outcome was cardiovascular disease and secondary outcomes were respiratory illness and fractures. Here, we report secondary outcome data for fractures and post-hoc outcome data for falls. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for time to first fracture or time to first fall in individuals allocated vitamin D compared with placebo. The analysis of fractures included all participants who gave consent and was by intention-to-treat; the analysis of falls included all individuals who returned one or more questionnaires. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN12611000402943. Between April 5, 2011, and Nov 6, 2012, 5110 participants were recruited and randomly assigned either colecalciferol (n=2558) or placebo (n=2552). Two participants allocated placebo withdrew consent after randomisation; thus, a total of 5108 individuals were included in the analysis of fractures. The mean age of participants was 65·9 years (SD 8·3) and 2971 (58%) were men. The mean concentration of 25(OH)D in blood was 63 nmol/L (SD 24) at baseline, with 1534 (30%) having 25(OH)D concentrations lower than 50 nmol/L. Follow-up was until July 31, 2015, with a mean treatment duration of 3·4 years (SD 0

  4. Ketamine augmentation for outpatients with treatment-resistant depression: Preliminary evidence for two-step intravenous dose escalation.

    PubMed

    Cusin, Cristina; Ionescu, Dawn Flosnik; Pavone, Kara Jean; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Cassano, Paolo; Taylor, Norman; Eikermann, Matthias; Durham, Kelley; Swee, Michaela Ballentyne; Chang, Trina; Dording, Christina; Soskin, David; Kelley, John; Mischoulon, David; Brown, Emery Neal; Fava, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary evidence supports the safety and efficacy of subanesthetic ketamine as an experimental antidepressant, although its effects are often not sustained beyond one week. Studies are lacking that have examined the sustained effects of escalating ketamine doses as augmentation in outpatients with treatment-resistant depression. Therefore, the aims of this study were twofold: (1) to assess the safety and antidepressant efficacy of two-step, repeated-dose ketamine augmentation and (2) to assess the duration of ketamine's antidepressant efficacy as augmentation to ongoing antidepressant pharmacotherapy for 3 months after the final infusion. Fourteen patients with treatment-resistant depression were eligible to receive augmentation with six open-label intravenous ketamine infusions over 3 weeks. For the first three infusions, ketamine was administered at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg over 45 minutes; the dose was increased to 0.75 mg/kg over 45 minutes for the subsequent three infusions. The primary outcome measure was response (as measured on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-28 items). After the completion of three ketamine infusions, 7.1% (1/14) responded; after all six ketamine infusions, 41.7% (5/12) completers responded and 16.7% (2/12) remitted. Intent-to-treat response and remission rates at the end of the final infusion were 35.7% (5/14) and 14.3% (2/14), respectively. However, all but one responder relapsed within 2 weeks after the final infusion. Repeated, escalating doses of intravenous ketamine augmentation were preliminarily found to be feasible, efficacious and well tolerated. Interaction with concomitant medications and elevated level of treatment resistance are possible factors for non-response.

  5. Phase I, multicenter, open-label, dose-escalation study of sonidegib in Asian patients with advanced solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Minami, Hironobu; Ando, Yuichi; Ma, Brigette Buig Yue; Hsiang Lee, Jih-; Momota, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Li, Leung; Fukino, Koichi; Ito, Koji; Tajima, Takeshi; Mori, Asuka; Lin, Chia-Chi

    2016-10-01

    Sonidegib is a selective inhibitor of Smoothened receptor, which is a key regulator of the Hedgehog signaling pathway. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose based on dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and the recommended dose (RD) of sonidegib in Asian patients with advanced solid tumors. This was an open-label, single-arm, multicenter, two-group, parallel, dose-escalation, phase I study undertaken in Asian patients; group 1 included patients from Japan and group 2 included patients from Hong Kong and Taiwan. Dose escalation was guided by a Bayesian logistic regression model dependent on DLTs in cycle 1 and other safety findings. A total of 45 adult Asian patients with confirmed advanced solid tumors were enrolled. Group 1 included 21 patients (12 treated with 400 mg q.d. [once daily] and 9 treated with 600 mg q.d.) and group 2 included 24 patients (12 treated with 400 mg q.d., 8 treated with 600 mg q.d., and 4 treated with 800 mg q.d.). Elevation in creatine kinase was the DLT in both groups. The most common adverse events suspected to be related to sonidegib in both patient groups were increase in creatine kinase levels, myalgia, fatigue, and abnormal hepatic function. The RD of 400 mg q.d. was defined in both groups. Difference in tolerability was noted between the East Asian patients and Western population. The RD in East Asian patients (400 mg q.d.) was lower than in patients from Europe and the USA (800 mg q.d. and 250 mg twice daily). (Registered with Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01208831.).

  6. The effect of addition of low dose fentanyl to epidural bupivacaine (0.5%) in patients undergoing elective caesarean section: A randomized, parallel group, double blind, placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Parate, LH; Manjrekar, SP; Anandaswamy, TC; Manjunath, B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Opioids have synergistic action with local anesthetics which may alter characteristics of epidural block. Giving opioids to mother before delivery of baby is still fully not accepted with some fearing risk of neonatal depression. Aims: Our primary aim was to evaluate the analgesic effect of addition of 50 μg fentanyl to epidural 0.5% bupivacaine in patients undergoing elective caesarean section using visual analog scale. The secondary aim was to assess onset of analgesia, volume of drug required to achieve T6 level, grade and duration of motor block and Apgar score. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study 64 patients scheduled for elective caesarean section under epidural anesthesia were randomly divided into two groups of 32 each. The fentanyl group received 1ml of 50 μg fentanyl and the saline group received 1ml of normal saline mixed with 10ml of 0.5% bupivacaine for epidural anesthesia. VAS score, time to achieve T6 level, dose of bupivacaine, intraoperative analgesic consumption and duration of analgesia, grade and duration of motor block and any adverse maternal and neonatal effects were noted. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed using Students t test, chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test. The values of P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Fentanyl improved the VAS score significantly (1.6 ± 1.32) compared to the saline group (3.77 ± 1.0, P < 0.0001). It also reduced the intraoperaitve analgesic supplementation compared to the saline group. (P = 0.031). The postoperative duration of analgesia was prolonged in the fentanyl group (275.80 ± 13.61 min) compared to the saline group (191.47 ± 12.16 min, P < 0.0001). The other characteristics of epidural block were unaltered. Conclusion: Addition of 50 μg fentanyl to epidural 0.5% bupivacaine significantly reduces the VAS score. It also reduces intra-operative analgesia supplementation and prolongs the duration

  7. Short-Term High-Dose Vitamin E to Prevent Contrast Medium-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Undergoing Elective Coronary Angiography: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Yousef; Khademvatani, Kamal; Rahimi, Behzad; Khoshfetrat, Mehran; Arjmand, Nasim; Seyyed-Mohammadzad, Mir-Hossein

    2016-03-15

    Contrast medium-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) is a leading cause of acquired renal impairment. The effects of antioxidants have been conflicting regarding the prevention of CIAKI. We performed a study of vitamin E use to decrease CIAKI in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. In a placebo-controlled randomized trial at 2 centers in Iran, 300 patients with chronic kidney disease-defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)-were randomized 1:1 to receive 0.9% saline infusion 12 hours prior to and after intervention combined with 600 mg vitamin E 12 hours before plus 400 mg vitamin E 2 hours before coronary angiography or to receive placebo. The primary end point was the development of CIAKI, defined as an increase ≥0.5 mg/dL or ≥25% in serum creatinine that peaked within 72 hours. Based on an intention-to-treat analysis, CIAKI developed in 10 (6.7%) and 21 (14.1%) patients in the vitamin E and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.037). Change in white blood cell count from baseline to peak value was greater in the vitamin E group compared with the placebo group (-500 [-1500 to 200] versus 100 [-900 to 600]×10(3)/mL, P=0.001). In multivariate analysis, vitamin E (odds ratio 0.408, 95% CI 0.170-0.982, P=0.045) and baseline Mehran score (odds ratio 1.257, 95% CI 1.007-1.569; P=0.043) predicted CIAKI. Prophylactic short-term high-dose vitamin E combined with 0.9% saline infusion is superior to placebo for prevention of CIAKI in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT02070679. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  8. Study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single preoperative steroid dose to prevent nausea and vomiting after thyroidectomy: the tPONV study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Postoperative nausea and vomiting after general anesthesia is not only an unpleasant problem affecting 20-30% of surgical patients but may also lead to severe postoperative complications. There is a particularly high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting following thyroidectomy. Dexamethasone has been described as highly effective against chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and has been proposed as a first-line method of postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis. Despite this possible beneficial effect, the prophylactic administration of dexamethasone before surgery to prevent or ameliorate postoperative nausea and vomiting has not been established. A bilateral superficial cervical plexus block during thyroid surgery under general anesthesia significantly reduces pain. Of even greater clinical importance, this block prevents the need for postoperative opioids. Therefore, patients undergoing thyroidectomy and a bilateral superficial cervical plexus block are an ideal group to investigate the efficacy of dexamethasone for postoperative nausea and vomiting. These patients have a high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and do not require opioids. They have no abdominal surgery, which can cause nausea and vomiting via a paralytic ileus. Combined with the highly standardized anesthesia protocol in use at our institution, this setting allows all known biases to be controlled. Methods/design We will perform a parallel two-arm, randomized (1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center trial. Adults (≥18 years) scheduled for primary partial or total thyroidectomy because of a benign disease will be eligible for inclusion. The participants will be randomized to receive a single, intravenous preoperative dose of either 8 mg of dexamethasone in 2 ml saline (treatment group) or saline alone (placebo group). All the patients will receive a bilateral superficial cervical plexus block and standardized anesthesia. The primary

  9. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the extended-release tramadol hydrochloride/acetaminophen fixed-dose combination tablet for the treatment of chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Lee, Chong-Suh

    2013-11-01

    Chronic low back pain is a common condition that is often difficult to treat. The combination of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen in an extended-release formulation has been shown to provide rapid and long-lasting analgesic effects resulting from the synergistic activity of these 2 active ingredients. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of extended-release tramadol hydrochloride 75-mg/acetaminophen 650-mg fixed-dose combination tablets (TA-ER) for the treatment of chronic low back pain. This Phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study enrolled 245 patients with moderate to severe (≥4 cm on a 10-cm visual analog scale) chronic (≥3 months') low back pain insufficiently controlled by previous NSAIDs or cyclooxygenase-2-selective inhibitors and randomly assigned them to receive 4 weeks of either TA-ER or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage of patients with a pain intensity change rate ≥30% from baseline to final evaluation. Secondary end points included quality of life (Korean Short Form-36), functionality (Korean Oswestry Disability Index), and adverse events. The percentage of patients with a pain intensity change rate ≥30% was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the TA-ER group than in the placebo group for both the full analysis set and the per-protocol population. Pain relief success rate from baseline was significantly higher with TA-ER versus placebo at days 8 and 15 but not at the final visit. Patients in the TA-ER group had significant improvements versus placebo in role-physical, general health, and reported health transition domains of the Korean Short Form-36 and significantly higher functional improvements in the personal care section of the Korean Oswestry Disability Index. Patient assessment of overall pain control as "very good" was also significantly higher with TA-ER than with placebo. Adverse events were reported more frequently with TA-ER than with placebo; the

  10. A Phase I Clinical and Pharmacology Study Using Amifostine as a Radioprotector in Dose-escalated Whole Liver Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Mary; Smith, David E.; Normolle, Daniel P.; Knol, James A.; Pan, Charlie C.; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Lu Zheng; Feng, Meihua R.; Chen Jun; Ensminger, William; Lawrence, Theodore S.

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Diffuse intrahepatic tumors are difficult to control. Whole-liver radiotherapy has been limited by toxicity, most notably radiation-induced liver disease. Amifostine is a prodrug free-radical scavenger that selectively protects normal tissues and, in a preclinical model of intrahepatic cancer, systemic amifostine reduced normal liver radiation damage without compromising tumor effect. We hypothesized that amifostine would permit escalation of whole-liver radiation dose to potentially control microscopic disease. We also aimed to characterize the pharmacokinetics of amifostine and its active metabolite WR-1065 to optimize timing of radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We conducted a radiation dose-escalation trial for patients with diffuse, intrahepatic cancer treated with whole-liver radiation and intravenous amifostine. Radiation dose was assigned using the time-to-event continual reassessment method. A companion pharmacokinetic study was performed. Results: Twenty-three patients were treated, with a maximum dose of 40 Gy. Using a logistical regression model, compared with our previously treated patients, amifostine increased liver tolerance by 3.3 {+-} 1.1 Gy (p = 0.007) (approximately 10%) with similar response rates. Peak concentrations of WR-1065 were 25 {mu}M with an elimination half-life of 1.5 h; these levels are consistent with radioprotective effects of amifostine in patients. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate for the first time that amifostine is a normal liver radioprotector. They further suggest that it may be useful to combine amifostine with fractionated or stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with focal intrahepatic cancer.

  11. Can we avoid dose escalation for intermediate-risk prostate cancer in the setting of short-course neoadjuvant androgen deprivation?

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, Thomas P; Wilcox, Shea W; Aherne, Noel J

    2016-01-01

    Both dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (DE-EBRT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improve the outcomes in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Despite this, there are only few reports evaluating DE-EBRT for patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer receiving neoadjuvant ADT, and virtually no studies investigating dose escalation >74 Gy in this setting. We aimed to determine whether DE-EBRT >74 Gy improved the outcomes for patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who received neoadjuvant ADT. In our institution, patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer were treated with neoadjuvant ADT and DE-EBRT, with doses sequentially increasing from 74 Gy to 76 Gy and then to 78 Gy between 2006 and 2012. We identified 435 patients treated with DE-EBRT and ADT, with a median follow-up of 70 months. For the 74 Gy, 76 Gy, and 78 Gy groups, five-year biochemical disease-free survival rates were 95.0%, 97.8%, and 95.3%, respectively; metastasis-free survival rates were 99.1%, 100.0%, and 98.6%, respectively; and prostate cancer-specific survival rate was 100% for all three dose levels. There was no significant benefit for dose escalation either on univariate or multivariate analysis for any outcome. There was no benefit for DE-EBRT >74 Gy in our cohort of intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant ADT. Given the higher risks of toxicity associated with dose escalation, it may be feasible to omit dose escalation in this group of patients. Randomized studies evaluating dose de-escalation should be considered.

  12. Can we avoid dose escalation for intermediate-risk prostate cancer in the setting of short-course neoadjuvant androgen deprivation?

    PubMed Central

    Shakespeare, Thomas P; Wilcox, Shea W; Aherne, Noel J

    2016-01-01

    Background Both dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (DE-EBRT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improve the outcomes in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Despite this, there are only few reports evaluating DE-EBRT for patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer receiving neoadjuvant ADT, and virtually no studies investigating dose escalation >74 Gy in this setting. We aimed to determine whether DE-EBRT >74 Gy improved the outcomes for patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who received neoadjuvant ADT. Findings In our institution, patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer were treated with neoadjuvant ADT and DE-EBRT, with doses sequentially increasing from 74 Gy to 76 Gy and then to 78 Gy between 2006 and 2012. We identified 435 patients treated with DE-EBRT and ADT, with a median follow-up of 70 months. For the 74 Gy, 76 Gy, and 78 Gy groups, five-year biochemical disease-free survival rates were 95.0%, 97.8%, and 95.3%, respectively; metastasis-free survival rates were 99.1%, 100.0%, and 98.6%, respectively; and prostate cancer-specific survival rate was 100% for all three dose levels. There was no significant benefit for dose escalation either on univariate or multivariate analysis for any outcome. Conclusion There was no benefit for DE-EBRT >74 Gy in our cohort of intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant ADT. Given the higher risks of toxicity associated with dose escalation, it may be feasible to omit dose escalation in this group of patients. Randomized studies evaluating dose de-escalation should be considered. PMID:27073327

  13. Impact of obesity on outcomes after definitive dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lora S; Murphy, Colin T; Ruth, Karen; Zaorsky, Nicholas G; Smaldone, Marc C; Sobczak, Mark L; Kutikov, Alexander; Viterbo, Rosalia; Horwitz, Eric M

    2015-09-01

    Previous publications have demonstrated conflicting results regarding body mass index (BMI) and prostate cancer (CaP) outcomes after definitive radiotherapy (RT) before the dose escalation era. The goal of the current study was to determine whether increasing BMI was associated with outcomes in men with localized CaP who were treated with dose-escalated RT. The authors identified patients with localized (T1b-T4N0M0) CaP who were treated with definitive intensity-modulated RT and image-guided RT from 2001 through 2010. BMI was analyzed as a continuous variable. Adjusting for confounders, multivariable competing risk and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association between BMI and the risk of biochemical failure (BF), distant metastases (DM), cause-specific mortality (CSM), and overall mortality. Of the 1442 patients identified, approximately 20% had a BMI <25 kg/m(2) , 48% had a BMI of 25 to 29.9 kg/m(2) , 23% had a BMI of 30 to 34.9 kg/m(2) , 6% had a BMI of 35 to 39.9 kg/m(2) , and 4% had a BMI of ≥40 kg/m(2) . The median follow-up was 47.6 months (range, 1-145 months), with a median age of 68 years (range, 36-89 years). The median dose was 78 grays (range, 76-80 grays) and 30% of patients received androgen deprivation therapy. Increasing BMI was found to be inversely associated with age (P<.001) and pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level (P = .018). On multivariable analysis, increasing BMI was associated with an increased risk of BF (hazard ratio [HR], 1.03; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.00-1.07 [P = .042]), DM (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11 [P = .004]), CSM (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.07-1.23 [P<.001]), and overall mortality (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.08 [P = .004]). For patients with CaP receiving dose-escalated intensity-modulated RT with daily image-guidance, increasing BMI appears to be associated with an increased risk of BF, DM, CSM, and overall mortality. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  14. Efficacy and tolerability of a fixed low-dose combination of cinnarizine and dimenhydrinate in the treatment of vertigo: a 4-week, randomized, double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled, parallel-group, outpatient study.

    PubMed

    Pytel, Joseph; Nagy, György; Tóth, Agnes; Spellenberg, Sándor; Schwarz, Mario; Répassy, Gabor

    2007-01-01

    Most cases of vertigo are attributable to both peripheral and central vestibular disorders. Therefore, it would be of interest to determine whether a combination therapy having both peripheral and central actions would translate into more efficient symptom relief. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a fixed low-dose combination of cinnarizine 20 mg + dimenhydrinate 40 mg in the treatment of vertigo of central, peripheral, or combined central/peripheral origin. This was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled, parallel-group, outpatient study in men and women (age >30 years) with central, peripheral, or combined central/peripheral vestibular vertigo. Patients who assessed > or =1 vertigo symptom as being of medium intensity (> or =2) on a 5-point visual analog scale (from 0 = no symptoms to 4 = very severe symptoms) and who had abnormal vestibulospinal movement patterns on cramocorpography were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 1 tablet of the fixed combination of cinnarizine 20 mg + dimenhydrinate 40 mg, cinnarizine 50 mg, dimenhydrinate 100 mg, or placebo 3 times daily for 4 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was the decrease in mean vertigo score (MVS), which was composed of 12 individual vertigo symptoms, each assessed on the 5-point visual analog scale after 4 weeks of treatment. The study enrolled 246 patients, of whom 239 were evaluable for efficacy. Approximately two thirds of the efficacy population were female and one third male. The mean age was 51.3 years, and the mean duration of vertigo was 2.6 years. The least squares mean (SD) change from baseline in MVS was significantly greater in the group receiving the fixed combination (1.37 [0.66]) than in any of the comparator groups (cinnarizine 50 mg: 0.87 [0.53]; dimenhydrinate 100 mg: 0.83 [0.66]; placebo: 0.76 [0.48]; all comparisons, P < 0.001). The differences were clinically relevant, based on the Mann

  15. Trigeminal Neuralgia Treated With Stereotactic Radiosurgery: The Effect of Dose Escalation on Pain Control and Treatment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kotecha, Rupesh; Kotecha, Ritesh; Modugula, Sujith; Murphy, Erin S; Jones, Mark; Kotecha, Rajesh; Reddy, Chandana A; Suh, John H; Barnett, Gene H; Neyman, Gennady; Machado, Andre; Nagel, Sean; Chao, Samuel T

    2016-09-01

    To analyze the effect of dose escalation on treatment outcome in patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). A retrospective review was performed of 870 patients who underwent SRS for a diagnosis of TN from 2 institutions. Patients were typically treated using a single 4-mm isocenter placed at the trigeminal nerve dorsal root entry zone. Patients were divided into groups based on treatment doses: ≤82 Gy (352 patients), 83 to 86 Gy (85 patients), and ≥90 Gy (433 patients). Pain response was classified using a categorical scoring system, with fair or poor pain control representing treatment failure. Treatment-related facial numbness was classified using the Barrow Neurological Institute scale. Log-rank tests were performed to test differences in time to pain failure or development of facial numbness for patients treated with different doses. Median age at first pain onset was 63 years, median age at time of SRS was 71 years, and median follow-up was 36.5 months from the time of SRS. A majority of patients (827, 95%) were clinically diagnosed with typical TN. The 4-year rate of excellent to good pain relief was 87% (95% confidence interval 84%-90%). The 4-year rate of pain response was 79%, 82%, and 92% in patients treated to ≤82 Gy, 83 to 86 Gy, and ≥90 Gy, respectively. Patients treated to doses ≤82 Gy had an increased risk of pain failure after SRS, compared with patients treated to ≥90 Gy (hazard ratio 2.0, P=.0007). Rates of treatment-related facial numbness were similar among patients treated to doses ≥83 Gy. Nine patients (1%) were diagnosed with anesthesia dolorosa. Dose escalation for TN to doses >82 Gy is associated with an improvement in response to treatment and duration of pain relief. Patients treated at these doses, however, should be counseled about the increased risk of treatment-related facial numbness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pregabalin add-on treatment in patients with partial seizures: a novel evaluation of flexible-dose and fixed-dose treatment in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Elger, Christian E; Brodie, Martin J; Anhut, Henning; Lee, Caroline M; Barrett, Jeannette A

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate pregabalin as add-on therapy for patients with partial seizures administered as fixed dose or as flexible dose adjusted to optimal seizure reduction and tolerability. Patients receiving antiepileptic drugs (98.8% between 1 and 3 AEDs; 1.2% on more than 3 AEDs) and experiencing > or =4 partial seizures during the 6-week baseline period and no 4-week seizure-free interval were randomized (1:2:2) to placebo (n = 73), pregabalin fixed dose (600 mg/day BID; n = 137), or pregabalin flexible dose (n = 131; 150 and 300 mg/day for 2 weeks each; 450 and 600 mg/day for 4 weeks each, BID) for 12 weeks. Dosage could be adjusted based on tolerability and maintained when a 4-week seizure-free period was achieved. Primary efficacy parameter was reduction in seizure frequency from baseline. Both pregabalin regimens significantly reduced seizure frequency compared with placebo, by 35.4%, for flexible dose (p = 0.0091) and 49.3% for fixed dose (p = 0.0001) versus 10.6% for placebo, and the fixed-dose group was superior to the flexible-dose group (p = 0.0337). Most adverse events were mild or moderate. Discontinuation rates due to adverse events were 6.8% (placebo), 12.2% (pregabalin flexible dose), and 32.8% (pregabalin fixed dose). Patients receiving pregabalin fixed dose discontinued due to adverse event earlier than other groups. Pregabalin administered twice daily, either as fixed (600 mg/day), or as flexible (150-600 mg/day) dose, was highly effective and generally well-tolerated as add-on therapy for partial seizures with or without secondary generalization. Lower incidence of adverse events and discontinuations were achieved in patients receiving pregabalin when dosing was individualized to optimize efficacy and tolerability.

  17. Effects of Intracoronary Infusion of Escalating Doses of Cardiac Stem Cells in Rats With Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xian-Liang; Rokosh, Gregg; Sanganalmath, Santosh K; Tokita, Yukichi; Keith, Matthew C L; Shirk, Gregg; Stowers, Heather; Hunt, Gregory N; Wu, Wenjian; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Bolli, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Although c-kit(pos) cardiac stem cells (CSCs) preserve left ventricular (LV) function and structure after myocardial infarction, CSC doses have been chosen arbitrarily, and the dose-effect relationship is unknown. Rats underwent a 90-minute coronary occlusion followed by 35 days of reperfusion. Vehicle or CSCs at 5 escalating doses (0.3×10(6), 0.75×10(6), 1.5×10(6), 3.0×10(6), and 6.0×10(6) cells/heart) were given intracoronarily 4 h after reperfusion. The lowest dose (0.3×10(6)) had no effect on LV function and morphology, whereas 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0×10(6) significantly improved regional and global LV function (echocardiography and hemodynamic studies). These 3 doses had similar effects on echocardiographic parameters (infarct wall thickening fraction, LV end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes, LV ejection fraction) and hemodynamic variables (LV end-diastolic pressure, LV dP/dtmax, preload adjusted maximal power, end-systolic elastance, preload recruitable stroke work) and produced similar reductions in apoptosis, scar size, infarct wall thinning, and LV expansion index and similar increases in viable myocardium in the risk region (morphometry). Infusion of 6.0×10(6) CSCs markedly increased postprocedural mortality. Green fluorescent protein and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine staining indicated that persistence of donor cells and formation of new myocytes were negligible with all doses. Surprisingly, in this rat model of acute myocardial infarction, the dose-response relationship for intracoronary CSCs is flat. A minimal dose between 0.3 and 0.75×10(6) is necessary for efficacy; above this threshold, a 4-fold increase in cell number does not produce greater improvement in LV function or structure. Further increases in cell dose are harmful. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Safety of intravenously applied mistletoe extract - results from a phase I dose escalation study in patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Huber, Roman; Schlodder, Dietrich; Effertz, Carola; Rieger, Sabine; Tröger, Wilfried

    2017-09-18

    Mistletoe extracts have anti-tumor properties and are approved for subcutaneous use in cancer patients. Data on Intravenous application are limited. An aqueous extract from pine-mistletoe was used to investigate maximum tolerable dose (MTD) and safety of intravenous application. It was infused once weekly for 3 weeks in patients with advanced cancer. Any type of cancer was included; relevant exclusion criteria were concurrent chemo- or radiation therapy. The classical phase I 3 + 3 dose escalation scheme was followed. Predefined dose groups were 200, 400, 700, 1200 and 2000 mg. Maximum planned dose was 2000 mg. With the MTD three more patients should be treated for 9 weeks in order to evaluate intermediate term tolerability. Weekly during the treatment and 1 week later tolerability, clinical status, safety laboratory parameters and adverse events were documented. Twenty-one patients (3 in the dose groups 200, 400, 700 and 1200 mg, respectively, 9 in the dose group 2000 mg) were included. MTD was not reached. Because one dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), an allergic reaction, occurred during infusion of 2000 mg, three more patients had to be included in this dose group and tolerated it, as well as the three patients who received 2000 mg for 9 weeks. Occasionally in the dose group 2000 mg mild to moderate fever occurred. Weekly infusions of 2000 mg of the pine-mistletoe extract were tolerated and can be used in further studies but had a risk for allergic reactions and fever. German Clinical Trials Register (Trial registration number DRKS00005028).

  19. Whole Brain Irradiation With Hippocampal Sparing and Dose Escalation on Multiple Brain Metastases: A Planning Study on Treatment Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Prokic, Vesna; Wiedenmann, Nicole; Fels, Franziska; Schmucker, Marianne; Nieder, Carsten; Grosu, Anca-Ligia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a new treatment planning strategy in patients with multiple brain metastases. The goal was to perform whole brain irradiation (WBI) with hippocampal sparing and dose escalation on multiple brain metastases. Two treatment concepts were investigated: simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) and WBI followed by stereotactic fractionated radiation therapy sequential concept (SC). Methods and Materials: Treatment plans for both concepts were calculated for 10 patients with 2-8 brain metastases using volumetric modulated arc therapy. In the SIB concept, the prescribed dose was 30 Gy in 12 fractions to the whole brain and 51 Gy in 12 fractions to individual brain metastases. In the SC concept, the prescription was 30 Gy in 12 fractions to the whole brain followed by 18 Gy in 2 fractions to brain metastases. All plans were optimized for dose coverage of whole brain and lesions, simultaneously minimizing dose to the hippocampus. The treatment plans were evaluated on target coverage, homogeneity, and minimal dose to the hippocampus and organs at risk. Results: The SIB concept enabled more successful sparing of the hippocampus; the mean dose to the hippocampus was 7.55 {+-} 0.62 Gy and 6.29 {+-} 0.62 Gy, respectively, when 5-mm and 10-mm avoidance regions around the hippocampus were used, normalized to 2-Gy fractions. In the SC concept, the mean dose to hippocampus was 9.8 {+-} 1.75 Gy. The mean dose to the whole brain (excluding metastases) was 33.2 {+-} 0.7 Gy and 32.7 {+-} 0.96 Gy, respectively, in the SIB concept, for 5-mm and 10-mm hippocampus avoidance regions, and 37.23 {+-} 1.42 Gy in SC. Conclusions: Both concepts, SIB and SC, were able to achieve adequate whole brain coverage and radiosurgery-equivalent dose distributions to individual brain metastases. The SIB technique achieved better sparing of the hippocampus, especially when a10-mm hippocampal avoidance region was used.

  20. SU-E-T-500: Dose Escalation Strategy for Lung Cancer Patients Using a Biologically- Guided Target Definition

    SciTech Connect

    Shusharina, N; Khan, F; Choi, N; Sharp, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Dose escalation strategy for lung cancer patients can lead to late symptoms such as pneumonitis and cardiac injury. We propose a strategy to increase radiation dose for improving local tumor control while simultaneously striving to minimize the injury of organs at risk (OAR). Our strategy is based on defining a small, biologically-guided target volume for receiving additional radiation dose. Methods: 106 patients with lung cancer treated with radiotherapy were selected for patients diagnosed with stage II and III disease. Previous research has shown that 50% of the maximum SUV threshold in FDG-PET imaging is appropriate for delineation of the most aggressive part of a tumor. After PET- and CT-derived targets were contoured, an IMRT treatment plan was designed to deliver 60 Gy to the GTV as delineated on a 4D CT (Plan 1). A second plan was designed with additional dose of 18 Gy to the PET-derived volume (Plan 2). A composite plan was generated by the addition of Plan 1 and Plan 2. Results: Plan 1 was compared to the composite plan and increases in OAR dose were assessed. For seven patients on average, lung V5 was increased by 1.4% and V20 by 4.2% for ipsilateral lung and by 13.5% and 7% for contralateral lung. For total lung, V5 and V20 were increased by 4.5% and 4.8% respectively. Mean lung dose was increased by 9.7% for the total lung. The maximum dose to the spinal cord increased by 16% on average. For the heart, V20 increased by 4.2% and V40 by 5.2%. Conclusion: It seems feasible that an additional 18 Gy of radiation dose can be delivered to FDG PET-derived subvolume of the CT-based GTV of the primary tumor without significant increase in total dose to the critical organs such as lungs, spinal cord and heart.

  1. Results of the Phase I Dose-Escalating Study of Motexafin Gadolinium With Standard Radiotherapy in Patients With Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Judith M. Seiferheld, Wendy; Alger, Jeffrey R.; Wu, Genevieve; Endicott, Thyra J.; Mehta, Minesh; Curran, Walter; Phan, See-Chun

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: Motexafin gadolinium (MGd) is a putative radiation enhancer initially evaluated in patients with brain metastases. This Phase I trial studied the safety and tolerability of a 2-6-week course (10-22 doses) of MGd with radiotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme. Methods and Materials: A total of 33 glioblastoma multiforme patients received one of seven MGd regimens starting at 10 doses of 4 mg/kg/d MGd and escalating to 22 doses of 5.3 mg/kg/d MGd (5 or 10 daily doses then three times per week). The National Cancer Institute Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program toxicity and stopping rules were applied. Results: The maximal tolerated dose was 5.0 mg/kg/d MGd (5 d/wk for 2 weeks, then three times per week) for 22 doses. The dose-limiting toxicity was reversible transaminase elevation. Adverse reactions included rash/pruritus (45%), chills/fever (30%), and self-limiting vesiculobullous rash of the thumb and fingers (42%). The median survival of 17.6 months prompted a case-matched analysis. In the case-matched analysis, the MGd patients had a median survival of 16.1 months (n = 31) compared with the matched Radiation Therapy Oncology Group database patients with a median survival of 11.8 months (hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.94). Conclusion: The maximal tolerated dose of MGd with radiotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme in this study was 5 mg/kg/d for 22 doses (daily for 2 weeks, then three times weekly). The baseline survival calculations suggest progression to Phase II trials is appropriate, with the addition of MGd to radiotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide.

  2. Perineural Invasion Predicts Increased Recurrence, Metastasis, and Death From Prostate Cancer Following Treatment With Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Felix Y.; Qian Yushen; Stenmark, Matthew H.; Halverson, Schuyler; Blas, Kevin; Vance, Sean; Sandler, Howard M.; Hamstra, Daniel A.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the prognostic value of perineural invasion (PNI) for patients treated with dose-escalated external-beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed for 651 men treated for prostate cancer with EBRT to a minimum dose {>=}75 Gy. We assessed the impact of PNI as well as pretreatment and treatment-related factors on freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF), freedom from metastasis (FFM), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival. Results: PNI was present in 34% of specimens at biopsy and was significantly associated with higher Gleason score (GS), T stage, and prostate-specific antigen level. On univariate and multivariate analysis, the presence of PNI was associated with worse FFBF (hazard ratio = 1.7, p <0.006), FFM (hazard ratio = 1.8, p <0.03), and CSS (HR = 1.4, p <0.05) compared with absence of PNI; there was no difference in overall survival. Seven-year rates of FFBF, FFM, and CCS were 64% vs. 80%, 84% vs. 92%, and 91% vs. 95% for those patients with and without PNI, respectively. On recursive partitioning analysis, PNI predicted for worse FFM and CSS in patients with GS 8-10, with FFM of 67% vs. 89% (p <0.02), and CSS of 69% vs. 91%, (p <0.04) at 7 years for those with and without PNI, respectively. Conclusions: The presence of PNI in the prostate biopsy predicts worse clinical outcome for patients treated with dose-escalated external-beam radiation therapy. Particularly in patients with GS 8-10 disease, the presence of PNI suggests an increased risk of metastasis and prostate cancer death.

  3. Dosimetric feasibility of ablative dose escalated focal monotherapy with MRI-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hosni, Ali; Carlone, Marco; Rink, Alexandra; Ménard, Cynthia; Chung, Peter; Berlin, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    To determine the dosimetric feasibility of dose-escalated MRI-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) focal monotherapy for prostate cancer (PCa). In all patients, GTV was defined with mpMRI, and deformably registered onto post-catheter insertion planning MRI. PTV included the GTV plus 9mm craniocaudal and 5mm in every other direction. In discovery-cohort, plans were obtained for each PTV independently aiming to deliver ⩾16.5Gy/fraction (two fraction schedule) while respecting predefined organs-at-risk (OAR) constraints or halted when achieved equivalent single-dose plan (24Gy). Dosimetric results of original and focal HDR-BT plans were evaluated to develop a planning protocol for the validation-cohort. In discovery-cohort (20-patients, 32-GTVs): PTV D95% ⩾16.5Gy could not be reached in a single plan (3%) and was accomplished (range 16.5-23.8Gy) in 15 GTVs (47%). Single-dose schedule was feasible in 16 (50%) plans. In the validation-cohort (10-patients, 10-GTVs, two separate implants each): plans met acceptable and ideal criteria in 100% and 43-100% respectively. Migration to single-dose treatment schedule was feasible in 7 implants (35%), without relaxing OAR's constraints or increasing the dose (D100% and D35%) to mpMRI-normal prostate (p>0.05). Focal ablative dose-escalated radiation is feasible with the proposed protocol. Prospective studies are warranted to determine the clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dose-escalated radiation therapy is associated with better overall survival in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors: a propensity score-matched study.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yung-Chih; Lin, Chien-Yu; Pai, Ping-Ching; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Hsieh, Cheng-En; Chang, Kai-Ping; Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Liao, Chun-Ta; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Chin, Shy-Chyi; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Ho, Tsung-Ying; Hong, Ji-Hong; Lei, Kin-Fong; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Tsang, Ngan-Ming

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to compare the overall survival (OS) of patients with bone metastases (BM) from solid tumors after standard-dose radiotherapy ([RT]; 30 Gy administered in 10 fractions; EQD2Gy  = 32.5 Gy) and dose-escalated RT (EQD2Gy  > 32.5 Gy). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of 1795 patients (median age, 62.3 years; age range, 18-96 years) with BM from solid tumors who were referred for RT to our institute between 2000 and 2013. These patients were assigned to the standard-dose (n = 1125; 63%) and dose-escalated (n = 670; 37%) RT groups. OS, estimated as the duration between the first RT session and death, served as the main outcome measure. The dose-escalated RT group had a significantly better OS than the standard-dose RT group (P = 0.000). After allowing potential confounders in multivariate analysis, the RT dose retained its independent association with OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.837; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.753-0.929, P = 0.001). After propensity score matching of the baseline characteristics of both groups, RT dose retained its independent association with OS (HR, 0.887; 95% CI, 0.737-0.951; P = 0.011) on multivariate analysis. Dose-escalated RT exerted more favorable effects on OS in patients with non-lung cancer, those without multiple metastases, those without symptoms, and those with favorable prognosis. Dose-escalated RT was significantly associated with better OS in patients with BM from solid malignancies, particularly among those with non-lung cancer, those without multiple metastases, those without symptoms, and those with favorable prognosis. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Treatment of early non-response in patients with schizophrenia: assessing the efficacy of antipsychotic dose escalation.

    PubMed

    Loebel, Antony; Citrome, Leslie; Correll, Christoph U; Xu, Jane; Cucchiaro, Josephine; Kane, John M

    2015-10-31

    Early non-response to antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia has been shown in multiple studies to predict poor response at short-term trial endpoint. Therefore, strategies to address the challenge of non-improvement early in the course of treatment are needed. A novel trial design was developed to assess the potential utility of antipsychotic dose escalation in patients with an inadequate initial treatment response. This design was embedded in a study intended to assess the efficacy of low dose lurasidone in patients with schizophrenia. The purpose of this report is to describe the background, rationale and design of this study that included a novel method for the assessment of the potential for dose-response in early non-responding patients with schizophrenia. In this 6-week, international, multicenter, double-blind trial, eligible adults with acute schizophrenia were randomized to receive fixed doses of lurasidone 20 mg/day, 80 mg/day (active control), or placebo in a 1:2:1 ratio. Patients initially randomized to lurasidone 80 mg/day who did not have a Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score improvement ≥ 20% at Week 2 were re-randomized on a 1:1 basis to receive either lurasidone 80 mg/day or lurasidone 160 mg/day for the remainder of the trial. All other groups remained on their initially assigned treatment. The formal primary objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of low-dose lurasidone (20 mg/day) compared to placebo; secondary objectives included evaluating the efficacy of lurasidone 80 mg/day versus 160 mg/day in early non-responders, and evaluating the efficacy of lurasidone in all subjects initially randomized to 80 mg/day versus placebo. Since a lack of early improvement predicts poor response to short-term antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia, several treatment strategies have been proposed to enhance treatment outcome in early non-responders. A novel clinical trial design involving a placebo

  6. Continual reassessment method for dose escalation clinical trials in oncology: a comparison of prior skeleton approaches using AZD3514 data.

    PubMed

    James, Gareth D; Symeonides, Stefan N; Marshall, Jayne; Young, Julia; Clack, Glen

    2016-08-31

    The continual reassessment method (CRM) requires an underlying model of the dose-toxicity relationship ("prior skeleton") and there is limited guidance of what this should be when little is known about this association. In this manuscript the impact of applying the CRM with different prior skeleton approaches and the 3 + 3 method are compared in terms of ability to determine the true maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and number of patients allocated to sub-optimal and toxic doses. Post-hoc dose-escalation analyses on real-life clinical trial data on an early oncology compound (AZD3514), using the 3 + 3 method and CRM using six different prior skeleton approaches. All methods correctly identified the true MTD. The 3 + 3 method allocated six patients to both sub-optimal and toxic doses. All CRM approaches allocated four patients to sub-optimal doses. No patients were allocated to toxic doses from sigmoidal, two from conservative and five from other approaches. Prior skeletons for the CRM for phase 1 clinical trials are proposed in this manuscript and applied to a real clinical trial dataset. Highly accurate initial skeleton estimates may not be essential to determine the true MTD, and, as expected, all CRM methods out-performed the 3 + 3 method. There were differences in performance between skeletons. The choice of skeleton should depend on whether minimizing the number of patients allocated to suboptimal or toxic doses is more important. NCT01162395 , Trial date of first registration: July 13, 2010.

  7. Holmium-166 radioembolisation in patients with unresectable, chemorefractory liver metastases (HEPAR trial): a phase 1, dose-escalation study.

    PubMed

    Smits, Maarten L J; Nijsen, Johannes F W; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Lam, Marnix G E H; Vente, Maarten A D; Mali, Willem P T M; van Het Schip, Alfred D; Zonnenberg, Bernard A

    2012-10-01

    The efficacy of radioembolisation for the treatment of liver tumours depends on the selective distribution of radioactive microspheres to tumorous tissue. The distribution of holmium-166 ((166)Ho) poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres can be visualised in vivo by both single-photon-emission CT (SPECT) and MRI. In this phase 1 clinical trial, we aimed to assess the safety and the maximum tolerated radiation dose (MTRD) of (166)Ho-radioembolisation in patients with liver metastases. Between Nov 30, 2009, and Sept 19, 2011, patients with unresectable, chemorefractory liver metastases were enrolled in the Holmium Embolization Particles for Arterial Radiotherapy (HEPAR) trial. Patients were treated with intra-arterial (166)Ho-radioembolisation in cohorts of three patients, with escalating aimed whole-liver absorbed doses of 20, 40, 60, and 80 Gy. Cohorts were extended to a maximum of six patients if dose-limiting toxicity occurred. Patients were assigned a dose in the order of study entry, with dose escalation until dose-limiting toxicity was encountered in at least two patients of a dose cohort. Clinical or laboratory toxicities were scored according to the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. The primary endpoint was the MTRD. Analyses were per protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01031784. 15 patients underwent (166)Ho-radioembolisation at doses of 20 Gy (n=6), 40 Gy (n=3), 60 Gy (n=3), and 80 Gy (n=3). Mean estimated whole-liver absorbed doses were 18 Gy (SD 2) for the 20 Gy cohort, 35 Gy (SD 1) for the 40 Gy cohort, 58 Gy (SD 3) for the 60 Gy cohort, and 73 Gy (SD 4) for the 80 Gy cohort. The 20 Gy cohort was extended to six patients because of the occurrence of dose-limiting toxicity in one patient (pulmonary embolism). In the 80 Gy cohort, dose-limiting toxicity occurred in two patients: grade 4 thrombocytopenia, grade 3 leucopenia, and grade 3 hypoalbuminaemia in one patient, and

  8. A Phase I dose-escalation study of the VEGFR inhibitor tivozanib hydrochloride with weekly paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Erica L; Scheulen, M E; Beckman, J; Richly, H; Duarte, A; Cotreau, M M; Strahs, A L; Agarwal, S; Steelman, L; Winer, E P; Dickler, M N

    2013-07-01

    Tivozanib is a potent selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) 1, 2, and 3. This Phase Ib study investigated the safety/tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and activity of tivozanib with weekly paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). MBC patients with no prior VEGFR TKI treatment received daily oral tivozanib (3 weeks on, 1 week off) with weekly paclitaxel 90 mg/m(2). Standard 3 + 3 dose escalation was used; tivozanib cohorts (C) included C1 0.5 mg, C2 1.0 mg, and C3 1.5 mg. Assessments included Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors response, PK, and vascular function. Eighteen patients enrolled. Toxicities in >20 % of patients included fatigue, alopecia, nausea, diarrhea, peripheral sensory neuropathy, and hypertension. Grade 3/4 toxicities in >15 % of patients included fatigue and neutropenia. Maximum tolerated dose was tivozanib 1.5 mg with paclitaxel 90 mg/m(2). Four patients withdrew because of toxicity and one due to progressive disease. Thirteen patients were evaluable for response: four (30.8 %) had confirmed partial response; four had stable disease ≥6 months (30.8 %). PK data suggest no influence of paclitaxel on tivozanib concentrations. Tivozanib plus weekly paclitaxel was tolerable at all dose levels, supporting their combination at full dose. Activity in this small population was encouraging.

  9. Safety and immunogenicity of the rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP Ebola virus vaccine candidate in healthy adults: a phase 1b randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Heppner, D Gray; Kemp, Tracy L; Martin, Brian K; Ramsey, William J; Nichols, Richard; Dasen, Emily J; Link, Charles J; Das, Rituparna; Xu, Zhi Jin; Sheldon, Eric A; Nowak, Teresa A; Monath, Thomas P

    2017-08-01

    The 2014 Zaire Ebola virus outbreak highlighted the need for a safe, effective vaccine with a rapid onset of protection. We report the safety and immunogenicity of the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-Zaire Ebola virus envelope glycoprotein vaccine (rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP) across a 6 log10 dose range in two sequential cohorts. In this phase 1b double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study we enrolled and randomly assigned healthy adults (aged 18-61 years) at eight study sites in the USA to receive a single injection of vaccine or placebo, administered by intramuscular injection. In cohort 1, participants were assigned to receive 3 × 10(3), 3 × 10(4), 3 × 10(5), or 3 × 10(6) PFU doses of rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP or placebo. In cohort 2, participants were assigned to receive 3 × 10(6), 9 × 10(6), 2 × 10(7), or 1 × 10(8) PFU doses of rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP or placebo. Participants were centrally allocated by the study statistician to vaccine groups or placebo through computer-generated randomisation lists. The primary safety outcome was incidence of adverse events within 14 days in the modified intention-to-treat population (all randomly assigned participants who received vaccine or placebo), and the primary outcome for immunogenicity was IgG ELISA antibody titres at day 28 in the per-protocol population. Surveillance was enhanced for arthritis and dermatitis through to day 56. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02314923. Between Dec 26, 2014, and June 8, 2015, 513 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned; one was not immunised because of unsuccessful phlebotomy. In cohort 1, 256 participants received vaccine (3 × 10(3) [n=64], 3 × 10(4) [n=64], 3 × 10(5) [n=64], or 3 × 10(6) PFU [n=64]) and 74 received placebo. In cohort 2, 162 participants received vaccine (3 × 10(6) [n=20], 9 × 10(6) [n=47], 2 × 10(7) [n=47], or 1 × 10(8) PFU [n=48]) and 20 received placebo

  10. Parameters Favorable to Intraprostatic Radiation Dose Escalation in Men With Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Housri, Nadine; Ning, Holly; Ondos, John; Choyke, Peter; Camphausen, Kevin; Citrin, Deborah; Arora, Barbara; Shankavaram, Uma; Kaushal, Aradhana

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: To identify , within the framework of a current Phase I trial, whether factors related to intraprostatic cancer lesions (IPLs) or individual patients predict the feasibility of high-dose intraprostatic irradiation. Methods and Materials: Endorectal coil MRI scans of the prostate from 42 men were evaluated for dominant IPLs. The IPLs, prostate, and critical normal tissues were contoured. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were generated with the goal of delivering 75.6 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions to the prostate, with IPLs receiving a simultaneous integrated boost of 3.6 Gy per fraction to a total dose of 151.2 Gy, 200% of the prescribed dose and the highest dose cohort in our trial. Rectal and bladder dose constraints were consistent with those outlined in current Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocols. Results: Dominant IPLs were identified in 24 patients (57.1%). Simultaneous integrated boosts (SIB) to 200% of the prescribed dose were achieved in 12 of the 24 patients without violating dose constraints. Both the distance between the IPL and rectum and the hip-to-hip patient width on planning CT scans were associated with the feasibility to plan an SIB (p = 0.002 and p = 0.0137, respectively). Conclusions: On the basis of this small cohort, the distance between an intraprostatic lesion and the rectum most strongly predicted the ability to plan high-dose radiation to a dominant intraprostatic lesion. High-dose SIB planning seems possible for select intraprostatic lesions.

  11. Use of radiation protraction to escalate biologically effective dose to the treatment target

    SciTech Connect

    Kuperman, V. Y.; Spradlin, G. S.

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate how simultaneously increasing fraction time and dose per fraction affect biologically effective dose for the target (BED{sub tar}) while biologically effective dose for the normal tissue (BED{sub nt}) is fixed. Methods: In this investigation, BED{sub tar} and BED{sub nt} were studied by assuming mono-exponential repair of sublethal damage with tissue dependent repair half-time. Results: Our results demonstrate that under certain conditions simultaneously increasing fraction time and dose per fraction result in increased BED{sub tar} while BED{sub nt} is fixed. The dependence of biologically effective dose on fraction time is influenced by the dose rate. In this investigation we analytically determined time-varying dose rate R-tilde which minimizes BED. Changes in BED with fraction time were compared for constant dose rate and for R-tilde. Conclusions: A number of recent experimental and theoretical studies have demonstrated that slow delivery of radiation (known as radiation protraction) leads to reduced therapeutic effect because of increased repair of sublethal damage. In contrast, our analysis shows that under certain conditions simultaneously increasing fraction time and dose per fraction are radiobiologically advantageous.

  12. An escalating dose study to assess the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a Herpes Simplex Virus DNA vaccine, COR-1.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Julie L; Woo, Wai-Ping; Chandra, Janin; Xu, Yan; Li, Bo; Finlayson, Neil; Griffin, Paul; Frazer, Ian H

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes a single site, open-label Phase I clinical trial evaluating the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity in healthy volunteers of a herpes simplex polynucleotide vaccine that has previously been shown to enhance immunogenicity and protect against lethal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) challenge in mice. Five escalating doses of the vaccine, COR-1, were given by intradermal injection to HSV-1 and 2 seronegative healthy individuals. COR-1 was found to be safe and well-tolerated; the only vaccine-related adverse events were mild. While vaccine-induced antibody responses were not detectable, cell-mediated immune responses to HSV-specific peptide groups were identified in 19 of the 20 subjects who completed the study, and local inflammation at the immunisation site was observed. This study indicates COR-1 has potential to be used as a therapeutic vaccine for HSV-2 infection.

  13. An escalating dose study to assess the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a Herpes Simplex Virus DNA vaccine, COR-1

    PubMed Central

    Dutton, Julie L.; Woo, Wai-Ping; Chandra, Janin; Xu, Yan; Li, Bo; Finlayson, Neil; Griffin, Paul; Frazer, Ian H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper describes a single site, open-label Phase I clinical trial evaluating the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity in healthy volunteers of a herpes simplex polynucleotide vaccine that has previously been shown to enhance immunogenicity and protect against lethal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) challenge in mice. Five escalating doses of the vaccine, COR-1, were given by intradermal injection to HSV-1 and 2 seronegative healthy individuals. COR-1 was found to be safe and well-tolerated; the only vaccine-related adverse events were mild. While vaccine-induced antibody responses were not detectable, cell-mediated immune responses to HSV-specific peptide groups were identified in 19 of the 20 subjects who completed the study, and local inflammation at the immunisation site was observed. This study indicates COR-1 has potential to be used as a therapeutic vaccine for HSV-2 infection. PMID:27580249

  14. Favorable effect of priming with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in remission induction of acute myeloid leukemia restricted to dose escalation of cytarabine.

    PubMed

    Pabst, Thomas; Vellenga, Edo; van Putten, Wim; Schouten, Harry C; Graux, Carlos; Vekemans, Marie-Christiane; Biemond, Bart; Sonneveld, Peter; Passweg, Jakob; Verdonck, Leo; Legdeur, Marie-Cecile; Theobald, Matthias; Jacky, Emanuel; Bargetzi, Mario; Maertens, Johan; Ossenkoppele, Gert Jan; Löwenberg, Bob

    2012-06-07

    The clinical value of chemotherapy sensitization of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with G-CSF priming has remained controversial. Cytarabine is a key constituent of remission induction chemotherapy. The effect of G-CSF priming has not been investigated in relationship with variable dose levels of cytarabine. We randomized 917 AML patients to receive G-CSF (456 patients) or no G-CSF (461 patients) at the days of chemotherapy. In the initial part of the study, 406 patients were also randomized between 2 cytarabine regimens comparing conventional-dose (199 patients) versus escalated-dose (207 patients) cytarabine in cycles 1 and 2. We found that patients after induction chemotherapy plus G-CSF had similar overall survival (43% vs 40%, P = .88), event-free survival (37% vs 31%, P = .29), and relapse rates (34% vs 36%, P = .77) at 5 years as those not receiving G-CSF. However, patients treated with the escalated-dose cytarabine regimen benefited from G-CSF priming, with improved event-free survival (P = .01) and overall survival (P = .003), compared with patients without G-CSF undergoing escalated-dose cytarabine treatment. A significant survival advantage of sensitizing AML for chemotherapy with G-CSF was not apparent in the entire study group, but it was seen in patients treated with escalated-dose cytarabine during remission induction. The HOVON-42 study is registered under The Netherlands Trial Registry (www.trialregister.nl) as #NTR230.

  15. Sorafenib dose escalation in treatment-naïve patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a non-randomised, open-label, Phase 2b study.

    PubMed

    Gore, Martin E; Jones, Robert J; Ravaud, Alain; Kuczyk, Markus; Demkow, Tomasz; Bearz, Alessandra; Shapiro, JoAnn; Strauss, Uwe Phillip; Porta, Camillo

    2017-06-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of sorafenib dose escalation in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Intra-patient dose escalation may enhance the clinical benefit of targeted anticancer agents in metastatic disease. In this non-randomised, open-label, Phase 2b study, treatment-naïve patients with mRCC were initially treated with the standard oral sorafenib dose [400 mg twice daily (BID)]. Two dose escalations were planned, each 200 mg BID after 28 days at the prior level. Dose reductions, interruptions, or delayed escalations were used to manage adverse events (AEs). The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) in the modified intent-to-treat (mITT) population, which comprised patients with ≥6 months of treatment including ≥4 months of therapy at their highest tolerated dose. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS) and safety. In all, 83 patients received sorafenib. The dose received for the longest duration was 400, 600, and 800 mg BID in 48.2%, 15.7%, and 24.1% of patients, respectively. The ORR was 44.4% [n = 8/18; 95% confidence interval (CI) 21.5-69.2] and 17.9% (n = 12/67; 95% CI 9.6-29.2) in the mITT and ITT populations, respectively. The median (95% CI) PFS was 7.4 (6.0-11.7) months (ITT). The most common AEs of any grade were hand-foot skin reaction (66.3%) and diarrhoea (63.9%). Sorafenib demonstrated clinical benefit in treatment-naïve patients with mRCC. However, relatively few patients could sustain doses of >400 mg BID. There was evidence that, where tolerated, escalation from the standard sorafenib dose may have enhanced clinical benefit. However, this study does not support dose escalation for most patients with treatment-naïve mRCC. Alternative protocols for sorafenib dose escalation could be explored. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Phase I trial of escalating-dose cisplatin with 5-fluorouracil and concurrent radiotherapy in Chinese patients with esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiang; Gao, Xian-Shu; Qiao, Xue-Ying; Zhou, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Kun; Zhao, Yan-Nan; Asaumi, Junichi

    2008-02-01

    We defined the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of chemoradiotherapy (cisplatin (CDDP) with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and concurrent chemoradiotherapy) for Chinese patients with esophageal cancer. Twenty-one previously untreated patients with primary esophageal cancer were entered into this study. Escalating doses of CDDP with 5-FU were administered in a modified Fibonacci sequence, with concurrent conventional fractionation radiotherapy (CFR) of 60 Gy or 50 Gy. The starting doses were CDDP 37.5 mg/m2 on day 1, and 5-FU 500 mg/m2 on days 1-5, respectively. The regimen was repeated 4 times every 28 days. If no dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was observed, the next dose level was applied. The procedures were repeated until DLT appeared. The MTD was declared to be 1 dose level below the level at which DLT appeared. DLT was grade 3 radiation-induced esophagitis at a dose level of CDDP 60 mg/m2 with 5-FU 700 mg/m2 and concurrent 60 Gy CFR. MTD was defined as CDDP 52.5 mg/m2 with 5-FU 700 mg/m2 and concurrent 50 Gy CFR. The MTD of CDDP with 5-FU and in concurrent chemoradiotherapy for Chinese patients with esophageal cancer is CDDP 52.5 mg/m2 on day 1 and 5FU 700 mg/m2 on days 1-5, repeated 4 times every 28 days, and concurrent 50 Gy CFR. Further evaluation of this regimen in a prospective phase II trial is ongoing.

  17. Treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis with biologics: analysis of the additional cost of temporary dose escalation vs switch to another biologic after failure of maintenance therapy.

    PubMed

    Puig, L

    2014-05-01

    In the event of failure of maintenance therapy with biologic agents for moderate to severe plaque psoriasis, the possible approaches are to switch to another agent or escalate the dose (generally by increased dosing frequency). Knowledge of the economic impact of the 2 alternatives would be extremely useful for therapeutic decision making. The present analysis aimed to determine the moment in which the annualized additional cost of escalation exceeds a specified cost overrun. Based on the purchase cost (average wholesale price) of approved biologics for the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis, the number of weeks of escalation of the initial biologic until the annualized cost of dose escalation ran €1000 over the cost of switching to another biologic was calculated for a typical patient weighing 80 kg. According to this model, switching to another biologic is always cost effective, with adalimumab followed by ustekinumab the best choices in this respect. Ustekinumab allows for a longer trial escalation period (2 to 4 injections) before the cost overrun threshold is reached, whereas the threshold is reached in a single infusion if a patient is on infliximab. The study does not take into account the differential efficacy of the various biologic therapies as rescue treatment for failure of maintenance therapy given the lack of scientific evidence. The results nevertheless show substantial differences in the period during which treatment can be intensified before reaching the preset cost overrun. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  18. Interfractional dose variations in the stomach and the bowels during breathhold intensity-modulated radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer: Implications for a dose-escalation strategy.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Akira; Shibuya, Keiko; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Shiinoki, Takehiro; Nakata, Manabu; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2013-02-01

    the safety thresholds (1.4 and 3.8 ml, respectively). From the multiple regression analyses, only the margin size (P < 0.001) and the POV V39Gy (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with the distribution of recalculated V39Gy for the stomach. Multiple factors, including the margin size (P = 0.020) and the POV V39Gy (P < 0.001) were associated with the recalculated V39Gy for the duodenum. However, none of the POV parameters for the small intestine were associated with the recalculated V39Gy. Considerable interfractional dose variation was observed in three critical OARs. At the escalated prescription dose of breathhold IMRT, the dose variations could exceed the dose variations using 3D-CRT at the safe prescription dose level, indicating that a dose-escalation strategy based solely on the initial advantageous dose distribution in a breathhold IMRT can be problematic. Given the current limitations for predicting or coping with variation throughout the treatment course, the use of POV should be considered for safely delivering escalated doses to patients with pancreatic cancer.

  19. A Phase I Dose Escalation Study of the Triple Angiokinase Inhibitor Nintedanib Combined with Low-Dose Cytarabine in Elderly Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Schliemann, Christoph; Gerss, Joachim; Wiebe, Stefanie; Mikesch, Jan-Henrik; Knoblauch, Nicola; Sauer, Tim; Angenendt, Linus; Kewitz, Tobias; Urban, Marc; Butterfass-Bahloul, Trude; Edemir, Sabine; Vehring, Kerstin; Müller-Tidow, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Nintedanib (BIBF 11