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Sample records for placenta-derived mesenchymal stromal

  1. Susceptibility of Human Placenta Derived Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells to Human Herpesviruses Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rotola, Antonella; Alviano, Francesco; Solimando, Liliana; Lanzoni, Giacomo; Bonsi, Laura; Di Luca, Dario; Marchionni, Cosetta; Alvisi, Gualtiero; Ripalti, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Fetal membranes (FM) derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are higher in number, expansion and differentiation abilities compared with those obtained from adult tissues, including bone marrow. Upon systemic administration, ex vivo expanded FM-MSCs preferentially home to damaged tissues promoting regenerative processes through their unique biological properties. These characteristics together with their immune-privileged nature and immune suppressive activity, a low infection rate and young age of placenta compared to other sources of SCs make FM-MSCs an attractive target for cell-based therapy and a valuable tool in regenerative medicine, currently being evaluated in clinical trials. In the present study we investigated the permissivity of FM-MSCs to all members of the human Herpesviridae family, an issue which is relevant to their purification, propagation, conservation and therapeutic use, as well as to their potential role in the vertical transmission of viral agents to the fetus and to their potential viral vector-mediated genetic modification. We present here evidence that FM-MSCs are fully permissive to infection with Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), Varicella zoster virus (VZV), and Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV), but not with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Human Herpesvirus-6, 7 and 8 (HHV-6, 7, 8) although these viruses are capable of entering FM-MSCs and transient, limited viral gene expression occurs. Our findings therefore strongly suggest that FM-MSCs should be screened for the presence of herpesviruses before xenotransplantation. In addition, they suggest that herpesviruses may be indicated as viral vectors for gene expression in MSCs both in gene therapy applications and in the selective induction of differentiation. PMID:23940750

  2. Susceptibility of human placenta derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells to human herpesviruses infection.

    PubMed

    Avanzi, Simone; Leoni, Valerio; Rotola, Antonella; Alviano, Francesco; Solimando, Liliana; Lanzoni, Giacomo; Bonsi, Laura; Di Luca, Dario; Marchionni, Cosetta; Alvisi, Gualtiero; Ripalti, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Fetal membranes (FM) derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are higher in number, expansion and differentiation abilities compared with those obtained from adult tissues, including bone marrow. Upon systemic administration, ex vivo expanded FM-MSCs preferentially home to damaged tissues promoting regenerative processes through their unique biological properties. These characteristics together with their immune-privileged nature and immune suppressive activity, a low infection rate and young age of placenta compared to other sources of SCs make FM-MSCs an attractive target for cell-based therapy and a valuable tool in regenerative medicine, currently being evaluated in clinical trials. In the present study we investigated the permissivity of FM-MSCs to all members of the human Herpesviridae family, an issue which is relevant to their purification, propagation, conservation and therapeutic use, as well as to their potential role in the vertical transmission of viral agents to the fetus and to their potential viral vector-mediated genetic modification. We present here evidence that FM-MSCs are fully permissive to infection with Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), Varicella zoster virus (VZV), and Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV), but not with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Human Herpesvirus-6, 7 and 8 (HHV-6, 7, 8) although these viruses are capable of entering FM-MSCs and transient, limited viral gene expression occurs. Our findings therefore strongly suggest that FM-MSCs should be screened for the presence of herpesviruses before xenotransplantation. In addition, they suggest that herpesviruses may be indicated as viral vectors for gene expression in MSCs both in gene therapy applications and in the selective induction of differentiation.

  3. Manufacturing and use of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for phase I clinical trials: establishment and evaluation of a protocol.

    PubMed

    Ilić, Nina; Atkinson, Kerry

    2014-07-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been utilised in many clinical trials as an experimental treatment in numerous clinical settings. Bone marrow remains the traditional source tissue for MSCs but is relatively hard to access in large volumes. Alternatively, MSCs may be derived from other tissues including the placenta and adipose tissue. In an initial study no obvious differences in parameters such as cell surface phenotype, chemokine receptor display, mesodermal differentiation capacity or immunosuppressive ability, were detected when we compared human marrow derived-MSCs to human placenta-derived MSCs. The aim of this study was to establish and evaluate a protocol and related processes for preparation placenta-derived MSCs for early phase clinical trials. A full-term placenta was taken after delivery of the baby as a source of MSCs. Isolation, seeding, incubation, cryopreservation of human placenta-derived MSCs and used production release criteria were in accordance with the complex regulatory requirements applicable to Code of Good Manufacturing Practice manufacturing of ex vivo expanded cells. We established and evaluated instructions for MSCs preparation protocol and gave an overview of the three clinical areas application. In the first trial, MSCs were co-transplanted iv to patient receiving an allogeneic cord blood transplant as therapy for treatment-refractory acute myeloid leukemia. In the second trial, MSCs were administered iv in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and without serious adverse effects. In the third trial, MSCs were injected directly into the site of tendon damage using ultrasound guidance in the treatment of chronic refractory tendinopathy. Clinical trials using both allogeneic and autologous cells demonstrated MSCs to be safe. A described protocol for human placenta-derived MSCs is appropriate for use in a clinical setting, relatively inexpensive and can be relatively easily adjusted to a different set of regulatory

  4. Transplantation of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cell-induced neural stem cells to treat spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Ye; Jia, Jingqiao; Yang, Lifeng

    2014-01-01

    Because of their strong proliferative capacity and multi-potency, placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells have gained interest as a cell source in the field of nerve damage repair. In the present study, human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells were induced to differentiate into neural stem cells, which were then transplanted into the spinal cord after local spinal cord injury in rats. The motor functional recovery and pathological changes in the injured spinal cord were observed for 3 successive weeks. The results showed that human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into neuron-like cells and that induced neural stem cells contribute to the restoration of injured spinal cord without causing transplant rejection. Thus, these cells promote the recovery of motor and sensory functions in a rat model of spinal cord injury. Therefore, human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells may be useful as seed cells during the repair of spinal cord injury. PMID:25657742

  5. Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells acquire neural phenotype under the appropriate niche conditions.

    PubMed

    Martini, Maristela Maria; Jeremias, Talita da Silva; Kohler, Maria Cecília; Marostica, Lucas Lourenço; Trentin, Andréa Gonçalves; Alvarez-Silva, Marcio

    2013-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells with clinical interest. It has been reported that MSCs can be isolated from the human term placenta. We investigated the ability of human placenta-derived MSCs to differentiate into a neural phenotype in coculture assays with astrocytes obtained from neonatal rats. Placenta-derived MSCs were cocultured on a confluent monolayer of astrocytes obtained from the rat cerebellum to evaluate the differences in morphology. The extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by astrocytes as well as the growth factors produced by the astrocyte-conditioned medium were evaluated. The expression of the neural markers glial fibrillate acid protein (GFAP) and Nestin was studied in MSCs by immunocytochemistry. MSCs were able to respond to the astrocyte niche in coculture assays. They expressed the neural markers GFAP, Nestin, or β-Tubulin III, followed by an outgrowth of cell processes. The ECM from astrocytes was not effective in inducing the neural phenotype in MSCs, although the expression of β-Tubulin III was observed. When MSCs were cocultured with cerebellar astrocytes from newborn rats, a neural phenotype was achieved. This was determined by immunocytochemistry to GFAP, Nestin, or β-Tubulin III and by morphological changes. It was achieved without the addition of exogenous differentiation factors. This demonstrates that placenta-derived MSCs may be able to differentiate into neural cell types when in direct contact with a neural environment.

  6. Transplantation of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhances angiogenesis after ischemic limb injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Nanzi; Li, Zhihong; Adesanya, Timothy M; Guo, Weixin; Liu, Yang; Fu, Minghuan; Kilic, Ahmet; Tan, Tao; Zhu, Hua; Xie, Xiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy has emerged as a promising approach for the treatment of peripheral arterial disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential effects of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) on mouse hindlimb ischemia. PMSCs were isolated from human placenta tissue and characterized by flow cytometry. An in vivo surgical ligation-induced murine limb ischemia model was generated with fluorescent dye (CM-DiI) labelled PMSCs delivered via intramuscular injection. Our data show that PMSCs treatment significantly enhanced microvessel density, improved blood perfusion and diminished pathologies in ischemic mouse hindlimbs as compared to those in the control group. Further immunostaining studies suggested that injected PMSCs can incorporate into the vasculature and differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells to enhance angiogenesis in ischemic hind limbs. This may in part explain the beneficial effects of PMSCs treatment. Taken together, we found that PMSCs treatment might be an effective treatment modality for treatment of ischemia-induced injury to mouse hind limbs by enhancement of angiogenesis. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  7. Hypoxic conditioned medium of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells protects against scar formation.

    PubMed

    Du, Lili; Lv, Runxiao; Yang, Xiaoyi; Cheng, Shaohang; Ma, Tingxian; Xu, Jing

    2016-03-15

    Scar formation after wound repair affects people's daily life. Mesenchymal stem cells were reported to have a beneficial role in attenuating the scar formation. In the present study, placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) were isolated and the effects of hypoxic conditioned medium of PMSCs on scar formation were explored. To evaluate the effect of hypoxia on PMSCs, proliferation of PMSCs was detected by trypan blue staining and the HIF-1α level was detected by western blot. Then in vivo scar formation assay was performed and the histopathologic changes were evaluated by HE staining and levels of TGF-β1 and collagen I were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The IL-10 level was detected by ELISA and then migration of HFF-1 cells was detected by wound healing assay after treatment with IL-10 or IL-10 antibody. Our study showed that hypoxic conditioned medium of PMSCs reduced scar formation in vivo and inhibited the proliferation and migration of skin fibroblasts in vitro. Further mechanism study showed that, the level of IL-10 was affected by hypoxia, treatment with IL-10 mimicked the function of hypoxic conditioned medium of PMSCs and inhibition of IL-10 reversed the protective role of hypoxic conditioned medium of PMSCs. Thus, hypoxic conditioned medium of PMSCs may perform the protective role against scar formation through IL-10. Our study reveals a possible mechanism of the protective effect of PMSCs against scar formation and provides evidence for the hypothesis that PMSCs may be a promising therapy for the treatment of wounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Human placenta-derived stromal cells decrease inflammation, placental injury and blood pressure in hypertensive pregnant mice.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Chiasson, Valorie L; Pinzur, Lena; Raveh, Shani; Abraham, Eytan; Jones, Kathleen A; Bounds, Kelsey R; Ofir, Racheli; Flaishon, Liat; Chajut, Ayelet; Mitchell, Brett M

    2016-04-01

    Pre-eclampsia, the development of hypertension and proteinuria or end-organ damage during pregnancy, is a leading cause of both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, and there are no effective clinical treatments for pre-eclampsia aside from delivery. The development of pre-eclampsia is characterized by maladaptation of the maternal immune system, excessive inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. We have reported that detection of extracellular RNA by the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3 and 7 is a key initiating signal that contributes to the development of pre-eclampsia. PLacental eXpanded (PLX-PAD) cells are human placenta-derived, mesenchymal-like, adherent stromal cells that have anti-inflammatory, proangiogenic, cytoprotective and regenerative properties, secondary to paracrine secretion of various molecules in response to environmental stimulation. We hypothesized that PLX-PAD cells would reduce the associated inflammation and tissue damage and lower blood pressure in mice with pre-eclampsia induced by TLR3 or TLR7 activation. Injection of PLX-PAD cells on gestational day 14 significantly decreased systolic blood pressure by day 17 in TLR3-induced and TLR7-induced hypertensive mice (TLR3 144-111 mmHg; TLR7 145-106 mmHg; both P<0.05), and also normalized their elevated urinary protein:creatinine ratios (TLR3 5.68-3.72; TLR7 5.57-3.84; both P<0.05). On gestational day 17, aortic endothelium-dependent relaxation responses improved significantly in TLR3-induced and TLR7-induced hypertensive mice that received PLX-PAD cells on gestational day 14 (TLR3 35-65%; TLR7 37-63%; both P<0.05). In addition, markers of systemic inflammation and placental injury, increased markedly in both groups of TLR-induced hypertensive mice, were reduced by PLX-PAD cells. Importantly, PLX-PAD cell therapy had no effects on these measures in pregnant control mice or on the fetuses. These data demonstrate that PLX-PAD cell therapy can safely reverse pre-eclampsia-like features during

  9. Proteomic profiling of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells upon transforming LIM mineralization protein-1 stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen; Liu, Zhihui; Liu, Jingyue; Bi, Ming; Yang, Taoyuan; Wang, Jingyun

    2015-03-01

    Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPDMSCs) can differentiate into different types of cells and thus have tremendous potential for cell therapy and tissue engineering. LIM mineralization protein-1 (LMP-1) plays an important role in osteoblast differentiation, maturation and bone formation. To determine a global effect of LMP-1 on hPDMSCs, we designed a study using a proteomic approach combined with adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of LMP-1 to identify LMP-1-induced changes in hPDMSCs on proteome level. We have generated proteome maps of undifferentiated hPDMSCs and LMP-1 induced hPDMSCs. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed 22 spots with at least 2.0-fold changes in expression and 15 differently expressed proteins were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. The proteins regulated by LMP-1 included cytoskeletal proteins, cadmium-binding proteins, and metabolic proteins, etc. The expression of some identified proteins was confirmed by further Western blot analyses. Our results will play an important role in better elucidating the underlying molecular mechanism in LMP-1 included hPDMSCs differentiation into osteoblasts.

  10. Implantation of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells accelerates murine dermal wound closure through immunomodulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haifeng; Chen, Lianyu; Liu, Yang; Luo, Bangzhen; Xie, Nanzi; Tan, Tao; Song, Lige; Erli, Pei; Luo, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a major complication of diabetes mellitus. Although previous studies have established that inflammation, ischemia and neuropathy contribute to the development of DFU, it is still an unmet medical need due to lack knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with DFU. In the present study, we tested our hypothesis that subcutaneous application of human placental mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) can accelerate diabetic dermal wound healing by modulating immunoresponse. Methods and Results: By using an in vivo excisional wound healing model in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, we found that injection of PMSCs accelerates wound closure. Further studies revealed that application of PMSCs can regulate inflammation associated with wound healing by controlling secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors, the beneficial effects can be partially blocked by application of antibodies against interleukin-10 (IL-10). Furthermore, in vitro experiments suggested that co-culture of PMSCs with human dermal fibroblasts can significantly inhibit activation of NF-ĸB induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS), indicating the molecular mechanism of PMSCs mediated immunomodulation. Conclusion: Taken together, our study suggested that the immunomodulation of PMSCs play an important role on diabetic dermal wound healing process, thus PMSCs might represent an attractive choice for treatment of diabetes dermal wound and DFU. PMID:27904691

  11. The effects of dan-shen root on cardiomyogenic differentiation of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kun; Li, Shi-zheng; Zhang, Yun-li; Wang, Xue-zhe

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conditional medium and dan-shen root were used for cardiomyogenic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They all could induce hPDMSCs to differentiate into cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The induction effect of the latter was slightly higher compared to that of the former. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dan-shen root could be a good inducer for cardiomyogenic differentiation. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to search for a good inducer agent using for cardiomyogenic differentiation of stem cells. Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPDMSCs) were isolated and incubated in enriched medium. Fourth passaged cells were treated with 10 mg/L dan-shen root for 20 days. Morphologic characteristics were analyzed by confocal and electron microscopy. Expression of {alpha}-sarcomeric actin was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Expression of cardiac troponin-I (TnI) was analyzed by immunohistofluorescence. Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and beta-myocin heavy chain ({beta}-MHC) were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). hPDMSCs treated with dan-shen root gradually formed a stick-like morphology and connected with adjoining cells. On the 20th day, most of the induced cells stained positive with {alpha}-sarcomeric actin and TnI antibody. ANF and {beta}-MHC were also detected in the induced cells. Approximately 80% of the cells were successfully transdifferentiated into cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, dan-shen root is a good inducer agent used for cardiomyogenic differentiation of hPDMSCs.

  12. Mesenchymal stromal cell cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Renzi, Sabrina; Lombardo, Tina; Dotti, Silvia; Dessì, Sara S; De Blasio, Pasquale; Ferrari, Maura

    2012-06-01

    The advent of stem cells and stem cell-based therapies for specific diseases requires particular knowledge of laboratory procedures, which not only guarantee the continuous production of cells, but also provide them an identity and integrity as close as possible to their origin. Their cryopreservation at temperatures below -80°C and typically below -140°C is of paramount importance. This target can be achieved by incorporating high molar concentrations of cryoprotectant mixtures that preserve cells from deleterious ice crystal formation. Usually, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and animal proteins are used as protectant reagents, but unexpected changes in stem cell fate and downstream toxicity effects have been reported, limiting their wide use in clinical settings. In scientific reviews, there are not much data regarding viability of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) after the freezing/thawing process. During our routine analysis, a poor resistance to cryopreservation of these cells was observed, as well as their weak ability to replicate. This is an important point in the study of MSCs; moreover, it represents a limit for preservation and long-term storage. For this reason, MSCs isolated from equine, ovine, and rodent bone marrow and equine adipose tissue were compared using different cryopreservation solutions for this study of vitality. Our findings showed the best results regarding cell viability using a solution of fetal bovine serum with addition of 10% DMSO. In particular, we noted an increase in survival of equine bone marrow MSCs. This parameter has been evaluated by Trypan blue staining at fixed times (0, 24, and 48 hours post-thaw). This result highlights the fact that equine bone marrow MSCs are the frailest we analyzed. Therefore, it could be useful to delve further into this topic in order to improve the storage possibility for these cells and their potential use in cell-based therapies.

  13. Placenta Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Hosted on RKKP Glass-Ceramic: A Tissue Engineering Strategy for Bone Regenerative Medicine Applications

    PubMed Central

    Fosca, Marco; De Bonis, Angela; Curcio, Mariangela; Lolli, Maria Grazia; De Stefanis, Adriana; Marchese, Rodolfo; Rau, Julietta V.

    2016-01-01

    In tissue engineering protocols, the survival of transplanted stem cells is a limiting factor that could be overcome using a cell delivery matrix able to support cell proliferation and differentiation. With this aim, we studied the cell-friendly and biocompatible behavior of RKKP glass-ceramic coated Titanium (Ti) surface seeded with human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs) from placenta. The sol-gel synthesis procedure was used to prepare the RKKP glass-ceramic material, which was then deposited onto the Ti surface by Pulsed Laser Deposition method. The cell metabolic activity and proliferation rate, the cytoskeletal actin organization, and the cell cycle phase distribution in hAMSCs seeded on the RKKP coated Ti surface revealed no significant differences when compared to the cells grown on the treated plastic Petri dish. The health of of hAMSCs was also analysed studying the mRNA expressions of MSC key genes and the osteogenic commitment capability using qRT-PCR analysis which resulted in being unchanged in both substrates. In this study, the combination of the hAMSCs' properties together with the bioactive characteristics of RKKP glass-ceramics was investigated and the results obtained indicate its possible use as a new and interesting cell delivery system for bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. PMID:28078286

  14. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Human Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cultured on Normal Tissue Culture Surface and Hyaluronan-Coated Surface

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Tzyy Yue; Chen, Ying-Hui; Liu, Szu-Heng; Solis, Mairim Alexandra; Yu, Chen-Hsiang; Chang, Chiung-Hsin; Huang, Lynn L. H.

    2016-01-01

    Our previous results showed that hyaluronan (HA) preserved human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PDMSC) in a slow cell cycling mode similar to quiescence, the pristine state of stem cells in vivo, and HA was found to prevent murine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells from senescence. Here, stable isotope labeling by amino acid in cell culture (SILAC) proteomic profiling was used to evaluate the effects of HA on aging phenomenon in stem cells, comparing (1) old and young passage PDMSC cultured on normal tissue culture surface (TCS); (2) old passage on HA-coated surface (CHA) compared to TCS; (3) old and young passage on CHA. The results indicated that senescence-associated protein transgelin (TAGLN) was upregulated in old TCS. Protein CYR61, reportedly senescence-related, was downregulated in old CHA compared to old TCS. The SIRT1-interacting Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) increased by 2.23-fold in old CHA compared to old TCS, and is 0.48-fold lower in old TCS compared to young TCS. Results also indicated that components of endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD) pathway were upregulated in old CHA compared to old TCS cells, potentially for overcoming stress to maintain cell function and suppress senescence. Our data points to pathways that may be targeted by HA to maintain stem cells youth. PMID:27057169

  15. Placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells improve memory dysfunction in an Aβ1-42-infused mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yun, H-M; Kim, H S; Park, K-R; Shin, J M; Kang, A R; il Lee, K; Song, S; Kim, Y-B; Han, S B; Chung, H-M; Hong, J T

    2013-12-12

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) promote functional recoveries in pathological experimental models of central nervous system (CNS) and are currently being tested in clinical trials for neurological disorders, but preventive mechanisms of placenta-derived MSCs (PD-MSCs) for Alzheimer's disease are poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the inhibitory effect of PD-MSCs on neuronal cell death and memory impairment in Aβ1-42-infused mice. After intracerebroventrical (ICV) infusion of Aβ1-42 for 14 days, the cognitive function was assessed by the Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. Our results showed that the transplantation of PD-MSCs into Aβ1-42-infused mice significantly improved cognitive impairment, and behavioral changes attenuated the expression of APP, BACE1, and Aβ, as well as the activity of β-secretase and γ-secretase. In addition, the activation of glia cells and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were inhibited by the transplantation of PD-MSCs. Furthermore, we also found that PD-MSCs downregulated the release of inflammatory cytokines as well as prevented neuronal cell death and promoted neuronal cell differentiation from neuronal progenitor cells in Aβ1-42-infused mice. These data indicate that PD-MSC mediates neuroprotection by regulating neuronal death, neurogenesis, glia cell activation in hippocampus, and altering cytokine expression, suggesting a close link between the therapeutic effects of MSCs and the damaged CNS in Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Hypoxia-inducible factor-2 alpha promotes the proliferation of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chengxing; Yu, Jiong; Pan, Qiaoling; Yang, Jinfeng; Hao, Guangshu; Wang, Yingjie; Li, Lanjuan; Cao, Hongcui

    2016-01-01

    Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs) reside in a physiologically low-oxygen microenvironment. Hypoxia influences a variety of stem cell cellular activities, frequently involving hypoxia-inducible factor-2 alpha (HIF-2α). This research showed that hPMSCs cultured in hypoxic conditions (5% O2) exhibited a more naïve morphology and had a higher proliferative capability and higher HIF-2α expression than hPMSCs cultured in normoxic conditions (21% O2). Similar to the hypoxic cultures, hPMSCs over-expressing HIF-2α showed higher proliferative potential and higher expression of CCND1 (CyclinD1), MYC (c-Myc), POU5F1 (Oct4) and the components of the MAPK/ERK pathway. In contrast, these genes were down-regulated in the HIF-2α-silenced hPMSCs. After adding the MAPK/ERK inhibitor PD0325901, cell growth and the expression of CCND1 and MYC were inhibited. Furthermore, the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that HIF-2α bound to the MAPK3 (ERK1) promoter, indicative of its direct regulation of MAPK/ERK components at the transcriptional level during hPMSC expansion. Taken together, our results suggest that HIF-2α facilitated the preservation of hPMSC stemness and promoted their proliferation by regulating CCND1 and MYC through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. PMID:27765951

  17. Placental Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Rescue Ambulation in Ovine Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Erin G.; Lankford, Lee; Keller, Benjamin A.; Pivetti, Christopher D.; Sitkin, Nicole A.; Beattie, Michael S.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.; Farmer, Diana L.

    2015-01-01

    Myelomeningocele (MMC)—commonly known as spina bifida—is a congenital birth defect that causes lifelong paralysis, incontinence, musculoskeletal deformities, and severe cognitive disabilities. The recent landmark Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) demonstrated for the first time in humans that in utero surgical repair of the MMC defect improves lower limb motor function, suggesting a capacity for improved neurologic outcomes in this disorder. However, functional recovery was incomplete, and 58% of the treated children were unable to walk independently at 30 months of age. In the present study, we demonstrate that using early gestation human placenta-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (PMSCs) to augment in utero repair of MMC results in significant and consistent improvement in neurologic function at birth in the rigorous fetal ovine model of MMC. In vitro, human PMSCs express characteristic MSC markers and trilineage differentiation potential. Protein array assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay show that PMSCs secrete a variety of immunomodulatory and angiogenic cytokines. Compared with adult bone marrow MSCs, PMSCs secrete significantly higher levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and hepatocyte growth factor, both of which have known neuroprotective capabilities. In vivo, functional and histopathologic analysis demonstrated that human PMSCs mediate a significant, clinically relevant improvement in motor function in MMC lambs and increase the preservation of large neurons within the spinal cord. These preclinical results in the well-established fetal ovine model of MMC provide promising early support for translating in utero stem cell therapy for MMC into clinical application for patients. Significance This study presents placenta-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (PMSC) treatment as a potential therapy for myelomeningocele (MMC). Application of PMSCs can augment current in utero surgical repair in the well-established and rigorously

  18. The role of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells in healing of induced full-thickness skin wound in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Abd-Allah, Somia H; El-Shal, Amal S; Shalaby, Sally M; Abd-Elbary, Eman; Mazen, Nehad F; Abdel Kader, Rania R

    2015-09-01

    We examined the effect of placenta-derived MSCs (PDMSCs) injection intraregionally and intraperitoneally on healing of induced full thickness mice skin wounds; moreover, the mechanisms by which MSCs exert their effects were also studied. Sixty female mice were divided into three groups after induction of full thickness skin wound; untreated group, wounded mice were injected with MSCs derived from human placenta intraperitoneally or intraregionally. Skin biopsies were obtained 7 and 12 days after wound incision for histological examinations, detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by ELISA, and estimation of expression of mouse ICAM-1, Integrin β1, Integrin β3 genes and human albumin and GAPDH genes by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Human placenta derived-MSCs treated groups showed accelerated wound healing than non-treated group. VEGF, Integrin β1, and Integrin β3 levels were significantly increased in the intraregionally and intraperitoneally treated mice as compared to non-treated group at day 7 after wound induction. ICAM-1 showed significant decrease in its expression in treated groups compared with non-treated group. Interestingly, the intraperitoneal MSCs injections showed better results than intraregional one. PDMSCs accelerate full thickness skin wound healing and the intraperitoneal MSCs injections are more effective than intraregional one. MSCs promote wound healing through release of proangiogenic factors as VEGF, increase healing promoting factors as integrin β1 and β3, and decrease proinflammatory cytokines as ICAM-1.

  19. Frontline Science: Placenta-derived decidual stromal cells alter IL-2R expression and signaling in alloantigen-activated T cells.

    PubMed

    Erkers, Tom; Solders, Martin; Verleng, Lotte; Bergström, Cecilia; Stikvoort, Arwen; Rane, Lalit; Nava, Silvia; Ringdén, Olle; Kaipe, Helen

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated how stromal cells affect the IL-2 pathway in alloantigen-activated T cells. We found that decidual stromal cells (DSCs) from term placentas promoted a high production of IL-2 in cultures with alloantigen-activated T cells. The intensity of expression of cluster of differentiation 25 (CD25; IL-2Rα) on T cells was increased by DSCs, whereas the frequency and intensity of expression of the signaling subunits CD122 (IL-2Rβ) and CD132 (IL-2Rγc) were reduced. Consequently, uptake of IL-2 and STAT5 phosphorylation (pSTAT5) was abrogated. DSCs also decreased the proportion of pSTAT5(+) T cells in response to IL-15, which also use CD122 for signaling. Addition of DSCs to the allogeneic cultures did not increase the expression of programmed death 1 (PD-1) or CD95, indicating that they did not promote T cell exhaustion. However, exogenous recombinant (r)IL-2 in similar concentrations in the same setting increased the expression of CD95 and down-regulated CD122 in T cells. The antiproliferative effect of sirolimus (SRL) and cyclosporine A (CsA), which target the IL-2 signaling pathway, was diminished by DSCs in vitro. To conclude, DSCs affect IL-2 production and IL-2R expression and signaling, which may contribute to the stromal cell-mediated immune modulation and phenotype shift seen in activated T cells. Altered proliferation in cultures when combining DSCs and SRL or CsA may be of clinical importance, as stromal cells are used in trials for acute inflammation and are often used in combination with conventional immunosuppressive therapies.

  20. Mesenchymal stromal cells for treatment of arthritis.

    PubMed

    Swart, J F; Wulffraat, N M

    2014-08-01

    Patients with refractory inflammatory arthritis can still respond favourable to autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, this treatment has a high morbidity and even 5% mortality. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), a subset of the non-haematopoietic stromal cells obtained from bone marrow, were found to have a strong immunosuppressive effect. MSC treatment is explored in many diseases like diabetes, SLE, MS and RA. This review covers all relevant literature regarding MSC treatment of inflammatory arthritis (RA and JIA). This review contains data of in vitro studies, animal studies and clinical studies. The following subjects will be discussed in detail: properties of MSC, presence of MSC in the joint, intra-articular versus intravenous route, autologous versus allogeneic, ideal source of MSC, distribution, transdifferentiation, engraftment, rejection, efficacy and toxicology. After reading this review the reader will be totally updated in this quickly evolving field of MSC therapy.

  1. Effect of hydrocortisone on multipotent human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Shipunova, N N; Petinati, N A; Drize, N I

    2013-05-01

    We studied the effect of natural glucocorticosteroid hydrocortisone on total cell production, cloning efficiency, and expression of genes important for the function of mesenchymal stromal cells. Addition of hydrocortisone to the culture medium reduces the total cell yield by 2 times and significantly increased cloning efficiency by 2-3 times; this effect was more pronounced in multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells obtained from female donors. Hydrocortisone had no effect on the expression of immunomodulatory factors produced by multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. Hydrocortisone inhibits the expression of bone differentiation markers, increases the expression of the early adipocyte differentiation marker at the beginning of culturing, and dramatically stimulates the expression of the late adipocyte differentiation marker throughout the culturing period. The findings suggest that hydrocortisone activates multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.

  2. Mesenchymal stromal cells in myeloid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Geyh, Stefanie; Germing, Ulrich; Haas, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are clonal myeloid disorders characterized by hematopoietic insufficiency. As MDS and AML are considered to originate from genetic and molecular defects of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), the main focus of research in this field has focused on the characterization of these cells. Recently, the contribution of BM microenvironment to the pathogenesis of myeloid malignancies, in particular MDS and AML has gained more interest. This is based on a better understanding of its physiological role in the regulation of hematopoiesis. Additionally, it was demonstrated as a ‘proof of principle’ that genetic disruption of cells of the mesenchymal or osteoblastic lineage can induce MDS, MPS or AML in mice. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the contribution of the BM microenvironment, in particular mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) to the pathogenesis of AML and MDS. Furthermore, potential models integrating the BM microenvironment into the pathophysiology of these myeloid disorders are discussed. Finally, strategies to therapeutically exploit this knowledge and to interfere with the crosstalk between clonal hematopoietic cells and altered stem cell niches are introduced. PMID:28090484

  3. Adipogenic placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells are not lineage restricted by withdrawing extrinsic factors: developing a novel visual angle in stem cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Hu, C; Cao, H; Pan, X; Li, J; He, J; Pan, Q; Xin, J; Yu, X; Li, J; Wang, Y; Zhu, D; Li, L

    2016-01-01

    Current evidence implies that differentiated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) can act as progenitor cells and transdifferentiate across lineage boundaries. However, whether this unrestricted lineage has specificities depending on the stem cell type is unknown. Placental-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PDMSCs), an easily accessible and less invasive source, are extremely useful materials in current stem cell therapies. No studies have comprehensively analyzed the transition in morphology, surface antigens, metabolism and multilineage potency of differentiated PDMSCs after their dedifferentiation. In this study, we showed that after withdrawing extrinsic factors, adipogenic PDMSCs reverted to a primitive cell population and retained stem cell characteristics. The mitochondrial network during differentiation and dedifferentiation may serve as a marker of absent or acquired pluripotency in various stem cell models. The new population proliferated faster than unmanipulated PDMSCs and could be differentiated into adipocytes, osteocytes and hepatocytes. The cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) signaling pathway and extracellular matrix (ECM) components modulate cell behavior and enable the cells to proliferate or differentiate during the differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation processes in our study. These observations indicate that the dedifferentiated PDMSCs are distinguishable from the original PDMSCs and may serve as a novel source in stem cell biology and cell-based therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, whether PDMSCs differentiated into other lineages can be dedifferentiated to a primitive cell population needs to be investigated. PMID:26986509

  4. Adipogenic placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells are not lineage restricted by withdrawing extrinsic factors: developing a novel visual angle in stem cell biology.

    PubMed

    Hu, C; Cao, H; Pan, X; Li, J; He, J; Pan, Q; Xin, J; Yu, X; Li, J; Wang, Y; Zhu, D; Li, L

    2016-03-17

    Current evidence implies that differentiated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) can act as progenitor cells and transdifferentiate across lineage boundaries. However, whether this unrestricted lineage has specificities depending on the stem cell type is unknown. Placental-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PDMSCs), an easily accessible and less invasive source, are extremely useful materials in current stem cell therapies. No studies have comprehensively analyzed the transition in morphology, surface antigens, metabolism and multilineage potency of differentiated PDMSCs after their dedifferentiation. In this study, we showed that after withdrawing extrinsic factors, adipogenic PDMSCs reverted to a primitive cell population and retained stem cell characteristics. The mitochondrial network during differentiation and dedifferentiation may serve as a marker of absent or acquired pluripotency in various stem cell models. The new population proliferated faster than unmanipulated PDMSCs and could be differentiated into adipocytes, osteocytes and hepatocytes. The cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) signaling pathway and extracellular matrix (ECM) components modulate cell behavior and enable the cells to proliferate or differentiate during the differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation processes in our study. These observations indicate that the dedifferentiated PDMSCs are distinguishable from the original PDMSCs and may serve as a novel source in stem cell biology and cell-based therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, whether PDMSCs differentiated into other lineages can be dedifferentiated to a primitive cell population needs to be investigated.

  5. Different Procoagulant Activity of Therapeutic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Bone Marrow and Placental Decidua.

    PubMed

    Moll, Guido; Ignatowicz, Lech; Catar, Rusan; Luecht, Christian; Sadeghi, Behnam; Hamad, Osama; Jungebluth, Philipp; Dragun, Duska; Schmidtchen, Artur; Ringdén, Olle

    2015-10-01

    While therapeutic mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have usually been obtained from bone marrow, perinatal tissues have emerged as promising new sources of cells for stromal cell therapy. In this study, we present a first safety follow-up on our clinical experience with placenta-derived decidual stromal cells (DSCs), used as supportive immunomodulatory and regenerative therapy for patients with severe complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We found that DSCs are smaller, almost half the volume of MSCs, which may favor microvascular passage. DSCs also show different hemocompatibility, with increased triggering of the clotting cascade after exposure to human blood and plasma in vitro. After infusion of DSCs in HSCT patients, we observed a weak activation of the fibrinolytic system, but the other blood activation markers remained stable, excluding major adverse events. Expression profiling identified differential levels of key factors implicated in regulation of hemostasis, such as a lack of prostacyclin synthase and increased tissue factor expression in DSCs, suggesting that these cells have intrinsic blood-activating properties. The stronger triggering of the clotting cascade by DSCs could be antagonized by optimizing the cell graft reconstitution before infusion, for example, by use of low-dose heparin anticoagulant in the cell infusion buffer. We conclude that DSCs are smaller and have stronger hemostatic properties than MSCs, thus triggering stronger activation of the clotting system, which can be antagonized by optimizing the cell graft preparation before infusion. Our results highlight the importance of hemocompatibility safety testing for every novel cell therapy product before clinical use, when applied using systemic delivery.

  6. Gut Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Valeria; Buccione, Carla; Marotta, Giulia; Ziccheddu, Giovanna; Signore, Michele; Mattia, Gianfranco; Puglisi, Rossella; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Biancone, Livia

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), first found in bone marrow (BM), are the structural architects of all organs, participating in most biological functions. MSCs possess tissue-specific signatures that allow their discrimination according to their origin and location. Among their multiple functions, MSCs closely interact with immune cells, orchestrating their activity to maintain overall homeostasis. The phenotype of tissue MSCs residing in the bowel overlaps with myofibroblasts, lining the bottom walls of intestinal crypts (pericryptal) or interspersed within intestinal submucosa (intercryptal). In Crohn's disease, intestinal MSCs are tightly stacked in a chronic inflammatory milieu, which causes their enforced expression of Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The absence of Class II MHC is a hallmark for immune-modulator and tolerogenic properties of normal MSCs and, vice versa, the expression of HLA-DR is peculiar to antigen presenting cells, that is, immune-activator cells. Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is responsible for induction of Class II MHC expression on intestinal MSCs. The reversal of myofibroblasts/MSCs from an immune-modulator to an activator phenotype in Crohn's disease results in the formation of a fibrotic tube subverting the intestinal structure. Epithelial metaplastic areas in this context can progress to dysplasia and cancer. PMID:28337224

  7. Endothelial Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Janeczek Portalska, Karolina; Leferink, Anne; Groen, Nathalie; Fernandes, Hugo; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are increasingly used in regenerative medicine for restoring worn-out or damaged tissue. Newly engineered tissues need to be properly vascularized and current candidates for in vitro tissue pre-vascularization are endothelial cells and endothelial progenitor cells. However, their use in therapy is hampered by their limited expansion capacity and lack of autologous sources. Our approach to engineering large grafts is to use hMSCs both as a source of cells for regeneration of targeted tissue and at the same time as the source of endothelial cells. Here we investigate how different stimuli influence endothelial differentiation of hMSCs. Although growth supplements together with shear force were not sufficient to differentiate hMSCs with respect to expression of endothelial markers such as CD31 and KDR, these conditions did prime the cells to differentiate into cells with an endothelial gene expression profile and morphology when seeded on Matrigel. In addition, we show that endothelial-like hMSCs are able to create a capillary network in 3D culture both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The expansion phase in the presence of growth supplements was crucial for the stability of the capillaries formed in vitro. To conclude, we established a robust protocol for endothelial differentiation of hMSCs, including an immortalized MSC line (iMSCs) which allows for reproducible in vitro analysis in further studies. PMID:23056481

  8. Epigenetic Classification of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Danilo Candido; Ferreira, Marcelo R P; Franzen, Julia; Weidner, Carola I; Frobel, Joana; Zenke, Martin; Costa, Ivan G; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-02-09

    Standardization of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is hampered by the lack of a precise definition for these cell preparations; for example, there are no molecular markers to discern MSCs and fibroblasts. In this study, we followed the hypothesis that specific DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns can assist classification of MSCs. We utilized 190 DNAm profiles to address the impact of tissue of origin, donor age, replicative senescence, and serum supplements on the epigenetic makeup. Based on this, we elaborated a simple epigenetic signature based on two CpG sites to classify MSCs and fibroblasts, referred to as the Epi-MSC-Score. Another two-CpG signature can distinguish between MSCs from bone marrow and adipose tissue, referred to as the Epi-Tissue-Score. These assays were validated by site-specific pyrosequencing analysis in 34 primary cell preparations. Furthermore, even individual subclones of MSCs were correctly classified by our epigenetic signatures. In summary, we propose an alternative concept to use DNAm patterns for molecular definition of cell preparations, and our epigenetic scores facilitate robust and cost-effective quality control of MSC cultures.

  9. Epigenetic Classification of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Danilo Candido; Ferreira, Marcelo R.P.; Franzen, Julia; Weidner, Carola I.; Frobel, Joana; Zenke, Martin; Costa, Ivan G.; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Summary Standardization of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is hampered by the lack of a precise definition for these cell preparations; for example, there are no molecular markers to discern MSCs and fibroblasts. In this study, we followed the hypothesis that specific DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns can assist classification of MSCs. We utilized 190 DNAm profiles to address the impact of tissue of origin, donor age, replicative senescence, and serum supplements on the epigenetic makeup. Based on this, we elaborated a simple epigenetic signature based on two CpG sites to classify MSCs and fibroblasts, referred to as the Epi-MSC-Score. Another two-CpG signature can distinguish between MSCs from bone marrow and adipose tissue, referred to as the Epi-Tissue-Score. These assays were validated by site-specific pyrosequencing analysis in 34 primary cell preparations. Furthermore, even individual subclones of MSCs were correctly classified by our epigenetic signatures. In summary, we propose an alternative concept to use DNAm patterns for molecular definition of cell preparations, and our epigenetic scores facilitate robust and cost-effective quality control of MSC cultures. PMID:26862701

  10. Cryopreservation of alginate encapsulated mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Pravdyuk, Alexey I; Petrenko, Yuri A; Fuller, Barry J; Petrenko, Alexander Y

    2013-06-01

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can differentiate into various cell types, which makes them attractive for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Encapsulation of MSCs in alginate microspheres (AMS) is a novel and promising approach of tissue engineering. Application and research of such cell-hydrogel systems require selection of adequate cryopreservation protocols. In this study we investigated the response of MSCs encapsulated in AMS to different cryopreservation protocols. Bone marrow MSCs either encapsulated in AMS and or as cells in suspension, were cryopreserved with 5% and 10% of dimethyl sulfoxide (ME₂SO) using conventional 2-step slow cooling (protocol 1). The viability and metabolism of MSCs in AMS following cryopreservation with 5% Me₂SO were lower than in the group cryopreserved with 10% Me₂SO. MSCs in suspension were more resistant to cryopreservation than cells in AMS when cryopreserved with 5% Me₂SO, although when using a concentration of 10% Me₂SO, no differences were detected. Comparisons of the viability and metabolic activity of MSC cryopreserved either in AMS or as cell suspensions with 10% ME₂SO using protocol 1 (2-step cooling), protocol 2 (3-step slow cooling with induced ice nucleation) or protocol 3 (rapid 1-step freezing), showed that the highest viabilities and metabolic rates were obtained following cryopreservation of MSCs in AMS by protocol 2 (with controlled ice nucleation). Cryopreservation with protocol 3 resulted in critical damage of the encapsulated MSCs. After cryopreservation by protocol 2, AMS encapsulated MSCs were capable of achieving multilineage differentiation directed towards osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages. The data obtained indicate that cryo-banking of AMS encapsulated MSCs is feasible for future regenerative medicine projects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mimicking the functional hematopoietic stem cell niche in vitro: recapitulation of marrow physiology by hydrogel-based three-dimensional cultures of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika B; Limaye, Lalita S; Kale, Vaijayanti P

    2012-05-01

    A culture system that closely recapitulates marrow physiology is essential to study the niche-mediated regulation of hematopoietic stem cell fate at a molecular level. We investigated the key features that play a crucial role in the formation of a functional niche in vitro. Hydrogel-based cultures of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stromal cells were established to recapitulate the fibrous three-dimensional architecture of the marrow. Plastic-adherent mesenchymal stromal cells were used as controls. Human bone marrow-derived CD34(+) cells were co-cultured with them. The output hematopoietic cells were characterized by various stem cell-specific phenotypic and functional parameters. The hydrogel-cultures harbored a large pool of primitive hematopoietic stem cells with superior phenotypic and functional attributes. Most importantly, like the situation in vivo, a significant fraction of these cells remained quiescent in the face of a robust multi-lineage hematopoiesis. The retention of a high percentage of primitive stem cells by the hydrogel-cultures was attributed to the presence of CXCR4-SDF1α axis and integrin beta1-mediated adhesive interactions. The hydrogel-grown mesenchymal stromal cells expressed high levels of several molecules that are known to support the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells. Yet another physiologically relevant property exhibited by the hydrogel cultures was the formation of hypoxia-gradient. Destruction of hypoxia-gradient by incubating these cultures in a hypoxia chamber destroyed their specialized niche properties. Our data show that hydrogel-based cultures of mesenchymal stromal cells form a functional in vitro niche by mimicking key features of marrow physiology.

  12. Therapeutic effect of mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells on memory in animals with Alzheimer-type neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Bobkova, N V; Poltavtseva, R A; Samokhin, A N; Sukhikh, G T

    2013-11-01

    Transplantation of human mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells improved spatial memory in bulbectomized mice with Alzheimer-type neurodegeneration. The positive effect was observed in 1 month after intracerebral transplantation and in 3 months after systemic injection of mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells. No cases of malignant transformation were noted. These findings indicate prospects of using mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells for the therapy of Alzheimer disease and the possibility of their systemic administration for attaining the therapeutic effect.

  13. In Vitro Characterization of Patches of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Stephan; Bodivit, Gwellaouen; Bartis, Widy; Lebouvier, Angélique; Chevallier, Nathalie; Fialaire-Legendre, Anne; Bierling, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells may represent an excellent strategy to improve the healing of skin ulcers. Today the administration mode of stem cells to skin defects remains unsatisfactory. Delivering stem cells with topical treatments represents a new strategy and answering the patients' need. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been shown to improve wound healing of cutaneous lesions and amniotic membrane (AM) is known to represent a natural scaffold for cells. The aim of this study is to develop a tissue-engineered product combining MSC and AM for clinical use. In this work we investigated whether the stromal matrix of intact human AM could constitute a scaffold for human MSC derived from either bone marrow (BM) or adipose tissue (AT). For this purpose, clinical-grade AM, MSC, and culture medium were used. We performed experiments of short-term adherence and proliferation for 15 days after the seeding of the cells. Morphological aspects and secretion profiles of MSC onto AM were studied, respectively, by scanning electron microscopy and Luminex analysis. Results demonstrated that the stromal matrix allow the adherence in much greater amount of MSC from BM or AT compared to 2D material. Experiments of proliferation showed that both kinds of MSC could proliferate on the stromal matrix and remain viable 15 days after the seeding of the cells. The 3D analysis of MSC culture demonstrated that both types of MSC invaded the stromal matrix and grew in multiple layers while retaining their fibroblastic morphology. By studying the secretion profile of MSC onto the stromal matrix, we found that both kinds of MSC secrete important cytokines and growth factors for wound healing of cutaneous lesions, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor. In conclusion, these results suggest that the stromal matrix of AM seeded with MSC represents a bioactive scaffold that should be evaluated in patients with a nonhealing cutaneous wound. PMID

  14. Fetal Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells Enhance Humanization and Bone Formation of BMP7 Loaded Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Abbas; Baldwin, Jeremy G; Patel, Jatin; Holzapfel, Boris M; Fisk, Nicholas M; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2017-09-01

    Tissue engineered constructs built with human cells capable of generating a bone-like organ within the mouse have attracted considerable interest over the past decade. Here, we aimed to compare the utility of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) isolated from fetal term placenta (fPL-MSC) and fetal first trimester bone marrow (fBM-MSC) in a polycaprolactone scaffold/BMP7-based model in nude mice. Furthermore, fPL-MSC were co-seeded with fetal placenta-derived endothelial colony forming cells (ECFC) to assess the impact of ECFC on fPL-MSC osteogenesis. X-ray radiography and micro computed tomography analyses showed enhanced bone formation in all BMP7 groups; however there was no difference after 2 months in bone formation between scaffolds seeded with fPL-MSC alone or combination of ECFC and fPL-MSC. Of interest, fBM-MSC showed the highest level of bone formation. Additionally, endochondral ossification contributed in generation of bone in fBM-MSC. Histological analysis showed the primary role of BMP in generation of cortical and trabecular bone, and the recruitment of hematopoietic cells to the scaffolds. Current in vivo engineered bone organs can potentially be used for drug screening or as models to study bone tissue development in combination with haematopoiesis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Human Thymus Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Augment Force Production in Self-Organized Cardiac Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Sondergaard, Claus S.; Hodonsky, Chani J.; Khait, Luda; Shaw, John; Sarkar, Bedabrata; Birla, Ravi; Bove, Edward; Nolta, Jan; Si, Ming-Sing

    2011-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stromal cells have been recently isolated from thymus gland tissue discarded after surgical procedures. The role of this novel cell type in heart regeneration has yet to be defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of human thymus-derived mesenchymal stromal cells using self-organized cardiac tissue as an in vitro platform for quantitative assessment. Methods Mesenchymal stromal cells were isolated from discarded thymus tissue from neonates undergoing heart surgery and were incubated in differentiation media to demonstrate multipotency. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes self-organized into cardiac tissue fibers in a custom culture dish either alone or in combination with varying numbers of mesenchymal stromal cells. A transducer measured force generated by spontaneously contracting self-organized cardiac tissue fibers. Work and power outputs were calculated from force tracings. Immunofluorescence was performed to determine the fate of the thymus-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. Results Mesenchymal stromal cells were successfully isolated from discarded thymus tissue. After incubation in differentiation media, mesenchymal stromal cells attained the expected phenotypes. Although mesenchymal stromal cells did not differentiate into mature cardiomyocytes, addition of these cells increased the rate of fiber formation, force production, and work and power outputs. Self-organized cardiac tissue containing mesenchymal stromal cells acquired a defined microscopic architecture. Conclusions Discarded thymus tissue contains mesenchymal stromal cells, which can augment force production and work and power outputs of self-organized cardiac tissue fibers by several-fold. These findings indicate the potential utility of mesenchymal stromal cells in treating heart failure. PMID:20732499

  16. Characterization of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells in aplastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Hamzic, Edita; Whiting, Karen; Gordon Smith, Edward; Pettengell, Ruth

    2015-06-01

    In aplastic anaemia (AA), haemopoietic activity is significantly reduced and generally attributed to failure of haemopoietic stem cells (HSC) within the bone marrow (BM). The regulation of haemopoiesis depends on the interaction between HSC and various cells of the BM microenvironment, including mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). MSC involvement in the functional restriction of HSC in AA is largely unknown and therefore, the physical and functional properties of AA MSC were studied in vitro. MSC were characterized by their phenotype and ability to form adherent stromal layers. The functional properties of AA MSC were assessed through proliferative, clonogenic and cross-over culture assays. Results indicate that although AA MSC presented typical morphology and distinctive mesenchymal markers, stromal formation was reduced, with 50% of BM samples failing to produce adherent layers. Furthermore, their proliferative and clonogenic capacity was markedly decreased (P = 0·03 and P = 0·04 respectively) and the ability to sustain haemopoiesis was significantly reduced, as assessed by total cell proliferation (P = 0·032 and P = 0·019 at Week 5 and 6, respectively) and clonogenic potential of HSC (P = 0·02 at Week 6). It was concluded that the biological characteristics of AA MSC are different from those of control MSC and their in vitro haemopoiesis-supporting ability is significantly reduced.

  17. Potential Effect of CD271 on Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Proliferation and Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Giovanna; Giuffrida, Raffaella; Lo Furno, Debora; Parrinello, Nunziatina Laura; Forte, Stefano; Gulino, Rosario; Colarossi, Cristina; Schinocca, Luciana Rita; Giuffrida, Rosario; Cardile, Venera; Memeo, Lorenzo

    2015-07-09

    The Low-Affinity Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (LNGFR), also known as CD271, is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. The CD271 cell surface marker defines a subset of multipotential mesenchymal stromal cells and may be used to isolate and enrich cells derived from bone marrow aspirate. In this study, we compare the proliferative and differentiation potentials of CD271+ and CD271- mesenchymal stromal cells. Mesenchymal stromal cells were isolated from bone marrow aspirate and adipose tissue by plastic adherence and positive selection. The proliferation and differentiation potentials of CD271+ and CD271- mesenchymal stromal cells were assessed by inducing osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic in vitro differentiation. Compared to CD271+, CD271- mesenchymal stromal cells showed a lower proliferation rate and a decreased ability to give rise to osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Furthermore, we observed that CD271+ mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from adipose tissue displayed a higher efficiency of proliferation and trilineage differentiation compared to CD271+ mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow samples, although the CD271 expression levels were comparable. In conclusion, these data show that both the presence of CD271 antigen and the source of mesenchymal stromal cells represent important factors in determining the ability of the cells to proliferate and differentiate.

  18. Potential Effect of CD271 on Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Giovanna; Giuffrida, Raffaella; Lo Furno, Debora; Parrinello, Nunziatina Laura; Forte, Stefano; Gulino, Rosario; Colarossi, Cristina; Schinocca, Luciana Rita; Giuffrida, Rosario; Cardile, Venera; Memeo, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The Low-Affinity Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (LNGFR), also known as CD271, is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. The CD271 cell surface marker defines a subset of multipotential mesenchymal stromal cells and may be used to isolate and enrich cells derived from bone marrow aspirate. In this study, we compare the proliferative and differentiation potentials of CD271+ and CD271− mesenchymal stromal cells. Mesenchymal stromal cells were isolated from bone marrow aspirate and adipose tissue by plastic adherence and positive selection. The proliferation and differentiation potentials of CD271+ and CD271− mesenchymal stromal cells were assessed by inducing osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic in vitro differentiation. Compared to CD271+, CD271− mesenchymal stromal cells showed a lower proliferation rate and a decreased ability to give rise to osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Furthermore, we observed that CD271+ mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from adipose tissue displayed a higher efficiency of proliferation and trilineage differentiation compared to CD271+ mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow samples, although the CD271 expression levels were comparable. In conclusion, these data show that both the presence of CD271 antigen and the source of mesenchymal stromal cells represent important factors in determining the ability of the cells to proliferate and differentiate. PMID:26184166

  19. Supernatant of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Induces Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Possessing Mesenchymal Features

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Gang; Xu, Jun-jun; Deng, Zhi-hong; Feng, Jie; Jin, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that some cells from peripheral blood fibroblast-like mononuclear cells have the capacity to differentiate into mesenchymal lineages. However, the insufficiency of these cells in the circulation challenges the cell isolation and subsequently limits the clinical application of these cells. In the present study, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbMNCs) were isolated from wound animals and treated with the supernatant of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (bmMSCs). Results showed these pbMNCs were fibroblast-like, had stromal morphology, were negative for CD34 and CD45, but positive for Vimentin and Collagen I, and had the multipotency to differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts. We named these induced peripheral blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ipbMSCs). Skin grafts in combination with ipbMSCs and collagen I were applied for wound healing, and results revealed ipbMSC exhibited similar potency and effectiveness in the promotion of wound healing to the bmMSCs. Hereafter, we speculate that the mixture of growth factors and chemokines secreted by bmMSCs may play an important roles in the induction of the proliferation and mesenchymal differentiation of mononuclear cells. Our results are clinically relevant because it provide a new method for the acquisition of MSCs which can be used as a candidate for the wound repair. PMID:21494428

  20. Mesenchymal stromal cells and the innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Le Blanc, Katarina; Davies, Lindsay C

    2015-12-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been exploited for their immunomodulatory properties in the treatment of a number of immune-based disorders, including Graft versus Host Disease (GvHD) and type 1 diabetes. The mechanisms for inducing therapeutic effect still remain largely unknown however, with research focused on understanding how MSCs interact with individual immune cell subsets. Within this review we address what is known about the interactions of MSCs with cells of the innate immune system, how they respond to their microenvironment and how this relates to therapeutic effects we see both within in vivo animal models and in clinical trials.

  1. Manufacturing mesenchymal stromal cells for phase I clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Patrick J; Mei, Zhuyong; da Graca Cabreira-Hansen, Maria; Klis, Mariola; Li, Wei; Zhao, Yali; Durett, April G; Zheng, Xingwu; Wang, Yongping; Gee, Adrian P; Horwitz, Edwin M

    2013-04-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells capable of differentiating into adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondroblasts as well as secreting a vast array of soluble mediators. This potentially makes MSCs important mediators of a variety of therapeutic applications. They are actively under evaluation for immunomodulatory purposes such as graft-versus-host disease and Crohn's disease as well as regenerative applications such as stroke and congestive heart failure. We report our method of generating clinical-grade MSCs together with suggestions gathered from manufacturing experience in our Good Manufacturing Practices facility. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Human mesenchymal stromal cells suppress T-cell proliferation independent of heme oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema R; Copland, Ian B; Garcia, Marco A; Metz, Richard; Galipeau, Jacques

    2015-04-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells deploy immune suppressive properties amenable for use as cell therapy for inflammatory disorders. It is now recognized that mesenchymal stromal cells necessitate priming with an inflammatory milieu, in particular interferon-γ, to exert augmented immunosuppressive effects. It has been recently suggested that the heme-catabolizing enzyme heme oxygenase-1 is an essential component of the mesenchymal stromal cell-driven immune suppressive response. Because mesenchymal stromal cells upregulate indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression on interferon-γ priming and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase requires heme as a cofactor for optimal catabolic function, we investigated the potential antagonism of heme oxygenase-1 activity on indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase and the impact on mesenchymal stromal cell immune plasticity. We herein sought to evaluate the molecular genetic effect of cytokine priming on human mesenchymal stromal cell heme oxygenase-1 expression and its functional role in differentially primed mesenchymal stromal cells. Contrary to previous reports, messenger RNA and protein analyses demonstrated that mesenchymal stromal cells derived from normal subjects (n = 6) do not express heme oxygenase-1 at steady state or after interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and/or transforming growth factor-β priming. Pharmacological inhibition of heme oxygenase-1 with the use of tin protoporphyrin did not significantly abrogate the ability of mesenchymal stromal cells to suppress T-cell proliferation in vitro. Overall, these results unequivocally demonstrate that under steady state and after cytokine priming, human mesenchymal stromal cells immunoregulate T-cell proliferation independent of heme oxygenase-1.

  3. Low Reactive Level Laser Therapy for Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Hirasawa, Takeshi; Okawa, Shinpei; Ishihara, Miya

    2015-01-01

    Low reactive level laser therapy (LLLT) is mainly focused on the activation of intracellular or extracellular chromophore and the initiation of cellular signaling by using low power lasers. Over the past forty years, it was realized that the laser therapy had the potential to improve wound healing and reduce pain and inflammation. In recent years, the term LLLT has become widely recognized in the field of regenerative medicine. In this review, we will describe the mechanisms of action of LLLT at a cellular level and introduce the application to mesenchymal stem cells and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) therapies. Finally, our recent research results that LLLT enhanced the MSCs differentiation to osteoblast will also be described. PMID:26273309

  4. Regenerative Potential of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Age-Related Changes

    PubMed Central

    Bruna, Flavia; Contador, David; Conget, Paulette; Erranz, Benjamín; Sossa, Claudia L.; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L.

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that a therapeutic effect results from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) transplant. No systematic information is currently available regarding whether donor age modifies MSC regenerative potential on cutaneous wound healing. Here, we evaluate whether donor age influences this potential. Two different doses of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) from young, adult, or old mouse donors or two doses of their acellular derivatives mesenchymal stromal cells (acd-MSCs) were intradermally injected around wounds in the midline of C57BL/6 mice. Every two days, wound healing was macroscopically assessed (wound closure) and microscopically assessed (reepithelialization, dermal-epidermal junction, skin appendage regeneration, granulation tissue, leukocyte infiltration, and density dermal collagen fibers) after 12 days from MSC transplant. Significant differences in the wound closure kinetic, quality, and healing of skin regenerated were observed in lesions which received BM-MSCs from different ages or their acd-MSCs compared to lesions which received vehicle. Nevertheless, our data shows that adult's BM-MSCs or their acd-MSCs were the most efficient for recovery of most parameters analyzed. Our data suggest that MSC efficacy was negatively affected by donor age, where the treatment with adult's BM-MSCs or their acd-MSCs in cutaneous wound promotes a better tissue repair/regeneration. This is due to their paracrine factors secretion. PMID:27247575

  5. Culture and characterisation of equine peripheral blood mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Spaas, Jan H; De Schauwer, Catharina; Cornillie, Pieter; Meyer, Evelyne; Van Soom, Ann; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R

    2013-01-01

    Although the use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for the treatment of orthopaedic injuries in horses has been reported, no official guidelines exist that classify a particular cell as an equine MSC. Given the limited characterisation of peripheral blood (PB)-derived equine MSCs in particular, this study aimed to provide more detailed information in relation to this cell type. Mesenchymal stromal cells were isolated from equine PB samples and colony forming unit (CFU) assays as well as population doubling times (PDTs) (from P(0) to P(10)) were performed. Two types of colonies, 'fingerprint' and dispersed, could be observed based on macroscopic and microscopic features. Moreover, after an initial lag phase (as indicated by a negative PDT at P(0) to P(1)) the MSCs divided rapidly as indicated by a positive PDT at all further passages. Immunophenotyping was carried out with trypsin- as well as with accutase-detached MSC to evaluate potential trypsin-sensitive epitope destruction on particular antigens. Isolated MSC were positive for CD29, CD44, CD90 and CD105, and negative for CD45, CD79α, MHC II and a monocyte/macrophage marker, irrespective of the cell detaching agent used. Trilineage differentiation of the MSCs towards osteoblasts, chondroblasts and adipocytes was confirmed using a range of histochemical stains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Multivariate biophysical markers predictive of mesenchymal stromal cell multipotency

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wong Cheng; Shi, Hui; Poon, Zhiyong; Nyan, Lin Myint; Kaushik, Tanwi; Shivashankar, G. V.; Chan, Jerry K. Y.; Lim, Chwee Teck; Han, Jongyoon; Van Vliet, Krystyn J.

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to produce therapeutically relevant quantities of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) via in vitro culture is a common prerequisite for stem cell-based therapies. Although culture expanded MSCs are widely studied and considered for therapeutic applications, it has remained challenging to identify a unique set of characteristics that enables robust identification and isolation of the multipotent stem cells. New means to describe and separate this rare cell type and its downstream progenitor cells within heterogeneous cell populations will contribute significantly to basic biological understanding and can potentially improve efficacy of stem and progenitor cell-based therapies. Here, we use multivariate biophysical analysis of culture-expanded, bone marrow-derived MSCs, correlating these quantitative measures with biomolecular markers and in vitro and in vivo functionality. We find that, although no single biophysical property robustly predicts stem cell multipotency, there exists a unique and minimal set of three biophysical markers that together are predictive of multipotent subpopulations, in vitro and in vivo. Subpopulations of culture-expanded stromal cells from both adult and fetal bone marrow that exhibit sufficiently small cell diameter, low cell stiffness, and high nuclear membrane fluctuations are highly clonogenic and also exhibit gene, protein, and functional signatures of multipotency. Further, we show that high-throughput inertial microfluidics enables efficient sorting of committed osteoprogenitor cells, as distinct from these mesenchymal stem cells, in adult bone marrow. Together, these results demonstrate novel methods and markers of stemness that facilitate physical isolation, study, and therapeutic use of culture-expanded, stromal cell subpopulations. PMID:25298531

  7. Heterogeneity of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells: from stromal cells to stem cells and vice versa.

    PubMed

    Dominici, Massimo; Paolucci, Paolo; Conte, Pierfranco; Horwitz, Edwin M

    2009-05-15

    Discovered more than 40 years ago, the biological features of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) were progressively compared first with hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and, more recently, with embryonic stem cells (ESC). Although these comparisons have been crucial in helping to clarify their nature, there is now a robust amount of data indicating that MSC in vitro represent an independent and heterogeneous group of progenitors with distinct self-renewal properties and established differentiation potentials. However, research developments both in humans and animals have progressively revealed the limits that MSC may face in vivo. To recognize these issues and challenge MSC stemness may seem to be a step backward. Nevertheless, it might also represent the beginning of a phase in which the introduction of novel preclinical approaches could provide better characterization and standardization of the in vivo factors influencing cell engraftment and survival, allowing a more successful impact of mesenchymal progenitors in several clinical settings.

  8. Isolation of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Cryopreserved Human Umbilical Cord Tissue.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Yu A; Balashova, E E; Volgina, N E; Kabaeva, N V; Dugina, T N; Sukhikh, G T

    2016-02-01

    Umbilical cord stroma is an easily available, convenient, and promising source of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells for regenerative medicine. Cryogenic storage of umbilical cord tissue provides more possibilities for further isolation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells for autologous transplantation or scientific purposes. Here we developed a protocol for preparation of the whole umbilical cord tissue for cryogenic storage that in combination with the previously described modified method of isolation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells allowed us to isolate cells with high proliferative potential, typical phenotype, and preserved differentiation potencies.

  9. A molecular classification of human mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Rohart, Florian; Mason, Elizabeth A.; Matigian, Nicholas; Mosbergen, Rowland; Korn, Othmar; Chen, Tyrone; Butcher, Suzanne; Patel, Jatin; Atkinson, Kerry; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash; Fisk, Nicholas M.; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are widely used for the study of mesenchymal tissue repair, and increasingly adopted for cell therapy, despite the lack of consensus on the identity of these cells. In part this is due to the lack of specificity of MSC markers. Distinguishing MSC from other stromal cells such as fibroblasts is particularly difficult using standard analysis of surface proteins, and there is an urgent need for improved classification approaches. Transcriptome profiling is commonly used to describe and compare different cell types; however, efforts to identify specific markers of rare cellular subsets may be confounded by the small sample sizes of most studies. Consequently, it is difficult to derive reproducible, and therefore useful markers. We addressed the question of MSC classification with a large integrative analysis of many public MSC datasets. We derived a sparse classifier (The Rohart MSC test) that accurately distinguished MSC from non-MSC samples with >97% accuracy on an internal training set of 635 samples from 41 studies derived on 10 different microarray platforms. The classifier was validated on an external test set of 1,291 samples from 65 studies derived on 15 different platforms, with >95% accuracy. The genes that contribute to the MSC classifier formed a protein-interaction network that included known MSC markers. Further evidence of the relevance of this new MSC panel came from the high number of Mendelian disorders associated with mutations in more than 65% of the network. These result in mesenchymal defects, particularly impacting on skeletal growth and function. The Rohart MSC test is a simple in silico test that accurately discriminates MSC from fibroblasts, other adult stem/progenitor cell types or differentiated stromal cells. It has been implemented in the www.stemformatics.org resource, to assist researchers wishing to benchmark their own MSC datasets or data from the public domain. The code is available from the CRAN

  10. A molecular classification of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Rohart, Florian; Mason, Elizabeth A; Matigian, Nicholas; Mosbergen, Rowland; Korn, Othmar; Chen, Tyrone; Butcher, Suzanne; Patel, Jatin; Atkinson, Kerry; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash; Fisk, Nicholas M; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh; Wells, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are widely used for the study of mesenchymal tissue repair, and increasingly adopted for cell therapy, despite the lack of consensus on the identity of these cells. In part this is due to the lack of specificity of MSC markers. Distinguishing MSC from other stromal cells such as fibroblasts is particularly difficult using standard analysis of surface proteins, and there is an urgent need for improved classification approaches. Transcriptome profiling is commonly used to describe and compare different cell types; however, efforts to identify specific markers of rare cellular subsets may be confounded by the small sample sizes of most studies. Consequently, it is difficult to derive reproducible, and therefore useful markers. We addressed the question of MSC classification with a large integrative analysis of many public MSC datasets. We derived a sparse classifier (The Rohart MSC test) that accurately distinguished MSC from non-MSC samples with >97% accuracy on an internal training set of 635 samples from 41 studies derived on 10 different microarray platforms. The classifier was validated on an external test set of 1,291 samples from 65 studies derived on 15 different platforms, with >95% accuracy. The genes that contribute to the MSC classifier formed a protein-interaction network that included known MSC markers. Further evidence of the relevance of this new MSC panel came from the high number of Mendelian disorders associated with mutations in more than 65% of the network. These result in mesenchymal defects, particularly impacting on skeletal growth and function. The Rohart MSC test is a simple in silico test that accurately discriminates MSC from fibroblasts, other adult stem/progenitor cell types or differentiated stromal cells. It has been implemented in the www.stemformatics.org resource, to assist researchers wishing to benchmark their own MSC datasets or data from the public domain. The code is available from the CRAN

  11. Good manufacturing practices production of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Sensebé, Luc; Bourin, Philippe; Tarte, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Because of their multi/pluripotency and immunosuppressive properties mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are important tools for treating immune disorders and for tissue repair. The increasing use of MSCs has led to production processes that need to be in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). In cellular therapy, safety remains one of the main concerns and refers to donor validation, choice of starting material, processes, and the controls used, not only at the batch release level but also during the development of processes. The culture processes should be reproducible, robust, and efficient. Moreover, they should be adapted to closed systems that are easy to use. Implementing controls during the manufacturing of clinical-grade MSCs is essential. The controls should ensure microbiological safety but also avoid potential side effects linked to genomic instability driving transformation and senescence or decrease of cell functions (immunoregulation, differentiation potential). In this rapidly evolving field, a new approach to controls is needed.

  12. Functional inhibition of mesenchymal stromal cells in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Geyh, S; Rodríguez-Paredes, M; Jäger, P; Khandanpour, C; Cadeddu, R-P; Gutekunst, J; Wilk, C M; Fenk, R; Zilkens, C; Hermsen, D; Germing, U; Kobbe, G; Lyko, F; Haas, R; Schroeder, T

    2016-03-01

    Hematopoietic insufficiency is the hallmark of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and predisposes patients to life-threatening complications such as bleeding and infections. Addressing the contribution of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) to AML-induced hematopoietic failure we show that MSC from AML patients (n=64) exhibit significant growth deficiency and impaired osteogenic differentiation capacity. This was molecularly reflected by a specific methylation signature affecting pathways involved in cell differentiation, proliferation and skeletal development. In addition, we found distinct alterations of hematopoiesis-regulating factors such as Kit-ligand and Jagged1 accompanied by a significantly diminished ability to support CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in long-term culture-initiating cells (LTC-ICs) assays. This deficient osteogenic differentiation and insufficient stromal support was reversible and correlated with disease status as indicated by Osteocalcin serum levels and LTC-IC frequencies returning to normal values at remission. In line with this, cultivation of healthy MSC in conditioned medium from four AML cell lines resulted in decreased proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Taken together, AML-derived MSC are molecularly and functionally altered and contribute to hematopoietic insufficiency. Inverse correlation with disease status and adoption of an AML-like phenotype after exposure to leukemic conditions suggests an instructive role of leukemic cells on bone marrow microenvironment.

  13. Optimized Protocol for Isolation of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Human Umbilical Cord.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Yu A; Balashova, E E; Volgina, N E; Kabaeva, N V; Dugina, T N; Sukhikh, G T

    2015-11-01

    Extraembryonic tissues, in particular, umbilical cord stroma are promising sources of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells for regenerative medicine. In recent years, methods for isolation of mesenchymal stromal cells from different compartments of the umbilical cords based on enzymatic disaggregation of the tissue or on tissue explants have been proposed. Here we propose a protocol of isolation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells from the whole umbilical cord that combines the advantages of each approach and ensures sufficient cell yield for further experimental and clinical applications. A combination of short-term incubation of tissue fragments on cold collagenase solution followed by their culturing in the form of explants significantly increased the yield of cells with high proliferative activity, typical pluripotent mesenchymal stromal cell phenotype, and preserved differentiation capacity.

  14. Hitting the right spot with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Tolar, Jakub; Le Blanc, Katarina; Keating, Armand; Blazar, Bruce R.

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have captured considerable scientific and public interest because of their potential to limit physical and immune injury, to produce bioactive molecules and to regenerate tissues. MSCs are phenotypically heterogeneous, and distinct subpopulations within MSC cultures are presumed to contribute to tissue repair and the modulation of allogeneic immune responses. As the first example of efficacy, clinical trials for prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic cell transplantation show that MSCs can effectively treat human disease. The view of the mechanisms whereby MSCs function as immunomodulatory and reparative cells has evolved simultaneously. Initially, donor MSC were thought to replace damaged cells in injured tissues of the recipient. More recently, however, it has become increasingly clear that even transient MSC engraftment may exert favorable effects through the secretion of cytokines and other paracrine factors, which engage and recruit recipient cells in productive tissue repair. Thus, an important reason to investigate MSCs in mechanistic preclinical models and in clinical trials with well defined end-points and controls is to better understand the therapeutic potential of these multifunctional cells. Here, we review the controversies and recent insights into MSC biology, the regulation of alloresponses by MSCs in preclinical models, as well as clinical experience with MSC infusions and the challenges of manufacturing a ready supply of highly defined transplantable MSCs. PMID:20597105

  15. Insufficient stromal support in MDS results from molecular and functional deficits of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Geyh, S; Oz, S; Cadeddu, R-P; Fröbel, J; Brückner, B; Kündgen, A; Fenk, R; Bruns, I; Zilkens, C; Hermsen, D; Gattermann, N; Kobbe, G; Germing, U; Lyko, F; Haas, R; Schroeder, T

    2013-09-01

    Ineffective hematopoiesis is a major characteristic of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) causing relevant morbidity and mortality. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been shown to physiologically support hematopoiesis, but their contribution to the pathogenesis of MDS remains elusive. We show that MSC from patients across all MDS subtypes (n=106) exhibit significantly reduced growth and proliferative capacities accompanied by premature replicative senescence. Osteogenic differentiation was significantly reduced in MDS-derived MSC, indicated by cytochemical stainings and reduced expressions of Osterix and Osteocalcin. This was associated with specific methylation patterns that clearly separated MDS-MSC from healthy controls and showed a strong enrichment for biological processes associated with cellular phenotypes and transcriptional regulation. Furthermore, in MDS-MSC, we detected altered expression of key molecules involved in the interaction with hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), in particular Osteopontin, Jagged1, Kit-ligand and Angiopoietin as well as several chemokines. Functionally, this translated into a significantly diminished ability of MDS-derived MSC to support CD34+ HSPC in long-term culture-initiating cell assays associated with a reduced cell cycle activity. Taken together, our comprehensive analysis shows that MSC from all MDS subtypes are structurally, epigenetically and functionally altered, which leads to impaired stromal support and seems to contribute to deficient hematopoiesis in MDS.

  16. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Prevent Allostimulation In Vivo and Control Checkpoints of Th1 Priming: Migration of Human DC to Lymph Nodes and NK Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Consentius, C; Akyüz, L; Schmidt-Lucke, J A; Tschöpe, C; Pinzur, L; Ofir, R; Reinke, P; Volk, H-D; Juelke, K

    2015-10-01

    Although the immunomodulatory potency of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) is well established, the mechanisms behind are still not clear. The crosstalk between myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) and natural killer (NK) cells and especially NK cell-derived interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) play a pivotal role in the development of type 1 helper (Th1) cell immune responses. While many studies explored the isolated impact of MSC on either in vitro generated DC, NK, or T cells, there are only few data available on the complex interplay between these cells. Here, we investigated the impact of MSC on the functionality of human mDC and the consequences for NK cell and Th1 priming in vitro and in vivo. In critical limb ischemia patients, who have been treated with allogeneic placenta-derived mesenchymal-like stromal cells (PLX-PAD), no in vivo priming of Th1 responses toward the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) mismatches could be detected. Further in vitro studies revealed that mDC reprogramming could play a central role for these effects. Following crosstalk with MSC, activated mDC acquired a tolerogenic phenotype characterized by reduced migration toward CCR7 ligand and impaired ability to stimulate NK cell-derived IFN-γ production. These effects, which were strongly related to an altered interleukin (IL)-12/IL-10 production by mDC, were accompanied by an effective prevention of Th1 priming in vivo. Our findings provide novel evidence for the regulation of Th1 priming by MSC via modulation of mDC and NK cell crosstalk and show that off-the-shelf produced MHC-mismatched PLX-PAD can be used in patients without any sign of immunogenicity.

  17. Mesenchymal stromal cells and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Maria Ester; Fibbe, Willem E

    2015-12-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) comprise a heterogeneous population of multipotent cells that can be isolated from various human tissues and culture-expanded ex vivo for clinical use. Due to their immunoregulatory properties and their ability to secrete growth factors, MSCs play a key role in the regulation of hematopoiesis and in the modulation of immune responses against allo- and autoantigens. In light of these properties, MSCs have been employed in clinical trials in the context of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to facilitate engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and to prevent graft failure, as well as to treat steroid-resistant acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). The available clinical evidence derived from these studies indicates that MSC administration is safe. Moreover, promising preliminary results in terms of efficacy have been reported in some clinical trials, especially in the treatment of acute GvHD. In this review we critically discuss recent advances in MSC therapy by reporting on the most relevant studies in the field of HSCT. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of Human AB Serum for Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Expansion

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Vanessa Tieko Marques; Mizukami, Amanda; Orellana, Maristela Delgado; Caruso, Samia Rigotto; da Silva, Fernanda Borges; Traina, Fabiola; de Lima Prata, Karen; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Swiech, Kamilla

    2017-01-01

    Background So far, using human blood-derived components appears to be the most efficient and safest approach available for mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) expansion. In this paper, we report on the characterization of human AB serum (AB HS) produced by using different plasma sources, and its use as an alternative supplement to MSC expansion. Methods Two plasma sources were used for AB HS production: plasma removed from whole blood after 24 h of collection (PC > 24 h) and plasma, cryoprecipitate reduced (PCryoR). The biochemical profile and quality of the produced AB HS batches were analyzed and their ability to support MSC cell growth after different storage times (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months) was evaluated. Results The two plasma sources used showed similar characteristics regarding biochemical constituents and quality parameters and were effective in promoting MSC growth. MSCs cultured in medium supplemented with 10% AB HS presented similar doubling times and cumulative population doublings when compared to the 10% fetal bovine serum(FBS)-supplemented culture while maintaining immunophenotype, functional features, and cytogenetic profile. Conclusion Overall, the results indicate that AB HS is an efficient FBS substitute and can be used for at least 12 months after production without impairing cell proliferation and quality. PMID:28275329

  19. CONCISE REVIEW Micro RNA Expression in Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmipathy, Uma; Hart, Ronald P.

    2009-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) isolated from various adult tissue sources have the capacity to self-renew and to differentiate into multiple lineages. Both of these processes are tightly regulated by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Emerging evidence indicates that the class of single-stranded non-coding RNAs known as “microRNAs” also plays a critical role in this process. First described in nematodes and plants, microRNAs have been shown to modulate major regulatory mechanisms in eukaryotic cells involved in a broad array of cellular functions. Studies with various types of embryonic as well as adult stem cells indicate an intricate network of microRNAs regulating key transcription factors and other genes which in turn determine cell fate. In addition, expression of unique microRNAs in specific cell types serves as a useful diagnostic marker to define a particular cell type. MicroRNAs are also found to be regulated by extracellular signaling pathways that are important for differentiation into specific tissues, suggesting that they play a role in specifying tissue identity. In this review we describe the importance of microRNAs in stem cells focusing on our current understanding of microRNAs in MSC and their derivatives. PMID:17991914

  20. Focal adhesion protein abnormalities in myelodysplastic mesenchymal stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Aanei, Carmen Mariana; Eloae, Florin Zugun; Flandrin-Gresta, Pascale; Tavernier, Emmanuelle; Carasevici, Eugen; Guyotat, Denis; Campos, Lydia

    2011-11-01

    Direct cell-cell contact between haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and their cellular microenvironment is essential to maintain 'stemness'. In cancer biology, focal adhesion (FA) proteins are involved in survival signal transduction in a wide variety of human tumours. To define the role of FA proteins in the haematopoietic microenvironment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), CD73-positive mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were immunostained for paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} and p130CAS, and analysed for reactivity, intensity and cellular localisation. Immunofluorescence microscopy allowed us to identify qualitative and quantitative differences, and subcellular localisation analysis revealed that in pathological MSCs, paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} formed nuclear molecular complexes. Increased expression of paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} and enhanced nuclear co-localisation of these proteins correlated with a consistent proliferative advantage in MSCs from patients with refractory anaemia with excess blasts (RAEB) and negatively impacted clonogenicity of HPCs. These results suggest that signalling via FA proteins could be implicated in HPC-MSC interactions. Further, because FAK is an HSP90{alpha}/{beta} client protein, these results suggest the utility of HSP90{alpha}/{beta} inhibition as a target for adjuvant therapy for myelodysplasia.

  1. A relativity concept in mesenchymal stromal cell manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ivan; De Boer, Jan; Sensebe, Luc

    2016-05-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are being experimentally tested in several biological systems and clinical settings with the aim of verifying possible therapeutic effects for a variety of indications. MSCs are also known to be heterogeneous populations, with phenotypic and functional features that depend heavily on the individual donor, the harvest site, and the culture conditions. In the context of this multidimensional complexity, a recurrent question is whether it is feasible to produce MSC batches as "standard" therapeutics, possibly within scalable manufacturing systems. Here, we provide a short overview of the literature on different culture methods for MSCs, including those employing innovative technologies, and of some typically assessed functional features (e.g., growth, senescence, genomic stability, clonogenicity, etc.). We then offer our perspective of a roadmap on how to identify and refine manufacturing systems for MSCs intended for specific clinical indications. We submit that the vision of producing MSCs according to a unique standard, although commercially attractive, cannot yet be scientifically substantiated. Instead, efforts should be concentrated on standardizing methods for characterization of MSCs generated by different groups, possibly covering a vast gamut of functionalities. Such assessments, combined with hypotheses on the therapeutic mode of action and associated clinical data, should ultimately allow definition of in-process controls and measurable release criteria for MSC manufacturing. These will have to be validated as predictive of potency in suitable pre-clinical models and of therapeutic efficacy in patients.

  2. Characterization of Human AB Serum for Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Expansion.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Vanessa Tieko Marques; Mizukami, Amanda; Orellana, Maristela Delgado; Caruso, Samia Rigotto; da Silva, Fernanda Borges; Traina, Fabiola; de Lima Prata, Karen; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Swiech, Kamilla

    2017-01-01

    So far, using human blood-derived components appears to be the most efficient and safest approach available for mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) expansion. In this paper, we report on the characterization of human AB serum (AB HS) produced by using different plasma sources, and its use as an alternative supplement to MSC expansion. Two plasma sources were used for AB HS production: plasma removed from whole blood after 24 h of collection (PC > 24 h) and plasma, cryoprecipitate reduced (PCryoR). The biochemical profile and quality of the produced AB HS batches were analyzed and their ability to support MSC cell growth after different storage times (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months) was evaluated. The two plasma sources used showed similar characteristics regarding biochemical constituents and quality parameters and were effective in promoting MSC growth. MSCs cultured in medium supplemented with 10% AB HS presented similar doubling times and cumulative population doublings when compared to the 10% fetal bovine serum(FBS)-supplemented culture while maintaining immunophenotype, functional features, and cytogenetic profile. Overall, the results indicate that AB HS is an efficient FBS substitute and can be used for at least 12 months after production without impairing cell proliferation and quality.

  3. Musculoskeletal tissue engineering with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limin; Ott, Lindsey; Seshareddy, Kiran; Weiss, Mark L; Detamore, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) hold tremendous promise for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, yet with so many sources of MSCs, what are the primary criteria for selecting leading candidates? Ideally, the cells will be multipotent, inexpensive, lack donor site morbidity, donor materials should be readily available in large numbers, immunocompatible, politically benign and expandable in vitro for several passages. Bone marrow MSCs do not meet all of these criteria and neither do embryonic stem cells. However, a promising new cell source is emerging in tissue engineering that appears to meet these criteria: MSCs derived from Wharton’s jelly of umbilical cord MSCs. Exposed to appropriate conditions, umbilical cord MSCs can differentiate in vitro along several cell lineages such as the chondrocyte, osteoblast, adipocyte, myocyte, neuronal, pancreatic or hepatocyte lineages. In animal models, umbilical cord MSCs have demonstrated in vivo differentiation ability and promising immunocompatibility with host organs/tissues, even in xenotransplantation. In this article, we address their cellular characteristics, multipotent differentiation ability and potential for tissue engineering with an emphasis on musculoskeletal tissue engineering. PMID:21175290

  4. Characterization of mesenchymal stromal cells: potency assay development.

    PubMed

    Hematti, Peiman

    2016-04-01

    Based on their many different mechanisms of action, presumed immune-privileged status, and relative ease of production, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are under intensive clinical investigation for treating a wide range of degenerative, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders. Identification of relevant and robust potency assays is not only a regulatory requirement, but it is also the basis for producing and delivering a product that is consistent, safe, and ultimately an effective therapy. Although development of an appropriate potency assay is one of the most challenging issues in cell-based therapies, it is of paramount importance in the process of developing and testing cellular products. Regardless of the many different tissue sources and methods used in culture expansion of MSCs, they possess many of the same morphologic, cell surface markers, and differentiation characteristics. However, MSC products with similar phenotypic characteristics could still have major differences in their biologic and functional attributes. Understanding the different mechanisms of action and establishment of relevant potency assays is of pivotal importance in allowing investigators and regulatory agencies to compare MSCs used in different clinical trials.

  5. Management of Fibrosis: The Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Breakthrough

    PubMed Central

    Usunier, Benoît; Benderitter, Marc; Tamarat, Radia; Chapel, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis is the endpoint of many chronic inflammatory diseases and is defined by an abnormal accumulation of extracellular matrix components. Despite its slow progression, it leads to organ malfunction. Fibrosis can affect almost any tissue. Due to its high frequency, in particular in the heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys, many studies have been conducted to find satisfactory treatments. Despite these efforts, current fibrosis management therapies either are insufficiently effective or induce severe adverse effects. In the light of these facts, innovative experimental therapies are being investigated. Among these, cell therapy is regarded as one of the best candidates. In particular, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have great potential in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. The value of their immunomodulatory effects and their ability to act on profibrotic factors such as oxidative stress, hypoxia, and the transforming growth factor-β1 pathway has already been highlighted in preclinical and clinical studies. Furthermore, their propensity to act depending on the microenvironment surrounding them enhances their curative properties. In this paper, we review a large range of studies addressing the use of MSCs in the treatment of fibrotic diseases. The results reported here suggest that MSCs have antifibrotic potential for several organs. PMID:25132856

  6. Factors affecting mesenchymal stromal cells yield from bone marrow aspiration.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Chan, Shing; Chim, James Chor-San; Cheung, Kenneth Man-Chee; Lee, Tsz-Leung; Au, Wing-Yan; Ha, Shau-Yin; Lie, Albert Kwok-Wei; Lau, Yu-Lung; Liang, Raymond Hin-Suen; Chan, Godfrey Chi-Fung

    2011-03-01

    This study was to investigate the variables in bone marrow harvesting procedure and individual donor factors which can potentially affect the yield of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). WE DETERMINED THE YIELD OF MSC FROM BONE MARROW UNDER DIFFERENT CLINICAL CONDITIONS BY COMPARING THE MSC COLONY NUMBERS FROM: (1) donors of different ages; (2) healthy donors and patients with leukemia; (3) bone marrow aspirated at different time points during marrow harvesting; (4) bone marrow harvested by different needles. During the process of harvesting, the number of MSC significantly decreased with increase number of aspiration, from 675/ml at the initial decreased to 60/ml after 100 ml bone marrow aspirated, and 50/ml after 200 ml bone marrow aspirated. The number of MSC retrieved from leukemia patients (99/ml bone marrow) was significantly lower than that of healthy donors (708/ml bone marrow). However, there was no significant difference in growth rate. There was no significant age-related difference of MSC yielded from donors <55 years. And there was no significant difference in MSC number between the samples from single end-holed needle and those from multiple-side-hole needle. The optimal bone marrow samples for MSC collection should be obtained earlier in the process of harvesting procedure. Bone marrow from donors <55 years was equally good as MSC sources. The autologous MSC from leukemia patients can be utilized for in-vitro MSC expansion.

  7. Translating Research into Clinical Scale Manufacturing of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bieback, Karen; Kinzebach, Sven; Karagianni, Marianna

    2010-01-01

    It sounds simple to obtain sufficient numbers of cells derived from fetal or adult human tissues, isolate and/or expand the stem cells, and then transplant an appropriate number of these cells into the patient at the correct location. However, translating basic research into routine therapies is a complex multistep process which necessitates product regulation. The challenge relates to managing the expected therapeutic benefits with the potential risks and to balance the fast move to clinical trials with time-consuming cautious risk assessment. This paper will focus on the definition of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), and challenges and achievements in the manufacturing process enabling their use in clinical studies. It will allude to different cellular sources, special capacities of MSCs, but also to current regulations, with a special focus on accessory material of human or animal origin, like media supplements. As cellular integrity and purity, formulation and lot release testing of the final product, validation of all procedures, and quality assurance are of utmost necessity, these topics will be addressed. PMID:21318154

  8. Human mesenchymal stromal cells are mechanosensitive to vibration stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kim, I S; Song, Y M; Lee, B; Hwang, S J

    2012-12-01

    Low-magnitude high-frequency (LMHF) vibrations have the ability to stimulate bone formation and reduce bone loss. However, the anabolic mechanisms that are mediated by vibration in human bone cells at the cellular level remain unclear. We hypothesized that human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) display direct osteoblastic responses to LMHF vibration signals. Daily exposure to vibrations increased the proliferation of hMSCs, with the highest efficiency occurring at a peak acceleration of 0.3 g and vibrations at 30 to 40 Hz. Specifically, these conditions promoted osteoblast differentiation through an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity and in vitro matrix mineralization. The effect of vibration on the expression of osteogenesis-related factors differed depending on culture method. hMSCs that underwent vibration in a monolayer culture did not exhibit any changes in the expressions of these genes, while cells in three-dimensional culture showed increased expression of type I collagen, osteoprotegerin, or VEGF, and VEGF induction appeared in 2 different hMSC lines. These results are among the first to demonstrate a dose-response effect upon LMHF stimulation, thereby demonstrating that hMSCs are mechanosensitive to LMHF vibration signals such that they could facilitate the osteogenic process.

  9. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Characteristics Vary Depending on Their Origin

    PubMed Central

    Wegmeyer, Heike; Bröske, Ann-Marie; Leddin, Mathias; Kuentzer, Karin; Nisslbeck, Anna Katharina; Hupfeld, Julia; Wiechmann, Kornelius; Kuhlen, Jennifer; von Schwerin, Christoffer; Stein, Carsten; Knothe, Saskia; Funk, Jürgen; Huss, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are rare progenitor cells that can be isolated from various tissues. They exhibit multilineage differentiation potential, support regenerative processes, and interact with various immune cells. Therefore, MSCs represent a promising tool for regenerative medicine. However, source-dependent and donor-dependent differences of MSC properties, including implications on their clinical application are still largely unknown. We evaluated MSCs derived from perinatal tissues umbilical cord (UC) and amniotic membrane (AM) in comparison to adult MSCs from bone marrow (BM), which were used as gold standard. We found genetic background-independent differences between MSCs from UC and AM. While AM- and UC-MSCs were closer to each other than to BM-MSCs, they also exhibited differences between each other. AM-MSCs from different donors but not UC-MSCs displayed high interdonor variability. In addition, we show that although all MSCs expressed similar surface markers, MSC populations from UC and AM showed differential profiles of gene expression and paracrine factor secretion to BM-derived MSCs. Notably, pathway analysis of gene expression data revealed intriguing differences between MSCs suggesting that MSCs from UC and AM possess in general a higher potential of immunomodulatory capacity, whereas BM-MSCs showed a higher potential of supporting regenerative processes as exemplified by neuronal differentiation and development. These differences between perinatal and BM-derived MSCs may be relevant for clinical applications. PMID:23676112

  10. Osteogenic differentiation of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their bone regeneration potential

    PubMed Central

    Pipino, Caterina; Pandolfi, Assunta

    2015-01-01

    In orthopedics, tissue engineering approach using stem cells is a valid line of treatment for patients with bone defects. In this context, mesenchymal stromal cells of various origins have been extensively studied and continue to be a matter of debate. Although mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow are already clinically applied, recent evidence suggests that one may use mesenchymal stromal cells from extra-embryonic tissues, such as amniotic fluid, as an innovative and advantageous resource for bone regeneration. The use of cells from amniotic fluid does not raise ethical problems and provides a sufficient number of cells without invasive procedures. Furthermore, they do not develop into teratomas when transplanted, a consequence observed with pluripotent stem cells. In addition, their multipotent differentiation ability, low immunogenicity, and anti-inflammatory properties make them ideal candidates for bone regenerative medicine. We here present an overview of the features of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their potential in the osteogenic differentiation process. We have examined the papers actually available on this regard, with particular interest in the strategies applied to improve in vitro osteogenesis. Importantly, a detailed understanding of the behavior of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their osteogenic ability is desirable considering a feasible application in bone regenerative medicine. PMID:26029340

  11. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Induced DDR2 Mediates Stromal-Breast Cancer Interactions and Metastasis Growth.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Maria E; Martin, Emily E; Anwar, Talha; Arellano-Garcia, Caroline; Medhora, Natasha; Lama, Arjun; Chen, Yu-Chih; Tanager, Kevin S; Yoon, Euisik; Kidwell, Kelley M; Ge, Chunxi; Franceschi, Renny T; Kleer, Celina G

    2017-01-31

    Increased collagen deposition by breast cancer (BC)-associated mesenchymal stem/multipotent stromal cells (MSC) promotes metastasis, but the mechanisms are unknown. Here, we report that the collagen receptor discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is essential for stromal-BC communication. In human BC metastasis, DDR2 is concordantly upregulated in metastatic cancer and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. In MSCs isolated from human BC metastasis, DDR2 maintains a fibroblastic phenotype with collagen deposition and induces pathological activation of DDR2 signaling in BC cells. Loss of DDR2 in MSCs impairs their ability to promote DDR2 phosphorylation in BC cells, as well as BC cell alignment, migration, and metastasis. Female ddr2-deficient mice homozygous for the slie mutation show inefficient spontaneous BC metastasis. These results point to a role for mesenchymal stem cell DDR2 in metastasis and suggest a therapeutic approach for metastatic BC.

  12. Metabolic glycoengineering of mesenchymal stromal cells with N-propanoylmannosamine.

    PubMed

    Natunen, Suvi; Lampinen, Milla; Suila, Heli; Ritamo, Ilja; Pitkänen, Virve; Nairn, Alison V; Räbinä, Jarkko; Laitinen, Saara; Moremen, Kelley W; Reutter, Werner; Valmu, Leena

    2013-08-01

    There is an increasing interest in the modification of cell surface glycosylation to improve the properties of therapeutic cells. For example, glycosylation affects the biodistribution of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Metabolic glycoengineering is an efficient way to modify the cell surface. The mammalian biosynthetic machinery tolerates the unnatural sialic acid precursor, N-propanoylmannosamine (ManNProp), and incorporates it into cell surface glycoconjugates. We show here by mass spectrometric analysis of cell surface N-glycans that about half of N-acetylneuraminic acid was replaced by N-propanoylneuraminic acid in the N-glycans of human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs supplemented with ManNProp. In addition, the N-glycan profile was altered. ManNProp-supplemented cells had more multiply fucosylated N-glycan species than control cells. The fucosylated epitopes were shown in tandem mass spectrometric analysis to be Lewis x or blood group H epitopes, but not sialyl Lewis x (sLex). The amounts of tri- and tetra-antennary and polylactosamine-containing N-glycans also increased in ManNProp supplementation. In accordance with previous studies of other cell types, increased expression of the sLex epitope in ManNProp-supplemented MSCs was demonstrated by flow cytometry. In light of the N-glycan analysis, the sLex epitope in these cells is likely to be carried by O-glycans or glycolipids. sLex has been shown to target MSCs to bone marrow, which may be desirable in therapeutic applications. The present results represent the first structural analysis of an N-glycome of ManNProp-supplemented cells and demonstrate the feasibility of modifying cell surface glycosylation of therapeutic cells by this type of metabolic glycoengineering.

  13. Intrahippocampal transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells promotes neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Coquery, Nicolas; Blesch, Armin; Stroh, Albrecht; Fernández-Klett, Francisco; Klein, Julia; Winter, Christine; Priller, Josef

    2012-10-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) secrete soluble factors that stimulate the surrounding microenvironment. Such paracrine effects might underlie the potential benefits of many stem cell therapies. We tested the hypothesis that MSC are able to enhance intrinsic cellular plasticity in the adult rat hippocampus. Rat bone marrow-derived MSC were labeled with very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOP), which allowed for non-invasive graft localization by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Moreover, MSC were transduced with lentiviral vectors to express the green fluorescent protein (GFP). The effects of bilateral MSC transplantation on hippocampal cellular plasticity were assessed using the thymidine analogs 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IdU). Behavioral testing was performed to examine the consequences of intrahippocampal MSC transplantation on locomotion, learning and memory, and anxiety-like and depression-like behavior. We found that intrahippocampal transplantation of MSC resulted in enhanced neurogenesis despite short-term graft survival. In contrast, systemic administration of the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor citalopram increased cell survival but did not affect cell proliferation. Intrahippocampal transplantation of MSC did not impair behavioral functions in rats, but only citalopram exerted anti-depressant effects. This is the first study to examine the effects of intrahippocampal transplantation of allogeneic MSC on hippocampal structural plasticity and behavioral functions in rats combined with non-invasive cell tracking by MRI. We found that iron oxide nanoparticles can be used to detect transplanted MSC in the brain. Although graft survival was short, intrahippocampal transplantation of MSC resulted in long-term changes in hippocampal plasticity. Our results suggest that MSC can be used to stimulate adult neurogenesis.

  14. Tumor-driven Molecular Changes in Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Kucerova, Lucia; Zmajkovic, Jakub; Toro, Lenka; Skolekova, Svetlana; Demkova, Lucia; Matuskova, Miroslava

    2015-04-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) exert either tumor-stimulatory or tumor-inhibitory effect. The outcome of the tumor-MSC interaction is dictated by the tumor-specific activating signals. We analyzed the alterations in MSC phenotype in response to stimulation by tumor-secreted paracrine factors. Paracrine factors from human melanoma A375 and glioblastoma 8MGBA cells were used for prolonged culture of MSC to produce derived cells designated DIFF(A)-MSC or DIFF(G)-MSC, respectively. Derived cells were analyzed for the specific surface markers, the expression pattern of MSC markers and fibroblast-specific proteins. Changes in the cell phenotype were evaluated using scratch wound assay and tube formation in vitro; and xenotransplant growth in vivo. Our data show induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor 2, CD146, fibroblast-specific protein, vimentin and endosialin in DIFF(A)-MSC cells. This indicates their differentiation towards the cells with features of tumor-associated fibroblasts upon stimulation with melanoma-secreted cytokines. Paracrine stimulation in DIFF(G)-MSC led to up-regulation of the genes involved in the MSC differentiation. MSC-specific surface marker characteristics were preserved in derived DIFF(A)-MSC and DIFF(G)-MSC cells. However, we observed increased proportion of CD146 and GD2 (neural ganglioside) positive cells and decreased expression of marker NG2 in the MSC exposed to tumor-conditioned medium. Melanoma-CM increased MSC migration, glioblastoma-CM compromised angiogenic capacity of MSC in vitro and the protumorigenic effect in vivo. Our data directly compare the pleiotropic effects mediated by the malignant cells on the MSC. Secreted paracrine factors from melanoma or glioblastoma differently changed molecular traits in MSC, which explains the dual role of MSC in tumor growth.

  15. Identification of Factors Produced and Secreted by Mesenchymal Stromal Cells with the SILAC Method.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Beatriz; Calamia, Valentina; Blanco, Francisco J; Ruiz-Romero, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) secrete a large variety of proteins and factors, which shape the secretome. These proteins participate in multiple cellular functions, including the promotion of regenerative processes in the damaged tissue. Secretomes derived from either undifferentiated MSCs or these cells undergoing osteogenic, chondrogenic, or adipogenic differentiation have been characterized using different liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based quantitative proteomic approaches. In this chapter, we describe the use of the Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell culture (SILAC) strategy for the identification and relative quantification of the mesenchymal stromal cell secretome, specifically during chondrogenesis.

  16. Mesenchymal stromal cell proliferation, gene expression and protein production in human platelet-rich plasma-supplemented media.

    PubMed

    Amable, Paola Romina; Teixeira, Marcus Vinicius Telles; Carias, Rosana Bizon Vieira; Granjeiro, José Mauro; Borojevic, Radovan

    2014-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is increasingly used as a cell culture supplement, in order to reduce the contact of human cells with animal-derived products during in vitro expansion. The effect of supplementation changes on cell growth and protein production is not fully characterized. Human mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow, adipose tissue and Wharton's Jelly were isolated and cultured in PRP-supplemented media. Proliferation, in vitro differentiation, expression of cell surface markers, mRNA expression of key genes and protein secretion were quantified. 10% PRP sustained five to tenfold increased cell proliferation as compared to 10% fetal bovine serum. Regarding cell differentiation, PRP reduced adipogenic differentiation and increased calcium deposits in bone marrow and adipose tissue-mesenchymal stromal cells. Wharton's Jelly derived mesenchymal stromal cells secreted higher concentrations of chemokines and growth factors than other mesenchymal stromal cells when cultured in PRP-supplemented media. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells secreted higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic proteins. Mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from adipose tissue secreted higher amounts of extracellular matrix components. Mesenchymal stromal cells purified from different tissues have distinct properties regarding differentiation, angiogenic, inflammatory and matrix remodeling potential when cultured in PRP supplemented media. These abilities should be further characterized in order to choose the best protocols for their therapeutic use.

  17. Carbon Monoxide Improves Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells During Sepsis by Production of Specialized Proresolving Lipid Mediators*

    PubMed Central

    Tsoyi, Konstantin; Hall, Sean R. R.; Dalli, Jesmond; Colas, Romain A.; Ghanta, Sailaja; Ith, Bonna; Coronata, Anna; Fredenburgh, Laura E.; Baron, Rebecca M.; Choi, Augustine M. K.; Serhan, Charles N.; Liu, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Mesenchymal stromal cells are being investigated as a cell-based therapy for a number of disease processes, with promising results in animal models of systemic inflammation and sepsis. Studies are ongoing to determine ways to further improve the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells. A gas molecule that improves outcome in experimental sepsis is carbon monoxide. We hypothesized that preconditioning of mesenchymal stromal cells with carbon monoxide ex vivo would promote further therapeutic benefit when cells are administered in vivo after the onset of polymicrobial sepsis in mice. Design: Animal study and primary cell culture. Setting: Laboratory investigation. Subjects: BALB/c mice. Interventions: Polymicrobial sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. Mesenchymal stromal cells, mesenchymal stromal cells-conditioned with carbon monoxide, fibroblasts, or fibroblasts-conditioned with carbon monoxide were delivered by tail vein injections to septic mice. The mice were assessed for survival, bacterial clearance, and the inflammatory response during sepsis in each of the groups. Mesenchymal stromal cells were also assessed for their ability to promote bacterial phagocytosis by neutrophils, the production of specialized proresolving lipid mediators, and their importance for mesenchymal stromal cells function using gene silencing. Measurements and Main Results: Ex vivo preconditioning with carbon monoxide allowed mesenchymal stromal cells to be administered later after the onset of sepsis (6 hr), and yet maintain their therapeutic effect with increased survival. Carbon monoxide preconditioned mesenchymal stromal cells were also able to alleviate organ injury, improve bacterial clearance, and promote the resolution of inflammation. Mesenchymal stromal cells exposed to carbon monoxide, with docosahexaenoic acid substrate, produced specialized proresolving lipid mediators, particularly D-series resolvins, which promoted survival. Silencing

  18. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells in post-menopausal endometrium.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, D; Tan, K S; Deane, J; Schwab, K; Cheong, A; Rosamilia, A; Gargett, C E

    2014-09-01

    Does post-menopausal endometrium contain mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) that have adult stem cell properties and can be prospectively isolated from a biopsy? Perivascular W5C5(+) cells isolated from post-menopausal endometrial biopsies displayed characteristic MSC properties of clonogenicity, multipotency and surface phenotype irrespective of whether the women were or were not pre-treated with estrogen to regenerate the endometrium. Recently MSCs have been identified in human premenopausal endometrium, and can be prospectively isolated using a single marker, W5C5/SUSD2. Endometrial tissue of both the functional and basal layers, from 17 premenopausal (pre-MP) women, 19 post-menopausal (post-MP) women without hormonal treatment and 15 post-menopausal women on estrogen replacement therapy (post-MP+ E2), was collected through a prospective phase IV clinical trial over 2 years. Post-menopausal women <65 years of age were treated with or without E2 for 6-8 weeks prior to tissue collection. Serum E2 levels were determined by estradiol immunoenzymatic assay. Endometrial tissue was obtained from women by biopsy (curettage) just prior to the hysterectomy. The effect of E2 on endometrial thickness and glandular and luminal epithelial height was determined using image analysis. Endometrial tissue was dissociated into single cell suspensions and MSC properties were examined in freshly isolated and short-term cultured, magnetic bead-purified W5C5(+) cells. MSC properties were assessed using clonogenicity, serial cloning, mesodermal differentiation in adipogenic, chondrogenic, osteogenic and myogenic induction culture media, and surface phenotype analysis by flow cytometry. Estrogen receptor α expression in W5C5(+) cells was examined using dual colour immunofluorescence. Vascularity was analysed using CD34 and alpha smooth muscle actin immunostaining and subsequent image analysis. A small population of stromal cells with MSC properties was purified with the W5C5 antibody

  19. [Effect of extracellular matrix components on adhesion of bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells to polytetrafluoroethylene].

    PubMed

    Karpenko, A A; Rozanova, I A; Poveshchenko, O V; Lykov, A P; Bondarenko, N A; Kim, I I; Nikonorova, Iu V; Podkhvatilina, N A; Sergeevichev, D S; Popova, I V; Konenkov, V I

    2015-01-01

    Search for new bioengineering materials for creation of small-diameter vascular grafts is currently a priority task. One of the promising trends of creating tissue engineering constructions is coating the internal layer of implants made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with autologous mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells. In the study we assessed the ability of separate components of the extracellular matrix such as fibronectin, type I collagen and type IV collagen to influence adhesion, proliferation and morphology of mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells being cultured on PTFE. Bone marrow multipotent stromal cells taken from second-passage Wistar rats in the amount of 106 per 1 cm2 were applied onto PTFE. We used the following variants of preliminary treatment of the material prior to seeding: fibronectin with type I collagen, fibronectin with type IV collagen, fibronectin with a mixture of type I and IV collagens, as well as a control group without coating. After six weeks of cell growth on PTFE patches the samples were subjected to fixation in 10% formalin followed by haematoxylin-eosin stain and morphometric assessment of adhered cells by calculation using the software AxioVision (Carl Zeiss), assessing the number of cells, area of the cellular monolayer, dimensions and ratios of the area of separate cells and the area of cellular nuclei. The maximal area of the monolayer from mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells on the PTFE surface was revealed while culturing with a mixture of fibronectin and type I and IV collagens. Cell colonization density while treatment of the synthetic material with mixtures of fibronectin with type I collagen, type IV collagen and type I and IV collagens demonstrated the results exceeding the parameters of the control specimen 5-, 2.5- and 7-fold, respectively. Hence, extracellular matrix components considerably increase enhance adhesion of cells to PTFE, as well as improve formation of a monolayer from mesenchymal multipotent

  20. Hematopoietic stem cells in co-culture with mesenchymal stromal cells - modeling the niche compartments in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Duohui; Fonseca, Ana-Violeta; Alakel, Nael; Fierro, Fernando A.; Muller, Katrin; Bornhauser, Martin; Ehninger, Gerhard; Corbeil, Denis; Ordemann, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Background Hematopoietic stem cells located in the bone marrow interact with a specific microenvironment referred to as the stem cell niche. Data derived from ex vivo co-culture systems using mesenchymal stromal cells as a feeder cell layer suggest that cell-to-cell contact has a significant impact on the expansion, migratory potential and ‘stemness’ of hematopoietic stem cells. Here we investigated in detail the spatial relationship between hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stromal cells during ex vivo expansion. Design and Methods In the co-culture system, we defined three distinct localizations of hematopoietic stem cells relative to the mesenchymal stromal cell layer: (i) those in supernatant (non-adherent cells); (ii) those adhering to the surface of mesenchymal stromal cells (phase-bright cells) and (iii) those beneath the mesenchymal stromal cells (phase-dim cells). Cell cycle, proliferation, cell division and immunophenotype of these three cell fractions were evaluated from day 1 to 7. Results Phase-bright cells contained the highest proportion of cycling progenitors during co-culture. In contrast, phase-dim cells divided much more slowly and retained a more immature phenotype compared to the other cell fractions. The phase-dim compartment was soon enriched for CD34+/CD38− cells. Migration beneath the mesenchymal stromal cell layer could be hampered by inhibiting integrin β1 or CXCR4. Conclusions Our data suggest that the mesenchymal stromal cell surface is the predominant site of proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells, whereas the compartment beneath the mesenchymal stromal cell layer seems to mimic the stem cell niche for more immature cells. The SDF-1/CXCR4 interaction and integrin-mediated cell adhesion play important roles in the distribution of hematopoietic stem cells in the co-culture system. PMID:20145267

  1. Growth and adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal bone marrow cells during culturing in 3D macroporous agarose cryogel sponges.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Yu A; Petrenko, A Yu; Damshkaln, L G; Volkova, N A; Lozinsky, V I

    2008-07-01

    We studied the possibility of population of macroporous agarose cryogel sponges by mesenchymal stromal bone marrow cells with their subsequent adipogenic differentiation. After 7-day culturing of mesenchymal stromal cells in agarose cryogel, the level of cell proliferation was 35%. After 3-week culturing in a medium inducing adipogenesis we observed accumulation of intracellular neutral lipids positively stained with Oil Red O. These findings can be used for the development of bioengineering constructions of the adipose tissue on the basis of spongy carriers.

  2. Human-derived normal mesenchymal stem/stromal cells in anticancer therapies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Shi-Jie; Wen, Qin; Zhong, Jiang F; Chen, Xue-Lian; Stucky, Andres; Press, Michael F; Zhang, Xi

    2017-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) not only plays a pivotal role during cancer progression and metastasis, but also has profound effects on therapeutic efficacy. Stromal cells of the TME are increasingly becoming a key consideration in the development of active anticancer therapeutics. However, dispute concerning the role of stromal cells to fight cancer continues because the use of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) as an anticancer agent is dependent on the specific MSCs subtype, in vitro or in vivo conditions, factors secreted by MSCs, types of cancer cell lines and interactions between MSCs, cancer cells and host immune cells. In this review, we mainly focus on the role of human-derived normal MSCs in anticancer therapies. We first discuss the use of different MSCs in the therapies for various cancers. We then focus on their anticancer mechanism and clinical application. PMID:28123601

  3. Understanding tumor-stroma interplays for targeted therapies by armed mesenchymal stromal progenitors: the Mesenkillers

    PubMed Central

    Grisendi, Giulia; Bussolari, Rita; Veronesi, Elena; Piccinno, Serena; Burns, Jorge S; De Santis, Giorgio; Loschi, Pietro; Pignatti, Marco; Di Benedetto, Fabrizio; Ballarin, Roberto; Di Gregorio, Carmela; Guarneri, Valentina; Piccinini, Lino; Horwitz, Edwin M; Paolucci, Paolo; Conte, PierFranco; Dominici, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    A tumor represents a complex structure containing malignant cells strictly coupled with a large variety of surrounding cells constituting the tumor stroma (TS). In recent years, the importance of TS for cancer initiation, development, local invasion and metastases has become increasingly clear allowing the identification of TS as one of the possible ways to indirectly target tumors. Inside the heterogeneous stromal cell population, tumor associated fibroblasts (TAF) play a crucial role providing both functional and supportive environments. During both tumor and stroma development, several findings suggest that TAF could be recruited from different sources such as locally derived host fibroblasts, via epithelial/endothelial mesenchymal transitions or from circulating pools of fibroblasts deriving form mesenchymal progenitors, namely mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC). These insights prompted scientists to identify multimodal approaches to target TS by biomolecules, monoclonal antibodies, and more recently via cell based strategies. These latter strategies appear extremely promising, although still associated with debated and unclear findings. This review discusses crosstalk between cancers and their stroma, dissecting specific tumor types, such as sarcoma, pancreatic and breast carcinoma, where stroma plays distinct paradigmatic roles. The recognition of these distinct stromal functions may help in planning effective and safer approaches aimed either to eradicate or to substitute TS by novel compounds and/or MSC having specific killing activities. PMID:22016827

  4. Cordycepin disrupts leukemia association with mesenchymal stromal cells and eliminates leukemia stem cell activity

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shu-Man; Lu, Yi-Jhu; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Jan, Yee-Jee; Shyue, Song-Kun; Yet, Shaw-Fang; Liou, Jun-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining stemness of leukemic stem cells (LSCs) and reciprocal interactions between leukemia and stromal cells support leukemic progression and resistance to chemotherapy. Targeting the niche-based microenvironment is thus a new approach for leukemia therapy. Cordycepin is an analogue of adenosine and has been suggested to possess anti-leukemia properties. However, whether cordycepin influences association of leukemia and mesenchymal stromal cells has never been investigated. Here we show that cordycepin reduces CD34+CD38− cells in U937 and K562 cells and induces Dkk1 expression via autocrine and paracrine regulation in leukemia and mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs). Cordycepin suppresses cell attachment of leukemia with MSCs and downregulates N-cadherin in leukemia and VCAM-1 in MSCs. Moreover, incubation with leukemic conditioned media (CM) significantly induces IL-8 and IL-6 expression in MSCs, which is abrogated by cordycepin. Suppression of leukemic CM-induced VCAM-1 and IL-8 by cordycepin in MSCs is mediated by impairing NFκB signaling. Finally, cordycepin combined with an adenosine deaminase inhibitor prolongs survival in a leukemic mouse model. Our results indicate that cordycepin is a potential anti-leukemia therapeutic adjuvant via eliminating LSCs and disrupting leukemia-stromal association. PMID:28266575

  5. Expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells regulates proliferation, differentiation, and maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Stopp, Sabine; Bornhäuser, Martin; Ugarte, Fernando; Wobus, Manja; Kuhn, Matthias; Brenner, Sebastian; Thieme, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    The melanoma cell adhesion molecule defines mesenchymal stromal cells in the human bone marrow that regenerate bone and establish a hematopoietic microenvironment in vivo. The role of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in primary human mesenchymal stromal cells and the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during ex vivo culture has not yet been demonstrated. We applied RNA interference or ectopic overexpression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells to evaluate the effect of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule on their proliferation and differentiation as well as its influence on co-cultivated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Knockdown and overexpression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule affected several characteristics of human mesenchymal stromal cells related to osteogenic differentiation, proliferation, and migration. Furthermore, knockdown of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells stimulated the proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and strongly reduced the formation of long-term culture-initiating cells. In contrast, melanoma cell adhesion molecule-overexpressing human mesenchymal stromal cells provided a supportive microenvironment for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule increased the adhesion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells to human mesenchymal stromal cells and their migration beneath the monolayer of human mesenchymal stromal cells. Our results demonstrate that the expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells determines their fate and regulates the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells through direct cell-cell contact. PMID:22801967

  6. Expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells regulates proliferation, differentiation, and maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Stopp, Sabine; Bornhäuser, Martin; Ugarte, Fernando; Wobus, Manja; Kuhn, Matthias; Brenner, Sebastian; Thieme, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    The melanoma cell adhesion molecule defines mesenchymal stromal cells in the human bone marrow that regenerate bone and establish a hematopoietic microenvironment in vivo. The role of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in primary human mesenchymal stromal cells and the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during ex vivo culture has not yet been demonstrated. We applied RNA interference or ectopic overexpression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells to evaluate the effect of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule on their proliferation and differentiation as well as its influence on co-cultivated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Knockdown and overexpression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule affected several characteristics of human mesenchymal stromal cells related to osteogenic differentiation, proliferation, and migration. Furthermore, knockdown of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells stimulated the proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and strongly reduced the formation of long-term culture-initiating cells. In contrast, melanoma cell adhesion molecule-overexpressing human mesenchymal stromal cells provided a supportive microenvironment for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule increased the adhesion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells to human mesenchymal stromal cells and their migration beneath the monolayer of human mesenchymal stromal cells. Our results demonstrate that the expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells determines their fate and regulates the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells through direct cell-cell contact.

  7. Aging enhances the vulnerability of mesenchymal stromal cells to uniaxial tensile strain-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    McKayed, Katey; Prendergast, Patrick J; Campbell, Veronica A

    2016-02-08

    Mechanical priming can be employed in tissue engineering strategies to control the fate and differentiation pattern of mesenchymal stromal cells. This is relevant to regenerative medicine whereby mechanical cues can promote the regeneration of a specific tissue type from mesenchymal precursors. The ability of cells to respond to mechanical forces is dependent upon mechanotransduction pathways that involve membrane-associated proteins, such as integrins. During the aging process changes in the mechanotransduction machinery may influence how cells from aged individuals respond to mechanical priming. In this study mesenchymal stromal cells were prepared from young adult and aged rats and exposed to uniaxial tensile strain at 5% and 10% for 3 days, or 2.5% for 7 days. Application of 5% tensile strain had no impact on cell viability. In contrast, application of 10% tensile strain evoked apoptosis and the strain-induced apoptosis was significantly higher in the mesenchymal stromal cells prepared from the aged rats. In parallel to the age-related difference in cellular responsiveness to strain, an age-related decrease in expression of α2 integrin and actin, and enhanced lipid peroxidation was observed. This study demonstrates that mesenchymal stem cells from aged animals have an altered membrane environment, are more vulnerable to the pro-apoptotic effects of 10% tensile strain and less responsive to the pro-osteogenic effects of 2.5% tensile strain. Thus, it is essential to consider how aged cells respond to mechanical stimuli in order to identify optimal mechanical priming strategies that minimise cell loss, particularly if this approach is to be applied to an aged population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow treated with bovine tendon extract acquire the phenotype of mature tenocytes☆

    PubMed Central

    Augusto, Lívia Maria Mendonça; Aguiar, Diego Pinheiro; Bonfim, Danielle Cabral; dos Santos Cavalcanti, Amanda; Casado, Priscila Ladeira; Duarte, Maria Eugênia Leite

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated in vitro differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow, in tenocytes after treatment with bovine tendon extract. Methods Bovine tendons were used for preparation of the extract and were stored at −80 °C. Mesenchymal stromal cells from the bone marrow of three donors were used for cytotoxicity tests by means of MTT and cell differentiation by means of qPCR. Results The data showed that mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow treated for up to 21 days in the presence of bovine tendon extract diluted at diminishing concentrations (1:10, 1:50 and 1:250) promoted activation of biglycan, collagen type I and fibromodulin expression. Conclusion Our results show that bovine tendon extract is capable of promoting differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in tenocytes. PMID:26962503

  9. [Reorganization of actin cytoskeleton in the initial stage of transendothelial migration of bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova, S A; Pinaev, G P

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of actin cytoskeleton reorganization in rat bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells after one hour adhesion to a monolayer of endothelial cell line EA.hy 926 allowed us to identify three types of cells interacting with the endothelial cells. Approximately half of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells retained a rounded shape, most of them contained large round actin aggregates, had irregular borders and contacted with the surface of the endothelial cells by microvilli or protrusions similar to small lamellae. Almost all other cells were surrounded by narrow lamellae along the entire perimeter. In addition, a small amount.of elongated flattened cells that contacting with endothelial cells by means of focal contacts was observed. Microenvironmental factors such as proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α or plasma proteins affected the ratio of stromal cell types, with different types of organization of the actin cytoskeleton in multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells population.

  10. Multiple Functions of MSCA-1/TNAP in Adult Mesenchymal Progenitor/Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Estève, David; Galitzky, Jean; Bouloumié, Anne; Fonta, Caroline; Buchet, René; Magne, David

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge about mesenchymal stem cells has considerably grown in the last years. Since the proof of concept of the existence of such cells in the 70s by Friedenstein et al., a growing mass of reports were conducted for a better definition of these cells and for the reevaluation from the term “mesenchymal stem cells” to the term “mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs).” Being more than a semantic shift, concepts behind this new terminology reveal the complexity and the heterogeneity of the cells grouped in MSC family especially as these cells are present in nearly all adult tissues. Recently, mesenchymal stromal cell antigen-1 (MSCA-1)/tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) was described as a new cell surface marker of MSCs from different tissues. The alkaline phosphatase activity of this protein could be involved in wide range of MSC features described below from cell differentiation to immunomodulatory properties, as well as occurrence of pathologies. The present review aims to decipher and summarize the role of TNAP in progenitor cells from different tissues focusing preferentially on brain, bone marrow, and adipose tissue. PMID:26839555

  11. Impaired Angiogenic Potential of Human Placental Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Mandò, Chiara; Razini, Paola; Novielli, Chiara; Anelli, Gaia Maria; Belicchi, Marzia; Erratico, Silvia; Banfi, Stefania; Meregalli, Mirella; Tavelli, Alessandro; Baccarin, Marco; Rolfo, Alessandro; Motta, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Human placental mesenchymal stromal cells (pMSCs) have never been investigated in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We characterized cells isolated from placental membranes and the basal disc of six IUGR and five physiological placentas. Cell viability and proliferation were assessed every 7 days during a 6-week culture. Expression of hematopoietic, stem, endothelial, and mesenchymal markers was evaluated by flow cytometry. We characterized the multipotency of pMSCs and the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial content and function. Cell viability was high in all samples, and proliferation rate was lower in IUGR compared with control cells. All samples presented a starting heterogeneous population, shifting during culture toward homogeneity for mesenchymal markers and occurring earlier in IUGR than in controls. In vitro multipotency of IUGR-derived pMSCs was restricted because their capacity for adipocyte differentiation was increased, whereas their ability to differentiate toward endothelial cell lineage was decreased. Mitochondrial content and function were higher in IUGR pMSCs than controls, possibly indicating a shift from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism, with the loss of the metabolic characteristics that are typical of undifferentiated multipotent cells. Significance This study demonstrates that the loss of endothelial differentiation potential and the increase of adipogenic ability are likely to play a significant role in the vicious cycle of abnormal placental development in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). This is the first observation of a potential role for placental mesenchymal stromal cells in intrauterine growth restriction, thus leading to new perspectives for the treatment of IUGR. PMID:26956210

  12. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Bronchoalveolar Lavage as Predictors of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Badri, Linda; Murray, Susan; Liu, Lyrica X.; Walker, Natalie M.; Flint, Andrew; Wadhwa, Anish; Chan, Kevin M.; Toews, Galen B.; Pinsky, David J.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Lama, Vibha N.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) from human lung allografts demonstrates the presence of a multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell population. However, the clinical relevance of this novel cellular component of BAL and its association with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), a disease marked by progressive airflow limitation secondary to fibrotic obliteration of the small airways, remains to be determined. Objectives: In this study we investigate the association of number of mesenchymal stromal cells in BAL with development of BOS in human lung transplant recipients. Methods: Mesenchymal colony-forming units (CFUs) were quantitated in a cohort of 405 BAL samples obtained from 162 lung transplant recipients. Poisson generalized estimating equations were used to determine the predictors of BAL mesenchymal CFU count. Measurements and Main Results: Higher CFU counts were noted early post-transplantation; time from transplant to BAL of greater than 3 months predicted 0.4-fold lower CFU counts (P = 0.0001). BOS diagnosis less than or equal to 365 days before BAL was associated with a 2.11-fold higher CFU count (P = 0.02). There were 2.62- and 2.70-fold higher CFU counts noted in the presence of histologic diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans (P = 0.05) and organizing pneumonia (0.0003), respectively. In BAL samples obtained from BOS-free patients greater than 6 months post-transplantation (n = 173), higher mesenchymal CFU counts (≥10) significantly predicted BOS onset in both univariate (hazard ratio, 5.61; 95% CI, 3.03–10.38; P < 0.0001) and multivariate (hazard ratio, 5.02; 95% CI, 2.40–10.51; P < 0.0001) Cox regression analysis. Conclusions: Measurement of mesenchymal CFUs in the BAL provides predictive information regarding future BOS onset. PMID:21169468

  13. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Epithelial Transition Induced by Renal Tubular Cells-Derived Extracellular Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Chiabotto, Giulia; Bruno, Stefania; Collino, Federica; Camussi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions play an important role in renal tubular morphogenesis and in maintaining the structure of the kidney. The aim of this study was to investigate whether extracellular vesicles (EVs) produced by human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs) may induce mesenchymal-epithelial transition of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). To test this hypothesis, we characterized the phenotype and the RNA content of EVs and we evaluated the in vitro uptake and activity of EVs on MSCs. MicroRNA (miRNA) analysis suggested the possible implication of the miR-200 family carried by EVs in the epithelial commitment of MSCs. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were incubated with EVs, or RPTEC-derived total conditioned medium, or conditioned medium depleted of EVs. As a positive control, MSCs were co-cultured in a transwell system with RPTECs. Epithelial commitment of MSCs was assessed by real time PCR and by immunofluorescence analysis of cellular expression of specific mesenchymal and epithelial markers. After one week of incubation with EVs and total conditioned medium, we observed mesenchymal-epithelial transition in MSCs. Stimulation with conditioned medium depleted of EVs did not induce any change in mesenchymal and epithelial gene expression. Since EVs were found to contain the miR-200 family, we transfected MSCs using synthetic miR-200 mimics. After one week of transfection, mesenchymal-epithelial transition was induced in MSCs. In conclusion, miR-200 carrying EVs released from RPTECs induce the epithelial commitment of MSCs that may contribute to their regenerative potential. Based on experiments of MSC transfection with miR-200 mimics, we suggested that the miR-200 family may be involved in mesenchymal-epithelial transition of MSCs.

  14. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Epithelial Transition Induced by Renal Tubular Cells-Derived Extracellular Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Chiabotto, Giulia; Bruno, Stefania; Collino, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions play an important role in renal tubular morphogenesis and in maintaining the structure of the kidney. The aim of this study was to investigate whether extracellular vesicles (EVs) produced by human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs) may induce mesenchymal-epithelial transition of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). To test this hypothesis, we characterized the phenotype and the RNA content of EVs and we evaluated the in vitro uptake and activity of EVs on MSCs. MicroRNA (miRNA) analysis suggested the possible implication of the miR-200 family carried by EVs in the epithelial commitment of MSCs. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were incubated with EVs, or RPTEC-derived total conditioned medium, or conditioned medium depleted of EVs. As a positive control, MSCs were co-cultured in a transwell system with RPTECs. Epithelial commitment of MSCs was assessed by real time PCR and by immunofluorescence analysis of cellular expression of specific mesenchymal and epithelial markers. After one week of incubation with EVs and total conditioned medium, we observed mesenchymal-epithelial transition in MSCs. Stimulation with conditioned medium depleted of EVs did not induce any change in mesenchymal and epithelial gene expression. Since EVs were found to contain the miR-200 family, we transfected MSCs using synthetic miR-200 mimics. After one week of transfection, mesenchymal-epithelial transition was induced in MSCs. In conclusion, miR-200 carrying EVs released from RPTECs induce the epithelial commitment of MSCs that may contribute to their regenerative potential. Based on experiments of MSC transfection with miR-200 mimics, we suggested that the miR-200 family may be involved in mesenchymal-epithelial transition of MSCs. PMID:27409796

  15. Combining xanthan and chitosan membranes to multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells as bioactive dressings for dermo-epidermal wounds.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Márcia Z; Caliari-Oliveira, Carolina; Mizukami, Amanda; Swiech, Kamilla; Covas, Dimas T; Donadi, Eduardo A; Oliva-Neto, Pedro; Moraes, Ângela M

    2015-03-01

    The association between tridimensional scaffolds to cells of interest has provided excellent perspectives for obtaining viable complex tissues in vitro, such as skin, resulting in impressive advances in the field of tissue engineering applied to regenerative therapies. The use of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the treatment of dermo-epidermal wounds is particularly promising due to several relevant properties of these cells, such as high capacity of proliferation in culture, potential of differentiation in multiple skin cell types, important paracrine and immunomodulatory effects, among others. Membranes of chitosan complexed with xanthan may be potentially useful as scaffolds for multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, given that they present suitable physico-chemical characteristics and have adequate tridimensional structure for the adhesion, growth, and maintenance of cell function. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to assess the applicability of bioactive dressings associating dense and porous chitosan-xanthan membranes to multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells for the treatment of skin wounds. The membranes showed to be non-mutagenic and allowed efficient adhesion and proliferation of the mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro. In vivo assays performed with mesenchymal stromal cells grown on the surface of the dense membranes showed acceleration of wound healing in Wistar rats, thus indicating that the use of this cell-scaffold association for tissue engineering purposes is feasible and attractive. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Tumor-Activated Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Promote Osteosarcoma Stemness and Migratory Potential via IL-6 Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Cortini, Margherita; Massa, Annamaria; Avnet, Sofia; Bonuccelli, Gloria; Baldini, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive bone malignancy with a high relapse rate despite combined treatment with surgery and multiagent chemotherapy. As for other cancers, OS-associated microenvironment may contribute to tumor initiation, growth, and metastasis. We consider mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) as a relevant cellular component of OS microenvironment, and have previously found that the interaction between MSC and tumor cells is bidirectional: tumor cells can modulate their peripheral environment that in turn becomes more favorable to tumor growth through metabolic reprogramming. Here, we determined the effects of MSC on OS stemness and migration, two major features associated with recurrence and chemoresistance. The presence of stromal cells enhanced the number of floating spheres enriched in cancer stem cells (CSC) of the OS cell population. Furthermore, the co-culturing with MSC stimulated the migratory capacity of OS via TGFβ1 and IL-6 secretion, and the neutralizing antibody anti-IL-6 impaired this effect. Thus, stromal cells in combination with OS spheres exploit a vicious cycle where the presence of CSC stimulates mesenchymal cytokine secretion, which in turn increases stemness, proliferation, migration, and metastatic potential of CSC, also through the increase of expression of adhesion molecules like ICAM-1. Altogether, our data corroborate the concept that a comprehensive knowledge of the interplay between tumor and stroma that also includes the stem-like fraction of tumor cells is needed to develop novel and effective anti-cancer therapies. PMID:27851822

  17. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Can Regulate the Immune Response in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Alessandro; Giuliani, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a good target for therapy in solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Indeed, solid tumor cells’ growth and expansion can influence neighboring cells’ behavior, leading to a modulation of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) activities and remodeling of extracellular matrix components. This leads to an altered microenvironment, where reparative mechanisms, in the presence of sub-acute inflammation, are not able to reconstitute healthy tissue. Carcinoma cells can undergo epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key step to generate metastasis; these mesenchymal-like cells display the functional behavior of MSC. Furthermore, MSC can support the survival and growth of leukemic cells within bone marrow participating in the leukemic cell niche. Notably, MSC can inhibit the anti-tumor immune response through either carcinoma-associated fibroblasts or bone marrow stromal cells. Experimental data have indicated their relevance in regulating cytolytic effector lymphocytes of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Herein, we will discuss some of the evidence in hematological malignancies and solid tumors. In particular, we will focus our attention on the means by which it is conceivable to inhibit MSC-mediated immune suppression and trigger anti-tumor innate immunity. PMID:27834810

  18. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Can Regulate the Immune Response in the Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Poggi, Alessandro; Giuliani, Massimo

    2016-11-08

    The tumor microenvironment is a good target for therapy in solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Indeed, solid tumor cells' growth and expansion can influence neighboring cells' behavior, leading to a modulation of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) activities and remodeling of extracellular matrix components. This leads to an altered microenvironment, where reparative mechanisms, in the presence of sub-acute inflammation, are not able to reconstitute healthy tissue. Carcinoma cells can undergo epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key step to generate metastasis; these mesenchymal-like cells display the functional behavior of MSC. Furthermore, MSC can support the survival and growth of leukemic cells within bone marrow participating in the leukemic cell niche. Notably, MSC can inhibit the anti-tumor immune response through either carcinoma-associated fibroblasts or bone marrow stromal cells. Experimental data have indicated their relevance in regulating cytolytic effector lymphocytes of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Herein, we will discuss some of the evidence in hematological malignancies and solid tumors. In particular, we will focus our attention on the means by which it is conceivable to inhibit MSC-mediated immune suppression and trigger anti-tumor innate immunity.

  19. Rapid Selection of Mesenchymal Stem and Progenitor Cells in Primary Prostate Stromal Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Brennen, W. Nathaniel; Kisteman, L. Nelleke; Isaacs, John T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a dominant component of the tumor microenvironment with pro-tumorigenic properties. Despite this knowledge, their physiologic origins remain poorly understood. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be recruited from the bone marrow to areas of tissue damage and inflammation, including prostate cancer. MSCs can generate and have many overlapping properties with CAFs in preclinical models. METHODS Multiparameter flow cytometry and multipotent differentiation assays used to define MSCs in primary prostate stromal cultures derived from young (>25 yrs) organ donors and prostate cancer patients compared with bone marrow-derived stromal cultures. Population doubling times, population doublings, cell size, and differentiation potential determined under multiple culture conditions, including normoxia, hypoxia, and a variety of media. TGF-β measured by ELISA. RESULTS MSCs and stromal progenitors are not only present in normal and malignant prostate tissue, but are quickly selected for in primary stromal cultures derived from these tissues; becoming the dominant population within just a few passages. Growth potential inversely associated with TGF-β concentrations. All conditions generated populations with an average cell diameter >15 μm. All cultures tested had the ability to undergo osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation, but unlike bone marrow-derived MSCs, primary stromal cultures derived from normal prostate tissue lack adipogenic differentiation potential. In contrast, a subset of stromal cultures derived from prostate cancer patients retain the ability to differentiate into adipocytes; a property that is significantly suppressed under hypoxic conditions in both bone marrow- and prostate-derived MSCs. CONCLUSIONS Primary prostate stromal cultures are highly enriched in cells with an MSC or stromal progenitor phenotype. The use of primary cultures such as these to study CAFs raises interesting implications when

  20. Identification of Meflin as a Potential Marker for Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Keiko; Enomoto, Atsushi; Hara, Akitoshi; Asai, Naoya; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Horinouchi, Asuka; Maruyama, Shoichi; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Nishiyama, Takahiro; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Kato, Takuya; Ando, Kenju; Weng, Liang; Mii, Shinji; Asai, Masato; Mizutani, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Osamu; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Goto, Hidemi; Takahashi, Masahide

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) in culture are derived from BM stromal cells or skeletal stem cells. Whereas MSCs have been exploited in clinical medicine, the identification of MSC-specific markers has been limited. Here, we report that a cell surface and secreted protein, Meflin, is expressed in cultured MSCs, fibroblasts and pericytes, but not other types of cells including epithelial, endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In vivo, Meflin is expressed by immature osteoblasts and chondroblasts. In addition, Meflin is found on stromal cells distributed throughout the BM, and on pericytes and perivascular cells in multiple organs. Meflin maintains the undifferentiated state of cultured MSCs and is downregulated upon their differentiation, consistent with the observation that Meflin-deficient mice exhibit increased number of osteoblasts and accelerated bone development. In the bone and BM, Meflin is more highly expressed in primitive stromal cells that express platelet-derived growth factor receptor α and Sca-1 than the Sca-1-negative adipo-osteogenic progenitors, which create a niche for hematopoiesis. Those results are consistent with a decrease in the number of clonogenic colony-forming unit-fibroblasts within the BM of Meflin-deficient mice. These preliminary data suggest that Meflin is a potential marker for cultured MSCs and their source cells in vivo. PMID:26924503

  1. Cryopreserved, Xeno-Free Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Reduce Lung Injury Severity and Bacterial Burden in Rodent Escherichia coli-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Curley, Gerard F; Jerkic, Mirjana; Dixon, Steve; Hogan, Grace; Masterson, Claire; O'Toole, Daniel; Devaney, James; Laffey, John G

    2017-02-01

    Although mesenchymal stem/stromal cells represent a promising therapeutic strategy for acute respiratory distress syndrome, clinical translation faces challenges, including scarcity of bone marrow donors, and reliance on bovine serum during mesenchymal stem/stromal cell proliferation. We wished to compare mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from human umbilical cord, grown in xeno-free conditions, with mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from human bone marrow, in a rat model of Escherichia coli pneumonia. In addition, we wished to determine the potential for umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem/stromal cells to reduce E. coli-induced oxidant injury. Randomized animal study. University research laboratory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was induced in rats by intratracheal instillation of E. coli (1.5-2 × 10 CFU/kg). "Series 1" compared the effects of freshly thawed cryopreserved umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem/stromal cells with bone marrow-mesenchymal stem/stromal cells on physiologic indices of lung injury, cellular infiltration, and E. coli colony counts in bronchoalveolar lavage. "Series 2" examined the effects of cryopreserved umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem/stromal cells on survival, as well as measures of injury, inflammation and oxidant stress, including production of reactive oxidative species, reactive oxidative species scavenging by superoxide dismutase-1 and superoxide dismutase-2. In "Series 1," animals subjected to E. coli pneumonia who received umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem/stromal cells had improvements in oxygenation, respiratory static compliance, and wet-to-dry ratios comparable to bone marrow-mesenchymal stem/stromal cell treatment. E. coli colony-forming units in bronchoalveolar lavage were reduced in both cell therapy groups, despite a reduction in bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophils. In series 2, umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem/stromal cells enhanced animal survival and decreased alveolar protein and proinflammatory

  2. Decellularized Iliotibial Band Recolonized with Allogenic Homotopic Fibroblasts or Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Gögele, Clemens; Schwarz, Silke; Ondruschka, Benjamin; Hammer, Niels; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula

    2017-05-10

    Decellularized scaffolds present promising biomimetic approaches in various fields of tissue engineering. Different tissues have been selected for decellularization, among them extracellular matrix (ECM)-rich tissues such as tendons, ligaments and cartilage. The dense ECM of ligaments is particularly challenging to achieve a completely non-immunogenic ECM void of any cells. Here, the methods for decellularization adapted to ligamentous tissue of the iliotibial band (ITB) are presented along with cell isolation and several recolonization techniques using allogenic ITB-derived fibroblasts or mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs).

  3. The proteomic dataset for bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stromal cells: Effect of in vitro passaging

    PubMed Central

    Mindaye, Samuel T.; Lo Surdo, Jessica; Bauer, Steven R.; Alterman, Michail A.

    2015-01-01

    Bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) have been in clinical trials for therapy. One major bottleneck in the advancement of BMSC-based products is the challenge associated with cell isolation, characterization, and ensuring cell fitness over the course of in vitro cell propagation steps. The data in this report is part of publications that explored the proteomic changes following in vitro passaging of BMSCs [4] and the molecular heterogeneity in cultures obtained from different human donors [5], [6].The methodological details involving cell manufacturing, proteome harvesting, protein identification and quantification as well as the bioinformatic analyses were described to ensure reproducibility of the results. PMID:26702413

  4. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Protect the Fetal Brain After Hypoxia-Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ophelders, Daan R M G; Wolfs, Tim G A M; Jellema, Reint K; Zwanenburg, Alex; Andriessen, Peter; Delhaas, Tammo; Ludwig, Anna-Kristin; Radtke, Stefan; Peters, Vera; Janssen, Leon; Giebel, Bernd; Kramer, Boris W

    2016-06-01

    Preterm neonates are susceptible to perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, for which no treatment is available. In a preclinical animal model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in ovine fetuses, we have demonstrated the neuroprotective potential of systemically administered mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). The mechanism of MSC treatment is unclear but suggested to be paracrine, through secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Therefore, we investigated in this study the protective effects of mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) in a preclinical model of preterm hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Ovine fetuses were subjected to global hypoxia-ischemia by transient umbilical cord occlusion, followed by in utero intravenous administration of MSC-EVs. The therapeutic effects of MSC-EV administration were assessed by analysis of electrophysiological parameters and histology of the brain. Systemic administration of MSC-EVs improved brain function by reducing the total number and duration of seizures, and by preserving baroreceptor reflex sensitivity. These functional protections were accompanied by a tendency to prevent hypomyelination. Cerebral inflammation remained unaffected by the MSC-EV treatment. Our data demonstrate that MSC-EV treatment might provide a novel strategy to reduce the neurological sequelae following hypoxic-ischemic injury of the preterm brain. Our study results suggest that a cell-free preparation comprising neuroprotective MSC-EVs could substitute MSCs in the treatment of preterm neonates with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, thereby circumventing the potential risks of systemic administration of living cells. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) show promise in treating hypoxic-ischemic injury of the preterm brain. Study results suggest administration of extracellular vesicles, rather than intact MSCs, is sufficient to exert therapeutic effects and avoids potential concerns associated with administration

  5. Engineering cartilage tissue by pellet coculture of chondrocytes and mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling; Post, Janine N; Karperien, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Coculture of chondrocytes and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in pellets has been shown to be beneficial in engineering cartilage tissue in vitro. In these cultures trophic effects of MSCs increase the proliferation and matrix deposition of chondrocytes. Thus, large cartilage constructs can be made with a relatively small number of chondrocytes. In this chapter, we describe the methods for making coculture pellets of MSCs and chondrocytes. We also provide detailed protocols for analyzing coculture pellets with cell tracking, proliferation assays, species specific polymerase chain reactions (PCR), short tandem repeats analysis, and histological examination.

  6. Regulatory Effects of Urokinase on Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Migration, Proliferation, and Matrix Metalloproteinase Secretion.

    PubMed

    Beloglazova, I B; Zubkova, E S; Tsokolaeva, Z I; Stafeev, Yu S; Dergilev, K V; Ratner, E I; Shestakova, M V; Sukhareva, O Yu; Parfenova, E V; Men'shikov, M Yu

    2016-10-01

    We studied the effect of urokinase, its recombinant forms, and domain fragments on migration and proliferation of adipose tissue mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and MMP secretion by these cells. Urokinase, but not its recombinant forms, slightly induced directed migration of MSCs. Spontaneous migration of MSCs increased under the action of urokinase or its isolated kringle domain. Migration induced by platelet-derived growth factor was inhibited by proteolytically inactive form of urokinase, the kringle domain, and blocking antibody to urokinase receptor. Urokinase, its proteolytically inactive form, and kringle domain produced no effect on MSC proliferation. In contrast to platelet-derived growth factor, all urokinase forms induced secretion of MMP-9 by MSCs.

  7. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells: A promising strategy to manage alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Ezquer, Fernando; Bruna, Flavia; Calligaris, Sebastián; Conget, Paulette; Ezquer, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is a major cause of liver disease. The term alcoholic liver disease (ALD) refers to a spectrum of mild to severe disorders including steatosis, steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. With limited therapeutic options, stem cell therapy offers significant potential for these patients. In this article, we review the pathophysiologic features of ALD and the therapeutic mechanisms of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, also referred to as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), based on their potential to differentiate into hepatocytes, their immunomodulatory properties, their potential to promote residual hepatocyte regeneration, and their capacity to inhibit hepatic stellate cells. The perfect match between ALD pathogenesis and MSC therapeutic mechanisms, together with encouraging, available preclinical data, allow us to support the notion that MSC transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy to manage ALD onset and progression. PMID:26755858

  8. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells: A promising strategy to manage alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ezquer, Fernando; Bruna, Flavia; Calligaris, Sebastián; Conget, Paulette; Ezquer, Marcelo

    2016-01-07

    Chronic alcohol consumption is a major cause of liver disease. The term alcoholic liver disease (ALD) refers to a spectrum of mild to severe disorders including steatosis, steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. With limited therapeutic options, stem cell therapy offers significant potential for these patients. In this article, we review the pathophysiologic features of ALD and the therapeutic mechanisms of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, also referred to as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), based on their potential to differentiate into hepatocytes, their immunomodulatory properties, their potential to promote residual hepatocyte regeneration, and their capacity to inhibit hepatic stellate cells. The perfect match between ALD pathogenesis and MSC therapeutic mechanisms, together with encouraging, available preclinical data, allow us to support the notion that MSC transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy to manage ALD onset and progression.

  9. Human Umbilical Cord Blood Serum: Effective Substitute of Fetal Bovine Serum for Culturing of Human Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Yu A; Balashova, E E; Volgina, N E; Kabaeva, N V; Dugina, T N; Sukhikh, G T

    2017-02-01

    Optimal conditions for culturing of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the presence of pooled umbilical cord blood serum were determined. It was found that umbilical cord blood serum in a concentration range of 1-10% effectively supported high viability and proliferative activity of cells with unaltered phenotype and preserved multilineage differentiation capacity. The proposed approach allows avoiding the use of xenogenic animal sera for culturing of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells and creates prerequisites for designing and manufacturing safe cellular and/or acellular products for medical purposes.

  10. Impaired Angiogenic Potential of Human Placental Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Mandò, Chiara; Razini, Paola; Novielli, Chiara; Anelli, Gaia Maria; Belicchi, Marzia; Erratico, Silvia; Banfi, Stefania; Meregalli, Mirella; Tavelli, Alessandro; Baccarin, Marco; Rolfo, Alessandro; Motta, Silvia; Torrente, Yvan; Cetin, Irene

    2016-04-01

    Human placental mesenchymal stromal cells (pMSCs) have never been investigated in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We characterized cells isolated from placental membranes and the basal disc of six IUGR and five physiological placentas. Cell viability and proliferation were assessed every 7 days during a 6-week culture. Expression of hematopoietic, stem, endothelial, and mesenchymal markers was evaluated by flow cytometry. We characterized the multipotency of pMSCs and the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial content and function. Cell viability was high in all samples, and proliferation rate was lower in IUGR compared with control cells. All samples presented a starting heterogeneous population, shifting during culture toward homogeneity for mesenchymal markers and occurring earlier in IUGR than in controls. In vitro multipotency of IUGR-derived pMSCs was restricted because their capacity for adipocyte differentiation was increased, whereas their ability to differentiate toward endothelial cell lineage was decreased. Mitochondrial content and function were higher in IUGR pMSCs than controls, possibly indicating a shift from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism, with the loss of the metabolic characteristics that are typical of undifferentiated multipotent cells. This study demonstrates that the loss of endothelial differentiation potential and the increase of adipogenic ability are likely to play a significant role in the vicious cycle of abnormal placental development in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). This is the first observation of a potential role for placental mesenchymal stromal cells in intrauterine growth restriction, thus leading to new perspectives for the treatment of IUGR. ©AlphaMed Press.

  11. Cultured Human Adipose Tissue Pericytes and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Display a Very Similar Gene Expression Profile

    PubMed Central

    Malta, Tathiane Maistro; de Deus Wagatsuma, Virgínia Mara; Palma, Patrícia Viana Bonini; Araújo, Amélia Goes; Ribeiro Malmegrim, Kelen Cristina; Morato de Oliveira, Fábio; Panepucci, Rodrigo Alexandre; Silva, Wilson Araújo; Kashima Haddad, Simone; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are cultured cells that can give rise to mature mesenchymal cells under appropriate conditions and secrete a number of biologically relevant molecules that may play an important role in regenerative medicine. Evidence indicates that pericytes (PCs) correspond to mesenchymal stem cells in vivo and can give rise to MSCs when cultured, but a comparison between the gene expression profiles of cultured PCs (cPCs) and MSCs is lacking. We have devised a novel methodology to isolate PCs from human adipose tissue and compared cPCs to MSCs obtained through traditional methods. Freshly isolated PCs expressed CD34, CD140b, and CD271 on their surface, but not CD146. Both MSCs and cPCs were able to differentiate along mesenchymal pathways in vitro, displayed an essentially identical surface immunophenotype, and exhibited the ability to suppress CD3+ lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. Microarray expression data of cPCs and MSCs formed a single cluster among other cell types. Further analyses showed that the gene expression profiles of cPCs and MSCs are extremely similar, although MSCs differentially expressed endothelial cell (EC)-specific transcripts. These results confirm, using the power of transcriptomic analysis, that PCs give rise to MSCs and suggest that low levels of ECs may persist in MSC cultures established using traditional protocols. PMID:26192741

  12. Monitoring live human mesenchymal stromal cell differentiation and subsequent selection using fluorescent RNA-based probes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bojun; Menzel, Ursula; Loebel, Claudia; Schmal, Hagen; Alini, Mauro; Stoddart, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Investigating mesenchymal stromal cell differentiation requires time and multiple samples due to destructive endpoint assays. Osteogenesis of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs) has been widely studied for bone tissue engineering. Recent studies show that the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs can be assessed by quantifying the ratio of two important transcription factors (Runx2/Sox9). We demonstrate a method to observe mRNA expression of two genes in individual live cells using fluorescent probes specific for Runx2 and Sox9 mRNA. The changes of mRNA expression in cells can be observed in a non-destructive manner. In addition, the osteogenic hBMSCs can be prospectively identified and obtained based on the relative intracellular fluorescence of Sox9 in relation to Runx2 using fluorescence activated cell sorting. Relatively homogeneous cell populations with high osteogenic potential can be isolated from the original heterogeneous osteogenically induced hBMSCs within the first week of induction. This offers a more detailed analysis of the effectiveness of new therapeutics both at the individual cell level and the response of the population as a whole. By identifying and isolating differentiating cells at early time points, prospective analysis of differentiation is also possible, which will lead to a greater understanding of MSC differentiation. PMID:27198236

  13. Scalable microcarrier-based manufacturing of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells.

    PubMed

    de Soure, António M; Fernandes-Platzgummer, Ana; da Silva, Cláudia L; Cabral, Joaquim M S

    2016-10-20

    Due to their unique features, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) have been exploited in clinical settings as therapeutic candidates for the treatment of a variety of diseases. However, the success in obtaining clinically-relevant MSC numbers for cell-based therapies is dependent on efficient isolation and ex vivo expansion protocols, able to comply with good manufacturing practices (GMP). In this context, the 2-dimensional static culture systems typically used for the expansion of these cells present several limitations that may lead to reduced cell numbers and compromise cell functions. Furthermore, many studies in the literature report the expansion of MSC using fetal bovine serum (FBS)-supplemented medium, which has been critically rated by regulatory agencies. Alternative platforms for the scalable manufacturing of MSC have been developed, namely using microcarriers in bioreactors, with also a considerable number of studies now reporting the production of MSC using xenogeneic/serum-free medium formulations. In this review we provide a comprehensive overview on the scalable manufacturing of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, depicting the various steps involved in the process from cell isolation to ex vivo expansion, using different cell tissue sources and culture medium formulations and exploiting bioprocess engineering tools namely microcarrier technology and bioreactors.

  14. Regenerative efficacy of mesenchymal stromal cells from human placenta in sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Kil, Kicheol; Choi, Mi Young; Kong, Ji Sun; Kim, Woo Jin; Park, Kyoung Ho

    2016-12-01

    Hearing loss is a common chronic disorder characterized by decline of auditory function. The global population have suffered from deafness and the transplantation of stem cells is regarded as a therapeutic strategy for this disease. We collected placenta from a total of 13 samples of full term pregnant women and isolated MSCs derived from human placenta and transplanted MSCs on deaf animal model. The normal group and the sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) group and the experimental (transplanted MSCs) group were compared and estimated hearing level using auditory brainstem response (ABR) recordings and the otoacoustic emission (OAE) test. ABR threshold value and DPOAE level showed that MSCs transplantation groups was improved than the SNHL group. And the number of spiral ganglion neurons were increased in all turn of the cochlea. And there was no evidence of acute immunological rejection and inflammation response was not observed. This study is to evaluate regenerative efficacy of hearing loss by transplanting mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from human placenta (amnion and chorion) in deaf animal model. We identified that MSCs transplantation restored auditory impairment and promoted cell regeneration. We hope to overcome sensorineural hearing loss by transplanting stem cells such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from easily accessible adult stem cell source in placenta. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison between Stromal Vascular Fraction and Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Remodeling Hypertrophic Scars

    PubMed Central

    Maumus, Marie; Toupet, Karine; Frouin, Eric; Rigau, Valérie; Vozenin, Marie-Catherine; Magalon, Guy; Jorgensen, Christian; Noël, Danièle

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HTS) are characterized by excessive amount of collagen deposition and principally occur following burn injuries or surgeries. In absence of effective treatments, the use of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, which have been shown to attenuate fibrosis in various applications, seems of interest. The objectives of the present study were therefore to evaluate the effect of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASC) on a pre-existing HTS in a humanized skin graft model in Nude mice and to compare the efficacy of hASCs versus stromal vascular fraction (SVF). We found that injection of SVF or hASCs resulted in an attenuation of HTS as noticed after clinical evaluation of skin thickness, which was associated with lower total collagen contents in the skins of treated mice and a reduced dermis thickness after histological analysis. Although both SVF and hASCs were able to significantly reduce the clinical and histological parameters of HTS, hASCs appeared to be more efficient than SVF. The therapeutic effect of hASCs was attributed to higher expression of TGFβ3 and HGF, which are important anti-fibrotic mediators, and to higher levels of MMP-2 and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio, which reflect the remodelling activity responsible for fibrosis resorption. These results demonstrated the therapeutic potential of hASCs for clinical applications of hypertrophic scarring. PMID:27227960

  16. Identification of a common mesenchymal stromal progenitor for the adult haematopoietic niche

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xingbin; Garcia, Mayra; Weng, Lihong; Jung, Xiaoman; Murakami, Jodi L.; Kumar, Bijender; Warden, Charles D.; Todorov, Ivan; Chen, Ching-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Microenvironment cues received by haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are important in regulating the choice between self-renewal and differentiation. On the basis of the differential expression of cell-surface markers, here we identify a mesenchymal stromal progenitor hierarchy, where CD45−Ter119−CD31−CD166−CD146−Sca1+(Sca1+) progenitors give rise to CD45−Ter119−CD31−CD166−CD146+(CD146+) intermediate and CD45−Ter119−CD31−CD166+CD146−(CD166+) mature osteo-progenitors. All three progenitors preserve HSC long-term multi-lineage reconstitution capability in vitro; however, their in vivo fates are different. Post-transplantation, CD146+ and CD166+ progenitors form bone only. While Sca1+ progenitors produce CD146+, CD166+ progenitors, osteocytes and CXCL12-producing stromal cells. Only Sca1+ progenitors are capable of homing back to the marrow post-intravenous infusion. Ablation of Sca1+ progenitors results in a decrease of all three progenitor populations as well as haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Moreover, suppressing production of KIT-ligand in Sca1+ progenitors inhibits their ability to support HSCs. Our results indicate that Sca1+ progenitors, through the generation of both osteogenic and stromal cells, provide a supportive environment for hematopoiesis. PMID:27721421

  17. Engraftment Outcomes after HPC Co-Culture with Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Cook, Matthew M; Doran, Michael R; Kollar, Katarina; Barbier, Valerie; Winkler, Ingrid G; Levesque, Jean-Pierre; Brooke, Gary; Atkinson, Kerry

    2013-09-23

    Haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is an established cell-based therapy for a number of haematological diseases. To enhance this therapy, there is considerable interest in expanding HSCs in artificial niches prior to transplantation. This study compared murine HSC expansion supported through co-culture on monolayers of either undifferentiated mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) or osteoblasts. Sorted Lineage(-) Sca-1(+) c-kit(+) (LSK) haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HPC) demonstrated proliferative capacity on both stromal monolayers with the greatest expansion of LSK shown in cultures supported by osteoblast monolayers. After transplantation, both types of bulk-expanded cultures were capable of engrafting and repopulating lethally irradiated primary and secondary murine recipients. LSKs co-cultured on MSCs showed comparable, but not superior, reconstitution ability to that of freshly isolated LSKs. Surprisingly, however, osteoblast co-cultured LSKs showed significantly poorer haematopoietic reconstitution compared to LSKs co-cultured on MSCs, likely due to a delay in short-term reconstitution. We demonstrated that stromal monolayers can be used to maintain, but not expand, functional HSCs without a need for additional haematopoietic growth factors. We also demonstrated that despite apparently superior in vitro performance, co-injection of bulk cultures of osteoblasts and LSKs in vivo was detrimental to recipient survival and should be avoided in translation to clinical practice.

  18. Functional differences in mesenchymal stromal cells from human dental pulp and periodontal ligament.

    PubMed

    Vasandan, Anoop Babu; Shankar, Shilpa Rani; Prasad, Priya; Sowmya Jahnavi, Vulugundam; Bhonde, Ramesh Ramachandra; Jyothi Prasanna, Susarla

    2014-02-01

    Clinically reported reparative benefits of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are majorly attributed to strong immune-modulatory abilities not exactly shared by fibroblasts. However, MSCs remain heterogeneous populations, with unique tissue-specific subsets, and lack of clear-cut assays defining therapeutic stromal subsets adds further ambiguity to the field. In this context, in-depth evaluation of cellular characteristics of MSCs from proximal oro-facial tissues: dental pulp (DPSCs) and periodontal ligament (PDLSCs) from identical donors provides an opportunity to evaluate exclusive niche-specific influences on multipotency and immune-modulation. Exhaustive cell surface profiling of DPSCs and PDLSCs indicated key differences in expression of mesenchymal (CD105) and pluripotent/multipotent stem cell-associated cell surface antigens: SSEA4, CD117, CD123 and CD29. DPSCs and PDLSCs exhibited strong chondrogenic potential, but only DPSCs exhibited adipogenic and osteogenic propensities. PDLSCs expressed immuno-stimulatory/immune-adhesive ligands like HLA-DR and CD50, upon priming with IFNγ, unlike DPSCs, indicating differential response patterns to pro-inflammatory cytokines. Both DPSCs and PDLSCs were hypo-immunogenic and did not elicit robust allogeneic responses despite exposure to IFNγ or TNFα. Interestingly, only DPSCs attenuated mitogen-induced lympho-proliferative responses and priming with either IFNγ or TNFα enhanced immuno-modulation capacity. In contrast, primed or unprimed PDLSCs lacked the ability to suppress polyclonal T cell blast responses. This study indicates that stromal cells from even topographically related tissues do not necessarily share identical MSC properties and emphasizes the need for a thorough functional testing of MSCs from diverse sources with respect to multipotency, immune parameters and response to pro-inflammatory cytokines before translational usage.

  19. Molecular targeting regulation of proliferation and differentiation of the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bei-Yu; Wang, Xi; Chen, Liang-Wei; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2012-04-01

    The bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), with pluripotent differentiation capacity, present an ideal source for cell transplantation or tissue engineering therapies, but exact understanding of regulating mechanism underling MSC proliferation and differentiation remains a critical issue in securing their safe and efficient clinical application. This review outlines current knowledge regarding MSC cell surface biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of MSC differentiation and proliferation with emphasis on Wnt/β-catenin signaling, Notch signaling pathway, bone morphogenesis proteins and various growth factors functioning in regulation of differentiation and proliferation of MSCs. Possible relation of oncogene and immunosuppressive activities of MSCs with tumorigenicity or tumor generation is also addressed for safe translational clinical application. Fast increase of MSC knowledge and techniques has led to some successful clinical trials and helped devising new tissue engineering therapies for bone and cartilage diseases that severely afflict human health. Production of adult MSC-derived functional neurons can further extend their therapeutic application in nerve injury and neurodegenerative diseases. It is promising that MSCs shall overcome ethical and immunorejection problems appeared in human embryonic stem cells, and specific molecular targeting manipulation may result in practical MSC therapy for personalized treatment of various diseases in the regeneration medicine.

  20. Failure of intravenous or intracardiac delivery of mesenchymal stromal cells to improve outcomes after focal traumatic brain injury in the female rat.

    PubMed

    Turtzo, L Christine; Budde, Matthew D; Dean, Dana D; Gold, Eric M; Lewis, Bobbi K; Janes, Lindsay; Lescher, Jacob; Coppola, Tiziana; Yarnell, Angela; Grunberg, Neil E; Frank, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells secrete a variety of anti-inflammatory factors and may provide a regenerative medicine option for the treatment of traumatic brain injury. The present study investigates the efficacy of multiple intravenous or intracardiac administrations of rat mesenchymal stromal cells or human mesenchymal stromal cells in female rats after controlled cortical impact by in vivo MRI, neurobehavior, and histopathology evaluation. Neither intravenous nor intracardiac administration of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from either rats or humans improved MRI measures of lesion volume or neurobehavioral outcome compared to saline treatment. Few mesenchymal stromal cells (<0.0005% of injected dose) were found within 3 days of last dosage at the site of injury after either delivery route, with no mesenchymal stromal cells being detectable in brain at 30 or 56 days post-injury. These findings suggest that non-autologous mesenchymal stromal cells therapy via intravenous or intracardiac administration is not a promising treatment after focal contusion traumatic brain injury in this female rodent model.

  1. Cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells are a source of adipocytes in arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sommariva, E.; Brambilla, S.; Carbucicchio, C.; Gambini, E.; Meraviglia, V.; Dello Russo, A.; Farina, F.M.; Casella, M.; Catto, V.; Pontone, G.; Chiesa, M.; Stadiotti, I.; Cogliati, E.; Paolin, A.; Ouali Alami, N.; Preziuso, C.; d'Amati, G.; Colombo, G.I.; Rossini, A.; Capogrossi, M.C.; Tondo, C.; Pompilio, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a genetic disorder mainly due to mutations in desmosomal genes, characterized by progressive fibro-adipose replacement of the myocardium, arrhythmias, and sudden death. It is still unclear which cell type is responsible for fibro-adipose substitution and which molecular mechanisms lead to this structural change. Cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells (C-MSC) are the most abundant cells in the heart, with propensity to differentiate into several cell types, including adipocytes, and their role in ACM is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether C-MSC contributed to excess adipocytes in patients with ACM. Methods and results We found that, in ACM patients' explanted heart sections, cells actively differentiating into adipocytes are of mesenchymal origin. Therefore, we isolated C-MSC from endomyocardial biopsies of ACM and from not affected by arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (NON-ACM) (control) patients. We found that both ACM and control C-MSC express desmosomal genes, with ACM C-MSC showing lower expression of plakophilin (PKP2) protein vs. controls. Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy C-MSC cultured in adipogenic medium accumulated more lipid droplets than controls. Accordingly, the expression of adipogenic genes was higher in ACM vs. NON-ACM C-MSC, while expression of cell cycle and anti-adipogenic genes was lower. Both lipid accumulation and transcription reprogramming were dependent on PKP2 deficiency. Conclusions Cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells contribute to the adipogenic substitution observed in ACM patients' hearts. Moreover, C-MSC from ACM patients recapitulate the features of ACM adipogenesis, representing a novel, scalable, patient-specific in vitro tool for future mechanistic studies. PMID:26590176

  2. Comparative analysis of multilineage properties of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from fetal sources shows an advantage of mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from cord blood in chondrogenic differentiation potential

    PubMed Central

    Pievani, Alice; Scagliotti, Valeria; Russo, Francesca Maria; Azario, Isabella; Rambaldi, Benedetta; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Marzorati, Simona; Erba, Eugenio; Giudici, Giovanni; Riminucci, Mara; Biondi, Andrea; Vergani, Patrizia; Serafini, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Background aims Cord blood (CB) and amniotic fluid (AF) could represent new and attractive mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) sources, but their potential therapeutic applications are still limited by lack of standardized protocols for isolation and differentiation. In particular, chondrogenic differentiation has never been deeply investigated. Methods MSCs were obtained from CB and AF samples collected during cesarean sections at term and compared for their biological and differentiation properties, with particular interest in cartilage differentiation, in which quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the expression of type 2 collagen, type 10 collagen, SRY-box9 and aggrecan. Results We were able to isolate MSCs from 12 of 30 (40%) and 5 of 20 (25%) CB and AF units, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis indicated the fetal origin of isolated MSC strains. Both populations expressed mesenchymal but not endothelial and hematopoietic markers, even though we observed a lower expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) I in CB-MSCs. No differences in proliferation rate and cell cycle analysis could be detected. After osteogenic induction, both populations showed matrix mineralization and typical marker expression. Under chondrogenic conditions, pellets derived from CB-MSCs, in contrast with AF-MSCs pellets, were significantly larger, showed cartilage-like morphology and resulted positive for chondrocyte-associated markers, such as type 2 collagen, type 10 collagen, SRY-box9 and aggrecan. Conclusions Our results show that CB-MSCs and AF-MSCs collected at term differ from each other in their biological and differentiation properties. In particular, only CB-MSCs showed a clear chondrogenic potential and thus could represent an ideal candidate for cartilage-tissue engineering. PMID:24794181

  3. Down-regulation of Dicer1 promotes cellular senescence and decreases the differentiation and stem cell-supporting capacities of mesenchymal stromal cells in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Youshan; Wu, Dong; Fei, Chengming; Guo, Juan; Gu, Shuncheng; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Feng; Zhang, Zheng; Wu, Lingyun; Li, Xiao; Chang, Chunkang

    2015-02-01

    Although it has been reported that mesenchymal stromal cells are unable to provide sufficient hematopoietic support in myelodysplastic syndrome, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we found that mesenchymal stromal cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndrome displayed a significant increase in senescence, as evidenced by their decreased proliferative capacity, flattened morphology and increased expression of SA-β-gal and p21. Senescent mesenchymal stromal cells from patients had decreased differentiation potential and decreased stem cell support capacity. Gene knockdown of Dicer1, which was down-regulated in mesenchymal stromal cells from patients, induced senescence. The differentiation and stem cell-supporting capacities were significantly inhibited by Dicer1 knockdown. Overexpression of Dicer1 in mesenchymal stromal cells from patients reversed cellular senescence and enhanced stem cell properties. Furthermore, we identified reduced expression in the microRNA-17 family (miR-17-5p, miR-20a/b, miR-106a/b and miR-93) as a potential factor responsible for increased p21 expression, a key senescence mediator, in Dicer1 knockdown cells. Moreover, we found that miR-93 and miR-20a expression levels were significantly reduced in mesenchymal stromal cells from patients and miR-93/miR-20a gain of function resulted in a decrease of cellular senescence. Collectively, the results of our study show that mesenchymal stromal cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndrome are prone to senescence and that Dicer1 down-regulation promotes cellular senescence and decreases the differentiation and stem cell-supporting capacities of mesenchymal stromal cells. Dicer1 down-regulation seems to contribute to the insufficient hematopoietic support capacities of mesenchymal stromal cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  4. The safety of autologous and metabolically fit bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells in medically refractory Crohn's disease - a phase 1 trial with three doses.

    PubMed

    Dhere, T; Copland, I; Garcia, M; Chiang, K Y; Chinnadurai, R; Prasad, M; Galipeau, J; Kugathasan, S

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells ability to reset immune functionalities may be useful in Crohn's disease. To perform a first-in-human phase 1 safety clinical trial of metabolically fit autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells in 12 subjects with Crohn's disease utilising three doses. Autologous mesenchymal stromal cells were derived from marrow aspirate and propagated for 2-3 weeks with fibrinogen depleted human platelet lysate and subsequently administered to subjects without interval cryobanking. Twelve subjects received a single mesenchymal stromal cell intravenous infusion of 2, 5 or 10 million cells/kg BW(n = 4/group). Infused mesenchymal stromal cells were analysed for cell surface marker expression, IDO(indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase) upregulation by IFNγ stimulation, and inhibition of third party peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation in vitro. The primary end point measured was safety and tolerability; clinical response was assessed as a secondary endpoint. All patients tolerated the mesenchymal stromal cell infusion well and no dose limiting toxicity was seen. Seven patients had serious adverse events of which five were hospitalisations for Crohn's disease flare. Two of these serious adverse events were possibly related to the mesenchymal stromal cells infusion. Five subjects showed clinical response 2 weeks after the infusion. Mesenchymal stromal cell phenotype, cytokine responsiveness, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation blockade were not different among the patients. Single infusion of fresh autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells propagated ex vivo using human platelet lysate-supplemented media was safe and feasible at intravenous doses of up to 10 million cells/kg BW in patients with Crohn's disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Isolation and Characterisation of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in the Ovine Endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Deane, James A.; Ulrich, Daniela; Gurung, Shanti; Ong, Y. Rue; Gargett, Caroline E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) were recently discovered in the human endometrium. These cells possess key stem cell properties and show promising results in small animal models when used for preclinical tissue engineering studies. A small number of surface markers have been identified that enrich for MSC from bone marrow and human endometrium, including the Sushi Domain-containing 2 (SUSD2; W5C5) and CD271 markers. In preparation for developing a large animal preclinical model for urological and gynecological tissue engineering applications we aimed to identify and characterise MSC in ovine endometrium and determine surface markers to enable their prospective isolation. Materials and Methods Ovine endometrium was obtained from hysterectomised ewes following progesterone synchronisation, dissociated into single cell suspensions and tested for MSC surface markers and key stem cell properties. Purified stromal cells were obtained by flow cytometry sorting with CD49f and CD45 to remove epithelial cells and leukocytes respectively, and MSC properties investigated. Results There was a small population CD271+ stromal cells (4.5 ± 2.3%) in the ovine endometrium. Double labelling with CD271 and CD49f showed that the sorted CD271+CD49f- stromal cell population possessed significantly higher cloning efficiency, serial cloning capacity and a qualitative increased ability to differentiate into 4 mesodermal lineages (adipocytic, smooth muscle, chondrocytic and osteoblastic) than CD271-CD49f- cells. Immunolabelling studies identified an adventitial perivascular location for ovine endometrial CD271+ cells. Conclusion This is the first study to characterise MSC in the ovine endometrium and identify a surface marker profile identifying their location and enabling their prospective isolation. This knowledge will allow future preclinical studies with a large animal model that is well established for pelvic organ prolapse research. PMID:25992577

  6. Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in Regenerative Medicine: Can Preconditioning Strategies Improve Therapeutic Efficacy?

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Richard; Spohn, Gabriele; Baer, Patrick C.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are becoming increasingly important for the development of cell therapeutics in regenerative medicine. Featuring immunomodulatory potential as well as secreting a variety of trophic factors, MSCs showed remarkable therapeutic effects in numerous preclinical disease models. However, sustainable translation of MSC therapies to the clinic is hampered by heterogeneity of MSCs and non-standardized in vitro culture technologies. Moreover, potent MSC therapeutics require MSCs with maximum regenerative capacity. There is growing evidence that in vitro preconditioning strategies of MSCs can optimize their therapeutic potential. In the following we will discuss achievements and challenges of the development of MSC therapies in regenerative medicine highlighting specific in vitro preconditioning strategies prior to cell transplantation to increase their therapeutic efficacy. PMID:27721701

  7. Characterization and Angiogenic Potential of Human Neonatal and Infant Thymus Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuyun; Mundada, Lakshmi; Johnson, Sean; Wong, Joshua; Witt, Russell; Ohye, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Resident mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are involved in angiogenesis during thymus regeneration. We have previously shown that MSCs can be isolated from enzymatically digested human neonatal and infant thymus tissue that is normally discarded during pediatric cardiac surgical procedures. In this paper, we demonstrate that thymus MSCs can also be isolated by explant culture of discarded thymus tissue and that these cells share many of the characteristics of bone marrow MSCs. Human neonatal thymus MSCs are clonogenic, demonstrate exponential growth in nearly 30 population doublings, have a characteristic surface marker profile, and express pluripotency genes. Furthermore, thymus MSCs have potent proangiogenic behavior in vitro with sprout formation and angiogenic growth factor production. Thymus MSCs promote neoangiogenesis and cooperate with endothelial cells to form functional human blood vessels in vivo. These characteristics make thymus MSCs a potential candidate for use as an angiogenic cell therapeutic agent and for vascularizing engineered tissues in vitro. PMID:25713463

  8. Clinical-grade production of human mesenchymal stromal cells: occurrence of aneuploidy without transformation.

    PubMed

    Tarte, Karin; Gaillard, Julien; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Fouillard, Loic; Becker, Martine; Mossafa, Hossein; Tchirkov, Andrei; Rouard, Hélène; Henry, Catherine; Splingard, Marie; Dulong, Joelle; Monnier, Delphine; Gourmelon, Patrick; Gorin, Norbert-Claude; Sensebé, Luc

    2010-02-25

    Clinical-grade human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been expanded in vitro for tissue engineering or immunoregulatory purposes without standardized culture conditions or release criteria. Although human MSCs show poor susceptibility for oncogenic transformation, 2 recent studies described their capacity to accumulate chromosomal instability and to give rise to carcinoma in immunocompromised mice after long-term culture. We thus investigated the immunologic and genetic features of MSCs expanded with fetal calf serum and fibroblast growth factor or with platelet lysate in 4 cell-therapy facilities during 2 multicenter clinical trials. Cultured MSCs showed a moderate expression of human leukocyte antigen-DR without alteration of their low immunogenicity or their immunomodulatory capacity. Moreover, some transient and donor-dependent recurring aneuploidy was detected in vitro, independently of the culture process. However, MSCs with or without chromosomal alterations showed progressive growth arrest and entered senescence without evidence of transformation either in vitro or in vivo.

  9. Serum-free media for the production of human mesenchymal stromal cells: a review.

    PubMed

    Gottipamula, S; Muttigi, M S; Kolkundkar, U; Seetharam, R N

    2013-12-01

    The regenerative potential of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) holds great promise in using them for treatment of a wide range of debilitating diseases. Several types of culture media and systems have been used for large-scale expansion of MSCs in vitro; however, the majority of them rely heavily on using foetal bovine serum (FBS)-supplement for optimal cell proliferation. FBS-based cultures pose the potential threat of spread of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy and bovine spongiform encephalopathy to MSCs and then to their recipients. A recent trend in cell culture is to change from serum-use to serum-free media (SFM). In this context, the current review focuses specifically on employment of various SFM for MSCs and discusses existences of various options with which to substitute FBS. In addition, we analyse MSC population growth kinetic patterns using various SFM for large-scale production of MSCs.

  10. Isolation of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells From Peripheral Blood of ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Ina Laura; Smith, Rachel; Bishop, Joanna C; Aldalati, Omar; Chase, Alex J; Morgan, Gareth; Thornton, Catherine A

    2017-02-28

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have shown therapeutic potential in the treatment of myocardial infarction patients. However, bone marrow requires invasive harvesting techniques. Therefore, the aim was to carry out a feasibility study of using autologous peripheral blood (PB) as a source for MSCs and platelet lysate (PL), a potential novel therapeutic intervention in acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Autologous PL and MSCs were prepared from STEMI patient and healthy control blood. MSCs were analyzed by trilineage differentiation and flow cytometry. PB MSCs were isolated from 83% of patients (n = 6) but not from controls. The use of PL was feasible in the first passage but not in subsequent ones due to volume. To conclude, PB is a promising alternative to bone marrow. It negates the need for invasive harvesting techniques, and reduces hemorrhagic risk in this patient population routinely managed with anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents.

  11. Characterization and angiogenic potential of human neonatal and infant thymus mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuyun; Mundada, Lakshmi; Johnson, Sean; Wong, Joshua; Witt, Russell; Ohye, Richard G; Si, Ming-Sing

    2015-04-01

    Resident mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are involved in angiogenesis during thymus regeneration. We have previously shown that MSCs can be isolated from enzymatically digested human neonatal and infant thymus tissue that is normally discarded during pediatric cardiac surgical procedures. In this paper, we demonstrate that thymus MSCs can also be isolated by explant culture of discarded thymus tissue and that these cells share many of the characteristics of bone marrow MSCs. Human neonatal thymus MSCs are clonogenic, demonstrate exponential growth in nearly 30 population doublings, have a characteristic surface marker profile, and express pluripotency genes. Furthermore, thymus MSCs have potent proangiogenic behavior in vitro with sprout formation and angiogenic growth factor production. Thymus MSCs promote neoangiogenesis and cooperate with endothelial cells to form functional human blood vessels in vivo. These characteristics make thymus MSCs a potential candidate for use as an angiogenic cell therapeutic agent and for vascularizing engineered tissues in vitro. ©AlphaMed Press.

  12. Detection of Osteogenic Differentiation by Differential Mineralized Matrix Production in Mesenchymal Stromal Cells by Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, He-Guei; Chiang, Hui-Hua Kenny; Lee, Oscar Kuang-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) hold great potential in skeletal tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, conventional methods that are used in molecular biology to evaluate osteogenic differentiation of MSCs require a relatively large amount of cells. Cell lysis and cell fixation are also required and all these steps are time-consuming. Therefore, it is imperative to develop a facile technique which can provide real-time information with high sensitivity and selectivity to detect the osteogenic maturation of MSCs. In this study, we use Raman spectroscopy as a biosensor to monitor the production of mineralized matrices during osteogenic induction of MSCs. In summary, Raman spectroscopy is an excellent biosensor to detect the extent of maturation level during MSCs-osteoblast differentiation with a non-disruptive, real-time and label free manner. We expect that this study will promote further investigation of stem cell research and clinical applications. PMID:23734254

  13. The therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells on hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bayo, Juan; Marrodán, Mariano; Aquino, Jorge B; Silva, Marcelo; García, Mariana G; Mazzolini, Guillermo

    2014-03-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are more often obtained from adult and extraembryonic tissues, with the latter sources being likely better from a therapeutic perspective. MSCs show tropism towards inflamed or tumourigenic sites. Mechanisms involved in MSC recruitment into tumours are comprehensively analysed, including chemoattractant signalling axes, endothelial adhesion and transmigration. In addition, signals derived from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumour microenvironment and their influence in MSC tropism and tumour recruitment are dissected, as well as the present controversy regarding their influence on tumour growth and/or metastasis. Finally, evidences available on the use of MSCs and other selected progenitor/stem cells as vehicles of antitumourigenic genes are discussed. A better knowledge of the mechanisms involved in progenitor/stem cell recruitment to HCC tumours is proposed in order to enhance their tumour targeting which may result in improvements in cell-based gene therapy strategies.

  14. Sca-1(+) mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit splenic marginal zone B lymphocytes commitment through Caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaozhen; Yang, Jialei; Zhang, Hui-Jie; Fan, Hong; An, Ning; Xin, Jiajia; Li, Na; Xu, Jinmei; Yin, Wen; Wu, Zhongliang; Hu, Xingbin

    2016-05-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been characterized as an important component of hematopoietic niche, which are capable of modulating the immune system through interaction with a wide range of immune cells. Marginal zone B cells, one main type of mature B lymphocytes, play a central role in eliciting antibody response against pathogens. However, how MSCs and its subpopulations regulate marginal zone B cells commitment is unknown yet. In this study, we assessed the contribution of Sca-1(+) MSCs on marginal zone B cells commitment. Our results showed that Sca-1(+) MSCs inhibit the commitment of marginal zone B lymphocytes. The inhibition was exerted through lowered Caspase-3 expression. Furthermore, we found marginal zone B lymphocytes in spleen of Caspase-3 knockout mice decreased and Caspase-3 knockout Sca-1(+) MSCs accounted for the MZB lymphocytes decrease. In conclusion, our investigation provided clues about Sca-1(+) MSCs regulation on the commitment of marginal zone B cells through Caspase-3 gene.

  15. Mesenchymal stromal cells from female donors enhance breast cancer cell proliferation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pasanen, Ilkka; Pietilä, Mika; Lehtonen, Siri; Lehtilahti, Elisa; Hakkarainen, Tanja; Blanco Sequeiros, Roberto; Lehenkari, Petri; Kuvaja, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The interplay between tumor stroma and breast cancer cells (BCCs) is thought to play a significant role in breast cancer. The current knowledge of human mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) and BCC interaction is contradictory, and the donor sex issue is not addressed at all. We hypothesized that donor sex could have an effect on proliferation of MSCs or BCCs in co-culture in vitro. Three estrogen receptor-negative BCC lines, 19 primary human MSCs and breast tissue-derived fibroblasts from 4 donors were used. MSCs from female donors enhanced BCC proliferation (p = 0.005). The change in BCC proliferation was only partly due to soluble factors excreted by MSCs. The highly aggressive BCC line MDA-MB- 231 induced the proliferation of MSCs (p < 0.001) and fibroblasts (p = 0.037) in co-culture experiments. The magnitude in proliferation change was cell line dependent and partly sex dependent. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Aging of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells: Implications on autologous regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Charif, N; Li, Y Y; Targa, L; Zhang, L; Ye, J S; Li, Y P; Stoltz, J F; Han, H Z; de Isla, N

    2017-01-01

    With their proliferation, differentiation into specific cell types, and secretion properties, mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) are very interesting tools to be used in regenerative medicine. Bone marrow (BM) was the first MSC source characterized. In the frame of autologous MSC therapy, it is important to detect donor's parameters affecting MSC potency. Age of the donors appears as one parameter that could greatly affect MSC properties. Moreover, in vitro cell expansion is needed to obtain the number of cells necessary for clinical developments. It will lead to in vitro cell aging that could modify cell properties. This review recapitulates several studies evaluating the effect of in vitro and in vivo MSC aging on cell properties.

  17. Research using Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells: quality metric towards developing a reference material

    PubMed Central

    Tanavde, Vivek; Vaz, Candida; Rao, Mahendra S; Vemuri, Mohan C; Pochampally, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been extensively investigated for their regenerative, immune-modulatory, and wound healing properties. While the laboratory studies have suggested that MSC’s have a unique potential for modulating the etiopathology of multiple diseases, the results from clinical trials have not been encouraging or reproducible. One of the explanations for such variability is explained by the “art” of isolating and propagating MSCs. Therefore, establishing more than minimal criteria to define MSC would help understand best protocols to isolate, propagate and deliver MSCs. Developing a calibration standard, a database and a set of functional tests would be a better quality metric for MSCs. In this review, we discuss the importance of selecting a standard, issues associated with coming up with such a standard and how these issues can be mitigated. PMID:26276001

  18. Effect of canine cortical bone demineralization on osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Jo, Kwangrae; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Seung Hoon; Yoon, Yong Seok; Kim, Wan Hee; Kweon, Oh-Kyeong

    2017-08-01

    Demineralized bone allografts and mesenchymal stromal cells have been used to promote bone regeneration. However, the degree to which cortical bone should be demineralized for use in combination with adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (Ad-MSCs) remains to be clarified. In this study, the in vitro osteogenic ability of Ad-MSCs on allografts was investigated in relation to the extent of demineralization. Three treatment groups were established by varying exposure time to 0.6 N HCL: partially demineralized (PDB; 12 h), fully demineralized (FDB; 48 h), and non-demineralized bone (NDB; 0 h, as a control). Allografts were prepared as discs 6 mm in diameter for in vitro evaluation, and their demineralization and structure were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy. Ad-MSC adhesion and proliferation were measured by MTS assay, and osteogenesis-related gene expression was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. PDB and FDB demineralization rates were 57.13 and 92.30%, respectively. Moreover, Ad-MSC adhesion rates on NDB, PDB, and FDB were 53.41, 60.65, and 61.32%, respectively. Proliferation of these cells on FDB increased significantly after 2 days of culture compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, expression of the osteogenic genes ALP, BMP-7, and TGF-β in the FDB group on culture day 3 was significantly elevated in comparison to the other treatments. Given its biocompatibility and promotion of the osteogenic differentiation of Ad-MSCs, our results suggest that FDB may be a suitable scaffold for use in the repair of bone defects.

  19. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Animal Bleomycin Pulmonary Fibrosis Models: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Srour, Nadim; Thébaud, Bernard

    2015-12-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is an inexorably progressive lung disease with few available treatments. New therapeutic options are needed. Stem cells have generated much enthusiasm for the treatment of several conditions, including lung diseases. Human trials of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy for pulmonary fibrosis are under way. To shed light on the potential usefulness of MSCs for human disease, we aimed to systematically review the preclinical literature to determine if MSCs are beneficial in animal bleomycin pulmonary fibrosis models. The MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched for original studies of stem cell therapy in animal bleomycin models of pulmonary fibrosis. Studies using embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells were excluded. Seventeen studies were selected, all of which used MSCs in rodents. MSC therapy led to an improvement in bleomycin-induced lung collagen deposition in animal lungs and in the pulmonary fibrosis Ashcroft score in most studies. MSC therapy improved histopathology in almost all studies in which it was evaluated qualitatively. Furthermore, MSC therapy was found to improve 14-day survival in animals with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage total and neutrophil counts, as well as transforming growth factor-β levels, were also reduced by MSCs. MSCs are beneficial in rodent bleomycin pulmonary fibrosis models. Since most studies examined the initial inflammatory phase rather than the chronic fibrotic phase, preclinical data offer better support for human trials of MSCs in acute exacerbations of pulmonary fibrosis rather than the chronic phase of the disease. There has been increased interest in mesenchymal stromal cell therapy for lung diseases. A few small clinical trials are under way in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Preclinical evidence was assessed in a systematic review, as is often done for clinical studies. The existing studies offer better support for efficacy in the initial

  20. Pleiotrophin Commits Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells towards Hypertrophy during Chondrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bouderlique, Thibault; Henault, Emilie; Lebouvier, Angelique; Frescaline, Guilhem; Bierling, Phillipe; Rouard, Helene; Courty, José

    2014-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a growth factor present in the extracellular matrix of the growth plate during bone development and in the callus during bone healing. Bone healing is a complicated process that recapitulates endochondral bone development and involves many cell types. Among those cells, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are able to differentiate toward chondrogenic and osteoblastic lineages. We aimed to determine PTN effects on differentiation properties of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) under chondrogenic induction using histological analysis and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. PTN dramatically potentiated chondrogenic differentiation as indicated by a strong increase of collagen 2 protein, and cartilage-related gene expression. Moreover, PTN increased transcription of hypertrophic chondrocyte markers such as MMP13, collagen 10 and alkaline phosphatase and enhanced calcification and the content of collagen 10 protein. These effects are dependent on PTN receptors signaling and PI3 K pathway activation. These data suggest a new role of PTN in bone regeneration as an inducer of hypertrophy during chondrogenic differentiation of hBMSC. PMID:24516627

  1. Pleiotrophin commits human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells towards hypertrophy during chondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bouderlique, Thibault; Henault, Emilie; Lebouvier, Angelique; Frescaline, Guilhem; Bierling, Phillipe; Rouard, Helene; Courty, José; Albanese, Patricia; Chevallier, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a growth factor present in the extracellular matrix of the growth plate during bone development and in the callus during bone healing. Bone healing is a complicated process that recapitulates endochondral bone development and involves many cell types. Among those cells, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are able to differentiate toward chondrogenic and osteoblastic lineages. We aimed to determine PTN effects on differentiation properties of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) under chondrogenic induction using histological analysis and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. PTN dramatically potentiated chondrogenic differentiation as indicated by a strong increase of collagen 2 protein, and cartilage-related gene expression. Moreover, PTN increased transcription of hypertrophic chondrocyte markers such as MMP13, collagen 10 and alkaline phosphatase and enhanced calcification and the content of collagen 10 protein. These effects are dependent on PTN receptors signaling and PI3 K pathway activation. These data suggest a new role of PTN in bone regeneration as an inducer of hypertrophy during chondrogenic differentiation of hBMSC.

  2. Expression of α-Smooth Muscle Actin Determines the Fate of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Talele, Nilesh P.; Fradette, Julie; Davies, John E.; Kapus, Andras; Hinz, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pro-fibrotic microenvironments of scars and tumors characterized by increased stiffness stimulate mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to express α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). We investigated whether incorporation of α-SMA into contractile stress fibers regulates human MSC fate. Sorted α-SMA-positive MSCs exhibited high contractile activity, low clonogenicity, and differentiation potential limited to osteogenesis. Knockdown of α-SMA was sufficient to restore clonogenicity and adipogenesis in MSCs. Conversely, α-SMA overexpression induced YAP translocation to the nucleus and reduced the high clonogenicity and adipogenic potential of α-SMA-negative MSCs. Inhibition of YAP rescued the decreased adipogenic differentiation potential induced by α-SMA, establishing a mechanistic link between matrix stiffness, α-SMA, YAP, and MSC differentiation. Consistent with in vitro findings, nuclear localization of YAP was positively correlated in α-SMA expressing stromal cells of adiposarcoma and osteosarcoma. We propose that α-SMA mediated contraction plays a critical role in mechanically regulating MSC fate by controlling YAP/TAZ activation. PMID:26028530

  3. Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Support Viability of Umbilical Cord Blood Hematopoietic Stem Cells but not the "Stemness" of Their Progeny in Co-Culture.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Yu A; Volgina, N E; Balashova, E E; Kabaeva, N V; Dugina, T N; Sukhikh, G T

    2017-08-01

    Cell-cell interactions and the ability of mesenchymal stromal cells to support the expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells were studied in co-culture of human umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells and nucleated umbilical cord blood cells. It was found that hematopoietic stem cells from the umbilical cord blood are capable to adhere to mesenchymal stromal cells and proliferate during 3-4 weeks in co-culture. However, despite the formation of hematopoietic foci and accumulation of CD34(+) and CD133(+) cells in the adherent cell fraction, the ability of newly generated blood cells to form colonies in semi-solid culture medium was appreciably reduced. These findings suggest that human umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells display a weak capability to support the "stemness" of hematopoietic stem cell progeny despite long-term maintenance of their viability and proliferation.

  4. Evaluation of adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Frisbie, David D; Kisiday, John D; Kawcak, Chris E; Werpy, Natasha M; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was the assessment of clinical, biochemical, and histologic effects of intraarticular administered adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis was induced arthroscopically in the middle carpal joint of all horses, the contralateral joint being sham-operated. All horses received treatment on Day 14. Eight horses received placebo treatment and eight horses received adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction in their osteoarthritis-affected joint. The final eight horses were treated the in osteoarthritis-affected joint with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Evaluations included clinical, radiographic, synovial fluid analysis, gross, histologic, histochemical, and biochemical evaluations. No adverse treatment-related events were observed. The model induced a significant change in all but two parameters, no significant treatment effects were demonstrated, with the exception of improvement in synovial fluid effusion PGE2 levels with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells when compared to placebo. A greater improvement was seen with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells when compared to adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction and placebo treatment. Overall, the findings of this study were not significant enough to recommend the use of stem cells for the treatment of osteoarthritis represented in this model.

  5. Neuronal plasticity of human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stromal cells to the dopaminergic cell type compared with human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Datta, Indrani; Mishra, Swati; Mohanty, Lipsa; Pulikkot, Sunitha; Joshi, Preeti G

    2011-09-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) derived from Wharton's jelly (WJ) of the umbilical cord are increasingly gaining prominence as substitutes for bone marrow (BM) MSC. While MSC isolated from different tissue sources may share common mesenchymal properties, the difference in their plasticity to individual lineages is ill-defined. Thus the focus of this study was to estimate the neuronal plasticity of WJ MSC to the dopaminergic (DA) cell type in comparison with BM MSC. For neuronal differentiation, MSC were exposed to developmentally relevant cues for midbrain DA neurons: sonic hedgehog (SHH) and fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8), along with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Naive MSC from both sources constitutively expressed neuronal markers. Flow cytometry data revealed that the control WJ MSC shared a signature similar to BM MSC for early neuronal markers (nestin, musashi12 and A2B5) and DA-specific markers [tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and Nuclear Receptor related protein 1 (Nurr1) but differed for mature neuronal proteins [β-tubulin III and microtubule-associated protein 2 (Map2ab)]. Similar populations of cells in both sources of MSC were positive for the SHH receptors [patched (PTCH) and smoothened (SMO)]. In induced BM and WJ MSC, real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed similar levels of DA-related transcription factors Nurr1 and Engrailed (En) 1. Immunocytochemical and flow cytometry analysis showed an increase in mature neuronal marker Map2ab. Kv4.2, a K(+) channel marker, was observed only in the induced MSC. Induced MSC also expressed several DA-specific markers, TH, dopamine and cyclic AMP regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP) 32, paired-like homeodomain transcription factor (PitX) 3 and vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) 2, in comparable levels between the two sources. The efficiency (c. 65%) of transdifferentiation of WJ MSC to TH-positive cells was similar to that of induced BM MSC. Constitutive and

  6. Nanotopography Induced Human Bone Marrow Mesangiogenic Progenitor Cells (MPCs) to Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) Transition

    PubMed Central

    Antonini, Sara; Montali, Marina; Jacchetti, Emanuela; Meucci, Sandro; Parchi, Paolo D.; Barachini, Serena; Panvini, Francesca M.; Pacini, Simone; Petrini, Iacopo; Cecchini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Mesangiogenic progenitor cells (MPCs) are a very peculiar population of cells present in the human adult bone marrow, only recently discovered and characterized. Owing to their differentiation potential, MPCs can be considered progenitors for mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), and for this reason they potentially represent a promising cell population to apply for skeletal tissue regeneration applications. Here, we evaluate the effects of surface nanotopography on MPCs, considering the possibility that this specific physical stimulus alone can trigger MPC differentiation toward the mesenchymal lineage. In particular, we exploit nanogratings to deliver a mechanical, directional stimulus by contact interaction to promote cell morphological polarization and stretching. Following this interaction, we study the MPC-MSC transition by i. analyzing the change in cell morphotype by immunostaining of the key cell-adhesion structures and confocal fluorescence microscopy, and ii. quantifying the expression of cell-phenotype characterizing markers by flow cytometry. We demonstrate that the MPC mesengenic differentiation can be induced by the solely interaction with the NGs, in absence of any other external, chemical stimulus. This aspect is of particular interest in the case of multipotent progenitors as MPCs that, retaining both mesengenic and angiogenic potential, possess a high clinical appeal. PMID:28066765

  7. Quantitative microplate assay for studying mesenchymal stromal cell-induced neuropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Aizman, Irina; McGrogan, Michael; Case, Casey C

    2013-03-01

    Transplanting mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) or their derivatives in a neurodegenerative environment is believed to be beneficial because of the trophic support, migratory guidance, and neurogenic stimuli they provide. There is a growing need for in vitro models of mesenchymal-neural cell interactions to enable identification of mediators of the MSC activity and quantitative assessment of neuropoietic potency of MSC preparations. Here, we characterize a microplate-format coculture system in which primary embryonic rat cortex cells are directly cocultured with human MSCs on cell-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) in the absence of exogenous growth factors. In this system, expression levels of the rat neural stem/early progenitor marker nestin, as well as neuronal and astrocytic markers, directly depended on MSC dose, whereas an oligodendrogenic marker exhibited a biphasic MSC-dose response, as measured using species-specific quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in total cell lysates and confirmed using immunostaining. Both neural cell proliferation and differentiation contributed to the MSC-mediated neuropoiesis. ECM's heparan sulfate proteoglycans were essential for the growth of the nestin-positive cell population. Neutralization studies showed that MSC-derived fibroblast growth factor 2 was a major and diffusible inducer of rat nestin, whereas MSC-derived bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), particularly, BMP4, were astrogenesis mediators, predominantly acting in a coculture setting. This system enables analysis of multifactorial MSC-neural cell interactions and can be used for elucidating the neuropoietic potency of MSCs and their derivative preparations.

  8. Non-invasive characterization of the adipogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells by HS-SPME/GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Yi, TacGhee; Park, Kyung-Eun; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Yun-Kyoung; Lee, Seul Ji; Lee, Jeongmi; Park, Jeong Hill; Lee, Mi-Young; Song, Sun U.; Kwon, Sung Won

    2014-01-01

    A non-invasive method to characterize human mesenchymal stromal cells during adipogenic differentiation was developed for the first time. Seven fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), including methyl laurate, methyl myristate, methyl palmitate, methyl linoleate, methyl oleate, methyl elaidate and methyl stearate, were used for characterizing adipogenic differentiation using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) which is a very simple and non-invasive method for the extraction of volatile compounds. Glassware was used for culturing mesenchymal stromal cells rather than the common plasticware to minimize contamination by volatile impurities. The optimal SPME fiber was selected by comparing diverse fibers containing two pure liquid polymers (PDMS and PA) and two porous solids (PDMS/DVB and CAR/PDMS). Using optimized procedures, we discovered that seven FAMEs were only detected in adipogenic differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells and not in the mesenchymal stromal cells before differentiation. These data could support the quality control of clinical mesenchymal stromal cell culture in the pharmaceutical industry in addition to the development of many clinical applications using mesenchymal stromal cells. PMID:25298091

  9. Non-invasive characterization of the adipogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells by HS-SPME/GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Yi, TacGhee; Park, Kyung-Eun; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Yun-Kyoung; Lee, Seul Ji; Lee, Jeongmi; Park, Jeong Hill; Lee, Mi-Young; Song, Sun U; Kwon, Sung Won

    2014-10-09

    A non-invasive method to characterize human mesenchymal stromal cells during adipogenic differentiation was developed for the first time. Seven fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), including methyl laurate, methyl myristate, methyl palmitate, methyl linoleate, methyl oleate, methyl elaidate and methyl stearate, were used for characterizing adipogenic differentiation using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) which is a very simple and non-invasive method for the extraction of volatile compounds. Glassware was used for culturing mesenchymal stromal cells rather than the common plasticware to minimize contamination by volatile impurities. The optimal SPME fiber was selected by comparing diverse fibers containing two pure liquid polymers (PDMS and PA) and two porous solids (PDMS/DVB and CAR/PDMS). Using optimized procedures, we discovered that seven FAMEs were only detected in adipogenic differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells and not in the mesenchymal stromal cells before differentiation. These data could support the quality control of clinical mesenchymal stromal cell culture in the pharmaceutical industry in addition to the development of many clinical applications using mesenchymal stromal cells.

  10. Intravenous transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells has therapeutic effects in a sepsis mouse model through inhibition of septic natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenhua; Gao, Yang; Li, Haibo; Wang, Hongliang; Ye, Ming; Jiang, Guihua; Chen, Yongsheng; Liu, Yang; Kong, Junying; Liu, Wei; Sun, Meng; Hou, Meng; Yu, Kaijiang

    2016-10-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells is a promising strategy for treating sepsis. Natural killer cells are important in the development of sepsis, and their functions can be inhibited by mesenchymal stromal cells, we asked whether mesenchymal stromal cells exert their therapeutic effects through inhibiting the functions of natural killer cells in a septic mouse model generated with cecal ligation puncture method. Using co-cultures of cells, small interfering RNA, enzyme-linked immnuosorbent assays, fluorescence assays, western blotting, and pathological examination, we investigated the levels of inflammatory cytokines, proliferation of natural killer cells, inflammatory infiltration of important organs in mice, and activity of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathway and found that mesenchymal stromal cells inhibited the function and proliferation of septic natural killer cells, increased interleukin-10 levels and increased the expression of components, such as Janus kinase 1, Janus kinase 2, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway both in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that mesenchymal stromal cells have their therapeutic effect in the septic mouse model through inhibiting the function and proliferation of septic natural killer cells. This biological process may involve interleukin-10 and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 as well as other pathway components in the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway. Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells is an effective strategy to treat sepsis.

  11. Expression of Surface Molecules in Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Co-Cultured with Nucleated Umbilical Cord Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Yu A; Balashova, E E; Volgina, N E; Kabaeva, N V; Dugina, T N; Sukhikh, G T

    2017-02-01

    We studied the expression of different classes of surface molecules (CD13, CD29, CD40, CD44, CD54, CD71, CD73, CD80, CD86, CD90, CD105, CD106, CD146, HLA-I, and HLA-DR) in mesenchymal stromal cells from human umbilical cord and bone marrow during co-culturing with nucleated umbilical cord blood cells. Expression of the majority of surface markers in both types of mesenchymal stromal cells was stable and did not depend on the presence of the blood cells. Significant differences were found only for cell adhesion molecules CD54 (ICAM-1) and CD106 (VCAM-1) responsible for direct cell-cell contacts with leukocytes and only for bone marrow derived cells.

  12. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by inflammatory priming elicits mesenchymal stromal cell-like immune-modulatory properties in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, M; Zanotto, M; Malpeli, G; Bassi, G; Perbellini, O; Chilosi, M; Bifari, F; Krampera, M

    2015-03-17

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has a central role in cancer progression and metastatic dissemination and may be induced by local inflammation. We asked whether the inflammation-induced acquisition of mesenchymal phenotype by neoplastic epithelial cells is associated with the onset of mesenchymal stromal cell-like immune-regulatory properties that may enhance tumour immune escape. Cell lines of lung adenocarcinoma (A549), breast cancer (MCF7) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) were co-cultured with T, B and NK cells before and after EMT induction by either the supernatant of mixed-lymphocyte reactions or inflammatory cytokines. EMT occurrence following inflammatory priming elicited multiple immune-regulatory effects in cancer cells resulting in NK and T-cell apoptosis, inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and stimulation of regulatory T and B cells. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, but not Fas ligand pathway, was involved at least in part in these effects, as shown by the use of specific inhibitors. EMT induced by inflammatory stimuli confers to cancer cells some mesenchymal stromal cell-like immune-modulatory properties, which could be a cue for cancer progression and metastatic dissemination by favouring immune escape.

  13. Human mesenchymal stromal cells reduce influenza A H5N1-associated acute lung injury in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chan, Michael C W; Kuok, Denise I T; Leung, Connie Y H; Hui, Kenrie P Y; Valkenburg, Sophie A; Lau, Eric H Y; Nicholls, John M; Fang, Xiaohui; Guan, Yi; Lee, Jae W; Chan, Renee W Y; Webster, Robert G; Matthay, Michael A; Peiris, J S Malik

    2016-03-29

    Influenza can cause acute lung injury. Because immune responses often play a role, antivirals may not ensure a successful outcome. To identify pathogenic mechanisms and potential adjunctive therapeutic options, we compared the extent to which avian influenza A/H5N1 virus and seasonal influenza A/H1N1 virus impair alveolar fluid clearance and protein permeability in an in vitro model of acute lung injury, defined the role of virus-induced soluble mediators in these injury effects, and demonstrated that the effects are prevented or reduced by bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. We verified the in vivo relevance of these findings in mice experimentally infected with influenza A/H5N1. We found that, in vitro, the alveolar epithelium's protein permeability and fluid clearance were dysregulated by soluble immune mediators released upon infection with avian (A/Hong Kong/483/97, H5N1) but not seasonal (A/Hong Kong/54/98, H1N1) influenza virus. The reduced alveolar fluid transport associated with down-regulation of sodium and chloride transporters was prevented or reduced by coculture with mesenchymal stromal cells. In vivo, treatment of aged H5N1-infected mice with mesenchymal stromal cells increased their likelihood of survival. We conclude that mesenchymal stromal cells significantly reduce the impairment of alveolar fluid clearance induced by A/H5N1 infection in vitro and prevent or reduce A/H5N1-associated acute lung injury in vivo. This potential adjunctive therapy for severe influenza-induced lung disease warrants rapid clinical investigation.

  14. Human mesenchymal stromal cells reduce influenza A H5N1-associated acute lung injury in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Michael C. W.; Kuok, Denise I. T.; Leung, Connie Y. H.; Hui, Kenrie P. Y.; Valkenburg, Sophie A.; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Nicholls, John M.; Fang, Xiaohui; Guan, Yi; Lee, Jae W.; Chan, Renee W. Y.; Webster, Robert G.; Matthay, Michael A.; Peiris, J. S. Malik

    2016-01-01

    Influenza can cause acute lung injury. Because immune responses often play a role, antivirals may not ensure a successful outcome. To identify pathogenic mechanisms and potential adjunctive therapeutic options, we compared the extent to which avian influenza A/H5N1 virus and seasonal influenza A/H1N1 virus impair alveolar fluid clearance and protein permeability in an in vitro model of acute lung injury, defined the role of virus-induced soluble mediators in these injury effects, and demonstrated that the effects are prevented or reduced by bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. We verified the in vivo relevance of these findings in mice experimentally infected with influenza A/H5N1. We found that, in vitro, the alveolar epithelium’s protein permeability and fluid clearance were dysregulated by soluble immune mediators released upon infection with avian (A/Hong Kong/483/97, H5N1) but not seasonal (A/Hong Kong/54/98, H1N1) influenza virus. The reduced alveolar fluid transport associated with down-regulation of sodium and chloride transporters was prevented or reduced by coculture with mesenchymal stromal cells. In vivo, treatment of aged H5N1-infected mice with mesenchymal stromal cells increased their likelihood of survival. We conclude that mesenchymal stromal cells significantly reduce the impairment of alveolar fluid clearance induced by A/H5N1 infection in vitro and prevent or reduce A/H5N1-associated acute lung injury in vivo. This potential adjunctive therapy for severe influenza-induced lung disease warrants rapid clinical investigation. PMID:26976597

  15. Visualization of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in 2Dand 3D-Cultures by Scanning Electron Microscopy with Lanthanide Contrasting.

    PubMed

    Novikov, I A; Vakhrushev, I V; Antonov, E N; Yarygin, K N; Subbot, A M

    2017-02-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells from deciduous teeth in 2D- and 3D-cultures on culture plastic, silicate glass, porous polystyrene, and experimental polylactoglycolide matrices were visualized by scanning electron microscopy with lanthanide contrasting. Supravital staining of cell cultures with a lanthanide-based dye (neodymium chloride) preserved normal cell morphology and allowed assessment of the matrix properties of the carriers. The developed approach can be used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering.

  16. Effects of allogeneic bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cell therapy on voiding function in a rat model of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Campeau, Lysanne; Soler, Roberto; Sittadjody, Sivanandane; Pareta, Rajesh; Nomiya, Masanori; Zarifpour, Mona; Opara, Emmanuel C; Yoo, James J; Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2014-03-01

    Cellular therapy induced transient urodynamic improvement in a rat model of Parkinson disease in which bladder dysfunction was noted after unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the medial forebrain bundle. We sought to prolong the effect by injecting allogeneic rat bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells before and after microencapsulation into the substantia nigra pars compacta. Female rats underwent unilateral stereotactic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine in the medial forebrain bundle. Injection was performed in the ipsilateral substantia nigra pars compacta using vehicle alone or vehicle with nonmicroencapsulated or microencapsulated rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells. Rats were evaluated by cystometry 7, 14, 28 and 42 days after treatment. Brains were extracted for immunostaining. At 42 days the nonmicroencapsulated group had lower threshold and intermicturition pressure, spontaneous activity and AUC than vehicle treated animals. Rats that received microencapsulated cells had lower threshold pressure at 28 days and lower spontaneous activity at 42 days than vehicle treated rats. Microencapsulated and nonmicroencapsulated rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells were noted in the substantia nigra pars compacta up to 42 days after transplantation. At 42 days tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons were more numerous in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the nonmicroencapsulated group, followed by the microencapsulated and vehicle treated groups. Urodynamic effects of the 6-hydroxydopamine lesion persisted up to 42 days after vehicle injection. Transplantation of nonmicroencapsulated rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells improved urodynamic pressure by 42 days after treatment more markedly than microencapsulated cells. This was associated with more tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons in the treated substantia nigra pars compacta of the nonmicroencapsulated group, suggesting that functional improvement requires a

  17. Possibility of Aggravation of Tissue Sclerosis after Injection of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Near the Forming Cicatrix in the Experiment.

    PubMed

    Maiborodin, I V; Morozov, V V; Anikeev, A A; Figurenko, N F; Maslov, R V; Matveeva, V A; Chastikina, G A; Maiborodina, V I

    2017-08-01

    The peculiarities of tissue sclerosis after injection of autologous bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells transfected with GFP gene and stained with Vybrant CM-Dil cell membrane dye were studied by light microscopy with luminescence. The surgical intervention consisting in ligation of the great vein was followed by tissue sclerotic transformation caused by direct damage and chronic inflammation caused by the presence of slowly resorbed ligature. Injection of stromal cells after this intervention led to formation of more extensive scar. This can attest to the possibility of stromal cells differentiation into connective tissue cells, fibroblasts, and stimulation of proliferation and collagen synthesis by host fibroblasts. A decrease in the volume of dense fibrous connective tissue due to scar reorganization at latter terms cannot not excluded.

  18. Acute exercise mobilizes hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and alters the mesenchymal stromal cell secretome.

    PubMed

    Emmons, Russell; Niemiro, Grace M; Owolabi, Olatomide; De Lisio, Michael

    2016-03-15

    Transplantation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), collected from peripheral blood, is the primary treatment for many hematological malignancies; however, variable collection efficacy with current protocols merits further examination into factors responsible for HSPC mobilization. HSPCs primarily reside within the bone marrow and are regulated by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). Exercise potently and transiently mobilizes HSPCs from the bone marrow into peripheral circulation. Thus the purpose of the present study was to evaluate potential factors in the bone marrow responsible for HSPC mobilization, investigate potential sites of HSPC homing, and assess changes in bone marrow cell populations following exercise. An acute exercise bout increased circulating HSPCs at 15 min (88%, P < 0.001) that returned to baseline at 60 min. Gene expression for HSPC homing factors (CXCL12, vascular endothelial growth factor-a, and angiopoietin-1) were increased at 15 min in skeletal muscle and HSPC content was increased in the spleen 48 h postexercise (45%, P < 0.01). Acute exercise did not alter HSPCs or MSCs quantity in the bone marrow; however, proliferation of HSPCs (40%, P < 0.001), multipotent progenitors (40%, P < 0.001), short-term hematopoietic stem cells (61%, P < 0.001), long-term hematopoietic stem cells (55%, P = 0.002), and MSCs (20%, P = 0.01) increased postexercise. Acute exercise increased the content of the mobilization agent granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, as well as stem cell factor, interleukin-3, and thrombopoeitin in conditioned media collected from bone marrow stromal cells 15 min postexercise. These findings suggest that the MSC secretome is responsible for HSPC mobilization and proliferation; concurrently, HSPCs are homing to extramedullary sites following exercise. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Cancer cells enter dormancy after cannibalizing mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Bartosh, Thomas J.; Ullah, Mujib; Zeitouni, Suzanne; Beaver, Joshua; Prockop, Darwin J.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with breast cancer often develop malignant regrowth of residual drug-resistant dormant tumor cells years after primary treatment, a process defined as cancer relapse. Deciphering the causal basis of tumor dormancy therefore has obvious therapeutic significance. Because cancer cell behavior is strongly influenced by stromal cells, particularly the mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) that are actively recruited into tumor-associated stroma, we assessed the impact of MSCs on breast cancer cell (BCC) dormancy. Using 3D cocultures to mimic the cellular interactions of an emerging tumor niche, we observed that MSCs sequentially surrounded the BCCs, promoted formation of cancer spheroids, and then were internalized/degraded through a process resembling the well-documented yet ill-defined clinical phenomenon of cancer cell cannibalism. This suspected feeding behavior was less appreciable in the presence of a rho kinase inhibitor and in 2D monolayer cocultures. Notably, cannibalism of MSCs enhanced survival of BCCs deprived of nutrients but suppressed their tumorigenicity, together suggesting the cancer cells entered dormancy. Transcriptome profiles revealed that the resulting BCCs acquired a unique molecular signature enriched in prosurvival factors and tumor suppressors, as well as inflammatory mediators that demarcate the secretome of senescent cells, also referred to as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Overall, our results provide intriguing evidence that cancer cells under duress enter dormancy after cannibalizing MSCs. Importantly, our practical 3D coculture model could provide a valuable tool to understand the antitumor activity of MSCs and cell cannibalism further, and therefore open new therapeutic avenues for the prevention of cancer recurrence. PMID:27698134

  20. Imaging modalities for the in vivo surveillance of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Ayaz; Chowdhury, Tina; Bagul, Atul

    2015-11-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells exist as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and have the capacity to differentiate into multiple tissue types when subjected to appropriate culture conditions. This property of MSCs creates therapeutic opportunities in regenerative medicine for the treatment of damage to neural, cardiac and musculoskeletal tissues or acute kidney injury. The prerequisite for successful cell therapy is delivery of cells to the target tissue. Assessment of therapeutic outcomes utilize traditional methods to examine cell function of MSC populations involving routine biochemical or histological analysis for cell proliferation, protein synthesis and gene expression. However, these methods do not provide sufficient spatial and temporal information. In vivo surveillance of MSC migration to the site of interest can be performed through a variety of imaging modalities such as the use of radiolabelling, fluc protein expression bioluminescence imaging and paramagnetic nanoparticle magnetic resonance imaging. This review will outline the current methods of in vivo surveillance of exogenously administered MSCs in regenerative medicine while addressing potential technological developments. Furthermore, nanoparticles and microparticles for cellular labelling have shown that migration of MSCs can be spatially and temporally monitored. In vivo surveillance therefore permits time-stratified assessment in animal models without disruption of the target organ. In vivo tracking of MSCs is non-invasive, repeatable and non-toxic. Despite the excitement that nanoparticles for tracking MSCs offer, delivery methods are difficult because of the challenges with imaging three-dimensional systems. The current advances and growth in MSC research, is likely to provide a wealth of evidence overcoming these issues.

  1. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells induce nitric oxide synthase-dependent differentiation of CD11b+ cells that expedite hematopoietic recovery.

    PubMed

    Trento, Cristina; Marigo, Ilaria; Pievani, Alice; Galleu, Antonio; Dolcetti, Luigi; Wang, Chun-Yin; Serafini, Marta; Bronte, Vincenzo; Dazzi, Francesco

    2017-02-09

    Bone marrow microenvironment is fundamental for hematopoietic homeostasis. Numerous efforts have been made to reproduce or manipulate its activity to facilitate engraftment after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation but clinical results remain unconvincing. This probably reflects the complexity of the hematopoietic niche. Recent data have demonstrated the fundamental role of stromal and myeloid cells in regulating hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and mobilization in the bone marrow. In this study we unveil a novel interaction by which bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells induce the rapid differentiation of CD11b+ myeloid cells from bone marrow progenitors. Such an activity requires the expression of nitric oxide synthase-2. Importantly, the administration of these mesenchymal stromal cells-educated CD11b+ cells accelerates hematopoietic reconstitution in bone marrow transplant recipients. We conclude that the liaison between mesenchymal stromal cells and myeloid cells is fundamental in hematopoietic homeostasis and suggests that it can be harnessed in clinical transplantation.

  2. Effect of coating Straumann Bone Ceramic with Emdogain on mesenchymal stromal cell hard tissue formation.

    PubMed

    Mrozik, Krzysztof Marek; Gronthos, Stan; Menicanin, Danijela; Marino, Victor; Bartold, P Mark

    2012-06-01

    Periodontal tissue engineering requires a suitable biocompatible scaffold, cells with regenerative capacity, and instructional molecules. In this study, we investigated the capacity of Straumann Bone Ceramic coated with Straumann Emdogain, a clinical preparation of enamel matrix protein (EMP), to aid in hard tissue formation by post-natal mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) including bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLFs). MSCs were isolated and ex vivo-expanded from human bone marrow and periodontal ligament and, in culture, allowed to attach to Bone Ceramic in the presence or absence of Emdogain. Gene expression of bone-related proteins was investigated by real time RT-PCR for 72 h, and ectopic bone formation was assessed histologically in subcutaneous implants of Bone Ceramic containing MSCs with or without Emdogain in NOD/SCID mice. Alkaline phosphatase activity was also assessed in vitro, in the presence or absence of Emdogain. Collagen-I mRNA was up-regulated in both MSC populations over the 72-h time course with Emdogain. Expression of BMP-2 and the osteogenic transcription factor Cbfa-1 showed early stimulation in both MSC types after 24 h. In contrast, expression of BMP-4 was consistently down-regulated in both MSC types with Emdogain. Up-regulation of osteopontin and periostin mRNA was restricted to BMSCs, while higher levels of bone sialoprotein-II were observed in PDLFs with Emdogain. Furthermore, alkaline phosphatase activity levels were reduced in both BMSCs and PDLFs in the presence of Emdogain. Very little evidence was found for ectopic bone formation following subcutaneous implantation of MSCs with Emdogain-coated or -uncoated Bone Ceramic in NOD/SCID mice. The early up-regulation of several important bone-related genes suggests that Emdogain may have a significant stimulatory effect in the commitment of mesenchymal cells to osteogenic differentiation in vitro. While Emdogain inhibited AP activity and appeared

  3. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Is Required for Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Protection Against Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Emer F.; Kennelly, Helen; Carty, Fiona; Mahon, Bernard P.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is on the rise and existing treatments have failed to halt or reverse disease progression. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have potent cytoprotective effects, can promote tissue repair, and have demonstrated efficacy in a range of fibrotic lung diseases; however, the exact mechanisms of action remain to be elucidated. Chemical antagonists and short hairpin RNA knockdown were used to identify the mechanisms of action used by MSCs in promoting wound healing, proliferation, and inhibiting apoptosis. Using the bleomycin induced fibrosis model, the protective effects of early or late MSC administration were examined. The role for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in MSC protection against bleomycin lung injury was examined using HGF knockdown MSC. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP nick-end labeling assay was performed on ex vivo lung sections to examine the effects of MSC on apoptosis. MSC conditioned media (CM) enhanced wound closure and inhibited apoptosis of pulmonary cells in vitro. HGF was required for MSC CM enhancement of epithelial cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis. In contrast, MSC required COX-2 for CM to inhibit fibroblast proliferation. In a murine model, early administration of MSC protected against bleomycin induced lung fibrosis and correlated with reduced levels of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β, reduced levels of apoptosis, and significantly increased levels of HGF. These protective effects were in part mediated by MSC derived HGF as HGF knockdown MSC were unable to protect against fibrosis in vivo. These findings delineate the mechanisms of MSC protection in a preclinical model of fibrotic lung disease. Significance The mechanisms used by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in mediating protective effects in chronic models of lung disease are not understood and remain to be elucidated. These findings from in vitro studies highlight an important role for the MSC

  4. Macroporous biohybrid cryogels for co-housing pancreatic islets with mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Borg, Danielle J; Welzel, Petra B; Grimmer, Milauscha; Friedrichs, Jens; Weigelt, Marc; Wilhelm, Carmen; Prewitz, Marina; Stißel, Aline; Hommel, Angela; Kurth, Thomas; Freudenberg, Uwe; Bonifacio, Ezio; Werner, Carsten

    2016-10-15

    Intrahepatic transplantation of allogeneic pancreatic islets offers a promising therapy for type 1 diabetes. However, long-term insulin independency is often not achieved due to severe islet loss shortly after transplantation. To improve islet survival and function, extrahepatic biomaterial-assisted transplantation of pancreatic islets to alternative sites has been suggested. Herein, we present macroporous, star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol) (starPEG)-heparin cryogel scaffolds, covalently modified with adhesion peptides, for the housing of pancreatic islets in three-dimensional (3D) co-culture with adherent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) as accessory cells. The implantable biohybrid scaffolds provide efficient transport properties, mechanical protection, and a supportive extracellular environment as a desirable niche for the islets. MSC colonized the cryogel scaffolds and produced extracellular matrix proteins that are important components of the natural islet microenvironment known to facilitate matrix-cell interactions and to prevent cellular stress. Islets survived the seeding procedure into the cryogel scaffolds and secreted insulin after glucose stimulation in vitro. In a rodent model, intact islets and MSC could be visualized within the scaffolds seven days after subcutaneous transplantation. Overall, this demonstrates the potential of customized macroporous starPEG-heparin cryogel scaffolds in combination with MSC to serve as a multifunctional islet supportive carrier for transplantation applications. Diabetes results in the insufficient production of insulin by the pancreatic β-cells in the islets of Langerhans. Transplantation of pancreatic islets offers valuable options for treating the disease; however, many transplanted islets often do not survive the transplantation or die shortly thereafter. Co-transplanted, supporting cells and biomaterials can be instrumental for improving islet survival, function and protection from the immune system. In the

  5. High Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity Identifies a Subset of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells with Vascular Regenerative Potential.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Stephen E; Kuljanin, Miljan; Cooper, Tyler T; Putman, David M; Lajoie, Gilles A; Hess, David A

    2017-03-15

    During culture expansion, multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) differentially express aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), an intracellular detoxification enzyme that protects long-lived cells against oxidative stress. Thus, MSC selection based on ALDH-activity may be used to reduce heterogeneity and distinguish MSC subsets with improved regenerative potency. After expansion of human bone marrow-derived MSCs, cell progeny was purified based on low versus high ALDH-activity (ALDH(hi) ) by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and each subset was compared for multipotent stromal and provascular regenerative functions. Both ALDH(l) ° and ALDH(hi) MSC subsets demonstrated similar expression of stromal cell (>95% CD73(+) , CD90(+) , CD105(+) ) and pericyte (>95% CD146(+) ) surface markers and showed multipotent differentiation into bone, cartilage, and adipose cells in vitro. Conditioned media (CDM) generated by ALDH(hi) MSCs demonstrated a potent proliferative and prosurvival effect on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) under serum-free conditions and augmented HMVEC tube-forming capacity in growth factor-reduced matrices. After subcutaneous transplantation within directed in vivo angiogenesis assay implants into immunodeficient mice, ALDH(hi) MSC or CDM produced by ALDH(hi) MSC significantly augmented murine vascular cell recruitment and perfused vessel infiltration compared with ALDH(l) ° MSC. Although both subsets demonstrated strikingly similar mRNA expression patterns, quantitative proteomic analyses performed on subset-specific CDM revealed the ALDH(hi) MSC subset uniquely secreted multiple proangiogenic cytokines (vascular endothelial growth factor beta, platelet derived growth factor alpha, and angiogenin) and actively produced multiple factors with chemoattractant (transforming growth factor-β, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1, 2, and 3 (GRO), C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (RANTES), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8

  6. Dermal Substitutes Support the Growth of Human Skin-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Potential Tool for Skin Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jeremias, Talita da Silva; Machado, Rafaela Grecco; Visoni, Silvia Beatriz Coutinho; Pereima, Maurício José; Leonardi, Dilmar Francisco; Trentin, Andrea Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    New strategies for skin regeneration are needed in order to provide effective treatment for cutaneous wounds and disease. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive source of cells for tissue engineering because of their prolonged self-renewal capacity, multipotentiality, and ability to release active molecules important for tissue repair. In this paper, we show that human skin-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (SD-MSCs) display similar characteristics to the multipotent MSCs. We also evaluate their growth in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system with dermal substitutes (Integra and Pelnac). When cultured in monolayers, SD-MSCs expressed mesenchymal markers, such as CD105, Fibronectin, and α-SMA; and neural markers, such as Nestin and βIII-Tubulin; at transcriptional and/or protein level. Integra and Pelnac equally supported the adhesion, spread and growth of human SD-MSCs in 3D culture, maintaining the MSC characteristics and the expression of multilineage markers. Therefore, dermal substitutes support the growth of mesenchymal stromal cells from human skin, promising an effective tool for tissue engineering and regenerative technology. PMID:24586857

  7. Study on viability and chondrogenic differentiation of cryopreserved adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for future use in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, M L; Pérez-Castrillo, S; Ordás-Fernández, P; López-González, M E; Colaço, B; Villar-Suárez, V

    2015-10-01

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells are promising as a regenerative therapy tool for defective tissues in mesenchymal lineage, including fat, bone, cartilage, and blood vessels. In potential future clinical applications, adipose-derived stem cell cryopreservation is an essential fundamental technology. The aim of this study is to define an adequate protocol for the cryopreservation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells, by comparing various protocols so as to determine the effects of cryopreservation on viability and chondrogenic differentiation potential of adipose-derived stem cells upon freeze-thawing of AT-MSCs colonies cryopreserved with standard and modified protocols, using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The study concludes that adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells could be long-term cryopreserved without any loss of their proliferative or differentiation potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Regulation of mesenchymal stromal cells differentiation by a blue laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2007-07-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells, which are present in adult bone marrow, that can replicate as undifferentiated cells and that have the potential to differentiate to lineages of mesenchymal tissues, including bone, cartilage, fat, tendon, and muscle. Their rapid and selective differentiation should provide the potential of new therapeutic approaches for the restoration of damaged or diseased tissue. However, several fundamental questions must be answered before it will be feasible to usefully predict and control MSCs responses to exogenous cytokines or genes. In particular, a better understanding of how specific factor may alter the fate of differentiation of MSCs is needed. In recent reports, circadian clock protein controls osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Here we show that a stimulation of a blue-violet laser irradiation regulates the differentiation of mouse MSCs to osteoblasts by change of the localization of a circadian rhythm protein, mouse Cryptochrome 1 (mCRY1). We found that a blue laser irradiation accelerated osteogenesis of MSCs. After laser irradiation, mCRY1 protein was translocated from cytoplasm to nucleus and mCRY1 mRNA level was downregulated thereafter. These results indicate that mCRY1, a blue-violet-light receptor and a master regulator of circadian rhythm, plays important roles in the regulation of the differentiation of MSCs. Since the differentiation of MSCs was easily regulated only by a laser irradiation, the potential of new therapeutic approaches for the restoration of damaged or diseased tissue is anticipated. Furthermore, our results obtained in this study may prove an excellent opportunity to gain insights into cross-talk between circadian rhythms and bone formation.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Multipotential Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Congenital Pseudoarthrosis of the Tibia: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Solano, Dylana; Wittig, Olga; Mota, Jose D; Cardier, Jose E

    2015-10-01

    Congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) is an uncommon disease whose etiology and pathogenesis is unknown. Several evidences suggest that decreased osteogenic capacities, impaired local vascularization, and microenvironment alterations may play a role in the pathogenesis of CPT. Additionally, it is not clear if the pathogenesis of this disease is related to the absence of cells with osteogenic capacity of differentiation. In this work, a two-year-old patient diagnosed with CPT underwent an orthopedic surgery to promote bone union in a pseudoarthrosis lesion. Tissue from CPT lesion was excised, and histological evaluation and tissue culture were performed. Histologic analysis of the soft CPT lesion showed the presence of highly cellular fibrous tissue, vascularization, and abundant extracellular matrix. Fusiform cells of mesenchymal appearance were observed but osteoblasts, osteoclasts, chondrocytes, and adipose cells were not found. There was no evidence of osteogenesis. CPT tissue cultured as explants showed, after one month of culture, evidence of osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, and adipogenesis. Cells isolated from explants of CPT tissue showed a fibroblast-like morphology and expressed the mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) markers: CD105, CD73, and CD90 (CPT-MSC). Functional analysis showed that CPT-MSC differentiate, in vitro, into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipocytic cells. CPT-MSC expressed osteocalcin and agrecan. CPT-MSC produced collagen in the presence of ascorbic acid. MSC from BM of normal individuals were used as control. In summary, our results indicate that CPT tissue contains MSC with osteogenic capacity of differentiation. It is possible that CPT microenvironment may contribute to impair the osteogenic capacity of differentiation of CPT-MSC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Functional expression of adrenoreceptors in mesenchymal stromal cells derived from the human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kotova, Polina D; Sysoeva, Veronika Yu; Rogachevskaja, Olga A; Bystrova, Marina F; Kolesnikova, Alisa S; Tyurin-Kuzmin, Pyotr A; Fadeeva, Julia I; Tkachuk, Vsevolod A; Kolesnikov, Stanislav S

    2014-09-01

    Cultured mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from different sources represent a heterogeneous population of proliferating non-differentiated cells that contains multipotent stem cells capable of originating a variety of mesenchymal cell lineages. Despite tremendous progress in MSC biology spurred by their therapeutic potential, current knowledge on receptor and signaling systems of MSCs is mediocre. Here we isolated MSCs from the human adipose tissue and assayed their responsivity to GPCR agonists with Ca(2+) imaging. As a whole, a MSC population exhibited functional heterogeneity. Although a variety of first messengers was capable of stimulating Ca(2+) signaling in MSCs, only a relatively small group of cells was specifically responsive to the particular GPCR agonist, including noradrenaline. RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry revealed expression of α1B-, α2A-, and β2-adrenoreceptors in MSCs. Their sensitivity to subtype-specific adrenergic agonists/antagonists and certain inhibitors of Ca(2+) signaling indicated that largely the α2A-isoform coupled to PLC endowed MSCs with sensitivity to noradrenaline. The all-or-nothing dose-dependence was characteristic of responsivity of robust adrenergic MSCs. Noradrenaline never elicited small or intermediate responses but initiated large and quite similar Ca(2+) transients at all concentrations above the threshold. The inhibitory analysis and Ca(2+) uncaging implicated Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) in shaping Ca(2+) signals elicited by noradrenaline. Evidence favored IP3 receptors as predominantly responsible for CICR. Based on the overall findings, we inferred that adrenergic transduction in MSCs includes two fundamentally different stages: noradrenaline initially triggers a local and relatively small Ca(2+) signal, which next stimulates CICR, thereby being converted into a global Ca(2+) signal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bone marrow regeneration promoted by biophysically sorted osteoprogenitors from mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Poon, Zhiyong; Lee, Wong Cheng; Guan, Guofeng; Nyan, Lin Myint; Lim, Chwee Teck; Han, Jongyoon; Van Vliet, Krystyn J

    2015-01-01

    Human tissue repair deficiencies can be supplemented through strategies to isolate, expand in vitro, and reimplant regenerative cells that supplant damaged cells or stimulate endogenous repair mechanisms. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), a subset of which is described as mesenchymal stem cells, are leading candidates for cell-mediated bone repair and wound healing, with hundreds of ongoing clinical trials worldwide. An outstanding key challenge for successful clinical translation of MSCs is the capacity to produce large quantities of cells in vitro with uniform and relevant therapeutic properties. By leveraging biophysical traits of MSC subpopulations and label-free microfluidic cell sorting, we hypothesized and experimentally verified that MSCs of large diameter within expanded MSC cultures were osteoprogenitors that exhibited significantly greater efficacy over other MSC subpopulations in bone marrow repair. Systemic administration of osteoprogenitor MSCs significantly improved survival rates (>80%) as compared with other MSC subpopulations (0%) for preclinical murine bone marrow injury models. Osteoprogenitor MSCs also exerted potent therapeutic effects as "cell factories" that secreted high levels of regenerative factors such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), vascular endothelial growth factor A, bone morphogenetic protein 2, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 1, and angiopoietin-1; this resulted in increased cell proliferation, vessel formation, and reduced apoptosis in bone marrow. This MSC subpopulation mediated rescue of damaged marrow tissue via restoration of the hematopoiesis-supporting stroma, as well as subsequent hematopoiesis. Together, the capabilities described herein for label-freeisolation of regenerative osteoprogenitor MSCs can markedly improve the efficacy of MSC-based therapies.

  12. The Immunomodulatory and Therapeutic Effects of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ho, Mirabelle S H; Mei, Shirley H J; Stewart, Duncan J

    2015-11-01

    It is increasingly recognized that immunomodulation represents an important mechanism underlying the benefits of many stem cell therapies, rather than the classical paradigm of transdifferentiation and cell replacement. In the former paradigm, the beneficial effects of cell therapy result from paracrine mechanism(s) and/or cell-cell interaction as opposed to direct engraftment and repair of diseased tissue and/or dysfunctional organs. Depending on the cell type used, components of the secretome, including microRNA (miRNA) and extracellular vesicles, may be able to either activate or suppress the immune system even without direct immune cell contact. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), also referred to as mesenchymal stem cells, are found not only in the bone marrow, but also in a wide variety of organs and tissues. In addition to any direct stem cell activities, MSCs were the first stem cells recognized to modulate immune response, and therefore they will be the focus of this review. Specifically, MSCs appear to be able to effectively attenuate acute and protracted inflammation via interactions with components of both innate and adaptive immune systems. To date, this capacity has been exploited in a large number of preclinical studies and MSC immunomodulatory therapy has been attempted with various degrees of success in a relatively large number of clinical trials. Here, we will explore the various mechanism employed by MSCs to effect immunosuppression as well as review the current status of its use to treat excessive inflammation in the context of acute lung injury (ALI) and sepsis in both preclinical and clinical settings.

  13. Fetal and adult multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells are killed by different pathways.

    PubMed

    Götherström, Cecilia; Lundqvist, Andreas; Duprez, Ida Rasmusson; Childs, Richard; Berg, Louise; le Blanc, Katarina

    2011-03-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, also known as mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), can be isolated from adult and fetal tissues. Recently, there has been considerable interest in MSC because they have features favorable for transplantation, namely their multipotency and non-immunogenic properties. We analyzed how human MSC derived from first-trimester fetal liver and adult bone marrow interact with naive and activated innate natural killer (NK) cells. NK cell function was studied by measuring killing of MSC, as well as degranulation (CD107a) induced by MSC. To assess the importance of NK cell killing, expression of surface epitopes was analyzed by flow cytometry on MSC before and after stimulation with interferon (IFN)γ. Fetal and adult MSC express several ligands to activating NK cell receptors as well as low levels of HLA class I, with large inter-individual variation. Naive peripheral blood NK cells did not lyse fetal or adult MSC, whereas interleukin (IL)2 activated allogeneic as well as autologous NK cells did. Pre-incubation of MSC with IFN-γ increased their levels of HLA class I, protecting them from NK cell recognition. Fetal and adult MSC were preferably killed via the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Fas ligand (FasL) pathways, respectively. Blocking NKG2D reduced NK cell degranulation in both fetal and adult MSC. Fetal and adult MSC differ in their interactions with NK cells. Both fetal and adult MSC are susceptible to lysis by activated NK cells, which may have implications for the use of MSC in cell therapy.

  14. Efficient Transformation of Primary Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells by Adenovirus Early Region 1 Oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Speiseder, Thomas; Hofmann-Sieber, Helga; Rodríguez, Estefanía; Schellenberg, Anna; Akyüz, Nuray; Dierlamm, Judith; Spruss, Thilo; Lange, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    derived from human embryonic tissue, albeit the exact cell type is not known yet. We show for the first time the successful transformation of primary human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) by HAdV-5 E1A and E1B. Further, we show upon HAdV-5 E1A and E1B expression that these primary progenitor cells exhibit features of tumor cells and can no longer be differentiated into the adipogenic, chondrogenic, or osteogenic lineage. Hence, primary hMSCs represent a robust and novel model system to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of adenovirus-mediated transformation of multipotent human progenitor cells. PMID:27795433

  15. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived PTX3 Promotes Wound Healing via Fibrin Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Cappuzzello, Claudia; Doni, Andrea; Dander, Erica; Pasqualini, Fabio; Nebuloni, Manuela; Bottazzi, Barbara; Mantovani, Alberto; Biondi, Andrea; Garlanda, Cecilia; D'Amico, Giovanna

    2015-09-03

    Although mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can promote wound healing in different clinical settings, the underlying mechanism of MSC-mediated tissue repair has yet to be determined. Since a non-redundant role of pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in tissue repair and remodeling has been recently described, here we sought to determine whether MSC-derived PTX3 might play a role in wound healing. Using a murine model of skin repair, we found that Ptx3(-/-) MSCs delayed wound closure and reduced granulation tissue formation compared with wt MSCs. At day 2, confocal microscopy revealed a dramatic reduction of GFP-expressing Ptx3(-/-) MSCs recruited to the wound, where they appeared not only to be poorly organized in bundles but also scattered in the extracellular matrix. These findings were further confirmed by quantitative biochemical analysis of GFP content in wound extracts. Furthermore, Ptx3(-/-) MSC-treated skins displayed increased levels of fibrin and lower levels of D-dimer, suggesting a delayed fibrin-rich matrix remodelling compared to control skins. Consistently, both pericellular fibrinolysis and migration through fibrin were found to be severely affected in Ptx3(-/-) MSCs. Overall, our findings identify an essential role of MSC-derived PTX3 in wound repair underscoring the beneficial potential of MSC-based therapy in the management of intractable wounds.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 03 September 2015. doi:10.1038/jid.2015.346.

  16. Ferrociphenol lipid nanocapsule delivery by mesenchymal stromal cells in brain tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Roger, Mathilde; Clavreul, Anne; Huynh, Ngoc Trinh; Passirani, Catherine; Schiller, Paul; Vessières, Anne; Montero-Menei, Claudia; Menei, Philippe

    2012-02-14

    The prognosis of patients with malignant glioma remains extremely poor despite surgery and improvements in radio- and chemo-therapies. Thus, treatment strategies that specifically target these tumors have the potential to greatly improve therapeutic outcomes. "Marrow-isolated adult multilineage inducible" cells (MIAMI cells) are a subpopulation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) which possess the ability to migrate to brain tumors. We have previously shown that MIAMI cells were able to efficiently incorporate lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) without altering either their stem cell properties or their migration capacity. In this study, we assessed whether the cytotoxic effects of MIAMI cells loaded with LNCs containing an organometallic complex (ferrociphenol or Fc-diOH) could be used to treat brain tumors. The results showed that MIAMI cells internalized Fc-diOH-LNCs and that this internalization did not induce MIAMI cell death. Furthermore, Fc-diOH-LNC-loaded MIAMI cells produced a cytotoxic effect on U87MG glioma cells in vitro. This cytotoxic effect was validated in vivo after intratumoral injection of Fc-diOH-LNC-loaded MIAMI cells in a heterotopic U87MG glioma model in nude mice. These promising results open up a new field of treatment in which cellular vehicles and nanoparticles can be combined to treat brain tumors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cannabidiol Activates Neuronal Precursor Genes in Human Gingival Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Soundara Rajan, Thangavelu; Giacoppo, Sabrina; Scionti, Domenico; Diomede, Francesca; Grassi, Gianpaolo; Pollastro, Federica; Piattelli, Adriano; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela; Trubiani, Oriana

    2016-12-05

    In the last years, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from oral tissues have received considerable interest in regenerative medicine since they can be obtained with minimal invasive procedure and exhibit immunomodulatory properties. This study was aimed to investigate whether in vitro pre-treatment of MSCs obtained from human gingiva (hGMSCs) with Cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabinoid component produced by the plant Cannabis sativa, may promote human gingiva derived MSCs to differentiate toward neuronal precursor cells. Specifically, we have treated the hGMSCs with CBD (5 µM) for 24 h in order to evaluate the expression of genes involved in cannabidiol signaling, cell proliferation, self-renewal and multipotency, and neural progenitor cells differentiation. Next generation sequencing (NGS) demonstrated that CBD activates genes associated with G protein coupled receptor signaling in hGMSCs. Genes involved in DNA replication, cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis were regulated. Moreover, genes associated with the biological process of neuronal progenitor cells (NCPs) proliferation, neuron differentiation, neurogenesis, and nervous system development were significantly modulated. From our results, we hypothesize that human gingiva-derived MSCs conditioned with CBD could represent a valid method for improving the hGMSCs phenotype and thus might be a potential therapeutic tool in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1-16, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. β-PIX is critical for transplanted mesenchymal stromal cell migration.

    PubMed

    Koh, Seong-Ho; Huh, Yong-Min; Noh, Min Young; Kim, Hyun Young; Kim, Kyung Suk; Lee, Eun-Sook; Ko, Hyun-Ju; Cho, Goang Won; Yoo, A Rum; Song, Ho-Taek; Hwang, Sejin; Lee, Kwangyeol; Haam, Seungjoo; Frank, Joseph A; Suh, Jin-Suck; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2012-07-20

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been used successfully as a source of stem cells for treating neurodegenerative diseases. However, for reasons that are not clear, autologous MSC transplants have not yielded successful results in human trials. To test one possible reason, we compared the migratory ability of MSCs from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with those of healthy controls. We found that MSCs derived from ALS patients (ALS-MSCs) had a reduced ability to migrate, which may explain why autologous transplantation is not successful. We also found that expression of one of the intracellular factors implicated in migration, β-PIX, was significantly reduced in ALS-MSCs compared with healthy stem cells. Restoration of β-PIX expression by genetic manipulation restored the migratory ability of ALS-MSCs, and inhibition of β-PIX expression with shRNA reduced the migration of healthy MSCs. We suggest that transplantation of allogeneic or genetically modified autologous stem cells might be a more promising strategy for ALS patients than transplantation of autologous stem cells.

  19. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Culture and Delivery in Autologous Conditions: A Smart Approach for Orthopedic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Trombi, Luisa; Danti, Serena; Savelli, Sara; Moscato, Stefania; D'Alessandro, Delfo; Ricci, Claudio; Giannotti, Stefano; Petrini, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (hMSCs) are cultured in vitro with different media. Limits on their use in clinical settings, however, mainly depend on potential biohazard and inflammation risks exerted by xenogeneic nutrients for their culture. Human derivatives or recombinant materials are the first choice candidates to reduce these reactions. Therefore, culture supplements and materials of autologous origin represent the best nutrients and the safest products. Here, we describe a new protocol for the isolation and culture of bone marrow hMSCs in autologous conditions — namely, patient-derived serum as a supplement for the culture medium and fibrin as a scaffold for hMSC administration. Indeed, hMSC/fibrin clot constructs could be extremely useful for several clinical applications. In particular, we focus on their use in orthopedic surgery, where the fibrin clot derived from the donor's own blood allowed effective cell delivery and nutrient/waste exchanges. To ensure optimal safety conditions, it is of the utmost importance to avoid the risks of hMSC transformation and tissue overgrowth. For these reasons, the approach described in this paper also indicates a minimally ex vivo hMSC expansion, to reduce cell senescence and morphologic changes, and short-term osteo-differentiation before implantation, to induce osteogenic lineage specification, thus decreasing the risk of subsequent uncontrolled proliferation. PMID:28060333

  20. Ovine Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Morphologic, Phenotypic and Functional Characterization for Osteochondral Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Sanjurjo-Rodríguez, Clara; Castro-Viñuelas, Rocío; Hermida-Gómez, Tamara; Fernández-Vázquez, Tania; Fuentes-Boquete, Isaac Manuel; de Toro-Santos, Francisco Javier; Blanco-García, Francisco Javier

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Knowledge of ovine mesenchymal stromal cells (oMSCs) is currently expanding. Tissue engineering combining scaffolding with oMSCs provides promising therapies for the treatment of osteochondral diseases. Purpose The aim was to isolate and characterize oMSCs from bone marrow aspirates (oBMSCs) and to assess their usefulness for osteochondral repair using β-tricalcium phosphate (bTCP) and type I collagen (Col I) scaffolds. Methods Cells isolated from ovine bone marrow were characterized morphologically, phenotypically, and functionally. oBMSCs were cultured with osteogenic medium on bTCP and Col I scaffolds. The resulting constructs were evaluated by histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy studies. Furthermore, oBMSCs were cultured on Col I scaffolds to develop an in vitro cartilage repair model that was assessed using a modified International Cartilage Research Society (ICRS) II scale. Results oBMSCs presented morphology, surface marker pattern and multipotent capacities similar to those of human BMSCs. oBMSCs seeded on Col I gave rise to osteogenic neotissue. Assessment by the modified ICRS II scale revealed that fibrocartilage/hyaline cartilage was obtained in the in vitro repair model. Conclusions The isolated ovine cells were demonstrated to be oBMSCs. oBMSCs cultured on Col I sponges successfully synthesized osteochondral tissue. The data suggest that oBMSCs have potential for use in preclinical models prior to human clinical studies. PMID:28141815

  1. Mesenchymal stromal-cell transplants induce oligodendrocyte progenitor migration and remyelination in a chronic demyelination model

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo-Merchán, J; Jones, J; Ivorra, J L; Pastor, D; Viso-León, M C; Armengól, J A; Moltó, M D; Geijo-Barrientos, E; Martínez, S

    2013-01-01

    Demyelinating disorders such as leukodystrophies and multiple sclerosis are neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the progressive loss of myelin that may lead toward a chronic demyelination of the brain's white matter, impairing normal axonal conduction velocity and ultimately causing neurodegeneration. Current treatments modifying the pathological mechanisms are capable of ameliorating the disease; however, frequently, these therapies are not sufficient to repress the progressive demyelination into a chronic condition and permanent loss of function. To this end, we analyzed the effect that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (BM-MSC) grafts exert in a chronically demyelinated mouse brain. As a result, oligodendrocyte progenitors were recruited surrounding the graft due to the expression of various trophic signals by the grafted MSCs. Although there was no significant reaction in the non-grafted side, in the grafted regions oligodendrocyte progenitors were detected. These progenitors were derived from the nearby tissue as well as from the neurogenic niches, including the subependymal zone and dentate gyrus. Once near the graft site, the cells matured to myelinating oligodendrocytes. Finally, electrophysiological studies demonstrated that axonal conduction velocity was significantly increased in the grafted side of the fimbria. In conclusion, we demonstrate here that in chronic demyelinated white matter, BM-MSC transplantation activates oligodendrocyte progenitors and induces remyelination in the tissue surrounding the stem cell graft. PMID:23990019

  2. The influence of macrophages on mesenchymal stromal cell therapy: passive or aggressive agents?

    PubMed

    Carty, F; Mahon, B P; English, K

    2017-04-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have emerged as promising cell therapies for multiple conditions based on demonstrations of their potent immunomodulatory and regenerative capacities in models of inflammatory disease. Understanding the effects of MSC on T cells has dominated the majority of work carried out in this field to date; recently, however, a number of studies have shown that the therapeutic effect of MSC requires the presence of macrophages. It is timely to review the mechanisms and manner by which MSC modulate macrophage populations in order to design more effective MSC therapies and clinical studies. A complex cross-talk exists through which MSC and macrophages communicate, a communication that is not controlled exclusively by MSC. Here, we examine the evidence that suggests that MSC not only respond to inflammatory macrophages and adjust their secretome accordingly, but also that macrophages respond to encounters with MSC, creating a feedback loop which contributes to the immune regulation observed following MSC therapy. Future studies examining the effects of MSC on macrophages should consider the antagonistic role that macrophages play in this exchange.

  3. Expansion of adipose mesenchymal stromal cells is affected by human platelet lysate and plating density.

    PubMed

    Cholewa, Dominik; Stiehl, Thomas; Schellenberg, Anne; Bokermann, Gudrun; Joussen, Sylvia; Koch, Carmen; Walenda, Thomas; Pallua, Norbert; Marciniak-Czochra, Anna; Suschek, Christoph V; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The composition of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) changes in the course of in vitro culture expansion. Little is known how these cell preparations are influenced by culture media, plating density, or passaging. In this study, we have isolated MSCs from human adipose tissue in culture medium supplemented with either fetal calf serum (FCS) or human platelet lysate (HPL). In addition, culture expansion was simultaneously performed at plating densities of 10 or 10,000 cells/cm(2). The use of FCS resulted in larger cells, whereas HPL significantly enhanced proliferation. Notably, HPL also facilitated expansion for more population doublings than FCS (43 ± 3 vs. 22 ± 4 population doubling; p < 0.001), while plating density did not have a significant effect on long-term growth curves. To gain further insight into population dynamics, we conceived a cellular automaton model to simulate expansion of MSCS. It is based on the assumptions that the number of cell divisions is limited and that due to contact inhibition proliferation occurs only at the rim of colonies. The model predicts that low plating densities result in more heterogeneity with regard to cell division history, and favor subpopulations of higher migratory activity. In summary, HPL is a suitable serum supplement for isolation of MSC from adipose tissue and facilitates more population doublings than FCS. Cellular automaton computer simulations provided additional insights into how complex population dynamics during long-term expansion are affected by plating density and migration.

  4. In vivo biocompatibility of custom-fabricated apatite-wollastonite-mesenchymal stromal cell constructs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer A; Knight, Charlotte A; Kun, Xiao; Yang, Xuebin B; Wood, David J; Dalgarno, Kenneth W; Genever, Paul G

    2015-10-01

    We have used the additive manufacturing technology of selective laser sintering (SLS), together with post SLS heat treatment, to produce porous three dimensional scaffolds from the glass-ceramic apatite-wollastonite (A-W). The A-W scaffolds were custom-designed to incorporate a cylindrical central channel to increase cell penetration and medium flow to the center of the scaffolds under dynamic culture conditions during in vitro testing and subsequent in vivo implantation. The scaffolds were seeded with human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and cultured in spinner flasks. Using confocal and scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrated that MSCs formed and maintained a confluent layer of viable cells on all surfaces of the A-W scaffolds during dynamic culture. MSC-seeded, with and without osteogenic pre-differentiation, and unseeded A-W scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously in MF1 nude mice where osteoid formation and tissue in-growth were observed following histological assessment. The results demonstrate that the in vivo biocompatibility and osteo-supportive capacity of A-W scaffolds can be enhanced by SLS-custom design, without the requirement for osteogenic pre-induction, to advance their potential as patient-specific bone replacement materials.

  5. RB Maintains Quiescence and Prevents Premature Senescence through Upregulation of DNMT1 in Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Pei; Chiu, Fang-Yao; Wang, Yu; Yen, Men-Luh; Kao, Shou-Yen; Hung, Shih-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    Summary Many cell therapies currently being tested are based on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). However, MSCs start to enter the senescent state upon long-term expansion. The role of retinoblastoma (RB) protein in regulating MSC properties is not well studied. Here, we show that RB levels are higher in early-passage MSCs compared with late-passage MSCs. RB knockdown induces premature senescence and reduced differentiation potentials in early-passage MSCs. RB overexpression inhibits senescence and increases differentiation potentials in late-passage MSCs. Expression of DNMT1, but not DNMT3A or DNMT3B, is also higher in early-passage MSCs than in late-passage MSCs. Furthermore, DNMT1 knockdown in early-passage MSCs induces senescence and reduces differentiation potentials, whereas DNMT1 overexpression in late-passage MSCs has the opposite effect. These results demonstrate that RB expressed in early-passage MSCs upregulates DNMT1 expression and inhibits senescence in MSCs. Therefore, genetic modification of RB could be a way to improve the efficiency of MSCs in clinical use. PMID:25455074

  6. Interferon-{gamma} and NF-{kappa}B mediate nitric oxide production by mesenchymal stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, I.; Ozaki, K. . E-mail: ozakikat@jichi.ac.jp; Sato, K.; Meguro, A.; Tatara, R.; Hatanaka, K.; Nagai, T.; Muroi, K.; Ozawa, K. . E-mail: kozawa@ms2.jichi.ac.jp

    2007-04-20

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to have an immunosuppressive effect. Previously, we demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) is one of the immunomodulatory mediators of MSCs. We herein show that primary mouse bone marrow MSCs and three cell lines that mimic MSCs suppress both differentiation and proliferation in Th1 condition, whereas the suppression in Th2 condition is mild. NO production is inversely correlated with T cell proliferation in Th1 and Th2 conditions. NO is highly induced in Th1 and minimally induced in Th2. Moreover, an inhibitor of NO synthase restores both proliferation and interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}) production in Th1 condition. Furthermore, an anti-IFN-{gamma} antibody strongly inhibits NO production and an inhibitor of NF-{kappa}B reduces the level of induction of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in MSCs. Taken together, our results suggest that NO plays a significant role in the modification of Th1 and Th2 differentiation by MSCs, and that both IFN-{gamma} and NF-{kappa}B are critical for NO production by MSCs.

  7. Morphological features of IFN-γ–stimulated mesenchymal stromal cells predict overall immunosuppressive capacity

    PubMed Central

    Klinker, Matthew W.; Marklein, Ross A.; Lo Surdo, Jessica L.; Wei, Cheng-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) lines can vary significantly in their functional characteristics, and the effectiveness of MSC-based therapeutics may be realized by finding predictive features associated with MSC function. To identify features associated with immunosuppressive capacity in MSCs, we developed a robust in vitro assay that uses principal-component analysis to integrate multidimensional flow cytometry data into a single measurement of MSC-mediated inhibition of T-cell activation. We used this assay to correlate single-cell morphological data with overall immunosuppressive capacity in a cohort of MSC lines derived from different donors and manufacturing conditions. MSC morphology after IFN-γ stimulation significantly correlated with immunosuppressive capacity and accurately predicted the immunosuppressive capacity of MSC lines in a validation cohort. IFN-γ enhanced the immunosuppressive capacity of all MSC lines, and morphology predicted the magnitude of IFN-γ–enhanced immunosuppressive activity. Together, these data identify MSC morphology as a predictive feature of MSC immunosuppressive function. PMID:28283659

  8. Cefazolin Irreversibly Inhibits Proliferation and Migration of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Pilge, Hakan; Fröbel, Julia; Lensing-Höhn, Sabine; Zilkens, Christoph; Krauspe, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Drugs may have a significant effect on postoperative bone healing by reducing the function of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC) or mature osteoblasts. Although cefazolin is one of the most commonly used antibiotic drugs in arthroplasty to prevent infection worldwide, there is a lack of information regarding how cefazolin affects hMSC and therefore may have an effect on early bone healing. We studied the proliferation and migration capacity of primary hMSC during cefazolin treatment at various doses for up to 3 days, as well as the reversibility of the effects during the subsequent 3 days of culture without the drug. We found a time- and dose-dependent reduction of the proliferation rate and the migratory potential. Tests of whether these effects were reversible revealed that doses ≥ 250 μg/mL or treatments longer than 24 h irreversibly affected the cells. We are the first to show that application of cefazolin irreversibly inhibits the potential of hMSC for migration to the trauma site and local proliferation. Cefazolin should be administered only at the required dosage and time to prevent periprosthetic infection. If long-term administration is required and delayed bone healing is present, cefazolin application must be considered as a cause of delayed bone healing.

  9. Cefazolin Irreversibly Inhibits Proliferation and Migration of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pilge, Hakan; Fröbel, Julia; Lensing-Höhn, Sabine; Zilkens, Christoph; Krauspe, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Drugs may have a significant effect on postoperative bone healing by reducing the function of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC) or mature osteoblasts. Although cefazolin is one of the most commonly used antibiotic drugs in arthroplasty to prevent infection worldwide, there is a lack of information regarding how cefazolin affects hMSC and therefore may have an effect on early bone healing. We studied the proliferation and migration capacity of primary hMSC during cefazolin treatment at various doses for up to 3 days, as well as the reversibility of the effects during the subsequent 3 days of culture without the drug. We found a time- and dose-dependent reduction of the proliferation rate and the migratory potential. Tests of whether these effects were reversible revealed that doses ≥250 μg/mL or treatments longer than 24 h irreversibly affected the cells. We are the first to show that application of cefazolin irreversibly inhibits the potential of hMSC for migration to the trauma site and local proliferation. Cefazolin should be administered only at the required dosage and time to prevent periprosthetic infection. If long-term administration is required and delayed bone healing is present, cefazolin application must be considered as a cause of delayed bone healing. PMID:27069918

  10. Intravenous transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Matthes, Stella M; Reimers, Kerstin; Janssen, Insa; Liebsch, Christina; Kocsis, Jeffery D; Vogt, Peter M; Radtke, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a common and devastating complication after trauma and can cause irreversible impairment or even complete functional loss of the affected limb. While peripheral nerve repair results in some axonal regeneration and functional recovery, the clinical outcome is not optimal and research continues to optimize functional recovery after nerve repair. Cell transplantation approaches are being used experimentally to enhance regeneration. Intravenous infusion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) into spinal cord injury and stroke was shown to improve functional outcome. However, the repair potential of intravenously transplanted MSCs in peripheral nerve injury has not been addressed yet. Here we describe the impact of intravenously infused MSCs on functional outcome in a peripheral nerve injury model. Rat sciatic nerves were transected followed, by intravenous MSCs transplantation. Footprint analysis was carried out and 21 days after transplantation, the nerves were removed for histology. Labelled MSCs were found in the sciatic nerve lesion site after intravenous injection and regeneration was improved. Intravenously infused MSCs after acute peripheral nerve target the lesion site and survive within the nerve and the MSC treated group showed greater functional improvement. The results of study suggest that nerve repair with cell transplantation could lead to greater functional outcome.

  11. Cell studies of hybridized carbon nanofibers containing bioactive glass nanoparticles using bone mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiu-Rui; Hu, Xiao-Qing; Jia, Xiao-Long; Yang, Li-Ka; Meng, Qing-Yang; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Cai, Qing; Ao, Yin-Fang; Yang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bone regeneration required suitable scaffolding materials to support the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone-related cells. In this study, a kind of hybridized nanofibrous scaffold material (CNF/BG) was prepared by incorporating bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles into carbon nanofibers (CNF) via the combination of BG sol-gel and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) electrospinning, followed by carbonization. Three types (49 s, 68 s and 86 s) of BG nanoparticles were incorporated. To understand the mechanism of CNF/BG hybrids exerting osteogenic effects, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured directly on these hybrids (contact culture) or cultured in transwell chambers in the presence of these materials (non-contact culture). The contributions of ion release and contact effect on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were able to be correlated. It was found that the ionic dissolution products had limited effect on cell proliferation, while they were able to enhance osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in comparison with pure CNF. Differently, the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were both significantly promoted in the contact culture. In both cases, CNF/BG(68 s) showed the strongest ability in influencing cell behaviors due to its fastest release rate of soluble silicium-relating ions. The synergistic effect of CNF and BG would make CNF/BG hybrids promising substrates for bone repairing. PMID:27924854

  12. Cell studies of hybridized carbon nanofibers containing bioactive glass nanoparticles using bone mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiu-Rui; Hu, Xiao-Qing; Jia, Xiao-Long; Yang, Li-Ka; Meng, Qing-Yang; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Cai, Qing; Ao, Yin-Fang; Yang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-12-07

    Bone regeneration required suitable scaffolding materials to support the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone-related cells. In this study, a kind of hybridized nanofibrous scaffold material (CNF/BG) was prepared by incorporating bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles into carbon nanofibers (CNF) via the combination of BG sol-gel and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) electrospinning, followed by carbonization. Three types (49 s, 68 s and 86 s) of BG nanoparticles were incorporated. To understand the mechanism of CNF/BG hybrids exerting osteogenic effects, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured directly on these hybrids (contact culture) or cultured in transwell chambers in the presence of these materials (non-contact culture). The contributions of ion release and contact effect on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were able to be correlated. It was found that the ionic dissolution products had limited effect on cell proliferation, while they were able to enhance osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in comparison with pure CNF. Differently, the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were both significantly promoted in the contact culture. In both cases, CNF/BG(68 s) showed the strongest ability in influencing cell behaviors due to its fastest release rate of soluble silicium-relating ions. The synergistic effect of CNF and BG would make CNF/BG hybrids promising substrates for bone repairing.

  13. Enhanced differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells by three-dimensional culture and azacitidine

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Yoo-Jin; Kwon, Yong-Rim; Kim, Hye Joung; Lee, Seok

    2017-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are useful for cell therapy because of their potential for multilineage differentiation. However, MSCs that are expanded in traditional two-dimensional (2D) culture systems eventually lose their differentiation abilities. Therefore, we investigated whether azacitidine (AZA) supplementation and three-dimensional culture (3D) could improve the differentiation properties of MSCs. Methods 2D- or 3D-cultured MSCs which were prepared according to the conventional or hanging-drop culture method respectively, were treated with or without AZA (1 µM for 72 h), and their osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential were determined and compared. Results AZA treatment did not affect the cell apoptosis or viability in both 2D- and 3D-cultured MSCs. However, compared to conventionally cultured 2D-MSCs, AZA-treated 2D-MSCs showed marginally increased differentiation abilities. In contrast, 3D-MSCs showed significantly increased osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation ability. When 3D culture was performed in the presence of AZA, the osteogenic differentiation ability was further increased, whereas adipogenic differentiation was not affected. Conclusion 3D culture efficiently promoted the multilineage differentiation of MSCs, and in combination with AZA, it could help MSCs to acquire greater osteogenic differentiation ability. This optimized culture method can enhance the therapeutic potential of MSCs. PMID:28401097

  14. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells are fully permissive for human cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Guan-Hua; Zhao, Fei; Cheng, Shuang; Luo, Min-Hua

    2016-06-01

    Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is a leading infectious cause of birth defects. Previous studies have reported birth defects with multiple organ maldevelopment in congenital HCMV-infected neonates. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a group of stem/progenitor cells that are multi-potent and can self-renew, and they play a vital role in multi-organ formation. Whether MSCs are susceptible to HCMV infection is unclear. In this study, MSCs were isolated from Wharton's jelly of the human umbilical cord and identified by their plastic adherence, surface marker pattern, and differentiation capacity. Then, the MSCs were infected with the HCMV Towne strain, and infection status was assessed via determination of viral entry, replication initiation, viral protein expression, and infectious virion release using western blotting, immunofluorescence assays, and plaque forming assays. The results indicate that the isolated MSCs were fully permissive for HCMV infection and provide a preliminary basis for understanding the pathogenesis of HCMV infection in non-nervous system diseases, including multi-organ malformation during fetal development.

  15. Packed Bed Bioreactor for the Isolation and Expansion of Placental-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Osiecki, Michael J; Michl, Thomas D; Kul Babur, Betul; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Atkinson, Kerry; Lott, William B; Griesser, Hans J; Doran, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Large numbers of Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are required for clinical relevant doses to treat a number of diseases. To economically manufacture these MSCs, an automated bioreactor system will be required. Herein we describe the development of a scalable closed-system, packed bed bioreactor suitable for large-scale MSCs expansion. The packed bed was formed from fused polystyrene pellets that were air plasma treated to endow them with a surface chemistry similar to traditional tissue culture plastic. The packed bed was encased within a gas permeable shell to decouple the medium nutrient supply and gas exchange. This enabled a significant reduction in medium flow rates, thus reducing shear and even facilitating single pass medium exchange. The system was optimised in a small-scale bioreactor format (160 cm2) with murine-derived green fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs, and then scaled-up to a 2800 cm2 format. We demonstrated that placental derived MSCs could be isolated directly within the bioreactor and subsequently expanded. Our results demonstrate that the closed system large-scale packed bed bioreactor is an effective and scalable tool for large-scale isolation and expansion of MSCs.

  16. Microvesicles from Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Are Involved in HPC-Microenvironment Crosstalk in Myelodysplastic Patients.

    PubMed

    Muntión, Sandra; Ramos, Teresa L; Diez-Campelo, María; Rosón, Beatriz; Sánchez-Abarca, Luis Ignacio; Misiewicz-Krzeminska, Irena; Preciado, Silvia; Sarasquete, María-Eugenia; de Las Rivas, Javier; González, Marcos; Sánchez-Guijo, Fermín; Del Cañizo, María-Consuelo

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes/microvesicles (MVs) provide a mechanism of intercellular communication. Our hypothesis was that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients could modify CD34+ cells properties by MVs. They were isolated from MSC from MDS patients and healthy donors (HD). MVs from 30 low-risk MDS patients and 27 HD were purified by ExoQuick-TC™ or ultracentrifugation and identified by transmission electron microscopy, flow cytometry (FC) and western blot for CD63. Incorporation of MVs into CD34+ cells was analyzed by FC, and confocal and fluorescence microscopy. Changes in hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) properties were assessed from modifications in microRNAs and gene expression in CD34+ cells as well as viability and clonogenic assays of CD34+ cells after MVs incorporation. Some microRNAs were overexpressed in MVs from patients MSC and two of them, miR-10a and miR-15a, were confirmed by RT-PCR. These microRNAs were transferred to CD34+ cells, modifying the expression of MDM2 and P53 genes, which was evaluated by RT-PCR and western blot. Finally, examining CD34+ cells properties after incorporation, higher cell viability (p = 0.025) and clonogenic capacity (p = 0.037) were observed when MVs from MDS patients were incorporated. In summary, we show that BM-MSC release MVs with a different cargo in MDS patients compared with HD. These structures are incorporated into HPC and modify their properties.

  17. Do ABO Blood Group Antigens Hamper the Therapeutic Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Guido; Hult, Annika; von Bahr, Lena; Alm, Jessica J.; Heldring, Nina; Hamad, Osama A.; Stenbeck-Funke, Lillemor; Larsson, Stella; Teramura, Yuji; Roelofs, Helene; Nilsson, Bo; Fibbe, Willem E.; Olsson, Martin L.; Le Blanc, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Investigation into predictors for treatment outcome is essential to improve the clinical efficacy of therapeutic multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). We therefore studied the possible harmful impact of immunogenic ABO blood groups antigens – genetically governed antigenic determinants – at all given steps of MSC-therapy, from cell isolation and preparation for clinical use, to final recipient outcome. We found that clinical MSCs do not inherently express or upregulate ABO blood group antigens after inflammatory challenge or in vitro differentiation. Although antigen adsorption from standard culture supplements was minimal, MSCs adsorbed small quantities of ABO antigen from fresh human AB plasma (ABP), dependent on antigen concentration and adsorption time. Compared to cells washed in non-immunogenic human serum albumin (HSA), MSCs washed with ABP elicited stronger blood responses after exposure to blood from healthy O donors in vitro, containing high titers of ABO antibodies. Clinical evaluation of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients found only very low titers of anti-A/B agglutination in these strongly immunocompromised patients at the time of MSC treatment. Patient analysis revealed a trend for lower clinical response in blood group O recipients treated with ABP-exposed MSC products, but not with HSA-exposed products. We conclude, that clinical grade MSCs are ABO-neutral, but the ABP used for washing and infusion of MSCs can contaminate the cells with immunogenic ABO substance and should therefore be substituted by non-immunogenic HSA, particularly when cells are given to immunocompentent individuals. PMID:24454787

  18. Different Donors Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Secretomes Reveal Heterogeneous Profile of Relevance for Therapeutic Use.

    PubMed

    Assoni, Amanda; Coatti, Giuliana; Valadares, Marcos C; Beccari, Melinda; Gomes, Juliana; Pelatti, Mayra; Mitne-Neto, Miguel; Carvalho, Valdemir M; Zatz, Mayana

    2017-02-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal X-linked disorder caused by null mutations in the dystrophin gene. Although the primary defect is the deficiency of muscle dystrophin, secondary events, including chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and muscle regeneration failure are thought to actively contribute to disease progression. Despite several advances, there is still no effective therapy for DMD. Therefore, the potential regenerative capacities, and immune-privileged properties of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), have been the focus of intense investigation in different animal models aiming the treatment of these disorders. However, these studies have shown different outcomes according to the sources from which MSCs were obtained, which raise the question whether stem cells from distinct sources have comparable clinical effects. Here, we analyzed the protein content of the secretome of MSCs, isolated from three different sources (adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and uterine tubes), obtained from five donors and evaluated their in vitro properties when cocultured with DMD myoblasts. All MSC lineages showed pathways enrichment related to protein metabolic process, oxidation-reduction process, cell proliferation, and regulation of apoptosis. We found that MSCs secretome proteins and their effect in vitro vary significantly according to the tissue and donors, including opposite effects in apoptosis assay, indicating the importance of characterizing MSC secretome profile before its use in animal and clinical trials. Despite the individual differences a pool of conditioned media from all MSCs lineages was able to delay apoptosis and enhance migration when in contact with DMD myoblasts.

  19. Safety and Efficacy Endpoints for Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Therapy in Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Bank, J. R.; Rabelink, T. J.; de Fijter, J. W.; Reinders, M. E. J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite excellent short-term graft survival after renal transplantation, the long-term graft outcome remains compromised. It has become evident that a combination of sustained alloreactivity and calcineurin-inhibitor- (CNI-) related nephrotoxicity results in fibrosis and consequently dysfunction of the graft. New immunosuppressive regimens that can minimize or eliminate side effects, while maintaining efficacy, are required to improve long-term graft survival. In this perspective mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are an interesting candidate, since MSCs have immunosuppressive and regenerative properties. The first clinical trials with MSCs in renal transplantation showed safety and feasibility and displayed promising results. Recently, the first phase II studies have been started. One of the most difficult and challenging aspects in those early phase trials is to define accurate endpoints that can measure safety and efficacy of MSC treatment. Since both graft losses and acute rejection rates declined, alternative surrogate markers such as renal function, histological findings, and immunological markers are used to measure efficacy and to provide mechanistic insight. In this review, we will discuss the current status of MSCs in renal transplantation with a focus on the endpoints used in the different experimental and clinical studies. PMID:26258149

  20. Intravenous and intratracheal mesenchymal stromal cell injection in a mouse model of pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Tibboel, Jeroen; Keijzer, Richard; Reiss, Irwin; de Jongste, Johan C; Post, Martin

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the evolution of lung function and -structure in elastase-induced emphysema in adult mice and the effect of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) administration on these parameters. Adult mice were treated with intratracheal (4.8 units/100 g bodyweight) elastase to induce emphysema. MSCs were administered intratracheally or intravenously, before or after elastase injection. Lung function measurements, histological and morphometric analysis of lung tissue were performed at 3 weeks, 5 and 10 months after elastase and at 19, 20 and 21 days following MSC administration. Elastase-treated mice showed increased dynamic compliance and total lung capacity, and reduced tissue-specific elastance and forced expiratory flows at 3 weeks after elastase, which persisted during 10 months follow-up. Histology showed heterogeneous alveolar destruction which also persisted during long-term follow-up. Jugular vein injection of MSCs before elastase inhibited deterioration of lung function but had no effects on histology. Intratracheal MSC treatment did not modify lung function or histology. In conclusion, elastase-treated mice displayed persistent characteristics of pulmonary emphysema. Jugular vein injection of MSCs prior to elastase reduced deterioration of lung function. Intratracheal MSC treatment had no effect on lung function or histology.

  1. Concise Review: Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Used for Periodontal Regeneration: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Monsarrat, Paul; Vergnes, Jean-Noël; Nabet, Cathy; Sixou, Michel; Snead, Malcolm L.; Planat-Bénard, Valérie; Casteilla, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic infectious disease of the soft and hard tissues supporting the teeth. Recent advances in regenerative medicine and stem cell biology have paved the way for periodontal tissue engineering. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) delivered in situ to periodontal defects may exert their effects at multiple levels, including neovascularization, immunomodulation, and tissue regeneration. This systematic review had two goals: (a) to objectively quantify key elements for efficacy and safety of MSCs used for periodontal regeneration and (b) to identify patterns in the existing literature to explain differences between studies and suggest recommendations for future research. This systematic review provided good evidence of the capacity of MSCs to regenerate periodontal tissues in animals; however, experimentally generated defects used in animal studies do not sufficiently mimic the pathophysiology of periodontitis in humans. Moreover, the safety of such interventions in humans still needs to be studied. There were marked differences between experimental and control groups that may be influenced by characteristics that are crucial to address before translation to human clinical trials. We suggest that the appropriate combination of cell source, carrier type, and biomolecules, as well as the inclusion of critical path issues for a given clinical case, should be further explored and refined before transitioning to clinical trials. Future studies should investigate periodontal regenerative procedures in animal models, including rodents, in which the defects generated are designed to more accurately reflect the inflammatory status of the host and the shift in their pathogenic microflora. PMID:24744392

  2. Raman spectroscopy uncovers biochemical tissue-related features of extracellular vesicles from mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Gualerzi, Alice; Niada, Stefania; Giannasi, Chiara; Picciolini, Silvia; Morasso, Carlo; Vanna, Renzo; Rossella, Valeria; Masserini, Massimo; Bedoni, Marzia; Ciceri, Fabio; Bernardo, Maria Ester; Brini, Anna Teresa; Gramatica, Furio

    2017-08-29

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are emerging as valuable therapeutic agents for tissue regeneration and immunomodulation, but their clinical applications have so far been limited by the technical restraints of current isolation and characterisation procedures. This study shows for the first time the successful application of Raman spectroscopy as label-free, sensitive and reproducible means of carrying out the routine bulk characterisation of MSC-derived vesicles before their use in vitro or in vivo, thus promoting the translation of EV research to clinical practice. The Raman spectra of the EVs of bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived MSCs were compared with human dermal fibroblast EVs in order to demonstrate the ability of the method to distinguish the vesicles of the three cytotypes automatically with an accuracy of 93.7%. Our data attribute a Raman fingerprint to EVs from undifferentiated and differentiated cells of diverse tissue origin, and provide insights into the biochemical characteristics of EVs from different sources and into the differential contribution of sphingomyelin, gangliosides and phosphatidilcholine to the Raman spectra themselves.

  3. Challenges in animal modelling of mesenchymal stromal cell therapy for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Chinnadurai, Raghavan; Ng, Spencer; Velu, Vijayakumar; Galipeau, Jacques

    2015-04-28

    Utilization of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for the treatment of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis is of translational interest. Safety of MSC therapy has been well demonstrated in early phase clinical trials but efficacy in randomized clinical trials needs to be demonstrated. Understanding MSC mechanisms of action to reduce gut injury and inflammation is necessary to improve current ongoing and future clinical trials. However, two major hurdles impede the direct translation of data derived from animal experiments to the clinical situation: (1) limitations of the currently available animal models of colitis that reflect human inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The etiology and progression of human IBD are multifactorial and hence a challenge to mimic in animal models; and (2) Species specific differences in the functionality of MSCs derived from mice versus humans. MSCs derived from mice and humans are not identical in their mechanisms of action in suppressing inflammation. Thus, preclinical animal studies with murine derived MSCs cannot be considered as an exact replica of human MSC based clinical trials. In the present review, we discuss the therapeutic properties of MSCs in preclinical and clinical studies of IBD. We also discuss the challenges and approaches of using appropriate animal models of colitis, not only to study putative MSC therapeutic efficacy and their mechanisms of action, but also the suitability of translating findings derived from such studies to the clinic.

  4. Ultrastructural features of human adipose-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Manea, Claudiu Marius; Rusu, Mugurel Constantin; Constantin, Daniel; Mănoiu, Valentina Mariana; Moldovan, Lucia; Jianu, Adelina Maria

    2014-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MMSCs) are plastic-adherent cells with a well-established phenotype. Equine, but not human, adipose MMSCs have been characterized ultrastructurally. The purpose of our study was to evaluate ultrastructurally the adipose-derived human MMSCs. Cell cultures were prepared from human lipoaspirate. The flow cytometry evaluation of surface markers of cultured cells confirmed the expected profile of MMSCs, that were positive for CD73, CD90 and CD105, and negative for CD34 and CD45. We examined these human adipose-derived MMSCs in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) by Epon en-face embedding the fixed MMSCs. The main ultrastructural features of MMSCs were the extremely rich content of endosomal/vesicular elements, long mitochondria, dilated RER (rough endoplasmic reticulum) cisternae, and abundant intermediate filaments and microtubules. We found two types of MMSCS prolongations: (a) thick processes, with opposite, vesicular and filaments-rich, sides and (b) slender processes (pseudopodes and filopodes), with occasional proximal dilated segments housing mitochondria, vesicles and secretory granules. These TEM features of MMSCs characterized an in vitro cell population and could use to distinguish between different cell types in culture.

  5. Active control of the nucleation temperature enhances freezing survival of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Lauterboeck, L; Hofmann, N; Mueller, T; Glasmacher, B

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation is a technique that has been extensively used for storage of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in regenerative medicine. Therefore, improving current cryopreservation procedures in terms of increasing cell viability and functionality is important. In this study, we optimized the cryopreservation protocol of MSCs derived from the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus (cj), which can be used as a non-human primate model in various pathological and transplantation studies and have a great potential for regenerative medicine. We have investigated the effect of the active control of the nucleation temperature using induced nucleation at a broad range of temperatures and two different dimethylsulfoxide concentrations (Me2SO, 5% (v/v) and 10%, (v/v)) to evaluate the overall effect on the viability, metabolic activity and recovery of cells after thawing. Survival rate and metabolic activity displayed an optimum when ice formation was induced at -10 °C. Cryomicroscopy studies indicated differences in ice crystal morphologies as well as differences in intracellular ice formation with different nucleation temperatures. High subzero nucleation temperatures resulted in larger extracellular ice crystals and cellular dehydration, whereas low subzero nucleation temperatures resulted in smaller ice crystals and intracellular ice formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Culture and Use of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Phase I and II Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, Bourin; Luc, Sensebé; Valérie, Planat-Bénard; Jérôme, Roncalli; Alessandra, Bura-Rivière; Louis, Casteilla

    2010-01-01

    Present in numerous tissues, mesenchymal stem cells/multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) can differentiate into different cell types from a mesoderm origin. Their potential has been extended to pluripotency, by their possibility of differentiating into tissues and cells of nonmesodermic origin. Through the release of cytokines, growth factors and biologically active molecules, MSCs exert important paracrine effects during tissue repair and inflammation. Moreover, MSCs have immunosuppressive properties related to non-HLA restricted immunosuppressive capacities. All these features lead to an increasing range of possible applications of MSCs, from treating immunological diseases to tissue and organ repair, that should be tested in phase I and II clinical trials. The most widely used MSCs are cultured from bone marrow or adipose tissue. For clinical trial implementation, BM MSCs and ADSCs should be produced according to Good Manufacturing Practices. Safety remains the major concern and must be ensured during culture and validated with relevant controls. We describe some applications of MSCs in clinical trials. PMID:21052537

  7. The Roles of Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells in Tumor Microenvironment Associated with Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Krstić, Jelena; Djordjević, Ivana Okić; Jauković, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    State of tumor microenvironment (TME) is closely linked to regulation of tumor growth and progression affecting the final outcome, refractoriness, and relapse of disease. Interactions of tumor, immune, and mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have been recognized as crucial for understanding tumorigenesis. Due to their outstanding features, stem cell-like properties, capacity to regulate immune response, and dynamic functional phenotype dependent on microenvironmental stimuli, MSCs have been perceived as important players in TME. Signals provided by tumor-associated chronic inflammation educate MSCs to alter their phenotype and immunomodulatory potential in favor of tumor-biased state of MSCs. Adjustment of phenotype to TME and acquisition of tumor-promoting ability by MSCs help tumor cells in maintenance of permissive TME and suppression of antitumor immune response. Potential utilization of MSCs in treatment of tumor is based on their inherent ability to home tumor tissue that makes them suitable delivery vehicles for immune-stimulating factors and vectors for targeted antitumor therapy. Here, we review data regarding intrusive effects of inflammatory TME on MSCs capacity to affect tumor development through modification of their phenotype and interactions with immune system. PMID:27630452

  8. [Interleukine production in culture of mesenchymal stromal cells of humans during simulation of the microgravity effects].

    PubMed

    Gershovich, Iu G; Buravkova, L B

    2009-01-01

    Effects of simulated microgravity (cell clinostatting and containment in the Random Positioning Machine (RPM), Dutch Space, The Netherlands) on interleukins production by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) of the human marrow and MSC osteogenous derivatives obtained through cell stimulation by growth factors (10(-8) M dexamethazone, 0.2 mM ascorbic acid, 10 mM beta-glycerol-phosphate) were studied. Twenty-day clinostatting was found to increase 1.4 to 3.2 times the interleukin-8 (IL-8) content in the MSC and MSC osteogenous derivatives culture medium. Microgravity effects simulated with the use of RPM raised the IL-8 production 1.5 - 6 times and 1.6-2.1 times on the average after 10 days and 20 days of containment, respectively. MSC and MSC osteogenous derivatives demonstrated a downward trend in IL-6 secretion in the culture put in RPM. Therefore, simulation of the microgravity effects using different systems modifies interleukins production by MSC and also by mature cells of the osteoblastic phenotype.

  9. Exosomes from human colorectal cancer induce a tumor-like behavior in colonic mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Lugini, Luana; Valtieri, Mauro; Federici, Cristina; Cecchetti, Serena; Meschini, Stefania; Condello, Maria; Signore, Michele; Fais, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer cells, including colorectal cancer ones (CRC), release high amounts of nanovesicles (exosomes), delivering biochemical messages for paracrine or systemic crosstalk. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to play contradicting roles in tumor progression. Results CRC exosomes induce in cMSCs: i) atypical morphology, higher proliferation, migration and invasion; ii) formation of spheroids; iii) an acidic extracellular environment associated with iv) a plasma membrane redistribution of vacuolar H+-ATPase and increased expression of CEA. Colon cancer derived MSCs, which were isolated from tumor masses, produce umbilicated spheroids, a future frequently observed in the inner core of rapidly growing tumors and recapitulate the changes observed in normal colonic MSCs exposed to CRC exosomes. Materials and Methods Tissue specific colonic (c)MSCs were exposed to primary or metastatic CRC exosomes and analysed by light and electron microscopy, proliferation in 2D and 3D cultures, migration and invasion assays, Western blot and confocal microscopy for vacuolar H+-ATPase expression. Conclusions CRC exosomes are able to induce morphological and functional changes in colonic MSCs, which may favour tumor growth and its malignant progression. Our results suggest that exosomes are actively involved in cancer progression and that inhibiting tumor exosome release may represent a way to interfere with cancer. PMID:27418137

  10. Spindle Shaped Human Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells from Amniotic Fluid Promote Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Pappa, Kalliopi I.; Anagnou, Nicholas P.; Watt, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Human amniotic fluid obtained at amniocentesis, when cultured, generates at least two morphologically distinct mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) subsets. Of these, the spindle shaped amniotic fluid MSCs (SS-AF-MSCs) contain multipotent cells with enhanced adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic capacity. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, the capacity of these SS-AF-MSCs to support neovascularization by umbilical cord blood (UCB) endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC) derived cells in both in vitro and in vivo models. Interestingly, although the kinetics of vascular tubule formation in vitro were similar when the supporting SS-AF-MSCs were compared with the best vasculogenic supportive batches of bone marrow MSCs (BMSCs) or human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs), SS-AF-MSCs supported vascular tubule formation in vivo more effectively than BMSCs. In NOD/SCID mice, the human vessels inosculated with murine vessels demonstrating their functionality. Proteome profiler array analyses revealed both common and distinct secretion profiles of angiogenic factors by the SS-AF-MSCs as opposed to the hDFs and BMSCs. Thus, SS-AF-MSCs, which are considered to be less mature developmentally than adult BMSCs, and intermediate between adult and embryonic stem cells in their potentiality, have the additional and very interesting potential of supporting increased neovascularisation, further enhancing their promise as vehicles for tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:23359810

  11. Comparative analysis of reference gene stability in human mesenchymal stromal cells during osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Angela; Rauh, Juliane; Bernstein, Peter; Liebers, Cornelia; Zou, Xuenong; Stiehler, Maik

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are one of the most frequently used cell sources for tissue engineering strategies. Cultivation of osteogenic MSCs is a prerequisite for cell-based concepts that aim at bone regeneration. Quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis is a commonly used method for the examination of mRNA expression levels. However, data on suitable reference genes for osteogenically cultivated MSCs is scarce. Hence, the aim of the study was to compare the regulation of different potential reference genes in osteogenically stimulated MSCs. Human MSCs were isolated from bone marrow aspirates of N = 6 hematologically healthy individuals, expanded by polystyrene-adherence, and maintained with and without osteogenic supplements for 14 days. Cellular proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were assessed by total DNA quantification, cell-specific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and by qualitative staining for ALP and alizarin red, respectively. mRNA expression levels of N = 32 potential reference genes were quantified using the human Endogenous Control TaqMan® assays. mRNA expression stability was calculated using geNorm. The combined use of the most stable reference genes and DNA-damage-inducible alpha, Pumilio homolog 1, and large ribosomal protein P0 significantly improved gene expression accuracy as compared to the use of the commonly used reference genes beta actin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase during qRT-PCR-based target gene expression analysis of osteogenically stimulated MSCs. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  12. Efficient intracytoplasmic labeling of human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells with ferumoxides.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Kwon; Lee, Man Kyoung; Jin, Hye Jin; Kim, Dal-Soo; Yang, Yoon Sun; Oh, Wonil; Yang, Sung-Eun; Park, Tae Seok; Lee, Soo Yeol; Kim, Bum-Soo; Jeun, Sin-Soo

    2007-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells found in several adult tissues; they have the capacity to differentiate into mesodermal, ectodermal, and endodermal tissues in vitro. There have been several reports that MSCs have therapeutic effects in a variety of diseases. Therefore, using a cell labeling technique, monitoring their temporal and spatial migration in vivo, would be useful in the clinical setting. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)--tracking of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled cells--is a noninvasive technique for determining the location and migration of transplanted cells. In the present study, we evaluated the influence and toxicity of SPIO (ferumoxides) labeling on multiple differentiated MSCs. To evaluate the influence and toxicity of ferumoxides labeling on differentiation of MSCs, a variety of concentrations of ferumoxides were used for labeling MSCs. We found that the cytoplasm of adherent cells was effectively labeled at low concentrations of ferumoxides. Compared with unlabeled controls, the ferumoxides-labeled MSCs exhibited a similar proliferation rate and apoptotic progression. The labeled MSCs differentiated into osteoblasts and adipocytes in an identical fashion as the unlabeled cells. However, chondrogenesis and neurogenesis were inhibited at high concentrations of ferumoxides. Our results suggest the effective concentration for ferumoxides use in tracking MSCs.

  13. Despite differential gene expression profiles pediatric MDS derived mesenchymal stromal cells display functionality in vitro.

    PubMed

    Calkoen, F G J; Vervat, C; van Pel, M; de Haas, V; Vijfhuizen, L S; Eising, E; Kroes, W G M; 't Hoen, P A C; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; Egeler, R M; van Tol, M J D; Ball, L M

    2015-03-01

    Pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous disease covering a spectrum ranging from aplasia (RCC) to myeloproliferation (RAEB(t)). In adult-type MDS there is increasing evidence for abnormal function of the bone-marrow microenvironment. Here, we extensively studied the mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from children with MDS. MSCs were expanded from the bone-marrow of 17 MDS patients (RCC: n=10 and advanced MDS: n=7) and pediatric controls (n=10). No differences were observed with respect to phenotype, differentiation capacity, immunomodulatory capacity or hematopoietic support. mRNA expression analysis by Deep-SAGE revealed increased IL-6 expression in RCC- and RAEB(t)-MDS. RCC-MDS MSC expressed increased levels of DKK3, a protein associated with decreased apoptosis. RAEB(t)-MDS revealed increased CRLF1 and decreased DAPK1 expressions. This pattern has been associated with transformation in hematopoietic malignancies. Genes reported to be differentially expressed in adult MDS-MSC did not differ between MSC of pediatric MDS and controls. An altered mRNA expression profile, associated with cell survival and malignant transformation, of MSC derived from children with MDS strengthens the hypothesis that the micro-environment is of importance in this disease. Our data support the understanding that pediatric and adult MDS are two different diseases. Further evaluation of the pathways involved might reveal additional therapy targets.

  14. Zoledronic acid in vivo increases in vitro proliferation of rat mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Heino, Terhi J; Alm, Jessica J; Halkosaari, Heikki J; Välimäki, Ville-Valtteri

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Bisphosphonates are widely used in the treatment of bone loss, but they might also have positive effects on osteoblastic cells and bone formation. We evaluated the effect of in vivo zoledronic acid (ZA) treatment and possible concomitant effects of ZA and fracture on the ex vivo osteogenic capacity of rat mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Methods A closed femoral fracture model was used in adult female rats and ZA was administered as a single bolus or as weekly doses up to 8 weeks. Bone marrow MSCs were isolated and cultured for in vitro analyses. Fracture healing was evaluated by radiography, micro-computed tomography (μCT), and histology. Results Both bolus and weekly ZA increased fracture-site bone mineral content and volume. MSCs from weekly ZA-treated animals showed increased ex vivo proliferative capacity, while no substantial effect on osteoblastic differentiation was observed. Fracture itself did not have any substantial effect on cell proliferation or differentiation at 8 weeks. Serum biochemical markers showed higher levels of bone formation in animals with fracture than in intact animals, while no difference in bone resorption was observed. Interestingly, ex vivo osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs was found to correlate with in vivo serum bone markers. Interpretation Our data show that in vivo zoledronic acid treatment can influence ex vivo proliferation of MSCs, indicating that bisphosphonates can have sustainable effects on cells of the osteoblastic lineage. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms. PMID:27196705

  15. Human turbinate mesenchymal stromal cell sheets with bellows graft for rapid tracheal epithelial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Hun; Park, Ju Young; Nam, Inn-Chul; Hwang, Se-Hwan; Kim, Choung-Soo; Jung, Jin Woo; Jang, Jinah; Lee, Hyungseok; Choi, Yeongjin; Park, Sun Hwa; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-10-01

    Rapid functional epithelial regeneration on the luminal surface is essential when using artificial tracheal grafts to repair tracheal defects. In this study, we imposed human turbinate mesenchymal stromal cell (hTMSC) sheets for tracheal epithelial regeneration, and then assessed their potential as a new clinical cell source. In vitro, hTMSCs sheets showed high capacity to differentiate into tracheal epithelium. We fabricated a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) tracheal graft by indirect three-dimensional (3D) printing technique and created a composite construct by transplanting the hTMSC sheets to its luminal surface of the tracheal graft, then applied this tissue-engineered tracheal graft to non-circumferential tracheal reconstruction in a rabbit model. 4 weeks after implantation, the luminal surface of tissue-engineered tracheal graft was covered by a mature and highly-ciliated epithelium, whereas tracheal grafts without hTMSC sheets were covered by only a thin, immature epithelium. Therefore, hTMSC sheets on the luminal surface of a tissue-engineered tracheal graft can accelerate the tracheal epithelial regeneration, and the tissue-engineered tracheal graft with hTMSC sheets provides a useful clinical alternative for tracheal epithelial regeneration.

  16. Effect of mild heat stress on the proliferative and differentiative ability of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Choudhery, Mahmood S; Badowski, Michael; Muise, Angela; Harris, David T

    2015-04-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are an attractive candidate for autologous cell therapy, but regenerative potential can be compromised with extensive in vitro cell passaging. Development of viable cell therapies must address the effect of in vitro passaging to maintain overall functionality of expanded MSCs. We examined the effect of repeated mild heat shock on the proliferation and differentiation capability of human adipose-derived MSCs. Adipose tissue MSCs were characterized by means of fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis for expression of CD3, CD14, CD19, CD34, CD44, CD45, CD73, CD90 and CD105. Similarly, the expression of SIRT-1, p16(INK4a) and p21 was determined by means of polymerase chain reaction. Measurements of population doubling, doubling time and superoxide dismutase activity were also determined. Differentiation of expanded MSCs into bone and adipose were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The strategy led to an increase in expression of SIRT-1 concomitant with enhanced viability, proliferation and delayed senescence. The stressed MSCs showed better differentiation into osteoblasts and adipocytes. The results indicate that mild heat shock could be used to maintain MSC proliferative and differentiation potential. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A reduction in CD90 (THY-1) expression results in increased differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Daniela A; Sibov, Tatiana T; Pavon, Lorena F; Alvim, Paula Q; Bonadio, Raphael S; Da Silva, Jaqueline R; Pic-Taylor, Aline; Toledo, Orlando A; Marti, Luciana C; Azevedo, Ricardo B; Oliveira, Daniela M

    2016-07-28

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells used in several cell therapies. MSCs are characterized by the expression of CD73, CD90, and CD105 cell markers, and the absence of CD34, CD45, CD11a, CD19, and HLA-DR cell markers. CD90 is a glycoprotein present in the MSC membranes and also in adult cells and cancer stem cells. The role of CD90 in MSCs remains unknown. Here, we sought to analyse the role that CD90 plays in the characteristic properties of in vitro expanded human MSCs. We investigated the function of CD90 with regard to morphology, proliferation rate, suppression of T-cell proliferation, and osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of MSCs by reducing the expression of this marker using CD90-target small hairpin RNA lentiviral vectors. The present study shows that a reduction in CD90 expression enhances the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro and, unexpectedly, causes a decrease in CD44 and CD166 expression. Our study suggests that CD90 controls the differentiation of MSCs by acting as an obstacle in the pathway of differentiation commitment. This may be overcome in the presence of the correct differentiation stimuli, supporting the idea that CD90 level manipulation may lead to more efficient differentiation rates in vitro.

  18. Isolation, characterization and cardiac differentiation of human thymus tissue derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ze Bang; Qian, Bo; Yang, Yu Zhong; Zhou, Kai; Sun, Jian; Mo, Xu Ming; Wu, Kai Hong

    2015-07-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidate donor cells for replacement of cardiomyocyte loss during ischemia and in vitro generation of myocardial tissue. We have successfully isolated MSCs from the discarded neonatal thymus gland during cardiac surgery. The thymus MSCs were characterized by cell-surface antigen expression. These cells have high ability for proliferation and are able to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes in vitro. For cardiac differentiation, the cells were divided into 3 groups: untreated control; 5-azacytidine group and sequential exposure to 5-azacytidine, bone morphogenetic protein 4, and basic fibroblast growth factor. Thymus MSCs showed a fibrolast-like morphology and some differentiated cells increased in size, formed a ball-like appearance over time and spontaneously contracting cells were observed in sequential exposure group. Immunostaining studies, cardiac specific genes/protein expression confirmed the cardiomyocyte phenotype of the differentiated cells. These results demonstrate that thymus MSCs can be a promising cellular source for cardiac cell therapy and tissue engineering. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Microvesicles from Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Are Involved in HPC-Microenvironment Crosstalk in Myelodysplastic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Muntión, Sandra; Ramos, Teresa L.; Diez-Campelo, María; Rosón, Beatriz; Sánchez-Abarca, Luis Ignacio; Misiewicz-Krzeminska, Irena; Preciado, Silvia; Sarasquete, María-Eugenia; de las Rivas, Javier; González, Marcos; Sánchez-Guijo, Fermín; del Cañizo, María-Consuelo

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes/microvesicles (MVs) provide a mechanism of intercellular communication. Our hypothesis was that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients could modify CD34+ cells properties by MVs. They were isolated from MSC from MDS patients and healthy donors (HD). MVs from 30 low-risk MDS patients and 27 HD were purified by ExoQuick-TC™ or ultracentrifugation and identified by transmission electron microscopy, flow cytometry (FC) and western blot for CD63. Incorporation of MVs into CD34+ cells was analyzed by FC, and confocal and fluorescence microscopy. Changes in hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) properties were assessed from modifications in microRNAs and gene expression in CD34+ cells as well as viability and clonogenic assays of CD34+ cells after MVs incorporation. Some microRNAs were overexpressed in MVs from patients MSC and two of them, miR-10a and miR-15a, were confirmed by RT-PCR. These microRNAs were transferred to CD34+ cells, modifying the expression of MDM2 and P53 genes, which was evaluated by RT-PCR and western blot. Finally, examining CD34+ cells properties after incorporation, higher cell viability (p = 0.025) and clonogenic capacity (p = 0.037) were observed when MVs from MDS patients were incorporated. In summary, we show that BM-MSC release MVs with a different cargo in MDS patients compared with HD. These structures are incorporated into HPC and modify their properties. PMID:26836120

  20. Production of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells according to good manufacturing practices: a review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Because of their multi/pluripotency and immunosuppressive properties, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are important tools for treating immune disorders and for tissue repair. The increasing use of MSCs, their definition as advanced-therapy medicinal products in European regulations, and the US Food and Drug Administration requirements for their production and use imply the use of production processes that should be in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs). Complying with GMPs requires precisely defining the production process (es) as well as the multiple criteria required for a quality final product. Such variables include the environment, staff training and qualification, and controls. Developing processes based on well-defined or completely defined media and operating in closed systems or bioreactors is important and will increase safety and reproducibility. One of the most challenging issues remains implementation of relevant and reproducible controls for safety and efficacy. A linking of researchers, research and development teams, producers, and clinicians is mandatory to achieve GMP-compliant processes with relevant controls for producing well-defined, safe, and efficient MSCs. PMID:23751270

  1. Mechanisms of tumor escape from immune system: role of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Poggi, Alessandro; Musso, Alessandra; Dapino, Irene; Zocchi, Maria Raffaella

    2014-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment represents the site where the tumor tries to survive and escape from immune system-mediated recognition. Indeed, to proliferate tumor cells can divert the immune response inducing the generation of myeloid derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells which can limit the efficiency of effector antitumor lymphocytes in eliminating neoplastic cells. Many components of the tumor microenvironment can serve as a double sword for the tumor and the host. Several types of fibroblast-like cells, which herein we define mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), secrete extracellular matrix components and surrounding the tumor mass can limit the expansion of the tumor. On the other hand, MSC can interfere with the immune recognition of tumor cells producing immunoregulatory cytokines as transforming growth factor (TGF)ß, releasing soluble ligands of the activating receptors expressed on cytolytic effector cells as decoy molecules, affecting the correct interaction among lymphocytes and tumor cells. MSC can also serve as target for the same anti-tumor effector lymphocytes or simply impede the interaction between these lymphocytes and neoplastic cells. Thus, several evidences point out the role of MSC, both in epithelial solid tumors and hematological malignancies, in regulating tumor cell growth and immune response. Herein, we review these evidences and suggest that MSC can be a suitable target for a more efficient anti-tumor therapy.

  2. The osteogenic response of mesenchymal stromal cells to strontium‐substituted bioactive glasses

    PubMed Central

    Santocildes‐Romero, Martin E.; Crawford, Aileen; Goodchild, Rebecca L.; Reaney, Ian M.; Miller, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bioactive glasses are known to stimulate bone healing, and the incorporation of strontium has the potential to increase their potency. In this study, calcium oxide in the 45S5 bioactive glass composition was partially (50%, Sr50) or fully (100%, Sr100) substituted with strontium oxide on a molar basis. The effects of the substitution on bioactive glass properties were studied, including density, solubility, and in vitro cytotoxicity. Stimulation of osteogenic differentiation was investigated using mesenchymal stromal cells obtained from rat bone marrow. Strontium substitution resulted in altered physical properties including increased solubility. Statistically significant reductions in cell viability were observed with the addition of bioactive glass powders to culture medium. Specifically, addition of ≥ 13.3 mg/ml of 45S5 bioactive glass or Sr50, or ≥ 6.7 mg/ml of Sr100, resulted in significant inhibition. Real‐time PCR analyses detected the upregulation of genes associated with osteoblastic differentiation in the presence of all bioactive glass compositions. Some genes, including Alpl and Bglap, were further stimulated in the presence of Sr50 and Sr100. It was concluded that strontium‐substituted bioactive glasses promoted osteogenesis in a differentiating bone cell culture model and, therefore, have considerable potential for use as improved bioactive glasses for bone tissue regeneration. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25757935

  3. Toward Brain Tumor Gene Therapy Using Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Bexell, Daniel; Scheding, Stefan; Bengzon, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy of solid cancers has been severely restricted by the limited distribution of vectors within tumors. However, cellular vectors have emerged as an effective migratory system for gene delivery to invasive cancers. Implanted and injected multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have shown tropism for several types of primary tumors and metastases. This capacity of MSCs forms the basis for their use as a gene vector system in neoplasms. Here, we review the tumor-directed migratory potential of MSCs, mechanisms of the migration, and the choice of therapeutic transgenes, with a focus on malignant gliomas as a model system for invasive and highly vascularized tumors. We examine recent findings demonstrating that MSCs share many characteristics with pericytes and that implanted MSCs localize primarily to perivascular niches within tumors, which might have therapeutic implications. The use of MSC vectors in cancer gene therapy raises concerns, however, including a possible MSC contribution to tumor stroma and vasculature, MSC-mediated antitumor immune suppression, and the potential malignant transformation of cultured MSCs. Nonetheless, we highlight the novel prospects of MSC-based tumor therapy, which appears to be a promising approach. PMID:20407426

  4. Spindle shaped human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from amniotic fluid promote neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Roubelakis, Maria G; Tsaknakis, Grigorios; Pappa, Kalliopi I; Anagnou, Nicholas P; Watt, Suzanne M

    2013-01-01

    Human amniotic fluid obtained at amniocentesis, when cultured, generates at least two morphologically distinct mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) subsets. Of these, the spindle shaped amniotic fluid MSCs (SS-AF-MSCs) contain multipotent cells with enhanced adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic capacity. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, the capacity of these SS-AF-MSCs to support neovascularization by umbilical cord blood (UCB) endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC) derived cells in both in vitro and in vivo models. Interestingly, although the kinetics of vascular tubule formation in vitro were similar when the supporting SS-AF-MSCs were compared with the best vasculogenic supportive batches of bone marrow MSCs (BMSCs) or human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs), SS-AF-MSCs supported vascular tubule formation in vivo more effectively than BMSCs. In NOD/SCID mice, the human vessels inosculated with murine vessels demonstrating their functionality. Proteome profiler array analyses revealed both common and distinct secretion profiles of angiogenic factors by the SS-AF-MSCs as opposed to the hDFs and BMSCs. Thus, SS-AF-MSCs, which are considered to be less mature developmentally than adult BMSCs, and intermediate between adult and embryonic stem cells in their potentiality, have the additional and very interesting potential of supporting increased neovascularisation, further enhancing their promise as vehicles for tissue repair and regeneration.

  5. Platelet-derived growth factors for GMP-compliant propagation of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Schallmoser, Katharina; Rohde, Eva; Bartmann, Christina; Obenauf, Anna C; Reinisch, Andreas; Strunk, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapies are a promising prospect for regenerative medicine. Particularly, human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are currently in focus regarding their regenerative and immune modulating capacities. An increasing number of clinical trials investigating MSC efficiency and safety are ongoing. Ex vivo propagation of human MSCs is considered to be a prerequisite for MSC therapy. The to date standard use of fetal bovine serum in cell culture bears risks including xenoimmunization and transmission of pathogens. Alternatively, human platelet-derived growth factors have been efficiently implemented into routine MSC expansion protocols. In compliance with good manufacturing practice we established an effective time- and resource-saving procedure for MSC propagation in an animal serum-free system. Bone marrow was seeded without manipulation directly in pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) and L-glutamine supplemented minimum essential medium without antibiotics. Clinical scale expanded MSCs were harvested already after primary culture. MSC quality, identity, purity and function were assessed according to a defined panel of release criteria and comparative genomic hybridization was used to determine genomic stability. Because various potential risks of MSCs have recently been reported, further research is required to prove efficiency and long-term safety of human MSCs for cell therapy.

  6. Mesenchymal stromal cell implantation for stimulation of long bone healing aggravates Staphylococcus aureus induced osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Seebach, Elisabeth; Holschbach, Jeannine; Buchta, Nicole; Bitsch, Rudi Georg; Kleinschmidt, Kerstin; Richter, Wiltrud

    2015-07-01

    Large bone defects requiring long-term osteosynthetic stabilization or repeated surgeries show a considerable rate of infection. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been successfully used to enhance bone regeneration, but their powerful immunomodulatory effects may impose an enhanced risk for osteomyelitis development. In order to unravel whether implantation of MSCs aggravates a simultaneous bone infection, a hydrogel-supported osteomyelitis ostectomy model was developed in which rats received a femoral bone defect with rigid plate-fixation. After fibrin-assisted transfer of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), effects of MSC implantation on osteomyelitis development were quantified over 3-4 weeks. All SA-infected animals developed an acute local osteomyelitis with significantly increased blood neutrophil count, abscess formation and bone destruction. MSC-treatment of infected defects aggravated osteomyelitis according to a significantly elevated osteomyelitis score and enhanced distal bone loss with spongy alteration of cortical bone architecture. Increased attraction of macrophages, osteoclasts and regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators were potential MSC actions. Overall trophic actions of MSCs implanted into non-sterile bone defects may enhance an infection and/or exacerbate osteomyelitis. Studies on antibiotic carrier augmentation or antibiotic treatment are warranted to decide whether MSC implantation is a safe and promising therapy for orthopedic implant-stabilized bone defects at high risk for development of infection.

  7. Transcriptomic Analyses of Adipocyte Differentiation From Human Mesenchymal Stromal-Cells (MSC).

    PubMed

    Casado-Díaz, Antonio; Anter, Jaouad; Müller, Sören; Winter, Peter; Quesada-Gómez, José Manuel; Dorado, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    Adipogenesis is a physiological process required for fat-tissue development, mainly involved in regulating the organism energetic-state. Abnormal distribution-changes and dysfunctions in such tissue are associated to different pathologies. Adipocytes are generated from progenitor cells, via a complex differentiating process not yet well understood. Therefore, we investigated differential mRNA and miRNA expression patterns of human mesenchymal stromal-cells (MSC) induced and not induced to differentiate into adipocytes by next (second)-generation sequencing. A total of 2,866 differentially expressed genes (101 encoding miRNA) were identified, with 705 (46 encoding miRNA) being upregulated in adipogenesis. They were related to different pathways, including PPARG, lipid, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, redox, membrane-organelle biosynthesis, and endocrine system. Downregulated genes were related to extracellular matrix and cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Analyses of mRNA-miRNA interaction showed that repressed miRNA-encoding genes can act downregulating PPARG-related genes; mostly the PPARG activator (PPARGC1A). Induced miRNA-encoding genes regulate downregulated genes related to TGFB1. These results shed new light to understand adipose-tissue differentiation and physiology, increasing our knowledge about pathologies like obesity, type-2 diabetes and osteoporosis. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 771-784, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Packed Bed Bioreactor for the Isolation and Expansion of Placental-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Osiecki, Michael J.; Michl, Thomas D.; Kul Babur, Betul; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Atkinson, Kerry; Lott, William B.; Griesser, Hans J.; Doran, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Large numbers of Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are required for clinical relevant doses to treat a number of diseases. To economically manufacture these MSCs, an automated bioreactor system will be required. Herein we describe the development of a scalable closed-system, packed bed bioreactor suitable for large-scale MSCs expansion. The packed bed was formed from fused polystyrene pellets that were air plasma treated to endow them with a surface chemistry similar to traditional tissue culture plastic. The packed bed was encased within a gas permeable shell to decouple the medium nutrient supply and gas exchange. This enabled a significant reduction in medium flow rates, thus reducing shear and even facilitating single pass medium exchange. The system was optimised in a small-scale bioreactor format (160 cm2) with murine-derived green fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs, and then scaled-up to a 2800 cm2 format. We demonstrated that placental derived MSCs could be isolated directly within the bioreactor and subsequently expanded. Our results demonstrate that the closed system large-scale packed bed bioreactor is an effective and scalable tool for large-scale isolation and expansion of MSCs. PMID:26660475

  9. The role of mesenchymal stromal cells in spinal cord injury, regenerative medicine and possible clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Forostyak, Serhiy; Jendelova, Pavla; Sykova, Eva

    2013-12-01

    Diseases of the central nervous system still remain among the most challenging pathologies known to mankind, having no or limited therapeutic possibilities and a very pessimistic prognosis. Advances in stem cell biology in the last decade have shown that stem cells might provide an inexhaustible source of neurons and glia as well as exerting a neuroprotective effect on the host tissue, thus opening new horizons for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Here, we discuss the progress made in the cell-based therapy of spinal cord injury. An emphasis has been placed on the application of adult mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). We then review the latest and most significant results from in vitro and in vivo research focusing on the regenerative/neuroprotective properties of MSCs. We also attempt to correlate the effect of MSCs with the pathological events that are taking place in the nervous tissue after SCI. Finally, we discuss the results from preclinical and clinical trials involving different routes of MSC application into patients with neurological disorders of the spinal cord.

  10. Forskolin enhances in vivo bone formation by human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Doorn, Joyce; Siddappa, Ramakrishnaiah; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; de Boer, Jan

    2012-03-01

    Activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway with dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (db-cAMP) was recently shown to enhance osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) in vitro and bone formation in vivo. The major drawback of this compound is its inhibitory effect on proliferation of hMSCs. Therefore, we investigated whether fine-tuning of the dose and timing of PKA activation could enhance bone formation even further, with minimum effects on proliferation. To test this, we selected two different PKA activators (8-bromo-cAMP (8-br-cAMP) and forskolin) and compared their effects on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation with those of db-cAMP. We found that all three compounds induced alkaline phosphatase levels, bone-specific target genes, and secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1, although 8-br-cAMP induced adipogenic differentiation in long-term cultures and was thus considered unsuitable for further in vivo testing. All three compounds inhibited proliferation of hMSCs in a dose-dependent manner, with forskolin inhibiting proliferation most. The effect of forskolin on in vivo bone formation was tested by pretreating hMSCs before implantation, and we observed greater amounts of bone using forskolin than db-cAMP. Our data show forskolin to be a novel agent that can be used to increase bone formation and also suggests a role for PKA in the delicate balance between adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation.

  11. TNFα-activated mesenchymal stromal cells promote breast cancer metastasis by recruiting CXCR2(+) neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Yu, P F; Huang, Y; Han, Y Y; Lin, L Y; Sun, W H; Rabson, A B; Wang, Y; Shi, Y F

    2017-01-26

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) tend to infiltrate into tumors and form a major component of the tumor microenvironment. Our previous work demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-activated MSCs significantly promoted tumor growth. However, the role of TNFα-treated MSCs in tumor metastasis remains elusive. Employing a lung metastasis model of murine breast cancer, we found that TNFα-activated MSCs strikingly enhanced tumor metastasis compared with normal MSCs. We analyzed the chemokine profiles and found that the expression of CCL5, CCR2 and CXCR2 ligands were enhanced in TNFα-activated MSCs. Using genetic or pharmacological strategies to inhibit CCL5 or CCR2, we demonstrated that CCL5 and CCR2 ligands were indispensable in supporting TNFα-activated MSCs to promote tumor metastasis. Analysis of immune cells revealed that CXCR2 ligands (CXCL1, CXCL 2 and CXCL5) expressed by TNFα-activated MSCs efficiently recruited CXCR2(+) neutrophils into tumor. These neutrophils were responsible for the pro-metastatic effect of MSCs since inhibition of this chemotaxis abolished increased neutrophil recruitment and tumor metastasis. The interaction between neutrophils and tumor cells resulted in markedly elevated metastasis-related genes by tumor cells, including CXCR4, CXCR7, MMP12, MMP13, IL-6 and TGFβ. Importantly, in IL8(high) human breast cancer samples, we also observed similar alterations of gene expression. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that TNFα-activated MSCs promote tumor metastasis via CXCR2(+) neutrophil recruitment.

  12. The therapeutic potential of three-dimensional multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell spheroids.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Yuriy; Syková, Eva; Kubinová, Šárka

    2017-04-26

    The efficiency of clinical trials involving transplantation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is often insufficient due to harsh conditions present within the target tissue including hypoxia, low nutrient supply as well as inflammatory reactions. This indicates the necessity for optimization of cell-based therapy approaches which might include either modification of the cell manufacturing process or specific cell pretreatment procedures prior to transplantation. Recent reports confirm evidence that the aggregation of MSCs into three-dimensional (3D) multicellular spheroids results in enhancement of the overall therapeutic potential of cells, by improving the anti-inflammatory and angiogenic properties, stemness and survival of MSCs after transplantation. Such an MSCs spheroid generation approach may open new opportunities for the enlargement of MSCs applications in clinical research and therapy. However, the unification and optimization of 3D spheroid generation techniques, including the selection of appropriate clinical-grade culture conditions and methods for their large-scale production, are still of great importance. The current review addresses questions regarding therapeutic-associated properties of 3D multicellular MSCs spheroids in vitro and during preclinical animal studies, with special attention to the possibilities of translating these research achievements toward further clinical manufacturing and applications.

  13. Mesenchymal stromal cells; role in tissue repair, drug discovery and immune modulation.

    PubMed

    English, Karen; Mahon, Bernard P; Wood, Kathryn J

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) participate in repair of damaged tissues, possess the potential to serve as a useful tool in the drug discovery field and exert immunosuppressive effects as demonstrated by their ability to modulate the immune response. Herein, the roles played by MSC differentiation and/or production of trophic factors involved in tissue repair are discussed. MSCs offer the opportunity to probe targets that conventional or differentiated cell lines do not express; thus providing a more refined system that allows identification of novel therapeutics. However, there are difficulties associated with drug discovery assays to which MSCs are not exempt. The immunosuppressive potential of MSCs has already been utilised in clinical trials where MSCs have been used to treat patients with graft- versus- host disease (GvHD) and autoimmune diseases. Another possible therapeutic application of MSCs lies in the field of transplantation tolerance. Although the capacity of MSCs to modulate immune responses has received much attention, the role of MSCs in transplantation tolerance is as yet unclear. In this review, we discuss the evidence for MSC induction of a state of tolerance in the transplantation setting.

  14. Developmental Reprogramming in Mesenchymal Stromal Cells of Human Subjects with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Diptiman; Kurundkar, Ashish; Rangarajan, Sunad; Locy, Morgan; Bernard, Karen; Sharma, Nirmal S.; Logsdon, Naomi J.; Liu, Hui; Crossman, David K.; Horowitz, Jeffrey C.; De Langhe, Stijn; Thannickal, Victor J.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular plasticity and de-differentiation are hallmarks of tissue/organ regenerative capacity in diverse species. Despite a more restricted capacity for regeneration, humans with age-related chronic diseases, such as cancer and fibrosis, show evidence of a recapitulation of developmental gene programs. We have previously identified a resident population of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the terminal airways-alveoli by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of human adult lungs. In this study, we characterized MSCs from BAL of patients with stable and progressive idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), defined as <5% and ≥10% decline, respectively, in forced vital capacity over the preceding 6-month period. Gene expression profiles of MSCs from IPF subjects with progressive disease were enriched for genes regulating lung development. Most notably, genes regulating early tissue patterning and branching morphogenesis were differentially regulated. Network interactive modeling of a set of these genes indicated central roles for TGF-β and SHH signaling. Importantly, fibroblast growth factor-10 (FGF-10) was markedly suppressed in IPF subjects with progressive disease, and both TGF-β1 and SHH signaling were identified as critical mediators of this effect in MSCs. These findings support the concept of developmental gene re-activation in IPF, and FGF-10 deficiency as a potentially critical factor in disease progression. PMID:27869174

  15. The osteogenic response of mesenchymal stromal cells to strontium-substituted bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Santocildes-Romero, Martin E; Crawford, Aileen; Hatton, Paul V; Goodchild, Rebecca L; Reaney, Ian M; Miller, Cheryl A

    2015-05-01

    Bioactive glasses are known to stimulate bone healing, and the incorporation of strontium has the potential to increase their potency. In this study, calcium oxide in the 45S5 bioactive glass composition was partially (50%, Sr50) or fully (100%, Sr100) substituted with strontium oxide on a molar basis. The effects of the substitution on bioactive glass properties were studied, including density, solubility, and in vitro cytotoxicity. Stimulation of osteogenic differentiation was investigated using mesenchymal stromal cells obtained from rat bone marrow. Strontium substitution resulted in altered physical properties including increased solubility. Statistically significant reductions in cell viability were observed with the addition of bioactive glass powders to culture medium. Specifically, addition of ≥ 13.3 mg/ml of 45S5 bioactive glass or Sr50, or ≥ 6.7 mg/ml of Sr100, resulted in significant inhibition. Real-time PCR analyses detected the upregulation of genes associated with osteoblastic differentiation in the presence of all bioactive glass compositions. Some genes, including Alpl and Bglap, were further stimulated in the presence of Sr50 and Sr100. It was concluded that strontium-substituted bioactive glasses promoted osteogenesis in a differentiating bone cell culture model and, therefore, have considerable potential for use as improved bioactive glasses for bone tissue regeneration.

  16. Efficient expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells in a disposable fixed bed culture system.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Amanda; Orellana, Maristela D; Caruso, Sâmia R; de Lima Prata, Karen; Covas, Dimas T; Swiech, Kamilla

    2013-01-01

    The need for efficient and reliable technologies for clinical-scale expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) has led to the use of disposable bioreactors and culture systems. Here, we evaluate the expansion of cord blood-derived MSC in a disposable fixed bed culture system. Starting from an initial cell density of 6.0 × 10(7) cells, after 7 days of culture, it was possible to produce of 4.2(±0.8) × 10(8) cells, which represents a fold increase of 7.0 (±1.4). After enzymatic retrieval from Fibra-Cell disks, the cells were able to maintain their potential for differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes and were positive for many markers common to MSC (CD73, CD90, and CD105). The results obtained in this study demonstrate that MSC can be efficiently expanded in the culture system. This novel approach presents several advantages over the current expansion systems, based on culture flasks or microcarrier-based spinner flasks and represents a key element for MSC cellular therapy according to GMP compliant clinical-scale production system.

  17. Production of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells according to good manufacturing practices: a review.

    PubMed

    Sensebé, Luc; Gadelorge, Mélanie; Fleury-Cappellesso, Sandrine

    2013-06-07

    Because of their multi/pluripotency and immunosuppressive properties, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are important tools for treating immune disorders and for tissue repair. The increasing use of MSCs, their definition as advanced-therapy medicinal products in European regulations, and the US Food and Drug Administration requirements for their production and use imply the use of production processes that should be in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs). Complying with GMPs requires precisely defining the production process (es) as well as the multiple criteria required for a quality final product. Such variables include the environment, staff training and qualification, and controls. Developing processes based on well-defined or completely defined media and operating in closed systems or bioreactors is important and will increase safety and reproducibility. One of the most challenging issues remains implementation of relevant and reproducible controls for safety and efficacy. A linking of researchers, research and development teams, producers, and clinicians is mandatory to achieve GMP-compliant processes with relevant controls for producing well-defined, safe, and efficient MSCs.

  18. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells-a key mediator for regeneration after perinatal morbidity?

    PubMed

    Mueller, Martin; Wolfs, Tim G A; Schoeberlein, Andreina; Gavilanes, Antonio W D; Surbek, Daniel; Kramer, Boris W

    2016-12-01

    Perinatal complications in both term- and preterm-born infants are a leading cause of neonatal morbidities and mortality. Infants face different challenges in the neonatal intensive care unit with long-term morbidities such as perinatal brain injury and bronchopulmonary dysplasia being particularly devastating. While advances in perinatal medicine have improved our understanding of the pathogenesis, effective therapies to prevent and/or reduce the severity of these disorders are still lacking. The potential of mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) therapy has emerged during the last two decades, and an increasing effort is conducted to address brain- and lung-related morbidities in neonates at risk. Various studies support the notion that MSCs have protective effects. MSCs are an easy source and may be readily available after birth in a clinical setting. MSCs' mechanisms of action are diverse, including migration and homing, release of growth factors and immunomodulation, and the potential to replace injured cells. Here, we review the pathophysiology of perinatally acquired brain and lung injuries and focus on MSCs as potential candidates for therapeutic strategies summarizing preclinical and clinical evidence.

  19. Tumour cell-derived exosomes endow mesenchymal stromal cells with tumour-promotion capabilities.

    PubMed

    Lin, L Y; Du, L M; Cao, K; Huang, Y; Yu, P F; Zhang, L Y; Li, F Y; Wang, Y; Shi, Y F

    2016-11-17

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a major component of the tumour microenvironment. A plethora of elegant studies focusing on tumour-derived MSCs have shown that they, unlike normal MSCs in other tissue, exhibit a strong ability to promote tumour progression. However, the mechanisms underlying the conversion of normal MSCs into tumour-associated MSCs are unknown. We report here a critical role of tumour cell-derived exosomes in endowing bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) with a tumour-favourable phenotype. Tumour cell-derived exosomes affected neither the growth factor production nor the immunosuppressive property of MSCs; rather, they endowed MSCs with a strong ability to promote macrophage infiltration into B16-F0 melanoma or EL-4 lymphoma. Ablation of macrophages by clodronate liposome administration reversed the tumour-promoting effect of MSCs educated by tumour cell-derived exosomes (TE-MSCs) on the tumour growth. By comparing the chemokine profile of BM-MSCs with that of TE-MSCs, we found that TE-MSCs produced a large amount of CCR2 ligands, CCL2 and CCL7, which are responsible for macrophage recruitment. CCR2-specific inhibitor was found to block the tumour-promoting effect of TE-MSCs. Thus, our investigations demonstrated that tumour cell-derived exosomes confer BM-MSCs the ability to enhance tumour growth. Therefore, we uncovered a novel mechanism underlying the conversion of normal MSCs to tumour-associated MSCs.

  20. Osteocalcin Mediates Biomineralization during Osteogenic Maturation in Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Yu-Tzu; Huang, Yi-Jeng; Wu, Hao-Hsiang; Liu, Yu-An; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Lee, Oscar K.

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in cell therapies using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for repairing bone defects. MSCs have the ability to differentiate into osteoprogenitors and osteoblasts as well as to form calcified bone matrix. However, the molecular mechanisms governing mineralization during osteogenic differentiation remain unclear. Non-collagenous proteins in the extracellular matrix are believed to control different aspects of the mineralization. Since osteocalcin is the most abundant non-collagenous bone matrix protein, the purpose of this study is to investigate the roles of osteocalcin in mineral species production during osteogenesis of MSCs. Using Raman spectroscopy, we found that the maturation of mineral species was affected by osteocalcin expression level. After osteocalcin was knocked down, the mineral species maturation was delayed and total hydroxyapatite was lower than the control group. In addition, the expression of osteogenic marker genes, including RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, and osteonectin, was downregulated during osteogenic differentiation compared to the control group; whereas gene expression of osterix was upregulated after the knockdown. Together, osteocalcin plays an essential role for the maturation of mineral species and modulates osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. The results offer new insights into the enhancement of new bone formation, such as for the treatments of osteoporosis and fracture healing. PMID:28106724

  1. Bio- chemical and physical characterizations of mesenchymal stromal cells along the time course of directed differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yin-Quan; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Liu, Yu-An; Wu, Yi-Chang; del Álamo, Juan C.; Chiou, Arthur; Lee, Oscar K.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular biophysical properties are novel biomarkers of cell phenotypes which may reflect the status of differentiating stem cells. Accurate characterizations of cellular biophysical properties, in conjunction with the corresponding biochemical properties could help to distinguish stem cells from primary cells, cancer cells, and differentiated cells. However, the correlated evolution of these properties in the course of directed stem cells differentiation has not been well characterized. In this study, we applied video particle tracking microrheology (VPTM) to measure intracellular viscoelasticity of differentiating human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hMSCs). Our results showed that osteogenesis not only increased both elastic and viscous moduli, but also converted the intracellular viscoelasticity of differentiating hMSCs from viscous-like to elastic-like. In contrast, adipogenesis decreased both elastic and viscous moduli while hMSCs remained viscous-like during the differentiation. In conjunction with bio- chemical and physical parameters, such as gene expression profiles, cell morphology, and cytoskeleton arrangement, we demonstrated that VPTM is a unique approach to quantify, with high data throughput, the maturation level of differentiating hMSCs and to anticipate their fate decisions. This approach is well suited for time-lapsed study of the mechanobiology of differentiating stem cells especially in three dimensional physico-chemical biomimetic environments including porous scaffolds. PMID:27526936

  2. Increased proliferation and chemosensitivity of human mesenchymal stromal cells expressing fusion yeast cytosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Kucerova, Lucia; Poturnajova, Martina; Tyciakova, Silvia; Matuskova, Miroslava

    2012-03-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are considered to be suitable vehicles for cellular therapy in various conditions. The expression of reporter and/or effector protein(s) enabled both the identification of MSCs within the organism and the exploitation in targeted tumor therapies. The aim of this study was to evaluate cellular changes induced by retrovirus-mediated transgene expression in MSCs in vitro. Human Adipose Tissue-derived MSCs (AT-MSCs) were transduced to express (i) the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter transgene, (ii) the fusion yeast cytosine deaminase::uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (CDy::UPRT) enzyme along with the expression of dominant positive selection gene NeoR or (iii) the selection marker NeoR alone (MOCK). CDy::UPRT expression resulted in increased proliferation of CDy::UPRT-MSCs versus naïve AT-MSCs, MOCK-MSCs or EGFP-MSCs. Furthermore, CDy::UPRT-MSCs were significantly more sensitive to 5-fluorouracil (5FU), cisplatin, cyclophosphamide and cytosine arabinoside as determined by increased Caspase 3/7 activation and/or decreased relative proliferation. CDy::UPRT-MSCs in direct cocultures with breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 increased tumor cell killing induced by low concentrations of 5FU. Our data demonstrated the changes in proliferation and chemoresistance in engineered MSCs expressing transgene with enzymatic function and suggested the possibilities for further augmentation of targeted MSC-mediated antitumor therapy.

  3. Chemical nanoroughening of Ti40Nb surfaces and its effect on human mesenchymal stromal cell response.

    PubMed

    Helth, A; Gostin, P F; Oswald, S; Wendrock, H; Wolff, U; Hempel, U; Arnhold, S; Calin, M; Eckert, J; Gebert, A

    2014-01-01

    Samples of low modulus beta-type Ti40Nb and cp2-Ti were chemically treated with 98% H2 SO4 + 30% H2 O2 (vol. ratio 1:1) solution. Surface analytical studies conducted with HR-SEM, AFM, and XPS identified a characteristic nanoroughness of the alloy surface related with a network of nanopits of ∼25 nm diameter. This is very similar to that obtained for cp2-Ti. The treatment enhances the oxide layer growth compared to mechanically ground states and causes a strong enrichment of Nb2 O5 relative to TiO2 on the alloy surface. The in vitro analyses clearly indicated that the chemical treatment accelerates the adhesion and spreading of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC), increases the metabolic activity, and the enzyme activity of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). Surface structures which were generated mimic the cytoplasmic projections of the cells on the nanoscale. Those effects are more pronounced for the Ti40Nb alloy than for cp2-Ti. The relation between alloy surface topography and chemistry and cell functions is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Phenotypic and Cytogenetic Characterization of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in De Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Goonasekera, H. W. W.

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are vital in hematopoiesis. Whether BM-MSCs alter their characteristics in Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) is still controversial. We characterized MSCs of de novo MDS patients in Sri Lanka who have not been reported previously in the literature. We also analyzed MSCs derived from different MDS subtypes. MSCs were culture-expanded, characterized by flow cytometry, and induced towards osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Growth properties were determined using growth curves and population doubling times. Karyotyping and FISH were performed on MSCs. Cell morphology, differentiation potential, and CD marker expression of MDS-MSCs of all subtypes were comparable to those of control-MSCs. No significant growth differences were observed between control MSCs and MDS-MSCs of all subtypes (p > 0.05). 31% of MDS-MSCs had chromosomal aberrations (der(3),del(6q),del(7p), loss of chromosomes) whose BM karyotypes were normal. Highest percentage of karyotypic abnormalities was observed in RCMD-MSCs. Patients with abnormal BM karyotypes had no aberrant MSC clones. Results show that in spite of presence of genetically abnormal clones in MDS-MSC populations, in vitro phenotypic and growth characteristics of MSCs in MDS remain unchanged. Further, the occurrence of genetic abnormalities in BM-MSCs in MDS could be considered as an autonomous event from that of their hematopoietic counterparts. PMID:27660743

  5. Mesenchymal stromal-cell transplants induce oligodendrocyte progenitor migration and remyelination in a chronic demyelination model.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Merchán, J; Jones, J; Ivorra, J L; Pastor, D; Viso-León, M C; Armengól, J A; Moltó, M D; Geijo-Barrientos, E; Martínez, S

    2013-08-29

    Demyelinating disorders such as leukodystrophies and multiple sclerosis are neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the progressive loss of myelin that may lead toward a chronic demyelination of the brain's white matter, impairing normal axonal conduction velocity and ultimately causing neurodegeneration. Current treatments modifying the pathological mechanisms are capable of ameliorating the disease; however, frequently, these therapies are not sufficient to repress the progressive demyelination into a chronic condition and permanent loss of function. To this end, we analyzed the effect that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (BM-MSC) grafts exert in a chronically demyelinated mouse brain. As a result, oligodendrocyte progenitors were recruited surrounding the graft due to the expression of various trophic signals by the grafted MSCs. Although there was no significant reaction in the non-grafted side, in the grafted regions oligodendrocyte progenitors were detected. These progenitors were derived from the nearby tissue as well as from the neurogenic niches, including the subependymal zone and dentate gyrus. Once near the graft site, the cells matured to myelinating oligodendrocytes. Finally, electrophysiological studies demonstrated that axonal conduction velocity was significantly increased in the grafted side of the fimbria. In conclusion, we demonstrate here that in chronic demyelinated white matter, BM-MSC transplantation activates oligodendrocyte progenitors and induces remyelination in the tissue surrounding the stem cell graft.

  6. The molecular signature of AML mesenchymal stromal cells reveals candidate genes related to the leukemogenic process.

    PubMed

    Binato, Renata; de Almeida Oliveira, Nathalia Correa; Du Rocher, Barbara; Abdelhay, Eliana

    2015-12-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by myeloid precursor proliferation in the bone marrow, apoptosis reduction and differentiation arrest. Although there are several studies in this field, events related to disease initiation and progression remain unknown. The malignant transformation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) is thought to generate leukemic stem cells, and this transformation could be related to changes in mesenchymal stromal cell (hMSC) signaling. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze the gene expression profile of hMSC from AML patients (hMSC-AML) compared to healthy donors hMSCs (hMSC-HD). The results showed a common molecular signature for all hMSC-AML. Other assays were performed with a large number of patients and the results confirmed a molecular signature that is capable of distinguishing hMSC-AML from hMSC-HD. Moreover, CCL2 and BMP4 genes encode secreted proteins that could affect HSCs. To verify whether these proteins are differentially expressed in AML patients, ELISA was performed with plasma samples. CCL2 and BMP4 proteins are differentially expressed in AML patients, indicating changes in hMSC-AML signaling. Altogether, hMSCs-AML signaling alterations could be an important factor in the leukemic transformation process.

  7. RB maintains quiescence and prevents premature senescence through upregulation of DNMT1 in mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Pei; Chiu, Fang-Yao; Wang, Yu; Yen, Men-Luh; Kao, Shou-Yen; Hung, Shih-Chieh

    2014-12-09

    Many cell therapies currently being tested are based on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). However, MSCs start to enter the senescent state upon long-term expansion. The role of retinoblastoma (RB) protein in regulating MSC properties is not well studied. Here, we show that RB levels are higher in early-passage MSCs compared with late-passage MSCs. RB knockdown induces premature senescence and reduced differentiation potentials in early-passage MSCs. RB overexpression inhibits senescence and increases differentiation potentials in late-passage MSCs. Expression of DNMT1, but not DNMT3A or DNMT3B, is also higher in early-passage MSCs than in late-passage MSCs. Furthermore, DNMT1 knockdown in early-passage MSCs induces senescence and reduces differentiation potentials, whereas DNMT1 overexpression in late-passage MSCs has the opposite effect. These results demonstrate that RB expressed in early-passage MSCs upregulates DNMT1 expression and inhibits senescence in MSCs. Therefore, genetic modification of RB could be a way to improve the efficiency of MSCs in clinical use.

  8. Human mesenchymal stromal cell-secreted lactate induces M2-macrophage differentiation by metabolic reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Civini, Sara; Pacelli, Consiglia; Dieng, Mame Massar; Lemieux, William; Jin, Ping; Bazin, Renée; Patey, Natacha; Marincola, Francesco M.; Moldovan, Florina; Zaouter, Charlotte; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Benabdhalla, Basma; Louis, Isabelle; Beauséjour, Christian; Stroncek, David; Le Deist, Françoise; Haddad, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been shown to dampen immune response and promote tissue repair, but the underlying mechanisms are still under investigation. Herein, we demonstrate that umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC) alter the phenotype and function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) through lactate-mediated metabolic reprogramming. UC-MSC can secrete large quantities of lactate and, when present during monocyte-to-DC differentiation, induce instead the acquisition of M2-macrophage features in terms of morphology, surface markers, migratory properties and antigen presentation capacity. Microarray expression profiling indicates that UC-MSC modify the expression of metabolic-related genes and induce a M2-macrophage expression signature. Importantly, monocyte-derived DC obtained in presence of UC-MSC, polarize naïve allogeneic CD4+ T-cells into Th2 cells. Treatment of UC-MSC with an inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase strongly decreases lactate concentration in culture supernatant and abrogates the effect on monocyte-to-DC differentiation. Metabolic analysis further revealed that UC-MSC decrease oxidative phosphorylation in differentiating monocytes while strongly increasing the spare respiratory capacity proportional to the amount of secreted lactate. Because both MSC and monocytes are recruited in vivo at the site of tissue damage and inflammation, we propose the local increase of lactate concentration induced by UC-MSC and the consequent enrichment in M2-macrophage generation as a mechanism to achieve immunomodulation. PMID:27070086

  9. Osteocalcin Mediates Biomineralization during Osteogenic Maturation in Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Yu-Tzu; Huang, Yi-Jeng; Wu, Hao-Hsiang; Liu, Yu-An; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Lee, Oscar K

    2017-01-17

    There is a growing interest in cell therapies using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for repairing bone defects. MSCs have the ability to differentiate into osteoprogenitors and osteoblasts as well as to form calcified bone matrix. However, the molecular mechanisms governing mineralization during osteogenic differentiation remain unclear. Non-collagenous proteins in the extracellular matrix are believed to control different aspects of the mineralization. Since osteocalcin is the most abundant non-collagenous bone matrix protein, the purpose of this study is to investigate the roles of osteocalcin in mineral species production during osteogenesis of MSCs. Using Raman spectroscopy, we found that the maturation of mineral species was affected by osteocalcin expression level. After osteocalcin was knocked down, the mineral species maturation was delayed and total hydroxyapatite was lower than the control group. In addition, the expression of osteogenic marker genes, including RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, and osteonectin, was downregulated during osteogenic differentiation compared to the control group; whereas gene expression of osterix was upregulated after the knockdown. Together, osteocalcin plays an essential role for the maturation of mineral species and modulates osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. The results offer new insights into the enhancement of new bone formation, such as for the treatments of osteoporosis and fracture healing.

  10. Ex vivo expanded mesenchymal stromal cell minimal quality requirements for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Torre, Maria Luisa; Lucarelli, Enrico; Guidi, Simona; Ferrari, Maura; Alessandri, Giulio; De Girolamo, Laura; Pessina, Augusto; Ferrero, Ivana

    2015-03-15

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), as advanced therapy products, must satisfy all the requirements for human use of medicinal products, aiming to maintain the quality and safety of the cells. The MSC manufacturing process for clinical use should comply with the principles of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). This ensures that cell preparations are produced and controlled, from the collection and manipulation of raw materials, through the processing of intermediate products, to the quality controls, storage, labeling and packaging, and release. The objective of this document is to provide the minimal quality requirements for the MSC production and its delivery for clinical use, so that the safety of the final cell therapy product will not be compromised. For this purpose, the document evaluates the most important steps of GMP-compliant MSC production: the isolation and expansion process; the validation phase of the process, including all quality controls for the characterization, functionality, potency, and safety of MSCs; and the quality control at the batch release to guarantee the safety of patient infusion.

  11. Immunomodulation of mesenchymal stromal cells on regulatory T cells and its possible mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhidong; Zhuansun, Yongxun; Chen, Rui; Li, Jianguo; Ran, Pixin

    2014-05-15

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) have both garnered abundant interests from immunologists worldwide, as both MSCs and Tregs can be considered immunosuppressive in their own right. But a little attention has been paid to the impacts of MSCs on Tregs. To clarify the effects of MSCs on Tregs, we performed the coculture systems within MSCs and Tregs. We confirmed that MSC-exposed Tregs are capable of more immunosuppressive than Tregs without coculturing with MSCs. And this augmenting suppressive capacity was accompanied with an upregulation of programmed cell death 1 receptor (PD-1) on Tregs. Importantly, we found that cell viability of Tregs was excluded from the influences of MSCs. Finally, we showed that PD-1/B7-H1 interactions and IL-10 might be responsible for the enhanced suppressive capability of MSC-exposed Tregs. Further analysis revealed that PD-1/B7-H1 interactions were not responsible for the productions of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in the MSC-Treg coculture systems; in contrast, IL-10 rather than TGF-β1 played a role in the upregualtion of PD-1. Furthermore, this is the first explorative study to evaluate the immunomodulation of MSCs on the suppressive capacity of Tregs in MSC-Treg in vitro coculture setting.

  12. Enhanced mesenchymal stromal cell recruitment via natural killer cells by incorporation of inflammatory signals in biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Catarina R.; Vasconcelos, Daniela P.; Gonçalves, Raquel M.; Barbosa, Mário A.

    2012-01-01

    An exacerbated inflammatory response questions biomaterial biocompatibility, but on the other hand, inflammation has a central role in the regulation of tissue regeneration. Therefore, it may be argued that an ‘ideal’ inflammatory response is crucial to achieve efficient tissue repair/regeneration. Natural killer (NK) cells, being one of the first populations arriving at an injury site, can have an important role in regulating bone repair/regeneration, particularly through interactions with mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). Here, we studied how biomaterials designed to incorporate inflammatory signals affected NK cell behaviour and NK cell–MSC interactions. Adsorption of the pro-inflammatory molecule fibrinogen (Fg) to chitosan films led to a 1.5-fold increase in adhesion of peripheral blood human NK cells, without an increase in cytokine secretion. Most importantly, it was found that NK cells are capable of stimulating a threefold increase in human bone marrow MSC invasion, a key event taking place in tissue repair, but did not affect the expression of the differentiation marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Of significant importance, this NK cell-mediated MSC recruitment was modulated by Fg adsorption. Designing novel biomaterials leading to rational modulation of the inflammatory response is proposed as an alternative to current bone regeneration strategies. PMID:21752807

  13. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cell extracellular vesicles: From active principle to next generation drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Crivelli, Barbara; Chlapanidas, Theodora; Perteghella, Sara; Lucarelli, Enrico; Pascucci, Luisa; Brini, Anna Teresa; Ferrero, Ivana; Marazzi, Mario; Pessina, Augusto; Torre, Maria Luisa

    2017-09-28

    It has been demonstrated that the biological effector of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) is their secretome, which is composed of a heterogeneous pool of bioactive molecules, partially enclosed in extracellular vesicles (EVs). Therefore, the MSC secretome (including EVs) has been recently proposed as possible alternative to MSC therapy. The secretome can be considered as a protein-based biotechnological product, it is probably safer compared with living/cycling cells, it presents virtually lower tumorigenic risk, and it can be handled, stored and sterilized as an Active Pharmaceutical/Principle Ingredient (API). EVs retain some structural and technological analogies with synthetic drug delivery systems (DDS), even if their potential clinical application is also limited by the absence of reproducible/scalable isolation methods and Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant procedures. Notably, EVs secreted by MSCs preserve some of their parental cell features such as homing, immunomodulatory and regenerative potential. This review focuses on MSCs and their EVs as APIs, as well as DDS, considering their ability to reach inflamed and damaged tissues and to prolong the release of encapsulated drugs. Special attention is devoted to the illustration of innovative therapeutic approaches in which nanomedicine is successfully combined with stem cell therapy, thus creating a novel class of "next generation drug delivery systems." Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived PTX3 Promotes Wound Healing via Fibrin Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Cappuzzello, Claudia; Doni, Andrea; Dander, Erica; Pasqualini, Fabio; Nebuloni, Manuela; Bottazzi, Barbara; Mantovani, Alberto; Biondi, Andrea; Garlanda, Cecilia; D'Amico, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Although mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can promote wound healing in different clinical settings, the underlying mechanism of MSC-mediated tissue repair has yet to be determined. Because a nonredundant role of pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in tissue repair and remodeling has been recently described, here we sought to determine whether MSC-derived PTX3 might play a role in wound healing. Using a murine model of skin repair, we found that Ptx3-deficient (Ptx3(-/-)) MSCs delayed wound closure and reduced granulation tissue formation compared with wt MSCs. At day 2, confocal microscopy revealed a dramatic reduction in green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Ptx3(-/-) MSCs recruited to the wound, where they appeared to be not only poorly organized in bundles but also scattered in the extracellular matrix. These findings were further confirmed by quantitative biochemical analysis of GFP content in wound extracts. Furthermore, Ptx3(-/-) MSC-treated skins displayed increased levels of fibrin and lower levels of D-dimer, suggesting delayed fibrin-rich matrix remodeling compared with control skins. Consistently, both pericellular fibrinolysis and migration through fibrin were found to be severely affected in Ptx3(-/-) MSCs. Overall, our findings identify an essential role of MSC-derived PTX3 in wound repair underscoring the beneficial potential of MSC-based therapy in the management of intractable wounds.

  15. Three-dimensional spherical spatial boundary conditions differentially regulate osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yin-Ping; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Rimando, Marilyn G.; Ho, Jennifer Hui-Chun; Lin, Keng-hui; Lee, Oscar K.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial boundary condition (SBC) arising from the surrounding microenvironment imposes specific geometry and spatial constraints that affect organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) sensitively respond to alterations of mechanical cues generated from the SBC. However, mechanical cues provided by a three-dimensional (3D) environment are deprived in a reductionist 2D culture system. This study investigates how SBC affects osteogenic differentiation of MSCs using 3D scaffolds with monodispersed pores and homogenous spherical geometries. MSCs cultured under SBCs with diameters of 100 and 150 μm possessed the greatest capability of osteogenic differentiation. This phenomenon was strongly correlated with MSC morphology, organization of actin cytoskeleton, and distribution of focal adhesion involving α2 and α5 integrins. Further silencing either α2 or α5 integrin significantly reduced the above mentioned mechanosensitivity, indicating that the α2 and α5 integrins as mechano-sensitive molecules mediate MSCs’ ability to provide enhanced osteogenic differentiation in response to different spherical SBCs. Taken together, the findings provide new insights regarding how MSCs respond to mechanical cues from the surrounding microenvironment in a spherical SBC, and such biophysical stimuli should be taken into consideration in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in conjunction with biochemical cues. PMID:26884253

  16. Mesenchymal stromal cell derived extracellular vesicles rescue radiation damage to murine marrow hematopoietic cells

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Sicheng; Dooner, Mark; Cheng, Yan; Papa, Elaine; Del Tatto, Michael; Pereira, Mandy; Deng, Yanhui; Goldberg, Laura; Aliotta, Jason; Chatterjee, Devasis; Stewart, Connor; Carpanetto, Andrea; Collino, Federica; Bruno, Stefania; Camussi, Giovanni; Quesenberry, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been shown to reverse radiation damage to marrow stem cells. We have evaluated the capacity of MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) to mitigate radiation injury to marrow stem cells at 4 hours to 7 days after irradiation. Significant restoration of marrow stem cell engraftment at 4, 24 and 168 hours post-irradiation by exposure to MSC-EVs was observed at 3 weeks to 9 months after transplant and further confirmed by secondary engraftment. Intravenous injection of MSC-EVs to 500cGy exposed mice led to partial recovery of peripheral blood counts and restoration of the engraftment of marrow. The murine hematopoietic cell line, FDC-P1 exposed to 500 cGy, showed reversal of growth inhibition, DNA damage and apoptosis on exposure to murine or human MSC-EVs. Both murine and human MSC-EVs reverse radiation damage to murine marrow cells and stimulate normal murine marrow stem cell/progenitors to proliferate. A preparation with both exosomes and microvesicles was found to be superior to either microvesicles or exosomes alone. Biologic activity was seen in freshly isolated vesicles and in vesicles stored for up to 6 months in 10% DMSO at −80°C. These studies indicate that MSC-EVs can reverse radiation damage to bone marrow stem cells. PMID:27150009

  17. Mesenchymal stromal cell-based therapy: Regulatory and translational aspects in gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Dothel, Giovanni; Raschi, Emanuel; Rimondini, Roberto; De Ponti, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed an outstanding scientific production focused towards the possible clinical applications of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. This raised the need of novel standards to adequately address quality, efficacy and safety issues of this advanced therapy. The development of a streamlined regulation is currently hampered by the complexity of analyzing dynamic biological entities rather than chemicals. Although numerous pieces of evidence show efficacy in reducing intestinal inflammation, some inconsistencies between the mechanisms of action of rodent vs human MSCs suggest caution before assigning translational value to preclinical studies. Preliminary evidence from clinical trials showed efficacy of MSCs in the treatment of fistulizing Crohn’s disease (CD), and preparations of heterologous MSCs for CD treatment are currently tested in ongoing clinical trials. However, safety issues, especially in long-term treatment, still require solid clinical data. In this regard, standardized guidelines for appropriate dosing and methods of infusion could enhance the likelihood to predict more accurately the number of responders and the duration of remission periods. In addition, elucidating MSC mechanisms of action could lead to novel and more reliable formulations such as those derived from the MSCs themselves (e.g., supernatants). PMID:27895395

  18. Extracellular calcium and CaSR drive osteoinduction in mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    González-Vázquez, Arlyng; Planell, Josep A; Engel, Elisabeth

    2014-06-01

    Bone is the main store of calcium and progenitor cells in the body. During the resorption process, the local calcium concentration reaches 8-40mM, and the surrounding cells are exposed to these fluctuations in calcium. This stimulus is a signal that is detected through the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), which modulates chemotactic and proliferative G protein-dependent signaling pathways. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the roles of extracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]o) and the CaSR in osteoinduction. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (rBMSCs) were stimulated with 10mM of Ca(2+). Several experiments were conducted to demonstrate the effect of [Ca(2+)]o on chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation on the osteoblastic lineage. It was found that [Ca(2+)]o induces rBMSCs to migrate and proliferate in a concentration-dependent manner. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence also revealed that 10mM Ca(2+) stimulates overexpression of osteogenic markers in rBMSCs, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein, collagen Ia1 and osteocalcin. Functional assays determining ALP activity and mineralization tests both corroborate the increased expression of these markers in rBMSCs stimulated with Ca(2+). Moreover, CaSR blockage inhibited the cellular response to stimulation with high concentrations of [Ca(2+)]o, revealing that the CaSR is a key modulator of these cellular responses.

  19. Defining the expression of marker genes in equine mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Guest, Deborah J; Ousey, Jennifer C; Smith, Matthew Rw

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal (MS) cells have been derived from multiple sources in the horse including bone marrow, adipose tissue and umbilical cord blood. To date these cells have been investigated for their differentiation potential and are currently being used to treat damage to horse musculoskeletal tissues. However, no work has been done in horse MS cells to examine the expression profile of proteins and cell surface antigens that are expressed in human MS cells. The identification of such profiles in the horse will allow the comparison of putative MS cells isolated from different laboratories and different tissues. At present it is difficult to ascertain whether equivalent cells are being used in different reports. Here, we report on the expression of a range of markers used to define human MS cells. Using immunocytochemistry we show that horse MS cells homogenously express collagens, alkaline phosphatase activity, CD44, CD90 and CD29. In contrast, CD14, CD79α and the embryonic stem cell markers Oct-4, SSEA (stage specific embryonic antigen) -1, -3, -4, TRA (tumor rejection antigen) -1-60 and -1-81 are not expressed. The MS cells also express MHC class I antigens but do not express class II antigens, although they are inducible by treatment with interferon gamma (IFN-γ).

  20. Comparative immunophenotyping of equine multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells: an approach toward a standardized definition.

    PubMed

    Paebst, Felicitas; Piehler, Daniel; Brehm, Walter; Heller, Sandra; Schroeck, Carmen; Tárnok, Attila; Burk, Janina

    2014-08-01

    Horses are an approved large animal model for therapies of the musculoskeletal system. Especially for tendon disease where cell-based therapy is commonly used in equine patients, the translation of achieved results to human medicine would be a great accomplishment. Immunophenotyping of equine mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) remains the last obstacle to meet the criteria of the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) definition of human MSCs. Therefore, the surface antigen expression of CD 29, CD 44, CD 73, CD 90, CD 105, CD 14, CD 34, CD 45, CD 79α, and MHC II in equine MSCs from adipose tissue, bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, umbilical cord tissue, and tendon tissue was analyzed using flow cytometry. Isolated cells from the different sources and donors varied in their expression pattern of MSC-defining antigens. In particular, CD 90 and 105 showed most heterogeneity. However, cells from all samples were robustly positive for CD 29 and CD 44, while being mostly negative for CD 73 and the exclusion markers CD 14, CD 34, CD 45, CD 79α and MHC II. Furthermore, it was evident that enzymes used for cell detachment after in vitro-culture affected the detection of antigen expression. These results emphasize the need of standardization of MSC isolation, culturing, and harvesting techniques. As the equine MSCs did not meet all criteria the ISCT defined for human MSCs, further investigations for a better characterization of the cell type should be conducted. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  1. Osteogenic differentiation of equine cord blood multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells within coralline hydroxyapatite scaffolds in vitro.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, R J; Koch, T G; Betts, D H

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the osteogenic differentiation potential of equine umbilical cord blood-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (CB-MSC) within coralline hydroxyapatite scaffolds cultured in osteogenic induction culture medium. Scaffolds seeded with equine CB-MSC were cultured in cell expansion culture medium (control) or osteogenic induction medium (treatment). Cell viability and distribution were confirmed by the MTT cell viability assay and DAPI nuclear fluorescence staining, respectively. Osteogenic differentiation was evaluated after 10 days using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, alkaline phosphatase activity, and secreted osteocalcin concentration. Cell morphology and matrix deposition were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after 14 days in culture. Cells showed viability and adequate distribution within the scaffold. Successful osteogenic differentiation within the scaffolds was demonstrated by the increased expression of osteogenic markers such as Runx2, osteopontin, osteonectin, collagen IA; increased levels of alkaline phosphatase activity; increased osteocalcin protein secretion and bone-like matrix presence in the scaffold pores upon SEM evaluation. These results demonstrate that equine CB-MSC maintain viability and exhibit osteogenic potential in coralline hydroxyapatite scaffolds when induced in vitro . Equine CB-MSC scaffold constructs deserve further investigation for their potential role as biologically active fillers to enhance bone-gap repair in the horse.

  2. Cell studies of hybridized carbon nanofibers containing bioactive glass nanoparticles using bone mesenchymal stromal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Rui; Hu, Xiao-Qing; Jia, Xiao-Long; Yang, Li-Ka; Meng, Qing-Yang; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Cai, Qing; Ao, Yin-Fang; Yang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Bone regeneration required suitable scaffolding materials to support the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone-related cells. In this study, a kind of hybridized nanofibrous scaffold material (CNF/BG) was prepared by incorporating bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles into carbon nanofibers (CNF) via the combination of BG sol-gel and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) electrospinning, followed by carbonization. Three types (49 s, 68 s and 86 s) of BG nanoparticles were incorporated. To understand the mechanism of CNF/BG hybrids exerting osteogenic effects, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured directly on these hybrids (contact culture) or cultured in transwell chambers in the presence of these materials (non-contact culture). The contributions of ion release and contact effect on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were able to be correlated. It was found that the ionic dissolution products had limited effect on cell proliferation, while they were able to enhance osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in comparison with pure CNF. Differently, the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were both significantly promoted in the contact culture. In both cases, CNF/BG(68 s) showed the strongest ability in influencing cell behaviors due to its fastest release rate of soluble silicium-relating ions. The synergistic effect of CNF and BG would make CNF/BG hybrids promising substrates for bone repairing.

  3. Bottlenecks in the Efficient Use of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products Based on Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Escacena, Natalia; Quesada-Hernández, Elena; Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; Soria, Bernat; Hmadcha, Abdelkrim

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been established as promising candidate sources of universal donor cells for cell therapy due to their contributions to tissue and organ homeostasis, repair, and support by self-renewal and multidifferentiation, as well as by their anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, immunomodulatory, trophic, and proangiogenic properties. Various diseases have been treated by MSCs in animal models. Additionally, hundreds of clinical trials related to the potential benefits of MSCs are in progress. However, although all MSCs are considered suitable to exert these functions, dissimilarities have been found among MSCs derived from different tissues. The same levels of efficacy and desired outcomes have not always been achieved in the diverse studies that have been performed thus far. Moreover, autologous MSCs can be affected by the disease status of patients, compromising their use. Therefore, collecting information regarding the characteristics of MSCs obtained from different sources and the influence of the host (patient) medical conditions on MSCs is important for assuring the safety and efficacy of cell-based therapies. This review provides relevant information regarding factors to consider for the clinical application of MSCs. PMID:26273307

  4. Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Improve Cardiac Perfusion in an Ovine Immunocompetent Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Victor; Sotelo, Veronica; Delfina, Valentina; Delgado, Natalia; Rodriguez, Carlos; Suanes, Carol; Langhain, María; Ferrando, Rodolfo; Keating, Armand; Benech, Alejandro; Touriño, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) hold considerable promise in the treatment of ischemic heart disease. Most preclinical studies of MSCs for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have been performed either in syngeneic animal models or with human cells in xenogeneic immunodeficient animals. A preferable pre-clinical model, however, would involve human MSCs in an immunocompetent animal. AMI was generated in adult sheep by inducing ischemia reperfusion of the second diagonal branch. Sheep (n = 10) were randomized to receive an intravenous injection of human MSCs (1 × 10(6) cells/kg) or phosphate buffered saline. Cardiac function and remodeling were evaluated with echocardiography. Perfusion scintigraphy was used to identify sustained myocardial ischemia. Interaction between human MSCs and ovine lymphocytes was assessed by a mixed lymphocyte response (MLR). Sheep receiving human MSCs showed significant improvement in myocardial perfusion at 1 month compared with baseline measurements. There was no change in ventricular dimensions in either group after 1 month of AMI. No adverse events or symptoms were observed in the sheep receiving human MSCs. The MLR was negative. The immunocompetent ovine AMI model demonstrates the clinical safety and efficacy of human MSCs. The human cells do not appear to be immunogenic, further suggesting that immunocompetent sheep may serve as a suitable pre-clinical large animal model for testing human MSCs.

  5. 'Working' cardiomyocytes exhibiting plateau action potentials from human placenta-derived extraembryonic mesodermal cells.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kazuma; Miyoshi, Shunichiro; Toyoda, Masashi; Hida, Naoko; Ikegami, Yukinori; Makino, Hatsune; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Tsuji, Hiroko; Cui, Chang-Hao; Segawa, Kaoru; Uyama, Taro; Kami, Daisuke; Miyado, Kenji; Asada, Hironori; Matsumoto, Kenji; Saito, Hirohisa; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Ogawa, Satoshi; Aeba, Ryo; Yozu, Ryohei; Umezawa, Akihiro

    2007-07-15

    The clinical application of cell transplantation for severe heart failure is a promising strategy to improve impaired cardiac function. Recently, an array of cell types, including bone marrow cells, endothelial progenitors, mesenchymal stem cells, resident cardiac stem cells, and embryonic stem cells, have become important candidates for cell sources for cardiac repair. In the present study, we focused on the placenta as a cell source. Cells from the chorionic plate in the fetal portion of the human placenta were obtained after delivery by the primary culture method, and the cells generated in this study had the Y sex chromosome, indicating that the cells were derived from the fetus. The cells potentially expressed 'working' cardiomyocyte-specific genes such as cardiac myosin heavy chain 7beta, atrial myosin light chain, cardiac alpha-actin by gene chip analysis, and Csx/Nkx2.5, GATA4 by RT-PCR, cardiac troponin-I and connexin 43 by immunohistochemistry. These cells were able to differentiate into cardiomyocytes. Cardiac troponin-I and connexin 43 displayed a discontinuous pattern of localization at intercellular contact sites after cardiomyogenic differentiation, suggesting that the chorionic mesoderm contained a large number of cells with cardiomyogenic potential. The cells began spontaneously beating 3 days after co-cultivation with murine fetal cardiomyocytes and the frequency of beating cells reached a maximum on day 10. The contraction of the cardiomyocytes was rhythmical and synchronous, suggesting the presence of electrical communication between the cells. Placenta-derived human fetal cells may be useful for patients who cannot supply bone marrow cells but want to receive stem cell-based cardiac therapy.

  6. Pre-differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells in combination with a microstructured nerve guide supports peripheral nerve regeneration in the rat sciatic nerve model.

    PubMed

    Boecker, Arne Hendrik; van Neerven, Sabien Geraldine Antonia; Scheffel, Juliane; Tank, Julian; Altinova, Haktan; Seidensticker, Katrin; Deumens, Ronald; Tolba, Rene; Weis, Joachim; Brook, Gary Anthony; Pallua, Norbert; Bozkurt, Ahmet

    2016-02-01

    Many bioartificial nerve guides have been investigated pre-clinically for their nerve regeneration-supporting function, often in comparison to autologous nerve transplantation, which is still regarded as the current clinical gold standard. Enrichment of these scaffolds with cells intended to support axonal regeneration has been explored as a strategy to boost axonal regeneration across these nerve guides Ansselin et al. (1998). In the present study, 20 mm rat sciatic nerve defects were implanted with a cell-seeded microstructured collagen nerve guide (Perimaix) or an autologous nerve graft. Under the influence of seeded, pre-differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells, axons regenerated well into the Perimaix nerve guide. Myelination-related parameters, like myelin sheath thickness, benefitted from an additional seeding with pre-differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells. Furthermore, both the number of retrogradely labelled sensory neurons and the axon density within the implant were elevated in the cell-seeded scaffold group with pre-differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells. However, a pre-differentiation had no influence on functional recovery. An additional cell seeding of the Perimaix nerve guide with mesenchymal stromal cells led to an extent of functional recovery, independent of the differentiation status, similar to autologous nerve transplantation. These findings encourage further investigations on pre-differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells as a cellular support for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  7. Cell behavior of human mesenchymal stromal cells in response to silica/collagen based xerogels and calcium deficient culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Alena-Svenja; Glenske, Kristina; Henß, Anja; Kruppke, Benjamin; Rößler, Sina; Hanke, Thomas; Moritz, Andreas; Rohnke, Marcus; Kressin, Monika; Arnhold, Stefan; Schnettler, Reinhard; Wenisch, Sabine

    2017-07-04

    Herein, we aim to elucidate osteogenic effects of two silica-based xerogels with different degrees of bioactivity on human bone-derived mesenchymal stromal cells by means of scanning electron microscopy, quantitative PCR enhanced osteogenic effects and the formation of an extracellular matrix which could be ascribed to the sample with lower bioactivity. Given the high levels of bioactivity, the cells revealed remarkable sensitivity to extremely low calcium levels of the media. Therefore, additional experiments were performed to elucidate cell behavior under calcium deficient conditions. The results refer to capacity of the bone-derived stromal cells to overcome calcium deficiency even though proliferation, migration and osteogenic differentiation capabilities were diminished. One reason for the differences of the cellular response (on tissue culture plates versus xerogels) to calcium deficiency seems to be the positive effect of silica. The silica could be detected intracellularly as shown by time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry after cultivation of primary cells for 21 days on the surfaces of the xerogels. Thus, the present findings refer to different osteogenic differentiation potentials of the xerogels according to the different degrees of bioactivity, and to the role of silica as a stimulator of osteogenesis. Finally, the observed pattern of connexin-based hemichannel gating supports the assumption that connexin 43 is a key factor for calcium-mediated osteogenesis in bone-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

  8. Identification and Characterization of Human Endometrial Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells and Their Potential for Cellular Therapy.

    PubMed

    Darzi, Saeedeh; Werkmeister, Jerome A; Deane, James A; Gargett, Caroline E

    2016-09-01

    SummaryHuman endometrium is a highly regenerative tissue, undergoing more than 400 cycles of proliferation, differentiation, and shedding during a woman's reproductive life. Adult stem cells, including mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), are likely responsible for the immense cellular turnover in human endometrium. The unique properties of MSCs, including high proliferative ability, self-renewal, differentiation to mesodermal lineages, secretion of angiogenic factors, and many other growth-promoting factors make them useful candidates for cellular therapy and tissue engineering. In this review, we summarize the identification and characterization of newly discovered MSCs from the human endometrium: their properties, the surface markers used for their prospective isolation, their perivascular location in the endometrium, and their potential application in cellular therapies. The endometrium, or the lining of uterus, has recently been identified as a new and accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells, which can be obtained without anesthesia. Endometrial mesenchymal stem cells have comparable properties to bone marrow and adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells. Endometrial mesenchymal stem cells are purified with known and novel perivascular surface markers and are currently under investigation for their potential use in cellular therapy for several clinical conditions with significant burden of disease. ©AlphaMed Press.

  9. Mesenchymal stromal cells induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human colorectal cancer cells through the expression of surface-bound TGF-β

    PubMed Central

    Mele, Valentina; Muraro, Manuele G; Calabrese, Diego; Pfaff, Dennis; Amatruda, Nunzia; Amicarella, Francesca; Kvinlaug, Brynn; Bocelli-Tyndall, Chiara; Martin, Ivan; Resink, Therese J; Heberer, Michael; Oertli, Daniel; Terracciano, Luigi; Spagnoli, Giulio C; Iezzi, Giandomenica

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are multipotent precursors endowed with the ability to home to primary and metastatic tumor sites, where they can integrate into the tumor-associated stroma. However, molecular mechanisms and outcome of their interaction with cancer cells have not been fully clarified. In this study, we investigated the effects mediated by bone marrow-derived MSC on human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in vitro and in vivo. We found that MSC triggered epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor cells in vitro, as indicated by upregulation of EMT-related genes, downregulation of E-cadherin and acquisition of mesenchymal morphology. These effects required cell-to-cell contact and were mediated by surface-bound TGF-β newly expressed on MSC upon coculture with tumor cells. In vivo tumor masses formed by MSC-conditioned CRC cells were larger and characterized by higher vessel density, decreased E-cadherin expression and increased expression of mesenchymal markers. Furthermore, MSC-conditioned tumor cells displayed increased invasiveness in vitro and enhanced capacity to invade peripheral tissues in vivo. Thus, by promoting EMT-related phenomena, MSC appear to favor the acquisition of an aggressive phenotype by CRC cells. PMID:24214914

  10. Mesenchymal stromal cells induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human colorectal cancer cells through the expression of surface-bound TGF-β.

    PubMed

    Mele, Valentina; Muraro, Manuele G; Calabrese, Diego; Pfaff, Dennis; Amatruda, Nunzia; Amicarella, Francesca; Kvinlaug, Brynn; Bocelli-Tyndall, Chiara; Martin, Ivan; Resink, Therese J; Heberer, Michael; Oertli, Daniel; Terracciano, Luigi; Spagnoli, Giulio C; Iezzi, Giandomenica

    2014-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are multipotent precursors endowed with the ability to home to primary and metastatic tumor sites, where they can integrate into the tumor-associated stroma. However, molecular mechanisms and outcome of their interaction with cancer cells have not been fully clarified. In this study, we investigated the effects mediated by bone marrow-derived MSC on human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in vitro and in vivo. We found that MSC triggered epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor cells in vitro, as indicated by upregulation of EMT-related genes, downregulation of E-cadherin and acquisition of mesenchymal morphology. These effects required cell-to-cell contact and were mediated by surface-bound TGF-β newly expressed on MSC upon coculture with tumor cells. In vivo tumor masses formed by MSC-conditioned CRC cells were larger and characterized by higher vessel density, decreased E-cadherin expression and increased expression of mesenchymal markers. Furthermore, MSC-conditioned tumor cells displayed increased invasiveness in vitro and enhanced capacity to invade peripheral tissues in vivo. Thus, by promoting EMT-related phenomena, MSC appear to favor the acquisition of an aggressive phenotype by CRC cells.

  11. Decellularized silk fibroin scaffold primed with adipose mesenchymal stromal cells improves wound healing in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds have been shown to be a suitable substrate for tissue engineering and to improve tissue regeneration when cellularized with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). We here demonstrate, for the first time, that electrospun nanofibrous SF patches cellularized with human adipose-derived MSCs (Ad-MSCs-SF), or decellularized (D-Ad-MSCs-SF), are effective in the treatment of skin wounds, improving skin regeneration in db/db diabetic mice. Methods The conformational and structural analyses of SF and D-Ad-MSCs-SF patches were performed by scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Wounds were performed by a 5 mm punch biopsy tool on the mouse’s back. Ad-MSCs-SF and D-Ad-MSCs-SF patches were transplanted and the efficacy of treatments was assessed by measuring the wound closure area, by histological examination and by gene expression profile. We further investigated the in vitro angiogenic properties of Ad-MSCs-SF and D-Ad-MSCs-SF patches by affecting migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), keratinocytes (KCs) and dermal fibroblasts (DFs), through the aortic ring assay and, finally, by evaluating the release of angiogenic factors. Results We found that Ad-MSCs adhere and grow on SF, maintaining their phenotypic mesenchymal profile and differentiation capacity. Conformational and structural analyses on SF and D-Ad-MSCs-SF samples, showed that sterilization, decellularization, freezing and storing did not affect the SF structure. When grafted in wounds of diabetic mice, both Ad-MSCs-SF and D-Ad-MSCs-SF significantly improved tissue regeneration, reducing the wound area respectively by 40% and 35%, within three days, completing the process in around 10 days compared to 15–17 days of controls. RT2 gene profile analysis of the wounds treated with Ad-MSCs-SF and D-Ad-MSCs-SF showed an increment of genes involved in angiogenesis and

  12. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Implantation in Combination with Platelet Lysate Product Is Safe for Reconstruction of Human Long Bone Nonunion

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Roghayeh; Mohseni, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Seyedeh Esmat; Moghadasali, Reza; Mardpour, Soura; Azimian, Vajiheh; Ghorbani Liastani, Maede; Mirazimi Bafghi, Ali; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Aghdami, Nasser

    2016-01-01

    Objective Nonunion is defined as a minimum of 9 months since injury without any visible progressive signs of healing for 3 months. Recent literature has shown that the application of mesenchymal stromal cells is safe, in vitro and in vivo, for treating long bone nonunion. The present study was performed to investigate the safety of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) implantation in combination with platelet lysate (PL) product for treating human long bone nonunion. Materials and Methods In this case series clinical trial, orthopedic surgeons visited eighteen patients with long bone nonunion, of whom 7 complied with the eligibility criteria. These patients received mesenchymal stromal cells (20 million cells implanted once into the nonunion site using a fluoroscopic guide) in combination with PL product. For evaluation of the effects of this intervention all the patients were followed up by taking anterior-posterior and lateral X-rays of the affected limb before and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the implantation. All side effects (local or systemic, serious or non-serious, related or unrelated) were observed during this time period. Results From a safety perspective the MSC implantation in combination with PL was very well tolerated during the 12 months of the trial. Four patients were healed; based on the control Xray evidence, bony union had occurred. Conclusion Results from the present study suggest that the implantation of bone marrow-derived MSCs in combination with PL is safe for the treatment of nonunion. A double blind, controlled clinical trial is required to assess the efficacy of this treatment (Registration Number: NCT01206179). PMID:27602311

  13. In vitro characterization of human hair follicle dermal sheath mesenchymal stromal cells and their potential in enhancing diabetic wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dongrui; Kua, Jonah Ee Hsiang; Lim, Wee Keng; Lee, Seng Teik; Chua, Alvin Wen Choong

    2015-08-01

    Little is published on the characterization and therapeutic potential of human mesenchymal cells derived from hair follicle (HF) dermal sheath (DS). In this study, we isolated and characterized HF DS-mesenchymal stromal cells (DS-MSCs) with respect to the bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs). We further tested if DS-MSC-conditioned medium (CM), like what was previously reported for BM-MSC CM, has superior wound-healing properties, in both in vitro and in vivo wound models compared with skin fibroblast CM. DS-MSCs were isolated from HF and cultured in vitro to assess long-term growth potential, colony-forming efficiency (CFE), expression of CD surface markers and differentiation potential. The cytokine expression of DS-MSC CM was determined through an antibody-based protein array analysis. The wound-healing effects of the CM were tested in vitro with the use of human cell cultures and in vivo with the use of a diabetic mouse wound model. In vitro results revealed that DS-MSCs have high growth capacity and CFE while displaying some phenotypes similar to BM-MSCs. DS-MSCs strongly expressed many surface markers expressed in BM-MSCs and could also differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. DS-MSCs secreted significantly higher proportions of paracrine factors such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8 and growth-related oncogene. DS-MSC-CM demonstrated enhanced wound-healing effects on human skin keratinocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells in vitro, and the wound-healing time in diabetic mice was found to be shorter, compared with vehicle controls. Human HF DS stromal cells demonstrated MSC-like properties and might be an alternative source for therapeutic use in wound healing. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of TGF-β1 Stimulation on the Secretome of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Tania M.; Saldías, Alejandro; Irigo, Marcelo; Zamora, Jorge Velasco; Perone, Marcelo J.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an attractive source of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) owing to the relative ease of obtaining large volumes with more MSC abundance compared with other sources. Increasing evidence supports the fact that trophic factors secreted by MSCs play a pivotal therapeutic role. Several strategies in regenerative medicine use MSCs, mainly exploiting their immunosuppressive effect and homing capacity to sites of damage. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a pleiotropic cytokine that, depending on the cell niche, can display either anti-inflammatory or proinflammatory effects. TGF-β1 expression increases in various tissues with damage, especially when accompanied by inflammation. Thus, we analyzed the effect of TGF-β1 on the secretion by adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs) of a panel of 80 cytokines/chemokines using an antibody array. To avoid a possible effect of fetal bovine serum (FBS) on ASCs secretion, we performed our analysis by culturing cells in FBS-free conditions, only supplemented with 0.1% of bovine serum albumin. We report the cytokine profile secreted by ASCs. We also found that TGF-β1 exposure modulates 8 chemokines and 18 cytokines, including TGF-β1 and -β2, and other important cytokines involved in immunosuppression, allergic responses, and bone resorption. Significance Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) secrete a broad spectrum of bioactive macromolecules that are both immunoregulatory and serve to structure regenerative microenvironments in fields of tissue injury. Increases or decreases in the production of TGF-β1 have been linked to numerous disease states, including autoimmune diseases and cancer. The secretome of MSCs stimulated with TGF-β1 is largely unknown. Thus, the present study makes an important contribution toward a better understanding of how MSCs could be affected by a cytokine normally upregulated in various diseases. PMID:26025982

  15. Intracoronary Delivery of Human Mesenchymal/Stromal Stem Cells: Insights from Coronary Microcirculation Invasive Assessment in a Swine Model

    PubMed Central

    Fiarresga, António; Mata, Márcia F.; Cavaco-Gonçalves, Sandra; Selas, Mafalda; Simões, Irina N.; Oliveira, Eunice; Carrapiço, Belmira; Cardim, Nuno; Cabral, Joaquim M. S.; Ferreira, Rui Cruz; da Silva, Cláudia L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells have unique properties favorable to their use in clinical practice and have been studied for cardiac repair. However, these cells are larger than coronary microvessels and there is controversy about the risk of embolization and microinfarctions, which could jeopardize the safety and efficacy of intracoronary route for their delivery. The index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) is an invasive method for quantitatively assessing the coronary microcirculation status. Objectives To examine heart microcirculation after intracoronary injection of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells with the index of microcirculatory resistance. Methods Healthy swine were randomized to receive by intracoronary route either 30x106 MSC or the same solution with no cells (1% human albumin/PBS) (placebo). Blinded operators took coronary pressure and flow measurements, prior to intracoronary infusion and at 5 and 30 minutes post-delivery. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) and the IMR were compared between groups. Results CFR and IMR were done with a variance within the 3 transit time measurements of 6% at rest and 11% at maximal hyperemia. After intracoronary infusion there were no significant differences in CFR. The IMR was significantly higher in MSC-injected animals (at 30 minutes, 14.2U vs. 8.8U, p = 0.02) and intragroup analysis showed a significant increase of 112% from baseline to 30 minutes after cell infusion, although no electrocardiographic changes or clinical deterioration were noted. Conclusion Overall, this study provides definitive evidence of microcirculatory disruption upon intracoronary administration of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, in a large animal model closely resembling human cardiac physiology, function and anatomy. PMID:26479722

  16. Infrapatellar fat pad-derived mesenchymal stromal cells from osteoarthritis patients: In vitro genetic stability and replicative senescence.

    PubMed

    Neri, Simona; Guidotti, Serena; Lilli, Nicoletta Libera; Cattini, Luca; Mariani, Erminia

    2017-05-01

    Different sources of mesenchymal stromal cells can be considered for regenerative medicine applications. Here we analyzed human adipose-derived stromal cells from infrapatellar fat pad (IFPSC) of osteoarthritis patients, representing a very interesting candidate for cartilage regeneration. No data are available concerning IFPSC stability after in vitro expansion. Indeed, replicative potential and multipotency progressively decrease during culture passages while DNA damage and cell senescence increase, thus possibly affecting clinical applications. To investigate whether in vitro expansion influences the genetic stability and replicative senescence of IFPSC, we performed long-term cultures and comparatively analyzed cells at different culture passages. Stromal vascular fraction was harvested from infrapatellar fat pad of 11 osteoarthritis patients undergoing knee replacement surgery. Cell recovery, growth kinetics, surface marker profile, and differentiation ability in inductive culture conditions were recorded. Genetic integrity maintenance was estimated by microsatellite instability analysis and mismatch repair gene expression, whereas telomere length and telomerase activity were assessed to evaluate replicative senescence. Anchorage-dependent growth was tested by soft agar culture. IFPSC displayed a phenotype similar to mesenchymal stromal cells from subcutaneous fat and showed differentiation ability. No microsatellite instability was documented even at advanced culture times in accordance to a sustained expression of mismatch repair genes, thus highlighting stability of short repeated sequences in the genome. No significant telomere attrition nor telomerase activity were documented during culture and cells did not lose anchorage-dependent growth ability. The presented data support the suitability and safety of in vitro expanded IFPSC from osteoarthritis patients for applications in regenerative medicine approaches. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society

  17. Targeting eradication of malignant cells derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yingbin; Cai, Shaoxi; Yang, Li; Yu, Shuhui; Jiang, Jiahuan; Yan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Haoxing; Liu, Lan; Liu, Qun; Du, Jun; Cai, Shaohui; Sung, K.L. Paul

    2010-12-10

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSC) have been shown to participate in malignant transformation. However, hampered by the low frequency of malignant transformation of hBMSC, we do not yet know how to prevent malignant transformation of implanted hBMSC. In this study, in order to establish a model for the eradication of hBMSC-derived malignant cells, a gene fusion consisting of a human telomerase (hTERT) promoter modified with both c-Myc and myeloid zinc finger protein2 (MZF-2) binding elements and followed by the E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) and luciferase genes was stably transferred into hBMSC via lentiviral transduction; n-phosphonacelyl-L-aspartic acid (PALA) selection was used to generate malignant cell colonies derived from transduced hBMSC after treatment with the carcinogenic reagent BPDE. Cells that were amplified after PALA selection were used for transplantation and 5-FC pro-drug cytotoxicity tests. The results showed that PALA-resistant malignant cells could be generated from hBMSC co-induced with lentiviral transduction and treatment with Benzo(a)pyrene Diol Epoxide (BPDE); the modification of c-Myc and MZF-2 binding elements could remarkably enhance the transcriptional activities of the hTERT promoter in malignant cells, whereas transcriptional activity was depressed in normal hBMSC; malignant cells stably expressing CD under the control of the modified hTERT promoter could be eliminated by 5-FC administration. This study has provided a method for targeted eradication of malignant cells derived from hBMSC.

  18. Persistent visceral allodynia in rats exposed to colorectal irradiation is reversed by mesenchymal stromal cell treatment.

    PubMed

    Durand, Christelle; Pezet, Sophie; Eutamène, Hélène; Demarquay, Christelle; Mathieu, Noëlle; Moussa, Lara; Daudin, Rachel; Holler, Valérie; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Milliat, Fabien; François, Agnès; Theodorou, Vassilia; Tamarat, Radia; Benderitter, Marc; Sémont, Alexandra

    2015-08-01

    Each year, millions of people worldwide are treated for primary or recurrent pelvic malignancies, involving radiotherapy in almost 50% of cases. Delayed development of visceral complications after radiotherapy is recognized in cancer survivors. Therapeutic doses of radiation may lead to the damage of healthy tissue around the tumor and abdominal pain. Because of the lack of experimental models, the underlying mechanisms of radiation-induced long-lasting visceral pain are still unknown. This makes managing radiation-induced pain difficult, and the therapeutic strategies proposed are mostly inefficient. The aim of our study was to develop an animal model of radiation-induced visceral hypersensitivity to (1) analyze some cellular and molecular mechanisms involved and (2) to test a therapeutic strategy using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Using a single 27-Grays colorectal irradiation in rats, we showed that such exposure induces a persistent visceral allodynia that is associated with an increased spinal sensitization (enhanced p-ERK neurons), colonic neuroplasticity (as increased density of substance P nerve fibers), and colonic mast cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Mast cell stabilization by ketotifen provided evidence of their functional involvement in radiation-induced allodynia. Finally, intravenous injection of 1.5 million MSCs, 4 weeks after irradiation, induced a time-dependent reversion of the visceral allodynia and a reduction of the number of anatomical interactions between mast cells and PGP9.5+ nerve fibers. Moreover, unlike ketotifen, MSC treatment has the key advantage to limit radiation-induced colonic ulceration. This work provides new insights into the potential use of MSCs as cellular therapy in the treatment of pelvic radiation disease.

  19. Downregulation of CXCL12 in mesenchymal stromal cells by TGFβ promotes breast cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, P F; Huang, Y; Xu, C L; Lin, L Y; Han, Y Y; Sun, W H; Hu, G H; Rabson, A B; Wang, Y; Shi, Y F

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are one of major components of the tumour microenvironment. Recent studies have shown that MSC tumour residence and their close interactions with inflammatory factors are important factors that affect tumour progression. Among tumour-associated inflammatory factors, transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is regarded as a key determinant of malignancy. By employing a lung metastasis model of a murine breast cancer, we show here that the prometastatic effect of MSCs was dependent on their response to TGFβ. Interestingly, we found that MSC-produced CXCL12, an important chemokine in tumour metastasis, was markedly inhibited by TGFβ. Furthermore, silencing of CXCL12 in TGFβ-unresponsive MSCs restored their ability to promote tumour metastasis. We found that 4T1 breast cancer cells expressed high levels of CXCR7, but not of CXCR4, both of which are CXCL12 receptors. In presence of CXCL12, CXCR7 expression on tumour cells was decreased. Indeed, when CXCR7 was silenced in breast cancer cells, their metastatic ability was inhibited. Therefore, our data demonstrated that sustained expression of CXCL12 by MSCs in the primary tumour site inhibits metastasis through reduction of CXCR7, while, in the presence of TGFβ, this CXCL12 effect of MSCs on tumour cells is relieved. Importantly, elevated CXCR7 and depressed CXCL12 expression levels were prominent features of clinical breast cancer lesions and were related significantly with poor survival. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism of MSC effects on malignant cells through which crosstalk between MSCs and TGFβ regulates tumour metastasis. PMID:27669436

  20. Evaluation of human platelet lysate versus fetal bovine serum for culture of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Hemeda, Hatim; Giebel, Bernd; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2014-02-01

    Culture media for therapeutic cell preparations-such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)-usually comprise serum additives. Traditionally, fetal bovine serum is supplemented in basic research and in most clinical trials. Within the past years, many laboratories adapted their culture conditions to human platelet lysate (hPL), which further stimulates proliferation and expansion of MSCs. Particularly with regard to clinical application, human alternatives for fetal bovine serum are clearly to be preferred. hPL is generated from human platelet units by disruption of the platelet membrane, which is commonly performed by repeated freeze and thaw cycles. Such culture supplements are notoriously ill-defined, and many parameters contribute to batch-to-batch variation in hPL such as different amounts of plasma, a broad range of growth factors and donor-specific effects. The plasma components of hPL necessitate addition of anticoagulants such as heparins to prevent gelatinization of hPL medium, and their concentration must be standardized. Labels for description of hPL-such as "xenogen-free," "animal-free" and "serum free"-are not used consistently in the literature and may be misleading if not critically assessed. Further analysis of the precise composition of relevant growth factors, attachment factors, microRNAs and exosomes will pave the way for optimized and defined culture conditions. The use of hPL has several advantages and disadvantages: they must be taken into account because the choice of cell culture additive has major impact on cell preparations.

  1. Clinical-scale expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells: a large banking experience.

    PubMed

    Lechanteur, Chantal; Briquet, Alexandra; Giet, Olivier; Delloye, Olivier; Baudoux, Etienne; Beguin, Yves

    2016-05-20

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are largely investigated in clinical trials aiming to control inappropriate immune reactions (GVHD, Crohn's disease, solid organ transplantation). As the percentage of MSC precursors in bone marrow is very low, these must be expanded in vitro to obtain therapeutic cell doses. We describe here the constitution of an allogeneic human third-party MSC bank from screened healthy volunteer donors in compliance with quality specifications and ISCT-release criteria and report follow-up of different aspects of this activity since 2007. 68 clinical-grade large-scale MSC cultures were completed and analyzed. The whole process was described, including volunteer donor screening, bone marrow collection, mononuclear cell isolation and expansion over 4 weeks, harvesting, cryopreservation, release, administration and quality controls of the cells (including microbiology, phenotype, and potency assays). From 59 validated donors, 68 cultures were completed (mean of final yields: 886 × 10(6) cells/culture) and a total of 464 MSC aliquots have been produced and stored in liquid nitrogen (mean of 132.8 × 10(6) cells/bag). Each MSC batch underwent extensive testing to verify its conformity with EBMT and ISCT release criteria and was individually validated. As of June 1 2015, 314 bags have been released and infused to patients included in 6 different clinical protocols. All thawed MSC units satisfied to release criteria and no infusion-related toxicity was reported. In conclusion, despite low passage cultures, we have been able to create an allogeneic "off-the-shelf" MSC bank with a large number of frozen aliquots and report here an efficient clinical-grade MSC banking activity in place for more than 7 years. Our challenge now is to produce MSC in compliance with good manufacturing practices (GMP) as, in the meantime, MSC have become considered as advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP). Another significant challenge remains the development of

  2. Inflammatory Conditions Dictate the Effect of Mesenchymal Stem or Stromal Cells on B Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Franka; Carreras-Planella, Laura; Korevaar, Sander S.; de Witte, Samantha F. H.; Borràs, Francesc E.; Betjes, Michiel G. H.; Baan, Carla C.; Hoogduijn, Martin J.; Franquesa, Marcella

    2017-01-01

    The immunomodulatory capacity of mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSC) makes them a promising tool for treatment of immune disease and organ transplantation. The effects of MSC on B cells are characterized by an abrogation of plasmablast formation and induction of regulatory B cells (Bregs). It is, however, unknown how MSC interact with B cells under inflammatory conditions. In this study, adipose tissue-derived MSC were pretreated with 50 ng/ml IFN-γ for 96 h (MSC–IFN-γ) to simulate inflammatory conditions. Mature B cells were obtained from spleens by CD43− selection. B cells were co-cultured with MSC and stimulated with anti-IgM, anti-CD40, and IL-2; and after 7 days, B cell proliferation, phenotype, Immunoglobulin-G (IgG), and IL-10 production were analyzed. MSC did not inhibit B cell proliferation but increased the percentage of CD38high CD24high B cells (Bregs) and IL-10 production, while MSC–IFN-γ significantly reduced B cell proliferation and inhibited IgG production by B cells in a more potent fashion but did not induce Bregs or IL-10 production. Both MSC and MSC–IFN-γ required proximity to target cells and being metabolically active to exert their effects. Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase expression was highly induced in MSC–IFN-γ and was responsible of the anti-proliferative and Breg reduction since addition of tryptophan (TRP) restored MSC properties. Immunological conditions dictate the effect of MSC on B cell function. Under immunological quiescent conditions, MSC stimulate Breg induction; whereas, under inflammatory conditions, MSC inhibit B cell proliferation and maturation through depletion of TRP. This knowledge is useful for customizing MSC therapy for specific purposes by appropriate pretreatment of MSC. PMID:28894451

  3. Human placental multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells modulate placenta angiogenesis through Slit2-Robo signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng-Yi; Tsai, Chin-Han; Chen, Chia-Yu; Wu, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Chie-Pein

    2016-03-03

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether human placental multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (hPMSC)-derived Slit2 and endothelial cell Roundabout (Robo) receptors are involved in placental angiogenesis. The hPMSC-conditioned medium and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were studied for Slit2 and Robo receptor expression by immunoassay and RT-PCR. The effect of the conditioned medium of hPMSCs with or without Slit2 depletion on endothelial cells was investigated by in vitro angiogenesis using growth factor-reduced Matrigel. hPMSCs express Slit2 and both Robo1 and Robo4 are present in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells do not express Robo2 and Robo3. The hPMSC-conditioned medium and Slit2 recombinant protein significantly inhibit the endothelial cell migration, but not by the hPMSC-conditioned medium with Slit2 depletion. The hPMSC-conditioned medium and Slit2 significantly enhance endothelial tube formation with increased cumulated tube length, polygonal network number and vessel branching point number compared to endothelial cells alone. The tube formation is inhibited by the depletion of Slit2 from the conditioned medium, or following the expression of Robo1, Robo4, and both receptor knockdown using small interfering RNA. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation reveals Slit2 binds to Robo1 and Robo4. Robo1 interacts and forms a heterodimeric complex with Robo4. These results suggest the implication of both Robo receptors with Slit2 signaling, which is involved in endothelial cell angiogenesis. Slit2 in the conditioned medium of hPMSCs has functional effect on endothelial cells and may play a role in placental angiogenesis.

  4. Adipogenesis of the mesenchymal stromal cells and bone oedema in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Okada, A; Yamasaki, S; Koga, T; Kawashiri, S Y; Tamai, M; Origuchi, T; Nakamura, H; Eguchi, K; Kawakami, A

    2012-01-01

    Bone oedema is a pathological change in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that is detectable by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recent histological analyses revealed that a prominent feature of bone oedema is the replacement of adipose tissue with inflammatory cells. Here, we demonstrate the possible roles of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in bone oedema formation and the pathogenic potential of the cells in RA. Adipogenesis of bone marrow-derived human MSCs was induced by a standard adipogenic induction medium in the presence or absence of cytokines. The cytokine productions from MSCs were screened by an antibody array system and confirmed by ELISA. The migration assay was performed to determine the locomotive abilities of undifferentiated MSCs or MSCs after adipogenesis. The expression of α smooth muscle actin (SMA) and F-actin was examined by immunostaining and phalloidin staining, respectively. TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and TGF-β clearly inhibited the adipogenesis of MSCs. Production of IL-6 was markedly reduced, and IL-8 secretion was augmented in MSCs after adipogenesis. The mobility of MSCs after adipogenesis was clearly reduced in migration assays compared to that of undifferentiated MSCs. Consistent with these findings, SMA and F-actin expressions were clearly suppressed in MSCs committed to adipogenesis. Our data suggest that the inflammatory milieu promotes bone oedema by blocking adipogenesis of MSCs. In bone oedema, the enhanced IL-6 production and the increased mobility of MSCs may contribute to the progression of RA. Therefore, bone oedema may be an important target lesion in the treatment of RA.

  5. Alginate micro-encapsulation of mesenchymal stromal cells enhances modulation of the neuro-inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Stucky, Elizabeth C; Schloss, Rene S; Yarmush, Martin L; Shreiber, David I

    2015-10-01

    Modulation of inflammation after brain trauma is a key therapeutic goal aimed at limiting the consequences of the subsequent injury cascade. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to dynamically regulate the inflammatory environment in several tissue systems, including the central nervous system. There has been limited success, however, with the use of direct implantation of cells in the brain caused by low viability and engraftment at the injury site. To circumvent this, we encapsulated MSCs in alginate microspheres and evaluated the ability of these encapsulated MSCs to attenuate inflammation in rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC). OHSC were administered lipopolysaccharide to induce inflammation and immediately co-cultured with encapsulated or monolayer human MSCs. After 24 h, culture media was assayed for the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) produced by OHSC, as well as MSC-produced trophic mediators. Encapsulated MSCs reduced TNF-α more effectively than did monolayer MSCs. Additionally, there was a strong correlation between increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and reduction of TNF-α. In contrast to monolayer MSCs, inflammatory signals were not required to stimulate PGE2 production by encapsulated MSCs. Further encapsulation-stimulated changes were revealed in a multiplex panel analyzing 27 MSC-produced cytokines and growth factors, from which additional mediators with strong correlations to TNF-α levels were identified. These results suggest that alginate encapsulation of MSCs may not only provide an improved delivery vehicle for transplantation but may also enhance MSC therapeutic benefit for treating neuro-inflammation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Sphincter Regeneration: Role of Laminin Isoforms upon Myogenic Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Tanja; Hart, Melanie; Patarroyo, Manuel; Rolauffs, Bernd; Aicher, Wilhelm K; Klein, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are well known for their tri-lineage potential and ability to differentiate in vitro into osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic lineages. By selecting appropriate conditions MSCs can also be differentiated in vitro into the myogenic lineage and are therefore a promising option for cell-based regeneration of muscle tissue such as an aged or damaged sphincter muscle. For the differentiation into the myogenic lineage there is still a need to evaluate the effects of extracellular matrix proteins such as laminins (LM) which are crucial for different stem cell types and for normal muscle function. The laminin family consists of 16 functionally different isoforms with LM-211 being the most abundant isoform of adult muscle tissues. In the sphincter tissue a strong expression of the isoforms LM-211/221, LM-411/421 and LM-511/521 can be detected in the different cell layers. Bone marrow-derived MSCs in culture, however, mainly express the isoforms LM-411 and LM-511, but not LM-211. Even after myogenic differentiation, LM-211 can hardly be detected. All laminin isoforms tested (LM-211, LM-411, LM-511 and LM-521) showed a significant inhibition of the proliferation of undifferentiated MSCs but, with the exception of LM-521, they had no influence on the proliferation of MSCs cultivated in myogenic medium. The strongest cellular adhesion of MSCs was to LM-511 and LM-521, whereas LM-211 was only a weakly-adhesive substrate for MSCs. Myogenic differentiation of MSCs even reduced the interaction with LM-211, but it did not affect the interaction with LM-511 and LM-521. Since during normal myogenesis the latter two isoforms are the major laminins surrounding developing myogenic progenitors, α5 chain-containing laminins are recommended for further improvements of myogenic differentiation protocols of MSCs into smooth muscle cells.

  7. Spatial and temporal structure of the clinical research based on mesenchymal stromal cells: A network analysis.

    PubMed

    Monsarrat, Paul; Kemoun, Philippe; Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Sensebe, Luc; Casteilla, Louis; Planat-Benard, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Using innovative tools derived from social network analysis, the aims of this study were (i) to decipher the spatial and temporal structure of the research centers network dedicated to the therapeutic uses of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and (ii) to measure the influence of fields of applications, cellular sources and industry funding on network topography. From each trial using MSCs reported on ClinicalTrials.gov, all research centers were extracted. Networks were generated using Cytoscape 3.2.2, where each center was assimilated to a node, and one trial to an edge connecting two nodes. The analysis included 563 studies. An independent segregation was obvious between continents. Asian, South American and African centers were significantly more isolated than other centers. Isolated centers had fewer advanced phases (P <0.001), completed studies (P = 0.01) and industry-supported studies (P <0.001). Various thematic priorities among continents were identified: the cardiovascular, digestive and nervous system diseases were strongly studied by North America, Europe and Asia, respectively. The choice of cellular sources also affected the network topography; North America was primarily involved in bone-marrow-derived MSC research, whereas Europe and Asia dominated the use of adipose-derived MSCs. Industrial funding was the highest for North American centers (90.5%). Strengthening of international standards and statements with institutional, federal and industrial partners is necessary. More connections would facilitate the transfer of knowledge, sharing of resources, mobility of researchers and advancement of trials. Developing partnerships between industry and academic centers seems beneficial to the advancement of trials across different phases and would facilitate the translation of research discoveries. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunosuppressive capabilities of mesenchymal stromal cells are maintained under hypoxic growth conditions and after gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Nold, Philipp; Hackstein, Holger; Riedlinger, Tabea; Kasper, Cornelia; Neumann, Anne; Mernberger, Marco; Fölsch, Christian; Schmitt, Jan; Fuchs-Winkelmann, Susanne; Barckhausen, Christina; Killer, Madeleine; Neubauer, Andreas; Brendel, Cornelia

    2015-02-01

    The discovery of regenerative and immunosuppressive capacities of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) raises hope for patients with tissue-damaging or severe, treatment-refractory autoimmune disorders. We previously presented a method to expand human MSCs in a bioreactor under standardized Good Manufacturing Practice conditions. Now we characterized the impact of critical treatment conditions on MSCs with respect to immunosuppressive capabilities and proliferation. MSC proliferation and survival after γ irradiation were determined by 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester and annexinV/4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, respectively. T-cell proliferation assays were used to assess the effect of γ irradiation, passaging, cryopreservation, post-thaw equilibration time and hypoxia on T-cell suppressive capacities of MSCs. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and β-galactosidase staining served as tools to investigate differences between immunosuppressive and non-immunosuppressive MSCs. γ irradiation of MSCs abrogated their proliferation while vitality and T-cell inhibitory capacity were preserved. Passaging and long cryopreservation time decreased the T-cell suppressive function of MSCs, and postthaw equilibration time of 5 days restored this capability. Hypoxic culture markedly increased MSC proliferation without affecting their T-cell-suppressive capacity and phenotype. Furthermore, T-cell suppressive MSCs showed higher CXCL12 expression and less β-galactosidase staining than non-suppressive MSCs. We demonstrate that γ irradiation is an effective strategy to abrogate MSC proliferation without impairing the cells' immunosuppressive function. Hypoxia significantly enhanced MSC expansion, allowing for transplantation of MSCs with low passage number. In summary, our optimized MSC expansion protocol successfully addressed the issues of safety and preservation of immunosuppressive MSC function after ex vivo expansion for therapeutic purposes

  9. HDAC8 overexpression in mesenchymal stromal cells from JAK2+ myeloproliferative neoplasms: a new therapeutic target?

    PubMed

    Ramos, Teresa L; Sánchez-Abarca, Luis Ignacio; Redondo, Alba; Hernández-Hernández, Ángel; Almeida, Antonio M; Puig, Noemí; Rodríguez, Concepción; Ortega, Rebeca; Preciado, Silvia; Rico, Ana; Muntión, Sandra; González Porras, José Ramón; Del Cañizo, Consuelo; Sánchez-Guijo, Fermín

    2017-03-07

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are involved in epigenetic modulation and their aberrant expression has been demonstrated in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). HDAC8 inhibition has been shown to inhibit JAK2/STAT5 signaling in hematopoietic cells from MPN. Nevertheless, the role of HDAC8 expression in bone marrow-mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC) has not been assessed. In the current work we describe that HDAC8 is significantly over-expressed in MSC from in JAK-2 positive MPN compared to those from healthy-donors (HD-MSC). Using a selective HDAC8 inhibitor (PCI34051), we verified that the subsequent decrease in the protein and mRNA expression of HDAC8 is linked with an increased apoptosis of malignant MSC whereas it has no effects on normal MSC. In addition, HDAC8 inhibition in MPN-MSC also decreased their capacity to maintain neoplastic hematopoiesis, by increasing the apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest and colony formation of JAK2+-hematopoietic cells. Mechanistic studies using different MPN cell lines revealed that PCI34051 induced their apoptosis, which is enhanced when were co-cultured with JAK2V617F-MSC, decreased their colony formation and the phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT5. In summary, we show for the first time that the inhibition of HDAC8 in MSC from JAK2+ MPN patients selectively decreases their hematopoietic-supporting ability, suggesting that HDAC8 may be a potential therapeutic target in this setting by acting not only on hematopoietic cells but also on the malignant microenvironment.

  10. Extracellular superoxide dismutase increased the therapeutic potential of human mesenchymal stromal cells in radiation pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Zai-Liang; You, Hua

    2017-05-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis induced by irradiation is a significant problem of radiotherapy in cancer patients. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) is found to be predominantly and highly expressed in the extracellular matrix of lung and plays a pivotal role against oxidative damage. Early administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been demonstrated to reduce fibrosis of damaged lung. However, injection of MSCs at a later stage would be involved in fibrosis development. The present study aimed to determine whether injection of human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) over-expressing SOD3 at the established fibrosis stage would have beneficial effects in a mice model of radiation pulmonary fibrosis. Herein, pulmonary fibrosis in mice was induced using Cobalt-60 ((60)Co) irradiator with 20 Gy, followed by intravenous injection of UC-MSCs, transduced or not to express SOD3 at 2 h (early delivery) and 60 day (late delivery) post-irradiation, respectively. Our results demonstrated that the early administration of UC-MSCs could attenuate the microscopic damage, reduce collagen deposition, inhibit (myo)fibroblast proliferation, reduce inflammatory cell infiltration, protect alveolar type II (AE2) cell injury, prevent oxidative stress and increase antioxidant status, and reduce pro-fibrotic cytokine level in serum. Furthermore, the early treatment with SOD3-infected UC-MSCs resulted in better improvement. However, we failed to observe the therapeutic effects of UC-MSCs, transduced to express SOD3, during established fibrosis. Altogether, our results demonstrated that the early treatment with UC-MSCs alone significantly reduced radiation pulmonary fibrosis in mice through paracrine effects, with further improvement by administration of SOD3-infected UC-MSCs, suggesting that SOD3-infected UC-MSCs may be a potential cell-based gene therapy to treat clinical radiation pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by

  11. Functional characterisation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells from COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Roelofs, Helene; Zarcone, Maria C.; Taube, Christian; Stolk, Jan; Hiemstra, Pieter S.

    2016-01-01

    Autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are evaluated for clinical use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, but it is unclear whether COPD affects BM-MSCs. To investigate this, BM-MSCs from nine COPD patients and nine non-COPD age-matched controls were compared with regard to immunophenotype, growth and differentiation potential, and migration capacity. Other functional assays included the response to pro-inflammatory stimuli and inducers of the nuclear factor (erythroid derived 2)-like 2 antioxidant response element (Nrf2-ARE) pathway, and effects on NCI-H292 airway epithelial cells. No significant differences were observed in terms of morphology, proliferation and migration, except for increased adipocyte differentiation potential in the COPD group. Both groups were comparable regarding mRNA expression of growth factors and inflammatory mediators, and in their potential to induce mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor receptor ligands in NCI-H292 airway epithelial cells. MSCs from COPD patients secreted more interleukin-6 in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. Activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway resulted in a comparable induction of mRNA expression of four target genes, but the expression of the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene NQO1 was lower in MSCs from COPD patients. The observation that MSCs from COPD patients are phenotypically and functionally comparable to those from non-COPD controls implies that autologous MSCs can be considered for use in the setting of clinical trials as a treatment for COPD. PMID:27730190

  12. Quantitative activation suppression assay to evaluate human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell potency.

    PubMed

    Salem, Bahey; Miner, Samantha; Hensel, Nancy F; Battiwalla, Minoo; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Stroncek, David F; Gee, Adrian P; Hanley, Patrick J; Bollard, Catherine M; Ito, Sawa; Barrett, A John

    2015-12-01

    With the increasing use of cell therapies involving immune modulatory cells, there is a need for a simple standardized method to evaluate and compare the suppressive potency of different cell products. We used the Karpas 299 (K299) cell line as the reference suppressor cell to develop a standardized suppression assay to quantify the immune-modulatory capacity of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs). Healthy donor CD4 T cells were co-cultured with the K299 cell line or with third-party BM-MSCs. After stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 beads, CD154 activation and proliferation of CD4 T cells were measured to calculate suppression. The K299 cell line reproducibly suppressed both the activation and proliferation of healthy donor CD4 T cells in a dose-dependent manner. A rapid (16-h) assay that was based on activation-suppression was selected for development. In replicate testing, there was an inherent variability of suppression of 11% coefficient of variation between different responder T cells. Suppression by BM-MSCs on different responders correlated with suppression by K299. We therefore used K299 suppression as the reference to define suppression potency of BM-MSCs in K299 Suppression Units. We found that inter-donor variability, passage number, method of manufacture and exposure of BM-MSCs to steroids or interferon-γ all affected BM-MSC potency of suppression. This method provides a platform for standardizing suppressor function to facilitate comparisons between laboratories and for use as a cell product release assay. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Tolerogenic effect of mesenchymal stromal cells on gliadin-specific T lymphocytes in celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Camarca, Alessandra; Cangemi, Giuseppina Cristina; Radano, Giorgia; Vitale, Serena; Betti, Elena; Ferrari, Davide; Visai, Livia; Strada, Elena; Badulli, Carla; Locatelli, Franco; Klersy, Catherine; Gianfrani, Carmen; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2014-08-01

    Celiac disease is caused by a dysregulated immune response toward dietary gluten, whose only treatment is a lifelong gluten-free diet. We investigated the effects of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) on gliadin-specific T cells, which are known to induce intestinal lesions, in view of a possible use as new therapy. Bone marrow-derived MSCs and gliadin-specific T-cell lines were obtained from allogeneic donors and mucosal specimens of celiac patients, respectively. The immunosuppressant effect of MSCs was evaluated in terms of proliferative response and interferon (IFN)-γ production upon gliadin stimulation of long-term T-cell lines; the immunomodulant effect was assessed in terms of apoptotic rate, immunophenotype and cytokine profile of short-term T-cell lines generated in the presence of MSCs. Different MSC:T-cell ratios were applied, and statistics were performed as appropriate. MSCs inhibited both proliferative response and IFN-γ production of long-term T-cell lines in a dose-dependent manner while limiting the expansion of short-term T-cell lines by increasing the apoptotic rate. Moreover, a reduction of the CD4(+) population and expansion of the regulatory FoxP3+ subset were found in T-cell lines cultured with MSCs, in which a significant decrease of interleukin (IL)-21, IFN-γ and IL-10 paralleled by an upregulation of transforming growth factor-β1, IL-6 and IL-8 were observed. Finally, an increase of the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity was found, possibly playing a key role in mediating these effects. MSCs exert potent immunomodulant effects on gliadin-specific T cells, which may be exploited for future therapeutic application in celiac disease. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sustained expression of coagulation factor IX by modified cord blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Megan; Marquez-Curtis, Leah; Janowska-Wieczorek, Anna; Hortelano, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Hemophilia B patients are subject to frequent and spontaneous bleeding caused by a deficiency of clotting factor IX (FIX). Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been used in cellular therapies as a result of their immunomodulatory properties, the ability to home to sites of injury and their amenability to various ex vivo modifications, including lentiviral-mediated gene transfer. MSCs were isolated from human umbilical cord blood and differentiated into adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages. A lentiviral DNA vector containing the human FIX gene was generated using traditional restriction enzyme digest and ligation techniques to generate viable replication-incompetent lentiviral particles that were used to transduce MSCs. Quantitative measurement of FIX expression was conducted using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The over-expression of FIX was sustained in vitro at levels > 4 µg/10(6) cells/24 h and FIX coagulant activity was > 2.5 mIU/10(6) cells/24 h for the 6-week duration of study. Lentiviral modification of cells with a multiplicity of infection of 10 did not adversely affect the potential of cord blood (CB) MSCs to differentiate to adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblastic cells, and the expression of functional FIX was sustained after differentiation and was similar to that in nondifferentiated cells. Modification of human CB MSCs with a lentiviral vector resulted in sustained high FIX expression in vitro after differentiation to adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteoblastic cells. These modified MSCs could have applications in cellular therapies for hemophilia B. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. In vivo fluorescence imaging reveals the promotion of mammary tumorigenesis by mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Ke, Chien-Chih; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Kimura, Hiroaki; Ho, Jennifer H; Lee, Oscar K; Hoffman, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells which are recruited to the tumor microenvironment (TME) and influence tumor progression through multiple mechanisms. In this study, we examined the effects of MSCs on the tunmorigenic capacity of 4T1 murine mammary cancer cells. It was found that MSC-conditioned medium increased the proliferation, migration, and efficiency of mammosphere formation of 4T1 cells in vitro. When co-injected with MSCs into the mouse mammary fat pad, 4T1 cells showed enhanced tumor growth and generated increased spontaneous lung metastasis. Using in vivo fluorescence color-coded imaging, the interaction between GFP-expressing MSCs and RFP-expressing 4T1 cells was monitored. As few as five 4T1 cells could give rise to tumor formation when co-injected with MSCs into the mouse mammary fat pad, but no tumor was formed when five or ten 4T1 cells were implanted alone. The elevation of tumorigenic potential was further supported by gene expression analysis, which showed that when 4T1 cells were in contact with MSCs, several oncogenes, cancer markers, and tumor promoters were upregulated. Moreover, in vivo longitudinal fluorescence imaging of tumorigenesis revealed that MSCs created a vascularized environment which enhances the ability of 4T1 cells to colonize and proliferate. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the promotion of mammary cancer progression by MSCs was achieved through the generation of a cancer-enhancing microenvironment to increase tumorigenic potential. These findings also suggest the potential risk of enhancing tumor progression in clinical cell therapy using MSCs. Attention has to be paid to patients with high risk of breast cancer when considering cell therapy with MSCs.

  16. Additive manufactured polymeric 3D scaffolds with tailored surface topography influence mesenchymal stromal cells activity.

    PubMed

    Neves, Sara C; Mota, Carlos; Longoni, Alessia; Barrias, Cristina C; Granja, Pedro L; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2016-05-24

    Additive manufactured three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with tailored surface topography constitute a clear advantage in tissue regeneration strategies to steer cell behavior. 3D fibrous scaffolds of poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) block copolymer presenting different fiber surface features were successfully fabricated by additive manufacturing combined with wet-spinning, in a single step, without any post-processing. The optimization of the processing parameters, mainly driven by different solvent/non-solvent combinations, led to four distinct scaffold types, with average surface roughness values ranging from 0.071 ± 0.012 μm to 1.950 ± 0.553 μm, average pore sizes in the x- and y-axis between 351.1 ± 33.6 μm and 396.1 ± 32.3 μm, in the z-axis between 36.5 ± 5.3 μm and 70.7 ± 8.8 μm, average fiber diameters between 69.4 ± 6.1 μm and 99.0 ± 9.4 μm, and porosity values ranging from 60.2 ± 0.8% to 71.7 ± 2.6%. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) cultured on these scaffolds adhered, proliferated, and produced endogenous extracellular matrix. The effect of surface roughness and topography on hMSCs differentiation was more evident for cells seeded at lower density, where the percentage of cells in direct contact with the surface was higher compared to more densely seeded scaffolds. Under osteogenic conditions, lower surface roughness values (0.227 ± 0.035 μm) had a synergistic effect on hMSCs behavior, while chondrogenesis was favored on rougher surfaces (1.950 ± 0.553 μm).

  17. Clinical safety of intrathecal administration of mesenchymal stromal cell-derived neural progenitors in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Harris, Violaine K; Vyshkina, Tamara; Sadiq, Saud A

    2016-12-01

    There is a critical unmet need to develop regenerative therapies for the demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS). We previously characterized the immunoregulatory and trophic properties of neural progenitors derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC-NPs) and established that cells derived from MS and non-MS patients alike were therapeutically viable. In an experimental model of MS, intrathecal MSC-NP injection resulted in disease amelioration with decreased T-cell infiltration, and less severe lesion pathology associated with recruitment of resident progenitors to inflammatory sites. In this pilot feasibility study, we investigated safety and dosing of intrathecal MSC-NP therapy in six patients with MS. Patients with progressive MS and advanced disability who were refractory to all other conventional MS treatments were enrolled in the study. For each dose, MSC-NP cells were cultured from autologous MSCs and tested for quality control before intrathecal administration. Patients were evaluated for adverse events and neurological status to assess safety of the treatment. Six patients with progressive MS were treated with between 2 and 5 intrathecal injections of escalating doses of autologous MSC-NPs and were followed an average of 7.4 years after initial injection. There were no safety concerns noted, no serious adverse events, and the multiple dosing regimen was well tolerated. Four of the six patients showed a measurable clinical improvement following MSC-NP treatment. This pilot study supports preliminary first-in-human safety and tolerability of autologous MSC-NP treatment for MS. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intracellular trafficking and endocytosis of CXCR4 in fetal mesenchymal stem/stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fetal mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) represent a developmentally-advantageous cell type with translational potential. To enhance adult MSC migration, studies have focussed on the role of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand SDF-1 (CXCL12), but more recent work implicates an intricate system of CXCR4 receptor dimerization, intracellular localization, multiple ligands, splice variants and nuclear accumulation. We investigated the intracellular localization of CXCR4 in fetal bone marrow-derived MSC and role of intracellular trafficking in CXCR4 surface expression and function. Results We found that up to 4% of human fetal MSC have detectable surface-localized CXCR4. In the majority of cells, CXCR4 is located not at the cell surface, as would be required for ‘sensing’ migratory cues, but intracellularly. CXCR4 was identified in early endosomes, recycling endosomes, and lysosomes, indicating only a small percentage of CXCR4 travelling to the plasma membrane. Notably CXCR4 was also found in and around the nucleus, as detected with an anti-CXCR4 antibody directed specifically against CXCR4 isoform 2 differing only in N-terminal sequence. After demonstrating that endocytosis of CXCR4 is largely independent of endogenously-produced SDF-1, we next applied the cytoskeletal inhibitors blebbistatin and dynasore to inhibit endocytotic recycling. These increased the number of cells expressing surface CXCR4 by 10 and 5 fold respectively, and enhanced the number of cells migrating to SDF1 in vitro (up to 2.6 fold). These molecules had a transient effect on cell morphology and adhesion, which abated after the removal of the inhibitors, and did not alter functional stem cell properties. Conclusions We conclude that constitutive endocytosis is implicated in the regulation of CXCR4 membrane expression, and suggest a novel pharmacological strategy to enhance migration of systemically-transplanted cells. PMID:24885150

  19. Organotins Are Potent Activators of PPARγ and Adipocyte Differentiation in Bone Marrow Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yanik, Susan C.; Baker, Amelia H.; Mann, Koren K.; Schlezinger, Jennifer J.

    2011-01-01

    Adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow is potentially deleterious to both bone integrity and lymphopoiesis. Here, we examine the hypothesis that organotins, common environmental contaminants that are dual ligands for peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR) γ and its heterodimerization partner retinoid X receptor (RXR), are potent activators of bone marrow adipogenesis. A C57Bl/6-derived bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) line, BMS2, was treated with rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, bexarotene, an RXR agonist, or a series of organotins. Rosiglitazone and bexarotene potently activated adipocyte differentiation; however, bexarotene had a maximal efficacy of only 20% of that induced by rosiglitazone. Organotins (tributyltin [TBT], triphenyltin, and dibutyltin) also stimulated adipocyte differentiation (EC50 of 10–20nM) but with submaximal, structure-dependent efficacy. In coexposures, both bexarotene and TBT enhanced rosiglitazone-induced adipogenesis. To investigate the contribution of PPARγ to TBT-induced adipogenesis, we examined expression of PPARγ2, as well as its transcriptional target FABP4. TBT-induced PPARγ2 and FABP4 protein expression with an efficacy intermediate between rosiglitazone and bexarotene, similar to lipid accumulation. A PPARγ antagonist and PPARγ-specific small hairpin RNA suppressed TBT-induced differentiation, although to a lesser extent than rosiglitazone-induced differentiation, suggesting that TBT may engage alternate pathways. TBT and bexarotene, but not rosiglitazone, also induced the expression of TGM2 (an RXR target) and ABCA1 (a liver X receptor target). The results show that an environmental contaminant, acting with the same potency as a therapeutic drug, induces PPARγ-dependent adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow MSCs. Activation of multiple nuclear receptor pathways by organotins may have significant implications for bone physiology. PMID:21622945

  20. Endogenous mesenchymal stromal cells in bone marrow are required to preserve muscle function in mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Ryo; Tamai, Katsuto; Aikawa, Eriko; Nimura, Keisuke; Ishino, Saki; Kikuchi, Yasushi; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2015-03-01

    The physiological role of "endogenous" bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in tissue regeneration is poorly understood. Here, we show the significant contribution of unique endogenous BM-MSC populations to muscle regeneration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) mice (mdx). Transplantation of BM cells (BMCs) from 10-week-old mdx into 3-4-week-old mdx mice increased inflammation and fibrosis and reduced muscle function compared with mdx mice that received BMCs from 10-week-old wild-type mice, suggesting that the alteration of BMC populations in mdx mice affects the progression of muscle pathology. Two distinct MSC populations in BM, that is, hematopoietic lineage (Lin)(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(+) and Lin(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(-) cells, were significantly reduced in 10-week-old mdx mice in disease progression. The results of a whole-transcriptome analysis indicated that these two MSC populations have distinct gene expression profiles, indicating that the Lin(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(+) and Lin(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(-) MSC populations are proliferative- and dormant-state populations in BM, respectively. BM-derived Lin(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(+) MSCs abundantly migrated to damaged muscles and highly expressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha-stimulated gene/protein-6 (TSG-6), an anti-inflammatory protein, in damaged muscles. We also demonstrated that TSG-6 stimulated myoblast proliferation. The injection of Lin(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(+) MSCs into the muscle of mdx mice successfully ameliorated muscle dysfunction by decreasing inflammation and enhancing muscle regeneration through TSG-6-mediated activities. Thus, we propose a novel function of the unique endogenous BM-MSC population, which countered muscle pathology progression in a DMD model.

  1. The production method affects the efficacy of platelet derivatives to expand mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Martina; Agostini, Francesco; Chieregato, Katia; Amati, Eliana; Durante, Cristina; Rassu, Mario; Ruggeri, Marco; Sella, Sabrina; Lombardi, Elisabetta; Mazzucato, Mario; Astori, Giuseppe

    2017-05-01

    The use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a media supplement for the ex vivo expansion of bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC) has been discouraged by regulatory agencies, due to the risk of transmitting zoonoses and to elicit immune reactions in the host once transplanted. Platelet derivatives are valid FBS substitutes due to their content of growth factors that can be released disrupting the platelets by physical methods or physiological stimuli. We compared platelet derivatives produced by freezing/thawing (platelet lysates, PL) or after CaCl2 activation (platelet releasate surnatant rich in growth factors, PR-SRGF) for their content in growth factors and their ability to support the ex vivo expansion of BM-MSC. The cytokine content in the two platelet derivatives was evaluated. BM-MSC were expanded in complete medium containing 10, 7.5 and 5% PL or PR-SRGF and the cell phenotype, clonogenic capacity, immunomodulation properties and tri-lineage differentiation potential of the expanded cells in both media were investigated. The concentration of PDGF-AB, PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB in PR-SRGF resulted to be respectively 5.7×, 1.7× and 2.3× higher compared to PL. PR-SRGF promoted a higher BM-MSC proliferation rate compared to PL not altering BM-MSC phenotype. Colony forming efficiency of BM-MSC expanded in PR-SRGF showed a frequency of colonies significantly higher than cells expanded in PL. BM-MSC expanded in PL or PR-SRGF maintained their immunomodulatory properties against activated lymphocytes even if BM-MSC expanded in FBS performed significantly better. The method used to release platelet factors significantly affects the enrichment in growth factors and overall product performance. The standardization of the production process of platelet derivatives and the definition of their release criteria requires further investigation.

  2. HDAC8 overexpression in mesenchymal stromal cells from JAK2+ myeloproliferative neoplasms: a new therapeutic target?

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Teresa L.; Sánchez-Abarca, Luis Ignacio; Redondo, Alba; Hernández-Hernández, Ángel; Almeida, Antonio M.; Puig, Noemí; Rodríguez, Concepción; Ortega, Rebeca; Preciado, Silvia; Rico, Ana; Muntión, Sandra; González Porras, José Ramón; Cañizo, Consuelo Del; Sánchez-Guijo, Fermín

    2017-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are involved in epigenetic modulation and their aberrant expression has been demonstrated in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). HDAC8 inhibition has been shown to inhibit JAK2/STAT5 signaling in hematopoietic cells from MPN. Nevertheless, the role of HDAC8 expression in bone marrow-mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC) has not been assessed. In the current work we describe that HDAC8 is significantly over-expressed in MSC from in JAK-2 positive MPN compared to those from healthy-donors (HD-MSC). Using a selective HDAC8 inhibitor (PCI34051), we verified that the subsequent decrease in the protein and mRNA expression of HDAC8 is linked with an increased apoptosis of malignant MSC whereas it has no effects on normal MSC. In addition, HDAC8 inhibition in MPN-MSC also decreased their capacity to maintain neoplastic hematopoiesis, by increasing the apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest and colony formation of JAK2+-hematopoietic cells. Mechanistic studies using different MPN cell lines revealed that PCI34051 induced their apoptosis, which is enhanced when were co-cultured with JAK2V617F-MSC, decreased their colony formation and the phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT5. In summary, we show for the first time that the inhibition of HDAC8 in MSC from JAK2+ MPN patients selectively decreases their hematopoietic-supporting ability, suggesting that HDAC8 may be a potential therapeutic target in this setting by acting not only on hematopoietic cells but also on the malignant microenvironment. PMID:28390197

  3. Genetic stability of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells in the Quantum System.

    PubMed

    Jones, Mark; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Skokan, Margaret; Bryce, Steven; Schowinsky, Jeffrey; Peters, Rebecca; Vang, Boah; Brecheisen, Michelle; Startz, Thomas; Frank, Nathan; Nankervis, Brian

    2013-11-01

    The Quantum® Cell Expansion System (Quantum; Terumo BCT, Inc, Lakewood, CO, USA) is a novel hollow fiber-based device that automates and closes the cell culture process, reducing labor intensive tasks such as manual cell culture feeding and harvesting. The manual cell selection and expansion processes for the production of clinical-scale quantities of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-hMSCs) have been successfully translated onto the Quantum platform previously. The formerly static, manual, in vitro process performed primarily on tissue culture polystyrene substrates may raise the question of whether BM-hMSCs cultured on a hollow fiber platform yields comparable cell quality. A rigorous battery of assays was used to determine the genetic stability of BM-hMSCs selected and produced with the Quantum. In this study, genetic stability was determined by assessing spectral karyotype, micronucleus formation and tumorigenicity to resolve chromosomal aberrations in the stem cell population. Cell phenotype, adherent growth kinetics and tri-lineage differentiation were also evaluated. HMSC bone marrow aspirates, obtained from three approved donors, were expanded in parallel using T225 culture flasks and the Quantum. BM-hMSCs harvested from the Quantum demonstrated immunophenotype, morphology and tri-lineage differentiation capacity characteristics consistent with the International Society of Cell Therapy standard for hMSCs. Cell populations showed no malignant neoplastic formation in athymic mice 60 days post-transplant, no clonal chromosomal aberrations were observed and no DNA damage was found as measured by micronucleus formation. Quantum-produced BM-hMSCs are of comparable quality and demonstrate analogous genetic stability to BM-hMSCs cultured on tissue culture polystyrene substrates. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Amniotic fluid derived mesenchymal stromal cells augment fetal lung growth in a nitrofen explant model.

    PubMed

    Di Bernardo, Julie; Maiden, Michael M; Hershenson, Marc B; Kunisaki, Shaun M

    2014-06-01

    Recent experimental work suggests the therapeutic role of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) during lung morphogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential paracrine effects of amniotic fluid-derived MSCs (AF-MSCs) on fetal lung growth in a nitrofen explant model. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were gavage fed nitrofen on gestational day 9.5 (E9.5). E14.5 lung explants were subsequently harvested and cultured ex vivo for three days on filter membranes in conditioned media from rat AF-MSCs isolated from control (AF-Ctr) or nitrofen-exposed (AF-Nitro) dams. The lungs were analyzed morphometrically and by quantitative gene expression. Although there were no significant differences in total lung surface area among hypoplastic lungs, there were significant increases in terminal budding among E14.5+3 nitrofen explants exposed to AF-Ctr compared to explants exposed to medium alone (58.8±8.4 vs. 39.0±10.0 terminal buds, respectively; p<0.05). In contrast, lungs cultured in AF-Nitro medium failed to augment terminal budding. Nitrofen explants exposed to AF-Ctr showed significant upregulation of surfactant protein C to levels observed in normal fetal lungs. AF-MSCs can augment branching morphogenesis and lung epithelial maturation in a fetal explant model of pulmonary hypoplasia. Cell therapy using donor-derived AF-MSCs may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of fetal congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetically modified mesenchymal stem/stromal cells transfected with adiponectin gene can stably secrete adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Murad; Murali, Malliga Raman; Kamarul, Tunku

    2017-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) hold promises for the treatment of diverse diseases and regeneration of injured tissues. Genetic modification of MSCs through gene delivery might enhance their therapeutic potential. Adiponectin has been appeared as a potential biomarker for predicting various diseases. Plasma adiponectin levels are negatively correlated with various metabolic and vascular diseases and supplementation of exogenous adiponectin ameliorates the diseases. This study aims to develop adiponectin secreting genetically modified MSCs (GM-MSCs) as a potent strategic tool to complement endogenous adiponectin for the treatment of adiponectin deficiency diseases. Human bone marrow derived MSCs were isolated, expanded in vitro and transfected with adiponectin gene containing plasmid vector. Total RNA was extracted and cDNA was prepared by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of adiponectin gene and protein in GM-MSCs was analyzed by PCR and Western blotting respectively. The secretion of adiponectin protein from GM-MSCs was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of adiponectin gene and plasmid DNA was detected in GM-MSCs but not in control group of MSCs. Adiponectin gene expression was detected in GM-MSCs at 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28days after transfection. Western blotting analysis revealed the expression of adiponectin protein only in GM-MSCs. The GM-MSCs stably secreted adiponectin protein into culture media at least for 4weeks. GM-MSCs express and secret adiponectin protein. Therefore, these adiponectin secreting GM-MSCs could be instrumental for the supplementation of adiponectin in the treatment of adiponectin deficiency related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of canine mesenchymal stromal cells overexpressing heme oxygenase-1 in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Kim, Yongsun; Rhew, Daeun; Kim, Ahyoung; Jo, Kwang Rae; Yoon, Yongseok; Choi, Kyeung Uk; Jung, Taeseong; Kim, Wan Hee; Kweon, Oh-Kyeong

    2017-09-30

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress-responsive enzyme that modulates the immune response and oxidative stress associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). This study aimed to investigate neuronal regeneration via transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) overexpressing HO-1. Canine MSCs overexpressing HO-1 were generated by using a lentivirus packaging protocol. Eight beagle dogs with experimentally-induced SCI were divided into GFP-labeled MSC (MSC-GFP) and HO-1-overexpressing MSC (MSC-HO-1) groups. MSCs (1 × 10(7) cells) were transplanted at 1 week after SCI. Spinal cords were harvested 8 weeks after transplantation, after which histopathological, immunofluorescence, and western blot analyses were performed. The MSC-HO-1 group showed significantly improved functional recovery at 7 weeks after transplantation. Histopathological results showed fibrotic changes and microglial cell infiltration were significantly decreased in the MSC-HO-1 group. Immunohistochemical (IHC) results showed significantly increased expression levels of HO-1 and neuronal markers in the MSC-HO-1 group. Western blot results showed significantly decreased expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, cycloogygenase 2, phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and galactosylceramidase in the MSC-HO-1 group, while expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein, β3-tubulin, neurofilament medium, and neuronal nuclear antigen were similar to those observed in IHC results. Our results demonstrate that functional recovery after SCI can be promoted to a greater extent by transplantation of HO-1-overexpressing MSCs than by normal MSCs.

  7. The expression of neurogenic markers after neuronal induction of chorion-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Manochantr, Sirikul; Marupanthorn, Kulisara; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Kheolamai, Pakpoom

    2015-06-01

    Chorion is a tissue of early embryologic period that is discarded after delivery. It might be the potential source of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) that can be used for research and eventually for therapeutic studies. At present, the biological properties and the differentiation capacity of chorion-derived MSCs are still poorly characterised. The objective of this study is to characterise and explore the differentiating potential of chorion-derived MSCs towards the neuronal lineages. Chorionic membrane was digested with enzyme and cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. The expression of MSC markers was examined using flow cytometry. The adipogenic, osteogenic and neurogenic differentiation were examined by culturing in appropriate induction media. The expression of neuronal markers was determined by immunofluorescence and quantitative real time-PCR. Chorion-derived MSCs were easily expanded up to 20 passages. They were positive for MSC markers (CD73, CD90 and CD105), and negative for haematopoietic markers (CD34 and CD45). Chorion-derived MSCs could differentiate into several mesodermal-lineages including adipocytes and osteoblasts. Moreover, chorion-derived MSCs could differentiate into neuronal-like cells as characterised by cell morphology and the presence of neural markers including MAP-2, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and beta-tubulin III. Chorion-derived MSCs can be readily obtained and expanded in culture. These cells also have transdifferentiation capacity as evidenced by their neuronal differentiation potential. Therefore, chorion can be used as an alternative source of MSCs for stem cell therapy in nervous system disorders.

  8. Intramuscular Transplantation of Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Equine Umbilical Cord

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Marianne Camargos; da Cruz Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda; de Moraes, Carolina Nogueira; da Costa, Leonardo Dourado; Geraldini, Caroline Medeiros; de Vasconcelos Machado, Vânia Maria; Maia, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have great therapeutic potential, particularly in the process of tissue repair and immunomodulation through the secretion of biomolecules. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that intramuscular transplantation of allogeneic MSCs obtained from equine umbilical cord (UC-MSCs) is safe, demonstrating that this is a suitable source of stem cells for therapeutic use. Methods and Results For this, UC-MSCs were cultured, characterized and cryopreserved for future transplantation in six healthy mares. On day 0, transplantation of three million UC-MSCs diluted in Hank’s Balanced Solution (HBSS) was performed on right and left sides of the rump muscle. As a control, HBSS injections were performed caudally in the same muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained as a control 30 days before transplantation (D-30). The biopsies were collected again on day 2 (left side) and day 7 (right side) post transplantation and examined histologically. All procedures were preceded by ultrasound examination and blood sampling. Hematologic evaluation remained within normal limits and no differences were observed between time points (p>0.05). Ultrasound examination was suggestive of inflammation 48 hours after transplantation in both groups (control and treated). At histological evaluation it was found only discrete inflammation signals between D-30×D2 (p<0.05) in the treated group, without differences (p> 0.05) between the groups at different time points. Conclusions Equine UC-MSCs under the experimental conditions did not promote severe inflammation that causes tissue damage or lead to its rejection by the host organism and therefore has a good potential for clinical use. PMID:27572709

  9. Efficient manufacturing of therapeutic mesenchymal stromal cells with the use of the Quantum Cell Expansion System.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Patrick J; Mei, Zhuyong; Durett, April G; Cabreira-Hansen, Maria da Graca; Cabreira-Harrison, Marie da Graca; Klis, Mariola; Li, Wei; Zhao, Yali; Yang, Bing; Parsha, Kaushik; Mir, Osman; Vahidy, Farhaan; Bloom, Debra; Rice, R Brent; Hematti, Peiman; Savitz, Sean I; Gee, Adrian P

    2014-08-01

    The use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) as a cellular therapy for various diseases, such as graft-versus-host disease, diabetes, ischemic cardiomyopathy and Crohn's disease, has produced promising results in early-phase clinical trials. However, for widespread application and use in later phase studies, manufacture of these cells must be cost-effective, safe and reproducible. Current methods of manufacturing in flasks or cell factories are labor-intensive, involve a large number of open procedures and require prolonged culture times. We evaluated the Quantum Cell Expansion System for the expansion of large numbers of MSCs from unprocessed bone marrow in a functionally closed system and compared the results with a flask-based method currently in clinical trials. After only two passages, we were able to expand a mean of 6.6 × 10(8) MSCs from 25 mL of bone marrow reproducibly. The mean expansion time was 21 days, and cells obtained were able to differentiate into all three lineages: chondrocytes, osteoblasts and adipocytes. The Quantum was able to generate the target cell number of 2.0 × 10(8) cells in an average of 9 fewer days and in half the number of passages required during flask-based expansion. We estimated that the Quantum would involve 133 open procedures versus 54,400 in flasks when manufacturing for a clinical trial. Quantum-expanded MSCs infused into an ischemic stroke rat model were therapeutically active. The Quantum is a novel method of generating high numbers of MSCs in less time and at lower passages when compared with flasks. In the Quantum, the risk of contamination is substantially reduced because of the substantial decrease in open procedures. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Do Cryopreserved Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Display Impaired Immunomodulatory and Therapeutic Properties?

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Guido; Alm, Jessica J.; Davies, Lindsay C.; von Bahr, Lena; Heldring, Nina; Stenbeck-Funke, Lillemor; Hamad, Osama A.; Hinsch, Robin; Ignatowicz, Lech; Locke, Matthew; Lönnies, Helena; Lambris, John D.; Teramura, Yuji; Nilsson-Ekdahl, Kristina; Nilsson, Bo; Le Blanc, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    We have recently reported that therapeutic mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have low engraftment and trigger the instant blood mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR) after systemic delivery to patients, resulting in compromised cell function. In order to optimize the product, we compared the immunomodulatory, blood regulatory, and therapeutic properties of freeze-thawed and freshly harvested cells. We found that freeze-thawed MSCs, as opposed to cells harvested from continuous cultures, have impaired immunomodulatory and blood regulatory properties. Freeze-thawed MSCs demonstrated reduced responsiveness to proinflammatory stimuli, an impaired production of anti-inflammatory mediators, increased triggering of the IBMIR, and a strong activation of the complement cascade compared to fresh cells. This resulted in twice the efficiency in lysis of thawed MSCs after 1 hour of serum exposure. We found a 50% and 80% reduction in viable cells with freshly detached as opposed to thawed in vitro cells, indicating a small benefit for fresh cells. In evaluation of clinical response, we report a trend that fresh cells, and cells of low passage, demonstrate improved clinical outcome. Patients treated with freshly harvested cells in low passage had a 100% response rate, twice the response rate of 50% observed in a comparable group of patients treated with freeze-thawed cells at higher passage. We conclude that cryobanked MSCs have reduced immunomodulatory and blood regulatory properties directly after thawing, resulting in faster complement-mediated elimination after blood exposure. These changes seem to be paired by differences in therapeutic efficacy in treatment of immune ailments after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:24805247

  11. Organotins are potent activators of PPARγ and adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Susan C; Baker, Amelia H; Mann, Koren K; Schlezinger, Jennifer J

    2011-08-01

    Adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow is potentially deleterious to both bone integrity and lymphopoiesis. Here, we examine the hypothesis that organotins, common environmental contaminants that are dual ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ and its heterodimerization partner retinoid X receptor (RXR), are potent activators of bone marrow adipogenesis. A C57Bl/6-derived bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) line, BMS2, was treated with rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, bexarotene, an RXR agonist, or a series of organotins. Rosiglitazone and bexarotene potently activated adipocyte differentiation; however, bexarotene had a maximal efficacy of only 20% of that induced by rosiglitazone. Organotins (tributyltin [TBT], triphenyltin, and dibutyltin) also stimulated adipocyte differentiation (EC₅₀ of 10-20 nM) but with submaximal, structure-dependent efficacy. In coexposures, both bexarotene and TBT enhanced rosiglitazone-induced adipogenesis. To investigate the contribution of PPARγ to TBT-induced adipogenesis, we examined expression of PPARγ2, as well as its transcriptional target FABP4. TBT-induced PPARγ2 and FABP4 protein expression with an efficacy intermediate between rosiglitazone and bexarotene, similar to lipid accumulation. A PPARγ antagonist and PPARγ-specific small hairpin RNA suppressed TBT-induced differentiation, although to a lesser extent than rosiglitazone-induced differentiation, suggesting that TBT may engage alternate pathways. TBT and bexarotene, but not rosiglitazone, also induced the expression of TGM2 (an RXR target) and ABCA1 (a liver X receptor target). The results show that an environmental contaminant, acting with the same potency as a therapeutic drug, induces PPARγ-dependent adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow MSCs. Activation of multiple nuclear receptor pathways by organotins may have significant implications for bone physiology.

  12. Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Patients with Sickle Cell Disease Display Intact Functionality.

    PubMed

    Stenger, Elizabeth O; Chinnadurai, Raghavan; Yuan, Shala; Garcia, Marco; Arafat, Dalia; Gibson, Greg; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan; Galipeau, Jacques

    2017-01-26

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the only cure for sickle cell disease (SCD), but engraftment remains challenging in patients lacking matched donors. Infusion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) at the time of HCT may promote hematopoiesis and ameliorate graft-versus-host disease. Experimental murine models suggest MSC major histocompatibility complex compatibility with recipient impacts their in vivo function, suggesting autologous MSCs could be superior to third-party MSCs for promoting HCT engraftment. Here we tested whether bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs from SCD subjects have comparable functionality compared with MSCs from healthy volunteers. SCD MSC doubling time and surface marker phenotype did not differ significantly from non-SCD. Third-party and autologous (SCD) T cell proliferation was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by all MSCs. SCD MSCs comparably expressed indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase, which based on transwell and blocking experiments appeared to be the dominant immunomodulatory pathway. The expression of key genes involved in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-MSC interactions was minimally altered between SCD and non-SCD MSCs. Expression was, however, altered by IFN-γ stimulation, particularly CXCL14, CXCL26, CX3CL1, CKITL, and JAG1, indicating the potential to augment MSC expression by cytokine stimulation. These data demonstrate the feasibility of expanding BM-derived MSCs from SCD patients that phenotypically and functionally do not differ per International Society of Cell Therapy essential criteria from non-SCD MSCs, supporting initial evaluation (primarily for safety) of autologous MSCs to enhance haploidentical HSC engraftment in SCD.

  13. Long term maintenance of myeloid leukemic stem cells cultured with unrelated human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Ito, Sawa; Barrett, A John; Dutra, Amalia; Pak, Evgenia; Miner, Samantha; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Hensel, Nancy F; Rezvani, Katayoun; Muranski, Pawel; Liu, Paul; Larochelle, Andre; Melenhorst, J Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) support the growth and differentiation of normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Here we studied the ability of MSCs to support the growth and survival of leukemic stem cells (LSCs) in vitro. Primary leukemic blasts isolated from the peripheral blood of 8 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were co-cultured with equal numbers of irradiated MSCs derived from unrelated donor bone marrow, with or without cytokines for up to 6weeks. Four samples showed CD34(+)CD38(-) predominance, and four were predominantly CD34(+)CD38(+). CD34(+) CD38(-) predominant leukemia cells maintained the CD34(+) CD38(-) phenotype and were viable for 6weeks when co-cultured with MSCs compared to co-cultures with cytokines or medium only, which showed rapid differentiation and loss of the LSC phenotype. In contrast, CD34(+) CD38(+) predominant leukemic cells maintained the CD34(+)CD38(+) phenotype when co-cultured with MSCs alone, but no culture conditions supported survival beyond 4weeks. Cell cycle analysis showed that MSCs maintained a higher proportion of CD34(+) blasts in G0 than leukemic cells cultured with cytokines. AML blasts maintained in culture with MSCs for up to 6weeks engrafted NSG mice with the same efficiency as their non-cultured counterparts, and the original karyotype persisted after co-culture. Chemosensitivity and transwell assays suggest that MSCs provide pro-survival benefits to leukemic blasts through cell-cell contact. We conclude that MSCs support long-term maintenance of LSCs in vitro. This simple and inexpensive approach will facilitate basic investigation of LSCs and enable screening of novel therapeutic agents targeting LSCs. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Promote Axonal Outgrowth Alone and Synergistically with Astrocytes via tPA

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jian-Yong; Chopp, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We reported that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) enhance neurological recovery from experimental stroke and increase tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) expression in astrocytes. Here, we investigate mechanisms by which tPA mediates MSC enhanced axonal outgrowth. Primary murine neurons and astrocytes were isolated from wild-type (WT) and tPA-knockout (KO) cortices of embryos. Mouse MSCs (WT) were purchased from Cognate Inc. Neurons (WT or KO) were seeded in soma side of Xona microfluidic chambers, and astrocytes (WT or KO) and/or MSCs in axon side. The chambers were cultured as usual (normoxia) or subjected to oxygen deprivation. Primary neurons (seeded in plates) were co-cultured with astrocytes and/or MSCs (in inserts) for Western blot. In chambers, WT axons grew significantly longer than KO axons and exogenous tPA enhanced axonal outgrowth. MSCs increased WT axonal outgrowth alone and synergistically with WT astrocytes at both normoxia and oxygen deprivation conditions. The synergistic effect was inhibited by U0126, an ERK inhibitor, and receptor associated protein (RAP), a low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 (LRP1) ligand antagonist. However, MSCs exerted neither individual nor synergistic effects on KO axonal outgrowth. Western blot showed that MSCs promoted astrocytic tPA expression and increased neuronal tPA alone and synergistically with astrocytes. Also, MSCs activated neuronal ERK alone and synergistically with astrocytes, which was inhibited by RAP. We conclude: (1) MSCs promote axonal outgrowth via neuronal tPA and synergistically with astrocytic tPA; (2) neuronal tPA is critical to observe the synergistic effect of MSC and astrocytes on axonal outgrowth; and (3) tPA mediates MSC treatment-induced axonal outgrowth through the LRP1 receptor and ERK. PMID:27959956

  15. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Sphincter Regeneration: Role of Laminin Isoforms upon Myogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Seeger, Tanja; Hart, Melanie; Patarroyo, Manuel; Rolauffs, Bernd; Aicher, Wilhelm K.; Klein, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are well known for their tri-lineage potential and ability to differentiate in vitro into osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic lineages. By selecting appropriate conditions MSCs can also be differentiated in vitro into the myogenic lineage and are therefore a promising option for cell-based regeneration of muscle tissue such as an aged or damaged sphincter muscle. For the differentiation into the myogenic lineage there is still a need to evaluate the effects of extracellular matrix proteins such as laminins (LM) which are crucial for different stem cell types and for normal muscle function. The laminin family consists of 16 functionally different isoforms with LM-211 being the most abundant isoform of adult muscle tissues. In the sphincter tissue a strong expression of the isoforms LM-211/221, LM-411/421 and LM-511/521 can be detected in the different cell layers. Bone marrow-derived MSCs in culture, however, mainly express the isoforms LM-411 and LM-511, but not LM-211. Even after myogenic differentiation, LM-211 can hardly be detected. All laminin isoforms tested (LM-211, LM-411, LM-511 and LM-521) showed a significant inhibition of the proliferation of undifferentiated MSCs but, with the exception of LM-521, they had no influence on the proliferation of MSCs cultivated in myogenic medium. The strongest cellular adhesion of MSCs was to LM-511 and LM-521, whereas LM-211 was only a weakly-adhesive substrate for MSCs. Myogenic differentiation of MSCs even reduced the interaction with LM-211, but it did not affect the interaction with LM-511 and LM-521. Since during normal myogenesis the latter two isoforms are the major laminins surrounding developing myogenic progenitors, α5 chain-containing laminins are recommended for further improvements of myogenic differentiation protocols of MSCs into smooth muscle cells. PMID:26406476

  16. Diverse effects of cyclic AMP variants on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Doorn, Joyce; Leusink, Maarten; Groen, Nathalie; van de Peppel, Jeroen; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; de Boer, Jan

    2012-07-01

    Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) may potentially be used in cell-based bone tissue-engineering applications to enhance the bone-forming potential of these cells. Osteogenic differentiation and adipogenic differentiation are thought to be mutually exclusive, and although several signaling pathways and cues that induce osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation, respectively, have been identified, there is no general consensus on how to optimally differentiate hMSCs into the osteogenic lineage. Some pathways have also been reported to be involved in both adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation, as for example, the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, and the aim of this study was to investigate the role of cAMP/PKA signaling in differentiation of hMSCs in more detail. We show that activation of this pathway with dibutyryl-cAMP results in enhanced alkaline phosphatase expression, whereas another cAMP analog induces adipogenesis in long-term mineralization cultures. Adipogenic differentiation, induced by 8-bromo-cAMP, was accompanied by stronger PKA activity and higher expression of cAMP-responsive genes, suggesting that stronger activation correlates with adipogenic differentiation. In addition, a whole-genome expression analysis showed an increase in expression of adipogenic genes in 8-br-cAMP-treated cells. Furthermore, by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we show differences in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation, either alone or in combination with dexamethasone, thus demonstrating differential effects of the PKA pathway, most likely depending on its mode of activation.

  17. The Effect of Local Anesthetic on Pro-inflammatory Macrophage Modulation by Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Andrea; Marrero-Berrios, Ileana; Weinberg, Jonathan; Manchikalapati, Devasena; SchianodiCola, Joseph; Schloss, Rene S.; Yarmush, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Administering local anesthetics (LAs) peri- and post-operatively aims to prevent or mitigate pain in surgical procedures and after tissue injury in cases of osteoarthritis (OA) and other degenerative diseases. Innovative tissue protective and reparative therapeutic interventions such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are likely to be exposed to co-administered drugs such as LAs. Therefore, it is important to determine how this exposure affects the therapeutic functions of MSCs and other cells in their target microenvironment. In these studies, we measured the effect of LAs, lidocaine and bupivacaine, on macrophage viability and pro-inflammatory secretion. We also examined their effect on modulation of the macrophage pro-inflammatory phenotype in an in vitro co-culture system with MSCs, by quantifying macrophage tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion and MSC prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Our studies indicate that both LAs directly attenuated macrophage TNF-α secretion, without significantly affecting viability, in a concentration- and potency-dependent manner. LA-mediated attenuation of macrophage TNF-α was sustained in co-culture with MSCs, but MSCs did not further enhance this anti-inflammatory effect. Concentration- and potency-dependent reductions in macrophage TNF-α were concurrent with decreased PGE2 levels in the co-cultures further indicating MSC-independent macrophage attenuation. MSC functional recovery from LA exposure was assessed by pre-treating MSCs with LAs prior to co-culture with macrophages. Both MSC attenuation of TNF-α and PGE2 secretion were impaired by pre-exposure to the more potent bupivacaine and high dose of lidocaine in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, LAs can affect anti-inflammatory function by both directly attenuating macrophage inflammation and MSC secretion and possibly by altering the local microenvironment which can secondarily reduce MSC function. Furthermore, the LA effect on MSC function may persist

  18. The effect of local anesthetic on pro-inflammatory macrophage modulation by mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Gray, Andrea; Marrero-Berrios, Ileana; Weinberg, Jonathan; Manchikalapati, Devasena; SchianodiCola, Joseph; Schloss, Rene S; Yarmush, Joel

    2016-04-01

    Administering local anesthetics (LAs) peri- and post-operatively aims to prevent or mitigate pain in surgical procedures and after tissue injury in cases of osteoarthritis (OA) and other degenerative diseases. Innovative tissue protective and reparative therapeutic interventions such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are likely to be exposed to co-administered drugs such as LAs. Therefore, it is important to determine how this exposure affects the therapeutic functions of MSCs and other cells in their target microenvironment. In these studies, we measured the effect of LAs, lidocaine and bupivacaine, on macrophage viability and pro-inflammatory secretion. We also examined their effect on modulation of the macrophage pro-inflammatory phenotype in an in vitro co-culture system with MSCs, by quantifying macrophage tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion and MSC prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Our studies indicate that both LAs directly attenuated macrophage TNF-α secretion, without significantly affecting viability, in a concentration- and potency-dependent manner. LA-mediated attenuation of macrophage TNF-α was sustained in co-culture with MSCs, but MSCs did not further enhance this anti-inflammatory effect. Concentration- and potency-dependent reductions in macrophage TNF-α were concurrent with decreased PGE2 levels in the co-cultures further indicating MSC-independent macrophage attenuation. MSC functional recovery from LA exposure was assessed by pre-treating MSCs with LAs prior to co-culture with macrophages. Both MSC attenuation of TNF-α and PGE2 secretion were impaired by pre-exposure to the more potent bupivacaine and high dose of lidocaine in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, LAs can affect anti-inflammatory function by both directly attenuating macrophage inflammation and MSC secretion and possibly by altering the local microenvironment which can secondarily reduce MSC function. Furthermore, the LA effect on MSC function may persist

  19. Titanium biomaterials with complex surfaces induced aberrant peripheral circadian rhythms in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Nathaniel; Mengatto, Cristiane M.; Langfelder, Peter; Hokugo, Akishige; Tahara, Yu; Colwell, Christopher S.

    2017-01-01

    Circadian rhythms maintain a high level of homeostasis through internal feed-forward and -backward regulation by core molecules. In this study, we report the highly unusual peripheral circadian rhythm of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) induced by titanium-based biomaterials with complex surface modifications (Ti biomaterial) commonly used for dental and orthopedic implants. When cultured on Ti biomaterials, human BMSCs suppressed circadian PER1 expression patterns, while NPAS2 was uniquely upregulated. The Ti biomaterials, which reduced Per1 expression and upregulated Npas2, were further examined with BMSCs harvested from Per1::luc transgenic rats. Next, we addressed the regulatory relationship between Per1 and Npas2 using BMSCs from Npas2 knockout mice. The Npas2 knockout mutation did not rescue the Ti biomaterial-induced Per1 suppression and did not affect Per2, Per3, Bmal1 and Clock expression, suggesting that the Ti biomaterial-induced Npas2 overexpression was likely an independent phenomenon. Previously, vitamin D deficiency was reported to interfere with Ti biomaterial osseointegration. The present study demonstrated that vitamin D supplementation significantly increased Per1::luc expression in BMSCs, though the presence of Ti biomaterials only moderately affected the suppressed Per1::luc expression. Available in vivo microarray data from femurs exposed to Ti biomaterials in vitamin D-deficient rats were evaluated by weighted gene co-expression network analysis. A large co-expression network containing Npas2, Bmal1, and Vdr was observed to form with the Ti biomaterials, which was disintegrated by vitamin D deficiency. Thus, the aberrant BMSC peripheral circadian rhythm may be essential for the integration of Ti biomaterials into bone. PMID:28817668

  20. Neurorestorative Responses to Delayed Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Treatment of Stroke in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tao; Venkat, Poornima; Chopp, Michael; Zacharek, Alex; Ning, Ruizhuo; Roberts, Cynthia; Zhang, Yi; Lu, Mei; Chen, Jieli

    2016-11-01

    Comorbidity of diabetes mellitus and stroke results in worse functional outcome, poor long-term recovery, and extensive vascular damage. We investigated the neurorestorative effects and mechanisms of stroke treatment with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. Adult male Wistar rats were induced with T2DM, subjected to 2 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) and treated via tail-vein injection with (1) PBS (n=8) and (2) hMSCs (n=10; 5×10(6)) at 3 days after MCAo. In T2DM rats, hMSCs administered at 3 days after MCAo significantly improves neurological function without affecting blood glucose, infarct volume, and incidence of brain hemorrhage in comparison to T2DM-MCAo PBS-treated rats. Delayed hMSC treatment of T2DM stroke significantly improves blood-brain barrier integrity, increases vascular and arterial density and cerebral vascular perfusion, and promotes neuroblast cell migration and white matter remodeling as indicated by increased doublecortin, axon, myelin, and neurofilament density, respectively. Delayed hMSC treatment significantly increases platelet-derived growth factor expression in the ischemic brain, decreases proinflammatory M1 macrophage and increases anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage compared to PBS-treated T2DM-MCAo rats. In vitro data show that hMSCs increase subventricular zone explant cell migration and primary cortical neuron neurite outgrowth, whereas inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor decreases hMSC-induced subventricular zone cell migration and axonal outgrowth. In T2DM stroke rats, delayed hMSC treatment significantly improves neurological functional outcome and increases neurorestorative effects and M2 macrophage polarization. Increasing brain platelet-derived growth factor expression may contribute to hMSC-induced neurorestoration. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Intraluminal Injection of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Spheroids Attenuates Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    Molendijk, Ilse; Barnhoorn, Marieke C; de Jonge-Muller, Eveline S M; Mieremet-Ooms, Marij A C; van der Reijden, Johan J; van der Helm, Danny; Hommes, Daniel W; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E; Verspaget, Hein W

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, mesenchymal stromal cells [MSCs] emerged as a promising therapeutic option for various diseases, due to their immunomodulatory properties. We previously observed that intraperitoneally injected MSCs in experimental colitis form spherical shaped aggregates. Therefore, we aggregated MSCs in vitro into spheroids and injected them intraluminally in mice with established colitis, to investigate whether these MSC spheroids could alleviate the colitis. We injected 0.5 x 10(6) MSCs in spheroids, 2.0 x 10(6) MSCs in spheroids, or phosphate-buffered saline [PBS] as a treatment control, via an enema in mice with established dextran sulphate sodium [DSS]-induced colitis. Body weight was measured daily and disease activity score was determined at sacrifice. Endoscopy was performed to evaluate mucosal healing. After sacrifice, both systemic and local inflammatory responses were evaluated. Intraluminally injected MSC spheroids alleviated DSS-induced colitis, resulting in significantly less body weight loss and lower disease activity score at sacrifice when a high dose of MSC spheroids was administered. However, the percentage of mucosal lesions in the distal colon and endoscopy scores were not significantly lower after treatment with 2.0 x 10(6) MSCs in spheroids compared with PBS-treated mice. Systemic inflammation marker serum amyloid A [SAA] was significantly reduced after treatment with 2.0 x 10(6) MSCs in spheroids. In addition, local cytokine levels of IFN-ɣ, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17a, as well as numbers of macrophages and neutrophils, showed a clear decrease-though not always significant-after intraluminal injection of the MSC spheroids. Intraluminally injected MSC spheroids at least partially attenuate experimental colitis, with fewer phagocytes and proinflammmatory cytokines, when a high dose of MSCs in spheroids was administered. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  2. Immunomodulation of endothelial differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells: impact on T and NK cells.

    PubMed

    El Omar, Reine; Xiong, Yu; Dostert, Gabriel; Louis, Huguette; Gentils, Monique; Menu, Patrick; Stoltz, Jean-François; Velot, Émilie; Decot, Véronique

    2016-04-01

    Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stromal cells (WJ-MSCs) are promising candidates for tissue engineering, as their immunomodulatory activity allows them to escape immune recognition and to suppress several immune cell functions. To date, however, few studies have investigated the effect of differentiation of the MSCs on this immunomodulation. To address this question, we sought to determine the impact of differentiation toward endothelial cells on immunoregulation by WJ-MSCs. Following differentiation, the endothelial-like cells (ELCs) were positive for CD31, vascular endothelial cadherin and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, and able to take up acetylated low-density lipoproteins. The expression of HLA-DR and CD86, which contribute to MSCs immunoprivilege, was still weak after differentiation. We then co-cultured un- and differentiated MSCs with immune cells, under conditions of both direct and indirect contact. The proliferation and phenotype of the immune cells were analyzed and the mediators secreted by both ELCs and WJ-MSCs quantified. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, prostaglandin E2 and in particular indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase expression were upregulated in ELCs on stimulation by T and NK cells, suggesting the possible involvement of these factors in allosuppression. ELCs co-cultured with T cells were able to generate CD25(+) T cells, which were shown to be of the CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory subset. Direct contact between NK cells and ELCs or WJ-MSCs decreased the level of NK-activating receptor natural-killer group 2, member D. Moreover, direct co-culturing with ELCs stimulates CD73 acquisition on NK cells, a mechanism which may induce adenosine secretion by the cells and lead to an immunosuppressive function. Taken together, our results show that ELCs obtained following differentiation of WJ-MSCs remain largely immunosuppressive.

  3. Human Olfactory Mucosa Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Promote Survival, Proliferation, and Differentiation of Human Hematopoietic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Solano, Dylana; Wittig, Olga; Ayala-Grosso, Carlos; Pieruzzini, Rosalinda

    2012-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from the human olfactory mucosa (OM) are cells that have been proposed as a niche for neural progenitors. OM-MSCs share phenotypic and functional properties with bone marrow (BM) MSCs, which constitute fundamental components of the hematopoietic niche. In this work, we investigated whether human OM-MSCs may promote the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). For this purpose, human bone marrow cells (BMCs) were co-cultured with OM-MSCs in the absence of exogenous cytokines. At different intervals, nonadherent cells (NACs) were harvested from BMC/OM-MSC co-cultures, and examined for the expression of blood cell markers by flow cytometry. OM-MSCs supported the survival (cell viability >90%) and proliferation of BMCs, after 54 days of co-culture. At 20 days of co-culture, flow cytometric and microscopic analyses showed a high percentage (73%) of cells expressing the pan-leukocyte marker CD45, and the presence of cells of myeloid origin, including polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocytes, basophils, eosinophils, erythroid cells, and megakaryocytes. Likewise, T (CD3), B (CD19), and NK (CD56/CD16) cells were detected in the NAC fraction. Colony-forming unit–granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) progenitors and CD34+ cells were found, at 43 days of co-culture. Reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) studies showed that OM-MSCs constitutively express early and late-acting hematopoietic cytokines (i.e., stem cell factor [SCF] and granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]). These results constitute the first evidence that OM-MSCs may provide an in vitro microenvironment for HSCs. The capacity of OM-MSCs to support the survival and differentiation of HSCs may be related with the capacity of OM-MSCs to produce hematopoietic cytokines. PMID:22471939

  4. Modulation of mesenchymal stromal cell characteristics by microcarrier culture in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hupfeld, Julia; Gorr, Ingo H; Schwald, Christian; Beaucamp, Nicola; Wiechmann, Kornelius; Kuentzer, Karin; Huss, Ralf; Rieger, Bernhard; Neubauer, Markus; Wegmeyer, Heike

    2014-11-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for cell therapy. Their therapeutic use requires extensive expansion to obtain a sufficiently high number of cells for clinical applications. State-of-the-art expansion systems, that is, primarily culture flask-based systems, are limited regarding scale-up, automation, and reproducibility. To overcome this bottleneck, microcarrier (MC)-based expansion processes have been developed. For the first time, MSCs from the perinatal sources umbilical cord (UC) and amniotic membrane (AM) were expanded on MCs. This study focuses on the comparison of flask- and Cytodex 1 MC-expanded MSCs by evaluating the influence of the expansion process on biological MSC characteristics. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis to obtain more homogeneous MSC preparations by expanding cells on MCs in controlled large-scale bioreactors. MSCs were extensively characterized determining morphology, cell growth, surface marker expression, and functional properties such as differentiation capacity, secretion of paracrine factors, and gene expression. Based on their gene expression profile MSCs from different donors and sources clearly clustered in distinct groups solely depending on the expansion process-MC or flask culture. MC- and flask-expanded MSCs significantly differed from each other regarding surface markers and both paracrine factors and gene expression profiles. Furthermore, based on gene expression analysis, MC cultivation of MSCs in controlled bioreactor systems resulted in less heterogeneity between cells from different donors. In conclusion, MC-based MSC expansion in controlled bioreactors has the potential to reliably produce MSCs with altered characteristics and functions as compared to flask-expanded MSCs. These findings may be useful for the generation of MSCs with tailored properties for clinical applications.

  5. Biologic and immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from human pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    KIM, JAEHYUP; BREUNIG, MELISSA J.; ESCALANTE, LEAH E.; BHATIA, NEEHAR; DENU, RYAN A.; DOLLAR, BRIDGET A.; STEIN, ANDREW P.; HANSON, SUMMER E.; NADERI, NADIA; RADEK, JAMES; HAUGHY, DERMOT; BLOOM, DEBRA D.; ASSADI-PORTER, FARIBA M.; HEMATTI, PEIMAN

    2012-01-01

    Background aims Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have now been shown to reside in numerous tissues throughout the body, including the pancreas. Ex vivo culture-expanded MSC derived from many tissues display important interactions with different types of immune cells in vitro and potentially play a significant role in tissue homeostasis in vivo. In this study, we investigated the biologic and immunomodulatory properties of human pancreatic islet-derived MSC. Methods We culture-expanded MSC from cadaveric human pancreatic islets and characterized them using flow cytometry, differentiation assays and nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics. We also investigated the immunologic properties of pancreatic islet-derived MSC compared with bone marrow (BM) MSC. Results Pancreatic islet and BM-derived MSC expressed the same cell-surface markers by flow cytometry, and both could differentiate into bone, fat and cartilage. Metabolomics analysis of MSC from BM and pancreatic islets also showed a similar set of metabolic markers but quantitative polymerase chain reactions showed that pancreatic islet MSC expressed more interleukin(IL)-1b, IL-6, STAT3 and FGF9 compared with BM MSC, and less IL-10. However, similar to BM MSC, pancreatic islet MSC were able to suppress proliferation of allogeneic T lymphocytes stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies. Conclusions Our in vitro analysis shows pancreatic islet-derived MSC have phenotypic, biologic and immunomodulatory characteristics similar, but not identical, to BM-derived MSC. We propose that pancreatic islet-derived MSC could potentially play an important role in improving the outcome of pancreatic islet transplantation by promoting engraftment and creating a favorable immune environment for long-term survival of islet allografts. PMID:22571381

  6. Inhibition of mesenchymal stromal cells by pre-activated lymphocytes and their culture media.

    PubMed

    Valencic, Erica; Loganes, Claudia; Cesana, Stefania; Piscianz, Elisa; Gaipa, Giuseppe; Biagi, Ettore; Tommasini, Alberto

    2014-01-09

    Despite having a proven immunosuppressive potential in vitro, human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are reported to display variable efficacy in vivo and, in fact, their proven benefit in the clinical practice is still limited and controversial. The interplay between clinical grade MSCs and pre-activated donor lymphocytes or selected lymphocyte subsets was studied in vitro. The kinetics of MSC growth and viability was evaluated by adhesion-dependent changes of culture plate impedance and biochemically by a colorimetric assay. Activation of natural killer (NK) cells was assessed as well, using a flow cytometry assay. A strong inhibition of MSC growth was rapidly induced by the addition of pre-activated lymphocytes but not of resting lymphocytes. Inhibition seems not to be attributable to a single cell population, as similar results can be obtained by depleting NK cells or by using either selected CD4+ or CD8+ lymphocytes. In addition, conditioned medium (CM) from activated lymphocytes was able to inhibit MSC growth in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, licensing with IFN-γ partially protected MSCs from pre-activated lymphocytes but not from their CM. These results suggest an inhibitory role of lymphocyte-activation-derived substances. However, the identification of a single molecule responsible for MSC inhibition remained elusive, even if preliminary experiments showed that ATP and, to a lesser extent, TNF-α might play a role. These results suggest that survival of MSCs can be affected by soluble mediators released by activated lymphocytes. Thus it can be hypothesized that MSC immunosuppressive action in vivo could be impaired by ongoing immune activation through the release of inflammatory mediators.

  7. Human mesenchymal stromal cells modulate T-cell immune response via transcriptomic regulation.

    PubMed

    Vellasamy, Shalini; Tong, Chih Kong; Azhar, Nur Atiqah; Kodiappan, Radha; Chan, Soon Choy; Veerakumarasivam, Abhi; Ramasamy, Rajesh

    2016-10-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been identified as pan-immunosuppressant in various in vitro and in vivo inflammatory models. Although the immunosuppressive activity of MSCs has been explored in various contexts, the precise molecular signaling pathways that govern inhibitory functions remain poorly elucidated. By using a microarray-based global gene expression profiling system, this study aimed to decipher the underlying molecular pathways that may mediate the immunosuppressive activity of umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) on activated T cells. In the presence of UC-MSCs, the proliferation of activated T cells was suppressed in a dose-depended manner by cell-to-cell contact mode via an active cell-cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. The microarray analysis revealed that particularly, IFNG, CXCL9, IL2, IL2RA and CCND3 genes were down-regulated, whereas IL11, VSIG4, GFA1, TIMP3 and BBC3 genes were up-regulated by UC-MSCs. The dysregulated gene clusters associated with immune-response-related ontologies, namely, lymphocyte proliferation or activation, apoptosis and cell cycle, were further analyzed. Among the nine canonical pathways identified, three pathways (namely T-helper cell differentiation, cyclins and cell cycle regulation, and gap/tight junction signalling pathways) were highly enriched with these dysregulated genes. The pathways represent putative molecular pathways through which UC-MSCs elicit immunosuppressive activity toward activated T cells. This study provides a global snapshot of gene networks and pathways that contribute to the ability of UC-MSCs to suppress activated T cells. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fate of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells following autologous transplantation in a rabbit model of osteonecrosis.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Hisashi; Mishima, Hajime; Gao, Ran; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Aoto, Katsuya; Li, Meihua; Yoshioka, Tomokazu; Ogawa, Takeshi; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2016-02-01

    Internalizing quantum dots (i-QDs) are a useful tool for tracking cells in vivo in models of tissue regeneration. We previously synthesized i-QDs by conjugating QDs with a unique internalizing antibody against a heat shock protein 70 family stress chaperone. In the present study, i-QDs were used to label rabbit mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) that were then transplanted into rabbits to assess differentiation potential in an osteonecrosis model. The i-QDs were taken up by bone marrow-derived MSCs collected from the iliac of 12-week-old Japanese white rabbits that were positive for cluster of differentiation (CD)81 and negative for CD34 and human leukocyte antigen DR. The average rate of i-QD internalization was 93.3%. At 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks after transplantation, tissue repair was evaluated histologically and by epifluorescence and electron microscopy. The i-QDs were detected at the margins of the drill holes and in the necrotized bone trabecular. There was significant colocalization of the i-QD signal in transplanted cells and markers of osteoblast and mineralization at 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-transplantation, while i-QDs were detected in areas of mineralization at 12 and 24 weeks post-transplantation. Moreover, i-QDs were observed in osteoblasts in regenerated tissue by electron microscopy, demonstrating that the tissue was derived from transplanted cells. These results indicate that transplanted MSCs can differentiate into osteoblasts and induce tissue repair in an osteonecrosis model and can be tracked over the long term by i-QD labeling. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Improvement of Heart Failure by Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Transplantation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Razavi Tousi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Nobakht, Maliheh; Molazem, Mohammad; Kalantari, Elham; Darbandi Azar, Amir; Aboutaleb, Nahid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, stem cells have been considered for the treatment of heart diseases, but no marked improvement has been recorded. This is the first study to examine the functional and histological effects of the transplantation of human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs) in rats with heart failure (HF). Methods: This study was conducted in the years 2014 and 2015. 35 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 5 equal experimental groups (7 rats each) as 1- Control 2- Heart Failure (HF) 3- Sham 4- Culture media 5- Stem Cell Transplantation (SCT). Heart failure was induced using 170 mg/kg/d of isoproterenol subcutaneously injection in 4 consecutive days. The failure confirmed by the rat cardiac echocardiography on day 28. In SCT group, 3×106 cells in 150 µl of culture media were transplanted to the myocardium. At the end, echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters together with histological evaluation were done. Results: Echocardiography results showed that cardiac ejection fraction in HF group increased from 58/73 ± 9% to 81/25 ± 6/05% in SCT group (p value < 0.001). Fraction shortening in HF group was increased from 27/53 ± 8/58% into 45/55 ± 6/91% in SCT group (p value < 0.001). Furthermore, hAMSCs therapy significantly improved mean diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, left ventricular systolic pressure, rate pressure product, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure compared to those in the HF group, with the values reaching the normal levels in the control group. A marked reduction in fibrosis tissue was also found in the SCT group (p value < 0.001) compared with the animals in the HF group. Conclusion: The transplantation of hAMSCs in rats with heart failure not only decreased the level of fibrosis but also conferred significant improvement in heart performance in terms of echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters. PMID:27956912

  10. Mesenchymal stromal cells derived from CD271(+) bone marrow mononuclear cells exert potent allosuppressive properties.

    PubMed

    Kuçi, Zyrafete; Kuçi, Selim; Zircher, Susanne; Koller, Stefanie; Schubert, Ralf; Bönig, Halvard; Henschler, Reinhard; Lieberz, Ralf; Klingebiel, Thomas; Bader, Peter

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND AIMS. Because data on the immunosuppressive effect of different subsets of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are sparse, we investigated the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the allosuppressive effect of MSC generated from bone marrow CD271(+) cells (CD271-MSC) and asked whether this potential is comparable with that of MSC generated through plastic adherence (PA-MSC). METHODS. The immunosuppressive effect of CD271-MSC on the allogeneic reaction was investigated by mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). RESULTS. CD271-MSC significantly suppressed the alloantigen-induced proliferation of mononuclear cells (MNC) of two HLA-disparate donors at all MSC:MNC ratios, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:10. They also demonstrated a significantly higher allosuppression than PA-MSC at an MSC:MNC ratio of 1:1. This inhibitory effect was associated with significantly elevated levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) at ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 (about 4-fold), but not at a ratio of 1:10. Indomethacin, and inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 necessary for the biosynthesis of PGE2, mitigated suppressive effects of CD271-MSC only at a ratio of 1:1, indicating that PGE2 is not involved in MSC-mediated inhibition when allogeneic MNC are in excess. The increase of PGE2 was associated with a significant decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis-alpha), while no changes in levels of interleukin-10, soluble HLA-G and nitric oxide were observed. In addition, CD271-MSC induced an expansion of highly suppressive naive CD4(+)CD25(high)CD45RA(+)CD62L(+) T-regulatory cells, which may extend their allosuppressive effect. CONCLUSIONS. Our data suggest that CD271-MSC exert potent allosuppressive properties and therefore can be used as a reasonable alternative to PA-MSC for the treatment of patients with graft-versus-host disease.

  11. Assessment of biodistribution using mesenchymal stromal cells: Algorithm for study design and challenges in detection methodologies.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Blanca; Coca, Maria Isabel; Codinach, Margarita; López-Lucas, María Dolores; Del Mazo-Barbara, Anna; Caminal, Marta; Oliver-Vila, Irene; Cabañas, Valentín; Lope-Piedrafita, Silvia; García-López, Joan; Moraleda, José M; Fontecha, Cesar G; Vives, Joaquim

    2017-09-01

    Biodistribution of candidate cell-based therapeutics is a critical safety concern that must be addressed in the preclinical development program. We aimed to design a decision tree based on a series of studies included in actual dossiers approved by competent regulatory authorities, noting that the design, execution and interpretation of pharmacokinetics studies using this type of therapy is not straightforward and presents a challenge for both developers and regulators. Eight studies were evaluated for the definition of a decision tree, in which mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were administered to mouse, rat and sheep models using diverse routes (local or systemic), cell labeling (chemical or genetic) and detection methodologies (polymerase chain reaction [PCR], immunohistochemistry [IHC], fluorescence bioimaging, and magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]). Moreover, labeling and detection methodologies were compared in terms of cost, throughput, speed, sensitivity and specificity. A decision tree was defined based on the model chosen: (i) small immunodeficient animals receiving heterologous MSC products for assessing biodistribution and other safety aspects and (ii) large animals receiving homologous labeled products; this contributed to gathering data not only on biodistribution but also on pharmacodynamics. PCR emerged as the most convenient technique despite the loss of spatial information on cell distribution that can be further assessed by IHC. This work contributes to the standardization in the design of biodistribution studies by improving methods for accurate assessment of safety. The evaluation of different animal models and screening of target organs through a combination of techniques is a cost-effective and timely strategy. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiple myeloma mesenchymal stromal cells: Contribution to myeloma bone disease and therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Gomez, Antonio; Sanchez-Guijo, Fermin; del Cañizo, M Consuelo; San Miguel, Jesus F; Garayoa, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a hematological malignancy in which clonal plasma cells proliferate and accumulate within the bone marrow. The presence of osteolytic lesions due to increased osteoclast (OC) activity and suppressed osteoblast (OB) function is characteristic of the disease. The bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) play a critical role in multiple myeloma pathophysiology, greatly promoting the growth, survival, drug resistance and migration of myeloma cells. Here, we specifically discuss on the relative contribution of MSCs to the pathophysiology of osteolytic lesions in light of the current knowledge of the biology of myeloma bone disease (MBD), together with the reported genomic, functional and gene expression differences between MSCs derived from myeloma patients (pMSCs) and their healthy counterparts (dMSCs). Being MSCs the progenitors of OBs, pMSCs primarily contribute to the pathogenesis of MBD because of their reduced osteogenic potential consequence of multiple OB inhibitory factors and direct interactions with myeloma cells in the bone marrow. Importantly, pMSCs also readily contribute to MBD by promoting OC formation and activity at various levels (i.e., increasing RANKL to OPG expression, augmenting secretion of activin A, uncoupling ephrinB2-EphB4 signaling, and through augmented production of Wnt5a), thus further contributing to OB/OC uncoupling in osteolytic lesions. In this review, we also look over main signaling pathways involved in the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs and/or OB activity, highlighting amenable therapeutic targets; in parallel, the reported activity of bone-anabolic agents (at preclinical or clinical stage) targeting those signaling pathways is commented. PMID:25126382

  13. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Differentiating to Adipocytes Accumulate Autophagic Vesicles Instead of Functional Lipid Droplets.

    PubMed

    Gruia, Alexandra T; Suciu, Maria; Barbu-Tudoran, Lucian; Azghadi, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Cristea, Mirabela I; Nica, Dragos V; Vaduva, Adrian; Muntean, Danina; Mic, Ani Aurora; Mic, Felix A

    2016-04-01

    Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) can easily be differentiated into a variety of cells. In vivo transplantation of BMSCs-differentiated cells has had limited success, suggesting that these cells may not be fully compatible with the cells they are intended to replace in vivo. We investigated the structural and functional features of BMSCs-derived adipocytes as compared with adipocytes from adipose tissue, and the structure and functionality of lipid vesicles formed during BMSCs differentiation to adipocytes. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed fatty acid composition of BMSCs-derived adipocytes and adipocytes from the adipose tissue to be very different, as is the lipid rafts composition, caveolin-1 expression, caveolae distribution in their membranes, and the pattern of expression of fatty acid elongases. Confocal microscopy confirmed the absence from BMSCs-derived adipocytes of markers of lipid droplets. BMSCs-derived adipocytes cannot convert deuterated glucose into deuterated species of fatty acids and cannot uptake the deuterated fatty acid-bovine serum albumin complexes from the culture medium, suggesting that intra-cellular accumulation of lipids does not occur by lipogenesis. We noted that BMSCs differentiation to adipocytes is accompanied by an increase in autophagy. Autophagic vesicles accumulate in the cytoplasm of BMSCs-derived adipocytes and their size and distribution resembles that of Nile Red-stained lipid vesicles. Stimulation of autophagy in BMSCs triggers the intra-cellular accumulation of lipids, while inhibition of autophagy prevents this accumulation. In conclusion, differentiation of BMSCs-derived adipocytes leads to intra-cellular accumulation of autophagic vesicles rather than functional lipid droplets, suggesting that these cells are not authentic adipocytes. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 863-875, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cell transplantations: A systemic analysis of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Can, Alp; Celikkan, Ferda Topal; Cinar, Ozgur

    2017-09-27

    The advances and success of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) in experimental disease animal models have fueled the development of targeted therapies in humans. The therapeutic potential of allogeneic transplantation of UC-MSCs has been under examination since 2009. The purpose of this systematic analysis was to review the published results, limitations and obstacles for UC-MSC transplantation. An extensive search strategy was applied to the published literature, 93 peer-reviewed full-text articles and abstracts were found published by early August 2017 that investigated the safety, efficacy and feasibility of UC-MSCs in 2001 patients with 53 distinct pathologies including many systemic/local, acute/chronic conditions. Few data were extracted from the abstracts and/or Chinese-written articles (n = 7, 8%). Importantly, no long-term adverse effects, tumor formation or cell rejection were reported. All studies noted certain degrees of therapeutic benefit as evidenced by clinical symptoms and/or laboratory findings. Thirty-seven percent (n = 34) of studies were found published as a single case (n = 10; 11%) or 2-10 case reports (n = 24; 26%) with no control group. Due to the nature of many stem cell-based studies, the majority of patients also received conventional therapy regimens, which obscured the pure efficacy of the cells transplanted. Randomized, blind, phase 1/2 trials with control groups (placebo-controlled) showed more plausible results. Given that most UC-MSC trials are early phase, the internationally recognized cell isolation and preparation standards should be extended to future phase 2/3 trials to reach more convincing conclusions regarding the safety and efficacy of UC-MSC therapies. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cranial reconstruction using allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells: A phase 1 first-in-human trial.

    PubMed

    Morrison, David Anthony; Kop, Alan Matthew; Nilasaroya, Anastasia; Sturm, Marian; Shaw, Kathryn; Honeybul, Stephen

    2017-05-09

    Cranioplasty is necessary for patients that have undergone craniectomy following trauma, stroke or other causes of elevated intracranial pressure. This study assessed the effectiveness of treating cranial defects with allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) on a ceramic carrier and polymer scaffold, to produce viable bone and healing of a cranial void. Patients underwent a baseline computed tomography (CT) scan for construct design. Two sets of interlocking moulds were three-dimensional printed to enable shaping of two polymer meshes, which formed the boundaries of the construct corresponding to restoration of the skull interna and externa. In vitro expanded donor MSC were seeded onto ceramic granules in a good manufacturing practices facility. The inner mesh was placed in theatre, followed by the cell-loaded granules, and the outer mesh. Patients were followed-up at 3, 6 and 12 months and cosmesis assessed visually, while bone formation was assessed by CT scans at 1 day, 3 months and 12 months. Manufacture of the construct and surgery was uneventful for all three patients. Initial cosmesis was excellent with no complications. New bone formation was demonstrated by analysis of CT data; however, bone resorption was noted in all 3 cases on the 12-month CT scan. The lack of rigidity of the construct in an environment with continuous pulsatile movement may be preventing the formation of solid bone. It is possible to produce a customized allogeneic MSC construct for cranial reconstruction to replace cranial bone with good cosmesis, using a combination of medical computer modelling, rapid-prototyping and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Deterministic and stochastic approaches in the clinical application of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Pacini, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have enormous intrinsic clinical value due to their multi-lineage differentiation capacity, support of hemopoiesis, immunoregulation and growth factors/cytokines secretion. MSCs have thus been the object of extensive research for decades. After completion of many pre-clinical and clinical trials, MSC-based therapy is now facing a challenging phase. Several clinical trials have reported moderate, non-durable benefits, which caused initial enthusiasm to wane, and indicated an urgent need to optimize the efficacy of therapeutic, platform-enhancing MSC-based treatment. Recent investigations suggest the presence of multiple in vivo MSC ancestors in a wide range of tissues, which contribute to the heterogeneity of the starting material for the expansion of MSCs. This variability in the MSC culture-initiating cell population, together with the different types of enrichment/isolation and cultivation protocols applied, are hampering progress in the definition of MSC-based therapies. International regulatory statements require a precise risk/benefit analysis, ensuring the safety and efficacy of treatments. GMP validation allows for quality certification, but the prediction of a clinical outcome after MSC-based therapy is correlated not only to the possible morbidity derived by cell production process, but also to the biology of the MSCs themselves, which is highly sensible to unpredictable fluctuation of isolating and culture conditions. Risk exposure and efficacy of MSC-based therapies should be evaluated by pre-clinical studies, but the batch-to-batch variability of the final medicinal product could significantly limit the predictability of these studies. The future success of MSC-based therapies could lie not only in rational optimization of therapeutic strategies, but also in a stochastic approach during the assessment of benefit and risk factors. PMID:25364757

  17. Cell surface structures influence lung clearance rate of systemically infused mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Nystedt, Johanna; Anderson, Heidi; Tikkanen, Jonne; Pietilä, Mika; Hirvonen, Tia; Takalo, Reijo; Heiskanen, Annamari; Satomaa, Tero; Natunen, Suvi; Lehtonen, Siri; Hakkarainen, Tanja; Korhonen, Matti; Laitinen, Saara; Valmu, Leena; Lehenkari, Petri

    2013-02-01

    The promising clinical effects of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) rely especially on paracrine and nonimmunogenic mechanisms. Delivery routes are essential for the efficacy of cell therapy and systemic delivery by infusion is the obvious goal for many forms of MSC therapy. Lung adhesion of MSCs might, however, be a major obstacle yet to overcome. Current knowledge does not allow us to make sound conclusions whether MSC lung entrapment is harmful or beneficial, and thus we wanted to explore MSC lung adhesion in greater detail. We found a striking difference in the lung clearance rate of systemically infused MSCs derived from two different clinical sources, namely bone marrow (BM-MSCs) and umbilical cord blood (UCB-MSCs). The BM-MSCs and UCB-MSCs used in this study differed in cell size, but our results also indicated other mechanisms behind the lung adherence. A detailed analysis of the cell surface profiles revealed differences in the expression of relevant adhesion molecules. The UCB-MSCs had higher expression levels of α4 integrin (CD49d, VLA-4), α6 integrin (CD49f, VLA-6), and the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met) and a higher general fucosylation level. Strikingly, the level of CD49d and CD49f expression could be functionally linked with the lung clearance rate. Additionally, we saw a possible link between MSC lung adherence and higher fibronectin expression and we show that the expression of fibronectin increases with MSC culture confluence. Future studies should aim at developing methods of transiently modifying the cell surface structures in order to improve the delivery of therapeutic cells.

  18. Intramuscular Transplantation of Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Equine Umbilical Cord.

    PubMed

    Dias, Marianne Camargos; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda da Cruz; de Moraes, Carolina Nogueira; da Costa, Leonardo Dourado; Geraldini, Caroline Medeiros; de Vasconcelos Machado, Vânia Maria; Maia, Leandro

    2016-11-30

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have great therapeutic potential, particularly in the process of tissue repair and immunomodulation through the secretion of biomolecules. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that intramuscular transplantation of allogeneic MSCs obtained from equine umbilical cord (UC-MSCs) is safe, demonstrating that this is a suitable source of stem cells for therapeutic use. For this, UC-MSCs were cultured, characterized and cryopreserved for future transplantation in six healthy mares. On day 0, transplantation of three million UC-MSCs diluted in Hank's Balanced Solution (HBSS) was performed on right and left sides of the rump muscle. As a control, HBSS injections were performed caudally in the same muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained as a control 30 days before transplantation (D-30). The biopsies were collected again on day 2 (left side) and day 7 (right side) post transplantation and examined histologically. All procedures were preceded by ultrasound examination and blood sampling. Hematologic evaluation remained within normal limits and no differences were observed between time points (p>0.05). Ultrasound examination was suggestive of inflammation 48 hours after transplantation in both groups (control and treated). At histological evaluation it was found only discrete inflammation signals between D-30×D2 (p<0.05) in the treated group, without differences (p> 0.05) between the groups at different time points. Equine UC-MSCs under the experimental conditions did not promote severe inflammation that causes tissue damage or lead to its rejection by the host organism and therefore has a good potential for clinical use.

  19. Phenotypic and Immunomodulatory Properties of Equine Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tessier, Laurence; Bienzle, Dorothee; Williams, Lynn B.; Koch, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have attracted interest for their cytotherapeutic potential, partly due to their immunomodulatory abilities. The aim of this study was to test the robustness of our equine cord blood (CB) MSC isolation protocol, to characterize the CB-MSC before and after cryopreservation, and to evaluate their immunosuppressive phenotype. We hypothesized that MSC can be consistently isolated from equine CB, have unique and reproducible marker expression and in vitro suppress lymphoproliferation. Preliminary investigation of constitutive cytoplasmic Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and 4 expression was also preformed due to their possible association with anti- or pro-inflammatory MSC phenotypes, respectively. Surface markers were assessed for antigen and mRNA expression by flow cytometry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Immunomodulatory properties were evaluated in mixed lymphocyte reaction assays, and TLR3 and TLR4 expression were measured by qPCR and immunocytochemistry (ICC). CB-MSC were isolated from each off nine cord blood samples. CB-MSC highly expressed CD29, CD44, CD90, and lacked or had low expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, MHC-II, CD4, CD8, CD11a/18 and CD73 before and after cryopreservation. CB-MSC suppressed in vitro lymphoproliferation and constitutively expressed TLR4. Our findings confirmed CB as a reliable MSC source, provides an association of surface marker phenotype and mRNA expression and suggest anti-inflammatory properties of CB-MSC. The relationship between TLRs and lymphocyte function warrants further investigation. PMID:25902064

  20. A Reproducible Immunopotency Assay to Measure Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Mediated T cell Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Debra D.; Centanni, John M.; Bhatia, Neehar; Emler, Carol A.; Drier, Diana; Leverson, Glen E.; McKenna, David H.; Gee, Adrian P.; Lindblad, Robert; Hei, Derek J.; Hematti, Peiman

    2014-01-01

    Background The T cell suppressive property of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been considered a major mode of action and basis for their utilization in a number of human clinical trials. However, there is no well-established reproducible assay to measure MSC-mediated T cell suppression. Methods At the University of Wisconsin-Madison Production Assistance for Cellular Therapy (PACT) Center we developed an in vitro quality control T cell suppression immunopotency assay (IPA) which utilizes anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies to stimulate T cell proliferation. We measured MSC-induced suppression of CD4+ T cell proliferation at various effector to target cell ratios using defined peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in parallel compared to a reference standard MSC product. We calculated an IPA value for suppression of CD4+ T cells for each MSC product. Results Eleven MSC products generated at three independent PACT centers were evaluated for cell surface phenotypic markers and T cell suppressive properties. Flow cytometry results demonstrated typical MSC cell surface marker profiles. There was significant variability in the level of suppression of T cell proliferation with IPA values ranging from 27% to 88%. However, MSC suppression did not correlate with HLA-DR expression. Discussion We have developed a reproducible immunopotency assay to measure allogeneic MSC-mediated suppression of CD4+ T cells. Additional studies may be warranted to determine how these in vitro assay results may correlate with other immunomodulatory properties of MSCs, in addition to evaluating the ability of this assay to predict in vivo efficacy. PMID:25455739

  1. Different wound healing properties of dermis, adipose, and gingiva mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Boink, Mireille A; van den Broek, Lenie J; Roffel, Sanne; Nazmi, Kamran; Bolscher, Jan G M; Gefen, Amit; Veerman, Enno C I; Gibbs, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Oral wounds heal faster and with better scar quality than skin wounds. Deep skin wounds where adipose tissue is exposed, have a greater risk of forming hypertrophic scars. Differences in wound healing and final scar quality might be related to differences in mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and their ability to respond to intrinsic (autocrine) and extrinsic signals, such as human salivary histatin, epidermal growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta1. Dermis-, adipose-, and gingiva-derived MSC were compared for their regenerative potential with regards to proliferation, migration, and matrix contraction. Proliferation was assessed by cell counting and migration using a scratch wound assay. Matrix contraction and alpha smooth muscle actin was assessed in MSC populated collagen gels, and also in skin and gingival full thickness tissue engineered equivalents (reconstructed epithelium on MSC populated matrix). Compared to skin-derived MSC, gingiva MSC showed greater proliferation and migration capacity, and less matrix contraction in full thickness tissue equivalents, which may partly explain the superior oral wound healing. Epidermal keratinocytes were required for enhanced adipose MSC matrix contraction and alpha smooth muscle actin expression, and may therefore contribute to adverse scarring in deep cutaneous wounds. Histatin enhanced migration without influencing proliferation or matrix contraction in all three MSC, indicating that salivary peptides may have a beneficial effect on wound closure in general. Transforming growth factor beta1 enhanced contraction and alpha smooth muscle actin expression in all three MSC types when incorporated into collagen gels. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for the superior oral wound healing will aid us to develop advanced strategies for optimal skin regeneration, wound healing and scar formation.

  2. Cardiac Migration of Endogenous Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Patients with Inflammatory Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Lucke, Caroline; Escher, Felicitas; Van Linthout, Sophie; Kühl, Uwe; Miteva, Kapka; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Tschöpe, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have immunomodulatory features. The aim of this study was to investigate the migration and homing potential of endogenous circulating MSC in virus negative inflammatory cardiomyopathy (CMi). Methods. In 29 patients with (n = 23) or without (n = 6) CMi undergoing endomyocardial biopsies (EMB), transcardiac gradients (TCGs) of circulating MSC were measured by flow cytometry from blood simultaneously sampled from aorta and coronary sinus. The presence of MSC in EMB, cardiac inflammation, and SDF-1α mRNA expression were detected via immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Results. MSC defined as CD45−CD34−CD11b−CD73+CD90+ cells accounted for 0.010 [0.0025–0.048]%/peripheral mononuclear cell (PMNC) and as CD45−CD34−CD11b−CD73+CD105+ cells for 0.019 [0.0026–0.067]%/PMNC, both with similar counts in patients with or without cardiac inflammation. There was a 29.9% (P < 0.01) transcardiac reduction of circulating MSC in patients with CMi, correlating with the extent of cardiac inflammation (P < 0.05, multivariate analysis). A strong correlation was found between the TCG of circulating MSC and numbers of MSC (CD45−CD34−CD90+CD105+) in EMB (r = −0.73, P < 0.005). SDF-1α was the strongest predictor for increased MSC in EMB (P < 0.005, multivariate analysis). Conclusions. Endogenous MSC continuously migrate to the heart in patients with CMi triggered by cardiac inflammation. PMID:25814787

  3. [Therapeutic potential of human mesenchymal stromal cells secreted components: a problem with standartization].

    PubMed

    Sagaradze, G D; Grigorieva, O A; Efimenko, A Yu; Chaplenko, A A; Suslina, S N; Sysoeva, V Yu; Kalinina, N I; Akopyan, Zh A; Tkachuk, V A

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative medicine approaches, such as replacement of damaged tissue by ex vivo manufactured constructions or stimulation of endogenous reparative and regenerative processes to treat different diseases, are actively developing. One of the major tools for regenerative medicine are stem and progenitor cells, including multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC). Because the paracrine action of bioactive factors secreted by MSC is considered as a main mechanism underlying MSC regenerative effects, application of MSC extracellular secreted products could be a promising approach to stimulate tissue regeneration; it also has some advantages compared to the injection of the cells themselves. However, because of the complexity of composition and multiplicity of mechanisms of action distinguished the medicinal products based on bioactive factors secreted by human MSC from the most of pharmaceuticals, it is important to develop the approaches to their standardization and quality control. In the current study, based on the literature data and guidelines as well as on our own experimental results, we provided rationalization for nomenclature and methods of quality control for the complex of extracellular products secreted by human adipose-derived MSC on key indicators, such as "Identification", "Specific activity" and "Biological safety". Developed approaches were tested on the samples of conditioned media contained products secreted by MSC isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue of 30 donors. This strategy for the standardization of innovative medicinal products and biomaterials based on the bioactive extracellular factors secreted by human MSC could be applicable for a wide range of bioactive complex products, produced using the different types of stem and progenitor cells.

  4. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells affected by gestational diabetes mellitus display premature aging and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jooyeon; Piao, Ying; Pak, Youngmi Kim; Chung, Dalhee; Han, Yu Mi; Hong, Joon Seok; Jun, Eun Jeong; Shim, Jae-Yoon; Choi, Jene; Kim, Chong Jai

    2015-03-01

    Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (hUC-MSCs) of Wharton's jelly origin undergo adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation in vitro. Recent studies have consistently shown their therapeutic potential in various human disease models. However, the biological effects of major pregnancy complications on the cellular properties of hUC-MSCs remain to be studied. In this study, we compared the basic properties of hUC-MSCs obtained from gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients (GDM-UC-MSCs) and normal pregnant women (N-UC-MSCs). Assessments of cumulative cell growth, MSC marker expression, cellular senescence, and mitochondrial function-related gene expression were performed using a cell count assay, senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining, quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and cell-based mitochondrial functional assay system. When compared with N-UC-MSCs, GDM-UC-MSCs showed decreased cell growth and earlier cellular senescence with accumulation of p16 and p53, even though they expressed similar levels of CD105, CD90, and CD73 MSC marker proteins. GDM-UC-MSCs also displayed significantly lower osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potentials than N-UC-MSCs. Furthermore, GDM-UC-MSCs exhibited a low mitochondrial activity and significantly reduced expression of the mitochondrial function regulatory genes ND2, ND9, COX1, PGC-1α, and TFAM. Here, we report intriguing and novel evidence that maternal metabolic derangement during gestation affects the biological properties of fetal cells, which may be a component of fetal programming. Our findings also underscore the importance of the critical assessment of the biological impact of maternal-fetal conditions in biological studies and clinical applications of hUC-MSCs.

  5. Rapid isolation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells using integrated centrifuge-based technology.

    PubMed

    Meppelink, Amanda M; Wang, Xing-Hua; Bradica, Gino; Barron, Kathryn; Hiltz, Kathleen; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Goldman, Scott M; Vacanti, Joseph P; Keating, Armand; Hoganson, David M

    2016-06-01

    The use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in cell-based therapies is currently being developed for a number of diseases. Thus far, the clinical results have been inconclusive and variable, in part because of the variety of cell isolation procedures and culture conditions used in each study. A new isolation technique that streamlines the method of concentration and demands less time and attention could provide clinical and economic advantages compared with current methodologies. In this study, we evaluated the concentrating capability of an integrated centrifuge-based technology compared with standard Ficoll isolation. MSCs were concentrated from bone marrow aspirate using the new device and the Ficoll method. The isolation capabilities of the device and the growth characteristics, secretome production, and differentiation capacity of the derived cells were determined. The new MSC isolation device concentrated the bone marrow in 90 seconds and resulted in a mononuclear cell yield 10-fold higher and with a twofold increase in cell retention compared with Ficoll. The cells isolated using the device were shown to exhibit similar morphology and functional activity as assessed by growth curves and secretome production compared to the Ficoll-isolated cells. The surface marker and trilineage differentiation profile of the device-isolated cells was consistent with the known profile of MSCs. The faster time to isolation and greater cell yield of the integrated centrifuge-based technology may make this an improved approach for MSC isolation from bone marrow aspirates. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The cultivation of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in clinical grade medium for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Pytlík, Robert; Stehlík, David; Soukup, Tomás; Kalbácová, Marie; Rypácek, Frantisek; Trc, Tomás; Mulinková, Katarína; Michnová, Petra; Kideryová, Linda; Zivný, Jan; Klener, Pavel; Veselá, Romana; Trnený, Marek; Klener, Pavel

    2009-07-01

    Clinical application of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) requires their expansion to be safe and rapid. We aimed to develop an expansion protocol which would avoid xenogeneic proteins, including fetal calf serum (FCS), and which would shorten the cultivation time and avoid multiple passaging. First, we have compared research-grade alpha-MEM medium with clinical grade CellGro for Hematopoietic Cells' Medium. When FCS was used for supplementation and non-adherent cells were discarded, both media were comparable. Both media were comparable also when pooled human serum (hS) was used instead of FCS, but the numbers of hMSCs were lower when non-adherent cells were discarded. However, significantly more hMSCs were obtained both in alpha-MEM and in CellGro supplemented with hS when the non-adherent cells were left in the culture. Furthermore, addition of recombinant cytokines and other supplements (EGF, PDGF-BB, M-CSF, FGF-2, dexamethasone, insulin and ascorbic acid) to the CellGro co-culture system with hS led to 40-fold increase of hMSCs' yield after two weeks of cultivation compared to alpha-MEM with FCS. The hMSCs expanded in the described co-culture system retain their osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential in vitro and produce bone-like mineralized tissue when propagated on 3D polylactide scaffolds in immunodeficient mice. Our protocol thus allows for very effective one-step, xenogeneic protein-free expansion of hMSCs, which can be easily transferred into good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions for large-scale, clinical-grade production of hMSCs for purposes of tissue engineering.

  7. Fetal liver-derived mesenchymal stromal cells augment engraftment of transplanted hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Meghnad; Patil, Pradeep B.; He, Zhong; Holgersson, Jan; Olausson, Michael; Sumitran-Holgersson, Suchitra

    2012-01-01

    Background aims One important problem commonly encountered after hepatocyte transplantation is the low numbers of transplanted cells found in the graft. If hepatocyte transplantation is to be a viable therapeutic approach, significant liver parenchyma repopulation is required. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) produce high levels of various growth factors, cytokines and metalloproteinases, and have immunomodulatory effects. We therefore hypothesized that co-transplantation of MSC with human fetal hepatocytes (hFH) could augment in vivo expansion after transplantation. We investigated the ability of human fetal liver MSC (hFLMSC) to augment expansion of phenotypically and functionally well-characterized hFH. Methods Two million hFH (passage 6) were either transplanted alone or together (1:1 ratio) with green fluorescence protein-expressing hFLMSC into the spleen of C57BL/6 nude mice with retrorsine-induced liver injury. Results After 4 weeks, engraftment of cells was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a human-specific DNA probe. Significantly higher numbers of cells expressing human cytokeratin (CK)8, CK18, CK19, Cysteine-rich MNNG HOS Transforming gene (c-Met), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human nuclear antigen, mitochondrial antigen, hepatocyte-specific antigen and albumin (ALB) were present in the livers of recipient animals co-transplanted with hFLMSC compared with those without. Furthermore, expression of human hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4α and HNF-1β, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A7 mRNA was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in these animals. In addition, significantly increased amounts of human ALB were detected. Importantly, hFLMSC did not transdifferentiate into hepatocytes. Conclusions Our study reports the use of a novel strategy for enhanced liver repopulation and thereby advances this experimental procedure closer to clinical liver cell therapy. PMID:22424216

  8. Isolation of CD146+ Resident Lung Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Rat Lungs.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jennifer J P; Möbius, Marius A; Thébaud, Bernard

    2016-06-17

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are increasingly recognized for their therapeutic potential in a wide range of diseases, including lung diseases. Besides the use of bone marrow and umbilical cord MSCs for exogenous cell therapy, there is also increasing interest in the repair and regenerative potential of resident tissue MSCs. Moreover, they likely have a role in normal organ development, and have been attributed roles in disease, particularly those with a fibrotic nature. The main hurdle for the study of these resident tissue MSCs is the lack of a clear marker for the isolation and identification of these cells. The isolation technique described here applies multiple characteristics of lung resident MSCs (L-MSCs). Upon sacrifice of the rats, lungs are removed and rinsed multiple times to remove blood. Following mechanical dissociation by scalpel, the lungs are digested for 2-3 hr using a mix of collagenase type I, neutral protease and DNase type I. The obtained single cell suspension is subsequently washed and layered over density gradient medium (density 1.073 g/ml). After centrifugation, cells from the interphase are washed and plated in culture-treated flasks. Cells are cultured for 4-7 days in physiological 5% O2, 5% CO2 conditions. To deplete fibroblasts (CD146(-)) and to ensure a population of only L-MSCs (CD146(+)), positive selection for CD146(+) cells is performed through magnetic bead selection. In summary, this procedure reliably produces a population of primary L-MSCs for further in vitro study and manipulation. Because of the nature of the protocol, it can easily be translated to other experimental animal models.

  9. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Tissues: Primitive Cells with Potential for Clinical and Tissue Engineering Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Pierre; Hatlapatka, Tim; Marten, Dana; Lavrentieva, Antonina; Majore, Ingrida; Hass, Ralf; Kasper, Cornelia

    Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs) have a high potential for cell-based therapies as well as for tissue engineering applications. Since Friedenstein first isolated stem or precursor cells from the human bone marrow (BM) stroma that were capable of osteogenesis, BM is currently the most common source for MSCs. However, BM presents several disadvantages, namely low frequency of MSCs, high donor-dependent variations in quality, and painful invasive intervention. Thus, tremendous research efforts have been observed during recent years to find alternative sources for MSCs.

  10. Episomal plasmid-based generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from fetal femur-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Megges, Matthias; Oreffo, Richard O C; Adjaye, James

    2016-01-01

    Human bone mesenchymal stromal cells derived from fetal femur 55 days post-conception were reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells using episomal plasmid-based expression of OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, LIN28, SV40LT, KLF4 and c-MYC and supplemented with the following pathway inhibitors - TGFβ receptor inhibitor (A-83-01), MEK inhibitor (PD325901), GSK3β inhibitor (CHIR99021) and ROCK inhibitor (HA-100). Successful induction of pluripotency in two iPS-cell lines was demonstrated in vitro and by the Pluritest.

  11. GMP-Compliant Expansion of Clinical-Grade Human Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells Using a Closed Hollow Fiber Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Barckhausen, Christina; Rice, Brent; Baila, Stefano; Sensebé, Luc; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Nold, Philipp; Hackstein, Holger; Rojewski, Markus Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a method for GMP-compliant expansion of human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hMSC) from bone marrow aspirates, using the Quantum(®) Cell Expansion System from Terumo BCT. The Quantum system is a functionally closed, automated hollow fiber bioreactor system designed to reproducibly grow cells in either GMP or research laboratory environments. The chapter includes protocols for preparation of media, setup of the Quantum system, coating of the hollow fiber bioreactor, as well as loading, feeding, and harvesting of cells. We suggest a panel of quality controls for the starting material, the interim product, as well as the final product.

  12. Mesenchymal stromal cells revert multiple myeloma cells to less differentiated phenotype by the combined activities of adhesive interactions and interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Dezorella, Nili; Pevsner-Fischer, Meirav; Deutsch, Varda; Kay, Sigi; Baron, Shoshana; Stern, Ruth; Tavor, Sigal; Nagler, Arnon; Naparstek, Elizabeth; Zipori, Dov; Katz, Ben-Zion

    2009-07-01

    Multiple myeloma is characterized by the malignant growth of immunoglobulin producing plasma cells, predominantly in the bone marrow. The effects of primary human mesenchymal stromal cells on the differentiation phenotype of multiple myeloma cells were studied by co-culture experiments. The incubation of multiple myeloma cells with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells resulted in significant reduction of the expression of the predominant plasma cell differentiation markers CD38 and CD138, and cell surface immunoglobulin light chain. While the down-regulation of CD138 by stromal cells was completely dependent on their adhesive interactions with the multiple myeloma cells, interleukin-6 induced specific down-regulation of CD38. Mesenchymal stromal cells or their conditioned media inhibited the growth of multiple myeloma cell line, thereby reducing the overall amounts of secreted light chains. Analysis of primary multiple myeloma bone marrow samples reveled that the expression of CD38 on multiple myeloma cells was not affected by adhesive interactions. The ex vivo propagation of primary multiple myeloma cells resulted in significant increase in their differentiation markers. Overall, the data indicate that the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells revert multiple myeloma cells to less differentiated phenotype by the combined activities of adhesive interactions and interleukin-6.

  13. Efficient Transformation of Primary Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells by Adenovirus Early Region 1 Oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Speiseder, Thomas; Hofmann-Sieber, Helga; Rodríguez, Estefanía; Schellenberg, Anna; Akyüz, Nuray; Dierlamm, Judith; Spruss, Thilo; Lange, Claudia; Dobner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    embryonic tissue, albeit the exact cell type is not known yet. We show for the first time the successful transformation of primary human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) by HAdV-5 E1A and E1B. Further, we show upon HAdV-5 E1A and E1B expression that these primary progenitor cells exhibit features of tumor cells and can no longer be differentiated into the adipogenic, chondrogenic, or osteogenic lineage. Hence, primary hMSCs represent a robust and novel model system to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of adenovirus-mediated transformation of multipotent human progenitor cells. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Interleukin-6 Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Acquisition of Epithelial Stem-Like Cell Properties in Ameloblastoma Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chunmiao; Zhang, Qunzhou; Shanti, Rabie M; Shi, Shihong; Chang, Ting-Han; Carrasco, Lee; Alawi, Faizan; Le, Anh D

    2017-09-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a biological process associated with cancer stem-like or cancer-initiating cell formation, contributes to the invasiveness, metastasis, drug resistance, and recurrence of the malignant tumors; it remains to be determined whether similar processes contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of ameloblastoma (AM), a benign but locally invasive odontogenic neoplasm. Here, we demonstrated that EMT- and stem cell-related genes were expressed in the epithelial islands of the most common histologic variant subtype, the follicular AM. Our results revealed elevated interleukin (IL)-6 signals that were differentially expressed in the stromal compartment of the follicular AM. To explore the stromal effect on tumor pathogenesis, we isolated and characterized both mesenchymal stromal cells (AM-MSCs) and epithelial cells (AM-EpiCs) from follicular AM and demonstrated that, in in vitro culture, AM-MSCs secreted a significantly higher level of IL-6 as compared to the counterpart AM-EpiCs. Furthermore, both in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that exogenous and AM-MSC-derived IL-6 induced the expression of EMT- and stem cell-related genes in AM-EpiCs, whereas such effects were significantly abrogated either by a specific inhibitor of STAT3 or ERK1/2, or by knockdown of Slug gene expression. These findings suggest that AM-MSC-derived IL-6 promotes tumor-stem like cell formation by inducing EMT process in AM-EpiCs through STAT3 and ERK1/2-mediated signaling pathways, implying a role in the etiology and progression of the benign but locally invasive neoplasm. Stem Cells 2017;35:2083-2094. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  15. Synthetic niche substrates engineered via two-photon laser polymerization for the expansion of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Nava, Michele M; Di Maggio, Nunzia; Zandrini, Tommaso; Cerullo, Giulio; Osellame, Roberto; Martin, Ivan; Raimondi, Manuela T

    2016-06-13

    The present study reports on the development of an innovative culture substrate, micro-fabricated by two-photon laser polymerization (2PP) in a hybrid organic-inorganic photoresin. It was previously demonstrated that this substrate is able to guide spontaneous homing and colonization of mesenchymal stromal cells by the presence of synthetic microniches. Here, the number of niches covering the culture substrate was increased up to 10% of the total surface. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells were expanded for 3 weeks and then their proliferation, clonogenic capacity and bilineage differentiation potential towards the osteogenic and adipogenic lineage were evaluated, both by colorimetric assays and by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Compared with cells cultured on glass substrates, cells expanded on 2PP substrates showed a greater colony diameter, which is an index of clonogenic potential. Following medium conditioning on 2PP-cultured cells, the expression of RUNX2 and BSP genes, as well as PPAR-gamma, was significantly greater than that measured on glass controls. Thus, human cells expanded on the synthetic niche substrate maintained their proliferative potential, clonogenic capacity and bilineage differentiation potential more effectively than cells expanded on glass substrates and in some aspects were comparable to non-expanded cells. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Intraperitoneal but Not Intravenous Cryopreserved Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Home to the Inflamed Colon and Ameliorate Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Castelo-Branco, Morgana T. L.; Soares, Igor D. P.; Lopes, Daiana V.; Buongusto, Fernanda; Martinusso, Cesonia A.; do Rosario, Alyson; Souza, Sergio A. L.; Gutfilen, Bianca; Fonseca, Lea Mirian B.; Elia, Celeste; Madi, Kalil; Schanaider, Alberto; Rossi, Maria Isabel D.; Souza, Heitor S. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were shown to have immunomodulatory activity and have been applied for treating immune-mediated disorders. We compared the homing and therapeutic action of cryopreserved subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) in rats with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)–induced colitis. Methods After colonoscopic detection of inflammation AT-MSCs or BM-MSCs were injected intraperitoneally. Colonoscopic and histologic scores were obtained. Density of collagen fibres and apoptotic rates were evaluated. Cytokine levels were measured in supernatants of colon explants. For cell migration studies MSCs and skin fibroblasts were labelled with Tc-99m or CM-DiI and injected intraperitonealy or intravenously. Results Intraperitoneal injection of AT-MSCs or BM-MSCs reduced the endoscopic and histopathologic severity of colitis, the collagen deposition, and the epithelial apoptosis. Levels of TNF-α and interleukin-1β decreased, while VEGF and TGF-β did not change following cell-therapy. Scintigraphy showed that MSCs migrated towards the inflamed colon and the uptake increased from 0.5 to 24 h. Tc-99m-MSCs injected intravenously distributed into various organs, but not the colon. Cm-DiI-positive MSCs were detected throughout the colon wall 72 h after inoculation, predominantly in the submucosa and muscular layer of inflamed areas. Conclusions Intraperitoneally injected cryopreserved MSCs home to and engraft into the inflamed colon and ameliorate TNBS-colitis. PMID:22432015

  17. Human olfactory mesenchymal stromal cell transplants promote remyelination and earlier improvement in gait co‐ordination after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Susan L.; Toft, Andrew; Griffin, Jacob; M. M. Emraja, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Autologous cell transplantation is a promising strategy for repair of the injured spinal cord. Here we have studied the repair potential of mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from the human olfactory mucosa after transplantation into a rodent model of incomplete spinal cord injury. Investigation of peripheral type remyelination at the injury site using immunocytochemistry for P0, showed a more extensive distribution in transplanted compared with control animals. In addition to the typical distribution in the dorsal columns (common to all animals), in transplanted animals only, P0 immunolabelling was consistently detected in white matter lateral and ventral to the injury site. Transplanted animals also showed reduced cavitation. Several functional outcome measures including end‐point electrophysiological testing of dorsal column conduction and weekly behavioural testing of BBB, weight bearing and pain, showed no difference between transplanted and control animals. However, gait analysis revealed an earlier recovery of co‐ordination between forelimb and hindlimb stepping in transplanted animals. This improvement in gait may be associated with the enhanced myelination in ventral and lateral white matter, where fibre tracts important for locomotion reside. Autologous transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells from the olfactory mucosa may therefore be therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of spinal cord injury. GLIA 2017 GLIA 2017;65:639–656 PMID:28144983

  18. Identification of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the reactive stroma of a prostate cancer xenograft by side population analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Santamaria-Martinez, Albert; Barquinero, Jordi; Barbosa-Desongles, Anna; Hurtado, Antoni; Pinos, Tomas; Seoane, Joan; Poupon, Marie-France; Morote, Joan; Reventos, Jaume; Munell, Francina

    2009-10-15

    Cancer stem cells are a distinct cellular population that is believed to be responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. Recent data suggest that solid tumors also contain another type of stem cells, the mesenchymal stem cells or multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which contribute to the formation of tumor-associated stroma. The Hoechst 33342 efflux assay has proved useful to identify a rare cellular fraction, named Side Population (SP), enriched in cells with stem-like properties. Using this assay, we identified SP cells in a prostate cancer xenograft containing human prostate cancer cells and mouse stromal cells. The SP isolation, subculture and sequential sorting allowed the generation of single-cell-derived clones of murine origin that were recognized as MSC by their morphology, plastic adherence, proliferative potential, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation ability and immunophenotype (CD45{sup -}, CD81{sup +} and Sca-1{sup +}). We also demonstrated that SP clonal cells secrete transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) and that their inhibition reduces proliferation and accelerates differentiation. These results reveal the existence of SP cells in the stroma of a cancer xenograft, and provide evidence supporting their MSC nature and the role of TGF-{beta}1 in maintaining their proliferation and undifferentiated status. Our data also reveal the usefulness of the SP assay to identify and isolate MSC cells from carcinomas.

  19. Effect of TGF-β1 Stimulation on the Secretome of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Tania M; Saldías, Alejandro; Irigo, Marcelo; Zamora, Jorge Velasco; Perone, Marcelo J; Dewey, Ricardo A

    2015-08-01

    Adipose tissue is an attractive source of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) owing to the relative ease of obtaining large volumes with more MSC abundance compared with other sources. Increasing evidence supports the fact that trophic factors secreted by MSCs play a pivotal therapeutic role. Several strategies in regenerative medicine use MSCs, mainly exploiting their immunosuppressive effect and homing capacity to sites of damage. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a pleiotropic cytokine that, depending on the cell niche, can display either anti-inflammatory or proinflammatory effects. TGF-β1 expression increases in various tissues with damage, especially when accompanied by inflammation. Thus, we analyzed the effect of TGF-β1 on the secretion by adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs) of a panel of 80 cytokines/chemokines using an antibody array. To avoid a possible effect of fetal bovine serum (FBS) on ASCs secretion, we performed our analysis by culturing cells in FBS-free conditions, only supplemented with 0.1% of bovine serum albumin. We report the cytokine profile secreted by ASCs. We also found that TGF-β1 exposure modulates 8 chemokines and 18 cytokines, including TGF-β1 and -β2, and other important cytokines involved in immunosuppression, allergic responses, and bone resorption.

  20. Osteogenic potential of human adipose-tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on 3D-printed porous structured titanium.

    PubMed

    Lewallen, Eric A; Jones, Dakota L; Dudakovic, Amel; Thaler, Roman; Paradise, Christopher R; Kremers, Hilal M; Abdel, Matthew P; Kakar, Sanjeev; Dietz, Allan B; Cohen, Robert C; Lewallen, David G; van Wijnen, Andre J

    2016-05-01

    Integration of porous metal prosthetics, which restore form and function of irreversibly damaged joints, into remaining healthy bone is critical for implant success. We investigated the biological properties of adipose-tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (AMSCs) and addressed their potential to alter the in vitro microenvironment of implants. We employed human AMSCs as a practical source for musculoskeletal applications because these cells can be obtained in large quantities, are multipotent, and have trophic paracrine functions. AMSCs were cultured on surgical-grade porous titanium disks as a model for orthopedic implants. We monitored cell/substrate attachment, cell proliferation, multipotency, and differentiation phenotypes of AMSCs upon osteogenic induction. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy and histology revealed that AMSCs adhere to the porous metallic surface. Compared to standard tissue culture plastic, AMSCs grown in the porous titanium microenvironment showed differences in temporal expression for genes involved in cell cycle progression (CCNB2, HIST2H4), extracellular matrix production (COL1A1, COL3A1), mesenchymal lineage identity (ACTA2, CD248, CD44), osteoblastic transcription factors (DLX3, DLX5, ID3), and epigenetic regulators (EZH1, EZH2). We conclude that metal orthopedic implants can be effectively seeded with clinical-grade stem/stromal cells to create a pre-conditioned implant.

  1. Systemic Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Transplantation Prevents Functional Bone Loss in a Mouse Model of Age-Related Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Kiernan, Jeffrey; Hu, Sally; Grynpas, Marc D.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related osteoporosis is driven by defects in the tissue-resident mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), a heterogeneous population of musculoskeletal progenitors that includes skeletal stem cells. MSC decline leads to reduced bone formation, causing loss of bone volume and the breakdown of bony microarchitecture crucial to trabecular strength. Furthermore, the low-turnover state precipitated by MSC loss leads to low-quality bone that is unable to perform remodeling-mediated maintenance—replacing old damaged bone with new healthy tissue. Using minimally expanded exogenous MSCs injected systemically into a mouse model of human age-related osteoporosis, we show long-term engraftment and markedly increased bone formation. This led to improved bone quality and turnover and, importantly, sustained microarchitectural competence. These data establish proof of concept that MSC transplantation may be used to prevent or treat human age-related osteoporosis. Significance This study shows that a single dose of minimally expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) injected systemically into a mouse model of human age-related osteoporosis display long-term engraftment and prevent the decline in bone formation, bone quality, and microarchitectural competence. This work adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting that the decline of MSCs associated with age-related osteoporosis is a major transformative event in the progression of the disease. Furthermore, it establishes proof of concept that MSC transplantation may be a viable therapeutic strategy to treat or prevent human age-related osteoporosis. PMID:26987353

  2. Systemic Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Transplantation Prevents Functional Bone Loss in a Mouse Model of Age-Related Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, Jeffrey; Hu, Sally; Grynpas, Marc D; Davies, John E; Stanford, William L

    2016-05-01

    Age-related osteoporosis is driven by defects in the tissue-resident mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), a heterogeneous population of musculoskeletal progenitors that includes skeletal stem cells. MSC decline leads to reduced bone formation, causing loss of bone volume and the breakdown of bony microarchitecture crucial to trabecular strength. Furthermore, the low-turnover state precipitated by MSC loss leads to low-quality bone that is unable to perform remodeling-mediated maintenance--replacing old damaged bone with new healthy tissue. Using minimally expanded exogenous MSCs injected systemically into a mouse model of human age-related osteoporosis, we show long-term engraftment and markedly increased bone formation. This led to improved bone quality and turnover and, importantly, sustained microarchitectural competence. These data establish proof of concept that MSC transplantation may be used to prevent or treat human age-related osteoporosis. This study shows that a single dose of minimally expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) injected systemically into a mouse model of human age-related osteoporosis display long-term engraftment and prevent the decline in bone formation, bone quality, and microarchitectural competence. This work adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting that the decline of MSCs associated with age-related osteoporosis is a major transformative event in the progression of the disease. Furthermore, it establishes proof of concept that MSC transplantation may be a viable therapeutic strategy to treat or prevent human age-related osteoporosis. ©AlphaMed Press.

  3. Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Expression in Papillary Thyroid Cancer Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells Modulates Cancer Cell Growth and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Parascandolo, Alessia; Rappa, Francesca; Cappello, Francesco; Kim, Jaehyup; Cantu, David A.; Chen, Herbert; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Hematti, Peiman; Castellone, Maria Domenica; Salvatore, Marco; Laukkanen, Mikko O.

    2017-01-01

    Tumor stroma-secreted growth factors, cytokines, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) influence tumor development from early stages to the metastasis phase. Previous studies have demonstrated downregulation of ROS-producing extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) in thyroid cancer cell lines although according to recent data, the expression of SOD3 at physiological levels stimulates normal and cancer cell proliferation. Therefore, to analyze the expression of SOD3 in tumor stroma, we characterized stromal cells from the thyroid. We report mutually exclusive desmoplasia and inflammation in papillary and follicular thyroid cancers and the presence of multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) in non-carcinogenic thyroids and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The phenotypic and differentiation characteristics of Thyroid MSCs and PTC MSCs were comparable with bone marrow MSCs. A molecular level analysis showed increased FIBROBLAST ACTIVATING PROTEIN, COLLAGEN 1 TYPE A1, TENASCIN, and SOD3 expression in PTC MSCs compared to Thyroid MSCs, suggesting the presence of MSCs with a fibrotic fingerprint in papillary thyroid cancer tumors and the autocrine-paracrine conversion of SOD3 expression, which was enhanced by cancer cells. Stromal SOD3 had a stimulatory effect on cancer cell growth and an inhibitory effect on cancer cell migration, thus indicating that SOD3 might be a novel player in thyroid tumor stroma. PMID:28216675

  4. Amyloid-aβ Peptide in olfactory mucosa and mesenchymal stromal cells of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Grosso, Carlos A; Pieruzzini, Rosalinda; Diaz-Solano, Dylana; Wittig, Olga; Abrante, Ligia; Vargas, Leslie; Cardier, Jose

    2015-03-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer's disease (AD) might develop olfactory dysfunction that correlates with progression of disease. Alteration of olfactory neuroepithelium associated with MCI may be useful as predictor of cognitive decline. Biomarkers with higher sensitivity and specificity would allow to understand the biological progression of the pathology in association with the clinical course of the disease. In this study, magnetic resonance images, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) load, Olfactory Connecticut test and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) indices were obtained from noncognitive impaired (NCI), MCI and AD patients. We established a culture of patient-derived olfactory stromal cells from biopsies of olfactory mucosa (OM) to test whether biological properties of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are concurrent with MCI and AD psychophysical pathology. We determined the expression of amyloid Aβ peptides in the neuroepithelium of tissue sections from MCI and AD, as well as in cultured cells of OM. Reduced migration and proliferation of stromal (CD90(+) ) cells in MCI and AD with respect to NCI patients was determined. A higher proportion of anosmic MCI and AD cases were concurrent with the ApoE ε4 allele. In summary, dysmetabolism of amyloid was concurrent with migration and proliferation impairment of patient-derived stem cells. © 2014 International Society of Neuropathology.

  5. In Vitro Epigenetic Reprogramming of Human Cardiac Mesenchymal Stromal Cells into Functionally Competent Cardiovascular Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Vecellio, Matteo; Meraviglia, Viviana; Nanni, Simona; Barbuti, Andrea; Scavone, Angela; DiFrancesco, Dario; Farsetti, Antonella; Pompilio, Giulio; Colombo, Gualtiero I.; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.

    2012-01-01

    Adult human cardiac mesenchymal-like stromal cells (CStC) represent a relatively accessible cell type useful for therapy. In this light, their conversion into cardiovascular precursors represents a potential successful strategy for cardiac repair. The aim of the present work was to reprogram CStC into functionally competent cardiovascular precursors using epigenetically active small molecules. CStC were exposed to low serum (5% FBS) in the presence of 5 µM all-trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA), 5 µM Phenyl Butyrate (PB), and 200 µM diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide (DETA/NO), to create a novel epigenetically active cocktail (EpiC). Upon treatment the expression of markers typical of cardiac resident stem cells such as c-Kit and MDR-1 were up-regulated, together with the expression of a number of cardiovascular-associated genes including KDR, GATA6, Nkx2.5, GATA4, HCN4, NaV1.5, and α-MHC. In addition, profiling analysis revealed that a significant number of microRNA involved in cardiomyocyte biology and cell differentiation/proliferation, including miR 133a, 210 and 34a, were up-regulated. Remarkably, almost 45% of EpiC-treated cells exhibited a TTX-sensitive sodium current and, to a lower extent in a few cells, also the pacemaker If current. Mechanistically, the exposure to EpiC treatment introduced global histone modifications, characterized by increased levels of H3K4Me3 and H4K16Ac, as well as reduced H4K20Me3 and H3s10P, a pattern compatible with reduced proliferation and chromatin relaxation. Consistently, ChIP experiments performed with H3K4me3 or H3s10P histone modifications revealed the presence of a specific EpiC-dependent pattern in c-Kit, MDR-1, and Nkx2.5 promoter regions, possibly contributing to their modified expression. Taken together, these data indicate that CStC may be epigenetically reprogrammed to acquire molecular and biological properties associated with competent cardiovascular precursors. PMID:23284745

  6. Examining the Feasibility of Clinical Grade CD271+ Enrichment of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, Richard J.; Giannoudis, Peter V.; Wang, Xiao N.; Nicholson, Lindsay; Pawson, David; Lubenko, Anatole; Tan, Hiang B.; Dickinson, Anne; McGonagle, Dennis; Jones, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current clinical trials utilize mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) expanded in culture, however these interventions carry considerable costs and concerns pertaining to culture-induced losses of potency. This study assessed the feasibility of new clinical-grade technology to obtain uncultured MSC isolates from three human intra-osseous tissue sources based on immunomagnetic selection for CD271-positive cells. Materials and Methods MSCs were isolated from bone marrow (BM) aspirates or surgical waste materials; enzymatically digested femoral heads (FHs) and reamer irrigator aspirator (RIA) waste fluids. Flow cytometry for the CD45−/lowCD73+CD271+ phenotype was used to evaluate uncultured MSCs before and after selection, and to measure MSC enrichment in parallel to colony forming-unit fibroblast assay. Trilineage differentiation assays and quantitative polymerase chain-reaction for key transcripts involved in bone regeneration was used to assess the functional utility of isolated cells for bone repair. Results Uncultured CD45−/lowCD271+ MSCs uniformly expressed CD73, CD90 and CD105 but showed variable expression of MSCA-1 and SUSD2 (BM>RIA>FH). MSCs were enriched over 150-fold from BM aspirates and RIA fluids, whereas the highest MSC purities were obtained from FH digests. Enriched fractions expressed increased levels of BMP-2, COL1A2, VEGFC, SPARC and CXCL12 transcripts (BM>RIA>FH), with the highest up-regulation detected for CXCL12 in BM (>1300-fold). Following culture expansion, CD271-selected MSCS were tri-potential and phenotypically identical to plastic adherence-selected MSCs. Discussion A CD271-based GMP-compliant immunomagnetic selection resulted in a substantial increase in MSC purity and elevated expression of transcripts involved in bone formation, vascularisation and chemo-attraction. Although this technology, particularly from RIA fluids, can be immediately applied by orthopaedic surgeons as autologous therapy, further improvements in MSC

  7. Osteogenic Ability of Canine Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Sheets in Relation to Culture Time.

    PubMed

    Kuk, Minyong; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Seung Hoon; Kim, Wan Hee; Kweon, Oh-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    Cell sheets could be used for bone regeneration without requiring a scaffold and can be easily produced from autologous mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). We compared the osteogenic potential of MSC-derived cell sheets in relation to culture time. Undifferentiated cell sheets (U-CS) and osteogenic differentiated cell sheets (O-CS) were generated using canine adipose-derived MSCs. Undifferentiated cells (UCs) were used as the control. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed by assaying alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Expression of osteogenesis-related genes was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction at 4, 7, 14, and 21 days after initiation of culture. The calcium content in cells was measured, and the cells were stained with Alizarin red S (ARS). The mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-β in U-CS and O-CS at day 4 was higher than that in UCs (p < 0.05). The level of bone morphogenetic protein 7 mRNA in O-CS increased significantly at day 4 and was significantly higher than that of U-CS at day 7. The mRNA level of runt-related transcription factor-2 in both sheet types increased significantly at 7 days of culture. The mRNA level of ALP in O-CS and U-CS increased significantly at day 7, and ALP activity was highest at days 7 and 14, respectively (p < 0.05). The mRNA level of osteocalcin in U-CS and O-CS increased significantly at day 21. O-CS and U-CS showed negative ARS staining but their calcium contents increased marginally at day 21. The O-CS cells started to aggregate at days 10-12, and only a partial sheet remained at day 21. The upregulation of expression of genes related to osteogenic differentiation, peak in ALP activity, and morphological changes in cell sheets suggest that the optimal time for application of O-CS and U-CS is between 7 and 10 days and after 14 days of culture, respectively.

  8. Interaction between immobilized polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles and human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Woltmann, Beatrice; Torger, Bernhard; Müller, Martin; Hempel, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Implant loosening or deficient osseointegration is a major problem in patients with systemic bone diseases (eg, osteoporosis). For this reason, the stimulation of the regional cell population by local and sustained drug delivery at the bone/implant interface to induce the formation of a mechanical stable bone is promising. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of polymer-based nanoparticles with human bone marrow-derived cells, considering nanoparticles' composition and surface net charge. Polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles (PECNPs) composed of the polycations poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI), poly(L-lysine) (PLL), or (N,N-diethylamino)ethyldextran (DEAE) in combination with the polyanions dextran sulfate (DS) or cellulose sulfate (CS) were prepared. PECNPs' physicochemical properties (size, net charge) were characterized by dynamic light scattering and particle charge detector measurements. Biocompatibility was investigated using human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) cultured on immobilized PECNP films (5-50 nmol·cm(-2)) by analysis for metabolic activity of hMSCs in dependence of PECNP surface concentration by MTS (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-5-[3-carboxymethoxyphenyl]-2-[4-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt) assay, as well as cell morphology (phase contrast microscopy). PECNPs ranging between ~50 nm and 150 nm were prepared. By varying the ratio of polycations and polyanions, PECNPs with a slightly positive (PEC(+)NP) or negative (PEC(-)NP) net charge were obtained. The PECNP composition significantly affected cell morphology and metabolic activity, whereas the net charge had a negligible influence. Therefore, we classified PECNPs into "variant systems" featuring a significant dose dependency of metabolic activity (DEAE/CS, PEI/DS) and "invariant systems" lacking such a dependency (DEAE/DS, PEI/CS). Immunofluorescence imaging of fluorescein isothiocyanate isomer I (FITC)-labeled PECNPs suggested internalization into hMSCs remaining

  9. The potential role of genetically-modified pig mesenchymal stromal cells in xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Ezzelarab, Mohamed B; Ayares, David; Cooper, David K C

    2014-02-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are known to have regenerative, anti-inflammatory, and immunodulatory effects. There are extensive indications that pig MSCs function satisfactorily across species barriers. Pig MSCs might have considerable therapeutic potential, particularly in xenotransplantation, where they have several potential advantages. (i) pMSCs can be obtained from the specific organ- or cell-source donor pig or from an identical (cloned) pig. (ii) They are easy to obtain in large numbers, negating the need for prolonged ex vivo expansion. (iii) They can be obtained from genetically-engineered pigs, and the genetic modification can be related to the therapeutic goal of the MSCs. We have reviewed our own studies on MSCs from genetically-engineered pigs, and summarize them here. We have successfully harvested and cultured MSCs from wild-type and genetically-engineered pig bone marrow and adipose tissue. We have identified several pig (p)MSC surface markers (positive for CD29, CD44, CD73, CD105, CD166, and negative for CD31, CD45), have demonstrated their proliferation and differentiation (into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondroblasts), and evaluated their antigenicity and immune suppressive effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CD4(+)T cells. They have identical or very similar characteristics to MSCs from other mammals. Genetically-modified pMSCs are significantly less immunogenic than wild-type pMSCs, and downregulate the human T cell response to pig antigens as efficiently as do human MSCs. We hypothesized that pMSCs can immunomodulate human T cells through induction of apoptosis or anergy, or cause T cell phenotype switching with induction of regulatory T cells, but we could find no evidence for these mechanisms. However, pMSCs upregulated the expression of CD69 on human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, the relevance of which is currently under investigation. We conclude that MSCs from genetically-engineered pigs should continue to be

  10. Characterization and profiling of immunomodulatory genes of equine mesenchymal stromal cells from non-invasive sources

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been extensively studied for their promising capabilities in regenerative medicine. Although bone marrow is the best-known source for isolating equine MSCs, non-invasive alternative sources such as umbilical cord blood (UCB), umbilical cord matrix (UCM), and peripheral blood (PB) have also been reported. Methods Equine MSCs from three non-invasive alternative sources were isolated from six individual mares (PB) and their foals (UCB and UCM) at parturition. To minimize inter-horse variability, the samples from the three sources were matched within the same mare and for UCB and UCM even within the same foal from that specific mare. The following parameters were analyzed: (i) success rate of isolation, (ii) proliferation capacity, (iii) tri-lineage differentiation ability, (iv) immunophenotypical protein, and (v) immunomodulatory mRNA profiles. Linear regression models were fit to determine the association between the source of MSCs (UCB, UCM, PB) and (i) the moment of first observation, (ii) the moment of first passage, (iii) cell proliferation data, (iv) the expression of markers related to cell immunogenicity, and (v) the mRNA profile of immunomodulatory factors, except for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) as no normal distribution could be obtained for the latter variable. To evaluate the association between the source of MSCs and the mRNA expression of HGF, the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was performed instead. Results While equine MSCs could be isolated from all the UCB and PB samples, isolation from UCM was successful in only two samples because of contamination issues. Proliferation data showed that equine MSCs from all three sources could be easily expanded, although UCB-derived MSCs appeared significantly faster in culture than PB- or UCM-derived MSCs. Equine MSCs from both UCB and PB could be differentiated toward the osteo-, chondro-, and adipogenic lineage, in contrast to UCM-derived MSCs in which

  11. Characterization and profiling of immunomodulatory genes of equine mesenchymal stromal cells from non-invasive sources.

    PubMed

    De Schauwer, Catharina; Goossens, Karen; Piepers, Sofie; Hoogewijs, Maarten K; Govaere, Jan L J; Smits, Katrien; Meyer, Evelyne; Van Soom, Ann; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R

    2014-01-13

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been extensively studied for their promising capabilities in regenerative medicine. Although bone marrow is the best-known source for isolating equine MSCs, non-invasive alternative sources such as umbilical cord blood (UCB), umbilical cord matrix (UCM), and peripheral blood (PB) have also been reported. Equine MSCs from three non-invasive alternative sources were isolated from six individual mares (PB) and their foals (UCB and UCM) at parturition. To minimize inter-horse variability, the samples from the three sources were matched within the same mare and for UCB and UCM even within the same foal from that specific mare. The following parameters were analyzed: (i) success rate of isolation, (ii) proliferation capacity, (iii) tri-lineage differentiation ability, (iv) immunophenotypical protein, and (v) immunomodulatory mRNA profiles. Linear regression models were fit to determine the association between the source of MSCs (UCB, UCM, PB) and (i) the moment of first observation, (ii) the moment of first passage, (iii) cell proliferation data, (iv) the expression of markers related to cell immunogenicity, and (v) the mRNA profile of immunomodulatory factors, except for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) as no normal distribution could be obtained for the latter variable. To evaluate the association between the source of MSCs and the mRNA expression of HGF, the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was performed instead. While equine MSCs could be isolated from all the UCB and PB samples, isolation from UCM was successful in only two samples because of contamination issues. Proliferation data showed that equine MSCs from all three sources could be easily expanded, although UCB-derived MSCs appeared significantly faster in culture than PB- or UCM-derived MSCs. Equine MSCs from both UCB and PB could be differentiated toward the osteo-, chondro-, and adipogenic lineage, in contrast to UCM-derived MSCs in which only chondro- and adipogenic

  12. Improved post-thaw function and epigenetic changes in mesenchymal stromal cells cryopreserved using multicomponent osmolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Kathryn; Samsonraj, Rebekah; Dudakovic, Amel; Thaler, Roman; Stumbras, Aron; McKenna, David; Dosa, Peter; van Wijnen, Andre; Hubel, Allison

    2017-02-08

    Current methods for freezing mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) result in poor post-thaw function, which limits the clinical utility of these cells. This investigation develops a novel approach to preserve MSCs using combinations of sugars, sugar alcohols and small molecule additives. MSCs frozen using these solutions exhibit improved post-thaw attachment and a more normal alignment of the actin cytoskeleton compared to cells exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation assays show that cells retain their mesenchymal lineage properties. Genomic analysis indicates that the different freezing media evaluated have different effects on the levels of DNA hydroxymethylation, which are a principal epigenetic mark and a key step in the demethylation of CpG doublets. RNA sequencing and qRT-PCR validation demonstrate that transcripts for distinct classes of cytoprotective genes, as well as genes related to extracellular matrix structure and growth factor/receptor signaling are upregulated in experimental freezing solutions compared to DMSO. For example, the osmotic regulator galanin (GAL), the anti-apoptotic marker BCL2, as well as the cell surface adhesion molecules CD106 (VCAM1) and CD54 (ICAM1) are all elevated in DMSO-free solutions. These studies validate the concept that DMSO-free solutions improve post-thaw biological functions and are viable alternatives for freezing MSCs. These novel solutions promote expression of cytoprotective genes, modulate the CpG epigenome and retain the differentiation ability of mesenchymal stromal cells, suggesting that osmolyte-based freezing solutions may provide a new paradigm for therapeutic cell preservation.

  13. Human Placenta-Derived Adherent Cells Prevent Bone loss, Stimulate Bone formation, and Suppress Growth of Multiple Myeloma in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Ling, Wen; Pennisi, Angela; Wang, Yuping; Khan, Sharmin; Heidaran, Mohammad; Pal, Ajai; Zhang, Xiaokui; He, Shuyang; Zeitlin, Andy; Abbot, Stewart; Faleck, Herbert; Hariri, Robert; Shaughnessy, John D.; van Rhee, Frits; Nair, Bijay; Barlogie, Bart; Epstein, Joshua; Yaccoby, Shmuel

    2011-01-01

    Human placenta has emerged as a valuable source of transplantable cells of mesenchymal and hematopoietic origin for multiple cytotherapeutic purposes, including enhanced engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells, modulation of inflammation, bone repair, and cancer. Placenta-derived adherent cells (PDACs) are mesenchymal-like stem cells isolated from postpartum human placenta. Multiple myeloma is closely associated with induction of bone disease and large lytic lesions, which are often not repaired and are usually the sites of relapses. We evaluated the antimyeloma therapeutic potential, in vivo survival, and trafficking of PDACs in the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)–rab model of medullary myeloma-associated bone loss. Intrabone injection of PDACs into non-myelomatous and myelomatous implanted bone in SCID-rab mice promoted bone formation by stimulating endogenous osteoblastogenesis, and most PDACs disappeared from bone within 4 weeks. PDACs inhibitory effects on myeloma bone disease and tumor growth were dose-dependent and comparable with those of fetal human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Intrabone, but not subcutaneous, engraftment of PDACs inhibited bone disease and tumor growth in SCID-rab mice. Intratumor injection of PDACs had no effect on subcutaneous growth of myeloma cells. A small number of intravenously injected PDACs trafficked into myelomatous bone. Myeloma cell growth rate in vitro was lower in coculture with PDACs than with MSCs from human fetal bone or myeloma patients. PDACs also promoted apoptosis in osteoclast precursors and inhibited their differentiation. This study suggests that altering the bone marrow microenvironment with PDAC cytotherapy attenuates growth of myeloma and that PDAC cytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach for myeloma osteolysis. PMID:21732484

  14. Mesenchymal stromal cells from pooled mononuclear cells of multiple bone marrow donors as rescue therapy in pediatric severe steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease: a multicenter survey

    PubMed Central

    Kuçi, Zyrafete; Bönig, Halvard; Kreyenberg, Hermann; Bunos, Milica; Jauch, Anna; Janssen, Johannes W.G.; Škifić, Marijana; Michel, Kristina; Eising, Ben; Lucchini, Giovanna; Bakhtiar, Shahrzad; Greil, Johann; Lang, Peter; Basu, Oliver; von Luettichau, Irene; Schulz, Ansgar; Sykora, Karl-Walter; Jarisch, Andrea; Soerensen, Jan; Salzmann-Manrique, Emilia; Seifried, Erhard; Klingebiel, Thomas; Bader, Peter; Kuçi, Selim

    2016-01-01

    To circumvent donor-to-donor heterogeneity which may lead to inconsistent results after treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease with mesenchymal stromal cells generated from single donors we developed a novel approach by generating these cells from pooled bone marrow mononuclear cells of 8 healthy “3rd-party” donors. Generated cells were frozen in 209 vials and designated as mesenchymal stromal cell bank. These vials served as a source for generation of clinical grade mesenchymal stromal cell end-products, which exhibited typical mesenchymal stromal cell phenotype, trilineage differentiation potential and at later passages expressed replicative senescence-related markers (p21 and p16). Genetic analysis demonstrated their genomic stability (normal karyotype and a diploid pattern). Importantly, clinical end-products exerted a significantly higher allosuppressive potential than the mean allosuppressive potential of mesenchymal stromal cells generated from the same donors individually. Administration of 81 mesenchymal stromal cell end-products to 26 patients with severe steroid-resistant acute graft-versus-host disease in 7 stem cell transplant centers who were refractory to many lines of treatment, induced a 77% overall response at the primary end point (day 28). Remarkably, although the cohort of patients was highly challenging (96% grade III/IV and only 4% grade II graft-versus-host disease), after treatment with mesenchymal stromal cell end-products the overall survival rate at two years follow up was 71±11% for the entire patient cohort, compared to 51.4±9.0% in graft-versus-host disease clinical studies, in which mesenchymal stromal cells were derived from single donors. Mesenchymal stromal cell end-products may, therefore, provide a novel therapeutic tool for the effective treatment of severe acute graft-versus-host disease. PMID:27175026

  15. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells: An update on their phenotype in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Patrick C

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a rich, ubiquitous and easily accessible source for multipotent stromal/stem cells and has, therefore, several advantages compared to other sources of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells. Several studies have tried to identify the origin of the stromal/stem cell population within adipose tissue in situ. This is a complicated attempt because no marker has currently been described which unambiguously identifies native adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs). Isolated and cultured ASCs are a non-uniform preparation consisting of several subsets of stem and precursor cells. Cultured ASCs are characterized by their expression of a panel of markers (and the absence of others), whereas their in vitro phenotype is dynamic. Some markers were expressed de novo during culture, the expression of some markers is lost. For a long time, CD34 expression was solely used to characterize haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, but now it has become evident that it is also a potential marker to identify an ASC subpopulation in situ and after a short culture time. Nevertheless, long-term cultured ASCs do not express CD34, perhaps due to the artificial environment. This review gives an update of the recently published data on the origin and phenotype of ASCs both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, the composition of ASCs (or their subpopulations) seems to vary between different laboratories and preparations. This heterogeneity of ASC preparations may result from different reasons. One of the main problems in comparing results from different laboratories is the lack of a standardized isolation and culture protocol for ASCs. Since many aspects of ASCs, such as the differential potential or the current use in clinical trials, are fully described in other recent reviews, this review further updates the more basic research issues concerning ASCs’ subpopulations, heterogeneity and culture standardization. PMID:25126376

  16. Mesenchymal stromal cells retrovirally transduced with prodrug-converting genes are suitable vehicles for cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Ďuriniková, E; Kučerová, L; Matúšková, M

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) possess a set of several fairly unique properties which make them ideally suitable both for cellular therapies and regenerative medicine. These include: relative ease of isolation, the ability to differentiate along mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal lineages in vitro and the ability to be extensively expanded in culture without a loss of differentiative capacity. MSC are not only hypoimmunogenic, but they mediate immunosuppression upon transplantation, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory properties. They are able to home to damaged tissues, tumors, and metastases following systemic administration. The ability of homing holds big promise for tumor-targeted delivery of therapeutic agents. Viruses are naturally evolved vehicles efficiently transferring their genes into host cells. This ability made them suitable for engineering vector systems for the delivery of genes of interest. MSC can be retrovirally transduced with genes encoding prodrug-converting genes (suicide genes), which are not toxic per se, but catalyze the formation of highly toxic metabolites following the application of a nontoxic prodrug. The homing ability of MSC holds advantages compared to virus vehicles which display many shortcomings in effective delivery of the therapeutic agents. Gene therapies mediated by viruses are limited by their restricted ability to track cancer cells infiltrating into the surrounding tissue, and by their low migratory capacity towards tumor. Thus combination of cellular therapy and gene delivery is an attractive option - it protects the vector from immune surveillance, and supports targeted delivery of a therapeutic gene/protein to the tumor site.

  17. Mesenchymal stromal cell therapy reduces lung inflammation and vascular remodeling and improves hemodynamics in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    de Mendonça, Lucas; Felix, Nathane S; Blanco, Natália G; Da Silva, Jaqueline S; Ferreira, Tatiana P; Abreu, Soraia C; Cruz, Fernanda F; Rocha, Nazareth; Silva, Patrícia M; Martins, Vanessa; Capelozzi, Vera L; Zapata-Sudo, Gizele; Rocco, Patricia R M; Silva, Pedro L

    2017-10-03

    Experimental research has reported beneficial effects of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, these studies either were based on prophylactic protocols or assessed basic remodeling features without evaluating possible mechanisms. We analyzed the effects of MSC therapy on lung vascular remodeling and hemodynamics and its possible mechanisms of action in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups. In the PAH group, animals received MCT 60 mg/kg intraperitoneally, while a control group received saline (SAL) instead. On day 14, both groups were further randomized to receive 10(5) adipose-derived MSCs or SAL intravenously (n = 7/group). On day 28, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and the gene expression of mediators associated with apoptosis, inflammation, fibrosis, Smad-1 levels, cell proliferation, and endothelial-mesenchymal transition were determined. In addition, lung histology (smooth muscle cell proliferation and plexiform-like injuries), CD68(+) and CD163(+) macrophages, and plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were evaluated. In the PAH group, adipose-derived MSCs, compared to SAL, reduced mean RVSP (29 ± 1 vs 39 ± 2 mmHg, p < 0.001), lung tissue collagen fiber content, smooth muscle cell proliferation, CD68(+) macrophages, interleukin-6 expression, and the antiapoptotic mediators Bcl-2 and survivin. Conversely, expression of the proapoptotic mediator procaspase-3 and plasma VEGF increased, with no changes in PDGF. In the pulmonary artery, MSCs dampened the endothelial-mesenchymal transition. In MCT-induced PAH, MSC therapy reduced lung vascular remodeling, thus improving hemodynamics. These beneficial effects were associated with increased levels of proapoptotic markers, mesenchymal-to-endothelial transition, reduced cell proliferation markers, and inflammation

  18. Constitutive stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha selectively promotes the self-renewal of mesenchymal progenitors and maintains mesenchymal stromal cells in an undifferentiated state

    PubMed Central

    Park, In-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Choi, Hyun-Kyung; Shim, Jae-Seung; Whang, Soo-Young; June Hahn, Sang; Kwon, Oh-Joo; Oh, Il-Hoan

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing use of culture-expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell therapies, factors that regulate the cellular characteristics of MSCs have been of major interest. Oxygen concentration has been shown to influence the functions of MSCs, as well as other normal and malignant stem cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of hypoxic responses and the precise role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α), the master regulatory protein of hypoxia, in MSCs remain unclear, due to the limited span of Hif-1α stabilization and the complex network of hypoxic responses. In this study, to further define the significance of Hif-1α in MSC function during their self-renewal and terminal differentiation, we established adult bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs that are able to sustain high level expression of ubiquitin-resistant Hif-1α during such long-term biological processes. Using this model, we show that the stabilization of Hif-1α proteins exerts a selective influence on colony-forming mesenchymal progenitors promoting their self-renewal and proliferation, without affecting the proliferation of the MSC mass population. Moreover, Hif-1α stabilization in MSCs led to the induction of pluripotent genes (oct-4 and klf-4) and the inhibition of their terminal differentiation into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. These results provide insights into the previously unrecognized roles of Hif-1α proteins in maintaining the primitive state of primary MSCs and on the cellular heterogeneities in hypoxic responses among MSC populations. PMID:24071737

  19. Constitutive stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha selectively promotes the self-renewal of mesenchymal progenitors and maintains mesenchymal stromal cells in an undifferentiated state.

    PubMed

    Park, In-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Choi, Hyun-Kyung; Shim, Jae-Seung; Whang, Soo-Young; Hahn, Sang June; Kwon, Oh-Joo; Oh, Il-Hoan

    2013-09-27

    With the increasing use of culture-expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell therapies, factors that regulate the cellular characteristics of MSCs have been of major interest. Oxygen concentration has been shown to influence the functions of MSCs, as well as other normal and malignant stem cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of hypoxic responses and the precise role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α), the master regulatory protein of hypoxia, in MSCs remain unclear, due to the limited span of Hif-1α stabilization and the complex network of hypoxic responses. In this study, to further define the significance of Hif-1α in MSC function during their self-renewal and terminal differentiation, we established adult bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs that are able to sustain high level expression of ubiquitin-resistant Hif-1α during such long-term biological processes. Using this model, we show that the stabilization of Hif-1α proteins exerts a selective influence on colony-forming mesenchymal progenitors promoting their self-renewal and proliferation, without affecting the proliferation of the MSC mass population. Moreover, Hif-1α stabilization in MSCs led to the induction of pluripotent genes (oct-4 and klf-4) and the inhibition of their terminal differentiation into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. These results provide insights into the previously unrecognized roles of Hif-1α proteins in maintaining the primitive state of primary MSCs and on the cellular heterogeneities in hypoxic responses among MSC populations.

  20. Do Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Influence Microscopic Residual or Metastatic Osteosarcoma in a Murine Model?

    PubMed

    Aanstoos, Megan E; Regan, Daniel P; Rose, Ruth J; Chubb, Laura S; Ehrhart, Nicole P

    2016-03-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown in rodent models to promote primary and pulmonary metastatic sarcoma growth when injected in the presence of gross tumor. In theory, this would limit their use in a clinical setting after limb salvage treatment for osteosarcoma. Although concerning, these models do not translate to the clinical setting wherein MSCs could be used after primary tumor resection to aid in bone healing and incorporation of tumor endoprostheses. If we can determine whether the use of MSCs in this setting is safe, it might improve our ability to augment bone healing in patients undergoing limb salvage. The purpose of this study was to determine (1) whether MSCs promote pulmonary metastatic disease progression in a murine osteosarcoma model; and/or (2) whether they affect local disease recurrence in the presence of microscopic residual osteosarcoma. An orthotopic model of luciferase-expressing osteosarcoma was developed. At 10 days, resection of the primary tumor was performed. One hundred fourteen female C3H mice were inoculated with DLM8-luc osteosarcoma in the proximal tibia. Ninety-four mice developed orthotopic osteosarcoma with luciferase expression. Mice with bioluminescent evidence of a primary tumor received either a microscopically "clean" amputation at a time when residual microscopic metastatic disease was present in the lungs (pulmonary metastasis group; n = 65) or a "dirty" amputation (local recurrence group; n = 29). Mice were randomized to receive intravenous MSCs, MSCs at the surgical site, or no MSCs. Mice were monitored for development and progression of pulmonary metastasis and local recurrence by bioluminescence imaging and daily measurements at the surgical site. The number of pulmonary nodules, time to first evidence of metastasis, and size of recurrent tumor were compared using Kruskal-Wallis, analysis of variance, Welch's, t-tests, or Mann-Whitney tests as appropriate for the specific data sets with p < 0

  1. The role of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell derivatives in skin wound healing in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    de Mayo, Tomas; Conget, Paulette; Becerra-Bayona, Silvia; Sossa, Claudia L.; Galvis, Virgilio

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have shown to be a promising tool in cell therapies to treat different conditions. Several pre-clinical and clinical studies have proved that the transplantation of MSCs improves wound healing. Here, we compare the beneficial effects of mouse bone marrow-derived allogeneic MSCs (allo-mBM-MSCs) and their acelullar derivatives (allo-acd-mMSCs) on skin wound healing in Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mice. One dose of allo-mBM-MSCs (1×106 cells) or one dose of allo-acd-mMSCs (1X) were intradermally injected around wounds in 8–10 week old female NOD mice. Wound healing was evaluated macroscopically (wound closure) every two days, and microscopically (reepithelialization, dermoepidermal junction, skin appendage regeneration, leukocyte infiltration, vascularization, granulation tissue formation, and density of collagen fibers in the dermis) after 16 days of MSC injection. In addition, we measured growth factors and specific proteins that were present in the allo-acd-mMSCs. Results showed significant differences in the wound healing kinetics of lesions that received allo-acd-mMSCs compared to lesions that received vehicle or allo-mBM-MSCs. In particular, mice treated with allo-acd-mMSCs reached significantly higher percentages of wound closure at day 4, 6 and 8, relative to the allo-mBM-MSCs and vehicle groups (p < 0.05), while wound closure percentages could not be statistically distinguished between the allo-mBM-MSCs and vehicle groups. Also, allo-acd-mMSCs had a greater influence in the skin would healing process. Specifically, they caused a less pronounced inflammatory severe response (p < 0.0001), more granulation tissue formation at an advanced stage (p < 0.0001), and higher density of collagen fibers (p < 0.05) compared to the other groups. Nevertheless, at day 16, both allo-mBM-MSCs and allo-acd-mMSCs revealed a higher effect on the recovery of the quality skin (continuous epidermis; regular dermoepidermal junction and skin appendages

  2. The role of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell derivatives in skin wound healing in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    de Mayo, Tomas; Conget, Paulette; Becerra-Bayona, Silvia; Sossa, Claudia L; Galvis, Virgilio; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have shown to be a promising tool in cell therapies to treat different conditions. Several pre-clinical and clinical studies have proved that the transplantation of MSCs improves wound healing. Here, we compare the beneficial effects of mouse bone marrow-derived allogeneic MSCs (allo-mBM-MSCs) and their acelullar derivatives (allo-acd-mMSCs) on skin wound healing in Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mice. One dose of allo-mBM-MSCs (1×106 cells) or one dose of allo-acd-mMSCs (1X) were intradermally injected around wounds in 8-10 week old female NOD mice. Wound healing was evaluated macroscopically (wound closure) every two days, and microscopically (reepithelialization, dermoepidermal junction, skin appendage regeneration, leukocyte infiltration, vascularization, granulation tissue formation, and density of collagen fibers in the dermis) after 16 days of MSC injection. In addition, we measured growth factors and specific proteins that were present in the allo-acd-mMSCs. Results showed significant differences in the wound healing kinetics of lesions that received allo-acd-mMSCs compared to lesions that received vehicle or allo-mBM-MSCs. In particular, mice treated with allo-acd-mMSCs reached significantly higher percentages of wound closure at day 4, 6 and 8, relative to the allo-mBM-MSCs and vehicle groups (p < 0.05), while wound closure percentages could not be statistically distinguished between the allo-mBM-MSCs and vehicle groups. Also, allo-acd-mMSCs had a greater influence in the skin would healing process. Specifically, they caused a less pronounced inflammatory severe response (p < 0.0001), more granulation tissue formation at an advanced stage (p < 0.0001), and higher density of collagen fibers (p < 0.05) compared to the other groups. Nevertheless, at day 16, both allo-mBM-MSCs and allo-acd-mMSCs revealed a higher effect on the recovery of the quality skin (continuous epidermis; regular dermoepidermal junction and skin appendages

  3. Characterization and Immunomodulatory Effects of Canine Adipose Tissue- and Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Keith A.; Chow, Natalie H. C.; Dukoff, David; Gibson, Thomas W. G.; LaMarre, Jonathan; Betts, Dean H.; Koch, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) hold promise for both cell replacement and immune modulation strategies owing to their progenitor and non-progenitor functions, respectively. Characterization of MSC from different sources is an important and necessary step before clinical use of these cells is widely adopted. Little is known about the biology and function of canine MSC compared to their mouse or human counterparts. This knowledge-gap impedes development of canine evidence-based MSC technologies. Hypothesis and Objectives We hypothesized that canine adipose tissue (AT) and bone marrow (BM) MSC (derived from the same dogs) will have similar differentiation and immune modulatory profiles. Our objectives were to evaluate progenitor and non-progenitor functions as well as other characteristics of AT- and BM-MSC including 1) proliferation rate, 2) cell surface marker expression, 3) DNA methylation levels, 4) potential for trilineage differentiation towards osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic cell fates, and 5) immunomodulatory potency in vitro. Results 1) AT-MSC proliferated at more than double the rate of BM-MSC (population doubling times in days) for passage (P) 2, AT: 1.69, BM: 3.81; P3, AT: 1.80, BM: 4.06; P4, AT: 2.37, BM: 5.34; P5, AT: 3.20, BM: 7.21). 2) Canine MSC, regardless of source, strongly expressed cell surface markers MHC I, CD29, CD44, and CD90, and were negative for MHC II and CD45. They also showed moderate expression of CD8 and CD73 and mild expression of CD14. Minor differences were found in expression of CD4 and CD34. 3) Global DNA methylation levels were significantly lower in BM-MSC compared to AT-MSC. 4) Little difference was found between AT- and BM-MSC in their potential for adipogenesis and osteogenesis. Chondrogenesis was poor to absent for both sources in spite of adding varying levels of bone-morphogenic protein to our standard transforming growth factor (TGF-β3)-based induction medium. 5) Immunomodulatory capacity was equal

  4. Mesenchymal stromal cells from the human placenta promote neovascularization in a mouse model in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kinzer, M; Hingerl, K; König, J; Reinisch, A; Strunk, D; Huppertz, B; Lang, I

    2014-07-01

    Cell transplantation is a promising strategy in regenerative medicine for revascularization of ischemic tissues. Based on our observation that placental mesenchymal stromal cells (PMSC) enhance endothelial cell viability in vitro via secretion of angiogenic factors, we asked whether PMSC support vascular growth in vivo. PMSC were isolated from amnion and placental endothelial cells (PLEC) from chorion and either separately or co-transplanted subcutaneously into immune-deficient mice. Co-transplantation resulted in a higher number of perfused human vessels (CD31+/vimentin+) containing mouse glycophorin A+ erythrocytes. Results indicate positive effects of PMSC on neovascularization in vivo, making them attractive candidates to create autologous PMSC/PLEC pairs for research and transplantation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Suspension medium influences interaction of mesenchymal stromal cells with endothelium and pulmonary toxicity after transplantation in mice.

    PubMed

    Deak, Erika; Rüster, Brigitte; Keller, Lisa; Eckert, Klaus; Fichtner, Iduna; Seifried, Erhard; Henschler, Reinhard

    2010-04-01

    Intravenous (i.v.) transplantation and subsequent homing of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) may be adversely influenced by their relatively high adhesion capacity and their tendency to aggregate, leading to clogging of capillaries especially in the lungs. We evaluated the ability of murine MSC suspended in EDTA or heparin in buffered saline solution on their spontaneous adhesion to endothelial cells in vitro, under shear stress and their in vivo tolerability after i.v. injection. We show that suspension of MSC in heparin was highly beneficial, avoiding clinical symptoms in 95% of mice, whereas application of MSC suspended in PBS/EDTA or control buffer caused severe pulmonary reactions and partly, death. In vitro studies using parallel plate flow chambers revealed increased adhesion of MSC suspended in PBS/EDTA to endothelial cells compared with MSC in PBS/heparin. These data provide a means to predict and to interfere with toxicity of i.v. transplanted MSC.

  6. CD54-Mediated Interaction with Pro-inflammatory Macrophages Increases the Immunosuppressive Function of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Espagnolle, Nicolas; Balguerie, Adélie; Arnaud, Emmanuelle; Sensebé, Luc; Varin, Audrey

    2017-04-11

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) sense and modulate inflammation and represent potential clinical treatment for immune disorders. However, many details of the bidirectional interaction of MSCs and the innate immune compartment are still unsolved. Here we describe an unconventional but functional interaction between pro-inflammatory classically activated macrophages (M1MΦ) and MSCs, with CD54 playing a central role. CD54 was upregulated and enriched specifically at the contact area between M1MФ and MSCs. Moreover, the specific interaction induced calcium signaling and increased the immunosuppressive capacities of MSCs dependent on CD54 mediation. Our data demonstrate that MSCs can detect an inflammatory microenvironment via a direct and physical interaction with innate immune cells. This finding opens different perspectives for MSC-based cell therapy.

  7. Clinical-Grade Manufacturing of Therapeutic Human Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in Microcarrier-Based Culture Systems.

    PubMed

    Fernandes-Platzgummer, Ana; Carmelo, Joana G; da Silva, Cláudia Lobato; Cabral, Joaquim M S

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) has triggered the need for high cell doses in a vast number of clinical applications. This demand requires the development of good manufacturing practices (GMP)-compliant ex vivo expansion protocols that should be effective to deliver a robust and reproducible supply of clinical-grade cells in a safe and cost-effective manner. Controlled stirred-tank bioreactor systems under xenogeneic (xeno)-free culture conditions offer ideal settings to develop and optimize cell manufacturing to meet the standards and needs of human MSC for cellular therapies. Herein we describe two microcarrier-based stirred culture systems using spinner flasks and controlled stirred-tank bioreactors under xeno-free conditions for the efficient ex vivo expansion of human bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived MSC.

  8. Mesenchymal Stem or Stromal Cells from Amnion and Umbilical Cord Tissue and Their Potential for Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lindenmair, Andrea; Hatlapatka, Tim; Kollwig, Gregor; Hennerbichler, Simone; Gabriel, Christian; Wolbank, Susanne; Redl, Heinz; Kasper, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSC) have proven to offer great promise for cell-based therapies and tissue engineering applications, as these cells are capable of extensive self-renewal and display a multilineage differentiation potential. Furthermore, MSC were shown to exhibit immunomodulatory properties and display supportive functions through parakrine effects. Besides bone marrow (BM), still today the most common source of MSC, these cells were found to be present in a variety of postnatal and extraembryonic tissues and organs as well as in a large variety of fetal tissues. Over the last decade, the human umbilical cord and human amnion have been found to be a rich and valuable source of MSC that is bio-equivalent to BM-MSC. Since these tissues are discarded after birth, the cells are easily accessible without ethical concerns. PMID:24710543

  9. Persistence of human parvovirus B19 in multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells expressing the erythrocyte P antigen: implications for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sundin, Mikael; Lindblom, Anna; Orvell, Claes; Barrett, A John; Sundberg, Berit; Watz, Emma; Wikman, Agneta; Broliden, Kristina; Le Blanc, Katarina

    2008-10-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are used to improve the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCST) and in regenerative medicine. MSCs may harbor persistent viruses that may compromise their clinical benefit, however. Retrospectively screened, 1 of 20 MSCs from healthy donors contained parvovirus B19 (B19) DNA. MSCs express the B19 receptor (P antigen/globoside) and a co-receptor (Ku 80) and can transmit B19 to bone marrow cells in vitro, suggesting that the virus can persist in the marrow stroma of healthy individuals. Two patients undergoing HSCT received the B19-positive MSCs as treatment for graft-versus-host disease; neither developed viremia nor symptomatic B19 infection. These findings demonstrate for the first time that persistent B19 in MSCs can infect hematopoietic stem cells and underscore the importance of monitoring B19 transmission by MSC products.

  10. In situ printing of mesenchymal stromal cells, by laser-assisted bioprinting, for in vivo bone regeneration applications.

    PubMed

    Keriquel, Virginie; Oliveira, Hugo; Rémy, Murielle; Ziane, Sophia; Delmond, Samantha; Rousseau, Benoit; Rey, Sylvie; Catros, Sylvain; Amédée, Joelle; Guillemot, Fabien; Fricain, Jean-Christophe

    2017-05-11

    Bioprinting has emerged as a novel technological approach with the potential to address unsolved questions in the field of tissue engineering. We have recently shown that Laser Assisted Bioprinting (LAB), due to its unprecedented cell printing resolution and precision, is an attractive tool for the in situ printing of a bone substitute. Here, we show that LAB can be used for the in situ printing of mesenchymal stromal cells, associated with collagen and nano-hydroxyapatite, in order to favor bone regeneration, in a calvaria defect model in mice. Also, by testing different cell printing geometries, we show that different cellular arrangements impact on bone tissue regeneration. This work opens new avenues on the development of novel strategies, using in situ bioprinting, for the building of tissues, from the ground up.

  11. Risk of tumorigenicity in mesenchymal stromal cell-based therapies--bridging scientific observations and regulatory viewpoints.

    PubMed

    Barkholt, Lisbeth; Flory, Egbert; Jekerle, Veronika; Lucas-Samuel, Sophie; Ahnert, Peter; Bisset, Louise; Büscher, Dirk; Fibbe, Willem; Foussat, Arnaud; Kwa, Marcel; Lantz, Olivier; Mačiulaitis, Romaldas; Palomäki, Tiina; Schneider, Christian K; Sensebé, Luc; Tachdjian, Gérard; Tarte, Karin; Tosca, Lucie; Salmikangas, Paula

    2013-07-01

    In the past decade, the therapeutic value of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been studied in various indications, thereby taking advantage of their immunosuppressive properties. Easy procurement from bone marrow, adipose tissue or other sources and conventional in vitro expansion culture have made their clinical use attractive. Bridging the gap between current scientific knowledge and regulatory prospects on the transformation potential and possible tumorigenicity of MSCs, the Cell Products Working Party and the Committee for Advanced Therapies organized a meeting with leading European experts in the field of MSCs. This meeting elucidated the risk of potential tumorigenicity related to MSC-based therapies from two angles: the scientific perspective and the regulatory point of view. The conclusions of this meeting, including the current regulatory thinking on quality, nonclinical and clinical aspects for MSCs, are presented in this review, leading to a clearer way forward for the development of such products. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydroxyapatite/regenerated silk fibroin scaffold-enhanced osteoinductivity and osteoconductivity of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jia; Hao, Wei; Li, Yuzhuo; Yao, Jinrong; Shao, Zhengzhong; Li, Hong; Yang, Jianjun; Chen, Shiyi

    2013-04-01

    A novel hydroxyapatite/regenerated silk fibroin scaffold was prepared and investigated for its potential to enhance both osteoinductivity and osteoconductivity of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro. Approx. 12.4 ± 0.06 % (w/w) hydroxyapatite was deposited onto the scaffold, and cell viability and DNA content were significantly increased (18.5 ± 0.6 and 33 ± 1.2 %, respectively) compared with the hydroxyapatite scaffold after 14 days. Furthermore, alkaline phosphatase activity in the novel scaffold increased 41 ± 2.5 % after 14 days compared with the hydroxyapatite scaffold. The data indicate that this novel hydroxyapatite/regenerated silk fibroin scaffold has a positive effect on osteoinductivity and osteoconductivity, and may be useful for bone tissue engineering.

  13. Mesenchymal stromal cells reverse hypoxia-mediated suppression of α-smooth muscle actin expression in human dermal fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Faulknor, Renea A.; Olekson, Melissa A.; Nativ, Nir I.; Ghodbane, Mehdi; Gray, Andrea J.; Berthiaume, François

    2015-02-27

    During wound healing, fibroblasts deposit extracellular matrix that guides angiogenesis and supports the migration and proliferation of cells that eventually form the scar. They also promote wound closure via differentiation into α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-expressing myofibroblasts, which cause wound contraction. Low oxygen tension typical of chronic nonhealing wounds inhibits fibroblast collagen production and differentiation. It has been suggested that hypoxic mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) secrete factors that promote wound healing in animal models; however, it is unclear whether these factors are equally effective on the target cells in a hypoxic wound environment. Here we investigated the impact of MSC-derived soluble factors on the function of fibroblasts cultured in hypoxic fibroblast-populated collagen lattices (FPCLs). Hypoxia alone significantly decreased FPCL contraction and α-SMA expression. MSC-conditioned medium restored hypoxic FPCL contraction and α-SMA expression to levels similar to normoxic FPCLs. (SB431542), an inhibitor of transforming growth factor-β{sub 1} (TGF-β{sub 1})-mediated signaling, blocked most of the MSC effect on FPCL contraction, while exogenous TGF-β{sub 1} at levels similar to that secreted by MSCs reproduced the MSC effect. These results suggest that TGF-β{sub 1} is a major paracrine signal secreted by MSCs that can restore fibroblast functions relevant to the wound healing process and that are impaired in hypoxia. - Highlights: • Fibroblasts were cultured in collagen lattices (FPCLs) as model contracting wounds. • Hypoxia decreased FPCL contraction and fibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression. • Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) restored function of hypoxic fibroblasts. • MSCs regulate fibroblast function mainly via secreted transforming growth factor-β{sub 1}.

  14. The pro-inflammatory peptide LL-37 promotes ovarian tumor progression through recruitment of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Coffelt, Seth B.; Marini, Frank C.; Watson, Keri; Zwezdaryk, Kevin J.; Dembinski, Jennifer L.; LaMarca, Heather L.; Tomchuck, Suzanne L.; zu Bentrup, Kerstin Honer; Danka, Elizabeth S.; Henkle, Sarah L.; Scandurro, Aline B.

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to engraft into the stroma of several tumor types, where they contribute to tumor progression and metastasis. However, the chemotactic signals mediating MSC migration to tumors remain poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that LL-37 (leucine, leucine-37), the C-terminal peptide of human cationic antimicrobial protein 18, stimulates the migration of various cell types and is overexpressed in ovarian, breast, and lung cancers. Although there is evidence to support a pro-tumorigenic role for LL-37, the function of the peptide in tumors remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that neutralization of LL-37 in vivo significantly reduces the engraftment of MSCs into ovarian tumor xenografts, resulting in inhibition of tumor growth as well as disruption of the fibrovascular network. Migration and invasion experiments conducted in vitro indicated that the LL-37-mediated migration of MSCs to tumors likely occurs through formyl peptide receptor like-1. To assess the response of MSCs to the LL-37-rich tumor microenvironment, conditioned medium from LL-37-treated MSCs was assessed and found to contain increased levels of several cytokines and pro-angiogenic factors compared with controls, including IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, IL-10, CCL5, VEGF, and matrix metalloproteinase-2. Similarly, Matrigel mixed with LL-37, MSCs, or the combination of the two resulted in a significant number of vascular channels in nude mice. These data indicate that LL-37 facilitates ovarian tumor progression through recruitment of progenitor cell populations to serve as pro-angiogenic factor-expressing tumor stromal cells. PMID:19234121

  15. The pro-inflammatory peptide LL-37 promotes ovarian tumor progression through recruitment of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Coffelt, Seth B; Marini, Frank C; Watson, Keri; Zwezdaryk, Kevin J; Dembinski, Jennifer L; LaMarca, Heather L; Tomchuck, Suzanne L; Honer zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Danka, Elizabeth S; Henkle, Sarah L; Scandurro, Aline B

    2009-03-10

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to engraft into the stroma of several tumor types, where they contribute to tumor progression and metastasis. However, the chemotactic signals mediating MSC migration to tumors remain poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that LL-37 (leucine, leucine-37), the C-terminal peptide of human cationic antimicrobial protein 18, stimulates the migration of various cell types and is overexpressed in ovarian, breast, and lung cancers. Although there is evidence to support a pro-tumorigenic role for LL-37, the function of the peptide in tumors remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that neutralization of LL-37 in vivo significantly reduces the engraftment of MSCs into ovarian tumor xenografts, resulting in inhibition of tumor growth as well as disruption of the fibrovascular network. Migration and invasion experiments conducted in vitro indicated that the LL-37-mediated migration of MSCs to tumors likely occurs through formyl peptide receptor like-1. To assess the response of MSCs to the LL-37-rich tumor microenvironment, conditioned medium from LL-37-treated MSCs was assessed and found to contain increased levels of several cytokines and pro-angiogenic factors compared with controls, including IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, IL-10, CCL5, VEGF, and matrix metalloproteinase-2. Similarly, Matrigel mixed with LL-37, MSCs, or the combination of the two resulted in a significant number of vascular channels in nude mice. These data indicate that LL-37 facilitates ovarian tumor progression through recruitment of progenitor cell populations to serve as pro-angiogenic factor-expressing tumor stromal cells.

  16. Therapeutic effects of amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stromal cells on lung injury in rats with emphysema.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaqing; Gu, Chao; Xu, Wulin; Yan, Jianping; Xia, Yingjie; Ma, Yingyu; Chen, Chun; He, Xujun; Tao, Houquan

    2014-10-16

    In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), two major pathological changes that occur are the loss of alveolar structure and airspace enlargement. To treat COPD, it is crucial to repair damaged lung tissue and regenerate the lost alveoli. Type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECII) play a vital role in maintaining lung tissue repair, and amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AFMSCs) possess the characteristics of regular mesenchymal stromal cells. However, it remains untested whether transplantation of rat AFMSCs (rAFMSCs) might alleviate lung injury caused by emphysema by increasing the expression of surfactant protein (SP)A and SPC and inhibiting AECII apoptosis. We analyzed the phenotypic characteristics, differentiation potential, and karyotype of rAFMSCs, which were isolated from pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. Moreover, we examined the lung morphology and the expression levels of SPA and SPC in rats with emphysema after cigarette-smoke exposure and intratracheal lipopolysaccharide instillation and rAFMSC transplantation. The ability of rAFMSCs to differentiate was measured, and the apoptosis of AECII was evaluated. In rAFMSCs, the surface antigens CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, and CD166 were expressed, but CD14, CD19, CD34, and CD45 were not detected; rAFMSCs also strongly expressed the mRNA of octamer-binding transcription factor 4, and the cells could be induced to differentiate into adipocytes and osteocytes. Furthermore, rAFMSC treatment up-regulated the levels of SPA, SPC, and thyroid transcription factor 1 and inhibited AECII apoptosis, and rAFMSCs appeared to be capable of differentiating into AECII-like cells. Lung injury caused by emphysema was alleviated after rAFMSC treatment. rAFMSCs might differentiate into AECII-like cells or induce local regeneration of the lung alveolar epithelium in vivo after transplantation and thus could be used in COPD treatment and lung regenerative therapy.

  17. Microencapsulation of Neuroblastoma Cells and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Collagen Microspheres: A 3D Model for Cancer Cell Niche Study.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Pan; Sin, Hoi Shun; Chan, Shing; Chan, Godfrey Chi Fung; Chan, Barbara Pui

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing trend for researchers to use in vitro 3D models in cancer studies, as they can better recapitulate the complex in vivo situation. And the fact that the progression and development of tumor are closely associated to its stromal microenvironment has been increasingly recognized. The establishment of such tumor supportive niche is vital in understanding tumor progress and metastasis. The mesenchymal origin of many cells residing in the cancer niche provides the rationale to include MSCs in mimicking the niche in neuroblastoma. Here we co-encapsulate and co-culture NBCs and MSCs in a 3D in vitro model and investigate the morphology, growth kinetics and matrix remodeling in the reconstituted stromal environment. Results showed that the incorporation of MSCs in the model lead to accelerated growth of cancer cells as well as recapitulation of at least partially the tumor microenvironment in vivo. The current study therefore demonstrates the feasibility for the collagen microsphere to act as a 3D in vitro cancer model for various topics in cancer studies.

  18. Microencapsulation of Neuroblastoma Cells and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Collagen Microspheres: A 3D Model for Cancer Cell Niche Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Pan; Sin, Hoi Shun; Chan, Shing; Chan, Godfrey Chi Fung; Chan, Barbara Pui

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing trend for researchers to use in vitro 3D models in cancer studies, as they can better recapitulate the complex in vivo situation. And the fact that the progression and development of tumor are closely associated to its stromal microenvironment has been increasingly recognized. The establishment of such tumor supportive niche is vital in understanding tumor progress and metastasis. The mesenchymal origin of many cells residing in the cancer niche provides the rationale to include MSCs in mimicking the niche in neuroblastoma. Here we co-encapsulate and co-culture NBCs and MSCs in a 3D in vitro model and investigate the morphology, growth kinetics and matrix remodeling in the reconstituted stromal environment. Results showed that the incorporation of MSCs in the model lead to accelerated growth of cancer cells as well as recapitulation of at least partially the tumor microenvironment in vivo. The current study therefore demonstrates the feasibility for the collagen microsphere to act as a 3D in vitro cancer model for various topics in cancer studies. PMID:26657086

  19. Adaptive redox response of mesenchymal stromal cells to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide inflammagen: mechanisms of remodeling of tissue barriers in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Gorbunov, Nikolai V; Garrison, Bradley R; McDaniel, Dennis P; Zhai, Min; Liao, Pei-Jyun; Nurmemet, Dilber; Kiang, Juliann G

    2013-01-01

    Acute bacterial inflammation is accompanied by excessive release of bacterial toxins and production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), which ultimately results in redox stress. These factors can induce damage to components of tissue barriers, including damage to ubiquitous mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), and thus can exacerbate the septic multiple organ dysfunctions. The mechanisms employed by MSCs in order to survive these stress conditions are still poorly understood and require clarification. In this report, we demonstrated that in vitro treatment of MSCs with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory responses, which included, but not limited to, upregulation of iNOS and release of RNS and ROS. These events triggered in MSCs a cascade of responses driving adaptive remodeling and resistance to a "self-inflicted" oxidative stress. Thus, while MSCs displayed high levels of constitutively present adaptogens, for example, HSP70 and mitochondrial Sirt3, treatment with LPS induced a number of adaptive responses that included induction and nuclear translocation of redox response elements such as NFkB, TRX1, Ref1, Nrf2, FoxO3a, HO1, and activation of autophagy and mitochondrial remodeling. We propose that the above prosurvival pathways activated in MSCs in vitro could be a part of adaptive responses employed by stromal cells under septic conditions.

  20. Adaptive Redox Response of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells to Stimulation with Lipopolysaccharide Inflammagen: Mechanisms of Remodeling of Tissue Barriers in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Gorbunov, Nikolai V.; Garrison, Bradley R.; McDaniel, Dennis P.; Zhai, Min; Liao, Pei-Jyun; Nurmemet, Dilber; Kiang, Juliann G.

    2013-01-01

    Acute bacterial inflammation is accompanied by excessive release of bacterial toxins and production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), which ultimately results in redox stress. These factors can induce damage to components of tissue barriers, including damage to ubiquitous mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), and thus can exacerbate the septic multiple organ dysfunctions. The mechanisms employed by MSCs in order to survive these stress conditions are still poorly understood and require clarification. In this report, we demonstrated that in vitro treatment of MSCs with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory responses, which included, but not limited to, upregulation of iNOS and release of RNS and ROS. These events triggered in MSCs a cascade of responses driving adaptive remodeling and resistance to a “self-inflicted” oxidative stress. Thus, while MSCs displayed high levels of constitutively present adaptogens, for example, HSP70 and mitochondrial Sirt3, treatment with LPS induced a number of adaptive responses that included induction and nuclear translocation of redox response elements such as NFkB, TRX1, Ref1, Nrf2, FoxO3a, HO1, and activation of autophagy and mitochondrial remodeling. We propose that the above prosurvival pathways activated in MSCs in vitro could be a part of adaptive responses employed by stromal cells under septic conditions. PMID:23710283

  1. Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells on surface-modified titanium alloys for orthopedic and dental implants.

    PubMed

    Giannoni, Paolo; Muraglia, Anita; Giordano, Carmen; Narcisi, Roberto; Cancedda, Ranieri; Quarto, R; Chiesa, Roberto

    2009-11-01

    Surface properties of titanium alloys, used for orthopedic and dental applications, are known to affect implant interactions with host tissues. Osteointegration, bone growth and remodeling in the area surrounding the implants can be implemented by specific biomimetic treatments; these allow the preparation of micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces with a thickened oxide layer, doped with calcium and phosphorus ions. We have challenged these experimental titanium alloys with primary human bone marrow stromal cells to compare the osteogenic differentiation outcomes of the cells once they are seeded onto the modified surfaces, thus simulating a prosthetic device-biological interface of clinical relevance. A specific anodic spark discharge was the biomimetic treatment of choice, providing experimental titanium disks treated with different alkali etching approaches. The disks, checked by electron microscopy and spectroscopy, were subsequently used as substrates for the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human cells. Expression of markers of the osteogenic lineage was assessed by means of qualitative and quantitative PCR, by cytochemistry, immunohistochemistry, Western blot and matrix metalloprotease activity analyses. Metal surfaces were initially less permissive for cell growth. Untreated control substrates were less efficient in sustaining mineralized matrix deposition upon osteogenic induction of the cells. Interestingly, bone sialo protein and matrix metalloprotease 2 levels were enhanced on experimental metals compared to control surfaces, particularly for titanium oxide coatings etched with KOH. As a whole, the KOH-modification of titanium surfaces seems to allow the best osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells, representing a possible plus for future clinical prosthetic applications.

  2. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and colorectal cancer: a troublesome twosome for the anti-tumour immune response?

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Grace; Heijltjes, Madelon; Houston, Aileen M.; Rani, Sweta; Ritter, Thomas; Egan, Laurence J.; Ryan, Aideen E.

    2016-01-01

    The tumour microenvironment (TME) is an important factor in determining the growth and metastasis of colorectal cancer, and can aid tumours by both establishing an immunosuppressive milieu, allowing the tumour avoid immune clearance, and by hampering the efficacy of various therapeutic regimens. The tumour microenvironment is composed of many cell types including tumour, stromal, endothelial and immune cell populations. It is widely accepted that cells present in the TME acquire distinct functional phenotypes that promote tumorigenesis. One such cell type is the mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC). Evidence suggests that MSCs exert effects in the colorectal tumour microenvironment including the promotion of angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. MSCs immunomodulatory capacity may represent another largely unexplored central feature of MSCs tumour promoting capacity. There is considerable evidence to suggest that MSCs and their secreted factors can influence the innate and adaptive immune responses. MSC-immune cell interactions can skew the proliferation and functional activity of T-cells, dendritic cells, natural killer cells and macrophages, which could favour tumour growth and enable tumours to evade immune cell clearance. A better understanding of the interactions between the malignant cancer cell and stromal components of the TME is key to the development of more specific and efficacious therapies for colorectal cancer. Here, we review and explore MSC- mediated mechanisms of suppressing anti-tumour immune responses in the colon tumour microenvironment. Elucidation of the precise mechanism of immunomodulation exerted by tumour-educated MSCs is critical to inhibiting immunosuppression and immune evasion established by the TME, thus providing an opportunity for targeted and efficacious immunotherapy for colorectal cancer growth and metastasis. PMID:27542276

  3. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and colorectal cancer: a troublesome twosome for the anti-tumour immune response?

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Grace; Heijltjes, Madelon; Houston, Aileen M; Rani, Sweta; Ritter, Thomas; Egan, Laurence J; Ryan, Aideen E

    2016-09-13

    The tumour microenvironment (TME) is an important factor in determining the growth and metastasis of colorectal cancer, and can aid tumours by both establishing an immunosuppressive milieu, allowing the tumour avoid immune clearance, and by hampering the efficacy of various therapeutic regimens. The tumour microenvironment is composed of many cell types including tumour, stromal, endothelial and immune cell populations. It is widely accepted that cells present in the TME acquire distinct functional phenotypes that promote tumorigenesis. One such cell type is the mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC). Evidence suggests that MSCs exert effects in the colorectal tumour microenvironment including the promotion of angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. MSCs immunomodulatory capacity may represent another largely unexplored central feature of MSCs tumour promoting capacity. There is considerable evidence to suggest that MSCs and their secreted factors can influence the innate and adaptive immune responses. MSC-immune cell interactions can skew the proliferation and functional activity of T-cells, dendritic cells, natural killer cells and macrophages, which could favour tumour growth and enable tumours to evade immune cell clearance. A better understanding of the interactions between the malignant cancer cell and stromal components of the TME is key to the development of more specific and efficacious therapies for colorectal cancer. Here, we review and explore MSC- mediated mechanisms of suppressing anti-tumour immune responses in the colon tumour microenvironment. Elucidation of the precise mechanism of immunomodulation exerted by tumour-educated MSCs is critical to inhibiting immunosuppression and immune evasion established by the TME, thus providing an opportunity for targeted and efficacious immunotherapy for colorectal cancer growth and metastasis.

  4. Osteoblasts and Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Control Hematopoietic Stem Cell Migration and Proliferation in 3D In Vitro Model

    PubMed Central

    de Barros, Ana Paula D. N.; Takiya, Christina M.; Garzoni, Luciana R.; Leal-Ferreira, Mona Lisa; Dutra, Hélio S.; Chiarini, Luciana B.; Meirelles, Maria Nazareth; Borojevic, Radovan; Rossi, Maria Isabel D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Migration, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are dependent upon a complex three-dimensional (3D) bone marrow microenvironment. Although osteoblasts control the HSC pool, the subendosteal niche is complex and its cellular composition and the role of each cell population in HSC fate have not been established. In vivo models are complex and involve subtle species-specific differences, while bidimensional cultures do not reflect the 3D tissue organization. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the role of human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSC) and active osteoblasts in control of migration, lodgment, and proliferation of HSCs. Methodology/Principal Findings A complex mixed multicellular spheroid in vitro model was developed with human BMSC, undifferentiated or induced for one week into osteoblasts. A clear limit between the two stromal cells was established, and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin, collagens I and IV, laminin, and osteopontin was similar to the observed in vivo. Noninduced BMSC cultured as spheroid expressed higher levels of mRNA for the chemokine CXCL12, and the growth factors Wnt5a and Kit ligand. Cord blood and bone marrow CD34+ cells moved in and out the spheroids, and some lodged at the interface of the two stromal cells. Myeloid colony-forming cells were maintained after seven days of coculture with mixed spheroids, and the frequency of cycling CD34+ cells was decreased. Conclusions/Significance Undifferentiated and one-week osteo-induced BMSC self-assembled in a 3D spheroid and formed a microenvironment that is informative for hematopoietic progenitor cells, allowing their lodgment and controlling their proliferation. PMID:20161704

  5. Caprine Endometrial Mesenchymal Stromal Stem Cell: Multilineage Potential, Characterization, and Growth Kinetics in Breeding and Anestrous Stages

    PubMed Central

    Zarezadeh, Younes; Dianatpour, Mehdi; Zare, Shahrokh

    2017-01-01

    The endometrial layer of the uterus contains a population of cells with similar characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the present study, caprine endometrial mesenchymal stromal stem cells (En-MSCs) characters and differentiation potential to chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic cell lines as well as their growth kinetics in breeding and anestrous stages were evaluated. En-MSCs were enzymatically isolated from endometrial layer of the uterus of adult goats and were cultured and subcultured until passage 4. The growth kinetics and population doubling time (PDT) of caprine En-MSCs in breeding and anestrous stages were determined. En-MSCs in passage 4 were used for the karyotyping and differentiation into chondrocytes, osteocytes, and adipocytes. The PDT in anestrus phase was 40.6 h and in cyclic goats was 53 h. En-MSCs were fibroblast-like in all passages. The number of chromosomes was normal (2n = 60) with no chromosomal instability. Chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic differentiation of En-MSCs was confirmed by staining with Alcian blue, Alizarin red, and Oil Red O, respectively. Caprine En-MSCs demonstrated to be an alternative source of MSCs for cell therapy purposes in regenerative medicine. PMID:28357151

  6. Kindlin-2 Modulates the Survival, Differentiation, and Migration of Induced Pluripotent Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Eggenschwiler, Reto; Wichmann, Christian; Buhmann, Raymund; Cantz, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Kindlin-2 is a multidomain intracellular protein that can be recruited to β-integrin domains to activate signaling, initiate transcriptional programs, and bind to E-cadherin. To explore its involvement in cell fate decisions in mesenchymal cells, we studied the effects of Kindlin-2 modification (overexpression/knockdown) in induced pluripotent cell-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (iPSC-MSCs). Kindlin-2 overexpression resulted in increased proliferation and reduced apoptosis of iPSC-MSCs, as well as inhibition of their differentiation towards osteocytes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. In contrast, siRNA-mediated Kindlin-2 knockdown induced increased apoptosis and increased differentiation response in iPSC-MSCs. The ability of iPSC-MSCs to adhere to VCAM-1/SDF-1α under shear stress and to migrate in a wound scratch assay was significantly increased after Kindlin-2 overexpression. In contrast, inhibition of mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) was generally independent of Kindlin-2 modulation in iPSC-MSCs, except for decreased production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) after Kindlin-2 overexpression in iPS-MSCs. Thus, Kindlin-2 upregulates survival, proliferation, stemness, and migration potential in iPSC-MSCs and may therefore be beneficial in optimizing performance of iPSC-MSC in therapies. PMID:28163724

  7. Low/Negative Expression of PDGFR-α Identifies the Candidate Primary Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Adult Human Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongzhe; Ghazanfari, Roshanak; Zacharaki, Dimitra; Ditzel, Nicholas; Isern, Joan; Ekblom, Marja; Méndez-Ferrer, Simón; Kassem, Moustapha; Scheding, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Human bone marrow (BM) contains a rare population of nonhematopoietic mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which are of central importance for the hematopoietic microenvironment. However, the precise phenotypic definition of these cells in adult BM has not yet been reported. In this study, we show that low/negative expression of CD140a (PDGFR-α) on lin−/CD45−/CD271+ BM cells identified a cell population with very high MSC activity, measured as fibroblastic colony-forming unit frequency and typical in vitro and in vivo stroma formation and differentiation capacities. Furthermore, these cells exhibited high levels of genes associated with mesenchymal lineages and HSC supportive function. Moreover, lin−/CD45−/CD271+/CD140alow/− cells effectively mediated the ex vivo expansion of transplantable CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells. Taken together, these data indicate that CD140a is a key negative selection marker for adult human BM-MSCs, which enables to prospectively isolate a close to pure population of candidate human adult stroma stem/progenitor cells with potent hematopoiesis-supporting capacity. PMID:25454633

  8. The scaffold protein Tks4 is required for the differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages

    PubMed Central

    Dülk, Metta; Kudlik, Gyöngyi; Fekete, Anna; Ernszt, Dávid; Kvell, Krisztián; Pongrácz, Judit E.; Merő, Balázs L.; Szeder, Bálint; Radnai, László; Geiszt, Miklós; Csécsy, Dalma E.; Kovács, Tamás; Uher, Ferenc; Lányi, Árpád; Vas, Virag; Buday, László

    2016-01-01

    The commitment steps of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to adipogenic and other lineages have been widely studied but not fully understood. Therefore, it is critical to understand which molecules contribute to the conversion of stem cells into differentiated cells. The scaffold protein Tks4 plays a role in podosome formation, EGFR signaling and ROS production. Dysfunction of Tks4 causes a hereditary disease called Frank-ter Haar syndrome with a variety of defects concerning certain mesenchymal tissues (bone, fat and cartilage) throughout embryogenic and postnatal development. In this study, we aimed to analyze how the mutation of Tks4 affects the differentiation potential of multipotent bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs). We generated a Tks4 knock-out mouse strain on C57Bl/6 background, and characterized BM-MSCs isolated from wild type and Tks4−/− mice to evaluate their differentiation. Tks4−/− BM-MSCs had reduced ability to differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages compared to wild type. Studying the expression profile of a panel of lipid-regulated genes during adipogenic induction revealed that the expression of adipogenic transcription factors, genes responsible for lipid droplet formation, sterol and fatty acid metabolism was delayed or reduced in Tks4−/− BM-MSCs. Taken together, these results establish a novel function for Tks4 in the regulation of MSC differentiation. PMID:27711054

  9. Alpha-ketoglutarate Curbs Differentiation and Induces Cell Death in Mesenchymal Stromal Precursors with Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Singh, Karmveer; Krug, Linda; Basu, Abhijit; Meyer, Patrick; Treiber, Nicolai; Vander Beken, Seppe; Wlaschek, Meinhard; Kochanek, Stefan; Bloch, Wilhelm; Geiger, Hartmut; Maity, Pallab; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin

    2017-04-11

    Increased concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) originating from dysfunctional mitochondria contribute to diverse aging-related degenerative disorders. But so far little is known about the impact of distinct ROS on metabolism and fate of stromal precursor cells. We here demonstrate that an increase in superoxide anion radicals due to superoxide dismutase 2 (Sod2) deficiency in stromal precursor cells suppress osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation through fundamental changes in the global metabolite landscape. Our data identify impairment of the pyruvate and L-glutamine metabolism causing toxic accumulation of alpha-ketoglutarate in the Sod2 deficient and intrinsically aged stromal precursor cells as a major cause for their reduced lineage differentiation. Alpha-ketoglutarate accumulation led to enhanced nucleocytoplasmic vacuolation and chromatin condensation-mediated cell death in Sod2 deficient stromal precursor cells as a consequence of DNA damage, Hif-1α instability and reduced histone H3 (Lys27) acetylation. These findings hold promise for prevention and treatment of mitochondrial disorders commonly associated with aged individuals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Mesenchymal stromal cells, colony-forming unit fibroblasts, from bone marrow of untreated advanced breast and lung cancer patients suppress fibroblast colony formation from healthy marrow.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Erica Leonor; Labovsky, Vivian; La Russa, Vincent; Vallone, Valeria Fernández; Honegger, Alba Elizabeth; Belloc, Carlos Gabriel; Wen, Huei Chi; Bordenave, Raúl Horacio; Bullorsky, Eduardo Oscar; Feldman, Leonardo; Chasseing, Norma Alejandra

    2010-03-01

    We have shown that bone marrow (BM) from untreated advanced lung and breast cancer patients (LCP and BCP) have a reduced number of colony-forming unit fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Factors that regulate the proliferation and differentiation of CFU-F are produced by the patients' BM microenvironment. We have now examined whether conditioned media (CM) from patients' CFU-F-derived stromal cells also inhibits the colony-forming efficiency (CFE) of CFU-F in primary cultures from healthy volunteers (HV)-BM. Thus the number and proliferation potential of HV-CFU-F were also found to be decreased and similar to colony numbers and colony size of patients' CFU-F. Stromal cells from both of these types of colonies appeared relatively larger and lacked the characteristic spindle morphology typically seen in healthy stromal cells. We developed an arbitrary mesenchymal stromal cell maturational index by taking three measures consisting of stromal cell surface area, longitudinal and horizontal axis. All stromal indices derived from HV-CFU-F grown in patients' CM were similar to those from stromal elements derived from patients' CFU-F. These indices were markedly higher than stromal indices typical of HV-CFU-F cultured in healthy CM or standard medium [alpha-medium plus 20% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (FBS)]. Patients' CM had increased concentrations of the CFU-F inhibitor, GM-CSF, and low levels of bFGF and Dkk-1, strong promoters of self-renewal of MSCs, compared to the levels quantified in CM from HV-CFU-F. Moreover, the majority of patients' MSCs were unresponsive in standard medium and healthy CM to give CFU-F, indicating that the majority of mesenchymal stromal cells from patients' CFU-F are locked in maturational arrest. These results show that alterations of GM-CSF, bFGF, and Dkk-1 are associated with deficient cloning and maturation arrest of CFU-F. Defective autocrine and paracrine mechanisms may be involved in the BM microenvironments of

  11. Small Molecule Mesengenic Induction of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Generate Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen Shun; Ellis, Rebecca L.; Horne, Rachel; Wolvetang, Ernst J.; Fisk, Nicholas M.

    2012-01-01

    The translational potential of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) is limited by their rarity in somatic organs, heterogeneity, and need for harvest by invasive procedures. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) could be an advantageous source of MSCs, but attempts to derive MSCs from pluripotent cells have required cumbersome or untranslatable techniques, such as coculture, physical manipulation, sorting, or viral transduction. We devised a single-step method to direct mesengenic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and iPSCs using a small molecule inhibitor. First, epithelial-like monolayer cells were generated by culturing ESCs/iPSCs in serum-free medium containing the transforming growth factor-β pathway inhibitor SB431542. After 10 days, iPSCs showed upregulation of mesodermal genes (MSX2, NCAM, HOXA2) and downregulation of pluripotency genes (OCT4, LEFTY1/2). Differentiation was then completed by transferring cells into conventional MSC medium. The resultant development of MSC-like morphology was associated with increased expression of genes, reflecting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Both ESC- and iPSC-derived MSCs exhibited a typical MSC immunophenotype, expressed high levels of vimentin and N-cadherin, and lacked expression of pluripotency markers at the protein level. Robust osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation was induced in vitro in ES-MSCs and iPS-MSCs, whereas adipogenic differentiation was limited, as reported for primitive fetal MSCs and ES-MSCs derived by other methods. We conclude that treatment with SB431542 in two-dimensional cultures followed by culture-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition leads to rapid and uniform MSC conversion of human pluripotent cells without the need for embryoid body formation or feeder cell coculture, providing a robust, clinically applicable, and efficient system for generating MSCs from human iPSCs. PMID:23197756

  12. A new clinical-scale serum-free xeno-free medium efficient in ex vivo amplification of mesenchymal stromal cells does not support mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gerby, Sandie; Attebi, Esther; Vlaski, Marija; Ivanovic, Zoran

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated a new serum-free, xeno-free medium (Xuri, GE HealthCare) in ex vivo cultures for amplification of mesenchymal stromal cells (MStroC) in comparison with classical culture supplemented with fetal calf serum and basic fibroblast growth factor. MStroC and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferative capacities were studied in bulk cultures and single-cell cultures with assay of secondary replating capacity of individual clones. Flow-cytometric phenotype analysis and proliferative history analysis were also performed. In cultures initiated with previously amplified and cryopreserved MStroC from human marrow, Xuri medium enabled a total cell expansion fold comparable to one obtained in control fetal calf serum (FCS)-supplemented culture. However, both the number and the proliferative capacity of colony-forming unit-fibroblast were greatly reduced in Xuri medium cultures. This is even more evident in single-cell cultures, where, in rare positive wells, only several cells were found in Xuri cultures, compared to abundant cell content in FCS and α-minimal essential medium cultures. Replating these single-cell clones in secondary cultures (FCS in both cases) revealed a total exhaustion of MSC proliferative capacity after Xuri primary culture. Since in both conditions after a 7-day bulk culture, similar immunophenotype and proliferative history were found when the standard MSC immunophenotype panel was employed, the loss of proliferative capacity in Xuri medium shows that it cannot maintain functional MSC population. This is a drastic example showing that the real MSC activity can be completely unrelated to the immunophenotype considered as MSC phenotype. © 2016 AABB.

  13. The cell-engineered construct of cartilage on the basis of biopolymer hydrogel matrix and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (in vitro study).

    PubMed

    Surguchenko, Valentina A; Ponomareva, Anna S; Kirsanova, Ljudmila A; Skaleckij, Nikolaj N; Sevastianov, Viktor I

    2015-02-01

    The study results of in vitro formation of tissue-engineered cartilage construct on the basis of cell-engineered construct composed of biopolymer hydrogel matrix and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hADSCs) are presented. It was revealed that hADSCs in biopolymer hydrogel matrix Sphero®GEL under chondrogenic conditions generate three-dimensional structures and produce cartilaginous extracellular matrix components: collagen type II and glycosaminoglycans.

  14. Molecules involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and epithelial-stromal interaction in phyllodes tumors: implications for histologic grade and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ji Eun; Jung, Woo-Hee; Koo, Ja Seung

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of molecules associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and epithelial-stromal interactions (ESI) and to evaluate their roles in phyllodes tumors (PTs). Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed from 207 PT specimens (157 benign, 34 borderline and 16 malignant). The presence of EMT-related markers including N-cadherin, Twist, TGF-beta, HMGA2, S100A4 and Ezrin as well as ESI-related molecules such as SDF1 and CXCR4 among the TMAs was assessed immunohistochemically. Immunohistochemical results were analyzed in terms of clinicopathologic parameters. For higher grade PTs, expressions of Twist (p < 0.001), HMGA2 (p = 0.005), S100A4 (p < 0.001), CXCR4 (p < 0.001) and TGF-beta (p < 0.001) were higher. As PTs showed higher stromal cellularity, higher stromal mitosis, stromal overgrowth and infiltrative tumor margin, the expressions of Twist, HMGA2 and CXCR4 in the stromal component thereof were increased (p < 0.05). High Twist expression in the stromal component was associated with shorter disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) (p < 0.001) as well as shorter OS in multivariate COX analysis (p = 0.031, odds ratio: 24.6). In conclusion, the expressions of Twist, HMGA2, TGF-beta and S100A4, which are EMT-associated molecules, and CXCR4, an ESI-associated molecule, were increased in the stromal component of advanced grade PTs. Further, high expression of Twist in the stromal component was correlated with poorer prognoses.

  15. Bmp signaling in colonic mesenchyme regulates stromal microenvironment and protects from polyposis initiation.

    PubMed

    Allaire, Joannie M; Roy, Sébastien A B; Ouellet, Camille; Lemieux, Étienne; Jones, Christine; Paquet, Marilène; Boudreau, Francois; Perreault, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    In the colon, myofibroblasts are primary contributors in the establishment of the microenvironment involved in tissue homeostasis. Alterations in myofibroblast functions lead to changes resulting in a toxic microenvironment nurturing tumorigenesis. Bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps) are morphogens known to play key roles in adult gut homeostasis. Studies in genetically-modified mice have shown that Bmp disruption in all cell layers leads to the development of gut polyposis. In contrast, our studies showed that loss of Bmp exclusively in the gastrointestinal epithelium resulted in increased epithelial proliferation without polyposis initiation, thus suggesting a key role for mesenchymal Bmp signaling in polyposis initiation. In order to identify the role of mesenchymal Bmp signaling on the microenvironment and its impact on colonic mucosa, a mouse model was generated with suppression of Bmp signaling exclusively in myofibroblasts (Bmpr1aΔMES). Bmpr1aΔMES mice exhibited increased subepithelial proliferation with changes in cellular composition leading to the development of a primed stroma with modulation of extracellular matrix proteins, immune cells and cytokines as early as 90 days of age. This microenvironmental deregulation was associated with increased polyposis initiation at one year of age. These results are the first to demonstrate that mesenchymal Bmpr1a inactivation alone is sufficient to prompt an expansion of myofibroblasts leading to the development of a reactive mesenchyme that contributes to polyposis initiation in the colon. These findings support the novel concept that inhibition of Bmp signaling in mesenchymal cells surrounding the normal epithelium leads to important changes instructing a toxic microenvironment sufficient to induce colonic polyposis. © 2016 UICC.

  16. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells are Readily Recoverable from Lung Tissue, but not the Alveolar Space, in Healthy Humans.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, K A; Yerkovich, S T; Chen, T; McQualter, J L; Hopkins, P M-A; Wells, C A; Chambers, D C

    2016-10-01

    Stromal support is critical for lung homeostasis and the maintenance of an effective epithelial barrier. Despite this, previous studies have found a positive association between the number of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) isolated from the alveolar compartment and human lung diseases associated with epithelial dysfunction. We hypothesised that bronchoalveolar lavage derived MSCs (BAL-MSCs) are dysfunctional and distinct from resident lung tissue MSCs (LT-MSCs). In this study, we comprehensively interrogated the phenotype and transcriptome of human BAL-MSCs and LT-MSCs. We found that MSCs were rarely recoverable from the alveolar space in healthy humans, but could be readily isolated from lung transplant recipients by bronchoalveolar lavage. BAL-MSCs exhibited a CD90(Hi) , CD73(Hi) , CD45(Neg) , CD105(Lo) immunophenotype and were bipotent, lacking adipogenic potential. In contrast, MSCs were readily recoverable from healthy human lung tissue and were CD90(Hi or Lo) , CD73(Hi) , CD45(Neg) , CD105(Int) and had full tri-lineage potential. Transcriptional profiling of the two populations confirmed their status as bona fide MSCs and revealed a high degree of similarity between each other and the archetypal bone-marrow MSC. 105 genes were differentially expressed; 76 of which were increased in BAL-MSCs including genes involved in fibroblast activation, extracellular matrix deposition and tissue remodelling. Finally, we found the fibroblast markers collagen 1A1 and α-smooth muscle actin were increased in BAL-MSCs. Our data suggests that in healthy humans, lung MSCs reside within the tissue, but in disease can differentiate to acquire a profibrotic phenotype and migrate from their in-tissue niche into the alveolar space. Stem Cells 2016;34:2548-2558.

  17. In vitro analysis of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells as potential cellular therapeutics in neurometabolic diseases in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Müller, Ingo; Kustermann-Kuhn, Birgit; Holzwarth, Christina; Isensee, Gesa; Vaegler, Martin; Harzer, Klaus; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Handgretinger, Rupert; Bruchelt, Gernot

    2006-10-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) play an important role in stromal support for hematopoietic stem cells, immune modulation, and tissue regeneration. We investigated their potential as cellular therapeutic tools in neurometabolic diseases as a growing number of affected children undergo to bone marrow transplantation. MSCs were isolated from bone marrow aspirates and expanded ex vivo under various culture conditions. MSCs under optimal good medical practice (GMP)-conform culture conditions showed the typical morphology, immunophenotype, and plasticity. Biochemically, the activities of beta-hexosaminidase A, total beta-hexosaminidase, arylsulfatase A (ASA), and beta-galactosidase measured in MSCs were comparable to those in fibroblasts of healthy donors. These four enzymes were interesting for their expression in MSCs, as each of them is defective, respectively, in well-known neurometabolic diseases. We found that MSCs released significant amounts of ASA into the media. In coculture experiments, fibroblasts from patients with metachromatic leukodystrophy, who are deficient for ASA, took up a substantial amount of ASA that was released into the media from MSCs. Mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) inhibited this uptake, which was in accordance with the M6P receptor-mediated uptake of lysosomal enzymes. Taken together, we show that MSCs produce appreciable amounts of lysosomal enzyme activities, making these cells first-choice candidates for providing metabolic correction when given to enzyme-deficient patients. With the example of ASA, it was also shown that an enzyme secreted from MSCs is taken up by enzyme-deficient patient fibroblasts. Given the plasticity of MSCs, these cells represent an interesting add-on option for cellular therapy in children undergoing bone marrow transplantation for lysosomal storage diseases and other neurometabolic diseases.

  18. Phenotypical and Functional Characteristics of In Vitro-Expanded Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells From Patients With Systematic Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Capelli, Chiara; Zaccara, Eleonora; Cipriani, Paola; Di Benedetto, Paola; Maglione, Wanda; Andracco, Romina; Di Luca, Gabriele; Pignataro, Francesca; Giacomelli, Roberto; Introna, Martino; Vitali, Claudio; Del Papa, Nicoletta

    2017-05-09

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have received attention as an ideal source of regenerative cells because of their multipotent differentiation potential. Adipose tissue is an attractive source of MSCs. Recent studies have shown that autologous fat grafting may be effective in the treatment of systemic sclerosis (SSc), but no specific study exists that aimed at investigating whether adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) from SSc patients maintain normal phenotypic and functional characteristics. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether ADSCs from patients with SSc (SSc-ADSCs) are phenotypically and functionally identical to those from healthy controls (HC-ADSCs). Adipose tissue samples were obtained from 10 patients with SSc and from 8 HCs. Both MSC populations were evaluated for their capacity to (a) express specific MSC surface antigens by flow cytometry analysis, (b) proliferate, (c) differentiate along the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages, (d) suppress in vitro lymphocyte proliferation induced by a mitogenic stimulus, and (e) support endothelial cell (EC) tube formation. ADSCs from SSc patients and HCs showed similar surface phenotype and multilineage differentiation capabilities. In PBMC proliferation inhibition assays, no significant differences were observed between SSc- and HC-ADSCs. Using ADSC/EC cocultures, both SSc- and HC-ADSCs improved tube formation by both HC- and SSc-ECs. This effect was enhanced under hypoxic conditions in all of the cocultures. SSc-ADSCs exhibited the same phenotypic pattern, proliferation and differentiation potentials, and immunosuppressive properties as those from HCs. The proangiogenic activity shown by SSc-ADSCs, namely, under hypoxic conditions, suggests that autologous ADSC grafting may represent a possible therapeutic option for SSc.

  19. Phase I trial of repeated intrathecal autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ki-Wook; Moon, Chanil; Kim, Hyun Young; Oh, Sung-Il; Park, Jinseok; Lee, Jun Ho; Chang, In Young; Kim, Kyung Suk; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2015-06-01

    Stem cell therapy is an emerging alternative therapeutic or disease-modifying strategy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The aim of this open-label phase I clinical trial was to evaluate the safety of two repeated intrathecal injections of autologous bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in ALS patients. Eight patients with definite or probable ALS were enrolled. After a 3-month lead-in period, autologous MSCs were isolated two times from the BM at an interval of 26 days and were then expanded in vitro for 28 days and suspended in autologous cerebrospinal fluid. Of the 8 patients, 7 received 2 intrathecal injections of autologous MSCs (1 × 10(6) cells per kg) 26 days apart. Clinical or laboratory measurements were recorded to evaluate the safety 12 months after the first MSC injection. The ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R), the Appel ALS score, and forced vital capacity were used to evaluate the patients' disease status. One patient died before treatment and was withdrawn from the study. With the exception of that patient, no serious adverse events were observed during the 12-month follow-up period. Most of the adverse events were self-limited or subsided after supportive treatment within 4 days. Decline in the ALSFRS-R score was not accelerated during the 6-month follow-up period. Two repeated intrathecal injections of autologous MSCs were safe and feasible throughout the duration of the 12-month follow-up period. Stem cell therapy is an emerging alternative therapeutic or disease-modifying strategy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To the authors' best knowledge, there are no clinical trials to evaluate the safety of repeated intrathecal injections of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells in ALS. After the clinical trial (phase I/II) was conducted, the stem cell (HYNR-CS, NEURONATA-R) was included in the revision of the regulations on orphan drug designation (number 160; December 31, 2013) and approved as

  20. Efficacy of tissue engineered bone grafts containing mesenchymal stromal cells for cleft alveolar osteoplasty in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Korn, P; Schulz, M C; Range, U; Lauer, G; Pradel, W

    2014-10-01

    The development of sufficient tissue engineered bone grafts for alveolar cleft osteoplasty could reduce the necessity of autogenous bone grafts and its donor site morbidity. The aim of the study was to evaluate tissue engineered bone grafts in an artificially created bone defect. Bone grafts were created in vitro colonizing a synthetic hydroxyapatite-tricalciumphosphate scaffold (BONITmatrix(®)) with either undifferentiated mesenchymal stromal cells (group 1) or osteogenic differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells (group 2). Cells were multiplied from bone marrow of donor rats. Unmodified scaffolds (group 3) and the tissue engineered bone grafts were inserted into artificial maxillary defects of 54 Lewis rats. In 18 animals the defects remained unfilled (control). After one, three and six weeks the rats were sacrificed. The defect was evaluated radiologically and histologically with regard to the remaining defect volume and diameter. Statistical analysis followed. The bone grafts led to a specific bone formation at the defect margin. No complete reunion of any defect was observed within the healing time. After six weeks, the remaining defect volume was 6.86 ± 3.21 mm(3) (control), 4.08 ± 1.36 mm(3) (group 1), 5.00 ± 0.84 mm(3) (group 2) 5.50 ± 1.05 mm(3) (group 3). The remaining defect diameter measured 2.63 ± 0.52 mm (control), 2.39 ± 0.23 mm (group 1), 2.53 ± 0.22 mm (group 2) and 2.70 ± 0.66 mm (group 3). In all experimental groups the defect volume and diameter decreased over time, which was significant for group 1 (p = 0.014), group 2 (p = 0.025) and group 3 (p = 0.048). The defect volume and width was significantly reduced for bone grafts containing undifferentiated cells compared to control (p = 0.035) or scaffolds only (p = 0.05). Tissue engineered bone grafts induce a pronounced bone formation in artificial bone defects compared to unfilled controls or scaffolds only. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery