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Sample records for placental removal methods

  1. The comparison of placental removal methods on operative blood loss.

    PubMed

    Waqar, Fareesa; Nasar, Razia; Fawad, Anisa

    2008-01-01

    On an average 1 litre of blood is lost during Caesarean Section. Many variable techniques have been tried to reduce this blood loss. Many study trials have shown the spontaneous delivery of placenta method to be superior over manual method because of reduced intra operative blood loss and reduced incidence of post operative endometritis. The main objective of our study was to compare the risk of blood loss associated with spontaneous and manual removal of the placenta during caesarean section. Quasi Experimental. SETTING AND DURATION OF STUDY: September 2004 to September 2005, a 13 months study at Islamic International Medical Complex Islamabad. This study was conducted at Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Islamic International Medical Complex, Islamabad from September 2004 to September 2005. All Women undergoing elective or emergency caesarean section were included in the study. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy below 37 weeks, severe maternal anaemia, and prolonged rupture of the membranes with fever, placenta praevia, placenta accreta and clotting disorders. Patients were allocated to the two groups randomly. Group A comprised of women in whom the obstetrician waited a maximum of 5 minutes till the placenta delivered spontaneously. In group B the obstetrician manually cleaved out the placenta as soon as the infant was delivered. The primary outcome measures noted were difference in haemoglobin of >2 gm/dl (preoperatively and postoperatively), time interval between delivery of baby and placenta, significant blood loss (>1000 cc), additional use of oxytocics, total operating time and blood transfusions. Data was analysed by SPSS. Statistical tests used for specific comparison were chi2-test and Student's t-test. One hundred and forty-five patients were allocated to two groups randomly. Seventy-eight patients were allocated to group A and 67 patients allocated to group B. Mean maternal age, birth weight, and total operating time were the same in two groups

  2. Acoustic bubble removal method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Elleman, D. D.; Wang, T. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for removing bubbles from a liquid bath such as a bath of molten glass to be used for optical elements. Larger bubbles are first removed by applying acoustic energy resonant to a bath dimension to drive the larger bubbles toward a pressure well where the bubbles can coalesce and then be more easily removed. Thereafter, submillimeter bubbles are removed by applying acoustic energy of frequencies resonant to the small bubbles to oscillate them and thereby stir liquid immediately about the bubbles to facilitate their breakup and absorption into the liquid.

  3. Human placental perfusion method in the assessment of transplacental passage of antiepileptic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Myllynen, Paeivi . E-mail: paivi.k.myllynen@oulu.fi; Pienimaeki, Paeivi; Vaehaekangas, Kirsi

    2005-09-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases, affecting about 0.5 to 1% of pregnant women. It is commonly accepted that older antiepileptic drugs bear teratogenic potential. So far, no agreement has been reached about the safest antiepileptic drug during pregnancy. It is known that nearly all drugs cross the placenta at least to some extent. Nowadays, there is very little information available of the pharmacokinetics of drugs in the feto-placental unit. Detailed information about drug transport across the placenta would be valuable for the development of safe and effective treatments. For reasons of safety, human studies on placental transfer are restricted to a limited number of drugs. Interspecies differences limit the extrapolation of animal data to humans. Several in vitro methods for the study of placental transfer have been developed over the past decades. The placental perfusion method is the only experimental method that has been used to study human placental transfer of substances in organized placental tissue. The aim of this article is to review human placental perfusion data on antiepileptic drugs. According to perfusion data, it seems that most of the antiepileptic drugs are transferred across the placenta meaning significant fetal exposure.

  4. Gallbladder Removal: Laparoscopic Method

    MedlinePlus

    ... say “co-lee-sist-eck-toe-mee”). During traditional surgery, the gallbladder is removed through a 5- ... stay and have a shorter recovery time. Unlike traditional surgery, laparoscopic surgery to remove the gallbladder can ...

  5. Placental hypoxia during placental malaria

    PubMed Central

    Boeuf, Philippe; Tan, Aimee; Romagosa, Cleofe; Radford, Jane; Mwapasa, Victor; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Meshnick, Steven R.; Hunt, Nicholas H.; Rogerson, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Placental malaria causes fetal growth retardation (FGR), which has been linked epidemiologically to placental monocyte infiltrates. We investigated whether parasite or monocyte infiltrates were associated with placental hypoxia, as a potential mechanism underlying malarial FGR. Methods We studied the hypoxia markers hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor, VEGF receptor 1 and its soluble form and VEGF receptor 2. We used real time PCR (in 59 women) to examine gene transcription, immunohistochemistry (in 30 women) to describe protein expression and laser capture microdissection (in 23 women) to examine syncytiotrophoblast-specific changes in gene expression. We compared gene and protein expression in relation to malaria infection, monocytes infiltrates and birth weight. Results we could not associate any hallmark of placental malaria with a transcription, expression or tissue distribution profile characteristic of a response to hypoxia but found higher HIF-1α (P=.0005) and lower VEGF levels (P=.0026) in the syncytiotrophoblast of malaria cases versus asymptomatic controls. Conclusion our data are inconsistent with a role for placental hypoxia in the pathogenesis of malaria-associated FGR. The laser capture microdissection study was small, but suggests that malaria affects syncytiotrophoblast gene transcription, and proposes novel potential mechanisms for placental malaria-associated FGR. PMID:18279052

  6. Overview of paint removal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Terry

    1995-04-01

    With the introduction of strict environmental regulations governing the use and disposal of methylene chloride and phenols, major components of chemical paint strippers, there have been many new environmentally safe and effective methods of paint removal developed. The new methods developed for removing coatings from aircraft and aircraft components include: mechanical methods using abrasive media such as plastic, wheat starch, walnut shells, ice and dry ice, environmentally safe chemical strippers and paint softeners, and optical methods such as lasers and flash lamps. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages, and some have unique applications. For example, mechanical and abrasive methods can damage sensitive surfaces such as composite materials and strict control of blast parameters and conditions are required. Optical methods can be slow, leaving paint residues, and chemical methods may not remove all of the coating or require special coating formulations to be effective. As an introduction to environmentally safe and effective methods of paint removal, this paper is an overview of the various methods available. The purpose of this overview is to introduce the various paint removal methods available.

  7. An effective placental cotyledons proteins extraction method for 2D gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Niu J; Daim, Leona D J; Jamil, Amilia A M; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Thilakavathy, Karuppiah

    2017-03-01

    Effective protein extraction is essential especially in producing a well-resolved proteome on 2D gels. A well-resolved placental cotyledon proteome, with good reproducibility, have allowed researchers to study the proteins underlying the physiology and pathophysiology of pregnancy. The aim of this study is to determine the best protein extraction protocol for the extraction of protein from placental cotyledons tissues for a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE). Based on widely used protein extraction strategies, 12 different extraction methodologies were carefully selected, which included one chemical extraction, two mechanical extraction coupled protein precipitations, and nine chemical extraction coupled protein precipitations. Extracted proteins were resolved in a one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and 2D-GE; then, it was compared with set criteria: extraction efficacy, protein resolution, reproducibility, and recovery efficiency. Our results revealed that a better profile was obtained by chemical extraction in comparison to mechanical extraction. We further compared chemical extraction coupled protein precipitation methodologies, where the DNase/lithium chloride-dense sucrose homogenization coupled dichloromethane-methanol precipitation (DNase/LiCl-DSH-D/MPE) method showed good protein extraction efficiency. This, however, was carried out with the best protein resolution and proteome reproducibility on 2D-gels. DNase/LiCl-DSH-D/MPE was efficient in the extraction of proteins from placental cotyledons tissues. In addition, this methodology could hypothetically allow the protein extraction of any tissue that contains highly abundant lipid and glycogen.

  8. METHOD OF REMOVING STRONTIUM IONS

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, D.W.; McHenry, J.R.; Ames, L.L. Jr.

    1962-05-01

    A method is given for removing trace amounts of Sr/sup 90/ from solutions. Phosphate ion is added to the solution and it is then brought into contact with a solid salt such as calcium carbonate which will react methathetically with the phosphate ion to form a salt such as calcium phosphate. During this reaction, strontium will be absorbed to a high degree within the newly formed lattice. (AEC)

  9. Placental transfusion: a review

    PubMed Central

    Katheria, A C; Lakshminrusimha, S; Rabe, H; McAdams, R; Mercer, J S

    2017-01-01

    Recently there have been a number of studies and presentations on the importance of providing a placental transfusion to the newborn. Early cord clamping is an avoidable, unphysiologic intervention that prevents the natural process of placental transfusion. However, placental transfusion, although simple in concept, is affected by multiple factors, is not always straightforward to implement, and can be performed using different methods, making this basic procedure important to discuss. Here, we review three placental transfusion techniques: delayed cord clamping, intact umbilical cord milking and cut-umbilical cord milking, and the evidence in term and preterm newborns supporting this practice. We will also review several factors that influence placental transfusion, and discuss perceived risks versus benefits of this procedure. Finally, we will provide key straightforward concepts and implementation strategies to ensure that placental-to-newborn transfusion can become routine practice at any institution. PMID:27654493

  10. Immediate postpartum ultrasound evaluation for suspected retained placental tissue in patients undergoing manual removal of placenta.

    PubMed

    Weissbach, T; Haikin-Herzberger, E; Bacci-Hugger, K; Shechter-Maor, G; Fejgin, M; Biron-Shental, T

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 1% of term deliveries are complicated by retained products of conception. Untreated, this condition may cause bleeding, infection and intrauterine adhesions. This study assessed whether performing routine bedside uterine ultrasound immediately after manual removal of the placenta reduced the occurrence of undiagnosed, retained products of conception and its associated complications. A retrospective study was conducted using the records of patients who delivered and underwent manual removal of placenta at a single obstetrics center over a 6-year period. The outcomes of patients who were assessed using immediate bedside ultrasound were compared to a similar group who were treated based on clinical evaluation alone. All patients underwent ultrasound examination prior to discharge. Outcome variables included the rate of additional interventions (medical or surgical), abnormal pre-discharge uterine ultrasound findings, postpartum hemorrhage rate, puerperal fever and length of hospital stay. A total of 399 charts were reviewed. Immediate post-procedural ultrasound was performed in 235 patients. The remaining 164 women did not undergo immediate post-procedural ultrasound. All patients underwent an ultrasound examination prior to discharge. Among the patients who had an immediate post-procedural ultrasound, 12 (5.1%) received immediate re-intervention (2 methergine, 6 curettage and 4 manual uterine revision) vs. no intervention in the second group (p<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between the group of patients who had immediate post-procedural ultrasound and those who did not, in the rates of postpartum hemorrhage (3.1% vs. 0.7%, p=0.13), abnormal ultrasound findings prior to discharge (14.9% vs. 14.8%, p=0.96) or additional late intervention (7.2% vs. 7.9%, p=0.79), respectively. Our findings suggest that immediate, bedside uterine ultrasound examination after manual removal of placenta might not change patient outcomes

  11. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W [Harrisonville, MO; Hand, Thomas E [Lee's Summit, MO; DeLaurentiis, Gary M [Jamestown, CA

    2008-12-09

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  12. Method of making thermally removable epoxies

    DOEpatents

    Loy, Douglas A.; Wheeler, David R.; Russick, Edward M.; McElhanon, James R.; Saunders, Randall S.

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable epoxy by mixing a bis(maleimide) compound to a monomeric furan compound containing an oxirane group to form a di-epoxy mixture and then adding a curing agent at temperatures from approximately room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a thermally-removable epoxy. The thermally-removable epoxy can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The epoxy material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  13. Method of making thermally removable polymeric encapsulants

    DOEpatents

    Small, James H.; Loy, Douglas A.; Wheeler, David R.; McElhanon, James R.; Saunders, Randall S.

    2001-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable encapsulant by heating a mixture of at least one bis(maleimide) compound and at least one monomeric tris(furan) or tetrakis(furan) compound at temperatures from above room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a gel and cooling the gel to form the thermally-removable encapsulant. The encapsulant can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C., preferably in a polar solvent. The encapsulant can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the encapsulant for component repair, modification or quality control.

  14. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert,George W.; Hand,Thomas E.; Delaurentiis,Gary M.

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  15. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  16. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  17. DISSOLUTION METHOD OF REMOVING BONDING AGENTS

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, H.H.

    1960-04-19

    A method is given for removing residual aluminumsilicon bonding agents from uranium slugs after the removal of aluminum coatings. To accomplish this the slug is immersed in an aqueous solution about 0.75 N in hydrofluoric acid and about 7 N in nitric acid.

  18. Carisolv- an innovative method of caries removal.

    PubMed

    Kathuria, Vartika; Ankola, Anil V; Hebbal, Mamata; Mocherla, Monica

    2013-12-01

    The use of minimal invasive dentistry and attention to patient comfort is of utmost importance especially for the school children and anxious and uncooperative patients. This demanded the newer patient friendly technique in dentistry amongst which is the Chemo mechanical caries removal (CMCR). CMCR involves the selective caries removal of carious dentine. As only the carious dentine is removed the painful removal of sound dentine is avoided and the anxiety due to the vibration of the handpiece is also reduced thus it appears to be more comfortable to the patient. CMCR although more prolonged procedure, is effective in caries removal. Thus CMCR is an effective alternate method for caries removal; it is more conservative and appears to be more comfortable for the patients.

  19. Placental insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... due date High blood pressure during pregnancy (called preeclampsia ) Medical conditions that increase the mother's chances of ... have any symptoms. However, certain diseases, such as preeclampsia, which can be symptomatic, can cause placental insufficiency.

  20. A chemomechanical method for caries removal.

    PubMed

    Morrow, L A; Hassall, D C; Watts, D C; Wilson, N H

    2000-10-01

    Over recent years the dental profession has shifted towards practising preventive dentistry and adopting more conservative and tooth-preserving procedures. Such progression is considered to be a response to the decline in the level of dental caries and advances in materials science. This shift in caries management will no doubt continue over the coming decades, based on rational clinical and scientific principles. Chemomechanical caries removal involves the application of a solution that selectively softens the carious dentine, thus facilitating its removal. This limits the removal of sound tooth structure, the cutting of open dentinal tubules, pulpal irritation and pain compared with conventional mechanical methods.

  1. Method for removing RFI from SAR images

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2003-08-19

    A method of removing RFI from a SAR by comparing two SAR images on a pixel by pixel basis and selecting the pixel with the lower magnitude to form a composite image. One SAR image is the conventional image produced by the SAR. The other image is created from phase-history data which has been filtered to have the frequency bands containing the RFI removed.

  2. Current update of chemomechanical caries removal methods.

    PubMed

    Hamama, H; Yiu, C; Burrow, M

    2014-12-01

    Chemomechanical caries removal is an excellent method for minimally invasive caries excavation, and the removal agents are either sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)- or enzyme-based. The NaOCl-based agents include GK-101, GK-101E (Caridex) and Carisolv, and the enzyme-based agents include Papacarie and the experimental material, Biosolv. This review outlines the changes in chemomechanical caries removal methods and focuses on recently published laboratory and clinical studies. The historical development, mechanism of action, excavation time and biological effects on pulp and dental hard tissues are described. Based on existing evidence, the currently available chemomechanical caries removal methods are viable alternatives to conventional rotary instrument methods. Chemomechanical methods could be extremely useful in very anxious, disabled and paediatric patients. It does seem some of these agents would still benefit from quicker excavation times in order to achieve more universal acceptance. However, as a means of conserving the caries-affected dentine, chemomechanical caries removal is possibly much more successful than conventional rotary instrumentation. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  3. Methods for removing contaminants from algal oil

    SciTech Connect

    Lupton, Francis Stephen

    2016-09-27

    Methods for removing contaminants from algal oil are provided. In an embodiment, a method comprises the steps of combining a sulfuric acid-aqueous solution that has a pH of about 1 or less with a contaminant-containing algal oil at treatment conditions effective to form an effluent. The effluent comprises a treated algal oil phase and contaminants in an acidic aqueous phase. The contaminants comprise metals, phosphorus, or combinations thereof. The acidic aqueous phase is removed from the effluent to form a contaminant-depleted algal oil.

  4. [Transplacental transport and feto-placental metabolism of drugs: study methods, therapeutic contributions and implications].

    PubMed

    Bourget, P; Roulot, C; Fernandez, H

    1994-01-01

    Pregnancy is a specific dynamic state and the potential usefulness of caring for a fetal and/or adjacent disorder by treating the mother is now well established. Pregnant women being excluded from the investigational field of clinical trials, only few studies exist concerning evaluation of the pregestational metabolism or transplacental transfer (TPT) of drugs. Questions are extensive and complex. Does TPT occur at a given gestational age (GA), in the context of a particular type of pathology, when a drug is administered by a certain dosage regimen? If this is the case, what is the rapidity of penetration of the products of conception by the drug (bearing in mind its physical-chemical characteristics)? Need harmful adverse effects on the child be feared? Is such penetration desirable, of no consequence or dangerous? Does the possibility exist of accumulation in the placenta, fetal tissue or amniotic fluid? Should such findings modify the therapeutic regimens of drugs given to expectant mothers? After dealing with the ethical and physiological context in which such research is undertaken, the authors review methods for the study of TPT developed both in vitro and in vivo. The current review covers the period between 1972 and 1993. Exchange mechanisms are complicated and models developed in vitro only partially reflect the actual equilibria which develop. These include: 1) the perfused cotyledon model, which while simple, elegant and inexpensive, offers only a localized and fixed view of pregnancy; 2) the necessary study, using microsomes, of placental metabolic capacity (enzyme cartography). In vivo study of TPT is based upon various multicompartmental pharmacokinetic models, some of which have been relatively validated in animals. The simplest indicator for the in vivo evaluation of TPT of a drug in the human species is determination of a feto-maternal blood concentrations ratio (usually performed at the time of separation). The usefulness and limitations of this

  5. Method of removing cesium from steam

    DOEpatents

    Carson, Jr., Neill J.; Noland, Robert A.; Ruther, Westly E.

    1991-01-01

    Method for removal of radioactive cesium from a hot vapor, such as high temperature steam, including the steps of passing input hot vapor containing radioactive cesium into a bed of silicate glass particles and chemically incorporating radioactive cesium in the silicate glass particles at a temperature of at least about 700.degree. F.

  6. METHOD OF REMOVING RADIOACTIVE IODINE FROM GASES

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, L.

    1962-01-23

    A method of removing radioactive iodine from a gaseous medium is given in which the gaseous medium is adjusted to a temperature not exceeding 400 deg C and then passed over a copper fibrous pad having a coating of cupric sulfide deposited thereon. An ionic exchange on the pad results in the formation of cupric iodide and the release of sulfur. (AEC)

  7. A new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of parabens in human placental tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Díaz, I; Vela-Soria, F; Zafra-Gómez, A; Navalón, A; Ballesteros, O; Navea, N; Fernández, M F; Olea, N; Vílchez, J L

    2011-05-15

    Endocrine disruptors are a group of organic compounds widely used, which are ubiquitous in the environment and in biological samples. The main effect of these compounds is associated with their ability to mimic or block the action of natural hormones in living organisms, including humans. Parabens (esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) belong to this group of compounds. In this work, we propose a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to asses the presence of parabens most commonly used in industrial applications (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butyl-paraben) in samples of human placental tissue. The method involves the extraction of the analytes from the samples using ethyl acetate, followed by a clean-up step using centrifugation prior to their quantification by LC-MS/MS using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface in the negative mode. Deuterated bisphenol A (BPA-d(16)) was used as surrogate. Found detection limits (LOD) ranged from 0.03 to 0.06 ng g(-1) and quantification limits (LOQ) from 0.1 to 0.2 ng g(-1), while inter- and intra-day variability was under 13.8%. The method was validated using standard addition calibration and a spike recovery assay. Recovery rates for spiked samples ranged from 82% to 108%. This method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of parabens in 50 placental tissue samples collected from women who live in the province of Granada (Spain).

  8. Method of making thermally removable adhesives

    DOEpatents

    Aubert, James H.

    2004-11-30

    A method of making a thermally-removable adhesive is provided where a bismaleimide compound, a monomeric furan compound, containing an oxirane group an amine curative are mixed together at an elevated temperature of greater than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a homogeneous solution, which, when cooled to less than approximately 70.degree. C., simultaneously initiates a Diels-Alder reaction between the furan and the bismaleimide and a epoxy curing reaction between the amine curative and the oxirane group to form a thermally-removable adhesive. Subsequent heating to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. causes the adhesive to melt and allows separation of adhered pieces.

  9. Method of making thermally removable polyurethanes

    DOEpatents

    Loy, Douglas A.; Wheeler, David R.; McElhanon, James R.; Saunders, Randall S.; Durbin-Voss, Marvie Lou

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable polyurethane material by heating a mixture of a maleimide compound and a furan compound, and introducing alcohol and isocyanate functional groups, where the alcohol group and the isocyanate group reacts to form the urethane linkages and the furan compound and the maleimide compound react to form the thermally weak Diels-Alder adducts that are incorporated into the backbone of the urethane linkages during the formation of the polyurethane material at temperatures from above room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. The polyurethane material can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The polyurethane material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  10. Method of arsenic removal from water

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2010-10-26

    A method for low-cost arsenic removal from drinking water using chemically prepared bottom ash pre-treated with ferrous sulfate and then sodium hydroxide. Deposits on the surface of particles of bottom ash form of activated iron adsorbent with a high affinity for arsenic. In laboratory tests, a miniscule 5 grams of pre-treated bottom ash was sufficient to remove the arsenic from 2 liters of 2400 ppb (parts per billion) arsenic-laden water to a level below 50 ppb (the present United States Environmental Protection Agency limit). By increasing the amount of pre-treated bottom ash, even lower levels of post-treatment arsenic are expected. It is further expected that this invention supplies a very low-cost solution to arsenic poisoning for large population segments.

  11. Method And Apparatus For Arbitrarily Large Capacity Removable Media

    DOEpatents

    Milligan, Charles A.; Hughes, James P.; Debiez; Jacques

    2003-04-08

    A method and apparatus to handle multiple sets of removable media within a storage system. A first set of removable media are mounted on a set of drives. Data is accepted until the first set of removable media is filled. A second set of removable media is mounted on the drives, while the first set of removable media is removed. When the change in removable media is complete, writing of data proceeds on the second set of removable media. Data may be buffered while the change in removable media occurs. Alternatively, two sets of removable media may be mounted at the same time. When the first set of removable media is filled to a selected amount, the second set of removable media may then be used to write the data. A third set of removable media is set up or mounted for use, while the first set of removable media is removed.

  12. Method for removal of methane from coalbeds

    DOEpatents

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Overbey, Jr., William K.

    1976-01-01

    A method for removing methane gas from underground coalbeds prior to mining the coal which comprises drilling at least one borehole from the surface into the coalbed. The borehole is started at a slant rather than directly vertically, and as it descends, a gradual curve is followed until a horizontal position is reached where the desired portion of the coalbed is intersected. Approaching the coalbed in this manner and fracturing the coalbed in the major natural fraction direction cause release of large amounts of the trapped methane gas.

  13. Rapid method for growth hormone receptor exon 3 delete (GHRd3) SNP genotyping from archival human placental samples.

    PubMed

    Pelekanos, Rebecca A; Sardesai, Varda S; Dekker Nitert, Marloes; Callaway, Leonie K; Fisk, Nicholas M; Jeffery, Penny L

    2015-08-01

    Analysis of archival samples from cohorts of pregnant women may be key to discovering prognosticators of stillbirth and pregnancy/perinatal complications. Growth hormone (GH) and its receptor (GHR) are pivotal in feto-placental development and pregnancy maintenance. We report a rapid, optimized method for genotyping the GHR full-length versus exon 3-deleted isoform (GHRd3). TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping proved superior to standard multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in allele detection and GHR genotyping from archived samples, including those with poor genomic deoxyribonucleic acid quality/quantity such as formalin fixed, paraffin embedded, blood, and serum. Furthermore, this assay is suitable for high through put 96 or 384-well plate quantitative PCR machines with automated genotype calling software. The TaqMan genotyping assay can increase the data obtained from precious archival human samples.

  14. A new method for mercury removal.

    PubMed

    Essa, Ashraf M M; Macaskie, Lynne E; Brown, Nigel L

    2005-11-01

    A method is described for the removal of mercury from solution by using the off-gas produced from aerobic cultures of Klebsiella pneumoniae M426. Cells growing in Hg-supplemented medium produced a black precipitate containing mercury and sulphur. The ratio of Hg:S was determined as approximately 1:1 by analysis using proton-induced X-ray emission, suggesting precipitation of HgS within the culture. The outlet gases produced by a mercury-unsupplemented aerated culture were bubbled into an external chamber supplemented with up to 10 mg HgCl(2)/ml. A yellowish-white precipitate formed, corresponding to 99% removal of the mercury from solution within 120 min. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed that this metal precipitate consisted of mercury, carbon and sulphur. Formation of mercury carbonate was discounted since similar precipitation occurred at pH 2 and no oxygen was detected in the solid, which gave an X-ray powder pattern suggesting an amorphous material, with no evidence of HgS. Precipitation of mercury with a volatile organosulphur compound is suggested. Bio-precipitation of heavy metals by using culture off-gas is a useful approach because it can be used with concentrated or physiologically incompatible solutions. Since the metal precipitate is kept separate from the bacterial biomass, it can be managed independently.

  15. New methods of nitrate removal from water.

    PubMed

    Shrimali, M; Singh, K P

    2001-01-01

    Nitrate contamination in groundwater resources originates mainly from the excessive use of fertilisers and uncontrolled land discharges of treated wastewater. This can cause potential health hazards to infants and pregnant women, thus limiting the direct use of the groundwater resources for the human consumption in several parts of the world, including India. The conventional processes used to eliminate nitrate from water are ion exchange, reverse osmosis and electro-dialysis. The utility of these processes has been limited due to their expensive operation and subsequent disposal problem of the generated nitrate waste brine. This paper presents a comprehensive account of the methods/techniques used for the removal of nitrate ion from water during the last 10 years with special reference to the biological denitrification and fate of the metals in decontamination processes.

  16. Alternative method of removing otoliths from sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Extracting the otoliths (ear bones) from fish that have very thick skulls can be difficult and very time consuming. The common practice of making a transverse vertical incision on the top of the skull with a hand or electrical saw may damage the otolith if not performed correctly. Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are one family in particular that have a very large and thick skull. A new laboratory method entering the brain cavity from the ventral side of the fish to expose the otoliths was easier than other otolith extraction methods found in the literature. Methods reviewed in the literature are designed for the field and are more efficient at processing large quantities of fish quickly. However, this new technique was designed to be more suited for a laboratory setting when time is not pressing and successful extraction from each specimen is critical. The success of finding and removing otoliths using this technique is very high and does not compromise the structure in any manner. This alternative technique is applicable to other similar fish species for extracting the otoliths.

  17. Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water

    DOEpatents

    Amonette, James E.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Gorby, Yuri A.; Cole, Charles R.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Kaplan, Daniel I.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II).

  18. Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water

    DOEpatents

    Amonette, J.E.; Fruchter, J.S.; Gorby, Y.A.; Cole, C.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1998-07-21

    The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II). 8 figs.

  19. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Gus T.; Holshouser, Stephen K.; Coleman, Richard M.; Harless, Charles E.; Whinnery, III, Walter N.

    1983-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  20. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, G.T.; Holshouser, S.K.; Coleman, R.M.; Harless, C.E.; Whinnery, W.N. III

    1982-03-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  1. Method for biologically removing nitrogen from wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Kos, P.

    1993-05-25

    An activated sludge process for biologically removing BOD and nitrogen from wastewater is described comprising the steps of: (a) forming mixed liquor; (b) transferring the mixed liquor through a first nitrogen removal stage by directing the mixed liquor into and through first anoxic and aerobic treatment zones including maintaining the mixed liquor under anoxic conditions within the first treatment zone for a specified period to permit denitrifying organisms to reduce a portion of the nitrates and nitrites present in the mixed liquor to elemental nitrogen, transferring a portion of the mixed liquor from the first anoxic zone to the first aerobic zone and aerating the mixed liquor for a sufficient time period for nitrifying organisms to convert a portion of the ammonia and organic nitrogen in the mixed liquor into nitrates and nitrites, and circulating the mixed liquor back and forth between the first anoxic zone and the first aerobic zone of the first nitrogen removal stage to effectuate denitrification and nitrification; (c) transferring mixed liquor from the first nitrogen removal stage to a second nitrogen removal stage having a second anoxic zone and a second aerobic zone, and circulating the mixed liquor back and forth between the second anoxic zone and the second aerobic zone of the second stage to effectuate further denitrification and nitrification; (d) transferring the mixed liquor treated in the first and second nitrogen removal stages to a final clarifier where settled sludge is separated from purified supernatant; and (e) recycling at least a portion of the settled sludge to form the mixed liquor.

  2. A cost comparison of five midstory removal methods

    Treesearch

    Brian G. Bailey; Michael R. Saunders; Zachary E. Lowe

    2011-01-01

    Within mature hardwood forests, midstory removal treatments have been shown to provide the adequate light and growing space needed for early establishment of intermediate-shade-tolerant species. As the method gains popularity, it is worthwhile to determine what manner of removal is most cost-efficient. Th is study compared five midstory removal treatments across 10...

  3. Method of preparation of removable syntactic foam

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Charles; Derzon, Dora K.; Nelson, Jill S.; Rand, Peter B.

    1995-01-01

    Easily removable, environmentally safe, low-density, syntactic foams are disclosed which are prepared by mixing insoluble microballoons with a solution of water and/or alcohol-soluble polymer to produce a pourable slurry, optionally vacuum filtering the slurry in varying degrees to remove unwanted solvent and solute polymer, and drying to remove residual solvent. The properties of the foams can be controlled by the concentration and physical properties of the polymer, and by the size and properties of the microballoons. The suggested solute polymers are non-toxic and soluble in environmentally safe solvents such as water or low-molecular weight alcohols. The syntactic foams produced by this process are particularly useful in those applications where ease of removability is beneficial, and could find use in packaging recoverable electronic components, in drilling and mining applications, in building trades, in art works, in the entertainment industry for special effects, in manufacturing as temporary fixtures, in agriculture as temporary supports and containers and for delivery of fertilizer, in medicine as casts and splints, as temporary thermal barriers, as temporary protective covers for fragile objects, as filters for particulate matter, which matter may be easily recovered upon exposure to a solvent, as in-situ valves (for one-time use) which go from maximum to minimum impedance when solvent flows through, and for the automatic opening or closing of spring-loaded, mechanical switches upon exposure to a solvent, among other applications.

  4. Method of preparation of removable syntactic foam

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Derzon, D.K.; Nelson, J.S.; Rand, P.B.

    1995-07-11

    Easily removable, environmentally safe, low-density, syntactic foams are disclosed which are prepared by mixing insoluble microballoons with a solution of water and/or alcohol-soluble polymer to produce a pourable slurry, optionally vacuum filtering the slurry in varying degrees to remove unwanted solvent and solute polymer, and drying to remove residual solvent. The properties of the foams can be controlled by the concentration and physical properties of the polymer, and by the size and properties of the microballoons. The suggested solute polymers are non-toxic and soluble in environmentally safe solvents such as water or low-molecular weight alcohols. The syntactic foams produced by this process are particularly useful in those applications where ease of removability is beneficial, and could find use in packaging recoverable electronic components, in drilling and mining applications, in building trades, in art works, in the entertainment industry for special effects, in manufacturing as temporary fixtures, in agriculture as temporary supports and containers and for delivery of fertilizer, in medicine as casts and splints, as temporary thermal barriers, as temporary protective covers for fragile objects, as filters for particulate matter, which matter may be easily recovered upon exposure to a solvent, as in-situ valves (for one-time use) which go from maximum to minimum impedance when solvent flows through, and for the automatic opening or closing of spring-loaded, mechanical switches upon exposure to a solvent, among other applications. 1 fig.

  5. Method to remove wafer surface particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Bo; Zheng, Deguang; Yu, Yue

    2017-09-01

    A big yield drop has been observed during the automatic inspection (AOI) after the saw stage. A step by step AOI inspection check and defect review is made to see which step made a big yield drop and which kind of defect contributed most to the yield drop. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis showed the shape and chemical element of the particle. From the EDS result, particles can be separated into two categories. One was the inorganic related materials, mainly including silicon (Si) element, which came from the saw stage. A design of experiment (DOE) is used to find some reasonable saw relative parameter and optimize it in order to remove the particle from the saw stage. But the quantity of this kind of particle was small. Yield was only improved by less than 5%. Our main effort was to remove another kind of particle which was organic related materials, mainly including carbon (C) and oxygen (O) element. This kind of particle was from tape residue. In order to remove the tape residual, one step was added before the saw stage. Almost all of the tape residual was removed. Finally, the final yield was improved by more than 15%.

  6. Compositions and methods for removal of toxic metals and radionuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuero, Raul G. (Inventor); McKay, David S. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for the removal of toxic metals or radionuclides from source materials. Toxic metals may be removed from source materials using a clay, such as attapulgite or highly cationic bentonite, and chitin or chitosan. Toxic metals may also be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan. Radionuclides may be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan.

  7. Removal of Invisalign retention attachments: a new minimally invasive method.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jose Luis; Finger, Werner J; Sasazaki, Hiromi; Komatsu, Masahi

    2009-01-01

    Removal of Invisalign resin retention buttons without damaging underlying enamel is a major challenge. To date, the use of tungsten carbide burs is the most common and fastest--yet a risky-ablation method. Stainbuster, a fiber-reinforced resin bur, has been introduced for removal of surface stains and resin remnants from tooth surfaces. This comparative in vitro and in vivo study proved that a combined technique, using multifluted tungsten carbide burs for fast removal of the bulk of resin followed by Stainbuster grinding for gentle removal of the final resin layer, is a safe and minimally invasive procedure for removing composite buttons from enamel.

  8. 24 CFR 35.140 - Prohibited methods of paint removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.140 Prohibited methods of paint removal. The following methods shall not be used to remove paint that is, or may be, lead-based paint:...

  9. 24 CFR 35.140 - Prohibited methods of paint removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.140 Prohibited methods of paint removal. The following methods shall not be used to remove paint that is, or may be, lead-based paint:...

  10. 24 CFR 35.140 - Prohibited methods of paint removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.140 Prohibited methods of paint removal. The following methods shall not be used to remove paint that is, or may be, lead-based paint:...

  11. 24 CFR 35.140 - Prohibited methods of paint removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.140 Prohibited methods of paint removal. The following methods shall not be used to remove paint that is, or may be, lead-based paint:...

  12. 24 CFR 35.140 - Prohibited methods of paint removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.140 Prohibited methods of paint removal. The following methods shall not be used to remove paint that is, or may be, lead-based paint:...

  13. Composition and method for removing photoresist materials from electronic components

    DOEpatents

    Davenhall, Leisa B.; Rubin, James B.; Taylor, Craig M. V.

    2008-06-03

    Composition and method for removing photoresist materials from electronic components. The composition is a mixture of at least one dense phase fluid and at least one dense phase fluid modifier. The method includes exposing a substrate to at least one pulse of the composition in a supercritical state to remove photoresist materials from the substrate.

  14. Composition and method for removing photoresist materials from electronic components

    DOEpatents

    Davenhall, Leisa B.; Rubin, James B.; Taylor, Craig M.

    2005-01-25

    Composition and method for removing photoresist materials from electronic components. The composition is a mixture of at least one dense phase fluid and at least one dense phase fluid modifier. The method includes exposing a substrate to at least one pulse of the composition in a supercritical state to remove photoresist materials from the substrate.

  15. The Emory method: a modified approach to Norplant implants removal.

    PubMed

    Sarma, S P; Hatcher, R

    1994-06-01

    Norplant implants were removed from fifty (50) patients using a modified approach to Norplant implant removal (Emory Method). Eighty-eight percent (88%) of the removals were accomplished in less than 10 minutes using this technique. The average time for removal of Norplant implants from 50 women included in the current study was 8 minutes. The Emory Method for Norplant implant removal includes three steps which are different from the technique developed by the Population Council. More anesthesia, a slightly longer incision and vigorous disruption of the tissue encapsulation surrounding the implants are recommended. The Emory Method is fast, safe and easy to perform. It has been successfully taught to over twenty-five clinicians.

  16. Method for removing metals from a cleaning solution

    DOEpatents

    Deacon, Lewis E.

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing accumulated metals from a cleaning solution is provided. After removal of the metals, the cleaning solution can be discharged or recycled. The process manipulates the pH levels of the solution as a means of precipitating solids. Preferably a dual phase separation at two different pH levels is utilized.

  17. Method of removing hydroperoxides from lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Shaub, H.; Brownawell, D.W.; DiBenedetto, A.

    1991-03-05

    This patent describes a method of decomposing hydroperoxides present in a lubricating oil. It comprises: contacting the lubricating oil with a heterogenous hydroperoxide decomposer for a period of time sufficient to cause a reduction in the amount of hydroperoxides present in the oil, the hydroperoxide decomposer being immobilized when contacting the oil so as not to pass into the oil.

  18. EFFECTIVE REMOVAL METHOD OF ILLEGAL PARKING BICYCLES BASED ON THE QUANTITATIVE CHANGE AFTER REMOVAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toi, Satoshi; Kajita, Yoshitaka; Nishikawa, Shuichirou

    This study aims to find an effective removal method of illegal parking bicycles based on the analysis on the numerical change of illegal bicycles. And then, we built the time and space quantitative distribution model of illegal parking bicycles after removal, considering the logistic increase of illegal parking bicycles, several behaviors concerning of direct return or indirect return to the original parking place and avoidance of the original parking place, based on the investigation of real condition of illegal bicycle parking at TENJIN area in FUKUOKA city. Moreover, we built the simulation model including above-mentioned model, and calculated the number of illegal parking bicycles when we change the removal frequency and the number of removal at one time. The next interesting four results were obtained. (1) Recovery speed from removal the illegal parking bicycles differs by each zone. (2) Thorough removal is effective to keep the number of illegal parking bicycles lower level. (3) Removal at one zone causes the increase of bicycles at other zones where the level of illegal parking is lower. (4) The relationship between effects and costs of removing the illegal parking bicycles was clarified.

  19. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of phosphoric acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a source of fluoride ions. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  20. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of phosphoric acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a source of fluoride ions. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  1. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a boron tetrafluoride salt, free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  2. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a tetrafluoroborate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  3. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate salt, and free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  4. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a boron tetrafluoride salt, free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  5. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate salt, and free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  6. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  7. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a boron tetrafluoride salt, free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  8. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a tetrafluoroborate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  9. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  10. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of phosphoric acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a source of fluoride ions. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  11. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate salt, and free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  12. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a tetrafluoroborate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  13. Removing the Vertebrate-Specific TBP N Terminus Disrupts Placental β2m-Dependent Interactions with the Maternal Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Nicole K.; Bondareva, Alla A.; Barnett, Sheila; Capecchi, Mario R.; Schmidt, Edward E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Mammalian TBP consists of a 180 amino acid core that is common to all eukaryotes, fused to a vertebrate-specific N-terminal domain. We generated mice having a modified tbp allele, tbpΔN, that produces a version of TBP lacking 111 of the 135 vertebrate-specific amino acids. Most tbpΔN/ΔN fetuses (>90%) died in mid gestation from an apparent defect in the placenta. tbpΔN/ΔN fetuses could be rescued by supplying them with a wild-type tetraploid placenta. Mutants also could be rescued by rearing them in immunocom-promised mothers. In immune-competent mothers, survival of tbpΔN/ΔN fetuses increased when fetal/pla cental β2m expression was genetically disrupted. These results suggest that the TBP N terminus functions in transcriptional regulation of a placental β2m- dependent process that favors maternal immunotolerance of pregnancy. PMID:12150996

  14. Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Song; Regnault, Timothy R.H.; Barker, Paige L.; Botting, Kimberley J.; McMillen, Isabella C.; McMillan, Christine M.; Roberts, Claire T.; Morrison, Janna L.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and their transport processes depend on morphological characteristics of the placenta, such as placental size, morphology, blood flow and vascularity. Other factors including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy and glucocorticoid exposure also affect placental growth and substrate transport capacity. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is often a consequence of insufficiency, and is associated with a high incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life. Several different experimental methods have been used to induce placental insufficiency and IUGR in animal models and a range of factors that regulate placental growth and substrate transport capacity have been demonstrated. While no model system completely recapitulates human IUGR, these animal models allow us to carefully dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms to improve our understanding and facilitate development of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25580812

  15. Laboratory test method for dirt pickup resistance and stain removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shiwei; Zheng, Xueying; Liu, Yi; Jiang, Quan

    2017-03-01

    The pollution characteristics of current atmospheric particulates was summarized in the present investigation. The composition and proportion of the pollution sources used for dirt pickup resistance and stain removal test were adjusted, and the pollution sources used for new type dirt pickup resistance and stain removal test produced. In addition, a new dirt pickup method was adopted, and a set of new type laboratory dirt pickup resistance and stain removal tests developed by taking comprehensive consideration of the existing state and dirt pickup mode of actual atmospheric particulates. It verifies the rationality, feasibility and effectiveness of new test methods for dirt pickup resistance and stain removal based on the contrast test over the new and old test methods.

  16. (1)H MRS: a potential biomarker of in utero placental function.

    PubMed

    Macnaught, Gillian; Gray, Calum; Walker, Jane; Simpson, Mary; Norman, Jane; Semple, Scott; Denison, Fiona

    2015-10-01

    The placenta is a temporary organ that is essential for a healthy pregnancy. It performs several important functions, including the transport of nutrients, the removal of waste products and the metabolism of certain substances. Placental disorders have been found to account for over 50% of stillbirths. Despite this, there are currently no methods available to directly and non-invasively assess placental function in utero. The primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate the use of (1)H MRS for this purpose. (1)H MRS offers the possibility to detect several placental metabolites, including choline, lipids and the amino acids glutamine and glutamate (Glx), which are vital to fetal development and placental function. Here, in utero placental spectra were acquired from nine small for gestational age (SGA) pregnancies, a cohort who are at increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality, and from nine healthy gestation-matched pregnancies. All subjects were between 26 and 39 weeks of gestation. Placenta Glx, choline and lipids at 1.3 and 0.9 ppm were quantified as amplitude ratios to that of intrinsic H2O. Wilcoxon signed rank tests indicated a significant difference in Glx/H2O (p = 0.024) between the two groups, but not in choline/H2O (p = 0.722) or in either lipid/H2O ratio (1.3 ppm, p = 0.813; 0.9 ppm, p = 0.058). This study has demonstrated that (1)H MRS has potential for the detection of placental metabolites in utero. This warrants further investigation as a tool for the monitoring of placental function.

  17. Reduced placental volume and flow in severe growth restricted fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Abulé, Renata Montes Dourado; Bernardes, Lisandra Stein; Doro, Giovana Farina; Miyadahira, Seizo; Francisco, Rossana Pulcinelli Vieira

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate placental volume and vascular indices in pregnancies with severe fetal growth restriction and determine their correlations to normal reference ranges and Doppler velocimetry results of uterine and umbilical arteries. METHODS: Twenty-seven fetuses with estimated weights below the 3rd percentile for gestational age were evaluated. Placental volume and vascular indices, including vascularization, flow, and vascularization flow indices, were measured by three-dimensional ultrasound using a rotational technique and compared to a previously described nomogram. The observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age and observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for fetal weight were calculated. Placental parameters correlated with the Doppler velocimetry results of uterine and umbilical arteries. RESULTS: The mean uterine artery pulsatility index was negatively correlated with the observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age, vascularization index and vascularization flow index. The observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age and observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for fetal weight and vascularization index were significantly lower in the group with a bilateral protodiastolic notch. No placental parameter correlated with the umbilical artery pulsatility index. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancies complicated by severe fetal growth restriction are associated with reduced placental volume and vascularization. These findings are related to changes in uterine artery Doppler velocimetry. Future studies on managing severe fetal growth restriction should focus on combined results of placental three-dimensional ultrasound and Doppler studies of uterine arteries. PMID:27438567

  18. Method for removal of mercury from various gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.

    2003-06-10

    The invention provides for a method for removing elemental mercury from a fluid, the method comprising irradiating the mercury with light having a wavelength of approximately 254 nm. The method is implemented in situ at various fuel combustion locations such as power plants and municipal incinerators.

  19. A method for removing arm backscatter from EPID images

    SciTech Connect

    King, Brian W.; Greer, Peter B.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To develop a method for removing the support arm backscatter from images acquired using current Varian electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs).Methods: The effect of arm backscatter on EPID images was modeled using a kernel convolution method. The parameters of the model were optimized by comparing on-arm images to off-arm images. The model was used to develop a method to remove the effect of backscatter from measured EPID images. The performance of the backscatter removal method was tested by comparing backscatter corrected on-arm images to measured off-arm images for 17 rectangular fields of different sizes and locations on the imager. The method was also tested using on- and off-arm images from 42 intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) fields.Results: Images generated by the backscatter removal method gave consistently better agreement with off-arm images than images without backscatter correction. For the 17 rectangular fields studied, the root mean square difference of in-plane profiles compared to off-arm profiles was reduced from 1.19% (standard deviation 0.59%) on average without backscatter removal to 0.38% (standard deviation 0.18%) when using the backscatter removal method. When comparing to the off-arm images from the 42 IMRT fields, the mean {gamma} and percentage of pixels with {gamma} < 1 were improved by the backscatter removal method in all but one of the images studied. The mean {gamma} value (1%, 1 mm) for the IMRT fields studied was reduced from 0.80 to 0.57 by using the backscatter removal method, while the mean {gamma} pass rate was increased from 72.2% to 84.6%.Conclusions: A backscatter removal method has been developed to estimate the image acquired by the EPID without any arm backscatter from an image acquired in the presence of arm backscatter. The method has been shown to produce consistently reliable results for a wide range of field sizes and jaw configurations.

  20. Method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder

    DOEpatents

    Brynestad, J.; Bamberger, C.E.

    A method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder involves the direct chemical treatment of TiB/sub 2/ powders with a gaseous boron halide, such as BCl/sub 3/, at temperatures in the range of 500 to 800/sup 0/C. The BCl/sub 3/ reacts with the oxides to form volatile species which are removed by the BCl/sub 3/ exit stream.

  1. Method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder

    DOEpatents

    Brynestad, Jorulf; Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1984-01-01

    A method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder involves the direct chemical treatment of TiB.sub.2 powders with a gaseous boron halide, such as BCl.sub.3, at temperatures in the range of 500.degree.-800.degree. C. The BCl.sub.3 reacts with the oxides to form volatile species which are removed by the BCl.sub.3 exit stream.

  2. Altered fetal growth, placental abnormalities, and stillbirth

    PubMed Central

    Bukowski, Radek; Hansen, Nellie I.; Pinar, Halit; Willinger, Marian; Reddy, Uma M.; Parker, Corette B.; Silver, Robert M.; Dudley, Donald J.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Saade, George R.; Koch, Matthew A.; Hogue, Carol; Varner, Michael W.; Conway, Deborah L.; Coustan, Donald; Goldenberg, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Worldwide, stillbirth is one of the leading causes of death. Altered fetal growth and placental abnormalities are the strongest and most prevalent known risk factors for stillbirth. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of association between placental abnormalities, fetal growth, and stillbirth. Methods and findings Population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in 5 geographic areas in the U.S. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small (<10th percentile) and large (>90th percentile) for gestational age at death (stillbirth) or delivery (live birth) using a published algorithm. Placental examination by perinatal pathologists was performed using a standardized protocol. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design. Among 319 singleton stillbirths and 1119 singleton live births at ≥24 weeks at death or delivery respectively, 25 placental findings were investigated. Fifteen findings were significantly associated with stillbirth. Ten of the 15 were also associated with fetal growth abnormalities (single umbilical artery; velamentous insertion; terminal villous immaturity; retroplacental hematoma; parenchymal infarction; intraparenchymal thrombus; avascular villi; placental edema; placental weight; ratio birth weight/placental weight) while 5 of the 15 associated with stillbirth were not associated with fetal growth abnormalities (acute chorioamnionitis of placental membranes; acute chorioamionitis of chorionic plate; chorionic plate vascular degenerative changes; perivillous, intervillous fibrin, fibrinoid deposition; fetal vascular thrombi in the chorionic plate). Five patterns were observed: placental findings associated with (1) stillbirth but not fetal growth abnormalities; (2) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths only; (3) fetal growth abnormalities in live births only; (4) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths and live births in a similar manner

  3. Blood storage device and method for oxygen removal

    DOEpatents

    Bitensky, Mark W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a storage device and method for the long-term storage of blood and, more particularly, to a blood storage device and method capable of removing oxygen from the stored blood and thereby prolonging the storage life of the deoxygenated blood.

  4. A comparative clinical study on the Carisolv caries removal method.

    PubMed

    Kakaboura, Afrodite; Masouras, Costas; Staikou, Olga; Vougiouklakis, George

    2003-04-01

    Carisolv is a relatively new chemomechanical method for caries removal. The aim of this clinical study was to compare Carisolv with the conventional drilling technique. Forty-five volunteers, ages 18 to 55 years, each with two contralateral primary coronal mesio-occlusal or disto-occlusal carious lesions, similar in extent, participated in the study. Two calibrated operators treated all lesions. One operator treated both lesions in one visit (one lesion with Carisolv and the other with conventional drilling). Following the filling procedure, the opinion of each patient regarding each caries removal method was recorded. The need for drilling in addition to the Carisolv application, the time required for caries removal, the need for anesthesia, and the gingival reaction to the Carisolv gel were recorded by each operator for each case. The patients found Carisolv treatment more pleasant (82%) and preferable (88%) to drilling. Of the patients treated with drilling, 40% required anesthesia compared to the 8% treated with Carisolv. Additional drilling for complete caries removal was needed in 10% of Carisolv-treated lesions. Carisolv induced no gingival reaction. Significantly longer times were required for caries removal with Carisolv (12.2 +/- 4.1 minutes) compared to drilling (6.8 +/- 2.8 minutes). The Carisolv technique was: (a) accepted by the majority of patients, (b) efficient for caries removal, (c) considered a time-consuming technique for the dentists, and (d) considered less dependent on local anesthesia.

  5. Method for removal of beryllium contamination from an article

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Hollenbeck, Scott M.

    2012-12-25

    A method of removal of beryllium contamination from an article is disclosed. The method typically involves dissolving polyisobutylene in a solvent such as hexane to form a tackifier solution, soaking the substrate in the tackifier to produce a preform, and then drying the preform to produce the cleaning medium. The cleaning media are typically used dry, without any liquid cleaning agent to rub the surface of the article and remove the beryllium contamination below a non-detect level. In some embodiments no detectible residue is transferred from the cleaning wipe to the article as a result of the cleaning process.

  6. Compositions and methods for removing arsenic in water

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, Ashok Jagannth [El Cerrito, CA

    2011-02-22

    Compositions and methods and for contaminants from water are provided. The compositions comprise ferric hydroxide and ferric oxyhydride coated substrates for use in removing the contaminant from the water. Contacting water bearing the contaminant with the substrates can substantially reduce contaminant levels therein. Methods of oxidizing the contaminants in water to facilitate their removal by the ferric hydroxide and ferric oxyhydride coated substrates are also provided. The contaminants include, but are not limited to, arsenic, selenium, uranium, lead, cadmium, nickel, copper, zinc, chromium and vanadium, their oxides and soluble salts thereof.

  7. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    DOEpatents

    Easterly, C.E.; Vass, A.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1997-01-28

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  8. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    DOEpatents

    Easterly, Clay E.; Vass, Arpad A.; Tyndall, Richard L.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  9. A comparison of four methods for PCR inhibitor removal.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingqing; Liu, Yuxuan; Yi, Shaohua; Huang, Daixin

    2015-05-01

    Biological samples collected from the crime scenes often contain some compounds that can inhibit the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The removal of PCR inhibitors from the extracts prior to the PCR amplification is vital for successful forensic DNA typing. This paper aimed to evaluate the ability of four different methods (PowerClean® DNA Clean-Up kit, DNA IQ™ System, Phenol-Chloroform extraction and Chelex®-100 methods) to remove eight commonly encountered PCR inhibitors including: melanin, humic acid, collagen, bile salt, hematin, calcium ions, indigo and urea. Each of these PCR inhibitors was effectively removed by the PowerClean® DNA Clean-Up kit and DNA IQ™ System as demonstrated by generating more complete short tandem repeat (STR) profiles from the cleaned up inhibitor samples than from the raw inhibitor samples. The Phenol-Chloroform extraction and Chelex®-100 methods, however, could only remove some of eight PCR inhibitors. Our results demonstrated that the PowerClean® DNA Clean-Up kit and DNA IQ™ System were very effective for the removal of known PCR inhibitors that are routinely found in DNA extracts from forensic samples.

  10. Evidence of Placental Hemorrhage and Preterm Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gargano, Julia Warner; Holzman, Claudia B.; Senagore, Patricia K.; Reuss, M. Lynne; Pathak, Dorothy R.; Williams, Michelle A.; Fisher, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Objective to evaluate evidence of placental hemorrhage (PH) obtained through maternal interviews, patient charts, and placental pathology examinations as potential indicators of a “bleeding pathway” to preterm delivery (PTD). Design Prospective cohort Setting Fifty-two clinics in five communities in Michigan, USA (1998–2004) Population A subset (N=996) of cohort participants with complete placental pathology data Methods First trimester bleeding and placental abruption were ascertained by mid-trimester interviews and chart review, respectively. Disc-impacting blood clot was defined as a gross placental examination finding of a blood clot impacting adjacent tissue. Microscopic hemorrhage was defined as “high” (top quintile) scores on an aggregate measure of placental pathology findings suggestive of atypical maternal vessel hemorrhage. These four PH indicators were compared with one another and with risk of PTD assessed by logistic regression analyses. Main Outcome Measures PTD and PTD subtypes (i.e., <35 weeks, 35–36 weeks; spontaneous, medically indicated) compared with term deliveries. Results Placental abruption cases had 2.3 to 5.5-fold increased odds of the other 3 PH indicators. Disc-impacting blood clots and microscopic hemorrhage were associated with one another (OR=4.6), but not with first trimester bleeding. In a multivariable model that included all four PH indicators and confounders, risk of PTD <35 weeks was elevated with first trimester bleeding (OR=1.9 (1.0, 3.4)), placental abruption (OR=5.2 (1.7, 16.2)), disc-impacting blood clots (OR=2.3 (1.0, 5.0)); and microscopic hemorrhage (OR=2.4 (1.4, 4.2)). Conclusions Multiple clinical and subclinical PH indicators are associated with PTD, particularly early PTD. PMID:20074262

  11. Apparatuses and methods for removal of ink buildup

    DOEpatents

    Cudzinovic, Michael; Pass, Thomas; Rogers, Rob; Sun, Ray-Hon; Sun, Sheng; Wahlstrom, Ben; Fuhrman, Dennis Jason; Altendorf, Kyle David

    2013-03-12

    A substrate patterning method including the steps of spraying ink on a surface of a substrate, the spraying of the ink resulting in an overspray of excess ink past an edge of the substrate; changing a temperature of the excess ink to cause a change in a viscosity of the excess ink; and removing the excess ink having the changed viscosity.

  12. Reference noise method of removing powerline noise from recorded signals.

    PubMed

    Jiruska, Premysl; Cmejla, Roman; Powell, Andrew D; Chang, Wei-Chih; Vreugdenhil, Martin; Jefferys, John G R

    2009-10-30

    Powerline contamination of recorded signals represents a major source of noise in electrophysiology and impairs the use of recordings for research. In this article we present simple and effective method for cancelling 50 Hz (or 60 Hz) noise using a reference noise signal and average noise cycle subtraction. This method is capable of reliably removing not only the fundamental powerline frequency but also its harmonic frequencies. The efficiency of this method appears to be superior to other commonly used methods such as notch filtering or adaptive filtering. Our experience and results show that this method can be efficiently used with very low signal-to-noise ratios, while preserving original signal waveform.

  13. Method for removal of nitrogen oxides from stationary combustion sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Charles D. (Inventor); Clausen, III, Christian A. (Inventor); Collins, Michelle M. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method for removing NO.sub.X from gas streams emanating from stationary combustion sources and manufacturing plants utilizes the injection of hydrogen peroxide into the gas stream for rapid gas-phase oxidation of NO to NO.sub.2 and water-soluble nitrogen acids HNO.sub.2 and HNO.sub.3. The nitrogen acids may be removed from the oxidized gas stream by wet scrubbing or by contact with a particulate alkaline material to form a nitrite/nitrate salt.

  14. Method for removing semiconductor layers from salt substrates

    DOEpatents

    Shuskus, Alexander J.; Cowher, Melvyn E.

    1985-08-27

    A method is described for removing a CVD semiconductor layer from an alkali halide salt substrate following the deposition of the semiconductor layer. The semiconductor-substrate combination is supported on a material such as tungsten which is readily wet by the molten alkali halide. The temperature of the semiconductor-substrate combination is raised to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the substrate but less than the temperature of the semiconductor and the substrate is melted and removed from the semiconductor by capillary action of the wettable support.

  15. Methods of hydrotreating a liquid stream to remove clogging compounds

    DOEpatents

    Minderhoud, Johannes Kornelis [Amsterdam, NL; Nelson, Richard Gene [Katy, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Ryan, Robert Charles [Houston, TX; Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX

    2009-09-22

    A method includes producing formation fluid from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a gas stream. At least a portion of the liquid stream is provided to a hydrotreating unit. At least a portion of selected in situ heat treatment clogging compositions in the liquid stream are removed to produce a hydrotreated liquid stream by hydrotreating at least a portion of the liquid stream at conditions sufficient to remove the selected in situ heat treatment clogging compositions.

  16. Capture-recapture and removal methods for sampling closed populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Gary C.; Anderson, David R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; Otis, David L.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of estimating animal abundance is common in wildlife management and environmental impact asessment. Capture-recapture and removal methods are often used to estimate population size. Statistical Inference From Capture Data On Closed Animal Populations, a monograph by Otis et al. (1978), provides a comprehensive synthesis of much of the wildlife and statistical literature on the methods, as well as some extensions of the general theory. In our primer, we focus on capture-recapture and removal methods for trapping studies in which a population is assumed to be closed and do not treat open-population models, such as the Jolly-Seber model, or catch-effort methods in any detail. The primer, written for students interested in population estimation, is intended for use with the more theoretical monograph.

  17. Pregnancy maintenance and the regulation of placental progesterone biosynthesis in the baboon.

    PubMed

    Henson, M C

    1998-01-01

    Progesterone (P4), a major steroid hormone produced by the ovarian corpus luteum (CL) and the placental syncytiotrophoblast, is considered essential for the successful maintenance of mammalian pregnancy. It has been demonstrated in our laboratory and in the laboratories of others, that the baboon (Papio anubis/cynocephalus) is an excellent model for study of the endocrinology of human pregnancy. Results from both in-vivo and in-vitro experiments indicate that oestrogen stimulates placental P4 production by regulation of cholesterol side chain cleavage cytochrome P-450 and through the uptake of cholesterol via the low density lipoprotein (LDL) pathway. Thus, LDL uptake by the baboon placental syncytiotrophoblast increases in response to maternal oestrogen concentration, which increases with advancing gestation. Conversely, both placental LDL uptake and maternal peripheral P4 concentration decline significantly at mid- to late gestation as a result of oestrogen deprivation by either anti-oestrogen administration or the removal of fetal androgen oestrogen precursors through fetectomy. Utilizing these methods, it has been possible to decrease cellular uptake of LDL-cholesterol and, hence, maternal peripheral P4 to only a small fraction of their normal concentrations, although P4 is still detected in the maternal periphery in concentrations adequate for preservation of the conceptus. We postulate that such levels of maternal P4 are derived from cholesterol precursor provided by sources alternate to the classical LDL-receptor pathway and are produced throughout gestation by the placental syncytiotrophoblast and perhaps during late pregnancy by a resurgent CL. We further postulate that regulation of these ancillary sources of cholesterol substrate is subject to LDL-cholesterol availability in the maternal peripheral circulation and to possible ontogenetic changes in both primary and secondary cholesterol-yielding mechanisms, which may be divergently regulated in the

  18. METHOD FOR REMOVING SODIUM OXIDE FROM LIQUID SODIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bruggeman, W.H.; Voorhees, B.G.

    1957-12-01

    A method is described for removing sodium oxide from a fluent stream of liquid sodium by coldtrapping the sodium oxide. Apparatus utilizing this method is disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,745,552. Sodium will remain in a molten state at temperatures below that at which sodium oxide will crystallize out and form solid deposits, therefore, the contaminated stream of sodium is cooled to a temperature at which the solubility of sodium oxide in sodium is substantially decreased. Thereafter the stream of sodium is passed through a bed of stainless steel wool maintained at a temperature below that of the stream. The stream is kept in contact with the wool until the sodium oxide is removed by crystal growth on the wool, then the stream is reheated and returned to the system. This method is useful in purifying reactor coolants where the sodium oxide would otherwise deposit out on the walls and eventually plug the coolant tubes.

  19. Prevention of Defective Placentation and Pregnancy Loss by Blocking Innate Immune Pathways in a Syngeneic Model of Placental Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Gelber, Shari E; Brent, Elyssa; Redecha, Patricia; Perino, Giorgio; Tomlinson, Stephen; Davisson, Robin L; Salmon, Jane E

    2015-08-01

    Defective placentation and subsequent placental insufficiency lead to maternal and fetal adverse pregnancy outcome, but their pathologic mechanisms are unclear, and treatment remains elusive. The mildly hypertensive BPH/5 mouse recapitulates many features of human adverse pregnancy outcome, with pregnancies characterized by fetal loss, growth restriction, abnormal placental development, and defects in maternal decidual arteries. Using this model, we show that recruitment of neutrophils triggered by complement activation at the maternal/fetal interface leads to elevation in local TNF-α levels, reduction of the essential angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor, and, ultimately, abnormal placentation and fetal death. Blockade of complement with inhibitors specifically targeted to sites of complement activation, depletion of neutrophils, or blockade of TNF-α improves spiral artery remodeling and rescues pregnancies. These data underscore the importance of innate immune system activation in the pathogenesis of placental insufficiency and identify novel methods for treatment of pregnancy loss mediated by abnormal placentation.

  20. Methods of Helium Injection and Removal for Heat Transfer Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegley, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    While augmentation of heat transfer from a test article by helium gas at low pressures is well known, the method is rarely employed during space simulation testing because the test objectives are to simulate an orbital thermal environment. Test objectives of cryogenic optical testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) have typically not been constrained by orbital environment parameters. As a result, several methods of helium injection have been utilized at the XRCF since 1999 to decrease thermal transition times. A brief synopsis of these injection (and removal) methods including will be presented.

  1. Methods of Helium Injection and Removal for Heat Transfer Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haight, Harlan; Kegley, Jeff; Bourdreaux, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    While augmentation of heat transfer from a test article by helium gas at low pressures is well known, the method is rarely employed during space simulation testing because the test objectives usually involve simulation of an orbital thermal environment. Test objectives of cryogenic optical testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Cryogenic Facility (XRCF) have typically not been constrained by orbital environment parameters. As a result, several methods of helium injection have been utilized at the XRCF since 1999 to decrease thermal transition times. A brief synopsis of these injection (and removal) methods including will be presented.

  2. Methods of Helium Injection and Removal for Heat Transfer Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegley, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    While augmentation of heat transfer from a test article by helium gas at low pressures is well known, the method is rarely employed during space simulation testing because the test objectives are to simulate an orbital thermal environment. Test objectives of cryogenic optical testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) have typically not been constrained by orbital environment parameters. As a result, several methods of helium injection have been utilized at the XRCF since 1999 to decrease thermal transition times. A brief synopsis of these injection (and removal) methods including will be presented.

  3. Method for removing organic liquids from aqueous solutions and mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Coronado, Paul R.; Dow, Jerome P.

    2004-03-23

    A method for removing organic liquids from aqueous solutions and mixtures. The method employs any porous material preferably in granular form and having small pores and a large specific surface area, that is hydrophobic so that liquid water does not readily wet its surface. In this method, organics, especially organic solvents that mix with and are more volatile than water, are separated from aqueous solution by preferentially evaporating across the liquid/solid boundary formed at the surfaces of the hydrophobic porous materials. Also, organic solvents that are immiscible with water, preferentially wet the surfaces of the hydrophobic material and are drawn within the porous materials by capillary action.

  4. Topological Analysis of Placental Arteries:. Correlation with Neonatal Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, H.; Yakubo, K.

    2007-07-01

    The aim of study was to assess whether any network index of placental surface arteries was associated with neonatal birth weight. Twenty-six placentas were randomly selected between 34 and 41 weeks of gestational ages. Placental weights ranged 385 to 770 g; and neonatal weights ranged 1960 to 3680 g. After visualization of placental surface arteries by a milk injection method, network indices including the number of nodes, network density, network diameter, average distance of nodes, and the degree centralization were determined. These network indices and placental weights were compared with neonatal birth weights. The Number of nodes, network density, network diameter, average distance of nodes, and the degree centralization were found to be as follows (Mean ± SD); 84.7 ± 29.3, 0.0262 ± 0.0088, 15.8 ± 2.77, 7.83 ± 1.13, 0.0263 ± 0.0091, respectively. We found that neonatal birth weights correlate with the number of nodes of placental surface arteries (correlation coefficient R=0.40) and placental weights (R=0.52) both. However, the number of nodes of placental surface arteries was not associated with the placental weights or the gestational age. We for the first time found that a topological factor, i.e., the number of nodes of placental surface arteries correlated with neonatal growth. There was no correlation between numbers of nodes and placental weights. This suggests that the number of nodes affects fetal growth independent of placental weights. A topological factor of placental vasculization might significantly affect fetal growth in utero and determine risks of vascular diseases in their future lives.

  5. Systems and methods for removing components of a gas mixture

    SciTech Connect

    2016-09-06

    A system for removing components of a gaseous mixture is provided comprising: a reactor fluid containing vessel having conduits extending therefrom, aqueous fluid within the reactor, the fluid containing a ligand and a metal, and at least one reactive surface within the vessel coupled to a power source. A method for removing a component from a gaseous mixture is provided comprising exposing the gaseous mixture to a fluid containing a ligand and a reactive metal, the exposing chemically binding the component of the gaseous mixture to the ligand. A method of capturing a component of a gaseous mixture is provided comprising: exposing the gaseous mixture to a fluid containing a ligand and a reactive metal, the exposing chemically binding the component of the gaseous mixture to the ligand, altering the oxidation state of the metal, the altering unbinding the component from the ligand, and capturing the component.

  6. Methods for removing contaminant matter from a porous material

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V [Idaho Falls, ID; Avci, Recep [Bozeman, MT; Groenewold, Gary S [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-11-16

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  7. Methods of using adsorption media for separating or removing constituents

    DOEpatents

    Tranter, Troy J.; Herbst, R. Scott; Mann, Nicholas R.; Todd, Terry A.

    2011-10-25

    Methods of using an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises contacting an adsorption medium with a feed stream comprising at least one constituent and removing the at least one constituent from the feed stream. The adsorption medium comprises a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) matrix and at least one metal hydroxide homogenously dispersed therein. The adsorption medium may comprise from approximately 15 wt % to approximately 90 wt % of the PAN and from approximately 10 wt % to approximately 85 wt % of the at least one metal hydroxide. The at least one metal hydroxide may be selected from the group consisting of ferric hydroxide, zirconium hydroxide, lanthanum hydroxide, cerium hydroxide, titanium hydroxide, copper hydroxide, antimony hydroxide, and molybdenum hydroxide.

  8. Placental steroid hormone biosynthesis in primate pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, E D; Pepe, G J

    1990-02-01

    Substantial advances in our understanding of placental function have resulted from recent establishment of in vitro approaches, such as cell culture, and application of molecular methods to study placental steroidogenesis. Insight into the processes of placental cell differentiation and hormonal function has been gained from culture of relatively pure preparations of cytotrophoblast. Various factors, e.g. cAMP and peptide growth factors, have been shown to have striking effects on progesterone and estrogen formation by placental tissue under in vitro conditions. Using advanced molecular approaches, the genes governing specific enzymes critical to placental steroidogenesis have been identified. Regulation of the mRNAs encoding specific enzyme peptides and thus expression of the genes by factors, such as cAMP, have been elucidated by Northern analysis and other techniques. It is critical that these contemporary approaches continue to be implemented aggressively to further elucidate placental function. However, it is clear from a survey of the literature, particularly of the past decade, that the vast majority of investigation in the area has been conducted in vitro. It is essential to determine whether the factors that have been observed to regulate placental endocrine function in vitro are operable in vivo. It is only with in vivo study that the dynamics of steroidogenesis and the complex functional relationships between placenta, fetus, and mother will be uncovered and understood. It is increasingly evident that the regulation of placental steroidogenesis involves autocrine and/or paracrine mechanisms, similar to those integral to hormone biosynthesis within other reproductive organs, e.g. ovary and testis. For example, as discussed above, estrogen regulates LDL uptake and P-450scc, and thus apparently is involved in generating substrate for progesterone production within the placenta. Conversely, progesterone has effects on 17 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase

  9. METHOD OF REMOVING IODINE FROM GASES AND FILTER MEDIUM THEREFOR

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, L.

    1961-08-01

    A method for the removal of iodine from large gas volumes is described. The gaseous medium is heated to a temperature not exceeding 400 deg C. Water vapor is then added to the medium in approximate amounts of 1 lb/cu ft of the medium. The medium is then passed through a porous copper fibrous pad having deposited thereon a coating of silver, the silver coating being treated with hydrogen sulfide forming a layer of silver sulfide. (AEC)

  10. Method for removing sulfur dioxide from a gas stream

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, J.T.; Martinez, R.I.

    1982-09-28

    A method is provided for removing SO2 from gas streams by its gas-phase reaction with a stabilized Criegee intermediate under conditions where a very large excess of water vapor is avoided, resulting in efficient scavenging of SO2 by the Criegee intermediate to form an adduct. The adduct reacts with water vapor to convert it directly to sulfuric acid, which is then separated from the gas stream. The Criegee intermediate may be generated in a variety of ways.

  11. Placental programming of blood pressure in Indian children

    PubMed Central

    Winder, Nicola R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Chitra LS; Fall, Caroline HD; Veena, Sargoor R; Barker, David JP

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine whether the size and shape of the placental surface predict blood pressure in childhood. Methods We studied blood pressure in 471 nine-year-old Indian children whose placental length, breadth and weight were measured in a prospective birth cohort study. Results In the daughters of short mothers (placental breadth increased (β = 0.69 mmHg/cm, p = 0.05) and as the ratio of placental surface area to birthweight increased (p = 0.0003). In the daughters of tall mothers, SBP rose as the difference between placental length and breadth increased (β = 1.40 mmHg/cm, p = 0.007), that is as the surface became more oval. Among boys, associations with placental size were only statistically significant after adjusting for current BMI and height. After adjustment, SBP rose as placental breadth, area and weight decreased (for breadth β = −0.68 mmHg/cm, p < 0.05 for all three measurements). Conclusions The size and shape of the placental surface predict childhood blood pressure. Blood pressure may be programmed by variation in the normal processes of placentation: these include implantation, expansion of the chorionic surface in mid-gestation and compensatory expansion of the chorionic surface in late gestation. PMID:21166711

  12. [Placental 3D Doppler angiography: current and upcoming applications].

    PubMed

    Duan, J; Perdriolle-Galet, E; Chabot-Lecoanet, A-C; Callec, R; Beaumont, M; Chavatte-Palmer, P; Tsatsaris, V; Morel, O

    2015-02-01

    The placental dysfunction, which seems to be caused by a defect of trophoblastic invasion and impaired uterine vascular remodeling since the first trimester, is responsible in a non-exclusive way for the chronic placental hypoxia, resulting secondarily in the intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) and/or pre-eclampsia (PE). The quality of utero-placental vasculature is essential for a proper fetal development and a successful progress of pregnancy. However, the in vivo assessment of placental vascularization with non-invasive methods is complicated by the small size of placental terminal vessel and its complex architecture. Moreover, imaging with contrast agent is not recommended to pregnant women. Until recently, the fetal and maternal vascularization could only be evaluated through pulse Doppler of uterine arteries during pregnancy, which has little clinical value for utero-placental vascularization defects assessment. Recently, a non-invasive study, without use of contrast agent for vasculature evaluation of an organ of interest has become possible by the development of 3D Doppler angiography technique. The objective of this review was to make an inventory of its current and future applications for utero-placental vasculature quantification. The main findings of the literature on the assessment of utero-placental vascularization in physiological situation and major placental vascular dysfunction pathologies such as PE and IUGR were widely discussed.

  13. Method for changing removable bearing for a wind turbine generator

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee , Gadre; Aniruddha Dattatraya

    2008-04-22

    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  14. Method for changing removable bearing for a wind turbine generator

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya

    2008-04-22

    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  15. Removal of polyvinylpyrrolidone from wastewater using different methods.

    PubMed

    Julinová, Markéta; Kupec, Jan; Houser, Josef; Slavík, Roman; Marusincová, Hana; Cervenáková, Lenka; Klívar, Stanislav

    2012-12-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is a frequently used polymer in the pharmaceutical and foodstuff industries. Because it is not subject to metabolic changes and is virtually nondegradable, trace concentrations of PVP are often found in community wastewaters. The literature finds that the partial removal of PVP in wastewater treatment plants probably occurs through sorption. The primary objective of this study was to find an effective method to remove PVP from wastewaters. In this regard, the literature indicates the theoretical potential to use specific enzymes (e.g., gamma-lactamases, amidases) to gradually degrade PVP molecules. Polyvinylpyrrolidone biodegradability tests were conducted using suitable heterogeneous cultures (activated sludge) collected from a conventional wastewater treatment plant, treatment plants connected to a pharmaceutical factory, and using select enzymes. Aerobic biodegradation of PVP in a conventional wastewater environment was ineffective, even after adaptation of activated sludge using the nearly identical monomer 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Another potential method for PVP removal involves pretreating the polymer prior to biological degradation. Based on the results (approximately 10 to 15% biodegradation), pretreatment was partially effective, realistically, it could only be applied with difficulty at wastewater treatment plants. Sorption of PVP to an active carbon sorbent (Chezacarb S), which corresponded to the Langmuir isotherm, and sorption to activated sludge, which corresponded to the Freundlich isotherm, were also evaluated. From these sorption tests, it can be concluded that the considerable adsorption of PVP to activated sludge occurred primarily at low PVP concentrations. Based on the test results, the authors recommend the following methods for PVP removal from wastewater: (1) sorption; (2) application of specific microorganisms; and (3) alkaline hydrolysis, which is the least suitable of the three for use in wastewater treatment

  16. Quantum method for fluorescence background removal in DNA melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Lindsay N; Kent, Jana O; Wittwer, Carl T

    2013-10-15

    Fluorescent high-resolution DNA melting analysis is a robust method of genotyping and mutation scanning. However, removing background fluorescence is important for accurate classification and to correctly display helicity. Linear baseline extrapolation, commonly used with absorbance, often fails at low temperatures when fluorescence is used. A new quantum method of background removal based on the inherent decrease of fluorescence with temperature is described. Absorbance and fluorescence melting curves were compared using synthetic targets including hairpins, unlabeled probes, and a 50 bp duplex. In addition, the quantum method was compared to a previously described exponential method for analysis of genotyping data produced after polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including those from small amplicons, unlabeled probes, and snapback primers. The quantum method best matched absorbance data and predicted helicity, with the exponential method displaying low-temperature bulges and domain artifacts that can lead to incorrect genotyping. When two melting domains were widely separated, quantum analysis produced a flat baseline between domains, while exponential analysis was temperature-dependent. Both methods have little effect on the melting temperature (Tm) although some differences were significant (hairpin Tm values increased 0.7 °C by the quantum method and decreased 1.5 °C by exponential method, p = 0.01). However, peak heights on derivative plots were strongly algorithm-dependent, with exponential analysis enhancing low-temperature peaks while dampening high-temperature peaks. Quantum-analyzed fluorescence curves were a better match to absorbance data in terms of shape, area, and peak height compared to other methods, indicating that DNA helicity is best approximated by the quantum method.

  17. Method for removing oxide contamination from silicon carbide powders

    DOEpatents

    Brynestad, J.; Bamberger, C.E.

    1984-08-01

    The described invention is directed to a method for removing oxide contamination in the form of oxygen-containing compounds such as SiO/sub 2/ and B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ from a charge of finely divided silicon carbide. The silicon carbide charge is contacted with a stream of hydrogen fluoride mixed with an inert gas carrier such as argon at a temperature in the range of about 200/sup 0/ to 650/sup 0/C. The oxides in the charge react with the heated hydrogen fluoride to form volatile gaseous fluorides such as SiF/sub 4/ and BF/sub 3/ which pass through the charge along with unreacted hydrogen fluoride and the carrier gas. Any residual gaseous reaction products and hydrogen fluoride remaining in the charge are removed by contacting the charge with the stream of inert gas which also cools the powder to room temperature. The removal of the oxygen contamination by practicing the present method provides silicon carbide powders with desirable pressing and sintering characteristics. 1 tab.

  18. Providing a Placental Transfusion in Newborns Who Need Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Katheria, Anup C.; Brown, Melissa K.; Rich, Wade; Arnell, Kathy

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, there have been several studies and reviews on the importance of providing a placental transfusion to the newborn. Allowing a placental transfusion to occur by delaying the clamping of the umbilical cord is an extremely effective method of enhancing arterial oxygen content, increasing cardiac output, and improving oxygen delivery. However, premature and term newborns who require resuscitation have impaired transitional hemodynamics and may warrant different methods to actively provide a placental transfusion while still allowing for resuscitation. In this review, we will provide evidence for providing a placental transfusion in these circumstances and methods for implementation. Several factors including cord clamping time, uterine contractions, umbilical blood flow, respirations, and gravity play an important role in determining placental transfusion volumes. Finally, while many practitioners agree that a placental transfusion is beneficial, it is not always straightforward to implement and can be performed using different methods, making this basic procedure important to discuss. We will review three placental transfusion techniques: delayed cord clamping, intact umbilical cord milking, and cut-umbilical cord milking. We will also review resuscitation with an intact cord and the evidence in term and preterm newborns supporting this practice. We will discuss perceived risks versus benefits of these procedures. Finally, we will provide key straightforward concepts and implementation strategies to ensure that placental-to-newborn transfusion can become routine practice at any institution. PMID:28180126

  19. Method for removing metal ions from solution with titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Lundquist, Susan H.; White, Lloyd R.

    1999-01-01

    A method for removing metal ions from solution comprises the steps of providing titanate particles by spray-drying a solution or slurry comprising sorbent titanates having a particle size up to 20 micrometers, optionally in the presence of polymer free of cellulose functionality as binder, said sorbent being active towards heavy metals from Periodic Table (CAS version) Groups IA, IIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, and VIII, to provide monodisperse, substantially spherical particles in a yield of at least 70 percent of theoretical yield and having a particle size distribution in the range of 1 to 500 micrometers. The particles can be used free flowing in columns or beds, or entrapped in a nonwoven, fibrous web or matrix or a cast porous membrane, to selectively remove metal ions from aqueous or organic liquid.

  20. Method and apparatus for heat treating materials to remove contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.; Miller, D.H.

    1980-05-06

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for heat treating metals to remove contaminants. Contaminated scrap metal is fed into one end of a rotating inclined retort. Heat is applied to the retort as the scrap metal is conveyed therein to remove the contaminant, and the processed metal is discharged from the opposite end of the retort. Combustible waste gases generated through the processing are fed to an afterburner where the combustible gases are burned and are discharged from the afterburner into a stack. A portion of the hot combusted gases are returned from the stack to the discharge end of the retort to thereby minimize oxidation of the scrap metal being treated as well as conserving fuel.

  1. Maternal risk factors for abnormal placental growth: The national collaborative perinatal project

    PubMed Central

    Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Salafia, Carolyn M; Nicholson, Wanda K; Duggan, Anne; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Brancati, Frederick L

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous studies of maternal risk factors for abnormal placental growth have focused on placental weight and placental ratio as measures of placental growth. We sought to identify maternal risk factors for placental weight and two neglected dimensions of placental growth: placental thickness and chorionic plate area. Methods We conducted an analysis of 24,135 mother-placenta pairs enrolled in the National Collaborative Perinatal Project, a prospective cohort study of pregnancy and child health. We defined growth restriction as < 10th percentile and hypertrophy as > 90th percentile for three placental growth dimensions: placental weight, placental thickness and chorionic plate area. We constructed parallel multinomial logistic regression analyses to identify (a) predictors of restricted growth (vs. normal) and (b) predictors of hypertrophic growth (vs. normal). Results Black race was associated with an increased likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight, thickness and chorionic plate area, but was associated with a reduced likelihood of hypertrophy for these three placental growth dimensions. We observed an increased likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight and chorionic plate area among mothers with hypertensive disease at 24 weeks or beyond. Anemia was associated with a reduced likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight and chorionic plate area. Pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain were associated with a reduced likelihood of growth restriction and an increased likelihood of hypertrophy for all three dimensions of placental growth. Conclusion Maternal risk factors are either associated with placental growth restriction or placental hypertrophy not both. Our findings suggest that the placenta may have compensatory responses to certain maternal risk factors suggesting different underlying biological mechanisms. PMID:18811957

  2. The Fe removal in pyrophyllite by physical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kanghee; Jo, Jiyu; Bak, GeonYeong; Choi, NagChoul; Park*, CheonYoung

    2015-04-01

    The presence of Fe in ingredient material such as limestone, borax and pyrophyllite can prevent their use mainly in the glass fiber manufacturing industry. The red to yellow pigmentation in pyrophyllite is mainly due to the associated oxides and sulfides of Fe such as hematite, pyrite, etc. The removal of Fe in the pyrophyllite was investigated using high frequency treatment and magnetic separation under various alumina grades in pyrophyllite. The hematite and pyrite were observed in the pyrophyllite from photomicrograph and XRD analysis results. On the decrease of Al2O3 content in pyrophyllite was showed that SiO2, Fe2O3 and TiO2 content were increased by XRF analysis. The high frequency treatment experiment for the pyrophyllite showed that the (1) pyrite phase was transformed hematite and magnetite, (2) mass loss of the sample by volatilization of included sulfur(S) in pyrite. The results of magnetic separation for treated sample by high frequency were identified that Fe removal percent were in the range of 97.6~98.8%. This study demonstrated that physical method (high frequency treatment and magnetic separation) was effective for the removal of Fe in pyrophyllite. This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment(MOE) as "Advanced Technology Program for Environmental Industry".

  3. Placental Imaging: Normal Appearance with Review of Pathologic Findings.

    PubMed

    Fadl, Shaimaa; Moshiri, Mariam; Fligner, Corinne L; Katz, Douglas S; Dighe, Manjiri

    2017-01-01

    The placenta plays a crucial role throughout pregnancy, and its importance may be overlooked during routine antenatal imaging evaluation. Detailed systematic assessment of the placenta at ultrasonography (US), the standard imaging examination during pregnancy, is important. Familiarity with the normal and abnormal imaging appearance of the placenta along with the multimodality and methodical approach for evaluation of its related abnormalities is necessary, so that radiologists can alert clinicians regarding appropriate prompt management decisions. This will potentially decrease fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. This article reviews early placental formation and the expected imaging appearance of the placenta during pregnancy, as well as variations in its morphology. It also discusses various placental diseases and their potential clinical consequences. Placental pathologic conditions include abnormalities of placental size, cord insertion, placental and cord location, and placental adherence. Other conditions such as bleeding in and around the placenta, as well as trophoblastic and nontrophoblastic tumors of the placenta, are also discussed. US with Doppler imaging is the initial imaging modality of choice for placental evaluation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is reserved for equivocal cases or when additional information is needed. Computed tomography (CT) has a limited role in evaluation of placental abnormalities because of the ionizing radiation exposure and the relatively limited assessment of the placenta; however, CT can provide important information in specific circumstances, particularly evaluation of trauma and staging of choriocarcinoma. This article also addresses recent techniques and updates in placental imaging, including elastography, diffusion-weighted MR imaging, and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MR imaging. These advanced imaging techniques may provide additional information in evaluation of abnormal placental adherence and

  4. Method of removing and detoxifying a phosphorus-based substance

    DOEpatents

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Steindler, M.J.

    1985-05-21

    A method of removing a phosphorus-based poisonous substance from water contaminated is presented. In addition, the toxicity of the phosphorus-based substance is also subsequently destroyed. A water-immiscible organic solvent is first immobilized on a supported liquid membrane before the contaminated water is contacted with one side of the supported liquid membrane to absorb the phosphorus-based substance in the organic solvent. The other side of the supported liquid membrane is contacted with a hydroxy-affording strong base to react with phosphorus-based solvated species to form a non-toxic product.

  5. Method for removing cesium from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, Richard P.

    1986-01-01

    A method of and system for removing cesium from a liquid metal reactor coolant including a carbon packing trap in the primary coolant system for absorbing a major portion of the radioactive cesium from the coolant flowing therethrough at a reduced temperature. A regeneration subloop system having a secondary carbon packing trap is selectively connected to the primary system for isolating the main trap therefrom and connecting it to the regeneration system. Increasing the temperature of the sodium flowing through the primary trap diffuses a portion of the cesium

  6. Method for removing trace pollutants from aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Silver, Gary L.

    1986-01-01

    A method of substantially removing a trace metallic contaminant from a liquid containing the same comprises, adding an oxidizing agent to a liquid containing a trace amount of a metallic contaminant of a concentration of up to about 10.sup.-1 ppm, the oxidizing agent being one which oxidizes the contaminant to form an oxidized product which is insoluble in the liquid and precipitates therefrom, and the conditions of the addition being selected to ensure that the precipitation of the oxidized product is homogeneous, and separating the homogeneously precipitated product from the liquid.

  7. System, Apparatus, and Method for Active Debris Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, Sr., Anthony D. (Inventor); Kohli, Rajiv (Inventor); Burns, Susan H. (Inventor); Damico, Stephen J. (Inventor); Gruber, David J. (Inventor); Hickey, Christopher J. (Inventor); Lee, David E. (Inventor); Robinson, Travis M. (Inventor); Smith, Jason T. (Inventor); Spehar, Peter T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for removal of orbital debris are provided. In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a spacecraft control unit configured to guide and navigate the apparatus to a target. The apparatus also includes a dynamic object characterization unit configured to characterize movement, and a capture feature, of the target. The apparatus further includes a capture and release unit configured to capture a target and deorbit or release the target. The collection of these apparatuses is then employed as multiple, independent and individually operated vehicles launched from a single launch vehicle for the purpose of disposing of multiple debris objects.

  8. System and method for removal of buried objects

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, Robert G.; Crass, Dennis; Grams, William; Phillips, Steven J.; Riess, Mark

    2008-06-03

    The present invention is a system and method for removal of buried objects. According to one embodiment of the invention, a crane with a vibrator casing driver is used to lift and suspend a large diameter steel casing over the buried object. Then the casing is driven into the ground by the vibratory driver until the casing surrounds the buried object. Then the open bottom of the casing is sealed shut by injecting grout into the ground within the casing near its bottom. When the seal has cured and hardened, the top of the casing is lifted to retrieve the casing, with the buried object inside, from the ground.

  9. Method of dye removal for the textile industry

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.L.

    2000-07-25

    The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention uses an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

  10. Method of dye removal for the textile industry

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention comprises using an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

  11. Comparison of methods for removing electromagnetic noise from electromyographic signals.

    PubMed

    Defreitas, Jason M; Beck, Travis W; Stock, Matt S

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare three different methods of removing noise from monopolar electromyographic (EMG) signals: (a) electrical shielding with a Faraday cage, (b) denoising with a digital notch-filter and (c) applying a bipolar differentiation with another monopolar EMG signal. Ten men and ten women (mean age = 24.0 years) performed isometric muscle actions of the leg extensors at 10-100% of their maximal voluntary contraction on two separate occasions. One trial was performed inside a Faraday tent (a flexible Faraday cage made from conductive material), and the other was performed outside the Faraday tent. The EMG signals collected outside the Faraday tent were analyzed three separate ways: as a raw signal, as a bipolar signal, and as a signal digitally notch filtered to remove 60 Hz noise and its harmonics. The signal-to-noise ratios were greatest after notch-filtering (range: 3.0-33.8), and lowest for the bipolar arrangement (1.6-10.2). Linear slope coefficients for the EMG amplitude versus force relationship were also used to compare the methods of noise removal. The results showed that a bipolar arrangement had a significantly lower linear slope coefficient when compared to the three other conditions (raw, notch and tent). These results suggested that an appropriately filtered monopolar EMG signal can be useful in situations that require a large pick-up area. Furthermore, although it is helpful, a Faraday tent (or cage) is not required to achieve an appropriate signal-to-noise ratio, as long as the correct filters are applied.

  12. Tube cutter tool and method of use for coupon removal

    SciTech Connect

    Nachbar, H.D.; Etten, M.P. Jr.; Kurowski, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    It is well known in the art that metal tubes used in heat transfer devices are susceptible to wear, erosion and other degradations which may create weaknesses or other potential failure points. One typical prior art method to determine the cause of damage to a tube involves making a circumferential cut on the tube wall and removing the entire section of the tube having a damaged portion thereon. This method is useful where a straight length portion of the tube has been affected. However, access to more constricted areas and removal of relatively large sections of tubing is limited where the cutting procedure is performed from the interior of the tube. A tube cutter tool is insertable into a tube for cutting a coupon from a damaged site on the exterior of the tube. Prior to using the tool, the damaged site is first located from the interior of the tube using a multi-coil pancake eddy current test probe. The damage site is then marked. A fiber optic probe is used to monitor the subsequent cutting procedure which is performed using a hole saw mounted on the tube cutter tool. Prior to completion of the cutting procedure, a drill in the center of the hole saw is drilled into the coupon to hold it in place.

  13. Imaging of activated complement using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (USPIO) - conjugated vectors: an in vivo in utero non-invasive method to predict placental insufficiency and abnormal fetal brain development

    PubMed Central

    Girardi, G; Fraser, J; Lennen, R; Vontell, R; Jansen, M; Hutchison, G

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we have developed a magnetic resonance imaging-based method for non-invasive detection of complement activation in placenta and foetal brain in vivo in utero. Using this method, we found that anti-complement C3-targeted ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles bind within the inflamed placenta and foetal brain cortical tissue, causing a shortening of the T2* relaxation time. We used two mouse models of pregnancy complications: a mouse model of obstetrics antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and a mouse model of preterm birth (PTB). We found that detection of C3 deposition in the placenta in the APS model was associated with placental insufficiency characterised by increased oxidative stress, decreased vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor levels and intrauterine growth restriction. We also found that foetal brain C3 deposition was associated with cortical axonal cytoarchitecture disruption and increased neurodegeneration in the mouse model of APS and in the PTB model. In the APS model, foetuses that showed increased C3 in their brains additionally expressed anxiety-related behaviour after birth. Importantly, USPIO did not affect pregnancy outcomes and liver function in the mother and the offspring, suggesting that this method may be useful for detecting complement activation in vivo in utero and predicting placental insufficiency and abnormal foetal neurodevelopment that leads to neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25245499

  14. Method and apparatus for removing ions from soil

    DOEpatents

    Bibler, J.P.

    1993-03-02

    A method and apparatus are presented for selectively removing species of ions from an area of soil. Permeable membranes 14 and 18 impregnated with an ion exchange resin that is specific to one or more species of chemical ions are inserted into ground 12 in close proximity to, and on opposing sides of, a soil area of interest 22. An electric potential is applied across electrodes 26 and 28 to cause the migration of ions out of soil area 22 toward the membranes 14 and 18. Preferably, the resin exchanges ions of sodium or hydrogen for ions of mercury that it captures from soil area 22. Once membranes 14 and 18 become substantially saturated with mercury ions, the potential applied across electrodes 26 and 28 is discontinued and membranes 14 and 18 are preferably removed from soil 12 for storage or recovery of the ions. The membranes are also preferably impregnated with a buffer to inhibit the effect of the hydrolysis of water by current from the electrodes.

  15. Method and apparatus for removing ions from soil

    DOEpatents

    Bibler, Jane P.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for selectively removing species of ions from an area of soil. Permeable membranes 14 and 18 impregnated with an ion exchange resin that is specific to one or more species of chemical ions are inserted into ground 12 in close proximity to, and on opposing sides of, a soil area of interest 22. An electric potential is applied across electrodes 26 and 28 to cause the migration of ions out of soil area 22 toward the membranes 14 and 18. Preferably, the resin exchanges ions of sodium or hydrogen for ions of mercury that it captures from soil area 22. Once membranes 14 and 18 become substantially saturated with mercury ions, the potential applied across electrodes 26 and 28 is discontinued and membranes 14 and 18 are preferably removed from soil 12 for storage or recovery of the ions. The membranes are also preferably impregnated with a buffer to inhibit the effect of the hydrolysis of water by current from the electrodes.

  16. Core drill and method of removing a core therefrom

    SciTech Connect

    Bossler, J.

    1987-04-14

    This patent describes a method of expediting the removal of a core from the interior of a tubular core drill which comprises: fixedly securing an externally threaded bushing to the rear end of the core drill; providing a sleeve for detachably coupling the bushing-equipped core drill to the externally threaded drive shank of a power unit for the core drill. The coupling sleeve is threaded internally of the opposite ends thereof and respectively sized to mate one with the threaded bushing and one with the threaded drive shank; providing the sleeve with wrench engaging means for the assembly and disassembly thereof to and from the drive shank; and detaching the sleeve from the drive shank and withdrawing by gravity a core through the rear end of the drill stem and coupling sleeve.

  17. Method for removing cesium from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, R.P.

    1983-08-10

    A method of and system for removing cesium from a liquid metal reactor coolant including a carbon packing trap in the primary coolant system for absorbing a major portion of the radioactive cesium from the coolant flowing therethrough at a reduced temperature. A regeneration subloop system having a secondary carbon packing trap is selectively connected to the primary system for isolating the main trap therefrom and connecting it to the regeneration system. Increasing the temperature of the sodium flowing through the primary trap diffuses a portion of the cesium inventory thereof further into the carbon matrix while simultaneously redispersing a portion into the regeneration system for absorption at a reduced temperature by the secondary trap.

  18. [Treatment of endometriosis with removing blood stasis and purgation method].

    PubMed

    Wang, D Z; Wang, Z Q; Zhang, Z F

    1991-09-01

    According to the method of differentiation of symptom complexes of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), endometriosis is a disease of blood stasis and mass in the lower portion of abdomen. 76 cases were treated by TCM prescription named endometriotic pill No 1 with rhubarb as the main ingredient. The chief functions of the rhubarb were removing blood stasis, disintegrating mass and purgation. The total effective rate was 80.26%. Among them, the effective rate of dysmenorrhea was 88.89%, that of pelvic pain was 66.72%, that of intercourse pain 72.12%, and diminishing in size of mass or nodule 22.15%; 3 cases of 22 infertility got pregnant (13.63%). The results revealed that the endometriotic pill No 1 yielded distinct improvement in the treatment of endometriosis, including clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory assay of blood rheology, serum Ig, subgroup of T lymphocyte (OKT system) and PG.

  19. Method for removing sulfur dioxide from a gas stream

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, R.I.; Herron, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    The combustion of sulfur-containing fuels generates significant amounts of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/). Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are also often generated in the course of the combustion of various fuels. Without appropriate treatment of the exhaust gases of combustion, large amounts of sulfur and nitrogen oxides would be injected into the atmosphere, causing a variety of ecological problems. A method is provided for removing SO/sub 2/ from gas streams by its gas-phase reaction with a stabilized Criegee intermediate under conditions where a very large excess of water vapor is avoided, resulting in efficient scavenging of SO2 by the Criegee intermediate to form an adduct. The adduct reacts with water vapor to convert it directly to sulfuric acid, which is then separated from the gas stream. The Criegee intermediate may be generated in a variety of ways.

  20. Method of removing and detoxifying a phosphorus-based substance

    DOEpatents

    Vandegrift, George F.; Steindler, Martin J.

    1989-01-01

    A method of removing organic phosphorus-based poisonous substances from water contaminated therewith and of subsequently destroying the toxicity of the substance is disclosed. Initially, a water-immiscible organic is immobilized on a supported liquid membrane. Thereafter, the contaminated water is contacted with one side of the supported liquid membrane to selectively dissolve the phosphorus-based substance in the organic extractant. At the same time, the other side of the supported liquid membrane is contacted with a hydroxy-affording strong base to react the phosphorus-based substance dissolved by the organic extractant with a hydroxy ion. This forms a non-toxic reaction product in the base. The organic extractant can be a water-insoluble trialkyl amine, such as trilauryl amine. The phosphorus-based substance can be phosphoryl or a thiophosphoryl.

  1. Placental Permeability of Lead

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Stanley J.

    1974-01-01

    The detection of lead in fetal tissues by chemical analysis has long been accepted as prima facie evidence for the permeability of the placenta to this nonessential trace metal. However, only a few investigations, all on lower mammalian species, have contributed any direct experimental data bearing on this physiological process. Recent radioactive tracer and radioautographic studies on rodents have shown that lead crosses the placental membranes rapidly and in significant amounts even at relatively low maternal blood levels. While it is not possible to extrapolate directly the results of these experiments to humans because of differences in placental structure and other factors, the results do serve as a warning of the possible hazard to the human embryo and fetus of even low levels of lead in the maternal system. PMID:4857497

  2. Placental apoptosis in recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Atia, Tarek A

    2017-09-01

    Apoptosis is an interactive and dynamic biological process involved in all phases of embryogenesis. We aimed to study the effect of placental apoptosis on recurrent miscarriage (RM). Placental tissue samples were collected from 40 women with RM (study group) and 30 women with sporadic spontaneous abortion (control group). Samples were prepared and stained immunohistochemically with markers for both the apoptotic protein (p53) and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 antibodies. Our results showed that expression of the apoptotic (p53) protein was significantly increased in the placental tissues of the RM group (p = 0.003). By contrast, the expression of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) antibodies was significantly increased in the placental tissues of the control group (p = 0.025). We concluded that placental apoptosis plays a crucial role in pregnancy continuation. However, increased p53 expression in placental tissue in early pregnancy could negatively affect pregnancy continuation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  3. Biofiltration methods for the removal of phenolic residues.

    PubMed

    Neves, Luiz Carlos Martins Das; Miyamura, Tábata Taemi Miazaki Ohara; Moraes, Dante Augusto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni; Converti, Attilio

    2006-01-01

    Industrial effluents from the pharmaceutical industry often contain high concentrations of phenolic compounds. The presence of "anthropogenic" organic compounds in the environment is a serious problem for human health; therefore, it merits special attention by the competent public agencies. Different methods have been proposed in the last two decades for the treatment of this kind of industrial residues, the most important of which are those utilizing absorption columns, vaporization and extraction, and biotechnological methods. Biofiltration is a method for the removal of contaminants present in liquid or gaseous effluents by the use of aerobic microorganisms, which are immobilized on solid or porous supports. Although several bacteria can utilize aromatic compounds as carbon and energy source, only a few of them are able to make this biodegradation effectively and with satisfactory rate. For this reason, more investigation is needed to ensure an efficient control of process parameters as well as to select the suited reactor configuration. The aim of this work is to provide an overview on the main aspects of biofiltration for the treatment of different industrial effluents, with particular concern to those coming from pharmaceutical industry and laboratories for the production of galenicals.

  4. Seasonal variation in placental abruption.

    PubMed

    Mankita, Ronen; Friger, Michael; Pariente, Gali; Sheiner, Eyal

    2012-11-01

    To characterize seasonal patterns of placental abruption among Jewish and Bedouin parturients in the Southern part of Israel. A retrospective population-based study comparing all singleton pregnancies of patients with and without placental abruption was conducted. Deliveries occurred between the years 1988 and 2010. A 'classical' model of time series was used, allowing to assess trend and periodic patterns of placental abruption. During the study period, 241,408 deliveries took place, of which 1685 (0.7%) were complicated with placental abruption. Placental abruption was significantly more common among Bedouin parturients: 0.77% (n = 948) vs. 0.623% (n = 737), p < 0.001. A non-linear negative correlation was noted in the incidence of placental abruption (coefficient = -0.002) during the entire study period. Time series analysis demonstrated annual cycle frequency, seasonal cycle and weekly cycle of placental abruption. The seasonal incidence of placental abruption was higher during spring (B = 7.15) and lower during summer (reference) for both populations (Jewish and Bedouins). Weekly cycle showed significantly higher incidence on Saturday (B = 3.4) and lowest on Tuesday (B = -4.66) for both groups. The daily differences were accentuated in the Bedouin population (B = 3.7 vs. B = 2.93 in the Jewish population). Placental abruption was significantly more common in the Bedouin population. Both populations demonstrated the same annual and seasonal patterns, with higher incidence in spring and autumn.

  5. Method for removing tilt control in adaptive optics systems

    DOEpatents

    Salmon, Joseph Thaddeus

    1998-01-01

    A new adaptive optics system and method of operation, whereby the method removes tilt control, and includes the steps of using a steering mirror to steer a wavefront in the desired direction, for aiming an impinging aberrated light beam in the direction of a deformable mirror. The deformable mirror has its surface deformed selectively by means of a plurality of actuators, and compensates, at least partially, for existing aberrations in the light beam. The light beam is split into an output beam and a sample beam, and the sample beam is sampled using a wavefront sensor. The sampled signals are converted into corresponding electrical signals for driving a controller, which, in turn, drives the deformable mirror in a feedback loop in response to the sampled signals, for compensating for aberrations in the wavefront. To this purpose, a displacement error (gradient) of the wavefront is measured, and adjusted by a modified gain matrix, which satisfies the following equation: G'=(I-X(X.sup.T X).sup.-1 X.sup.T)G(I-A)

  6. Method for removing tilt control in adaptive optics systems

    DOEpatents

    Salmon, J.T.

    1998-04-28

    A new adaptive optics system and method of operation are disclosed, whereby the method removes tilt control, and includes the steps of using a steering mirror to steer a wavefront in the desired direction, for aiming an impinging aberrated light beam in the direction of a deformable mirror. The deformable mirror has its surface deformed selectively by means of a plurality of actuators, and compensates, at least partially, for existing aberrations in the light beam. The light beam is split into an output beam and a sample beam, and the sample beam is sampled using a wavefront sensor. The sampled signals are converted into corresponding electrical signals for driving a controller, which, in turn, drives the deformable mirror in a feedback loop in response to the sampled signals, for compensating for aberrations in the wavefront. To this purpose, a displacement error (gradient) of the wavefront is measured, and adjusted by a modified gain matrix, which satisfies the following equation: G{prime} = (I{minus}X(X{sup T} X){sup {minus}1}X{sup T})G(I{minus}A). 3 figs.

  7. Rapid Tooling Method for Soft Customized Removable Oral Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Sirkkanen, Rauno; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally oral appliances i.e. removable orthodontic appliances, bite splints and snoring / sleep apnea appliances are made with alginate impressions and wax registrations. Our aim was to describe the process of manufacturing customized oral appliances with a new technique i.e. rapid tooling method. The appliance should ideally be custom made to match the teeth. An orthodontic patient, scheduled for conventional orthodontic treatment, served as a study subject. After a precise clinical and radiographic examination, the approach was to digitize the patient’s dental arches and then to correct them virtually by computer. Additive manufacturing was then used to fabricate a mould for a soft customized appliance. The mould was manufactured using stereolithography from Somos ProtoGen O-XT 18420 material. Casting material for the mould to obtain the final appliance was silicone. As a result we managed to create a customized soft orthodontic appliance. Also, the accuracy of the method was found to be adequate. Two versions of the described device were manufactured: one with small and one with moderate orthodontic force. The study person also gave information on the subjective patient adaptation aspects of the oral appliance. PMID:22615719

  8. Rapid tooling method for soft customized removable oral appliances.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Sirkkanen, Rauno; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally oral appliances i.e. removable orthodontic appliances, bite splints and snoring / sleep apnea appliances are made with alginate impressions and wax registrations. Our aim was to describe the process of manufacturing customized oral appliances with a new technique i.e. rapid tooling method. The appliance should ideally be custom made to match the teeth. An orthodontic patient, scheduled for conventional orthodontic treatment, served as a study subject. After a precise clinical and radiographic examination, the approach was to digitize the patient's dental arches and then to correct them virtually by computer. Additive manufacturing was then used to fabricate a mould for a soft customized appliance. The mould was manufactured using stereolithography from Somos ProtoGen O-XT 18420 material. Casting material for the mould to obtain the final appliance was silicone. As a result we managed to create a customized soft orthodontic appliance. Also, the accuracy of the method was found to be adequate. Two versions of the described device were manufactured: one with small and one with moderate orthodontic force. The study person also gave information on the subjective patient adaptation aspects of the oral appliance.

  9. A robust baseline removal method for guided wave damage localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Harley, Joel B.; Bergés, Mario; Greve, David W.; Junker, Warren R.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2014-04-01

    Guided waves can propagate long distances and are sensitive to subtle structural damage. Guided-wave based damage localization often requires extracting the scatter signal(s) produced by damage, which is typically obtained by subtracting an intact baseline record from a record to be tested. However, in practical applications, environmental and operational conditions (EOC) dramatically affect guided wave signals. In this case, the baseline subtraction process can no longer perfectly remove the baseline, thereby defeating localization algorithms. In previous work, we showed that singular value decomposition (SVD) can be used to detect the presence of damage under large EOC variations, because it can differentiate the trends of damage from other EOC variations. This capability of differentiation implies that SVD can also robustly extract a scatter signal, originating from damage in the structure, that is not affected by temperature variation. This process allows us to extract a scatterer signal without the challenges associated with traditional temperature compensation and baseline subtraction routines. . In this work, we use to approach to localize structural damage in large, spatially and temporally varying EOCs. We collect pitch-catch records from randomly placed PZT transducers on an aluminum plate while undergoing temperature variations. Damage is introduced to the plate during the monitoring period. We then use our SVD method to extract the scatter signal from the records, and use the scatter signal to localize damage using the delay-and-sum method. To compare results, we also apply several temperature compensation methods to the records and then perform baseline subtraction. We show that our SVD-based approach successfully localize damage while current temperature-compensated baseline subtraction methods fail.

  10. Continuous cryopump with a method for removal of solidified gases

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.; Herman, H.

    1988-05-05

    An improved cryopump for the removal of gases from a high vacuum, comprising a cryopanel incorporating honeycomb structure, refrigerant means thermally connected to the cryopanel, and a rotatable channel moving azimuthally around an axis located near the center of the cryopanel, removing gases adsorbed within the honeycomb structure by subliming them and conducting them outside the vacuum vessel. 4 figs.

  11. Continuous cryopump with a method for removal of solidified gases

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.; Herman, Harold

    1989-01-01

    An improved cryopump for the removal of gases from a high vacuum, comprising a cryopanel incorporating honeycomb structure, refrigerant means thermally connected to the cryopanel, and a rotatable channel moving azimuthally around an axis located near the center of the cryopanel, removing gases absorbed within the honeycomb structure by subliming them and conducting them outside the vacuum vessel.

  12. Method for removing chlorine compounds from hydrocarbon mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Janoski, Edward J.; Hollstein, Elmer J.

    1985-12-31

    A process for removing halide ions from a hydrocarbon feedstream containing halogenated hydrocarbons wherein the contaminated feedstock is contacted with a solution of a suitable oxidizing acid containing a lanthanide oxide, the acid being present in a concentration of at least about 50 weight percent for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the halide ion from the hydrocarbon feedstock.

  13. Method for removing chlorine compounds from hydrocarbon mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Janoski, E.J.; Hollstein, E.J.

    1984-09-29

    A process for removing halide ions from a hydrocarbon feedstream containing halogenated hydrocarbons wherein the contaminated feedstock is contacted with a solution of a suitable oxidizing acid containing a lanthanide oxide, the acid being present in a concentration of at least about 50 weight percent for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the halide ion from the hydrocarbon feedstock.

  14. Human Temporal Bone Removal: The Skull Base Block Method.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Christine; Szczupak, Mikhaylo; Moon, Seo; Angeli, Simon; Eshraghi, Adrien; Telischi, Fred F

    2015-08-01

    Objectives To describe a technique for harvesting larger temporal bone specimens from human cadavers for the training of otolaryngology residents and fellows on the various approaches to the lateral and posterolateral skull base. Design Human cadaveric anatomical study. The calvarium was excised 6 cm above the superior aspect of the ear canal. The brain and cerebellum were carefully removed, and the cranial nerves were cut sharply. Two bony cuts were performed, one in the midsagittal plane and the other in the coronal plane at the level of the optic foramen. Setting Medical school anatomy laboratory. Participants Human cadavers. Main Outcome Measures Anatomical contents of specimens and technical effort required. Results Larger temporal bone specimens containing portions of the parietal, occipital, and sphenoidal bones were consistently obtained using this technique of two bone cuts. All specimens were inspected and contained pertinent surface and skull base landmarks. Conclusions The skull base block method allows for larger temporal bone specimens using a two bone cut technique that is efficient and reproducible. These specimens have the necessary anatomical bony landmarks for studying the complexity, utility, and limitations of lateral and posterolateral approaches to the skull base, important for the education of otolaryngology residents and fellows.

  15. A new method to produce nanoscale iron for nitrate removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shiao-Shing; Hsu, Hong-Der; Li, Chi-Wang

    2004-12-01

    This article proposes a novel technology combining electrochemical and ultrasonic methods to produce nanoscale zero valent iron (NZVI). With platinum placed in the cathode and the presence of the dispersion agent, 0.2g/l cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cation surfactant, in the solution, the nanoscale iron particle was successfully produced with diameter of 1-20 nm and specific surface area of 25.4m2/g. The produced NZVI was tested in batch experiments for nitrate removal. The results showed that the nitrate reduction was affected by pH. Al low pH, nitrate was shown faster decline and more reduction in term of g NO 3 - -N/g NZVI. The reaction was first order and kinetic coefficients for the four pHs were directly related to pH with R 2 >0.95. Comparing with microscale zero-valent iron (45μm, 0.183m2/g), microscale zero-valent iron converted nitrate to ammonia completely, but NZVI converted nitrate to ammonia partially from 36.2 to 45.3% dependent on pH. For mass balance of iron species, since the dissolved iron in the solution was very low (<1mg/l), Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) was used for identification of oxidation state of the surface species on the NZVI and Fe2O3 was recognized. Thus the reaction mechanisms can be determined.

  16. Placental weight and birth weight to placental weight ratio in monochorionic and dichorionic growth-restricted and non-growth-restricted twins

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Mariângela Alves; de Lourdes Brizot, Maria; Biancolin, Sckarlet Ernandes; Schultz, Regina; de Carvalho, Mário Henrique Burlacchini; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the placental weight and birth weight/placental weight ratio for intrauterine growth-restricted and non-intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of placentas from twin pregnancies. Placental weight and the birth weight/placental weight ratio were compared in intrauterine growth-restricted and non-intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins. The association between cord insertion type and placental lesions in intrauterine growth-restricted and non-intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins was also investigated. RESULTS: A total of 105 monochorionic (intrauterine growth restriction=40; non-intrauterine growth restriction=65) and 219 dichorionic (intrauterine growth restriction=57; non-intrauterine growth restriction=162) placentas were analyzed. A significantly lower placental weight was observed in intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic (p=0.022) and dichorionic (p<0.001) twins compared to non-intrauterine growth-restricted twins. There was no difference in the birth weight/placental weight ratio between the intrauterine growth restriction and non-intrauterine growth restriction groups for either monochorionic (p=0.36) or dichorionic (p=0.68) twins. Placental weight and the birth weight/placental weight ratio were not associated with cord insertion type or with placental lesions. CONCLUSION: Low placental weight, and consequently reduced functional mass, appears to be involved in fetal growth restriction in monochorionic and dichorionic twins. The mechanism by which low placental weight influences the birth weight/placental weight ratio in intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins needs to be determined in larger prospective studies. PMID:28591337

  17. Solid materials for removing metals and fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, Paul R.; Reynolds, John G.; Coleman, Sabre J.

    2004-10-19

    Solid materials have been developed to remove contaminating metals and organic compounds from aqueous media. The contaminants are removed by passing the aqueous phase through the solid materials which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The solid materials adsorb the metals and the organics leaving a purified aqueous stream. The materials are sol-gel and or sol-gel and granulated activated carbon (GAC) mixtures. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific chemical modifications of the solids tailored towards the contaminant(s). The contaminated solid materials can then be disposed of or the contaminant can be removed and the solids recycled.

  18. Review of methods for removing cast gold restorations.

    PubMed

    Oliva, R A

    1979-11-01

    Most techniques and devices described for crown removal, in one way or another, destroy the integrity of today's precision cast crowns. There were only three techniques described that do not require drilling a hole, cutting a notch or slot, clamping with claws or jaws, prying with instruments, or grasping with forceps and pliers. These are the copper band filled with cement, the coping of cold-curing acrylic resin, and the Richwil crown remover. The safest and least traumatic of all crown removal devices and techniques is to cut a slot and pry the crown loose. Although the crown is destroyed, damage to the tooth is avoided.

  19. Malignant cancer and invasive placentation

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Alaric W.; Wagner, Günter P.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is an invasive process that involves the transplantation of cells into new environments. Since human placentation is also invasive, hypotheses about a relationship between invasive placentation in eutherian mammals and metastasis have been proposed. The relationship between metastatic cancer and invasive placentation is usually presented in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy. According to this hypothesis, evolution of invasive placentation also established the mechanisms for cancer metastasis. Here, in contrast, we argue that the secondary evolution of less invasive placentation in some mammalian lineages may have resulted in positive pleiotropic effects on cancer survival by lowering malignancy rates. These positive pleiotropic effects would manifest themselves as resistance to cancer cell invasion. To provide a preliminary test of this proposal, we re-analyze data from Priester and Mantel (Occurrence of tumors in domestic animals. Data from 12 United States and Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1971;47:1333-44) about malignancy rates in cows, horses, cats and dogs. From our analysis we found that equines and bovines, animals with less invasive placentation, have lower rates of metastatic cancer than felines and canines in skin and glandular epithelial cancers as well as connective tissue sarcomas. We conclude that a link between type of placentation and species-specific malignancy rates is more likely related to derived mechanisms that suppress invasion rather than different degrees of fetal placental aggressiveness. PMID:25324490

  20. Evaluation of various methods of removing gutta-percha and endodontic sealer.

    PubMed

    Lavin, D P; Kessler, J R

    1995-01-01

    Extracted human teeth were studied to evaluate three methods of removing gutta-percha and endodontic sealer from previously obturated canals. The results showed that: (1) Each method of removal left debris in the canals. (2) Significantly more debris remained in the apical third than in the middle or coronal thirds. Likewise, significantly more debris remained in the middle than in the coronal third. (3) Use of the GPX instruments enabled gutta-percha to be removed as effectively as the other methods. (4) Use of the GPX instruments required significantly less time for gutta-percha removal, compared to removal by the other methods.

  1. Method to Remove Uranium/Vanadium Contamination from Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Metzler, Donald R.; Morrison Stanley

    2004-07-27

    A process for removing uranium/vanadium-based contaminants from groundwater using a primary in-ground treatment media and a pretreatment media that chemically adjusts the groundwater contaminant to provide for optimum treatment by the primary treatment media.

  2. Method to remove uranium/vanadium contamination from groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Metzler, Donald R.; Morrison, Stanley

    2004-07-27

    A process for removing uranium/vanadium-based contaminants from groundwater using a primary in-ground treatment media and a pretreatment media that chemically adjusts the groundwater contaminant to provide for optimum treatment by the primary treatment media.

  3. Method of removing contaminant from a feedstock stream

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, E. O.; Johnson, M. M.

    1981-05-26

    Contaminants such as petroleum sulfonates, anticorrosion amines, and silicone oils are removed from a contaminated feedstock stream by contacting said feedstock stream with an adsorbent comprising bauxite. In a further aspect, a thus purified petroleum feedstock stream is hydrodesulfurized.

  4. Method of removing contaminant from a feedstock stream

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, E.O.; Johnson, M.M.

    1982-08-10

    Contaminants such as petroleum sulfonates, anticorrosion amines, and silicone oils are removed from a contaminated feedstock stream by contacting said feedstock stream with an adsorbent comprising bauxite. In a further aspect, a thus purified petroleum feedstock stream is hydrodesulfurized.

  5. Solid materials for removing arsenic and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, Paul R [Livermore, CA; Coleman, Sabre J [Oakland, CA; Sanner, Robert D [Livermore, CA; Dias, Victoria L [Livermore, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA

    2008-07-01

    Solid materials have been developed to remove arsenic compounds from aqueous media. The arsenic is removed by passing the aqueous phase through the solid materials which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The solid materials adsorb the arsenic leaving a purified aqueous stream. The materials are aerogels or xerogels and aerogels or xerogels and solid support structure, e.g., granulated activated carbon (GAC), mixtures. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific chemical modifications of the solids tailored towards arsenic.

  6. Solid materials for removing arsenic and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, Paul R.; Coleman, Sabre J.; Sanner, Robert D.; Dias, Victoria L.; Reynolds, John G.

    2010-09-28

    Solid materials have been developed to remove arsenic compounds from aqueous media. The arsenic is removed by passing the aqueous phase through the solid materials which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The solid materials adsorb the arsenic leaving a purified aqueous stream. The materials are aerogels or xerogels and aerogels or xerogels and solid support structure, e.g., granulated activated carbon (GAC), mixtures. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific chemical modifications of the solids tailored towards arsenic.

  7. Method to Remove Photoreceptors from Wholemount Retina in vitro.

    PubMed

    Walston, Steven T; Chang, Yao-Chuan; Weiland, James D; Chow, Robert H

    2017-08-30

    Patch clamp recordings of neurons in the inner nuclear layer of the retina are difficult to conduct in a wholemount retina preparation because surrounding neurons block the path of the patch pipette. Vertical slice preparations or dissociated retina cell cultures provide access to bipolar cells at the cost of severing lateral connection between neurons. We have developed a technique to remove photoreceptors from the rodent retina that exposes inner nuclear layer neurons, allowing access for patch clamp recording. Repeated application and removal of filter paper to the photoreceptor side of an isolated retina effectively and efficiently removes photoreceptor cells and, in degenerate retina, hypertrophied Müller cell endfeet. Live-dead assays applied to neurons remaining after photoreceptor removal demonstrated mostly viable cells. Patch clamp recordings from bipolar cells reveal responses similar to those recorded in traditional slice and dissociated cell preparations. An advantage of the photoreceptor peel technique is that it exposes inner retinal neurons in a wholemount retina preparation for investigation of signal processing. A disadvantage is that photoreceptor removal alters input to remaining retinal neurons. The technique may be useful for investigations of extracellular electrical stimulation, photoreceptor DNA analysis, and non-pharmacological removal of light input. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Neurophysiology.

  8. Method for removing undesired particles from gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Durham, Michael Dean; Schlager, Richard John; Ebner, Timothy George; Stewart, Robin Michele; Hyatt, David E.; Bustard, Cynthia Jean; Sjostrom, Sharon

    1998-01-01

    The present invention discloses a process for removing undesired particles from a gas stream including the steps of contacting a composition containing an adhesive with the gas stream; collecting the undesired particles and adhesive on a collection surface to form an aggregate comprising the adhesive and undesired particles on the collection surface; and removing the agglomerate from the collection zone. The composition may then be atomized and injected into the gas stream. The composition may include a liquid that vaporizes in the gas stream. After the liquid vaporizes, adhesive particles are entrained in the gas stream. The process may be applied to electrostatic precipitators and filtration systems to improve undesired particle collection efficiency.

  9. Method for removal of furfural coke from metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.D.

    1990-02-27

    This patent describes a process for preparing furfural coke for removal from metallic surfaces. It comprises: heating ship furfural coke without causing an evolution of heat capable of undesirably altering metallurgical properties of the surfaces in the presence of a gas with a total pressure of less than 100 psig containing molecular oxygen. The gas being at a sufficient temperature below 800{degrees}F. (427{degrees}C.) for a sufficient time to change the crush strength of the coke so as to permit removal with a water jet at a pressure of about 5000 psi.

  10. Method for removing the ferruginous coating from asbestos bodies.

    PubMed

    Dodson, R F; Williams, M G; Hurst, G A

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for removing the ferruginous coating from ferruginous bodies is described. The tissue from occupationally exposed individuals was digested in bleach and the material collected on a Nucleopore filter. The ferruginous bodies were localized by light microscopy and either cleaned on the marked filter or transferred to a marked area on a clean filter. The chemical treatment consisted of an 8% oxalic acid bath used at various temperatures. It was determined that at 75 degrees C the reaction resulted in removal of the ferruginous coat, leaving an exposed core for further analysis. This procedure overcomes the previous analytical problems of core analysis caused by the ferruginous coating.

  11. Method for removing the ferruginous coating from asbestos bodies.

    PubMed

    Dodson, R F; Williams, M G; Hurst, G A

    1985-01-01

    A new technique for removing the ferruginous coating from ferruginous bodies is described. The tissue from occupationally exposed individuals was digested in bleach and the material collected on a Nuclepore filter. The ferruginous bodies were localized by light microscopy and either cleaned on the marked filter or transferred to a marked area on a clean filter. The chemical treatment consisted of an 8% oxalic acid bath used at various temperatures. It was determined that at 75 degrees C the reaction resulted in removal of the ferruginous coat, leaving an exposed core for further analysis. This procedure overcomes the previous analytical problems of core analysis caused by the ferruginous coating.

  12. A novel method to remove arsenic from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Kyle J.

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid that is found ubiquitously in earth's crust. The release of arsenic into the aqueous environment and the subsequent contamination in drinking water supplies is a worldwide health crisis. Arsenic is the culprit of the largest mass poisoning of a population in history and the number one contaminant of concern in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Priority List of Hazardous Substances. Practical, affordable, and reliable treatment technologies have yet to be developed due to the difficulty in overcoming many socioeconomic and geochemical barriers. Recent studies have reported that cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles have shown promising characteristics as a sorbent to remove arsenic from water. However, these studies were conducted in controlled environments and have yet to test the efficacy of this treatment technology in the field. In this manuscript, a flow through adsorption column containing CuO nanoparticles was developed for lab based studies to remove arsenic from water. These studies were expanded to include a field demonstration of the CuO nanoparticle flow through adsorption column to remove naturally occurring arsenic from groundwater associated with agriculture, domestic groundwater, and in situ recovery (ISR) uranium production process water. A major limitation for many treatment technologies is the difficulties presented in the disposal of waste byproducts such as sludge and spent media. In the research contained in this manuscript, we investigate the processes of regenerating the CuO nanoparticles using sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The use of the regenerated CuO nanoparticles was examined in batch experiments and implemented in the flow through column studies. The ability to regenerate and reuse a sorbent drastically reduces costs involved in manufacturing and disposal of spent media. Also, the CuO nanoparticles were evaluated in batch experiments for the removal of naturally

  13. Study on the method of combined uniform removal in fabrication of large aspheric mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Zhige; Wu, Fan

    2016-10-01

    In the processing of large aspheric mirror, uniform removal means the process of equal removal at the whole surface in grinding and rough polishing stage. It aims to remove the subsurface damage layer at forming and grinding stage. It also smoothes the surface for reducing even eliminating mid-and-high-frequency error on the mirror. The combined processing method is using different diameter of laps by spatial frequency error model of reasonable matching in fabrication of workpiece. In this paper, the uniform removal method of combination NC manipulator and the Computer Controlled Active Lap is used. From the ring removal function model, the processing of combined uniform removal is simulated and analyzed. Compared with the CCAL uniform removal processing, it can get the much better uniform removal effect.

  14. Method for removing particulate matter from a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Postma, Arlin K.

    1984-01-01

    Particulate matter is removed from a stream of pressurized gas by directing the stream of gas upwardly through a bed of porous material, the porous bed being held in an open ended container and at least partially submerged in liquid. The passage of the gas through the porous bed sets up a circulation in the liquid which cleans the particulate matter from the bed.

  15. Method of removing bulk sodium from metallic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Maffei, H.P.; Borisch, R.R.

    1975-11-11

    A process of removing sodium from an article, particularly one made of stainless steel, by treating it with a mixture of water vapor and a gas which is inert to sodium is described. By selecting combinations of temperature and water vapor-to-gas ratio, the reaction temperature is controlled to prevent damage to the articles.

  16. Method for removing surface-damaged layers from nickel alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fawley, R. W.

    1968-01-01

    Electrical discharge machining /EDM/ damaged layer can be effectively removed from Rene 41, Inconel 625, Inconel 718, and Monel K-500 by abrasive-grit blasting or electropolishing /at room temperature/ at a current density of 5A/inches squared in a water solution of phosphoric and sulfuric acids.

  17. Validated method for the determination of perfluorinated compounds in placental tissue samples based on a simple extraction procedure followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Martín, J; Rodríguez-Gómez, R; Zafra-Gómez, A; Alonso, E; Vílchez, J L; Navalón, A

    2016-04-01

    Xenobiotic exposure during pregnancy is inevitable. Determination of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), chemicals described as environmental contaminants by Public Health Authorities due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity, is a challenge. In the present work, a method based on a simplified sample treatment involving freeze-drying, solvent extraction and dispersive clean-up of the extracts using C18 sorbents followed by an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis was developed and validated for the determination of five perfluorinated carboxylic acids (C4-C8) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in placental tissue samples. The most influential parameters affecting the extraction method and clean-up were optimized using Design of Experiments (DOE). The method was validated using matrix-matched calibration. Found limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.03 to 2 ng g(-1) and limits of quantification (LOQs) from 0.08 to 6 ng g(-1), while inter- and intra-day variability was under 14% in all cases. Recovery rates for spiked samples ranged from 94% to 113%. The method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of compounds in human placental tissue samples collected at delivery from 25 randomly selected women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ovine uterine space restriction alters placental transferrin receptor and fetal iron status during late pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mary Y.; Habeck, Jason M.; Meyer, Katie M.; Koch, Jill M.; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Blohowiak, Sharon E.; Magness, Ronald R.; Kling, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Fetal growth restriction is reported to be associated with impaired placental iron transport. Transferrin receptor (TfR) is a major placental iron transporter in humans, but is unstudied in sheep. TfR is regulated by both iron and nitric oxide (NO), the molecule produced by endothelial NOS (eNOS). We hypothesized that limited placental development downregulates both placental TfR and eNOS expression, thereby lowering fetal tissue iron. Methods An ovine surgical uterine space restriction (USR) model, combined with multifetal gestation, tested the extremes of uterine and placental adaptation. Blood, tissues, and placentomes from non-space restricted (NSR) singletons were compared to USR fetuses at 120 or 130 days of gestation (GD). Results When expressed proportionate to fetal weight, liver iron content did not differ while renal iron was higher in USR vs. NSR fetuses. Renal TfR protein expression did not differ, but placental TfR expression was lower in USR fetuses at GD130. Placental levels of TfR correlated to eNOS. TfR was localized throughout the placentome, including the hemophagous zone, implicating a role for TfR in ovine placental iron transport. Conclusion In conclusion, fetal iron was regulated in an organ-specific fashion. In USR fetuses, NO-mediated placental adaptations may prevent the normal upregulation of placental TfR at GD130. PMID:23202722

  19. Method for removing undesired particles from gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.; Schlager, R.J.; Ebner, T.G.; Stewart, R.M.; Hyatt, D.E.; Bustard, C.J.; Sjostrom, S.

    1998-11-10

    The present invention discloses a process for removing undesired particles from a gas stream including the steps of contacting a composition containing an adhesive with the gas stream; collecting the undesired particles and adhesive on a collection surface to form an aggregate comprising the adhesive and undesired particles on the collection surface; and removing the agglomerate from the collection zone. The composition may then be atomized and injected into the gas stream. The composition may include a liquid that vaporizes in the gas stream. After the liquid vaporizes, adhesive particles are entrained in the gas stream. The process may be applied to electrostatic precipitators and filtration systems to improve undesired particle collection efficiency. 11 figs.

  20. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOEpatents

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1995-10-03

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  1. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOEpatents

    Bala, Gregory A.; Thomas, Charles P.

    1995-01-01

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  2. Method for removing undesired particles from gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Durham, M.D.; Schlager, R.J.; Ebner, T.G.; Stewart, R.M.; Hyatt, D.E.; Bustard, C.J.; Sjostrom, S.

    1998-11-10

    The present invention discloses a process for removing undesired particles from a gas stream including the steps of contacting a composition containing an adhesive with the gas stream; collecting the undesired particles and adhesive on a collection surface to form an aggregate comprising the adhesive and undesired particles on the collection surface; and removing the agglomerate from the collection zone. The composition may then be atomized and injected into the gas stream. The composition may include a liquid that vaporizes in the gas stream. After the liquid vaporizes, adhesive particles are entrained in the gas stream. The process may be applied to electrostatic precipitators and filtration systems to improve undesired particle collection efficiency. 11 figs.

  3. Composition and method for removing photoresist materials from electronic components

    DOEpatents

    Davenhall, Leisa B.; Rubin, James B.

    2002-01-01

    The invention is a combination of at least one dense phase fluid and at least one dense phase fluid modifier which can be used to contact substrates for electronic parts such as semiconductor wafers or chips to remove photoresist materials which are applied to the substrates during manufacture of the electronic parts. The dense phase fluid modifier is one selected from the group of cyclic, aliphatic or alicyclic compounds having the functional group: ##STR1## wherein Y is a carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus or sulfur atom or a hydrocarbon group having from 1 to 10 carbon atoms, a halogen or halogenated hydrocarbon group having from 1 to 10 carbon atoms, silicon or a fluorinated silicon group; and wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 can be the same or different substituents; and wherein, as in the case where X is nitrogen, R.sub.1 or R.sub.2 may not be present. The invention compositions generally are applied to the substrates in a pulsed fashion in order to remove the hard baked photoresist material remaining on the surface of the substrate after removal of soft baked photoresist material and etching of the barrier layer.

  4. Pathogens and the placental fortress.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Jennifer R; Bakardjiev, Anna I

    2012-02-01

    Placental infections are major causes of maternal and fetal disease. This review introduces a new paradigm for placental infections based on current knowledge of placental defenses and how this barrier can be breached. Transmission of pathogens from mother to fetus can occur at two sites of direct contact between maternal cells and specialized fetal cells (trophoblasts) in the human placenta: firstly, maternal immune and endothelial cells juxtaposed to extravillous trophoblasts in the uterine implantation site and secondly, maternal blood surrounding the syncytiotrophoblast (SYN). Recent findings suggest that the primary vulnerability is in the implantation site. We explore evidence that the placental SYN evolved as a defense against pathogens, and that inflammation-mediated spontaneous abortion may benefit mother and pathogen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pathogens and the Placental Fortress

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Jennifer R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Placental infections are major causes of maternal and fetal disease. This review introduces a new paradigm for placental infections based on current knowledge of placental defenses and how this barrier can be breached. Transmission of pathogens from mother to fetus can occur at two sites of direct contact between maternal cells and specialized fetal cells (trophoblasts) in the human placenta: (i) maternal immune and endothelial cells juxtaposed to extravillous trophoblasts in the uterine implantation site and (ii) maternal blood surrounding the syncytiotrophoblast. Recent findings suggest that the primary vulnerability is in the implantation site. We explore evidence that the placental syncytiotrophoblast evolved as a defense against pathogens, and that inflammation-mediated spontaneous abortion may benefit mother and pathogen. PMID:22169833

  6. Patterns of ossification in southern versus northern placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Hautier, Lionel; Bennett, Nigel C; Viljoen, Hermien; Howard, Lauren; Milinkovitch, Michel C; Tzika, Athanasia C; Goswami, Anjali; Asher, Robert J

    2013-07-01

    Consensus on placental mammal phylogeny is fairly recent compared to that for vertebrates as a whole. A stable phylogenetic hypothesis enables investigation into the possibility that placental clades differ from one another in terms of their development. Here, we focus on the sequence of skeletal ossification as a possible source of developmental distinctiveness in "northern" (Laurasiatheria and Euarchontoglires) versus "southern" (Afrotheria and Xenarthra) placental clades. We contribute data on cranial and postcranial ossification events during growth in Afrotheria, including elephants, hyraxes, golden moles, tenrecs, sengis, and aardvarks. We use three different techniques to quantify sequence heterochrony: continuous method, sequence-ANOVA (analysis of variance) and event-paring/Parsimov. We show that afrotherians significantly differ from other placentals by an early ossification of the orbitosphenoid and caudal vertebrae. Our analysis also suggests that both southern placental groups show a greater degree of developmental variability; however, they rarely seem to vary in the same direction, especially regarding the shifts that differ statistically. The latter observation is inconsistent with the Atlantogenata hypothesis in which afrotherians are considered as the sister clade of xenarthrans. Interestingly, ancestral nodes for Laurasiatheria and Euarchontoglires show very similar trends and our results suggest that developmental homogeneity in some ossification sequences may be restricted to northern placental mammals (Boreoeutheria).

  7. Macrosomia has its roots in early placental development

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Nadav; Quant, Hayley S.; Sammel, Mary D.; PARRY, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We sought to determine if early placental size, as measured by 3-dimensional ultrasonography, is associated with an increased risk of delivering a macrosomic or large-for-gestational age (LGA) infant. Methods We prospectively collected 3-dimensional ultrasound volume sets of singleton pregnancies at 11–14 weeks and 18–24 weeks. Birth weights were collected from the medical records. After delivery, the ultrasound volume set were used to measure the placental volume (PV) and placental quotient (PQ=PV/gestational age), as well as the mean placental and chorionic diameters (MPD and MCD, respectively). Placental measures were analyzed as predictors of macrosomia (birth weight ≥4000 grams) and LGA (birth weight ≥90th percentile). Results The 578 pregnancies with first trimester volumes included 44 (7.6%) macrosomic and 43 (7.4%) LGA infants. 373 subjects also had second trimester volumes available. A higher PV and PQ were both significantly associated with macrosomia and LGA in both the first and second trimesters. Second trimester MPD was significantly associated with both outcomes as well, while second trimester MCD was only associated with LGA. The above associations remained significant after adjusting for maternal demographic variables such as race, ethnicity, age and diabetes. Adjusted models yielded moderate prediction of macrosomia and LGA (AUC: 0.71–0.77). Conclusions Sonographic measurement of the early placenta can identify pregnancies at greater risk of macrosomia and LGA. Macrosomia and LGA are already determined in part by early placental growth and development. PMID:25064071

  8. Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary.

    PubMed

    Springer, Mark S; Murphy, William J; Eizirik, Eduardo; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2003-02-04

    Competing hypotheses for the timing of the placental mammal radiation focus on whether extant placental orders originated and diversified before or after the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) boundary. Molecular studies that have addressed this issue suffer from single calibration points, unwarranted assumptions about the molecular clock, andor taxon sampling that lacks representatives of all placental orders. We investigated this problem using the largest available molecular data set for placental mammals, which includes segments of 19 nuclear and three mitochondrial genes for representatives of all extant placental orders. We used the ThorneKishino method, which permits simultaneous constraints from the fossil record and allows rates of molecular evolution to vary on different branches of a phylogenetic tree. Analyses that used different sets of fossil constraints, different priors for the base of Placentalia, and different data partitions all support interordinal divergences in the Cretaceous followed by intraordinal diversification mostly after the KT boundary. Four placental orders show intraordinal diversification that predates the KT boundary, but only by an average of 10 million years. In contrast to some molecular studies that date the rat-mouse split as old as 46 million years, our results show improved agreement with the fossil record and place this split at 16-23 million years. To test the hypothesis that molecular estimates of Cretaceous divergence times are an artifact of increased body size subsequent to the KT boundary, we also performed analyses with a "KT body size" taxon set. In these analyses, interordinal splits remained in the Cretaceous.

  9. Association between PAPP-A and placental thickness

    PubMed Central

    Mesdaghi-nia, Elaheh; Behrashi, Mitra; Saeidi, Arezoo; Abedzadeh Kalahroodi, Masoomeh; Sehat, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Measuring of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in first trimester can be a way for early detection of adverse prenatal outcome due to faulty placenta. Objective: The aim was to Determination of association between placental thickness in second trimester with low level of PAPP-A in first trimester. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, serum PAPP-A of 187 pregnant women was measured in the first trimester of pregnancy. Patients who had PAPP-A ≤0.8 MOM were in exposed and others who had PAPP-A >0.8 defined as unexposed group. The criteria of placental thickness in ultrasound study was thickness of 4 cm or more than 50% of placental length. Results: Of 187 patients, 87 patients had PAPP-A >0.8 and 93 patients had PAPP-A ≤0.8. Women with low levels of PAPP-A in the first trimester, had an increased incidence placental thickness of 34.4%, whereas another group had about 15% (p=0.002). Also, PAPP-A levels had acceptable sensitivity and specificity for placental thickness detection (71.1% and 54.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Our study showed that serum level of PAPP-A generally was low (≤0.8) in women with a thick placenta (>4 cm or >50% of placental length). The first trimester of pregnancy measurement of PAPP-A will be more predictable for healthy placenta. PMID:27525326

  10. Placental angiogenesis in sheep models of compromised pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Lawrence P; Borowicz, Pawel P; Vonnahme, Kimberly A; Johnson, Mary Lynn; Grazul-Bilska, Anna T; Redmer, Dale A; Caton, Joel S

    2005-01-01

    Because the placenta is the organ that transports nutrients, respiratory gases and wastes between the maternal and fetal systems, development of its vascular beds is essential to normal placental function, and thus in supporting normal fetal growth. Compromised fetal growth and development have adverse health consequences during the neonatal period and throughout adult life. To establish the role of placental angiogenesis in compromised pregnancies, we first evaluated the pattern of placental angiogenesis and expression of angiogenic factors throughout normal pregnancy. In addition, we and others have established a variety of sheep models to evaluate the effects on fetal growth of various factors including maternal nutrient excess or deprivation and specific nutrients, maternal age, maternal and fetal genotype, increased numbers of fetuses, environmental thermal stress, and high altitude (hypobaric) conditions. Although placental angiogenesis is altered in each of these models in which fetal growth is adversely affected, the specific effect on placental angiogenesis depends on the type of ‘stress’ to which the pregnancy is subjected, and also differs between the fetal and maternal systems and between genotypes. We believe that the models of compromised pregnancy and the methods described in this review will enable us to develop a much better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for alterations in placental vascular development. PMID:15760944

  11. Placental Growth Factor Administration Abolishes Placental Ischemia-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Spradley, Frank T; Tan, Adelene Y; Joo, Woo S; Daniels, Garrett; Kussie, Paul; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Granger, Joey P

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of new-onset hypertension. Unfortunately, the most effective treatment is early delivery of the fetus and placenta. Placental ischemia appears central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia because placental ischemia/hypoxia induced in animals by reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) or in humans stimulates release of hypertensive placental factors into the maternal circulation. The anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), which antagonizes and reduces bioavailable vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor (PlGF), is elevated in RUPP rats and preeclampsia. Although PlGF and vascular endothelial growth factor are both natural ligands for sFlt-1, vascular endothelial growth factor also has high affinity to VEGFR2 (Flk-1) causing side effects like edema. PlGF is specific for sFlt-1. We tested the hypothesis that PlGF treatment reduces placental ischemia-induced hypertension by antagonizing sFlt-1 without adverse consequences to the mother or fetus. On gestational day 14, rats were randomized to 4 groups: normal pregnant or RUPP±infusion of recombinant human PlGF (180 μg/kg per day; AG31, a purified, recombinant human form of PlGF) for 5 days via intraperitoneal osmotic minipumps. On day 19, mean arterial blood pressure and plasma sFlt-1 were higher and glomerular filtration rate lower in RUPP than normal pregnant rats. Infusion of recombinant human PlGF abolished these changes seen with RUPP along with reducing oxidative stress. These data indicate that the increased sFlt-1 and reduced PlGF resulting from placental ischemia contribute to maternal hypertension. Our novel finding that recombinant human PlGF abolishes placental ischemia-induced hypertension, without major adverse consequences, suggests a strong therapeutic potential for this growth factor in preeclampsia. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. PLACENTAL GROWTH FACTOR ADMINISTRATION ABOLISHES PLACENTAL ISCHEMIA-INDUCED HYPERTENSION

    PubMed Central

    Spradley, Frank T.; Tan, Adelene Y.; Joo, Woo S.; Daniels, Garrett; Kussie, Paul; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Granger, Joey P.

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of new-onset hypertension. Unfortunately, the most effective treatment is early delivery of the fetus and placenta. Placental ischemia appears central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia as placental ischemia/hypoxia induced in animals by reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) or in humans stimulates release of hypertensive placental factors into the maternal circulation. The anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), which antagonizes and reduces bioavailable vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF), is elevated in RUPP rats and preeclampsia. Although PlGF and VEGF are both natural ligands for sFlt-1, VEGF also has high affinity to VEGFR2 (Flk-1) causing side effects like edema. PlGF is specific for sFlt-1. We tested the hypothesis that PlGF treatment reduces placental ischemia-induced hypertension by antagonizing sFlt-1 without adverse consequences to the mother or fetus. On gestational day 14, rats were randomized to four groups: normal pregnant (NP) or RUPP ± infusion of rhPlGF (180 μg/kg/day; AG31, a purified, recombinant human form of PlGF) for 5 days via intraperitoneal osmotic minipumps. On day 19, mean arterial blood pressure and plasma sFlt-1 were higher and glomerular filtration rate lower in RUPP than NP rats. Infusion of rhPlGF abolished these changes seen with RUPP along with reducing oxidative stress. These data indicate that the increased sFlt-1 and reduced PlGF resulting from placental ischemia contribute to maternal hypertension. Our novel finding that rhPlGF abolishes placental ischemia-induced hypertension, without major adverse consequences, suggests a strong therapeutic potential for this growth factor in preeclampsia. PMID:26831193

  13. Removal of freshwater microalgae by a magnetic separation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergini, Sofia S.; Aravantinou, Andriana F.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.

    2013-04-01

    Some species of microalgae, with high growth rate and high lipid content, appear to be attractive alternatives as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The high-energy input for harvesting biomass and removing the water from the algae makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production cost expensive. The major techniques currently employed in microalgae harvesting and recovery include centrifugation, coagulation-flocculation, bio-flocculation, filtration and screening, gravity sedimentation, and flotation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the harvesting of microalgae cells by coagulation using magnetic activated carbon, magnetite (FeO4) nanoparticles, and common chemical coagulants. Scenedesmus rubescens was selected and cultivated in 10 L flasks under continuous artificial light. Samples were taken at different operation intervals. Jar tests were conducted to investigate the effect of adsorption of microalgae on the magnetic material. The removal efficiency of microalgae was affected by the coagulants dose, stirring time and speed, and the initial microalgae concentration. The recovery of microalgae was greater in cultures with high initial microalgae concentration compared to cultures with low microalgae concentrations.

  14. Figaro: a novel statistical method for vector sequence removal

    PubMed Central

    White, James Robert; Roberts, Michael; Yorke, James A.; Pop, Mihai

    2009-01-01

    Motivation Sequences produced by automated Sanger sequencing machines frequently contain fragments of the cloning vector on their ends. Software tools currently available for identifying and removing the vector sequence require knowledge of the vector sequence, specific splice sites and any adapter sequences used in the experiment—information often omitted from public databases. Furthermore, the clipping coordinates themselves are missing or incorrectly reported. As an example, within the ~1.24 billion shotgun sequences deposited in the NCBI Trace Archive, as many as ~735 million (~60%) lack vector clipping information. Correct clipping information is essential to scientists attempting to validate, improve and even finish the increasingly large number of genomes released at a ‘draft’ quality level. Results We present here Figaro, a novel software tool for identifying and removing the vector from raw sequence data without prior knowledge of the vector sequence. The vector sequence is automatically inferred by analyzing the frequency of occurrence of short oligo-nucleotides using Poisson statistics. We show that Figaro achieves 99.98% sensitivity when tested on ~1.5 million shotgun reads from Drosophila pseudoobscura. We further explore the impact of accurate vector trimming on the quality of whole-genome assemblies by re-assembling two bacterial genomes from shotgun sequences deposited in the Trace Archive. Designed as a module in large computational pipelines, Figaro is fast, lightweight and flexible. Availability Figaro is released under an open-source license through the AMOS package (http://amos.sourceforge.net/Figaro). PMID:18202027

  15. Chemomechanical caries removal method versus mechanical caries removal methods in clinical and community-based setting: A comparative in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, K. V. K. Santosh; Prasad, M. Ghanashyam; Sandeep, R. Venkata; Reddy, S. Pavani; Divya, D.; Pratyusha, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of various caries removal techniques in mandibular primary molars using Smart Burs, atraumatic restorative technique (ART) (mechanical caries removal) and Carie-care (chemomechanical caries removal [CMCR]) among primary school children in clinical and community-based settings. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 carious primary mandibular molars were selected for the study from the dental clinic and community. They were equally assigned to four groups according to caries removal technique and also by the operating site. In Group 1, caries was removed using Carie-care in the dental clinic and in Group 2, with Smart Burs in the dental clinic. In Group 3, caries was removed using Carie-care in the field and in Group 4, with the ART in the field. The time taken for caries removal, the efficacy of caries removal and patient acceptance were evaluated with different caries removal techniques. Statistical Analysis: The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis by ANOVA test. Results: In clinical settings, Carie-care was time-consuming but was more efficient with increased acceptance than Smart Burs and the result was found to be significant statistically (P < 0.05). In community-based settings, Carie-care was more efficient, less time consuming, and showed an increased acceptance when compared to atraumatic restorative treatment and the result was found to be significant statistically (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The CMCR technique was superior to the mechanical caries removal technique in primary teeth among school children in terms of time, efficacy, and acceptance in both clinical- and community-based settings. PMID:27403059

  16. Method for combined removal of mercury and nitrogen oxides from off-gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Livengood, C. David

    2006-10-10

    A method for removing elemental Hg and nitric oxide simultaneously from a gas stream is provided whereby the gas stream is reacted with gaseous chlorinated compound to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds and the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide. The method works to remove either mercury or nitrogen oxide in the absence or presence of each other.

  17. Chronic Placental Inflammation in Twin Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Heejin; Bae, Go Eun; Park, Ha Young; Kim, Yeon Mee; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-young; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jung-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic placental inflammation, such as villitis of unknown etiology (VUE) and chronic chorioamnionitis (CCA), is considered a placental manifestation of maternal anti-fetal rejection. The aim of this study is to investigate its frequency in twin pregnancies compared to singleton pregnancies. Methods: Three hundred twin placentas and 1,270 singleton placentas were consecutively collected at a tertiary medical center in Seoul, Republic of Korea from 2009 to 2012. Hematoxylin and eosin sections of tissue samples (full-thickness placental disc and chorioamniotic membranes) were reviewed. Results: Non-basal VUE was more frequent in twin placentas than in singleton placentas (6.0% vs 3.2%, p < .05). In preterm birth, CCA was found less frequently in twin placentas than in singleton placentas (9.6% vs 14.8%, p < .05), reaching its peak at an earlier gestational age in twin placentas (29–32 weeks) than in singleton placentas (33–36 weeks). CCA was more frequent in twin pregnancies with babies of a different sex than with those with the same sex (13.8% vs 6.9%, p=.052). Separate dichorionic diamniotic twin placentas were affected by chronic deciduitis more frequently than singleton placentas (16.9% vs 9.7%, p<.05). Conclusions: The higher frequency of non-basal VUE in twin placentas and of CCA in twin placentas with different fetal sex supports the hypothesis that the underlying pathophysiological mechanism is maternal anti-fetal rejection related to increased fetal antigens in twin pregnancies. The peak of CCA at an earlier gestational age in twin placentas than in singleton placentas suggests that CCA is influenced by placental maturation. PMID:26459409

  18. From flint razors to lasers: a timeline of hair removal methods.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Alexandra A; França, Katlein; Chacon, Anna H; Nouri, Keyvan

    2013-06-01

    Today, most do not go a day without practicing or hearing about new hair removal methods. However, little is discussed about the history of hair removal and the development of most hair removal methods since the period of cavemen. Avoiding decapitation and fitting in with society are two of many reasons for the development of this now normative practice. Knowledge of the hair growth cycle is vital in understanding the efficacy of various hair removal methods as well as the difference between epilation and depilation. While laser hair removal (LHR) is one of the most common cosmetic procedures practiced in the world, according to the FDA, the only current permanent form of hair removal is electrolysis. These two methods as well as various other ones are discussed in this article. Further developments are being made every day to better treat the removal of blonde and white hair as well as to diminish the pain of hair removal. With these developments, dermatologists will better understand the advancement of hair removal methods and the reasons why patients may seek treatment.

  19. Automatic removal of various artifacts from EEG signals using combined methods.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junfeng; Yang, Yong; Sun, Jiancheng; Yu, Gang

    2010-10-01

    In this article, a novel and robust method is proposed to automatically remove various artifacts from EEG signals. First, canonical correlation analysis method is adopted to separate electromyography (EMG) artifacts from EEG signals. EMG-free EEG signals are obtained by subtracting the contribution of the components with autocorrelation value less than a threshold determined by the statistical analysis. For the removal of ocular artifacts, independent component analysis is applied to decompose the EMG-free signals. For the identification of eye movement artifact components, spectral and topographic features are extracted, and the classifier of support vector machine is used. Specifically, a peak detection algorithm of independent component is proposed to identify eye blink artifact components for the first time. The proposed artifact removal method is evaluated by the comparisons of EEG data before and after artifacts removal. The results show that the proposed method provides a promising method for complete artifact removal from EEG.

  20. Method for removing acid gases from a gaseous stream

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Everett; Zielke, Clyde W.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking a heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating a gaseous stream containing hydrogen, at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases from the molten metal halide and regenerating the molten metal halide, thereby producing a purified molten metal halide stream for recycle to the hydrocracking zone, an improvement comprising; contacting the gaseous acid gas, hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels-containing stream with the feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to remove acid gases from the acid gas containing stream. Optionally at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels are separated from gaseous stream containing hydrogen, hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases prior to contacting the gaseous stream with the feedstock.

  1. Validation of two ribosomal RNA removal methods for microbial metatranscriptomics

    SciTech Connect

    He, Shaomei; Wurtzel, Omri; Singh, Kanwar; Froula, Jeff L; Yilmaz, Suzan; Tringe, Susannah G; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Feng; Lindquist, Erika A; Sorek, Rotem; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2010-10-01

    The predominance of rRNAs in the transcriptome is a major technical challenge in sequence-based analysis of cDNAs from microbial isolates and communities. Several approaches have been applied to deplete rRNAs from (meta)transcriptomes, but no systematic investigation of potential biases introduced by any of these approaches has been reported. Here we validated the effectiveness and fidelity of the two most commonly used approaches, subtractive hybridization and exonuclease digestion, as well as combinations of these treatments, on two synthetic five-microorganism metatranscriptomes using massively parallel sequencing. We found that the effectiveness of rRNA removal was a function of community composition and RNA integrity for these treatments. Subtractive hybridization alone introduced the least bias in relative transcript abundance, whereas exonuclease and in particular combined treatments greatly compromised mRNA abundance fidelity. Illumina sequencing itself also can compromise quantitative data analysis by introducing a G+C bias between runs.

  2. Correlation of ultrasound estimated placental volume and umbilical cord blood volume in term pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pannopnut, Papinwit; Kitporntheranunt, Maethaphan; Paritakul, Panwara; Kongsomboon, Kittipong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between ultrasound measured placental volume and collected umbilical cord blood (UCB) volume in term pregnancy. Material and Methods An observational cross-sectional study of term singleton pregnant women in the labor ward at Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center was conducted. Placental thickness, height, and width were measured using two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound and calculated for placental volume using the volumetric mathematic model. After the delivery of the baby, UCB was collected and measured for its volume immediately. Then, birth weight, placental weight, and the actual placental volume were analyzed. The Pearson’s correlation was used to determine the correlation between each two variables. Results A total of 35 pregnant women were eligible for the study. The mean and standard deviation of estimated placental volume and actual placental volume were 534±180 mL and 575±118 mL, respectively. The median UCB volume was 140 mL (range 98–220 mL). The UCB volume did not have a statistically significant correlation with the estimated placental volume (correlation coefficient 0.15; p=0.37). However, the UCB volume was significantly correlated with the actual placental volume (correlation coefficient 0.62; p<0.001) and birth weight (correlation coefficient 0.38; p=0.02). Conclusion The estimated placental volume by 2D ultrasound was not significantly correlated with the UCB volume. Further studies to establish the correlation between the UCB volume and the estimated placental volume using other types of placental imaging may be needed. PMID:26097385

  3. Use of Placental Membranes for the Treatment of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, Jonathan N.; Verla, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Chronic diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) remain a challenge for physicians to treat. High mortality rates for DFU patients have pointed to the low effectiveness of standard care and lack of quality wound care products. The composition (collagen-rich tissue matrix and endogenous growth factors and cells) and functional properties (anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and angiogenic) of placental membranes are uniquely suited to address the needs of chronic wounds. This led to the commercialization of placental membranes, which are now widely available to physicians as a new advanced wound treatment option. Recent Advances: Progress in tissue processing and preservation methods has facilitated the development of placental products for wounds. Currently, a variety of commercial placental products are available to physicians for the treatment of chronic DFUs and other wounds. This review summarizes the key factors that negatively impact DFU healing (including social factors, such as smoking, vascular deficiencies, hyperglycemia, and other metabolic abnormalities), describes the structure and biology of placental membranes, and overviews commercially available placental products for wounds and data from the most recent DFU clinical trials utilizing commercial placental membranes. Critical Issues: Although the effects of diabetes on wound healing are complex and not fully understood, some of the key factors and pathways that interfere with healing have been identified. However, a multidisciplinary approach for the assessment of patients with chronic DFUs and guidelines for selection of appropriate treatment modalities remain to be implemented. Future Directions: The biological properties of placental membranes show benefits for the treatment of chronic DFUs, but scientific and clinical data for commercially available placental products are limited. Therefore, we need (1) more randomized, controlled clinical trials for commercial placental products; (2) studies

  4. Adhesive bubble removal method and apparatus for fiber applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolasinski, John R. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An assembly for supporting a fiber optic termination or connector in a centrifuge and comprising a cylindrical body member having a top portion adapted to receive the ferrule body portion of a fiber optic termination or connector and a bottom portion for receiving a cylindrical piston/sealing unit. The piston portion of the piston/sealing unit includes a compressible tip which is adapted to a butt up against the outer end of the ferrule body portion of the fiber optic termination or connector. A cylindrical end cap fits over the upper end of the body member for holding the fiber optic termination in place on the body member and causing a seal to be formed between the termination or connector and the upper portion of the body member adjacent the compressible tip of the plunger. The parts, when fitted together, are placed in a centrifuge which is operated for a predetermined spin cycle, so as to cause any bubbles in the uncured liquid adhesive to be vented outwardly from the termination through the end cap. Subsequent removal of the fiber optic termination or connector from the centrifuge and assembly is bubble free and ready to be joined with an optical fiber which is inserted in the ferrule end of the termination or connector.

  5. Adhesive Bubble Removal Method and Apparatus for Fiber Optic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolasinski, John R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An assembly for supporting a fiber optic termination or connector in a centrifuge and comprising a cylindrical body member having a top portion adapted to receive the ferrule body portion of a fiber optic termination or connector and a bottom portion for receiving a cylindrical piston/sealing unit is presented. The piston portion of the piston/sealing unit includes a compressible tip which is adapted to a butt up against the outer end of the ferrule body portion of the fiber optic termination or connector. A cylindrical end cap fits over the upper end of the body member for holding the fiber optic termination in place on the body member and causing a seal to be formed between the termination or connector and the upper portion of the body member adjacent the compressible tip of the plunger. The parts, when fitted together, are placed in a centrifuge which is operated for a predetermined spin cycle, so as to cause any bubbles in the uncured liquid adhesive to be vented outwardly from the termination through the end cap. Subsequent removal of the fiber optic termination or connector from the centrifuge and assembly is "bubble free" and ready to be joined with an optical fiber which is inserted in the ferrule end of the termination or connector.

  6. Recent vs Conventional Methods of Caries Removal: A Comparative in vivo Study in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sonali; Samadi, Firoza; Jaiswal, JN; Garg, Aarti; Chowdhry, Preet

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aims: To compare the three different methods of caries removal, conventional method using Airotor and chemomechanical method using Carisolv and Papacarie. Settings and design: The patients with multiple carious teeth were selected either in the deciduous dentition or mixed dentition. Ninety primary molars were selected from 30 children (10 males and 20 females) between the age group 6 and 9 years. Materials and methods: After caries excavation, cavities were evaluated for caries removal or clinical efficacy by the tactile and visual criteria, microbiological efficacy, time taken for the procedure. Patient acceptability toward the treatment was also checked with the help of a visual analog scale (VAS). The observations thus obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The clinical efficacy of caries removal was highest with Airotor while the microbiological efficacy of caries removal was almost comparable with Airotor, Carisolv and Papacarie caries removal methods. The time taken to remove caries by Airotor method was observed to be least while the patient acceptance was found to be highest with Papacarie method. How to cite this article: Chowdhry S, Saha S, Samadi F, Jaiswal JN, Garg A, Chowdhry P. Recent vs Conventional Methods of Caries Removal: A Comparative in vivo Study in Pediatric Patients. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):6-11. PMID:26124574

  7. Provocative ideas on human placental biology: A prerequisite for prevention and treatment of neonatal health challenges.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Shilpi; Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Pallavi, S K

    2017-05-01

    A 2-day invite-only meeting on generating "Provocative Ideas on human placental research" was organized on 1-2 December 2015 at the Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad. This meeting was sponsored by Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Govt. of India. The objectives of this meeting were the critical evaluation of placental physiology and its development. Special emphasis was placed on understanding the consequences and implications of placental development in sustenance of pregnancy and in pregnancy-associated complications such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and preterm birth. This meeting brought together experienced as well as novice clinicians and biologists who have a keen interest in the field of placental biology, including development of new technologies and methods for evaluating the role of placenta in predicting pregnancy outcomes. The meeting primarily focused on (i) high-throughput "-omics" approaches, (ii) maternal nutrition and placental function, (iii) placental infection and inflammation, (iv) real-time evaluation of placental development: tools for placental research, and (v) epidemiologic relevance of placental-based research. Unanimous consensus emerged among the participants to carry out additional work focused on these areas. In this article, we summarize the talks and review the published literature on the above-mentioned niches. As a direct outcome of this meeting, a request for applications has been announced by the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, for pursuing research in this vital but understudied domain. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Method of CO.sub.2 removal from a gasesous stream at reduced temperature

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, James C; Siriwardane, Ranjani V; Berry, David A; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18

    A method for the removal of H.sub.2O and CO.sub.2 from a gaseous stream comprising H.sub.2O and CO.sub.2, such as a flue gas. The method initially utilizes an H.sub.2O removal sorbent to remove some portion of the H.sub.2O, producing a dry gaseous stream and a wet H.sub.2O removal sorbent. The dry gaseous stream is subsequently contacted with a CO.sub.2 removal sorbent to remove some portion of the CO.sub.2, generating a dry CO.sub.2 reduced stream and a loaded CO.sub.2 removal sorbent. The loaded CO.sub.2 removal sorbent is subsequently heated to produce a heated CO.sub.2 stream. The wet H.sub.2O removal sorbent and the dry CO.sub.2 reduced stream are contacted in a first regeneration stage, generating a partially regenerated H.sub.2O removal sorbent, and the partially regenerated H.sub.2O removal sorbent and the heated CO.sub.2 stream are subsequently contacted in a second regeneration stage. The first and second stage regeneration typically act to retain an initial monolayer of moisture on the various removal sorbents and only remove moisture layers bound to the initial monolayer, allowing for relatively low temperature and pressure operation. Generally the applicable H.sub.2O sorption/desorption processes may be conducted at temperatures less than about 70.degree. C. and pressures less than 1.5 atmospheres, with certain operations conducted at temperatures less than about 50.degree. C.

  9. Recent vs Conventional Methods of Caries Removal: A Comparative in vivo Study in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Chowdhry, Swati; Saha, Sonali; Samadi, Firoza; Jaiswal, J N; Garg, Aarti; Chowdhry, Preet

    2015-01-01

    To compare the three different methods of caries removal, conventional method using Airotor and chemomechanical method using Carisolv and Papacarie. The patients with multiple carious teeth were selected either in the deciduous dentition or mixed dentition. Ninety primary molars were selected from 30 children (10 males and 20 females) between the age group 6 and 9 years. After caries excavation, cavities were evaluated for caries removal or clinical efficacy by the tactile and visual criteria, microbiological efficacy, time taken for the procedure. Patient acceptability toward the treatment was also checked with the help of a visual analog scale (VAS). The observations thus obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test. The clinical efficacy of caries removal was highest with Airotor while the microbiological efficacy of caries removal was almost comparable with Airotor, Carisolv and Papacarie caries removal methods. The time taken to remove caries by Airotor method was observed to be least while the patient acceptance was found to be highest with Papacarie method. How to cite this article: Chowdhry S, Saha S, Samadi F, Jaiswal JN, Garg A, Chowdhry P. Recent vs Conventional Methods of Caries Removal: A Comparative in vivo Study in Pediatric Patients. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):6-11.

  10. REMOVAL OF URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA currently does not regulate uranium in drinking water but will be revising the radionuclide regulations during 1989 and will propose a maximum contaminant level for uranium. The paper presents treatment technology information on the effectiveness of conventional method...

  11. REMOVAL OF URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA currently does not regulate uranium in drinking water but will be revising the radionuclide regulations during 1989 and will propose a maximum contaminant level for uranium. The paper presents treatment technology information on the effectiveness of conventional method...

  12. Dentine microhardness after different methods for detection and removal of carious dentine tissue.

    PubMed

    Mollica, Fernanda Brandão; Rocha Gomes Torres, Carlos; Gonçalves, Sergio Eduardo de Paiva; Mancini, Maria Nadir Gasparoto

    2012-01-01

    There are several methods for identifying carious dentinal tissue aiming to avoid removal of healthy dentinal tissue. The purpose of this study was to test different methods for the detection of carious dentinal tissue regarding the amount of carious tissue removed and the remaining dentin microhardness after caries removal. The dentin surfaces of 20 bovine teeth were exposed and half of the surface was protected with nail polish. Cariogenic challenge was performed by immersion in a demineralizing solution for 14 days. After transverse cross-section of the crown, the specimens were divided into four groups (n=10), according to the method used to identify and remove the carious tissue: "Papacárie", Caries-detector dye, DIAGNOdent and Tactile method. After caries removal, the cross-sectional surface was included in acrylic resin and polished. In a microhardness tester, the removed dentin thickness and the Vickers microhardness of the following regions were evaluated: remaining dentin after caries removal and superficial and deep healthy dentin. ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05) were performed, except for DIAGNOdent, which did not detect the presence of caries. Results for removed dentin thickness were: "Papacárie" (424.7 ± 105.0; a), Caries-detector dye (370.5 ± 78.3; ab), Tactile method (322.8 ± 51.5; bc). Results for the remaining dentin microhardness were: "Papacárie" (42.2 ± 10.5; bc), Caries-detector dye (44.6 ± 11.8; abc), Tactile method (24.3 ± 9.0; d). DIAGNOdent did not detect the presence of carious tissue; Tactile method and "Papacárie" resulted in the least and the most dentinal thickness removal, respectively; Tactile method differed significantly from "Papacárie" and Caries-detector dye in terms of the remaining dentin microhardness, and Tactile method was the one which presented the lowest microhardness values.

  13. Labor Inhibits Placental Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    LAGER, Susanne; AYE, Irving L.M.H.; GACCIOLI, Francesca; RAMIREZ, Vanessa I.; JANSSON, Thomas; POWELL, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Labor induces a myriad of changes in placental gene expression. These changes may represent a physiological adaptation inhibiting placental cellular processes associated with a high demand for oxygen and energy (e.g., protein synthesis and active transport) thereby promoting oxygen and glucose transfer to the fetus. We hypothesized that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, a positive regulator of trophoblast protein synthesis and amino acid transport, is inhibited by labor. Methods Placental tissue was collected from healthy, term pregnancies (n=15 no-labor; n=12 labor). Activation of Caspase-1, IRS1/Akt, STAT, mTOR, and inflammatory signaling pathways was determined by Western blot. NFκB p65 and PPARγ DNA binding activity was measured in isolated nuclei. Results Labor increased Caspase-1 activation and mTOR complex 2 signaling, as measured by phosphorylation of Akt (S473). However, mTORC1 signaling was inhibited in response to labor as evidenced by decreased phosphorylation of mTOR (S2448) and 4EBP1 (T37/46 and T70). Labor also decreased NFκB and PPARγ DNA binding activity, while having no effect on IRS1 or STAT signaling pathway. Discussion and conclusion Several placental signaling pathways are affected by labor, which has implications for experimental design in studies of placental signaling. Inhibition of placental mTORC1 signaling in response to labor may serve to down-regulate protein synthesis and amino acid transport, processes that account for a large share of placental oxygen and glucose consumption. We speculate that this response preserves glucose and oxygen for transfer to the fetus during the stressful events of labor. PMID:25454472

  14. Method for the removal of elemental mercury from a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.

    1999-05-04

    A method is provided to remove elemental mercury from a gas stream by reacting the gas stream with an oxidizing solution to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds. Other constituents are also oxidized. The gas stream is then passed through a wet scrubber to remove the mercuric compounds and oxidized constituents. 7 figs.

  15. Method for the removal of elemental mercury from a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Huang, Hann-Sheng

    1999-01-01

    A method is provided to remove elemental mercury from a gas stream by reacting the gas stream with an oxidizing solution to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds. Other constituents are also oxidized. The gas stream is then passed through a wet scrubber to remove the mercuric compounds and oxidized constituents.

  16. Method and apparatus for removing iodine from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Martin H.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing iodine-131 and iodine-125 from a liquid sodium reactor coolant. Non-radioactive iodine is dissolved in hot liquid sodium to increase the total iodine concentration. Subsequent precipitation of the iodine in a cold trap removes both the radioactive iodine isotopes as well as the non-radioactive iodine.

  17. Comparison of ribosomal RNA removal methods for transcriptome sequencing workflows in teleost fish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is becoming the standard for transcriptome analysis. Removal of contaminating ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a priority in the preparation of libraries suitable for sequencing. rRNAs are commonly removed from total RNA via either mRNA selection or rRNA depletion. These methods have...

  18. A method for the removal of elemental mercury from a gas stream

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Huang, Hann-Sheng

    1997-12-01

    A method is provided to remove elemental mercury from a gas stream by reacting the gas stream with an oxidizing solution to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds. Other constituents are also oxidized. The gas stream is then passed through a wet scrubber to remove the mercuric compounds and oxidized constituents.

  19. Programming placental nutrient transport capacity

    PubMed Central

    Fowden, A L; Ward, J W; Wooding, F P B; Forhead, A J; Constancia, M

    2006-01-01

    Many animal studies and human epidemiological findings have shown that impaired growth in utero is associated with physiological abnormalities in later life and have linked this to tissue programming during suboptimal intrauterine conditions at critical periods of development. However, few of these studies have considered the contribution of the placenta to the ensuing adult phenotype. In mammals, the major determinant of intrauterine growth is the placental nutrient supply, which, in turn, depends on the size, morphology, blood supply and transporter abundance of the placenta and on synthesis and metabolism of nutrients and hormones by the uteroplacental tissues. This review examines the regulation of placental nutrient transfer capacity and the potential programming effects of nutrition and glucocorticoid over-exposure on placental phenotype with particular emphasis on the role of the Igf2 gene in these processes. PMID:16439433

  20. Unbiased methods for removing systematics from galaxy clustering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Franz; Leistedt, Boris; Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2016-02-01

    Measuring the angular clustering of galaxies as a function of redshift is a powerful method for extracting information from the three-dimensional galaxy distribution. The precision of such measurements will dramatically increase with ongoing and future wide-field galaxy surveys. However, these are also increasingly sensitive to observational and astrophysical contaminants. Here, we study the statistical properties of three methods proposed for controlling such systematics - template subtraction, basic mode projection, and extended mode projection - all of which make use of externally supplied template maps, designed to characterize and capture the spatial variations of potential systematic effects. Based on a detailed mathematical analysis, and in agreement with simulations, we find that the template subtraction method in its original formulation returns biased estimates of the galaxy angular clustering. We derive closed-form expressions that should be used to correct results for this shortcoming. Turning to the basic mode projection algorithm, we prove it to be free of any bias, whereas we conclude that results computed with extended mode projection are biased. Within a simplified setup, we derive analytical expressions for the bias and discuss the options for correcting it in more realistic configurations. Common to all three methods is an increased estimator variance induced by the cleaning process, albeit at different levels. These results enable unbiased high-precision clustering measurements in the presence of spatially varying systematics, an essential step towards realizing the full potential of current and planned galaxy surveys.

  1. Method for removal of phosgene from boron trichloride

    DOEpatents

    Freund, S.M.

    1983-09-20

    Selective ultraviolet photolysis using an unfiltered mercury arc lamp has been used to substantially reduce the phosgene impurity in a mixture of boron trichloride and phosgene. Infrared spectrophotometric analysis of the sample before and after irradiation shows that it is possible to highly purify commercially available boron trichloride with this method. 5 figs.

  2. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P [San Ramon, CA

    2012-07-24

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  3. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2015-12-08

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  4. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2013-12-10

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  5. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2015-03-24

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  6. Method for removal of phosgene from boron trichloride

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, Samuel M.

    1983-01-01

    Selective ultraviolet photolysis using an unfiltered mercury arc lamp has been used to substantially reduce the phosgene impurity in a mixture of boron trichloride and phosgene. Infrared spectrophotometric analysis of the sample before and after irradiation shows that is is possible to highly purify commercially available boron trichloride with this method.

  7. A Method for Telluric Line Removal from Supernova and Nova Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jack, D.

    2017-04-01

    We present a new method for removing telluric lines from high resolution supernova and nova spectra. This simple and quick method has the advantage of also eliminating any interstellar and intergalactic absorption features, and it smoothens the spectra removing noise and any possible cosmic-ray hits. The method identifies narrow lines in the very broad features of supernova and nova spectra and removes all of them. We applied the method to observed high resolution (R≍20,000) spectra of the type Ia supernova SN 2014J and performed a study of the effects of telluric lines in low resolution spectra of this supernova. The differences in flux can be around 25% in some wavelength ranges with broad telluric bands. In addition, we demonstrate that this method can also be applied to high resolution spectra of novae and present as an example the telluric line removal in the spectra of Nova V5668 Sgr.

  8. Bidirectional Transfer Study of Polystyrene Nanoparticles across the Placental Barrier in an ex Vivo Human Placental Perfusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Grafmueller, Stefanie; Manser, Pius; Diener, Liliane; Diener, Pierre-André; Maeder-Althaus, Xenia; Maurizi, Lionel; Jochum, Wolfram; Krug, Harald F.; Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina; von Mandach, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Background Nanoparticle exposure in utero might not be a major concern yet, but it could become more important with the increasing application of nanomaterials in consumer and medical products. Several epidemiologic and in vitro studies have shown that nanoparticles can have potential toxic effects. However, nanoparticles also offer the opportunity to develop new therapeutic strategies to treat specifically either the pregnant mother or the fetus. Previous studies mainly addressed whether nanoparticles are able to cross the placental barrier. However, the transport mechanisms underlying nanoparticle translocation across the placenta are still unknown. Objectives In this study we examined which transport mechanisms underlie the placental transfer of nanoparticles. Methods We used the ex vivo human placental perfusion model to analyze the bidirectional transfer of plain and carboxylate modified polystyrene particles in a size range between 50 and 300 nm. Results We observed that the transport of polystyrene particles in the fetal to maternal direction was significantly higher than for the maternal to fetal direction. Regardless of their ability to cross the placental barrier and the direction of perfusion, all polystyrene particles accumulated in the syncytiotrophoblast of the placental tissue. Conclusions Our results indicate that the syncytiotrophoblast is the key player in regulating nanoparticle transport across the human placenta. The main mechanism underlying this translocation is not based on passive diffusion, but is likely to involve an active, energy-dependent transport pathway. These findings will be important for reproductive toxicology as well as for pharmaceutical engineering of new drug carriers. Citation Grafmueller S, Manser P, Diener L, Diener PA, Maeder-Althaus X, Maurizi L, Jochum W, Krug HF, Buerki-Thurnherr T, von Mandach U, Wick P. 2015. Bidirectional transfer study of polystyrene nanoparticles across the placental barrier in an ex vivo human

  9. Plant algae method for arsenic removal from arsenic contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    de la Paix, Mupenzi Jean; Lanhai, Li; de Dieu, Habumugisha Jean; John, Maina Nyongesah

    2012-01-01

    Field studies were carried out in Urumqi River Basin in Northwest China. The study focused on experimentation on a plant algae method that was tested by taking various water chemistries into consideration. The results from a greenhouse experiment evaluated for four doses of P (0, 100, 200, and 300 μmol/L) using two ferns (30 and 60 day old) on 15 L of contaminated groundwater per plant revealed that the biomass of 30-day old ferns gained was higher than 60-day fern. As solution-P increased from 0 to 450 μmol/L, Phosphorus concentration in the fronds increased from 1.9 to 3.9 mg/kg and 1.95 to 4.0 mg/kg for 30-d and 60-d ferns respectively. This study showed that the plant algae method may be a good solution to maximize arsenic uptake in the short term under normal climatic conditions.

  10. Parallel adaptive radiations in two major clades of placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Madsen, O; Scally, M; Douady, C J; Kao, D J; DeBry, R W; Adkins, R; Amrine, H M; Stanhope, M J; de Jong, W W; Springer, M S

    2001-02-01

    Higher level relationships among placental mammals, as well as the historical biogeography and morphological diversification of this group, remain unclear. Here we analyse independent molecular data sets, having aligned lengths of DNA of 5,708 and 2,947 base pairs, respectively, for all orders of placental mammals. Phylogenetic analyses resolve placental orders into four groups: Xenarthra, Afrotheria, Laurasiatheria, and Euarchonta plus Glires. The first three groups are consistently monophyletic with different methods of analysis. Euarchonta plus Glires is monophyletic or paraphyletic depending on the phylogenetic method. A unique nine-base-pair deletion in exon 11 of the BRCA1 gene provides additional support for the monophyly of Afrotheria, which includes proboscideans, sirenians, hyracoids, tubulidentates, macroscelideans, chrysochlorids and tenrecids. Laurasiatheria contains cetartiodactyls, perissodactyls, carnivores, pangolins, bats and eulipotyphlan insectivores. Parallel adaptive radiations have occurred within Laurasiatheria and Afrotheria. In each group, there are aquatic, ungulate and insectivore-like forms.

  11. Method and apparatus for selective removal of carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Borup, Rodney L.; Skala, Glenn W.; Brundage, Mark A.; LaBarge, William J.

    2000-01-01

    There is provided a method and apparatus for treatment of a hydrogen-rich gas to reduce the carbon monoxide content thereof by reacting the carbon monoxide in the gas with an amount of oxygen sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst in a desired temperature range without substantial reaction of hydrogen. The catalyst is an iridium-based catalyst dispersed on, and supported on, a carrier. In the presence of the catalyst, carbon monoxide in a hydrogen-rich feed gas is selectively oxidized such that a product stream is produced with a very low carbon monoxide content.

  12. The body grasp technique: a rapid method of removing birds from mist nets

    Treesearch

    C.J. Ralph

    2005-01-01

    Safety of birds is paramount to our efforts in monitoring birds. I describe a method that has the potential of greatly increasing the speed and safety of extracting birds from mist nets. This method involves removing the feet last, as opposed to the more traditional 'feet first' method. The "body grasp" method involves slipping the fingers around...

  13. Four osteotomy methods with piezosurgery to remove complicated mandibular third molars: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jia-Wei; He, Dong-Mei; Zheng, Ling-Yan; Hu, Ying-Kai

    2014-11-01

    Piezosurgery has been used widely in oral and maxillofacial surgery, but there has been no report systematically describing an osteotomy method with piezosurgery for complicated mandibular third molar removal. The aim of this study was to introduce 4 osteotomy methods using piezosurgery and evaluate their effects. A retrospective study was conducted of patients with a complicated impacted mandibular third molar requiring extraction. The predictor variable was the extraction technique. Four osteotomy methods using piezosurgery were tested according to different impaction types: method 1 involved complete bone removal; method 2 involved segmental bone removal; method 3 involved bone removal combined with tooth splitting; and method 4 involved block bone removal. Outcome variables were success rate, operative time, major complications (including nerve injury, mandible fracture, severe hematoma, or severe edema), and serious pyogenic infection. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study was composed of 55 patients with 74 complicated impacted mandibular third molars. All impacted mandibular third molars were removed successfully. The average surgical time was 15 minutes (range, 8 to 26 minutes). Thirty-eight molars (51.4%) were extracted by method 1, 18 molars (24.3%) by method 2, 12 molars (16.2%) by method 3, and 6 molars (8.1%) by method 4. Two cases (2.7%) developed postoperative infections and recovered within 1 week using drainage and antibiotic administration. The 4 osteotomy methods with piezosurgery provide effective ways of removing complicated impacted mandibular third molars. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Genomics, biogeography, and the diversification of placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    Wildman, Derek E.; Uddin, Monica; Opazo, Juan C.; Liu, Guozhen; Lefort, Vincent; Guindon, Stephane; Gascuel, Olivier; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Romero, Roberto; Goodman, Morris

    2007-01-01

    Previous molecular analyses of mammalian evolutionary relationships involving a wide range of placental mammalian taxa have been restricted in size from one to two dozen gene loci and have not decisively resolved the basal branching order within Placentalia. Here, on extracting from thousands of gene loci both their coding nucleotide sequences and translated amino acid sequences, we attempt to resolve key uncertainties about the ancient branching pattern of crown placental mammals. Focusing on ≈1,700 conserved gene loci, those that have the more slowly evolving coding sequences, and using maximum-likelihood, Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony, and neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree reconstruction methods, we find from almost all results that a clade (the southern Atlantogenata) composed of Afrotheria and Xenarthra is the sister group of all other (the northern Boreoeutheria) crown placental mammals, among boreoeutherians Rodentia groups with Lagomorpha, and the resultant Glires is close to Primates. Only the NJ tree for nucleotide sequences separates Rodentia (murids) first and then Lagomorpha (rabbit) from the other placental mammals. However, this nucleotide NJ tree still depicts Atlantogenata and Boreoeutheria but minus Rodentia and Lagomorpha. Moreover, the NJ tree for amino acid sequences does depict the basal separation to be between Atlantogenata and a Boreoeutheria that includes Rodentia and Lagomorpha. Crown placental mammalian diversification appears to be largely the result of ancient plate tectonic events that allowed time for convergent phenotypes to evolve in the descendant clades. PMID:17728403

  15. Histopathological placental lesions in mild gestational hyperglycemic and diabetic women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate and compare the incidence of histopathological placental lesions in mild gestational hyperglycemia, gestational diabetes and overt diabetes at term and preterm gestation. Research design and methods One-hundred-and-thirty-one placental samples were collected from Diabetes mellitus (DM) positive screened patients. Two diagnostic tests, glycemic profile and 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in parallel identified 4 groups normoglycemic, mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH), gestational DM (GDM) or overt DM (DM). Placental tissue specimens and sections from 4 groups were obtained by uniform random sampling and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results Placentas from MGH group presented 17 types of histopathological change and higher rates of syncytial nodes and endarteritis. GDM placentas presented only nine types of histopathological change, high rates of dysmaturity, low rates of calcification and no syncytial nodes. Overt DM placentas showed 22 types of histopathological change, 21 of which were present in the preterm period. There were histopathological similarities between MGH and DM placentas, but the former exhibited a higher incidence of endarteritis, which has been described as a "post-mortem" phenomenon. Conclusion Our results confirmed that the distinct placental changes associated with DM and MGH depend on gestational period during which the diabetic insult occurs. It may reasonably be inferred that subclinical maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy, as showed in MGH group, is responsible for increased placental endarteritis, a postmortem lesion in the live fetus. PMID:21831283

  16. Heterogeneous Models Place the Root of the Placental Mammal Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Claire C.; Foster, Peter G.; Webb, Andrew E.; Pisani, Davide; McInerney, James O.; O’Connell, Mary J.

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneity among life traits in mammals has resulted in considerable phylogenetic conflict, particularly concerning the position of the placental root. Layered upon this are gene- and lineage-specific variation in amino acid substitution rates and compositional biases. Life trait variations that may impact upon mutational rates are longevity, metabolic rate, body size, and germ line generation time. Over the past 12 years, three main conflicting hypotheses have emerged for the placement of the placental root. These hypotheses place the Atlantogenata (common ancestor of Xenarthra plus Afrotheria), the Afrotheria, or the Xenarthra as the sister group to all other placental mammals. Model adequacy is critical for accurate tree reconstruction and by failing to account for these compositional and character exchange heterogeneities across the tree and data set, previous studies have not provided a strongly supported hypothesis for the placental root. For the first time, models that accommodate both tree and data set heterogeneity have been applied to mammal data. Here, we show the impact of accurate model assignment and the importance of data sets in accommodating model parameters while maintaining the power to reject competing hypotheses. Through these sophisticated methods, we demonstrate the importance of model adequacy, data set power and provide strong support for the Atlantogenata over other competing hypotheses for the position of the placental root. PMID:23813979

  17. Heterogeneous models place the root of the placental mammal phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Claire C; Foster, Peter G; Webb, Andrew E; Pisani, Davide; McInerney, James O; O'Connell, Mary J

    2013-09-01

    Heterogeneity among life traits in mammals has resulted in considerable phylogenetic conflict, particularly concerning the position of the placental root. Layered upon this are gene- and lineage-specific variation in amino acid substitution rates and compositional biases. Life trait variations that may impact upon mutational rates are longevity, metabolic rate, body size, and germ line generation time. Over the past 12 years, three main conflicting hypotheses have emerged for the placement of the placental root. These hypotheses place the Atlantogenata (common ancestor of Xenarthra plus Afrotheria), the Afrotheria, or the Xenarthra as the sister group to all other placental mammals. Model adequacy is critical for accurate tree reconstruction and by failing to account for these compositional and character exchange heterogeneities across the tree and data set, previous studies have not provided a strongly supported hypothesis for the placental root. For the first time, models that accommodate both tree and data set heterogeneity have been applied to mammal data. Here, we show the impact of accurate model assignment and the importance of data sets in accommodating model parameters while maintaining the power to reject competing hypotheses. Through these sophisticated methods, we demonstrate the importance of model adequacy, data set power and provide strong support for the Atlantogenata over other competing hypotheses for the position of the placental root.

  18. Effectiveness of hand washing and disinfection methods in removing transient bacteria after patient nursing.

    PubMed Central

    Ojajärvi, J.

    1980-01-01

    The effectiveness of various hand washing and disinfection methods in removing transient skin bacteria was studied in hospital after dry or moist contamination of the hands when nursing burn patients. The results were compared with those of laboratory tests with volunteers. A fairly good correlation of the bacterial reductions existed between hospital and laboratory tests. All other methods removed Staph. aureus from the hands more effectively than liquid soap. Gram-negative bacilli were more easily removed than staphylococci, even with soap wash alone. In hospital, none of the washing and disinfection methods always removed all patient-borne bacteria from the hands. After dry or moist contamination and subsequent washing with soap only, colonies of Staph. aureus were often detected in finger-print samples. Staphylococci were more often completely removed by a 4% chlorhexidine detergent scrub and alcoholic solutions (either with or without previous soap wash) than by liquid soap, hexachlorophene or iodophor preparations. Gram-negative bacilli were more easily removed by all the washing and disinfection methods. After moist contamination, Gram-negative bacilli were more often completely removed from the hands by ethanol than by other treatments. The results of the present study emphasize the importance of always using gloves when nursing a profuse spreader of bacteria or one who must be protected from infection. PMID:6778914

  19. Effectiveness of hand washing and disinfection methods in removing transient bacteria after patient nursing.

    PubMed

    Ojajärvi, J

    1980-10-01

    The effectiveness of various hand washing and disinfection methods in removing transient skin bacteria was studied in hospital after dry or moist contamination of the hands when nursing burn patients. The results were compared with those of laboratory tests with volunteers. A fairly good correlation of the bacterial reductions existed between hospital and laboratory tests. All other methods removed Staph. aureus from the hands more effectively than liquid soap. Gram-negative bacilli were more easily removed than staphylococci, even with soap wash alone. In hospital, none of the washing and disinfection methods always removed all patient-borne bacteria from the hands. After dry or moist contamination and subsequent washing with soap only, colonies of Staph. aureus were often detected in finger-print samples. Staphylococci were more often completely removed by a 4% chlorhexidine detergent scrub and alcoholic solutions (either with or without previous soap wash) than by liquid soap, hexachlorophene or iodophor preparations. Gram-negative bacilli were more easily removed by all the washing and disinfection methods. After moist contamination, Gram-negative bacilli were more often completely removed from the hands by ethanol than by other treatments. The results of the present study emphasize the importance of always using gloves when nursing a profuse spreader of bacteria or one who must be protected from infection.

  20. An automatic ocular artifacts removal method based on wavelet-enhanced canonical correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunyu; Qiu, Tianshuang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for automatic ocular artifacts (OA) removal in EEG recordings is proposed based on wavelet-enhanced canonical correlation analysis (wCCA). Compared to three popular ocular artifacts removal methods, wCCA owns two advantages. First, there is no need to identify the artifact components by subjective visual inspection, because the first canonical components found by CCA for each dataset, also the most common component between the left and right hemisphere, are definitely related to artifacts. Second, quantitative evaluation of the corrected EEG signals demonstrates that wCCA removed the most ocular artifacts with minimal cerebral information loss.

  1. An Ultra-Precise Method for the Nano Thin-Film Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pa, P. S.

    In this research an electrode-set is used to investigate via an ultra-precise method for the removal of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin-film microstructure from defective display panels to conquer the low yield rate in display panel production as to from imperfect Indium Tin Oxide layer deposition is well known. This process, which involves the removal of ITO layer substructure by means of an electrochemical removal (ECMR), is of major interest to the optoelectronics semiconductor industry. In this electro machining process a high current flow and high feed rate of the display (color filter) achieves complete and efficient removal of the ITO layer. The ITO thin-film can be removed completely by a proper combination of feed rate and electric power. A small gap between the diameter cathode virtual rotation circle and the diameter virtual rotation circle also corresponds to a higher removal rate. A small anode edge radius with a small cathode edge radius effectively improves dregs discharge and is an advantage when associated with a high workpiece feed rate. This precision method for the recycling of defective display screen color filters is presented as an effective tool for use in the screen manufacturing process. The defective Indium Tin Oxide thin-film can be removed easily and cleanly in a short time. The complete removal of the ITO layer makes it possible to put these panels back into the production line for reuse with a considerable reduction of both waste and production cost.

  2. Human placental coated vesicles contain receptor-bound transferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Booth, A G; Wilson, M J

    1981-01-01

    Human placental coated vesicles have been purified by a method involving sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation and treatment with wheat-germ agglutinin. These preparations were free of contamination by placental microvillus fragments. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis demonstrated that the coated vesicles contained a single serum protein, which was identified as transferrin. This transferrin was only observed after the vesicles were treated with a non-ionic detergent, and its behaviour during crossed hydrophobic-interaction immunoelectrophoresis suggested that a large proportion of it was receptor-bound. No other serum proteins, including immunoglobulin G, could be detected in these preparations. Receptor-bound transferrin was the only antigen common to placental coated vesicles and microvilli, implying that other plasma-membrane proteins are excluded from the region of membrane involved in coated-vesicle formation. Images PLATE 2 PLATE 1 Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:6272755

  3. Comparison of the efficacy of chemicomechanical caries removal with conventional methods - a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Goomer, Pallvi; Jain, R L; Kaur, Harsimrat; Sood, Rahul

    2013-06-01

    There has been considerable interest in developing alternative methods of cavity preparation and caries removal due to disadvantages of using traditional rotating instruments which can result in heat, pressure ,dentin dessication, vibration and pain. Hence, the aim of this study was to compare different methods of caries removal in terms of efficacy, time taken and pain during caries removal. A total of 150 carious teeth were selected among 80 children of 6-10 years of age, following Radiovisiography (RVG) according to specific inclusion criteria and caries removal was done by hand instruments ,air rotor and carisolv respectively. The efficacy, time taken and pain threshold were evaluated during caries removal by Ericson D et al scale, Time scale (Raber H et al), visual analogue scale (Nayak R et al) and verbal pain scale (Cinzia Brunelli et al) respectively. Data was collected and statistically analysed. Mean value of time taken for removal of caries by carisolv group (580.26 sec) was found to be significantly higher as compared to conventional hand excavation and air rotor. Air rotor was found to be the most efficient method (mean value 1.20). Mean value of pain perception was significantly less with carisolv (0.82) as compared to air rotor and hand instrument. It was concluded that chemicomechanical removal of caries with Carisolv was found to be effective measure of caries removal and could be considered as viable alternatives to painful procedures like airotor in management of dental caries especially in children. How to cite this article: Goomer P, Jain R L, Kaur H, Sood R. Comparison of the Efficacy of Chemicomechanical Caries Removal with Conventional Methods - A Clinical Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):42-47.

  4. The effectiveness of faecal removal methods of pasture management to control the cyathostomin burden of donkeys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The level of anthelmintic resistance within some cyathostomin parasite populations has increased to the level where sole reliance on anthelmintic-based control protocols is not possible. Management-based nematode control methods, including removal of faeces from pasture, are widely recommended for use in association with a reduction in anthelmintic use to reduce selection pressure for drug resistance; however, very little work has been performed to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of such methods. Methods We analysed data obtained from 345 donkeys at The Donkey Sanctuary (Devon, UK), managed under three different pasture management techniques, to investigate the effectiveness of faeces removal in strongyle control in equids. The management groups were as follows: no removal of faeces from pasture, manual, twice-weekly removal of faeces from pasture and automatic, twice-weekly removal of faeces from pasture (using a mechanical pasture sweeper). From turn-out onto pasture in May, monthly faecal egg counts were obtained for each donkey and the dataset subjected to an auto regressive moving average model. Results There was little to no difference in faecal egg counts between the two methods of faecal removal; both resulted in significantly improved cyathostomin control compared to the results obtained from the donkeys that grazed pasture from which there was no faecal removal. Conclusions This study represents a valuable and unique assessment of the effectiveness of the removal of equine faeces from pasture, and provides an evidence base from which to advocate twice-weekly removal of faeces from pasture as an adjunct for equid nematode control. Widespread adoption of this practice could substantially reduce anthelmintic usage, and hence reduce selection pressure for nematode resistance to the currently effective anthelmintic products. PMID:24460700

  5. Removing eye blink artefacts from EEG-A single-channel physiology-based method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shenghuan; McIntosh, Julia; Shadli, Shabah M; Neo, Phoebe S-H; Huang, Zhiyi; McNaughton, Neil

    2017-11-01

    EEG signals are often contaminated with artefacts, particularly with large signals generated by eye blinks. Deletion of artefact can lose valuable data. Current methods of removing the eye blink component to leave residual EEG, such as blind source component removal, require multichannel recording, are computationally intensive, and can alter the original EEG signal. Here we describe a novel single-channel method using a model based on the ballistic physiological components of the eye blink. This removes the blink component, leaving uncontaminated EEG largely unchanged. Processing time allows its use in real-time applications such as neurofeedback training. Blink removal had a success rate of over 90% recovered variance of original EEG when removing synthesised eye blink components. Fronto-lateral sites were poorer (∼80%) than most other sites (92-96%), with poor fronto-polar results (67%). When compared with three popular independent component analysis (ICA) methods, our method was only slightly (1%) better at frontal midline sites but significantly (>20%) better at lateral sites with an overall advantage of ∼10%. With few recording channels and real-time processing, our method shows clear advantages over ICA for removing eye blinks. It should be particularly suited for use in portable brain-computer-interfaces and in neurofeedback training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. EVALUATION OF THREE CLEANING METHODS FOR REMOVING ASBESTOS FROM CARPET. DETERMINATION OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH EACH METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of three cleaning methods to remove asbestos from contaminated carpet and to determine the airborne asbestos concentrations associated with the use of each method. The carpet on which the methods were tested was naturally cont...

  7. EVALUATION OF THREE CLEANING METHODS FOR REMOVING ASBESTOS FROM CARPET. DETERMINATION OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH EACH METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of three cleaning methods to remove asbestos from contaminated carpet and to determine the airborne asbestos concentrations associated with the use of each method. The carpet on which the methods were tested was naturally cont...

  8. The effectiveness of faecal removal methods of pasture management to control the cyathostomin burden of donkeys.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Christopher J; Love, Sandy; Moore, Anna; Burden, Faith A; Matthews, Jacqui B; Denwood, Matthew J

    2014-01-24

    The level of anthelmintic resistance within some cyathostomin parasite populations has increased to the level where sole reliance on anthelmintic-based control protocols is not possible. Management-based nematode control methods, including removal of faeces from pasture, are widely recommended for use in association with a reduction in anthelmintic use to reduce selection pressure for drug resistance; however, very little work has been performed to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of such methods. We analysed data obtained from 345 donkeys at The Donkey Sanctuary (Devon, UK), managed under three different pasture management techniques, to investigate the effectiveness of faeces removal in strongyle control in equids. The management groups were as follows: no removal of faeces from pasture, manual, twice-weekly removal of faeces from pasture and automatic, twice-weekly removal of faeces from pasture (using a mechanical pasture sweeper). From turn-out onto pasture in May, monthly faecal egg counts were obtained for each donkey and the dataset subjected to an auto regressive moving average model. There was little to no difference in faecal egg counts between the two methods of faecal removal; both resulted in significantly improved cyathostomin control compared to the results obtained from the donkeys that grazed pasture from which there was no faecal removal. This study represents a valuable and unique assessment of the effectiveness of the removal of equine faeces from pasture, and provides an evidence base from which to advocate twice-weekly removal of faeces from pasture as an adjunct for equid nematode control. Widespread adoption of this practice could substantially reduce anthelmintic usage, and hence reduce selection pressure for nematode resistance to the currently effective anthelmintic products.

  9. COD and color removal of reactive orange 16 dye solution by electrochemical oxidation and adsorption method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Zuhailie; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Yusop, Muhammad Rahimi; Othman, Mohamed Rozali

    2015-09-01

    Degradation of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) dye was investigated using electrochemical oxidation and adsorption (batch method) using mixture of coconut trunk charcoal-graphite-tin-polyvinyl chloride(PVC). In batch studies for adsorbents pellet and powder form of the charcoal mixture were used. RO16 was chosen as the model dye because of its high resistance towards conventional treatment methods. NaCl and RO16 concentration, treatment duration, weight of electrode and adsorbent and volume of solution were kept constant for both methods. The effectiveness of the treatments were compared and evaluated by percentage of RO16 decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and results indicated that electrochemical oxidation method ables to decolorized RO16 dye up to 98.5% after 20 minutes electrolysis time while pellet and powder in batch method only removed 17.1 and 33.6% of RO16 color respectively. However, only 45.6% of COD can be removed using electrochemical oxidation method while pellet and powder in batch method removed 47.8 and 49.6% of COD respectively. The decolorization and COD removal of RO16 was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometer (by the changes of absorption spectrum intensity of azo chromophore (-N=N-) at λ=388 and 492.50 nm and Hach spectrophotometer respectively. FTIR was used to determine functional groups present in the coconut trunk charcoal.

  10. A novel software-based technique for quantifying placental calcifications and infarctions from ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, John T.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala; Higgins, Mary; Stanton, Marie; Brennan, Patrick

    2008-03-01

    In obstetrics, antenatal ultrasound assessment of placental morphology comprises an important part of the estimation of fetal health. Ultrasound analysis of the placenta may reveal abnormalities such as placental calcification and infarcts. Current methods of quantification of these abnormalities are subjective and involve a grading system of Grannum stages I-III. The aim of this project is to develop a software tool that quantifies semi-automatically placental ultrasound images and facilitates the assessment of placental morphology. We have developed a 2D ultrasound imaging software tool that allows the obstetrician or sonographer to define the placental region of interest. A secondary reference map is created for use in our quantification algorithm. Using a slider technique the user can easily define an upper threshold based on high intensity for calcification classification and a lower threshold to define infarction regions based on low intensity within the defined region of interest. The percentage of the placental area that is calcified and also the percentage of infarction is calculated and this is the basis of our new metric. Ultrasound images of abnormal and normal placentas have been acquired to aid our software development. A full clinical prospective evaluation is currently being performed and we are currently applying this technology to the three-dimensional ultrasound domain. We have developed a novel software-based technique for calculating the extent of placental calcification and infarction, providing a new metric in this field. Our new metric may provide a more accurate measurement of placental calcification and infarction than current techniques.

  11. Removal efficiency and toxicity reduction of 4-chlorophenol with physical, chemical and biochemical methods.

    PubMed

    Gómez, M; Murcia, M D; Dams, R; Christofi, N; Gómez, E; Gómez, J L

    2012-01-01

    Chlorophenols are well-known priority pollutants and many different treatments have been assessed to facilitate their removal from industrial wastewater. However, an absolute and optimum solution still has to be practically implemented in an industrial setting. In this work, a series ofphysical, chemical and biochemical treatments have been systematically tested for the removal of 4-chlorophenol, and their results have been compared in order to determine the most effective treatment based on removal efficiency and residual by-product formation. Chemical treatments based on advanced oxidation processes (AOP) produced the best results on rate and extent of pollutant removal. The non-chemical technologies showed advantages in terms of complete (in the case of adsorption) or easy (enzymatic treatments) removal of toxic treatment by-products. The AOP methods led to the production of different photoproducts depending on the chosen treatment. Toxic products remained in most cases following treatment, though the toxicity level is significantly reduced with combination treatments. Among the treatments, a photochemical method combining UV, produced with a KrCl excilamp, and hydrogen peroxide achieved total removal of chlorophenol and all by-products and is considered the best treatment for chlorophenol removal.

  12. Noninvasive control of dental calculus removal: qualification of two fluorescence methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Biryukova, T.

    2013-02-01

    The main condition of periodontitis prevention is the full calculus removal from the teeth surface. This procedure should be fulfilled without harming adjacent unaffected tooth tissues. Nevertheless the problem of sensitive and precise estimating of tooth-calculus interface exists and potential risk of hard tissue damage remains. In this work it was shown that fluorescence diagnostics during calculus removal can be successfully used for precise noninvasive detection of calculus-tooth interface. In so doing the simple implementation of this method free from the necessity of spectrometer using can be employed. Such a simple implementation of calculus detection set-up can be aggregated with the devices of calculus removing.

  13. Method and apparatus for removing residual hydrogen from a purified gas

    SciTech Connect

    Briesacher, J.L.; Applegarth, C.H.; Lorimer, D.H.

    1993-08-24

    A method is described for removing residual hydrogen from a purified gas comprising the steps of: (a) heating an impure gas; (b) contacting the heated impure gas with an impurity sorbing material to produce a purified gas having trace amounts of residual hydrogen; (c) cooling the purified gas to a temperature less than about 100 C; and (d) contacting the cooled purified gas with a hydrogen sorbing material to at least partially remove said residual hydrogen.

  14. Method for the removal of carbon or carbon compounds from a waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, P.

    1983-05-17

    A method for the removal of carbon or carbon compounds from a waste stream generated in an unsupported slurry catalyst process utilized for the hydroconversion of heavy hydrocarbonaceous black oil which stream comprises vanadium sulfide, nickel sulfide and carbon or carbon compounds is disclosed. The carbon or carbon compound is removed by contacting the waste stream with sulfur dioxide at oxidizing conditions to yield a solid residue which contains metal sulfides.

  15. Apparatus and method for loading and unloading multiple digital tape cassettes utilizing a removable magazine

    DOEpatents

    Lindenmeyer, Carl W.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus and method to automate the handling of multiple digital tape cassettes for processing by commercially available cassette tape readers and recorders. A removable magazine rack stores a plurality of tape cassettes, and cooperates with a shuttle device that automatically inserts and removes cassettes from the magazine to the reader and vice-versa. Photocells are used to identify and index to the desired tape cassette. The apparatus allows digital information stored on multiple cassettes to be processed without significant operator intervention.

  16. Apparatus and method for loading and unloading multiple digital tape cassettes utilizing a removable magazine

    DOEpatents

    Lindenmeyer, C.W.

    1993-01-26

    An apparatus and method to automate the handling of multiple digital tape cassettes for processing by commercially available cassette tape readers and recorders. A removable magazine rack stores a plurality of tape cassettes, and cooperates with a shuttle device that automatically inserts and removes cassettes from the magazine to the reader and vice-versa. Photocells are used to identify and index to the desired tape cassette. The apparatus allows digital information stored on multiple cassettes to be processed without significant operator intervention.

  17. Dentine microhardness after different methods for detection and removal of carious dentine tissue

    PubMed Central

    MOLLICA, Fernanda Brandão; TORRES, Carlos Rocha Gomes; GONÇALVES, Sergio Eduardo de Paiva; MANCINI, †Maria Nadir Gasparoto

    2012-01-01

    There are several methods for identifying carious dentinal tissue aiming to avoid removal of healthy dentinal tissue. Objectives The purpose of this study was to test different methods for the detection of carious dentinal tissue regarding the amount of carious tissue removed and the remaining dentin microhardness after caries removal. Material and methods The dentin surfaces of 20 bovine teeth were exposed and half of the surface was protected with nail polish. Cariogenic challenge was performed by immersion in a demineralizing solution for 14 days. After transverse cross-section of the crown, the specimens were divided into four groups (n=10), according to the method used to identify and remove the carious tissue: "Papacárie", Caries-detector dye, DIAGNOdent and Tactile method. After caries removal, the cross-sectional surface was included in acrylic resin and polished. In a microhardness tester, the removed dentin thickness and the Vickers microhardness of the following regions were evaluated: remaining dentin after caries removal and superficial and deep healthy dentin. Results ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05) were performed, except for DIAGNOdent, which did not detect the presence of caries. Results for removed dentin thickness were: "Papacárie" (424.7±105.0; a), Caries-detector dye (370.5±78.3; ab), Tactile method (322.8±51.5; bc). Results for the remaining dentin microhardness were: "Papacárie" (42.2±10.5; bc), Caries-detector dye (44.6±11.8; abc), Tactile method (24.3±9.0; d). Conclusions DIAGNOdent did not detect the presence of carious tissue; Tactile method and "Papacárie" resulted in the least and the most dentinal thickness removal, respectively; Tactile method differed significantly from "Papacárie" and Caries-detector dye in terms of the remaining dentin microhardness, and Tactile method was the one which presented the lowest microhardness values. PMID:23032207

  18. Partial separation of platelet and placental adenosine receptors from adenosine A2-like binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Zolnierowicz, S.; Work, C.; Hutchison, K.; Fox, I.H. )

    1990-04-01

    The ubiquitous adenosine A2-like binding protein obscures the binding properties of adenosine receptors assayed with 5'-N-({sup 3}H)ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (({sup 3}H)NECA). To solve this problem, we developed a rapid and simple method to separate adenosine receptors from the adenosine A2-like binding protein. Human platelet and placental membranes were solubilized with 1% 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate. The soluble platelet extract was precipitated with polyethylene glycol and the fraction enriched in adenosine receptors was isolated from the precipitate by differential centrifugation. The adenosine A2-like binding protein was removed from the soluble placental extract with hydroxylapatite and adenosine receptors were precipitated with polyethylene glycol. The specificity of the ({sup 3}H)NECA binding is typical of an adenosine A2 receptor for platelets and an adenosine A1 receptor for placenta. This method leads to enrichment of adenosine A2 receptors for platelets and adenosine A1 receptors for placenta. This provides a useful preparation technique for pharmacologic studies of adenosine receptors.

  19. Feasibility of removing surface deposits on stone using biological and chemical remediation methods.

    PubMed

    Polo, A; Cappitelli, F; Brusetti, L; Principi, P; Villa, F; Giacomucci, L; Ranalli, G; Sorlini, C

    2010-07-01

    The study was conducted on alterations found on stone artwork and integrates microbial control and a biotechnological method for the removal of undesirable chemical substances. The Demetra and Cronos sculptures are two of 12 stone statues decorating the courtyard of the Buonconsiglio Castle in Trento (Italy). An initial inspection of the statues revealed putative black crusts and highlighted the microbial contamination causing discoloration. In 2006, the Cultural Heritage Superintendence of Trento commissioned us to study and remove these chemical and biological stains. Stereomicroscopy characterised the stone of the sculptures as oolitic limestone, and infrared analyses confirmed the presence of black crusts. To remove the black crusts, we applied a remediation treatment of sulphate-reducing bacteria, which removes the chemical alteration but preserves the original stone and the patina noble. Using traditional and biomolecular methods, we studied the putative microbial contamination and confirmed the presence of biodeteriogens and chose biocide Biotin N for the removal of the agents causing the discolouration. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fluorescent in situ hybridisation established that Cyanobacteria and green algae genera were responsible for the green staining whereas the black microbial contamination was due to dematiaceous fungi. After the biocide Biotin N treatment, we applied molecular methods and demonstrated that the Cyanobacteria, and most of the green algae and dematiaceous fungi, had been efficiently removed. The reported case study reveals that conservators can benefit from an integrated biotechnological approach aimed at the biocleaning of chemical alterations and the abatement of biodeteriogens.

  20. Effectiveness of 2 chemomechanical caries removal methods on residual bacteria in dentin of primary teeth.

    PubMed

    El-Tekeya, Magda; El-Habashy, Laila; Mokhles, Nadia; El-Kimary, Engy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 2 chemomechanical caries removal methods-Carisolv and Papacarie-on the residual cariogenic bacteria in the dentin of primary teeth vs traditional hand excavation. Forty-five primary teeth were divided into 3 groups, according to the caries removal method used. Carious dentin samples were taken, then all softened dentin was removed, and a second sample was taken when the cavities were clinically caries-free, All teeth were filled with composite resins. All dentin samples were serially diluted and cultured anaerobically on different agar plates: blood agar, Mitis salivarius agar, and Rogosa agar plates. Colony forming units were determined for total bacterial, mutans streptococci, and lactobacilli counts. The 3 caries removal methods significantly reduced the residual cariogenic bacteria for the total bacterial, mutans streptococci, and lactobacilli counts. There was a statistically significant difference between Papacarie and both Carisolv and hand excavation methods, with Papacarie being more effective in caries removal and causing more reduction in bacterial count. Papacarie is significantly more efficient in reducing the residual cariogenic bacteria in the dentin of primary teeth vs both Carisolv and the hand excavation method.

  1. Optimized Extraction Method To Remove Humic Acid Interferences from Soil Samples Prior to Microbial Proteome Measurements.

    PubMed

    Qian, Chen; Hettich, Robert L

    2017-07-07

    The microbial composition and their activities in soil environments play a critical role in organic matter transformation and nutrient cycling. Liquid chromatography coupled to high-performance mass spectrometry provides a powerful approach to characterize soil microbiomes; however, the limited microbial biomass and the presence of abundant interferences in soil samples present major challenges to proteome extraction and subsequent MS measurement. To this end, we have designed an experimental method to improve microbial proteome measurement by removing the soil-borne humic substances coextraction from soils. Our approach employs an in situ detergent-based microbial lysis/TCA precipitation coupled to an additional cleanup step involving acidified precipitation and filtering at the peptide level to remove most of the humic acid interferences prior to proteolytic peptide measurement. The novelty of this approach is an integration to exploit two different characteristics of humic acids: (1) Humic acids are insoluble in acidic solution but should not be removed at the protein level, as undesirable protein removal may also occur. Rather it is better to leave the humics acids in the samples until the peptide level, at which point the significant differential solubility of humic acids versus peptides at low pH can be exploited very efficiently. (2) Most of the humic acids have larger molecule weights than the peptides. Therefore, filtering a pH 2 to 3 peptide solution with a 10 kDa filter will remove most of the humic acids. This method is easily interfaced with normal proteolytic processing approaches and provides a reliable and straightforward protein extraction method that efficiently removes soil-borne humic substances without inducing proteome sample loss or biasing protein identification in mass spectrometry. In general, this humic acid removal step is universal and can be adopted by any workflow to effectively remove humic acids to avoid them negatively competing

  2. A novel pre-oxidation method for elemental mercury removal utilizing a complex vaporized absorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; Hao, Runlong; Guo, Qing

    2014-09-15

    A novel semi-dry integrative method for elemental mercury (Hg(0)) removal has been proposed in this paper, in which Hg(0) was initially pre-oxidized by a vaporized liquid-phase complex absorbent (LCA) composed of a Fenton reagent, peracetic acid (CH3COOOH) and sodium chloride (NaCl), after which Hg(2+) was absorbed by the resultant Ca(OH)2. The experimental results indicated that CH3COOOH and NaCl were the best additives for Hg(0) oxidation. Among the influencing factors, the pH of the LCA and the adding rate of the LCA significantly affected the Hg(0) removal. The coexisting gases, SO2 and NO, were characterized as either increasing or inhibiting in the removal process, depending on their concentrations. Under optimal reaction conditions, the efficiency for the single removal of Hg(0) was 91%. Under identical conditions, the efficiencies of the simultaneous removal of SO2, NO and Hg(0) were 100%, 79.5% and 80.4%, respectively. Finally, the reaction mechanism for the simultaneous removal of SO2, NO and Hg(0) was proposed based on the characteristics of the removal products as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), the analysis of the electrode potentials, and through data from related research references.

  3. Estimating fish populations by removal methods with minnow traps in southeast Alaska streams.

    Treesearch

    M.D. Bryant

    2002-01-01

    Passive capture methods, such as minnow traps, are commonly used to capture fish for mark-recapture population estimates; however, they have not been used for removal methods. Minnow traps set for 90-min periods during three or four sequential capture occasions during the summer of 1996 were used to capture coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch fry and...

  4. Infant sex-specific placental cadmium and DNA methylation associations

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, April F.; Farin, Fred M.; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Afsharinejad, Zahra; Burbacher, Thomas M.; Siscovick, David S.; and others

    2015-04-15

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that maternal cadmium (Cd) burden and fetal growth associations may vary by fetal sex. However, mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. Objectives: Among 24 maternal-infant pairs, we investigated infant sex-specific associations between placental Cd and placental genome-wide DNA methylation. Methods: We used ANOVA models to examine sex-stratified associations of placental Cd (dichotomized into high/low Cd using sex-specific Cd median cutoffs) with DNA methylation at each cytosine-phosphate-guanine site or region. Statistical significance was defined using a false discovery rate cutoff (<0.10). Results: Medians of placental Cd among females and males were 5 and 2 ng/g, respectively. Among females, three sites (near ADP-ribosylation factor-like 9 (ARL9), siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3 (SIAH3), and heparin sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 4 (HS3ST4) and one region on chromosome 7 (including carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CROT) and TP5S target 1 (TP53TG1)) were hypomethylated in high Cd placentas. Among males, high placental Cd was associated with methylation of three sites, two (hypomethylated) near MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) and one (hypermethylated) near spalt-like transcription factor 1 (SALL1), and two regions (both hypomethylated, one on chromosome 3 including MECOM and another on chromosome 8 including rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10 (ARHGEF10). Differentially methylated sites were at or close to transcription start sites of genes involved in cell damage response (SIAH3, HS3ST4, TP53TG1) in females and cell differentiation, angiogenesis and organ development (MECOM, SALL1) in males. Conclusions: Our preliminary study supports infant sex-specific placental Cd-DNA methylation associations, possibly accounting for previously reported differences in Cd-fetal growth associations across fetal sex. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these

  5. Practical method of shadow detection and removal for high spatial resolution remote sensing image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ru; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Xia; Chen, Zhengchao; Wei, Zheng; Zheng, Lanfen

    2007-11-01

    High spatial resolution remote sensing image (HSRRSI) has received a warm welcome in many fields. However, building shadows of large area on HSRRSI (up to 30% in some cases) are one of the biggest hindrances for further applications in many fields. To keep a balance between precision and efficiency required by applications during shadow removal, this paper introduces a creative and practical strategy based on the theory of the pulse coupled neural network (PCNN). By applying the simplified model of PCNN, shadows on HSRRSI had been detected and removed respectively. When applied to HSRRSI, the method could not only remove the shadows, but also keep the contrast between removed areas with shadows and other areas without shadows from being too big, which might distort the image. Therefore the satisfactory result is gained.

  6. [Wavelet NeighShrink method for grid texture removal in image of solar radio bursts].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui-zhen; Hu, Zhan-yi

    2007-01-01

    The data received from solar bursts contain a lot of noise, which makes further processing more difficult. To remove the noise and enhance the image, we studied the properties of the NeighShrink threshold function and analyzed the influence of neighborhood window size on the denoising result, on the basis of which a new wavelet NeighShrink square root method for image denoising is presented. Firstly, each channel of the solar burst image is normalized, which can, to some extent, remove the horizontal grid texture in the image. Secondly, the preprocessed image is decomposed by wavelet transform, and the obtained wavelet coefficients are thresholded by NeighShrink square root method. Finally, the denoised image is reconstructed by inverse wavelet transform. The experimental results show that the presented method is effective in noise removal and image enhancement.

  7. Primary teeth caries removal using the Carisolv chemomechanical method: a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kavvadia, Katerina; Karagianni, Vassiliki; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Papagiannouli, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this controlled clinical trial was to compare the working time for caries removal in primary teeth, the need for local anesthesia and patient cooperation, when the chemomechanical Carisolv or the conventional mechanical method were used. The sample consisted of primary teeth of children who had occlusal or buccal carious lesions into dentin. High speed and/or low speed were used as the conventional mechanical method of caries removal. The efficiency in caries removal was judged on the basis of clinical criteria. Length of working time, need of local anesthesia, and level of patient cooperation were recorded for both methods. Statistical analysis was performed using the student's t test and chi-square test. Working time with the chemomechanical method was much more prolonged than with the mechanical method (P < .001), but it did not negatively affect children's cooperation. Furthermore, the chemomechanical method reduced the need for administration of local anesthesia for Class V cavity preparations. The chemomechanical method, although more prolonged, is effective in caries removal in primary teeth, does not influence children's cooperation and may reduce the need of local anesthesia in Class V restorations.

  8. Placental Origins of Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Graham J.; Fowden, Abigail L.; Thornburg, Kent L.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence links an individual's susceptibility to chronic disease in adult life to events during their intrauterine phase of development. Biologically this should not be unexpected, for organ systems are at their most plastic when progenitor cells are proliferating and differentiating. Influences operating at this time can permanently affect their structure and functional capacity, and the activity of enzyme systems and endocrine axes. It is now appreciated that such effects lay the foundations for a diverse array of diseases that become manifest many years later, often in response to secondary environmental stressors. Fetal development is underpinned by the placenta, the organ that forms the interface between the fetus and its mother. All nutrients and oxygen reaching the fetus must pass through this organ. The placenta also has major endocrine functions, orchestrating maternal adaptations to pregnancy and mobilizing resources for fetal use. In addition, it acts as a selective barrier, creating a protective milieu by minimizing exposure of the fetus to maternal hormones, such as glucocorticoids, xenobiotics, pathogens, and parasites. The placenta shows a remarkable capacity to adapt to adverse environmental cues and lessen their impact on the fetus. However, if placental function is impaired, or its capacity to adapt is exceeded, then fetal development may be compromised. Here, we explore the complex relationships between the placental phenotype and developmental programming of chronic disease in the offspring. Ensuring optimal placentation offers a new approach to the prevention of disorders such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity, which are reaching epidemic proportions. PMID:27604528

  9. Placental calcification: a metastatic process?

    PubMed

    Poggi, S H; Bostrom, K I; Demer, L L; Skinner, H C; Koos, B J

    2001-07-01

    Placental calcification commonly increases with gestational age. The mechanism of apatite mineralization probably involves one of three known mechanisms of tissue calcification: physiological (like bone), dystrophic (ischaemia-related) or metastatic (mineralization in a supersaturated environment). This study was designed to determine the mechanism of calcification by examining (1) the mineral content of placental calcifications in comparison to other physiological and pathological apatites, and (2) the expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are important in physiological calcification, across gestational age. By energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA), the Ca/P weight ratio for apatitic mineral from mature calcifications was 2.00+/-0.05 (s.e.), which is similar to that for stones formed in a metastatic, supersaturated environment and lower than that observed in physiological calcification. Biologically active BMP, which was determined by bioassay, was demonstrated in mature and postmature placentae. The BMPs PLAB, PDF and related protein INSL-4 were identified by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), but their mRNA expression was independent of gestational age (7-41 weeks of gestation). We conclude that (1) the identified BMPs were not related directly to placental calcification, which argues against physiological calcification, and (2) the chemical composition of the apatitic mineral was suggestive of rapid formation in a supersaturated environment, which is consistent with a metastatic mechanism of calcification.

  10. Altered fetal growth, placental abnormalities, and stillbirth.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Radek; Hansen, Nellie I; Pinar, Halit; Willinger, Marian; Reddy, Uma M; Parker, Corette B; Silver, Robert M; Dudley, Donald J; Stoll, Barbara J; Saade, George R; Koch, Matthew A; Hogue, Carol; Varner, Michael W; Conway, Deborah L; Coustan, Donald; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, stillbirth is one of the leading causes of death. Altered fetal growth and placental abnormalities are the strongest and most prevalent known risk factors for stillbirth. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of association between placental abnormalities, fetal growth, and stillbirth. Population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in 5 geographic areas in the U.S. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small (<10th percentile) and large (>90th percentile) for gestational age at death (stillbirth) or delivery (live birth) using a published algorithm. Placental examination by perinatal pathologists was performed using a standardized protocol. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design. Among 319 singleton stillbirths and 1119 singleton live births at ≥24 weeks at death or delivery respectively, 25 placental findings were investigated. Fifteen findings were significantly associated with stillbirth. Ten of the 15 were also associated with fetal growth abnormalities (single umbilical artery; velamentous insertion; terminal villous immaturity; retroplacental hematoma; parenchymal infarction; intraparenchymal thrombus; avascular villi; placental edema; placental weight; ratio birth weight/placental weight) while 5 of the 15 associated with stillbirth were not associated with fetal growth abnormalities (acute chorioamnionitis of placental membranes; acute chorioamionitis of chorionic plate; chorionic plate vascular degenerative changes; perivillous, intervillous fibrin, fibrinoid deposition; fetal vascular thrombi in the chorionic plate). Five patterns were observed: placental findings associated with (1) stillbirth but not fetal growth abnormalities; (2) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths only; (3) fetal growth abnormalities in live births only; (4) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths and live births in a similar manner; (5) a different pattern of

  11. Removal of a long PVC pipe strangulated in the penis by hot-melt method.

    PubMed

    Jiatao, Ji; Bin, Xu; Huamao, Ye; Jianguo, Hou; Bing, Liu; Yinghao, Sun

    2011-02-01

    Penile incarceration for erotic or autoerotic purposes has been reported in a wide range of age groups, and often presents a significant challenge to urologic surgeons. No ready method has been reported for removing a polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe entrapped on the penis. To present our experience in using hot-melt method to remove a constricted PVC pipe on the penis. A long melting split was made on the PVC pipe entrapped on the penis by using the long narrow branch of forceps heated on a gas stove. The heated forceps was able to make a melt split on the PVC pipe. Consequently, the PVC pipe was removed by pulling the edges of the pipe apart without much difficulty. The total operation time was 20 minutes. Penile incarceration is a urologic emergency, for which resourcefulness is required in some unexpected cases. Hot-melting has proved to be an easy and effective method for removing penile strangulation by a PVC pipe. To our knowledge, it is the first report about the removal of PVC pipe entrapped on a penis. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. A Residual Chlorine Removal Method to Allow Drinking Water Monitoring by Biological Early Warning Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-18

    Spearman - Karber method (Hamilton et as described below. al., 1977). Dilution water was a mixture Reagent-grade sodium hypochlorite of 60% well water...Inc., Ann Hamilton MA, Russo RC, Thurston RV. Arbor, MI. 1977. Trimmed Spearman - Karber National Research Council. 1996. Guide method for estimating...Technical Report 0501 AAD A RESIDUAL CHLORINE REMOVAL METHOD TO ALLOW DRINKING WATER MONITORING BY BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS US Army Center

  13. Apparatus and method for removing solvent from carbon dioxide in resin recycling system

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W [Harrisonville, MO; Hand, Thomas E [Lee's Summit, MO; DeLaurentiis, Gary M [Jamestown, CA

    2009-01-06

    A two-step resin recycling system and method solvent that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material. The system and method includes one or more solvent wash vessels to expose resin particles to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles in the one or more solvent wash vessels to substantially remove contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is provided to separate the solvent from the resin particles after removal from the one or more solvent wash vessels. The resin particles are next exposed to carbon dioxide in a closed loop carbon dioxide system. The closed loop system includes a carbon dioxide vessel where the carbon dioxide is exposed to the resin, substantially removing any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation. A separation vessel is also provided to separate the solvent from the solvent laden carbon dioxide. Both the carbon dioxide and the solvent are reused after separation in the separation vessel.

  14. Methods of removing a constituent from a feed stream using adsorption media

    DOEpatents

    Tranter, Troy J [Idaho Falls, ID; Mann, Nicholas R [Rigby, ID; Todd, Terry A [Aberdeen, ID; Herbst, Ronald S [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-05-24

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving and/or suspending at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  15. A Study of Morrison's Iterative Noise Removal Method. Final Report M. S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ioup, G. E.; Wright, K. A. R.

    1985-01-01

    Morrison's iterative noise removal method is studied by characterizing its effect upon systems of differing noise level and response function. The nature of data acquired from a linear shift invariant instrument is discussed so as to define the relationship between the input signal, the instrument response function, and the output signal. Fourier analysis is introduced, along with several pertinent theorems, as a tool to more thorough understanding of the nature of and difficulties with deconvolution. In relation to such difficulties the necessity of a noise removal process is discussed. Morrison's iterative noise removal method and the restrictions upon its application are developed. The nature of permissible response functions is discussed, as is the choice of the response functions used.

  16. A novel method for the sequential removal and separation of multiple heavy metals from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Fang, Li; Li, Liang; Qu, Zan; Xu, Haomiao; Xu, Jianfang; Yan, Naiqiang

    2017-09-01

    A novel method was developed and applied for the treatment of simulated wastewater containing multiple heavy metals. A sorbent of ZnS nanocrystals (NCs) was synthesized and showed extraordinary performance for the removal of Hg(2+), Cu(2+), Pb(2+) and Cd(2+). The removal efficiencies of Hg(2+), Cu(2+), Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) were 99.9%, 99.9%, 90.8% and 66.3%, respectively. Meanwhile, it was determined that solubility product (Ksp) of heavy metal sulfides was closely related to adsorption selectivity of various heavy metals on the sorbent. The removal efficiency of Hg(2+) was higher than that of Cd(2+), while the Ksp of HgS was lower than that of CdS. It indicated that preferential adsorption of heavy metals occurred when the Ksp of the heavy metal sulfide was lower. In addition, the differences in the Ksp of heavy metal sulfides allowed for the exchange of heavy metals, indicating the potential application for the sequential removal and separation of heavy metals from wastewater. According to the cumulative adsorption experimental results, multiple heavy metals were sequentially adsorbed and separated from the simulated wastewater in the order of the Ksp of their sulfides. This method holds the promise of sequentially removing and separating multiple heavy metals from wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Is biofilm removal properly assessed? Comparison of different quantification methods in a 96-well plate system.

    PubMed

    Stiefel, Philipp; Rosenberg, Urs; Schneider, Jana; Mauerhofer, Stefan; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-05-01

    Various methods have been reported to quantify total biofilm or different components of biofilm; however, these methods are often confusedly used, leading to discrepancies and misleading results. In this study, different methods for quantification of biofilm, including those for total biomass, total amount of bacterial cells, viable cell number, and amount of extracellular polymeric substances, were systematically compared in microtiter plates. To evaluate which method is suitable for assessment of biofilm removal and for bacterial killing, biofilm samples were treated with various cleaners possessing removing and/or killing capacities. It was found that most of the methods tested in this study in general exhibited high reproducibility and repeatability. Crystal Violet staining was a simple but reliable method for total biomass quantification. Total bacteria cell numbers could be reliably quantified by the fluorescent DNA-binding dye Acridine Orange. Viable cells could be quantified by either an ATP-based assay or a proliferation assay. Both of these viability methods showed a broad detection range and led to precise measurement. For quantification of proteins in the biofilm, staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate was most suitable. Furthermore, it was revealed that a combination of different methods is required to determine if a cleaner kills or removes biofilm.

  18. Midstory removal methods tested for timely release of newly established oak seedlings under oak shelterwoods

    Treesearch

    Ronald A. Rathfon

    2011-01-01

    The oak shelterwood method calls for the removal of shade-tolerant, undesirable midstory species to create adequate diffuse light conditions at the forest floor for oak seedling establishment, preferably timed to coincide with a large acorn crop. Injection (INJ) with an herbicide, chainsaw felling and girdling with herbicide application (SAW), and a low-volume basal...

  19. Clinical evaluation of the sandpaper disk method for removing fluorosis stains from teeth.

    PubMed

    Chandra, S; Chawla, T N

    1975-06-01

    The sandpaper disk method for removing fluorosis stains from teeth was clinically evaluated in 93 teeth in 22 patients. A bleaching solution was first applied to the teeth, and then a sandpaper disk in a straight handpiece was rotated on the stained enamel surface. None of the patients complained of discomfort during or after the bleaching procedure.

  20. Testing a simple field method for assessing nitrate removal in riparian zones

    Treesearch

    Philippe Vidon; Michael G. Dosskey

    2008-01-01

    Being able to identify riparian sites that function better for nitrate removal from groundwater is critical to using efficiently the riparian zones for water quality management. For this purpose, managers need a method that is quick, inexpensive, and accurate enough to enable effective management decisions. This study assesses the precision and accuracy of a simple...

  1. Analysis of the Pit Removal Methods in Digital Terrain Models of Various Resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šamanović, S.; Medak, D.; Gajski, D.

    2016-06-01

    Digital terrain model (DTM) is the base for calculation of the surface runoff under the influence of the gravity (gravity flow) in hydrological analysis. It is important to produce hydrologically corrected DTM with the removed natural and artificial depressions to avoid numerical problems in algorithms of the gravity flow. The pit removal procedure changes geomorphometry of the DTM. GIS software packages use pit removal algorithm independently of geomorphmetric features of the analyzed area. In need of minimally modified DTM after the pit removal areas, the carving method (deepen drainage routes) and the filling method (fill sink) were analyzed on three different geomorphometric areas (bare mountain range, hilly wooded area and the plain area intersected with the network of the drainage canals). The recommendation is given for the choice of geomorphometric least changing DTM algorithm. The input data are raster data of elevation points created by stereoscopic photogrammetry method in 5x5 and 25x25 meter resolution. Differences have been noticed during the process of creating raster data. The recommendation is given for the choice of the most acceptable method for each type of area on the basis of comparison of the original elevation points with the elevation points in created DTM.

  2. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOEpatents

    Yunker, Wayne H.; Christiansen, David W.

    1987-05-05

    A method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  3. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOEpatents

    Yunker, Wayne H.; Christiansen, David W.

    1987-01-01

    A method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  4. Molecular dating and biogeography of the early placental mammal radiation.

    PubMed

    Eizirik, E; Murphy, W J; O'Brien, S J

    2001-01-01

    The timing and phylogenetic hierarchy of early placental mammal divergences was determined based on combined DNA sequence analysis of 18 gene segments (9779 bp) from 64 species. Using rooted and unrooted phylogenies derived from distinct theoretical approaches, strong support for the divergence of four principal clades of eutherian mammals was achieved. Minimum divergence dates of the earliest nodes in the placental mammal phylogeny were estimated with a quartet-based maximum-likelihood method that accommodates rate variation among lineages using conservative fossil calibrations from nine different nodes in the eutherian tree. These minimum estimates resolve the earliest placental mammal divergence nodes at periods between 64 and 104 million years ago, in essentially every case predating the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. The pattern and timing of these divergences allow a geographic interpretation of the primary branching events in eutherian history, likely originating in the southern supercontinent Gondwanaland coincident with its breakup into Africa and South America 95-105 million years ago. We propose an integrated genomic, paleontological, and biogeographic hypothesis to account for these earliest splits on the placental mammal family tree and address current discrepancies between fossil and molecular evidence.

  5. Oxidative stress and maternal obesity: feto-placental unit interaction.

    PubMed

    Malti, N; Merzouk, H; Merzouk, S A; Loukidi, B; Karaouzene, N; Malti, A; Narce, M

    2014-06-01

    To determine oxidative stress markers in maternal obesity during pregnancy and to evaluate feto-placental unit interaction, especially predictors of fetal metabolic alterations. 40 obese pregnant women (prepregnancy BMI > 30 kg/m²) were compared to 50 control pregnant women. Maternal, cord blood and placenta samples were collected at delivery. Biochemical parameters (total cholesterol and triglycerides) and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, carbonyl proteins, superoxide anion expressed as reduced Nitroblue Tetrazolium, nitric oxide expressed as nitrite, reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase) were assayed by biochemical methods. Maternal, fetal and placental triglyceride levels were increased in obese group compared to control. Maternal malondialdehyde, carbonyl proteins, nitric oxide and superoxide anion levels were high while reduced glutathione concentrations and superoxide dismutase activity were low in obesity. In the placenta and in newborns of these obese mothers, variations of redox balance were also observed indicating high oxidative stress. Maternal and placental interaction constituted a strong predictor of fetal redox variations in obese pregnancies. Maternal obesity compromised placental metabolism and antioxidant status which strongly impacted fetal redox balance. Oxidative stress may be one of the key downstream mediators that initiate programming of the offspring. Maternal obesity is associated with metabolic alterations and dysregulation of redox balance in the mother-placenta - fetus unit. These perturbations could lead to maternal and fetal complications and should be carefully considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Human Placenta Project: placental structure, development, and function in real time.

    PubMed

    Guttmacher, A E; Maddox, Y T; Spong, C Y

    2014-05-01

    Despite its crucial role in the health of both the fetus and the pregnant woman, the placenta is the least understood human organ. Since a growing body of evidence also underscores the importance of placental development in the lifelong health of both mother and offspring, this lack of knowledge about placental structure and function is particularly concerning. Given modern approaches and technologies and the ability to develop new methods, we propose a coordinated "Human Placenta Project", with the ultimate goal of understanding human placental structure, development, and function in real time. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Comparison of baseline removal methods for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of geological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyar, M. Darby; Giguere, Stephen; Carey, CJ; Boucher, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    This project examines the causes, effects, and optimization of continuum removal in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to produce the best possible prediction accuracy of elemental composition in geological samples. We compare prediction accuracy resulting from several different techniques for baseline removal, including asymmetric least squares (ALS), adaptive iteratively reweighted penalized least squares (Air-PLS), fully automatic baseline correction (FABC), continuous wavelet transformation, median filtering, polynomial fitting, the iterative thresholding Dietrich method, convex hull/rubber band techniques, and a newly-developed technique for Custom baseline removal (BLR). We assess the predictive performance of these methods using partial least-squares analysis for 13 elements of geological interest, expressed as the weight percentages of SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2, FeO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, and the parts per million concentrations of Ni, Cr, Zn, Mn, and Co. We find that previously published methods for baseline subtraction generally produce equivalent prediction accuracies for major elements. When those pre-existing methods are used, automated optimization of their adjustable parameters is always necessary to wring the best predictive accuracy out of a data set; ideally, it should be done for each individual variable. The new technique of Custom BLR produces significant improvements in prediction accuracy over existing methods across varying geological data sets, instruments, and varying analytical conditions. These results also demonstrate the dual objectives of the continuum removal problem: removing a smooth underlying signal to fit individual peaks (univariate analysis) versus using feature selection to select only those channels that contribute to best prediction accuracy for multivariate analyses. Overall, the current practice of using generalized, one-method-fits-all-spectra baseline removal results in poorer predictive performance for all methods. The

  8. Cathode scraper system and method of using the same for removing uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, Mark A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2015-02-03

    Embodiments include a cathode scraper system and/or method of using the same for removing uranium. The cathode scraper system includes a plurality of cathode assemblies. Each cathode assembly includes a plurality of cathode rods. The cathode scraper system also includes a cathode scraper assembly configured to remove purified uranium deposited on the plurality of cathode rods. The cathode scraper assembly includes a plurality of scrapers arranged in a lattice, and each scraper of the plurality of scrapers is arranged to correspond to a different cathode rod.

  9. Method for removal of asphaltene depositions with amine-activated disulfide oil

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, S.P.

    1983-04-12

    A method for treating and removing unwanted asphaltene deposits from oil and gas wells, surface equipment, flow lines, and pore spaces of oil-baring formations comprises treatment with an amine -activated aliphatic disulfide oil as an asphaltene solvent. In a preferred aspect, the aliphatic disulfide oil is a dialkyl disulfide oil and is activated by the addition of 10 weight percent of diethylamine. In a specific use, the activated disulfide oil is used to remove asphaltene deposits from an oilbearing formation and a producing well penetrating the formation.

  10. Method for removal of human antibodies to native DNA from serum

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, B.A.

    1987-09-01

    A method is described for removing human anti-native DNA antibody from a liquid sample comprising coupling monoclonal, antiidiotypic antibodies capable of binding to a shared idiotype on human anti-native DNA antibody to a medium. The idiotype shares between genetically nonidentical individuals, contacting a liquid sample to the medium to permit binding of human anti-native DNA antibody in the sample to the anti-idiotypic antibodies and separating the sample from the medium to remove the human anti-native DNA antibodies therefrom.

  11. Apparatus and method for removing particle species from fusion-plasma-confinement devices

    DOEpatents

    Hamilton, G.W.

    1981-10-26

    In a mirror fusion plasma confinement apparatus, method and apparatus are provided for selectively removing (pumping) trapped low energy (thermal) particle species from the end cell region, without removing the still useful high energy particle species, and without requiring large power input to accomplish the pumping. Perturbation magnets are placed in the thermal barrier region of the end cell region at the turning point characteristic of trapped thermal particles, thus deflecting the thermal particles from their closed trajectory, causing them to drift sufficiently to exit the thermal barrier.

  12. Placental profiling of UGT1A enzyme expression and activity and interactions with preeclampsia at term.

    PubMed

    Collier, Abby C; Thévenon, Audrey D; Goh, William; Hiraoka, Mark; Kendal-Wright, Claire E

    2015-12-01

    Placental UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes have critical roles in hormone, nutrient, chemical balance and fetal exposure during pregnancy. Placental UGT1A isoforms were profiled and differences between preeclamptic (PE) and non-PE placental UGT expression determined. In third trimester villous placenta, UGT1A1, 1A4, 1A6 and 1A9 were expressed and active in all specimens (n = 10), but UGT1A3, 1A5, 1A7, 1A8 and 1A10 were absent. The UGT1A activities were comparable to human liver microsomes per milligram, but placental microsome yields were only 2 % of liver (1 mg/g of tissue vs. 45 mg/g of tissue). For successful PCR, placental collection and processing within 60 min from delivery, including DNAse and ≥300 ng of RNA in reverse transcription were essential and snap freezing in liquid nitrogen immediately was the best preservation method. Although UGT1A6 mRNA was lower in PE (P < 0.001), there were no other significant effects on UGT mRNA, protein or activities. A more comprehensive tissue sample set is required for confirmation of PE interactions with UGT. Placental UGT1A enzyme expression patterns are similar to the liver and a detoxicative role for placental UGT1A is inferred.

  13. Placental profiling of UGT1A enzyme expression and activity and interactions with preeclampsia at term

    PubMed Central

    Thévenon, Audrey D.; Goh, William; Hiraoka, Mark; Kendal-Wright, Claire E.

    2014-01-01

    Placental UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes have critical roles in hormone, nutrient, chemical balance and fetal exposure during pregnancy. Placental UGT1A isoforms were profiled and differences between preeclamptic (PE) and non-PE placental UGT expression determined. In third trimester villous placenta, UGT1A1, 1A4, 1A6 and 1A9 were expressed and active in all specimens (n = 10), but UGT1A3, 1A5, 1A7, 1A8 and 1A10 were absent. The UGT1A activities were comparable to human liver microsomes per milligram, but placental microsome yields were only 2 % of liver (1 mg/g of tissue vs. 45 mg/g of tissue). For successful PCR, placental collection and processing within 60 min from delivery, including DNAse and ≥300 ng of RNA in reverse transcription were essential and snap freezing in liquid nitrogen immediately was the best preservation method. Although UGT1A6 mRNA was lower in PE (P < 0.001), there were no other significant effects on UGT mRNA, protein or activities. A more comprehensive tissue sample set is required for confirmation of PE interactions with UGT. Placental UGT1A enzyme expression patterns are similar to the liver and a detoxicative role for placental UGT1A is inferred. PMID:25465229

  14. Comparison of different physico-chemical methods for the removal of toxicants from landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Cotman, Magda; Gotvajn, Andreja Zgajnar

    2010-06-15

    Our work was focused on investigation of different treatment procedures for the removal of toxic fractions from a landfill leachate, because sometimes the existing treatment in biological sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is not efficient enough, leading to a hazardous environmental impact of the present persistent and toxic compounds. The efficiency of the procedures used was monitored by chemical analyses and two toxicity tests (activated sludge and Vibrio fischeri). The existing SBR (HRT=1.9 days) removed 46-78% of COD and 96-73% of NH(4)(+)-N. Experiments were conducted with three landfill leachate samples expressing significant difference in concentrations of pollutants and with low BOD(5)/COD ratio (0.06/0.01/0.03). The applied methods were air stripping, adsorption to activated carbon and zeolite clinoptilolite and Fenton oxidation. Air stripping at pH 11 was a viable treatment option for the removal of ammonia nitrogen (up to 94%) and reduction of toxicity to microorganisms. In the adsorption experiments in batch system with different concentration of PAC the most effective was the highest addition (50.0gL(-1)) where 63-92% of COD was removed followed by significant reduction in toxicity to V. fischeri. In the column experiments with clinoptilolite 45/93/100% of NH(4)(+)-N as well as 25/32/39% of COD removal was attained. The removal efficiency for metals followed the sequence Cr>Zn>Cd>Ni. The procedure with zeolite was the second most efficient one regarding reduction of toxicity to both organisms. Fenton oxidation at molar ratio Fe(2+):H(2)O(2)=1.0:10.0 assured 70-85% removal of COD but it only slightly reduced the toxicity.

  15. Method for selectively removing fluorine and fluorine-containing contaminants from gaseous UF.sub.6

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Robert L.; Otey, Milton G.; Perkins, Roy W.

    1982-01-01

    This invention is a method for effecting preferential removal and immobilization of certain gaseous contaminants from gaseous UF.sub.6. The contaminants include fluorine and fluorides which are more reactive with CaCO.sub.3 than is UF.sub.6. The method comprises contacting the contaminant-carrying UF.sub.6 with particulate CaCO.sub.3 at a temperature effecting reaction of the contaminant and the CaCO.sub.3.

  16. Methods and compositions for removing carbon dioxide from a gaseous mixture

    DOEpatents

    Li, Jing; Wu, Haohan

    2014-06-24

    Provided is a method for adsorbing or separating carbon dioxide from a mixture of gases by passing the gas mixture through a porous three-dimensional polymeric coordination compound having a plurality of layers of two-dimensional arrays of repeating structural units, which results in a lower carbon dioxide content in the gas mixture. Thus, this invention provides useful compositions and methods for removal of greenhouse gases, in particular CO.sub.2, from industrial flue gases or from the atmosphere.

  17. Glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep when placental growth is restricted

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, J.A.; Falconer, J.; Robinson, J.S. )

    1989-08-01

    The effect of restricting placental growth on glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep in late gestation was determined by primed constant infusions of D-(U-{sup 14}C)- and D-(2-{sup 3}H)glucose and antipyrine into fetuses of six control sheep and six sheep from which endometrial caruncles had been removed before pregnancy (caruncle sheep). In the latter, placental and fetal weights were reduced, as was the concentration of glucose in fetal arterial blood. Fetal glucose turnover in caruncle sheep was only 52-59% of that in controls, largely because of lower umbilical loss of glucose back to the placenta (38-39% of control) and lower fetal glucose utilization (61-74% of control). However, fetal glucose utilization on a weight-specific basis was similar in control and caruncle sheep. Significant endogenous glucose production occurred in control and caruncle fetal sheep. Maternal glucose production and partition of glucose between the gravid uterus and other maternal tissues were similar in control and caruncle sheep. In conclusion, when placental and fetal growth are restricted, fetal glucose utilization is maintained by reduced loss of glucose back to the placenta and mother and by maintaining endogenous glucose production.

  18. Effects of electrocardiography contamination and comparison of ECG removal methods on upper trapezius electromyography recordings.

    PubMed

    Marker, Ryan J; Maluf, Katrina S

    2014-12-01

    Electromyography (EMG) recordings from the trapezius are often contaminated by the electrocardiography (ECG) signal, making it difficult to distinguish low-level muscle activity from muscular rest. This study investigates the influence of ECG contamination on EMG amplitude and frequency estimations in the upper trapezius during muscular rest and low-level contractions. A new method of ECG contamination removal, filtered template subtraction (FTS), is described and compared to 30 Hz high-pass filter (HPF) and averaged template subtraction (ATS) methods. FTS creates a unique template of each ECG artifact using a low-pass filtered copy of the contaminated signal, which is subtracted from contaminated periods in the original signal. ECG contamination results in an over-estimation of EMG amplitude during rest in the upper trapezius, with negligible effects on amplitude and frequency estimations during low-intensity isometric contractions. FTS and HPF successfully removed ECG contamination from periods of muscular rest, yet introduced errors during muscle contraction. Conversely, ATS failed to fully remove ECG contamination during muscular rest, yet did not introduce errors during muscle contraction. The relative advantages and disadvantages of different ECG contamination removal methods should be considered in the context of the specific motor tasks that require analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Saponification Method for Chlorophyll Removal from Microalgae Biomass as Oil Feedstock.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Xu, Jin; Wu, Hualian; Wang, Guanghua; Dai, Shikun; Fan, Jiewei; He, Hui; Xiang, Wenzhou

    2016-09-07

    Microalgae oil is an optimal feedstock for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biodiesel production, but its high levels of chlorophyll limit its large-scale application. To date, few effective approaches have been developed to remove chlorophyll from microalgae oil. The main purpose of this study was to present a preprocessing method of algae oil feedstock (Scenedesmus) to remove chlorophyll by saponification. The results showed that 96% of chlorophyll in biomass was removed. High quality orange transparent oil could be extracted from the chlorophyll reduced biomass. Specifically, the proportion of neutral lipids and saturation levels of fatty acids increased, and the pigments composition became carotenoids-based. The critical parameters of chlorophyll reduced biodiesel conformed to the standards of the USA, China and EU. Sodium copper chlorophyllin could be prepared from the bleaching effluent. The results presented herein offer a useful pathway to improve the quality of microalgae oil and reduce the cost of microalgae biodiesel.

  20. Apparatus and method for destructive removal of particles contained in flowing fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus and method for destructively removing particles from a flowing gas containing the particles is described. In the specific embodiments disclosed the apparatus is adapted to remove carbon particles from diesel engine exhaust products. The exhaust products are directed to a predetermined location where they are rapidly vaporized and combine with oxygen in the exhaust products to form carbon dioxide. Vaporization in one embodiment is effected by a discharge grid located within an exhaust conduit, the grid being chosen so that alternate conductors defining the grid are spaced apart a distance approximately 125 times the mean diameter of the particles to be removed. A voltage differential of approximately 690 volts is applied across adjacent conductors.

  1. A Saponification Method for Chlorophyll Removal from Microalgae Biomass as Oil Feedstock

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Xu, Jin; Wu, Hualian; Wang, Guanghua; Dai, Shikun; Fan, Jiewei; He, Hui; Xiang, Wenzhou

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae oil is an optimal feedstock for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biodiesel production, but its high levels of chlorophyll limit its large-scale application. To date, few effective approaches have been developed to remove chlorophyll from microalgae oil. The main purpose of this study was to present a preprocessing method of algae oil feedstock (Scenedesmus) to remove chlorophyll by saponification. The results showed that 96% of chlorophyll in biomass was removed. High quality orange transparent oil could be extracted from the chlorophyll reduced biomass. Specifically, the proportion of neutral lipids and saturation levels of fatty acids increased, and the pigments composition became carotenoids-based. The critical parameters of chlorophyll reduced biodiesel conformed to the standards of the USA, China and EU. Sodium copper chlorophyllin could be prepared from the bleaching effluent. The results presented herein offer a useful pathway to improve the quality of microalgae oil and reduce the cost of microalgae biodiesel. PMID:27618070

  2. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases with the regeneration of the absorbent. Exhaust gas is cleaned of particulates and HCl by a water scrub prior to contact with a liquid absorbent that includes an aqueous solution of bisulfite and sulfite ions along with a metal chelate, such as, an iron or zinc aminopolycarboxylic acid. Following contact with the combustion gases the spent absorbent is subjected to electrodialysis to transfer bisulfite ions into a sulfuric acid solution while splitting water with hydroxide and hydrogen ion migration to equalize electrical charge. The electrodialysis stack includes alternate layers of anion selective and bipolar membranes. Oxides of nitrogen are removed from the liquid absorbent by air stripping at an elevated temperature and the regenerated liquid absorbent is returned to contact with exhaust gases for removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides.

  3. Removing Cosmic Spikes Using a Hyperspectral Upper-Bound Spectrum Method.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Stephen M; Timlin, Jerilyn A

    2017-03-01

    Cosmic ray spikes are especially problematic for hyperspectral imaging because of the large number of spikes often present and their negative effects upon subsequent chemometric analysis. Fortunately, while the large number of spectra acquired in a hyperspectral imaging data set increases the probability and number of cosmic spikes observed, the multitude of spectra can also aid in the effective recognition and removal of the cosmic spikes. Zhang and Ben-Amotz were perhaps the first to leverage the additional spatial dimension of hyperspectral data matrices (DM). They integrated principal component analysis (PCA) into the upper bound spectrum method (UBS), resulting in a hybrid method (UBS-DM) for hyperspectral images. Here, we expand upon their use of PCA, recognizing that principal components primarily present in only a few pixels most likely correspond to cosmic spikes. Eliminating the contribution of those principal components in those pixels improves the cosmic spike removal. Both simulated and experimental hyperspectral Raman image data sets are used to test the newly developed UBS-DM-hyperspectral (UBS-DM-HS) method which extends the UBS-DM method by leveraging characteristics of hyperspectral data sets. A comparison is provided between the performance of the UBS-DM-HS method and other methods suitable for despiking hyperspectral images, evaluating both their ability to remove cosmic ray spikes and the extent to which they introduce spectral bias.

  4. Removing cosmic spikes using a hyperspectral upper-bound spectrum method

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, Stephen Michael; Timlin, Jerilyn A.

    2016-11-04

    Cosmic ray spikes are especially problematic for hyperspectral imaging because of the large number of spikes often present and their negative effects upon subsequent chemometric analysis. Fortunately, while the large number of spectra acquired in a hyperspectral imaging data set increases the probability and number of cosmic spikes observed, the multitude of spectra can also aid in the effective recognition and removal of the cosmic spikes. Zhang and Ben-Amotz were perhaps the first to leverage the additional spatial dimension of hyperspectral data matrices (DM). They integrated principal component analysis (PCA) into the upper bound spectrum method (UBS), resulting in a hybrid method (UBS-DM) for hyperspectral images. Here, we expand upon their use of PCA, recognizing that principal components primarily present in only a few pixels most likely correspond to cosmic spikes. Eliminating the contribution of those principal components in those pixels improves the cosmic spike removal. Both simulated and experimental hyperspectral Raman image data sets are used to test the newly developed UBS-DM-hyperspectral (UBS-DM-HS) method which extends the UBS-DM method by leveraging characteristics of hyperspectral data sets. As a result, a comparison is provided between the performance of the UBS-DM-HS method and other methods suitable for despiking hyperspectral images, evaluating both their ability to remove cosmic ray spikes and the extent to which they introduce spectral bias.

  5. Removing cosmic spikes using a hyperspectral upper-bound spectrum method

    DOE PAGES

    Anthony, Stephen Michael; Timlin, Jerilyn A.

    2016-11-04

    Cosmic ray spikes are especially problematic for hyperspectral imaging because of the large number of spikes often present and their negative effects upon subsequent chemometric analysis. Fortunately, while the large number of spectra acquired in a hyperspectral imaging data set increases the probability and number of cosmic spikes observed, the multitude of spectra can also aid in the effective recognition and removal of the cosmic spikes. Zhang and Ben-Amotz were perhaps the first to leverage the additional spatial dimension of hyperspectral data matrices (DM). They integrated principal component analysis (PCA) into the upper bound spectrum method (UBS), resulting in amore » hybrid method (UBS-DM) for hyperspectral images. Here, we expand upon their use of PCA, recognizing that principal components primarily present in only a few pixels most likely correspond to cosmic spikes. Eliminating the contribution of those principal components in those pixels improves the cosmic spike removal. Both simulated and experimental hyperspectral Raman image data sets are used to test the newly developed UBS-DM-hyperspectral (UBS-DM-HS) method which extends the UBS-DM method by leveraging characteristics of hyperspectral data sets. As a result, a comparison is provided between the performance of the UBS-DM-HS method and other methods suitable for despiking hyperspectral images, evaluating both their ability to remove cosmic ray spikes and the extent to which they introduce spectral bias.« less

  6. Treatment methods and comparative risks of thorium removal from waste residues

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, R.D.; Hamby, D.M.; Martin, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    This study was done to examine the risks of remediation and the effectiveness of removal methods for thorium and its associated radioactive decay products from various soils and wastes associated with DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Removal of {sup 230}Th from uranium process residues would significantly reduce the buildup of {sup 226}Ra (half-life of 1600 years), and since {sup 230}Th concentrations at most of the important sites greatly exceed the {sup 226}Ra concentrations, such removal would reduce the accumulation of additional radiation risks associated with {sup 226}Ra and its products; and, if treatment also removed {sup 226}Ra, these risks could be mitigated even further. Removal of {sup 232}Th from thorium process residues would remove the source material for {sup 228}Ra, and since {sup 228}Ra has a half-life of 5.76 years, its control at FUSRAP sites could be done with land use controls for the 30--50 years required for {sup 228}Ra and the risks associated with its decay products to decay away. It must be recognized, however, that treatment methods invariably require workers to process residues and waste materials usually with bulk handling techniques. These processes expose workers to the radioactivity in the materials, therefore, workers would incur radiological risks in addition to industrial accident risks. An important question is whether the potential reduction of future radiological risks to members of the public justifies the risks that are incurred by remediation workers due to handling materials. This study examines, first, the effectiveness of treatment and then the risks that would be associated with remediation.

  7. Enamel surface evaluation after bracket debonding and different resin removal methods

    PubMed Central

    Vidor, Michele Machado; Felix, Rafael Perdomo; Marchioro, Ernani Menezes; Hahn, Luciane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess enamel surface under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after resin removal and enamel polishing procedures following brackets debonding, as well as compare the time required for these procedures. METHODS: A total of 180 deciduous bovine incisors were used. The enamel surface of each tooth was prepared and brackets were bonded with light cured Transbond XT composite resin. Brackets were removed in a testing machine. The samples were randomized and equally distributed into nine groups according to the resin removal and polishing technique: Group 1, 30-blade tungsten carbide bur in high speed; Group 2, 30-blade tungsten carbide bur in high speed followed by a sequence of 4 Sof-lex polishing discs (3M); Group 3, 30-blade tungsten carbide bur in high speed followed by Enhance tips (Dentsply). All groups were subdivided into (a) unpolished; (b) polished with aluminum oxide paste; and (c) polished with water slurry of fine pumice. Subsequently, the enamel surface was assessed and statistical analysis was carried out. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in enamel roughness and removal time among all groups. Groups 3a, 3b and 3c appeared to be the most efficient methods of removing resin with low damages to enamel. Groups 2a, 2b and 2c were the most time consuming procedures, and Group 2a caused more damages to enamel. CONCLUSION: The suggested protocol for resin removal is the 30-blade tungsten carbide bur in high speed followed by Enhance tips and polishing with aluminum oxide paste. This procedure seems to produce less damages and is less time consuming. PMID:25992989

  8. Chromatofocusing of purified placental sphingomyelinase.

    PubMed

    Rousson, R; Vanier, M T; Louisot, P

    1983-02-01

    To establish the profile of the multiple forms of placental lysosomal sphingomyelinase, we have developed in a preliminary step, a new sequence of purification. This protocol has a good yield such that the final preparation is representative of the whole enzyme. Using chromatofocusing, purified sphingomyelinase is resolved into 4 major forms whose pI's are 7.2, 6.5, 5.9 and 5.2. Chromatofocusing is preferable to isoelectric focusing because it is more rapid, more reproducible and above all it provides a constant profile of activity which is not influenced by experimental conditions, in particular, detergent concentration.

  9. Microparasites and Placental Invasiveness in Eutherian Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Capellini, Isabella; Nunn, Charles L.; Barton, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Placental invasiveness—the number of maternal tissue layers separating fetal tissues from maternal blood—is variable across mammalian species. Although this diversity is likely to be functionally important, variation in placental invasiveness remains unexplained. Here we test the hypothesis that increased risk of transplacental transmission of pathogens from the mother to the fetus promotes the evolution of non-invasive placentation, the most likely derived condition in eutherian mammals. Specifically, we predict that non-invasive placentation is associated with increased microparasite species richness relative to more invasive placental types, based on the assumption that higher numbers of microparasites in a population reflects greater risk of transplacental transmission to fetuses. As predicted, higher bacteria species richness is associated with non-invasive placentation. Protozoa species richness, however, shows the opposite pattern. Because invasive placentae facilitate the transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus, we propose that the ancestral condition of invasive placentation is retained under selection for protection of newborns from higher risk of postnatal protozoan infection. Hence, our findings suggest that a tradeoff exists between protection against bacterial infection prenatally and protozoan infection postnatally. Future studies are needed to investigate how maternal prevalence of infection and the relative pre- versus postnatal risk of fetal infection by different microparasite groups vary among mammalian hosts in relation to placental invasiveness. PMID:26168031

  10. Prenatal Diagnosis and Evaluation of Abnormal Placentation.

    PubMed

    Fox, Karin A; Lee, Wesley

    2017-09-01

    Abnormalities in placental location or adherence can have important consequences on pregnancy outcome for both mother and fetus. Accurate antenatal detection is crucial for delivery timing and planning to help reduce perinatal risks for adverse events. We review the relevant literature and present a practical approach for the prenatal detection of abnormal placentation.

  11. Dietary composition programmes placental phenotype in mice.

    PubMed

    Coan, P M; Vaughan, O R; McCarthy, J; Mactier, C; Burton, G J; Constância, M; Fowden, A L

    2011-07-15

    Dietary composition during pregnancy influences fetal and adult phenotype but its effects on placental phenotype remain largely unknown. Using molecular, morphological and functional analyses, placental nutrient transfer capacity was examined in mice fed isocaloric diets containing 23%, 18% or 9% casein (C) during pregnancy. At day 16, placental transfer of glucose, but not methyl-aminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB), was greater in C18 and C9 than C23 mice, in association with increased placental expression of the glucose transporter Slc2a1/GLUT1, and the growth factor Igf2. At day 19, placental glucose transport remained high in C9 mice while MeAIB transfer was less in C18 than C23 mice, despite greater placental weights in C18 and C9 than C23 mice. Placental System A amino acid transporter expression correlated with protein intake at day 19. Relative growth of transport verses endocrine zones of the placenta was influenced by diet at both ages without changing the absolute volume of the transport surface. Fetal weight was unaffected by diet at day 16 but was reduced in C9 animals by day 19. Morphological and functional adaptations in placental phenotype, therefore, occur to optimise nutrient transfer when dietary composition is varied, even subtly. This has important implications for the intrauterine programming of life expectancy.

  12. [The modern concepts of placental pathology and its role in perinatal mortality in the context of forensic medical practice].

    PubMed

    Kacher, V V; Bogomolov, D V; Baranova, M Ia

    2011-01-01

    The modern concepts of placental pathology are considered and analysed in the context of forensic medical practice. The most promising approaches to the application of fundamental knowledge of placental pathology (including morphometric methods) for the purpose of forensic medical expertise are discussed.

  13. Utero-placental Doppler ultrasound for improving pregnancy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Stampalija, Tamara; Gyte, Gillian ML; Alfirevic, Zarko

    2014-01-01

    Background Impaired placentation can cause some of the most important obstetrical complications such as pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction and has been linked to increased fetal morbidity and mortality. The failure to undergo physiological trophoblastic vascular changes is reflected by the high impedance to the blood flow at the level of the uterine arteries. Doppler ultrasound study of utero-placental blood vessels, using waveform indices or notching, may help to identify the ‘at-risk’ women in the first and second trimester of pregnancy, such that interventions might be used to reduce maternal and fetal morbidity and/or mortality. Objectives To assess the effects on pregnancy outcome, and obstetric practice, of routine utero-placental Doppler ultrasound in first and second trimester of pregnancy in pregnant women at high and low risk of hypertensive complications. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (June 2010) and the reference lists of identified studies. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of Doppler ultrasound for the investigation of utero-placental vessel waveforms in first and second trimester compared with no Doppler ultrasound. We have excluded studies where uterine vessels have been assessed together with fetal and umbilical vessels. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. We checked data entry. Main results We found two studies involving 4993 participants. The methodological quality of the trials was good. Both studies included women at low risk for hypertensive disorders, with Doppler ultrasound of the uterine arteries performed in the second trimester of pregnancy. In both studies, pathological finding of uterine arteries was followed by low-dose aspirin administration. We identified no difference in short-term maternal and fetal clinical

  14. Method for removing volatile components from a ceramic article, and related processes

    DOEpatents

    Klug, Frederic Joseph; DeCarr, Sylvia Marie

    2002-01-01

    A method of removing substantially all of the volatile component in a green, volatile-containing ceramic article is disclosed. The method comprises freezing the ceramic article; and then subjecting the frozen article to a vacuum for a sufficient time to freeze-dry the article. Frequently, the article is heated while being freeze-dried. Use of this method efficiently reduces the propensity for any warpage of the article. The article is often formed from a ceramic slurry in a gel-casting process. A method for fabricating a ceramic core used in investment casting is also described.

  15. Current Physical and SDS Extraction Methods Do Not Efficiently Remove Exosporium Proteins from Bacillus anthracis spores

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Brian M.; Binkley, Jana M.; Stewart, George C.

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical studies of the outermost spore layers of the Bacillus cereus family are hindered by difficulties in efficient dispersal of the external spore layers and difficulties in dissociating protein complexes that comprise the exosporium layer. Detergent and physical methods have been utilized to disrupt the exosporium layer. Herein we compare commonly used SDS extraction buffers used to extract spore proteins and demonstrate the incomplete extractability of the exosporium layer by these methods. Sonication and bead beating methods for exosporium layer removal were also examined. A combination of genetic and physical methods is the most effective for isolating proteins found in the spore exosporium. PMID:21338631

  16. Method for removing strongly adsorbed surfactants and capping agents from metal to facilitate their catalytic applications

    DOEpatents

    Adzic, Radoslav R.; Gong, Kuanping; Cai, Yun; Wong, Stanislaus; Koenigsmann, Christopher

    2016-11-08

    A method of synthesizing activated electrocatalyst, preferably having a morphology of a nanostructure, is disclosed. The method includes safely and efficiently removing surfactants and capping agents from the surface of the metal structures. With regard to metal nanoparticles, the method includes synthesis of nanoparticle(s) in polar or non-polar solution with surfactants or capping agents and subsequent activation by CO-adsorption-induced surfactant/capping agent desorption and electrochemical oxidation. The method produces activated macroparticle or nanoparticle electrocatalysts without damaging the surface of the electrocatalyst that includes breaking, increasing particle thickness or increasing the number of low coordination sites.

  17. Method For Removing Volatile Components From A Gel-Cast Ceramic Article

    DOEpatents

    Klug, Frederic Joseph; DeCarr, Sylvia Marie

    2004-09-07

    A method of removing substantially all of the volatile component in a green, volatile-containing ceramic article is disclosed. The method comprises freezing the ceramic article; and then subjecting the frozen article to a vacuum for a sufficient time to freeze-dry the article. Frequently, the article is heated while being freeze-dried. Use of this method efficiently reduces the propensity for any warpage of the article. The article is often formed from a ceramic slurry in a gel-casting process. A method for fabricating a ceramic core used in investment casting is also described.

  18. Current physical and SDS extraction methods do not efficiently remove exosporium proteins from Bacillus anthracis spores.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Brian M; Binkley, Jana M; Stewart, George C

    2011-05-01

    Biochemical studies of the outermost spore layers of the Bacillus cereus family are hindered by difficulties in efficient dispersal of the external spore layers and difficulties in dissociating protein complexes that comprise the exosporium layer. Detergent and physical methods have been utilized to disrupt the exosporium layer. Herein we compare commonly used SDS extraction buffers used to extract spore proteins and demonstrate the incomplete extractability of the exosporium layer by these methods. Sonication and bead beating methods for exosporium layer removal were also examined. A combination of genetic and physical methods is the most effective for isolating proteins found in the spore exosporium.

  19. The impact of ionizing radiation on placental trophoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, D.J.; O'Brien, M.B.; Shi, X.-H.; Chu, T.; Mishima, T.; Beriwal, S.; Epperly, M.W.; Wipf, P.; Greenberger, J.S.; Sadovsky, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to low-dose radiation is widespread and attributable to natural sources. However, occupational, medical, accidental, and terrorist-related exposures remain a significant threat. Information on radiation injury to the feto-placental unit is scant and largely observational. We hypothesized that radiation causes trophoblast injury, and alters the expression of injury-related transcripts in vitro or in vivo, thus affecting fetal growth. Methods Primary human trophoblasts (PHTs), BeWo or NCCIT cells were irradiated in vitro, and cell number and viability were determined. Pregnant C57Bl/6HNsd mice were externally irradiated on E13.5, and placentas examined on E17.5. RNA expression was analyzed using microarrays and RT-qPCR. The experiments were repeated in the presence of the gramicidin S (GS)-derived nitroxide JP4-039, used to mitigate radiation-induced cell injury. Results We found that survival of in vitro–irradiated PHT cell was better than that of irradiated BeWo trophoblast cell line or the radiosensitive NCCIT mixed germ cell tumor line. Radiation altered the expression of several trophoblast genes, with a most dramatic effect on CDKN1A (p21, CIP1). Mice exposed to radiation at E13.5 exhibited a 25% reduction in mean weight by E17.5, and a 9% reduction in placental weight, which was associated with relatively small changes in placental gene expression. JP4-039 had a minimal effect on feto-placental growth or on gene expression in irradiated PHT cells or mouse placenta. Discussion and conclusion While radiation affects placental trophoblasts, the established placenta is fairly resistant to radiation, and changes in this tissue may not fully account for fetal growth restriction induced by ionizing radiation. PMID:24418702

  20. Chorioallantoic placentation in Galea spixii (Rodentia, Caviomorpha, Caviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Moacir F; Mess, Andrea; Ambrósio, Carlos E; Dantas, Carlos AG; Favaron, Phelipe O; Miglino, Maria A

    2008-01-01

    Background Placentas of guinea pig-related rodents are appropriate animal models for human placentation because of their striking similarities to those of humans. To optimize the pool of potential models in this context, it is essential to identify the occurrence of characters in close relatives. Methods In this study we first analyzed chorioallantoic placentation in the prea, Galea spixii, as one of the guinea pig's closest relatives. Material was collected from a breeding group at the University of Mossoró, Brazil, including 18 individuals covering an ontogenetic sequence from initial pregnancy to term. Placentas were investigated by means of histology, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry (vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin, cytokeration) and proliferation activity (PCNA). Results Placentation in Galea is primarily characterized by an apparent regionalization into labyrinth, trophospongium and subplacenta. It also has associated growing processes with clusters of proliferating trophoblast cells at the placental margin, internally directed projections and a second centre of proliferation in the labyrinth. Finally, the subplacenta, which is temporarily supplied in parallel by the maternal and fetal blood systems, served as the center of origin for trophoblast invasion. Conclusion Placentation in Galea reveals major parallels to the guinea pig and other caviomorphs with respect to the regionalization of the placenta, the associated growing processes, as well as trophoblast invasion. A principal difference compared to the guinea pig occurred in the blood supply of the subplacenta. Characteristics of the invasion and expanding processes indicate that Galea may serve as an additional animal model that is much smaller than the guinea pig and where the subplacenta partly has access to both maternal and fetal blood systems. PMID:18771596

  1. Hyperspectral assessment of nitrogen nutrition for winter wheat canopy using continuum-removed method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Shen, Runping; Zhu, Shanyou

    2009-10-01

    The hyperspectral reflectance of canopy of winter wheat and data of leaf nitrogen accumulation (LNA) were acquired in primary growth stages under different nitrogen levels in order to monitor winter wheat status and diagnose nitrogen using remote sensing method. A new method was developed to estimate the nitrogen nutrition of winter wheat using continuum-removed method, which generally used in spectra analysis on rock and mineral. The continuum-removed method was effectively used to magnify the object spectral absorption features, and it could be convenient to extract the spectral absorption features. Based on the continuum-removed treatment and the correlation between absorption feature parameters and LNA, results show that LNA increased with increasing the nitrogen fertilization. LNA increased from the erecting stage to the booting stage and decreases from the booting to the heading stage under all nitrogen levels. It is the VNIR regions that were sensitive to LNA. By continuum removal operation, it can be found that the method magnify the subtle difference in spectral absorption characteristics arise from the nitrogen stress on winter wheat. At all stages, total area of absorption peak, left area of absorption peak, right area of absorption peak increased with increasing the nitrogen fertilization, whereas the normalized maximal absorption depth by area decreased. The correlation analysis indicated that all the absorption characteristics parameters of continuum-removed spectra highly correlated with LNA, and the correlation relationship of the whole growth cycle was stronger than that of any single growth stage. But the booting stage is the best at the several single growth stages and the NMAD is the best absorption parameter to monitoring the nitrogen of winter wheat canopy. The range 550 nm to 760 nm are the feature bands for extracting nitrogen information of canopy. The regression analysis on the whole growth period showed that the all regression models

  2. Comparative evaluation of conventional and alternative methods for the removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwaters.

    PubMed

    Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A; Zouboulis, Anastasios I

    2006-01-01

    The present paper intends to summarize the recent findings regarding the development of alternative treatment methods applicable to small municipal drinking water systems. Small systems are frequently affected by the new permissible arsenic concentration rules, as imposed by several international organizations-World Health Organization, European Commission, United States Environmental Protection Agency. The innovate treatment methods reviewed are (a) adsorptive filtration, using iron oxide coated sand or polymeric materials; (b) zero-valent iron; (c) solar disinfection, solar oxidation and removal of arsenic (SORAS); (d) iron-based adsorbents, such as granular ferric hydroxide (GFH); (e) biological oxidation and removal of arsenic, accomplished simultaneously with the biological iron oxidation. In addition, other more conventional methods for arsenic removal are also discussed, such as iron or alum coagulation, lime softening, ion exchange, activated alumina and membrane separation processes. The aforementioned methods have been comparatively evaluated and the relevant conclusions have been drawn with respect to the applicability of arsenic treatment methods, depending on certain parameters, such as locally varying water quality characteristics, sustainability, and economic feasibility.

  3. Subspace-based interference removal methods for a multichannel biomagnetic sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekihara, Kensuke; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2017-10-01

    Objective. In biomagnetic signal processing, the theory of the signal subspace has been applied to removing interfering magnetic fields, and a representative algorithm is the signal space projection algorithm, in which the signal/interference subspace is defined in the spatial domain as the span of signal/interference-source lead field vectors. This paper extends the notion of this conventional (spatial domain) signal subspace by introducing a new definition of signal subspace in the time domain. Approach. It defines the time-domain signal subspace as the span of row vectors that contain the source time course values. This definition leads to symmetric relationships between the time-domain and the conventional (spatial-domain) signal subspaces. As a review, this article shows that the notion of the time-domain signal subspace provides useful insights over existing interference removal methods from a unified perspective. Main results and significance. Using the time-domain signal subspace, it is possible to interpret a number of interference removal methods as the time domain signal space projection. Such methods include adaptive noise canceling, sensor noise suppression, the common temporal subspace projection, the spatio-temporal signal space separation, and the recently-proposed dual signal subspace projection. Our analysis using the notion of the time domain signal space projection reveals implicit assumptions these methods rely on, and shows that the difference between these methods results only from the manner of deriving the interference subspace. Numerical examples that illustrate the results of our arguments are provided.

  4. Methods for artifact detection and removal from scalp EEG: A review.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Kafiul; Rastegarnia, Amir; Yang, Zhi

    2016-11-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is the most popular brain activity recording technique used in wide range of applications. One of the commonly faced problems in EEG recordings is the presence of artifacts that come from sources other than brain and contaminate the acquired signals significantly. Therefore, much research over the past 15 years has focused on identifying ways for handling such artifacts in the preprocessing stage. However, this is still an active area of research as no single existing artifact detection/removal method is complete or universal. This article presents an extensive review of the existing state-of-the-art artifact detection and removal methods from scalp EEG for all potential EEG-based applications and analyses the pros and cons of each method. First, a general overview of the different artifact types that are found in scalp EEG and their effect on particular applications are presented. In addition, the methods are compared based on their ability to remove certain types of artifacts and their suitability in relevant applications (only functional comparison is provided not performance evaluation of methods). Finally, the future direction and expected challenges of current research is discussed. Therefore, this review is expected to be helpful for interested researchers who will develop and/or apply artifact handling algorithm/technique in future for their applications as well as for those willing to improve the existing algorithms or propose a new solution in this particular area of research.

  5. Novel geochemistry-inspired method for the deep removal of vanadium from molybdate solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jialiang; Deng, Yuping; Zhou, Qiuyue; Qin, Peixin; Liu, Yubo; Wang, Chengyan

    2017-06-05

    Separation of vanadium from molybdates is an essential task for processing the leaching solution of hazardous spent hydrodesulphurization (HDS) catalyst. In this study, the difference in the main naturally occurring mineral forms of Mo and V inspired us to develop a method for the deep removal of V from molybdate solution using Fe3O4 as an adsorbent. First, the adsorbent was synthesized with coprecipitation method, and then it was characterized by XRD, TEM, and VSM. The synthesized material consisted of pure Fe3O4 nanoparticles that exhibited paramagnetic property, with a saturated magnetization of 68.6emug(-1). The V removal efficiency was investigated using batch adsorption experiments in varying conditions. Results indicated that V could be deeply removed from various concentrations of molybdate solution at pH of 7.0-11.0 within 5min. A slight decrease was found in the adsorption ratio after the adsorbent had been reused for 4 cycles. The resulting molybdate solution contained less than 0.02gL(-1) of V, which satisfies the requirement for preparing high-quality products. Finally, a process flowchart is presented for the separation of Mo and V from the leaching solution of spent HDS catalyst, based on the excellent V removal performance and rapid separation rate of the Fe3O4 adsorbent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nomenclature and placental mammal phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    An issue arising from recent progress in establishing the placental mammal Tree of Life concerns the nomenclature of high-level clades. Fortunately, there are now several well-supported clades among extant mammals that require unambiguous, stable names. Although the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature does not apply above the Linnean rank of family, and while consensus on the adoption of competing systems of nomenclature does not yet exist, there is a clear, historical basis upon which to arbitrate among competing names for high-level mammalian clades. Here, we recommend application of the principles of priority and stability, as laid down by G.G. Simpson in 1945, to discriminate among proposed names for high-level taxa. We apply these principles to specific cases among placental mammals with broad relevance for taxonomy, and close with particular emphasis on the Afrotherian family Tenrecidae. We conclude that no matter how reconstructions of the Tree of Life change in years to come, systematists should apply new names reluctantly, deferring to those already published and maximizing consistency with existing nomenclature. PMID:20406454

  7. Intracellular Organisms as Placental Invaders

    PubMed Central

    Vigliani, Marguerite B.; Bakardjiev, Anna I.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present a novel model for how the human placenta might get infected via the hematogenous route. We present a list of diverse placental pathogens, like Listeria monocytogenes or Cytomegalovirus, which are familiar to most obstetricians, but others, like Salmonella typhi, have only been reported in case studies or small case series. Remarkably, all of these organisms on this list are either obligate or facultative intracellular organisms. These pathogens are able to enter and survive inside host immune cells for at least a portion of their life cycle. We suggest that many blood-borne pathogens might arrive at the placenta via transportation inside of maternal leukocytes that enter the decidua in early pregnancy. We discuss mechanisms by which extravillous trophoblasts could get infected in the decidua and spread infection to other layers in the placenta. We hope to raise awareness among OB/GYN clinicians that organisms not typically associated with the TORCH list might cause placental infections and pregnancy complications. PMID:27695204

  8. l-Methionine Placental Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, João R.; Correia-Branco, Ana; Ramalho, Carla; Gonçalves, Pedro; Pinho, Maria J.; Keating, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the influence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and GDM-associated conditions upon the placental uptake of 14C-l-methionine (14C-l-Met). The 14C-l-Met uptake by human trophoblasts (TBs) obtained from normal pregnancies (normal trophoblast [NTB] cells) is mainly system l-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1 [L])-mediated, although a small contribution of system y+LAT2 is also present. Comparison of 14C-l-Met uptake by NTB and by human TBs obtained from GDM pregnancies (diabetic trophoblast [DTB] cells) reveals similar kinetics, but a contribution of systems A, LAT2, and b0+ and a greater contribution of system y+LAT1 appears to exist in DTB cells. Short-term exposure to insulin and long-term exposure to high glucose, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin decrease 14C-l-Met uptake in a human TB (Bewo) cell line. The effect of leptin was dependent upon phosphoinositide 3-kinase, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK/MEK 1/2), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. In conclusion, GDM does not quantitatively alter 14C-l-Met placental uptake, although it changes the nature of transporters involved in that process. PMID:23653387

  9. A Kernel Machine-based fMRI Physiological Noise Removal Method

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaomu; Chen, Nan-kuei; Gaur, Pooja

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique with blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast is a powerful tool for noninvasive mapping of brain function under task and resting states. The removal of cardiac- and respiration-induced physiological noise in fMRI data has been a significant challenge as fMRI studies seek to achieve higher spatial resolutions and characterize more subtle neuronal changes. The low temporal sampling rate of most multi-slice fMRI experiments often causes aliasing of physiological noise into the frequency range of BOLD activation signal. In addition, changes of heartbeat and respiration patterns also generate physiological fluctuations that have similar frequencies with BOLD activation. Most existing physiological noise-removal methods either place restrictive limitations on image acquisition or utilize filtering or regression based post-processing algorithms, which cannot distinguish the frequency-overlapping BOLD activation and the physiological noise. In this work, we address the challenge of physiological noise removal via the kernel machine technique, where a nonlinear kernel machine technique, kernel principal component analysis, is used with a specifically identified kernel function to differentiate BOLD signal from the physiological noise of the frequency. The proposed method was evaluated in human fMRI data acquired from multiple task-related and resting state fMRI experiments. A comparison study was also performed with an existing adaptive filtering method. The results indicate that the proposed method can effectively identify and reduce the physiological noise in fMRI data. The comparison study shows that the proposed method can provide comparable or better noise removal performance than the adaptive filtering approach. PMID:24321306

  10. A kernel machine-based fMRI physiological noise removal method.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaomu; Chen, Nan-kuei; Gaur, Pooja

    2014-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique with blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast is a powerful tool for noninvasive mapping of brain function under task and resting states. The removal of cardiac- and respiration-induced physiological noise in fMRI data has been a significant challenge as fMRI studies seek to achieve higher spatial resolutions and characterize more subtle neuronal changes. The low temporal sampling rate of most multi-slice fMRI experiments often causes aliasing of physiological noise into the frequency range of BOLD activation signal. In addition, changes of heartbeat and respiration patterns also generate physiological fluctuations that have similar frequencies with BOLD activation. Most existing physiological noise-removal methods either place restrictive limitations on image acquisition or utilize filtering or regression based post-processing algorithms, which cannot distinguish the frequency-overlapping BOLD activation and the physiological noise. In this work, we address the challenge of physiological noise removal via the kernel machine technique, where a nonlinear kernel machine technique, kernel principal component analysis, is used with a specifically identified kernel function to differentiate BOLD signal from the physiological noise of the frequency. The proposed method was evaluated in human fMRI data acquired from multiple task-related and resting state fMRI experiments. A comparison study was also performed with an existing adaptive filtering method. The results indicate that the proposed method can effectively identify and reduce the physiological noise in fMRI data. The comparison study shows that the proposed method can provide comparable or better noise removal performance than the adaptive filtering approach.

  11. Background removal in soil analysis using laser- induced breakdown spectroscopy combined with standard addition method.

    PubMed

    Yi, R X; Guo, L B; Zou, X H; Li, J M; Hao, Z Q; Yang, X Y; Li, X Y; Zeng, X Y; Lu, Y F

    2016-02-08

    The matrix effect of powder samples, especially for soil samples, is significant in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), which affects the prediction accuracy of the element concentration. In order to reduce this effect of the soil samples in LIBS, the standard addition method (SAM) based on background removal by wavelet transform algorithm was investigated in this work. Five different kinds of certified reference soil samples (lead (Pb) concentrations were 110, 283, 552, 675, and 1141 ppm, respectively) were used to examine the accuracy of this method. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was more than 303 ppm by using the conventional calibration method. After adoption of SAM with background removal by wavelet transform algorithm, the RMSEP was reduced to 25.7 ppm. Therefore, the accuracy of the Pb element was improved significantly. The mechanism of background removal by wavelet transform algorithm based on SAM is discussed. Further study demonstrated that this method can also improve the predicted accuracy of the Cd element.

  12. Angiogenic proteins, placental weight and perinatal outcomes among pregnant women in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Chloe R.; Darling, Anne M.; Liu, Enju; Tran, Vanessa; Cabrera, Ana; Aboud, Said; Urassa, Willy; Kain, Kevin C.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Placental vascular development, and ultimately placental weight, is essential to healthy fetal development. Here, we examined placental weight in a cohort of Tanzanian women in association with angiogenic proteins known to regulate placental vascular development and perinatal outcomes. Methods A total of n = 6579 women with recorded placental weight were included in this study. The relative risk of adverse perinatal outcomes (Apgar score, death, asphyxia, respiratory distress, seizures, pneumonia and sepsis) was compared between placental weight in the bottom and top 10th percentiles. We quantified angiogenic mediators (Ang-1, Ang-2, VEGF, PGF and sFlt-1) in plasma samples (n = 901) collected between 12 to 27 weeks of pregnancy using ELISA and assessed the relative risk of placental weight in the bottom and top 10th percentiles by protein levels in quartiles. Results Women with Ang-2 levels in the highest quartile had an increased relative risk of placental weight in the bottom 10th percentile (RR = 1.45 (1.10, 1.91), p = 0.01). Women with VEGF-A (RR = 0.73 (0.56, 0.96), p = 0.05) and PGF (RR = 0.58 (0.44, 0.72), p = 0.002) in the highest quartile had a reduced relative risk of placental weight in the bottom 10th percentile. Low placental weight (in bottom 10th percentile) was associated with an increased relative risk of Apgar score of <7 at 1 minute (RR = 2.31 (1.70, 3.13), p = 0.001), at 5 minutes (RR = 3.53 (2.34, 5.33), p = 0.001), neonatal death (RR = 5.02 (3.61, 7.00), p = 0.001), respiratory distress (RR = 4.80(1.71, 13.45), p = 0.001), and seizures (RR = 4.18 (1.16, 15.02), p = 0.03). Discussion The association between low placental weight and risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in this cohort suggests that placental weight could serve as a useful indicator, providing additional insight into high-risk pregnancies and identifying neonates that may require additional monitoring and follow-up. PMID:27936130

  13. Removal of spurious modes encountered in solving stability problems by spectral methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebib, Abdelfattah

    1987-01-01

    A technique based on the Galerkin approximation is developed to remove spurious roots arising when Chebyshev spectral methods are used to solve eigenvalue problems in hydrodynamic stability. The derivation of Galerkin-Chebyshev approximations is explained, and numerical results for the Orr-Sommerfeld equations of plane Poiseuille flow and a Blasius profile are presented in tables and compared with those obtained by the method of Zebib (1984). It is pointed out that the present method does not increase the size of the algebraic system to be solved.

  14. Method for removing solid particulate material from within liquid fuel injector assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, R.F.; Brown, J.D.; Andriulli, J.B.; Strain, P.D.

    1998-09-08

    A method is described for removing residual solid particulate material from the interior of liquid fuel injectors and other fluid flow control mechanisms having or being operatively associated with a flow-regulating fixed or variable orifice. The method comprises the sequential and alternate introduction of columns of a non-compressible liquid phase and columns of a compressed gas phase into the body of a fuel injector whereby the expansion of each column of the gas phase across the orifice accelerates the liquid phase in each trailing column of the liquid phase and thereby generates turbulence in each liquid phase for lifting and entraining the solid particulates for the subsequent removal thereof from the body of the fuel injector. 1 fig.

  15. Method for removing solid particulate material from within liquid fuel injector assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Brown, John D.; Andriulli, John B.; Strain, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    A method for removing residual solid particulate material from the interior of liquid fuel injectors and other fluid flow control mechanisms having or being operatively associated with a flow-regulating fixed or variable orifice. The method comprises the sequential and alternate introduction of columns of a non-compressible liquid phase and columns of a compressed gas phase into the body of a fuel injector whereby the expansion of each column of the gas phase across the orifice accelerates the liquid phase in each trailing column of the liquid phase and thereby generates turbulence in each liquid phase for lifting and entraining the solid particulates for the subsequent removal thereof from the body of the fuel injector.

  16. Method for removing impurities from an impurity-containing fluid stream

    DOEpatents

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Fox, Robert V.

    2010-04-06

    A method of removing at least one polar component from a fluid stream. The method comprises providing a fluid stream comprising at least one nonpolar component and at least one polar component. The fluid stream is contacted with a supercritical solvent to remove the at least one polar component. The at least one nonpolar component may be a fat or oil and the at least one polar component may be water, dirt, detergents, or mixtures thereof. The supercritical solvent may decrease solubility of the at least one polar component in the fluid stream. The supercritical solvent may function as a solvent or as a gas antisolvent. The supercritical solvent may dissolve the nonpolar components of the fluid stream, such as fats or oils, while the polar components may be substantially insoluble. Alternatively, the supercritical solvent may be used to increase the nonpolarity of the fluid stream.

  17. Laser welding method for removal of instruments debris from root canals.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Ryoichi; Suehara, Masataka; Fujii, Rie; Kato, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Kan-ichi; Oda, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the viability of a novel method for removing debris from broken instruments from root canals using a laser apparatus. Laser welding was performed on stainless steel or nickel titanium files using an Nd:YAG laser. Retention force between the files and extractors was measured. Increase in temperature on the root surface during laser irradiation was recorded and the irradiated areas evaluated with a scanning electron microscope. Retention force on stainless steel was significantly greater than that on nickel titanium. The maximum temperature increase was 4.1°C. The temperature increase on the root surface was greater in the vicinity of the welded area than that at the apical area. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the files and extractors were welded together. These results indicate that the laser welding method is effective in removing debris from broken instruments from root canals.

  18. The method of manufacture of nylon dental partially removable prosthesis using additive technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashapov, R. N.; Korobkina, A. I.; Platonov, E. V.; Saleeva, G. T.

    2014-12-01

    The article is devoted to the topic of creating new methods of dental prosthesis. The aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of using additive technology to create nylon prosthesis. As a result of experimental studies, was made a sample of nylon partially removable prosthesis using 3D printing has allowed to simplify, accelerate and reduce the coat of manufacturing high-precision nylon dentures.

  19. [Effects of three caries removal methods on children's dental fear evaluated by physiological measure].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Hui-min

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of three caries removal methods on children's dental fear by physiological measure. 90 children with caries lesions into dentin in primary molars were divided into three groups randomly: Chemomechanical carious removal group, atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) groups and traditional rotary instrument group. The baseline of blood pressure, pulse was recorded before the treatment. Then the blood pressure and the pulse of each subjects were measured 5, 10 and 15 minutes and at the end of the treatment respectively. The dental fear was evaluated by observing the trend of blood pressure and pulse in the process of the treatment, and the results were analyzed by SPSS11.5 software package, using one-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls methods to determine the effects of different caries removal methods on children's dental fear. The degree of dental fear in traditional drilling group was significantly higher than that in chemo-mechanical group and ART group. The difference of each index between rotary instrument group and ART group was significant at the first time-point from the beginning of the treatment (P<0.05), but not significantly between rotary group and chemo-mechanical group (P>0.05), and between ART and chemo-mechanical group. (P>0.05). At the second time-point, the difference of systolic blood pressure was significant between rotary group and chemomechanical group(P<0.05), and the same between rotary group and ART group (P<0.05), but not between ART and chemo-mechanical group (P>0.05), while the difference of the other index among the three groups was not significant(P>0.05). There was no significantly difference of each index among the three groups at the time-point afterwards(P>0.05). Compared to traditional caries removal method, chemomechanical technique and ART may decrease children's dental fear effectively.

  20. Do educational methods affect students' ability to remove artificial carious dentine? A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Q F; Barcelos, T M; Kaizer, M R; Montagner, A F; Sarkis-Onofre, R; Masotti, A S; Jardim, P S; Pereira-Cenci, T; Oliveira, E F; Cenci, M S

    2013-08-01

    This trial aimed to evaluate the influence of two educational methods on students' ability to remove artificial carious dentine. Traditional lecture and lecture plus a live demonstration of artificial carious tissue removal were compared in a blind two-parallel-group design. Twenty-six students were randomly divided into two groups, and their skills were evaluated according to the following criteria: time spent on the dentine excavation procedure (in min), students' perceived confidence in conducting the procedure (graded assessed on a scale from 0 to 10), and the outcome of artificial carious tissue removal, evaluated by measuring the residual dyed artificial carious dentine layer (in μm). Statistical analyses were carried out using a t-test to compare the students' confidence and time spent on the procedure, and a two-way ANOVA was used to compare residual artificial decayed dentine with educational methods and tooth region (incisal, medium, and cervical thirds) as factors. There were no differences between the methods regarding excavation time (P = 0.898) and students' confidence (P = 0.382). The residual artificial carious dentine results showed that the educational method (P < 0.001) and cavity region (P < 0.001) were statistically significant, as was their interaction (P = 0.040). The lecture plus live demonstration group presented the best results for artificial caries removal. Although there were no differences between the two groups for the cervical region, the best results for the lecture plus live demonstration group was in the other two-thirds of the tooth. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides

    DOEpatents

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Dunn, J.G.; Avens, L.R.

    1987-02-13

    Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides. AmF/sub 4/ is not further oxidized to AmF/sub 6/ by the application of O/sub 2/F at room temperature thereto, while plutonium compounds present in the americium sample are fluorinated to volatile PuF/sub 6/, which can readily be separated therefrom, leaving the purified americium oxides and/or fluorides as the solid tetrafluoride thereof.

  2. Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides

    DOEpatents

    FitzPatrick, John R.; Dunn, Jerry G.; Avens, Larry R.

    1987-01-01

    Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides. AmF.sub.4 is not further oxidized to AmF.sub.6 by the application of O.sub.2 F at room temperature, while plutonium compounds present in the americium sample are fluorinated to volatile PuF.sub.6, which can readily be separated therefrom, leaving the purified americium oxides and/or fluorides as the solid tetrafluoride.

  3. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOEpatents

    Yunker, W.H.; Christiansen, D.W.

    1983-11-25

    This patent discloses a method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  4. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    DOEpatents

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  5. Assessment of disease lesion removal as a method to control chronic Montipora white syndrome.

    PubMed

    Beurmann, Silvia; Runyon, Christina M; Videau, Patrick; Callahan, Sean M; Aeby, Greta S

    2017-03-06

    Coral colonies in Kāne'ohe Bay, Hawai'i (USA), are afflicted with the tissue loss disease chronic Montipora white syndrome (cMWS). Here we show that removal of chronic disease lesions is a potential method to slow the progression of cMWS in M. capitata. Over the 24 wk observation period, treatment colonies lost almost half the amount of tissue that was lost by control colonies. The percentage of tissue loss at each sampling interval (mean ± SEM; treatment: 1.17 ± 0.47%, control: 2.25 ± 0.63%) and the rate of tissue loss per day (treatment: 0.13 ± 0.04%, control: 0.27 ± 0.08%) were both significantly lower on treated colonies than control colonies. While lesion removal stopped tissue loss at the initial infection site, which allowed colony healing, it did not prevent re-infection; in all but one of the treated colonies, new cMWS lesions appeared in other areas of the colony but not around the treatment margins. Additionally, the rate of new infections was similar between treatment and control colonies, indicating that physical injury from lesion removal did not appear to increase cMWS susceptibility. These results indicate that lesion removal reduced morbidity in M. capitata exhibiting cMWS but did not stop the disease.

  6. A novel background field removal method for MRI using projection onto dipole fields (PDF).

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian; Khalidov, Ildar; de Rochefort, Ludovic; Spincemaille, Pascal; Liu, Jing; Tsiouris, A John; Wang, Yi

    2011-11-01

    For optimal image quality in susceptibility-weighted imaging and accurate quantification of susceptibility, it is necessary to isolate the local field generated by local magnetic sources (such as iron) from the background field that arises from imperfect shimming and variations in magnetic susceptibility of surrounding tissues (including air). Previous background removal techniques have limited effectiveness depending on the accuracy of model assumptions or information input. In this article, we report an observation that the magnetic field for a dipole outside a given region of interest (ROI) is approximately orthogonal to the magnetic field of a dipole inside the ROI. Accordingly, we propose a nonparametric background field removal technique based on projection onto dipole fields (PDF). In this PDF technique, the background field inside an ROI is decomposed into a field originating from dipoles outside the ROI using the projection theorem in Hilbert space. This novel PDF background removal technique was validated on a numerical simulation and a phantom experiment and was applied in human brain imaging, demonstrating substantial improvement in background field removal compared with the commonly used high-pass filtering method. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Simultaneous removal of ammonia nitrogen and manganese from wastewater using nitrite by electrochemical method.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jiancheng; Liu, Renlong; Liu, Zuohua; Qiu, Jiang; Chen, Hongliang; Tao, Changyuan

    2017-02-01

    In this work, nitrite was developed to simultaneously remove manganese and ammonia nitrogen from wastewater by the electrochemical method. The characteristics of electrolytic reaction were observed via cyclic voltammograms. Moreover, the mole ratio of nitrite and ammonia nitrogen, voltage, and initial pH value, which affected the removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen and manganese, were investigated. The results showed that the concentration of ammonia nitrogen in wastewater could be reduced from 120.2 to 6.0 mg L(-1), and manganese could be simultaneously removed from 302.4 to 1.5 mg L(-1) at initial pH of 8.0, the mole ratios of nitrite and ammonia nitrogen of 1.5:1, and voltage of 20 V direct current electrolysis for 4.0 h. XRD analysis showed that manganese dioxide was deposited on the anode, and manganese was mainly removed in the form of manganese hydroxide precipitation in the cathode chamber.

  8. METHOD FOR REMOVAL OF LIGHT ISOTOPE PRODUCT FROM LIQUID THERMAL DIFFUSION UNITS

    DOEpatents

    Hoffman, J.D.; Ballou, J.K.

    1957-11-19

    A method and apparatus are described for removing the lighter isotope of a gaseous-liquid product from a number of diffusion columns of a liquid thermal diffusion system in two stages by the use of freeze valves. The subject liquid flows from the diffusion columns into a heated sloping capsule where the liquid is vaporized by the action of steam in a heated jacket surrounding the capsule. When the capsule is filled the gas flows into a collector. Flow between the various stages is controlled by freeze valves which are opened and closed by the passage of gas and cool water respectively through coils surrounding portions of the pipes through which the process liquid is passed. The use of the dual stage remover-collector and the freeze valves is an improvement on the thermal diffusion separation process whereby the fraction containing the lighter isotope many be removed from the tops of the diffusion columns without intercolumn flow, or prior stage flow while the contents of the capsule is removed to the final receiver.

  9. Investigation on mercury removal method from flue gas in the presence of sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yongpeng; Qu, Zan; Xu, Haomiao; Wang, Wenhua; Yan, Naiqiang

    2014-08-30

    A new integrated process was developed for the removal and reclamation of mercury from the flue gas in the presence of SO2, typically derived from nonferrous metal smelting. The new process contains a pre-desulfurization unit (Stage I) and a co-absorption unit (Stage II). In Stage I, 90% of the SO2 from flue gas can be efficiently absorbed by ferric sulfate and reclaimed sulfuric acid. Meanwhile, the proportion of Hg(2+) and Hg(0) in the flue gas can be redistributed in this stage. Then, over 95% of the Hg(0) and the residual SO2 can be removed simultaneously with a composite absorption solution from the flue gas in Stage II, which is much more efficient for the Hg(0) reclaiming than the traditional method. The composite absorption solution in Stage II, which is composed of 0.1g/L HgSO4, 1.0% H2O2 and H2SO4, could effectively remove and reclaim Hg(0) overcoming the negative effect of SO2 on Hg(0) absorption. Moreover, the concentrations of HgSO4 and H2O2 were adjusted with the changes in of the concentrations of Hg(0) and SO2 in the flue gas. It is a potential and promising technology for the mercury removal and reclaim from the flue gas in the presence of SO2.

  10. Continuous phosphorus removal from water by physicochemical method using zero valent iron packed column.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Joo-Young; Ahn, Byoung-Min; Kim, Yu-Jin; Park, Joo-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Excessive phosphorus in aquatic systems causes algal bloom resulting in eutrophication. To treat wastewater including effluent of wastewater treatment plant containing various amounts of phosphorus, a series of continuous experiments on removal of phosphorus from water were performed by using an electrochemical method. The spherical type of zero valent iron (ZVI) and silica sand were packed at appropriate volume ratio of 1:2 in a cylindrical column. An electric potential was applied externally, which can be changed as per the operational requirement. The results indicate that optimum hydraulic retention time of 36 min was required to meet the effluent standards with our laboratory-scale experimental setup. Lower amounts of phosphorus were removed by precipitation due to contact with iron, and additional electric potential was not required. In order to remove high amounts of phosphorus (around 150 mg/L as phosphate), external electric potential of 600 V was applied to the reactor. As the precipitation of phosphate mainly occurs at neutral pH, it is likely that FeHPO4 will be the main phosphorus-containing compound. Through the results of the large-scale experiments, the ZVI packed reactor can be used as a filter for removal of phosphorus of less than 10 mg/L as phosphate concentration.

  11. [Removal pathway and influence factors of hydroponic bio-filter method for nitrogen and phosphorus].

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-ning; Song, Hai-liang; Lü, Xi-wu; Osamu, Nishimura; Yuhei, Inamori

    2007-05-01

    Study was made on the use of hydroponic bio-filter method (HBFM) for eutrophic surface water. Results show that HBFM can remove 16.8% of TN and 30.8% of TP at the hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 3.0 m3/(m2 x d). The removal loading rate of TN and TP can accordingly reach 1.0 and 0.1 g/(m2 x d) respectively. The sedimentation of particulate nitrogen and particulate phosphorus plays a major role in nitrogen and phosphorus removal, and its contribution is 62.2% and 75.9% respectively. The optimal HLR of HBFM ranges from 3.0 to 4.0 m3/(m x d). The intension of secateur for Nasturtium officinale has some effect on its uptake rate, thus the length of cut when harvesting should be less than 10 cm. The harvesting frequency of once a month for Nasturtium officinale has no effect on nitrogen and phosphorus removal of HBFM.

  12. A Decision-Based Modified Total Variation Diffusion Method for Impulse Noise Removal

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qingxin; Song, Xiuli; Tao, Jinsong

    2017-01-01

    Impulsive noise removal usually employs median filtering, switching median filtering, the total variation L1 method, and variants. These approaches however often introduce excessive smoothing and can result in extensive visual feature blurring and thus are suitable only for images with low density noise. A new method to remove noise is proposed in this paper to overcome this limitation, which divides pixels into different categories based on different noise characteristics. If an image is corrupted by salt-and-pepper noise, the pixels are divided into corrupted and noise-free; if the image is corrupted by random valued impulses, the pixels are divided into corrupted, noise-free, and possibly corrupted. Pixels falling into different categories are processed differently. If a pixel is corrupted, modified total variation diffusion is applied; if the pixel is possibly corrupted, weighted total variation diffusion is applied; otherwise, the pixel is left unchanged. Experimental results show that the proposed method is robust to different noise strengths and suitable for different images, with strong noise removal capability as shown by PSNR/SSIM results as well as the visual quality of restored images. PMID:28536602

  13. Fetal maturity and morbidity as related to placental weight and secondary ossification

    PubMed Central

    Pryse-Davies, J.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of objectivity in histopathology is illustrated by an attempt to determine the normal range and significance of two observations, placental weight and secondary ossification, made in perinatal pathology. Neither offered a satisfactory estimation of fetal maturity. The placental weight provided little evidence of any primary placental dysfunction: the placenta was very small in association with only 50% of the very small infants and a very small placental fetal weight ratio was an infrequent finding of doubtful significance. A method of classifying relatively retarded and advanced secondary ossification was devised. Significant retardation was found in association with males, growth retardation, some malformations, and multiple births: significantly advanced ossification was found in anencephaly. PMID:1197178

  14. Use of image analysis techniques for objective quantification of the efficacy of different hair removal methods.

    PubMed

    Bielfeldt, S; Brandt, M; Wilhelm, K-P

    2006-01-01

    In the field of consumer-used cosmetics for hair removal and hair growth reduction, there is a need for improved quantitative methods to enable the evaluation of efficacy and claim support. Optimized study designs and investigated endpoints are lacking to compare the efficacy of standard methods, like shaving or plucking, with new methods and products, such as depilating instruments or hair-growth-reducing cosmetics. Non-invasive image analysis, using a high-performance microscope combined with an optimized image analysis tool, was investigated to assess hair growth. In one step, high-resolution macrophotographs of the legs of female volunteers after shaving and plucking with cold wax were compared to observe short-term hair regrowth. In a second step, images obtained after plucking with cold wax were taken over a long-term period to assess the time, after which depilated hairs reappeared on the skin surface. Using image analysis, parameters like hair length, hair width, and hair projection area were investigated. The projection area was found to be the parameter most independent of possible image artifacts such as irregularities in skin or low contrast due to hair color. Therefore, the hair projection area was the most appropriate parameter to determine the time of hair regrowth. This point of time is suitable to assess the efficacy of different hair removal methods or hair growth reduction treatments by comparing the endpoint after use of the hair removal method to be investigated to the endpoint after simple shaving. The closeness of hair removal and visible signs of skin irritation can be assessed as additional quantitative parameters from the same images. Discomfort and pain rating by the volunteers complete the set of parameters, which are required to benchmark a new hair removal method or hair-growth-reduction treatment. Image analysis combined with high-resolution imaging techniques is a powerful tool to objectively assess parameters like hair length, hair

  15. Evaluation of Different Methods for Removing Oral Biofilm in Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Maria Sonia; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Mattos, Fernanda Zanol; Semenoff, Tereza Aparecida Della Vedove; Segundo, Alex Semenoff; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Bandeca, Matheus Coêlho; Porto, Alessandra Nogueira

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the different methods for removing oral biofilm in combination with 0.12% chlorhexidine, in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of the General University Hospital. Materials and Methods: Initially, the patients were included in the study and underwent periodontal evaluation by means of the visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI). The removal of visible biofilm, by a professional, was carried out using a toothbrush and dental floss, followed by the application of a 0.12% chlorhexidine solution. The patients were included in this randomized and controlled study into four groups (total n = 48), as follows: Chlorhexidine and gauze 12/12 h; chlorhexidine and gauze 24/24 h; chlorhexidine and brushing 12/12 h; chlorhexidine and brushing 24/24 h. The patients underwent the biofilm removal protocol for 7 days and then were subjected to a new clinical evaluation as to VPI and GBI. Data analysis was performed through stratification and arrangement of the records, in order to carry out the associations with health indicators used in the study, and the statistical tests used were Kappa and t-test for independent and paired samples. Results: A decrease in the VPI and GBI values when comparing baseline to the final evaluation for all groups was observed. Conclusion: Based on the methodology, it was possible to concluded that chlorhexidine associated with the mechanical action of the toothbrush or gauze in the times 12 h and 24 h in the ICU environment presented the same results as regards amount of visible biofilm. How to cite the article: Oliveira MS, Borges AH, Mattos FZ, Semenoff TA, Segundo AS, Tonetto MR, Bandeca MC, Porto AN. Evaluation of different methods for removing oral biofilm in patients admitted to the intensive care unit. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):61-4. PMID:25083034

  16. The effectiveness of four methods for stain removal from direct resin-based composite restorative materials

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nahedh, Hend Nahedh; Awliya, Wedad Yassin

    2013-01-01

    Background/purpose Few studies investigated the best method for removing stains from different types of resin-based composite restorations and compared them to the more recently introduced nanocomposites. This study compared the effect of four methods for stain removal from composite resins; finishing with Sof-lex disks, using pumice and brush, bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide and 38% hydrogen peroxide. Materials and methods Twenty disk specimens were prepared. Specimens were immersed in a staining solution for 3 weeks. The stained surfaces of five specimens from each RBC material were treated with one of the treatment procedures. Colorimetric measurements were taken using spectrophotometer prior to and after staining, and then repeated after surface treatments. Color difference values were calculated. Results One-way ANOVA indicated significant differences in color change of the three composite resin materials following staining. Filtek Z250 showed the least susceptibility to discoloration followed by Renamel, Filtek Supreme was the material most prone to discoloration. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s Post Hoc showed that all stain removing procedures except polishing with pumice, were able to return Filtek Z250 to clinically acceptable color difference. While bleaching with 38% carbamide peroxide was not effective with Renamel. Only pumice and 10% carbamide peroxide were able to return Renamel to clinically acceptable color difference. Conclusion Compositions of resin-based composite resins play an important role in their susceptibility to stain and their amenability to stain removal procedures. Home bleaching showed good results for the three materials, while office bleach was the least effective. PMID:24748758

  17. Effects of 4 hand-drying methods for removing bacteria from washed hands: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, D R; Vetter, E A; Larson, D R; Ilstrup, D M; Maker, M D; Thompson, R L; Cockerill, F R

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of 4 different drying methods to remove bacteria from washed hands. One hundred adult volunteers participated in this randomized prospective study. All bacterial counts were determined using a modified glove-juice sampling procedure. The difference was determined between the amounts of bacteria on hands artificially contaminated with the bacterium Micrococcus luteus before washing with a nonantibacterial soap and after drying by 4 different methods (cloth towels accessed by a rotary dispenser, paper towels from a stack on the hand-washing sink, warm forced air from a mechanical hand-activated dryer, and spontaneous room air evaporation). The results were analyzed using a nonparametric analysis (the Friedman test). By this method, changes in bacterial colony-forming unit values for each drying method were ranked for each subject. The results for 99 subjects were evaluable. No statistically significant differences were noted in the numbers of colony-forming units for each drying method (P = .72). These data demonstrate no statistically significant differences in the efficiency of 4 different hand-drying methods for removing bacteria from washed hands.

  18. Placental Vascular Tree as Biomarker of Autism/ASD Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI, high-autism risk) placentas compared 76 unselected National Children’s Study (NCS) placentas . Using methods...unique to our team to quantify vascular network structure, we have demonstrated, in summary, that EARLI placentas as a group show significant placental...vascular points and reduced mean vessel caliber as compared to NCS placentas . In addition, in EARLI placentas as a group, chorionic surface arteries, but

  19. Comparison of mechanical and chemomechanical methods of caries removal in deciduous and permanent teeth: a SEM study.

    PubMed

    Avinash, A; Grover, S D; Koul, M; Nayak, M T; Singhvi, A; Singh, R K

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical method of caries removal is associated with the removal of sound tooth structure, production of pain, heat, annoying sounds, and vibrations. Chemomechanical caries removal method is based on removal of only carious dentin leaving sound dentin intact. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of mechanical and chemomechanical methods of caries removal in deciduous and permanent teeth. A total of 30 carious teeth including 15 deciduous and 15 permanent teeth having dentinal caries selected randomly and cut into two halves through center of the lesion, were subjected to caries removal by mechanical (Group A), and chemomechanical methods (Group B). Time taken for removal of caries was noted with stopwatch. Samples were prepared and seen under the scanning electron microscope for the presence of bacterial colonies. Data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) Software. No significant difference was found for the presence of bacterial colonies in both groups of deciduous and permanent teeth; however, time taken for caries removal by the chemomechanical method was twice than the mechanical method. despite the insignificant presence of bacterial colonies and twice time taken as compared to mechanical method, chemomechanical method was easy to introduce, was painless, did not form smear layer and conserved the sound tooth structure.

  20. Method for the removal of ultrafine particulates from an aqueous suspension

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.; Kopasz, John P.; Ellison, Adam J. G.

    2000-01-01

    A method of separating ultra-fine particulates from an aqueous suspension such as a process stream or a waste stream. The method involves the addition of alkali silicate and an organic gelling agent to a volume of liquid, from the respective process or waste stream, to form a gel. The gel then undergoes syneresis to remove water and soluble salts from the gel containing the particulates, thus, forming a silica monolith. The silica monolith is then sintered to form a hard, nonporous waste form.

  1. Method for the Removal of Ultrafine Particulates from an Aqueous Suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, David J.; Kopasz, John P.; Ellison, Adam J.G.

    1999-03-05

    A method of separating ultra-fine particulate from an aqueous suspension such as a process stream or a waste stream. The method involves the addition of alkali silicate and an organic gelling agent to a volume of liquid, from the respective process or waste stream, to form a gel. The gel then undergoes syneresis to remove water and soluble salts from the gel-containing the particulate, thus, forming a silica monolith. The silica monolith is then sintered to form a hard, nonporous waste form.

  2. Practical methods for noise removal: applications to spikes, nonstationary quasi-periodic noise, and baseline drift.

    PubMed

    Feuerstein, Delphine; Parker, Kim H; Boutelle, Martyn G

    2009-06-15

    A new approach to signal processing of analytical time-domain data is presented. It consists in identifying the types of noise, characterizing them, and subsequently subtracting them from the otherwise unprocessed data set. The algorithms have been successfully applied to three classes of noise commonly found in analytical signals: spikes, ripples, and baseline drift. Traditional filters have been used as an intermediary step to detect and remove spikes in the signal with 96.8% success. Adaptive ensemble average subtraction has been developed to remove nonstationary ripples that have similar time scales as the signal of interest. This method increased the signal-to-noise ratio by up to 250% and led to minimal distortion of the signal, unlike conventional Fourier filters. Finally the removal of baseline drift has been achieved by subtraction of a mathematical model for the baseline. These three methods are generic, computationally fast, and applicable to a wide range of analytical techniques. Full Matlab codes and examples are included as Supporting Information.

  3. The evolution of epitheliochorial placentation.

    PubMed

    Carter, Anthony M; Enders, Allen C

    2013-01-01

    Epitheliochorial placentation is a derived condition and has evolved separately in strepsirrhine primates and laurasiatherians (pangolins, whales, and hoofed mammals). Usually it is associated with a long gestation period, small litters, and precocial young. Oxygen transfer is facilitated by indenting of the uterine and trophoblast epithelia by maternal and fetal capillaries, respectively. Histotrophic nutrition is important, and adaptations include areolas and hemophagous regions. In pigs and horses, for example, iron is transported as uteroferrin secreted from the uterine glands and taken up by areolas. In the horse, invasive trophoblast cells form cups within the endometrium that are the source of equine chorionic gonadotropin. In ruminants, binucleate trophoblast cells fuse with uterine epithelial cells to form trinucleate cells or plaques that secrete pregnancy hormones. There is evidence of immunosuppression in connection with these more invasive types of trophoblasts. The epitheliochorial condition may be advantageous for long pregnancies in large animals.

  4. Economic and environmental evaluation of nitrogen removal and recovery methods from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yanzi; Guo, Miao; Shah, Nilay; Stuckey, David C

    2016-09-01

    The driver for waste-based economic growth is long-term strategic design, and a paradigm-shift from waste treatment to resource recovery. This study aims to use an integrated modelling approach to evaluate the holistic economic and environmental profiles of three alternative nitrogen removal and recovery methods integrated into wastewater treatment systems, including conventional nitrification-denitrification, Anammox, and the anaerobic ion exchange route, to provide insights into N recovery system designs which are key elements in building a sustainable circular economy. Our results suggest that ion exchange is a promising technology showing high N removal-recovery efficiency from municipal wastewater and delivering competitive sustainability scores. In comparison with the well-developed conventional route, ion exchange and Anammox are undergoing significant research and development; as highlighted in sensitivity analyses, there is considerable room for process design and optimisation of ion exchange systems to achieve economically and environmentally optimal performance.

  5. Bioelectrochemical removal of carbon dioxide (CO2): an innovative method for biogas upgrading.

    PubMed

    Xu, Heng; Wang, Kaijun; Holmes, Dawn E

    2014-12-01

    Innovative methods for biogas upgrading based on biological/in-situ concepts have started to arouse considerable interest. Bioelectrochemical removal of CO2 for biogas upgrading was proposed here and demonstrated in both batch and continuous experiments. The in-situ biogas upgrading system seemed to perform better than the ex-situ one, but CO2 content was kept below 10% in both systems. The in-situ system's performance was further enhanced under continuous operation. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and alkali production with CO2 absorption could be major contributors to biogas upgrading. Molecular studies showed that all the biocathodes associated with biogas upgrading were dominated by sequences most similar to the same hydrogenotrophic methanogen species, Methanobacterium petrolearium (97-99% sequence identity). Conclusively, bioelectrochemical removal of CO2 showed great potential for biogas upgrading. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Removal of nickel and cadmium from battery waste by a chemical method using ferric sulphate.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Umesh U; Hocheng, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The removal of nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) from spent batteries was studied by the chemical method. A novel leaching system using ferric sulphate hydrate was introduced to dissolve heavy metals in batteries. Ni-Cd batteries are classified as hazardous waste because Ni and Cd are suspected carcinogens. More efficient technologies are required to recover metals from spent batteries to minimize capital outlay, environmental impact and to respond to increased demand. The results obtained demonstrate that optimal conditions, including pH, concentration of ferric sulphate, shaking speed and temperature for the metal removal, were 2.5, 60 g/L, 150 rpm and 30 degrees C, respectively. More than 88 (+/- 0.9) and 84 (+/- 2.8)% of nickel and cadmium were recovered, respectively. These results suggest that ferric ion oxidized Ni and Cd present in battery waste. This novel process provides a possibility for recycling waste Ni-Cd batteries in a large industrial scale.

  7. Method and device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B.; Rossabi, Joseph; Riha, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    A device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system includes a generally cylindrical push-rod defining an internal recess therein. The push-rod includes first and second end portions and an external liquid collection surface. A liquid collection member is detachably connected to the push-rod at one of the first and second end portions thereof. The method of the present invention for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a contaminated groundwater system includes providing a lance including an external hydrophobic liquid collection surface, an internal recess, and a collection chamber at the bottom end thereof. The lance is extended into the groundwater system such that the top end thereof remains above the ground surface. The liquid is then allowed to collect on the liquid collection surface, and flow downwardly by gravity into the collection chamber to be pumped upwardly through the internal recess in the lance.

  8. Method and apparatus for removal of gaseous, liquid and particulate contaminants from molten metals

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, David O.; Alexeff, Igor; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus for removal of nonelectrically-conducting gaseous, liquid, and particulate contaminants from molten metal compositions by applying a force thereto. The force (commonly referred to as the Lorentz Force) exerted by simultaneous application of an electric field and a magnetic field on a molten conductor causes an increase, in the same direction as the force, in the apparent specific gravity thereof, but does not affect the nonconducting materials. This difference in apparent densities cause the nonconducting materials to "float" in the opposite direction from the Lorentz Force at a rapid rate. Means are further provided for removal of the contaminants and prevention of stirring due to rotational forces generated by the applied fields.

  9. Laser cleaning: an alternative method for removing oil-spill fuel residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, M. P.; Nicolas, G.; Piñon, V.; Ramil, A.; Yañez, A.

    2005-07-01

    Cleaning methods employed in last oil spills usually require direct contact or the intervention of external agents that can lead to additional contamination and damage of treated surfaces. As an alternative, a laser-based methodology is proposed in this work for controlled removal of fuel residues caused by the accident of Prestige tanker from rocks, as well as tools and equipment employed in fuel retaining and elimination procedures. Ablation thresholds of fuel crust and underlying material have been investigated with the aim to establish operational parameters that preserve the structural integrity and identity of the latter. The clean-up process was controlled by the self-limiting nature of the process or by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy. Contaminated, no contaminated and cleaned areas of the samples have been characterized by complementary microscopy techniques to help in the task of optimizing the laser cleaning procedure and checking the effectiveness of the removal process.

  10. Method and apparatus for the removal of bioconversion of constituents of organic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy; Scott, Charles D.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the removal or conversion of constituents from bulk organic liquids. A countercurrent biphasic bioreactor system is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the constituent. Two transient, high-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the constituent to produce a product which is then removed from the bioreactor in the aqueous phase or retained in the organic phase. The organic liquid, now free of the original constituents, is ready for immediate use or further processing.

  11. Method and apparatus for the removal or bioconversion of constituents of organic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Scott, T.; Scott, C.D.

    1994-10-25

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the removal or conversion of constituents from bulk organic liquids. A countercurrent biphasic bioreactor system is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the constituent. Two transient, high-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the constituent to produce a product which is then removed from the bioreactor in the aqueous phase or retained in the organic phase. The organic liquid, now free of the original constituents, is ready for immediate use or further processing. 1 fig.

  12. Method and apparatus for removal of gaseous, liquid and particulate contaminants from molten metals

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, D.O.; Alexeff, I.; Sikka, V.K.

    1987-08-10

    Method and apparatus for removal of nonelectrically-conducting gaseous, liquid, and particulate contaminants from molten metal compositions by applying a force thereto. The force (commonly referred to as the Lorentz Force) exerted by simultaneous application of an electric field and a magnetic field on a molten conductor causes an increase, in the same direction as the force, in the apparent specific gravity thereof, but does not affect the nonconducting materials. This difference in apparent densities cause the nonconducting materials to ''float'' in the opposite direction from the Lorentz Force at a rapid rate. Means are further provided for removal of the contaminants and prevention of stirring due to rotational forces generated by the applied fields. 6 figs.

  13. A hierarchical method for removal of baseline drift from biomedical signals: application in ECG analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yurong; Hargraves, Rosalyn H; Belle, Ashwin; Bai, Ou; Qi, Xuguang; Ward, Kevin R; Pfaffenberger, Michael Paul; Najarian, Kayvan

    2013-01-01

    Noise can compromise the extraction of some fundamental and important features from biomedical signals and hence prohibit accurate analysis of these signals. Baseline wander in electrocardiogram (ECG) signals is one such example, which can be caused by factors such as respiration, variations in electrode impedance, and excessive body movements. Unless baseline wander is effectively removed, the accuracy of any feature extracted from the ECG, such as timing and duration of the ST-segment, is compromised. This paper approaches this filtering task from a novel standpoint by assuming that the ECG baseline wander comes from an independent and unknown source. The technique utilizes a hierarchical method including a blind source separation (BSS) step, in particular independent component analysis, to eliminate the effect of the baseline wander. We examine the specifics of the components causing the baseline wander and the factors that affect the separation process. Experimental results reveal the superiority of the proposed algorithm in removing the baseline wander.

  14. Foam-Based Method for Active Space Debris Removal: Foam Characterization, Modeling and Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mella, G.; Pergola, P.; Ruggiero, A.; Andrenucci, M.

    2012-01-01

    More than fifty years of space operations generated an abundance of space debris. Active removal missions are nowadays a necessary way to control and reduce space debris number. The method proposed in this work consists in developing a system able to realize a ball of expanding foam around target debris enlarging its area-to-mass ratio such that the atmospheric drag can exert a significant influence decelerating and deorbiting the debris. The key technology of the proposed scenario is the foam. The study focuses on the main characteristic of existent foam classes to identify suitable candidates for the proposed active debris removal system. Moreover, a low order foam expansion model, based on the classic Rayleigh-Plesset equation, is developed and implemented for polymeric foam. The resulting model has been validated and compared also with results of an experimental campaign carried out on commercial two-component polymeric foams.

  15. Removal of submandibular calculi by surgical method and hydraulic power with curved needle: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Sialolithiasis, the most common salivary gland pathology, is caused by calculi in the gland itself and its duct. While patients with small sialoliths can undergo conservative treatment, those with standard-size or larger sialoliths require sialolithotomy. In the present case study, we removed two sialoliths located beneath the mucosa in the posterior and anterior regions of Wharton's duct, respectively. For the posterior calculus, we performed sialolithotomy via an intra-oral approach; thereafter, the small anterior calculus near the duct orifice was removed by hydraulic power. This method has not previously been reported. There were no complications either during the operation or postoperatively, and the salivary function of the gland remained normal. PMID:28770160

  16. Treated bottom ash medium and method of arsenic removal from drinking water

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2009-06-09

    A method for low-cost arsenic removal from drinking water using chemically prepared bottom ash pre-treated with ferrous sulfate and then sodium hydroxide. Deposits on the surface of particles of bottom ash form of activated iron adsorbent with a high affinity for arsenic. In laboratory tests, a miniscule 5 grams of pre-treated bottom ash was sufficient to remove the arsenic from 2 liters of 2400 ppb (parts per billion) arsenic-laden water to a level below 50 ppb (the present United States Environmental Protection Agency limit). By increasing the amount of pre-treated bottom ash, even lower levels of post-treatment arsenic are expected. It is further expected that this invention supplies a very low-cost solution to arsenic poisoning for large population segments.

  17. A possible method for in situ nitrogen removal in landfills by microbial-pumping-iron behavior.

    PubMed

    Long, Yuyang; Xu, Jing; Du, Yao; Feng, Huan; Fang, Yuan; Shen, Dongsheng

    2016-06-15

    Nitrogen pollution from landfills needs urgent treatment. A batch experiment was designed to explore the possible in situ nitrogen removal in landfills based on the hypothesis of microbial-pumping-iron behavior, namely anaerobic microbial iron oxidation and reduction. The results confirm that a simultaneous Fe(ii) oxidation, accompanied by nitrate (NO3(-)-N) reduction and dissimilatory Fe(iii) reduction, can happen in aged municipal solid waste (AMSW). This phenomenon can last at least 10 years after landfilling. Organics is an important intermediate medium in that process. The dynamic anaerobic Fe redox cycle has the potential of denitrification without ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) accumulation. AMSW with deposited ages of 1-3 years is a good choice to enhance this redox cycle behavior coupled with denitrification. Conversely, AMSW with longer deposited ages (8-10 years) has a quicker iron cycle and a smaller NH4(+)-N accumulation. This suggests a possible method for in situ nitrogen removal in landfills.

  18. Coupling Surfactants with Permanganate for PCE DNAPL Removal: Coinjection or Sequential Application as Delivery Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, P. J.; Siegrist, R. L.; Crimi, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    Batch experiments and two-dimensional (2-D) flow-through cell experiments were conducted to investigate coupling surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of tetrachloroethene (PCE) dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) for PCE mass destruction. Previous batch screening tests were performed on surfactants and cosolvents in the presence of the oxidant potassium permanganate, to assess compatibility for coupling with permanganate. The anionic surfactants sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT), and sodium hexadecyl diphenyl oxide disulfonate (Dowfax 8390) were compatible and selected for use. Two delivery methods were investigated: (1) coinjection of 0.66 pore volumes (PVs) of 1.0-wt% Aerosol-OT, 0.5-wt% Dowfax 8390, 0.35-wt% CaBr2, and 0.75-wt% NaBr, (for enhanced PCE solubilization) with 0.5-wt% permanganate(for DNAPL mass destruction), and (2) sequential application of 0.66 PVs of the same surfactant solution followed by 0.66 PVs of 0.5-wt% permanganate flush. The 2-D cell packing configuration consisted of a fine-grained silica sand matrix with an embedded medium- grained sand lens, which allowed for the development of a high saturation PCE DNAPL source zone (~9-11% v/v) within the lens of each cell. For both experiments the flushing solutions were delivered at a linear velocity of 52 cm/day. Water quality samples were collected from eight point sampling ports, as well as the cell effluent. Samples were analyzed for PCE, chloride, and permanganate. At the conclusion of the experiments, the mass of PCE removed was quantified by destructively analyzing the cell. Results indicate complete mass removal using sequential application as a delivery method. In the coinjection experiment, cores extracted at the conclusion revealed that 99.8% of PCE DNAPL mass was removed. However, it was not possible to close a mass balance between the initial PCE added and the PCE removed. It is hypothesized this result was due to incomplete

  19. Validated UV-spectrophotometric method for the evaluation of the efficacy of makeup remover.

    PubMed

    Charoennit, P; Lourith, N

    2012-04-01

    A UV-spectrophotometric method for the analysis of makeup remover was developed and validated according to ICH guidelines. Three makeup removers for which the main ingredients consisted of vegetable oil (A), mineral oil and silicone (B) and mineral oil and water (C) were sampled in this study. Ethanol was the optimal solvent because it did not interfere with the maximum absorbance of the liquid foundation at 250 nm. The linearity was determined over a range of makeup concentrations from 0.540 to 1.412 mg mL⁻¹ (R² = 0.9977). The accuracy of this method was determined by analysing low, intermediate and high concentrations of the liquid foundation and gave 78.59-91.57% recoveries with a relative standard deviation of <2% (0.56-1.45%). This result demonstrates the validity and reliability of this method. The reproducibilities were 97.32 ± 1.79, 88.34 ± 2.69 and 95.63 ± 2.94 for preparations A, B and C respectively, which are within the acceptable limits set forth by the ASEAN analytical validation guidelines, which ensure the precision of the method under the same operating conditions over a short time interval and the inter-assay precision within the laboratory. The proposed method is therefore a simple, rapid, accurate, precise and inexpensive technique for the routine analysis of makeup remover efficacy. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. Robust Chemical Synthesis of Membrane Proteins through a General Method of Removable Backbone Modification.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ji-Shen; He, Yao; Zuo, Chao; Cai, Xiao-Ying; Tang, Shan; Wang, Zhipeng A; Zhang, Long-Hua; Tian, Chang-Lin; Liu, Lei

    2016-03-16

    Chemical protein synthesis can provide access to proteins with post-translational modifications or site-specific labelings. Although this technology is finding increasing applications in the studies of water-soluble globular proteins, chemical synthesis of membrane proteins remains elusive. In this report, a general and robust removable backbone modification (RBM) method is developed for the chemical synthesis of membrane proteins. This method uses an activated O-to-N acyl transfer auxiliary to install in the Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis process a RBM group with switchable reactivity toward trifluoroacetic acid. The method can be applied to versatile membrane proteins because the RBM group can be placed at any primary amino acid. With RBM, the membrane proteins and their segments behave almost as if they were water-soluble peptides and can be easily handled in the process of ligation, purification, and mass characterizations. After the full-length protein is assembled, the RBM group can be readily removed by trifluoroacetic acid. The efficiency and usefulness of the new method has been demonstrated by the successful synthesis of a two-transmembrane-domain protein (HCV p7 ion channel) with site-specific isotopic labeling and a four-transmembrane-domain protein (multidrug resistance transporter EmrE). This method enables practical synthesis of small- to medium-sized membrane proteins or membrane protein domains for biochemical and biophysical studies.

  1. Novel method of minimally invasive removal of large lipoma after laser lipolysis with 980 nm diode laser.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, William G; Hanke, C William; Petersen, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Lipomas are the most common benign tumor of the soft tissue, often presenting as soft, mobile subcutaneous masses. These lesions are often removed for cosmetic reasons, although they may be removed secondary to considerable discomfort or paresthesias. The large majority of lipomas appear as small, solitary lesions that are best removed by surgical excision. However, surgical removal of large (>10 cm) or multiple lesions may result in significant scarring. Tumescent local anesthesia and liposuction of larger lesions has been successful in a number of cases although this technique can be hindered by overly fibrous lesions. Laser lipolysis, performed alone or before liposuction, can further facilitate removal of these lesions. This technique is a minimally invasive and effective method of lipoma removal, resulting in an excellent cosmetic outcome. This report describes step-by-step removal of a large lipoma located on the back, as well as a review of currently employed techniques for minimally invasive treatment of lipomas. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Comparison of two methods of seminal plasma removal on buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, R S; Morais, R; Reis, A N; Miranda, M S; Dias, Ear; Monteiro, F M; Paz, Ccp; Nichi, M; Kawai, Gkv; Della'Aqua, Cpf; Papa, F O; Viana, R B; Gimenes, L U

    2017-10-01

    Cryopreservation causes damage to spermatozoa, and methods minimizing this damage are therefore needed. Although much discussed, seminal plasma removal has become an alternative to improve sperm quality and viability after freezing and has been applied to different species in attempt to obtain good results. The objective of this study was to evaluate semen quality in buffaloes submitted to two methods for seminal plasma removal (filtration and centrifugation). Semen samples were collected from seven Murrah buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) once a week for 8 weeks. Each ejaculate was divided into three groups: control (presence of seminal plasma), centrifugation and filtration. Sperm kinetics was evaluated with the computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. Plasmalemma and acrosomal membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by flow cytometry, and lipid peroxidation was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Seminal plasma removal did not improve sperm kinetics compared to the control group. Centrifugation increased the number of cells with damaged acrosomal membranes (0.77 ± 0.05) and filtration caused greater plasmalemma and acrosomal membrane damage (22.18 ± 1.07). No difference in the mitochondrial membrane potential was observed between groups. In contrast, ROS production was higher in the centrifugation group compared to the control and filtration groups, although no differences in TBARS formation were detected. In conclusion, seminal plasma removal did not improve the quality of thawed buffalo semen compared to control in terms of sperm kinetics, membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential or lipid peroxidation. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Natural Jordanian zeolite: removal of heavy metal ions from water samples using column and batch methods.

    PubMed

    Baker, Hutaf M; Massadeh, Adnan M; Younes, Hammad A

    2009-10-01

    The adsorption behavior of natural Jordanian zeolites with respect to Cd(2 + ), Cu(2 + ), Pb(2 + ), and Zn(2 + ) was studied in order to consider its application to purity metal finishing drinking and waste water samples under different conditions such as zeolite particle size, ionic strength and initial metal ion concentration. In the present work, a new method was developed to remove the heavy metal by using a glass column as the one that used in column chromatography and to make a comparative between the batch experiment and column experiment by using natural Jordanian zeolite as adsorbent and some heavy metals as adsorbate. The column method was used using different metal ions concentrations ranged from 5 to 20 mg/L with average particle size of zeolite ranged between 90 and 350 mum, and ionic strength ranged from 0.01 to 0.05. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used for analysis of these heavy metal ions, the results obtained in this study indicated that zeolitic tuff is an efficient ion exchanger for removing heavy metals, in particular the fine particle sizes of zeolite at pH 6, whereas, no clear effect of low ionic strength values is noticed on the removal process. Equilibrium modeling of the removal showed that the adsorption of Cd(2 + ), Cu(2 + ), Pb(2 + ), and Zn(2 + ) were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich (DKR). The sorption energy E determined in the DKR equation (9.129, 10.000, 10.541, and 11.180 kJ/mol for Zn(2 + ), Cu(2 + ), Cd(2 + ) and Pb(2 + ) respectively) which revealed the nature of the ion-exchange mechanism.

  4. A method for removing copper from charcoal of waste wood using an electrical current.

    PubMed

    Goto, S; Xiong, J F; Nakajima, D; Inaba, K; Ohata, M; Yoshizawa, S; Yajima, H; Sakai, S

    2007-08-01

    The reclamation of resources from wastes, through such activities as recycling various kinds of wastes and finding more ways to use them, is an important part of changing to a sustainable society. It is also important to ensure the safety of products by, for example, removing hazardous substances from recycled items. Wood is a type of demolition waste. The reuse and recycling of wood from demolition have not progressed much. To increase the number of ways of using wood wastes we have examined methods of making carbonized materials from them and using these carbonized materials to control indoor air pollution (Shibano et al., 2002). Research currently underway on ensuring the safety of recycled items includes investigating the behavior and other characteristics of hazardous substances that are, or may very well be, found in recycled items. It is known that the smoke arising from the process of carbonizing wood wastes is mutagenic. However, such mutagenic components become smoke and separate from carbonized materials, and, especially at temperatures of 800 degrees C and higher, they hardly remain in carbonized materials at all (Nakajima et al., 2003, 2004). In the carbonization of wood wastes containing hazardous metals such as CCA (Cr, Cu, As)-treated wood, substances that readily vaporize separate from the carbonized materials. One cannot expect, however, the same removal effect on metals that vaporize with difficulty, such as Cu, making it likely that they remain in the carbonized material (Takahashi et al., 2004). To examine methods of removing hazardous metals which may well remain in carbonized wood wastes, we investigated the removal and recovery of copper from charcoal with a high copper content by applying electricity (direct current) to it.

  5. Infant sex-specific placental cadmium and DNA methylation associations

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, April F.; Farin, Fred M.; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Afsharinejad, Zahra; Burbacher, Thomas M.; Siscovick, David S.; Williams, Michelle A.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that maternal cadmium (Cd) burden and fetal growth associations may vary by fetal sex. However, mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. Objectives Among 24 maternal-infant pairs, we investigated infant sex-specific associations between placental Cd and placental genome-wide DNA methylation. Methods We used ANOVA models to examine sex-stratified associations of placental Cd (dichotomized into high/low Cd using sex-specific Cd median cutoffs) with DNA methylation at each cytosine-phosphate-guanine site or region. Statistical significance was defined using a false discovery rate cutoff (<0.10). Results Medians of placental Cd among females and males were 5 and 2 ng/g, respectively. Among females, three sites (near ADP-ribosylation factor-like 9 (ARL9), siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3 (SIAH3), and heparin sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 4 (HS3ST4) and one region on chromosome 7 (including carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CROT) and TP5S target 1 (TP53TG1)) were hypomethylated in high Cd placentas. Among males, high placental Cd was associated with methylation of three sites, two (hypomethylated) near MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) and one (hypermethylated) near spalt-like transcription factor 1 (SALL1), and two regions (both hypomethylated, one on chromosome 3 including MECOM and another on chromosome 8 including rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10 (ARHGEF10). Differentially methylated sites were at or close to transcription start sites of genes involved in cell damage response (SIAH3, HS3ST4, TP53TG1) in females and cell differentiation, angiogenesis and organ development (MECOM, SALL1) in males. Conclusions Our preliminary study supports infant sex-specific placental Cd-DNA methylation associations, possibly accounting for previously reported differences in Cd-fetal growth associations across fetal sex. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these findings

  6. Chemomechanical caries removal method versus mechanical caries removal methods in clinical and community-based setting: A comparative in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K V K Santosh; Prasad, M Ghanashyam; Sandeep, R Venkata; Reddy, S Pavani; Divya, D; Pratyusha, K

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of various caries removal techniques in mandibular primary molars using Smart Burs, atraumatic restorative technique (ART) (mechanical caries removal) and Carie-care (chemomechanical caries removal [CMCR]) among primary school children in clinical and community-based settings. A total of 80 carious primary mandibular molars were selected for the study from the dental clinic and community. They were equally assigned to four groups according to caries removal technique and also by the operating site. In Group 1, caries was removed using Carie-care in the dental clinic and in Group 2, with Smart Burs in the dental clinic. In Group 3, caries was removed using Carie-care in the field and in Group 4, with the ART in the field. The time taken for caries removal, the efficacy of caries removal and patient acceptance were evaluated with different caries removal techniques. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis by ANOVA test. In clinical settings, Carie-care was time-consuming but was more efficient with increased acceptance than Smart Burs and the result was found to be significant statistically (P < 0.05). In community-based settings, Carie-care was more efficient, less time consuming, and showed an increased acceptance when compared to atraumatic restorative treatment and the result was found to be significant statistically (P < 0.05). The CMCR technique was superior to the mechanical caries removal technique in primary teeth among school children in terms of time, efficacy, and acceptance in both clinical- and community-based settings.

  7. Parvovirus infection: an immunohistochemical study using fetal and placental tissue.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing Jing; Henwood, Tony; Van Hal, Sebastian; Charlton, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection causes 5% to 15% of cases of nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of immunohistochemistry in diagnosing parvovirus infection in fetal and placental tissue during routine fetal and perinatal autopsies. Histology slides of 20 cases of confirmed parvovirus infection were reviewed, and immunohistochemistry was applied to selected blocks of fetal and placental tissue. Immunohistochemistry was positive in all 20 cases, and histologic viral inclusions were seen in 19 cases. Immunohistochemical staining was closely correlated with histology and was more sensitive than histology in detecting virally infected cells, especially in autolyzed tissue. All cases also had confirmatory evidence of parvovirus infection by polymerase chain reaction of fetal liver and positive maternal serology, where it was available. We conclude that parvovirus immunohistochemistry is a reliable method for diagnosing parvovirus infection, especially in autolyzed tissue where histologic assessment may be suboptimal.

  8. CD74-downregulation of placental macrophage-trophoblastic interactions in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Przybyl, Lukasz; Haase, Nadine; Golic, Michaela; Rugor, Julianna; Solano, Maria Emilia; Arck, Petra Clara; Gauster, Martin; Huppertz, Berthold; Emontzpohl, Christoph; Stoppe, Christian; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Leng, Lin; Bucala, Richard; Schulz, Herbert; Heuser, Arnd; Weedon-Fekjær, M. Susanne; Johnsen, Guro M.; Peetz, Dirk; Luft, Friedrich C; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Müller, Dominik N; Dechend, Ralf; Herse, Florian

    2017-01-01

    RATIONALE We hypothesized that Cluster of differentiation 74 (CD74) downregulation of placental macrophages, leading to altered macrophage-trophoblast interaction, is involved in preeclampsia. OBJECTIVE Preeclamptic pregnancies feature hypertension, proteinuria and placental anomalies. Feto-placental macrophages regulate villous trophoblast differentiation during placental development. Disturbance of this well-balanced regulation can lead to pathological pregnancies. METHODS AND RESULTS We performed whole genome expression analysis of placental tissue. CD74 was one of the most downregulated genes in placentas from preeclamptic women. By RT-PCR, we confirmed this finding in early onset (<34 gestational week, n=26) and late onset (≥34 gestational week, n=24) samples from preeclamptic women, compared to healthy pregnant controls (n=28). CD74 protein levels were analyzed by Western blot and flow cytometry. We identified placental macrophages to express CD74 by immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and RT-PCR. CD74-positive macrophages were significantly reduced in preeclamptic placentas compared to controls. CD74-silenced macrophages showed that the adhesion molecules ALCAM, ICAM4, and Syndecan-2, as well as macrophage adhesion to trophoblasts were diminished. Naïve and activated macrophages lacking CD74 showed a shift towards a pro-inflammatory signature with an increased secretion of TNFα, CCL5, and MCP-1, when co-cultured with trophoblasts compared to control macrophages. Trophoblasts stimulated by these factors express more CYP2J2, sFlt1, TNFα and IL-8. CD74-knockout mice showed disturbed placental morphology, reduced junctional zone, smaller placentas and impaired spiral artery remodeling with fetal growth restriction. CONCLUSIONS CD74 downregulation in placental macrophages is present in preeclampsia. CD74 downregulation leads to altered macrophage activation towards a pro-inflammatory signature and a disturbed crosstalk with trophoblasts. PMID:27199465

  9. Viscosity and haemodynamics in a late gestation rat feto-placental arterial network.

    PubMed

    Bappoo, Nikhilesh; Kelsey, Lachlan J; Parker, Louis; Crough, Tim; Moran, Carmel M; Thomson, Adrian; Holmes, Megan C; Wyrwoll, Caitlin S; Doyle, Barry J

    2017-08-01

    The placenta is a transient organ which develops during pregnancy to provide haemotrophic support for healthy fetal growth and development. Fundamental to its function is the healthy development of vascular trees in the feto-placental arterial network. Despite the strong association of haemodynamics with vascular remodelling mechanisms, there is a lack of computational haemodynamic data that may improve our understanding of feto-placental physiology. The aim of this work was to create a comprehensive 3D computational fluid dynamics model of a substructure of the rat feto-placental arterial network and investigate the influence of viscosity on wall shear stress (WSS). Late gestation rat feto-placental arteries were perfused with radiopaque Microfil and scanned via micro-computed tomography to capture the feto-placental arterial geometry in 3D. A detailed description of rat fetal blood viscosity parameters was developed, and three different approaches to feto-placental haemodynamics were simulated in 3D using the finite volume method: Newtonian model, non-Newtonian Carreau-Yasuda model and Fåhræus-Lindqvist effect model. Significant variability in WSS was observed between different viscosity models. The physiologically-realistic simulations using the Fåhræus-Lindqvist effect and rat fetal blood estimates of viscosity revealed detailed patterns of WSS throughout the arterial network. We found WSS gradients at bifurcation regions, which may contribute to vessel enlargement, and sprouting and pruning during angiogenesis. This simulation of feto-placental haemodynamics shows the heterogeneous WSS distribution throughout the network and demonstrates the ability to determine physiologically-relevant WSS magnitudes, patterns and gradients. This model will help advance our understanding of vascular physiology and remodelling in the feto-placental network.

  10. Placental hypoxia: the lesions of maternal malperfusion.

    PubMed

    Parks, W Tony

    2015-02-01

    The placental lesions classically ascribed to placental hypoxia, here denoted maternal malperfusion (MMP), are among the more significant that a placental pathologist may encounter. Yet the appearance of these lesions may be subtle, and the clinical implication of their diagnosis is frequently unclear. The aim of this review is to provide a more nuanced perspective on the clinical utility of placental pathology for the detection of MMP. The review will first detail MMP lesions in the placenta and discuss their associations with pregnancy complications. The review will then delve into the diagnostic and interpretive difficulties of these lesions. Finally, recent research findings that may aid in the development of better diagnostic tools will be briefly discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Placental immaturity, endocardial fibroelastosis and fetal hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Perez, Marie-Hélène; Boulos, Tatiana; Stucki, Pascal; Cotting, Jacques; Osterheld, Maria-Chiara; Di Bernardo, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    We describe a term newborn who, after a normal gestational course, presented at birth with absent cardiac activity and no spontaneous breathing. Death occurred within 30 h. Autopsy revealed placental villous immaturity, multiple acute hypoxic lesions, but also chronic hypoxic lesions like endocardial fibroelastosis. This striking association of endocardial fibroelastosis and placental villous immaturity is reviewed and correlated with 2 other cases of placental villous immaturity that led to in utero death at 39 and 41 weeks of gestation. Placental villous immaturity must be suspected and looked for by both pediatricians and obstetricians in every case of stillbirth or perinatal asphyxia of unclear origin. In order to minimize the risk of recurrence in further pregnancies, elective cesarean section may be considered.

  12. Comparison of bulb syringe, pressurized pulsatile, and hydrosurgery debridement methods for removing bacteria from fracture implants.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michael S; Moghadamian, Eric S; Yin, Li-Yan; Della Rocca, Gregory J; Crist, Brett D

    2012-07-01

    Surgical-site infection is a common form of noscomial infection that can occur in fractures following internal fixation. Treatment of these infections has traditionally included preserving stable implants via debridement and antibiotic administration while the fracture is healing. Recent evidence indicated that this algorithm results in less-than-optimal rates of fracture union and infection eradication.The premise for this study is that bacterial removal from fracture implants using the Versajet Hydrosurgery System (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, Tennessee) method is better compared with the bulb syringe and pressurized pulsatile lavage methods. Thirty-two stainless steel, 4-hole, nonlocking, 3.5-mm fracture plates were incubated with Staphylococus aureus and divided into 4 groups. Eight plates in each group underwent irrigation with 1 L of saline using a bulb syringe lavage, pressurized pulsatile lavage, or the Versajet Hydrosurgery System method. Eight plates underwent no irrigation method and served as a control group. The residual bacterial loads following irrigation were quantitatively cultured. Each of the experimental groups had significantly reduced levels of bacteria adherent to the plate following irrigation compared with the control group (P=.0002). Furthermore, the Versajet Hydrosurgery System was most the effective at bacterial removal, followed by the pressurized pulsatile and bulb syringe lavage techniques (P=.0002 to P=.0012, respectively).Novel approaches to eradicate bacteria from implants, such as hydrosurgery technology, while maintaining rigid stability of healing fracture, may improve clinical outcomes.

  13. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of chemomechanical caries removal agent (Papacarie) and conventional method of caries removal: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Jawa, D; Singh, S; Somani, R; Jaidka, S; Sirkar, K; Jaidka, R

    2010-01-01

    Painless dentistry, minimal intervention and thus giving comfort, relief and solace and instill positive attitude toward dental treatments, are some of the factors justifying the specialty of pediatric dentistry. Thus, this in vitro study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of a new chemomechanical caries removal agent, Papacarie (Formula and Acao), with conventional slow-speed rotary instrument (bur). Papacarie is a new formulation and has the main active ingredient papain, an endoprotein with bactericidal, bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory actions. Twenty extracted human molar teeth with deep dentine caries and no enamel coverage were selected for the study. After the preparation of the teeth and removal of the caries with the respective methods, they were decalcified, dehydrated and embedded in paraffin blocks for histologic studies. Serial sections of 5 mum thickness were examined for the presence of bacteria under light microscope. Though complete removal of caries was achieved significantly in both the methods, there was less marked destruction of dentinal tubules in chemomechanical caries removal method by Papacarie. Thus, Papacarie is recommended as an efficient, easy to perform, comfortable and less destructive solution for the patient seeking an alternative to the conventional method.

  14. Assessment of Placental Stiffness Using Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography in Pregnant Women with Fetal Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Göya, Cemil; Tunç, Senem; Teke, Memik; Hattapoğlu, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate placental stiffness measured by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in pregnant women in the second trimester with a normal fetus versus those with structural anomalies and non-structural findings. Materials and Methods Forty pregnant women carrying a fetus with structural anomalies diagnosed sonographically at 18–28 weeks of gestation comprised the study group. The control group consisted of 34 healthy pregnant women with a sonographically normal fetus at a similar gestational age. Placental shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured by ARFI elastography and compared between the two groups. Structural anomalies and non-structural findings were scored based on sonographic markers. Placental stiffness measurements were compared among fetus anomaly categories. Doppler parameters of umbilical and uterine arteries were compared with placental SWV measurements. Results All placental SWV measurements, including minimum SWV, maximum SWV, and mean SWV were significantly higher in the study group than the control group ([0.86 ± 0.2, 0.74 ± 0.1; p < 0.001], [1.89 ± 0.7, 1.59 ± 0.5; p = 0.04], and [1.26 ± 0.4, 1.09 ± 0.2; p = 0.01]), respectively. Conclusion Placental stiffness evaluated by ARFI elastography during the second trimester in pregnant women with fetuses with congenital structural anomalies is higher than that of pregnant women with normal fetuses. PMID:26957906

  15. Laser tattoo removal as an ablation process monitored by acoustical and optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cencič, Boris; Gregorčič, Peter; Možina, Janez; Jezeršek, Matija

    2013-07-01

    Strength of the laser-tissue interaction varies even within a single tattoo because of the inhomogeneous distribution of the tattoo pigment embedded in the skin. A monitoring system is therefore developed for simultaneous monitoring of the laser tattoo removal process based on acoustical and optical techniques. A laser-beam-deflection probe is used for measuring the acoustical signals accompanying the breakdown, and a CCD camera captures the level and the spatial distribution of the plasma radiation. Using these methods we examine the degree of excitation-pulse absorption within the pigment and the degree of the structural changes of the skin. A Nd:YAG laser with a top-hat beam profile, designed for tattoo removal, is used as the excitation source in our experiments. Special attention is given to structural changes in the skin, which depend on the applied fluence. Tattoo removal with multiple pulses is also analyzed. Experiments are made in vitro (skin phantoms) and ex vivo (marking tattoos on the pig skin). The presented results are important for the understanding and optimization of the process used in medical therapies.

  16. A Method for Removal of Bakelite-Impregnated Wire Strain Gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, Richard H.

    1943-01-01

    An increasing interest is being shown in the use of wire-type strain gages to measure static and dynamic stresses in aircraft-engine parts. Bakelite cement has been found satisfactory as a bonding agent for attaching the strain gages to machine parts that must operate at elevated temperatures. On many occasions, it is desired to remove Bakelite-cemented gages from the test parts for the purpose of replacing faulty gages or of returning the parts to service after strain measurements have been completed. Removal of the gages by means of scraping without prior treatment is very unsatisfactory because it is tedious and almost invariably damages the finished surface. Various solvents have been tried, but all attempts in this direction have been unsuccessful inasmuch as Bakelite cement, when properly baked, forms a polymer of very high molecular weight that resists the action of solvents. This report presents a gas-flame method of removal that is rapid and does not inure the structural part.

  17. Comparative aspects of trophoblast development and placentation

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Anthony M; Enders, Allen C

    2004-01-01

    Based on the number of tissues separating maternal from fetal blood, placentas are classified as epitheliochorial, endotheliochorial or hemochorial. We review the occurrence of these placental types in the various orders of eutherian mammals within the framework of the four superorders identified by the techniques of molecular phylogenetics. The superorder Afrotheria diversified in ancient Africa and its living representatives include elephants, sea cows, hyraxes, aardvark, elephant shrews and tenrecs. Xenarthra, comprising armadillos, anteaters and sloths, diversified in South America. All placentas examined from members of these two oldest superorders are either endotheliochorial or hemochorial. The superorder Euarchontoglires includes two sister groups, Glires and Euarchonta. The former comprises rodents and lagomorphs, which typically have hemochorial placentas. The most primitive members of Euarchonta, the tree shrews, have endotheliochorial placentation. Flying lemurs and all higher primates have hemochorial placentas. However, the lemurs and lorises are exceptional among primates in having epitheliochorial placentation. Laurasiatheria, the last superorder to arise, includes several orders with epitheliochorial placentation. These comprise whales, camels, pigs, ruminants, horses and pangolins. In contrast, nearly all carnivores have endotheliochorial placentation, whilst bats have endotheliochorial or hemochorial placentas. Also included in Laurasiatheria are a number of insectivores that have many conserved morphological characters; none of these has epitheliochorial placentation. Consideration of placental type in relation to the findings of molecular phylogenetics suggests that the likely path of evolution in Afrotheria was from endotheliochorial to hemochorial placentation. This is also a likely scenario for Xenarthra and the bats. We argue that a definitive epitheliochorial placenta is a secondary specialization and that it evolved twice, once in the

  18. Comparative aspects of trophoblast development and placentation.

    PubMed

    Carter, Anthony M; Enders, Allen C

    2004-07-05

    Based on the number of tissues separating maternal from fetal blood, placentas are classified as epitheliochorial, endotheliochorial or hemochorial. We review the occurrence of these placental types in the various orders of eutherian mammals within the framework of the four superorders identified by the techniques of molecular phylogenetics. The superorder Afrotheria diversified in ancient Africa and its living representatives include elephants, sea cows, hyraxes, aardvark, elephant shrews and tenrecs. Xenarthra, comprising armadillos, anteaters and sloths, diversified in South America. All placentas examined from members of these two oldest superorders are either endotheliochorial or hemochorial. The superorder Euarchontoglires includes two sister groups, Glires and Euarchonta. The former comprises rodents and lagomorphs, which typically have hemochorial placentas. The most primitive members of Euarchonta, the tree shrews, have endotheliochorial placentation. Flying lemurs and all higher primates have hemochorial placentas. However, the lemurs and lorises are exceptional among primates in having epitheliochorial placentation. Laurasiatheria, the last superorder to arise, includes several orders with epitheliochorial placentation. These comprise whales, camels, pigs, ruminants, horses and pangolins. In contrast, nearly all carnivores have endotheliochorial placentation, whilst bats have endotheliochorial or hemochorial placentas. Also included in Laurasiatheria are a number of insectivores that have many conserved morphological characters; none of these has epitheliochorial placentation. Consideration of placental type in relation to the findings of molecular phylogenetics suggests that the likely path of evolution in Afrotheria was from endotheliochorial to hemochorial placentation. This is also a likely scenario for Xenarthra and the bats. We argue that a definitive epitheliochorial placenta is a secondary specialization and that it evolved twice, once in the

  19. Pathogen inactivation and removal methods for plasma-derived clotting factor concentrates.

    PubMed

    Klamroth, Robert; Gröner, Albrecht; Simon, Toby L

    2014-05-01

    Pathogen safety is crucial for plasma-derived clotting factor concentrates used in the treatment of bleeding disorders. Plasma, the starting material for these products, is collected by plasmapheresis (source plasma) or derived from whole blood donations (recovered plasma). The primary measures regarding pathogen safety are selection of healthy donors donating in centers with appropriate epidemiologic data for the main blood-transmissible viruses, screening donations for the absence of relevant infectious blood-borne viruses, and release of plasma pools for further processing only if they are nonreactive for serologic markers and nucleic acids for these viruses. Despite this testing, pathogen inactivation and/or removal during the manufacturing process of plasma-derived clotting factor concentrates is required to ensure prevention of transmission of infectious agents. Historically, hepatitis viruses and human immunodeficiency virus have posed the greatest threat to patients receiving plasma-derived therapy for treatment of hemophilia or von Willebrand disease. Over the past 30 years, dedicated virus inactivation and removal steps have been integrated into factor concentrate production processes, essentially eliminating transmission of these viruses. Manufacturing steps used in the purification of factor concentrates have also proved to be successful in reducing potential prion infectivity. In this review, current techniques for inactivation and removal of pathogens from factor concentrates are discussed. Ideally, production processes should involve a combination of complementary steps for pathogen inactivation and/or removal to ensure product safety. Finally, potential batch-to-batch contamination is avoided by stringent cleaning and sanitization methods as part of the manufacturing process.

  20. Separation of Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes for Flexible and Stretchable Electronics Using Polymer Removable Method.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ting; Pochorovski, Igor; Bao, Zhenan

    2017-04-18

    Electronics that are soft, conformal, and stretchable are highly desirable for wearable electronics, prosthetics, and robotics. Among the various available electronic materials, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and their network have exhibited high mechanical flexibility and stretchability, along with comparable electrical performance to traditional rigid materials, e.g. polysilicon and metal oxides. Unfortunately, SWNTs produced en masse contain a mixture of semiconducting (s-) and metallic (m-) SWNTs, rendering them unsuitable for electronic applications. Moreover, the poor solubility of SWNTs requires the introduction of insulating surfactants to properly disperse them into individual tubes for device fabrication. Compared to other SWNT dispersion and separation methods, e.g., DNA wrapping, density gradient ultracentrifugation, and gel chromatography, polymer wrapping can selectively disperse s-SWNTs with high selectivity (>99.7%), high concentration (>0.1 mg/mL), and high yield (>20%). In addition, this method only requires simple sonication and centrifuge equipment with short processing time down to 1 h. Despite these advantages, the polymer wrapping method still faces two major issues: (i) The purified s-SWNTs usually retain a substantial amount of polymers on their surface even after thorough rinsing. The low conductivity of the residual polymers impedes the charge transport in SWNT networks. (ii) Conjugated polymers used for SWNT wrapping are expensive. Their prices ($100-1000/g) are comparable or even higher than those of SWNTs ($10-300/g). These utilized conjugated polymers represent a large portion of the overall separation cost. In this Account, we summarize recent progresses in polymer design for selective dispersion and separation of SWNTs. We focus particularly on removable and/or recyclable polymers that enable low-cost and scalable separation methods. First, different separation methods are compared to show the advantages of the polymer

  1. Placental Perfusion In Uterine Ischemia Model as Evaluated by Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Drobyshevsky, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Background To validate DCE MRI method of placental perfusion estimation and to demonstrate application of the method in a rabbit model of fetal antenatal hypoxia-ischemia. Methods Placental perfusion was estimated by dynamic contrast imaging with bolus injection of Gd-DTPA in 3 Tesla GE magnet in a rabbit model of placental ischemia–reperfusion in rabbit dams at embryonic day 25 gestation age. Placental perfusion was measured using steepest slope method on DCE MRI before and after intermittent 40 min uterine ischemia. Antioxidants (n = 2 dams, 9 placentas imaged) or vehicle (n = 5 dams, 23 placenta imaged) were given systemically in a separate group of dams during reperfusion–reoxygenation. Placental perfusion was also measured in two dams from the antioxidant group (10 placentas) and two dams from the control group (12 placentas) by fluorescent microspheres method. Results While placental perfusion estimates between fluorescent microspheres and DCE MRI were significantly correlated (R2 = 0.85; P < 0.01), there was approximately 33% systematic underestimation by the latter technique. DCE MRI showed a significant decrease in maternal placental perfusion in reperfusion–reoxygenation phase in the saline, 0.44 ± 0.06 mL/min/g (P = 0.012, t-test), but not in the antioxidant group, 0.62 ± 0.06 mL/min/g, relative to preocclusion values (0.77 ± 0.07 and 0.84 ± 0.12 mL/min/g, correspondingly). Conclusion Underestimation of true perfusion in placenta by steepest slope DCE MRI is significant and the error appears to be systematic. PMID:25854322

  2. The distinct proteome of placental malaria parasites.

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, Michal; Hixson, Kim K.; Anderson, Lori; Ogata, Yuko; Mutabingwa, Theonest K.; Duffy, Patrick E.

    2007-09-01

    Malaria proteins expressed on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) mediate adhesion and are targeted by protective immune responses. During pregnancy, IE sequester in the placenta. Placental IE bind to the molecule chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) and preferentially transcribe the gene that encodes VAR2CSA, a member of the PfEMP1 variant surface antigen family. Over successive pregnancies women develop specific immunity to CSA-binding IE and antibodies to VAR2CSA. We used tandem mass spectrometry together with accurate mass and time tag technology to study IE membrane fractions of placental parasites. VAR2CSA peptides were detected in placental IE and in IE from children, but the MC variant of VAR2CSA was specifically associated with placental IE. We identified six conserved hypothetical proteins with putative TM or signal peptides that were exclusively expressed by the placental IE, and 11 such proteins that were significantly more abundant in placental IE. One of these hypothetical proteins, PFI1785w, is a 42kDa molecule detected by Western blot in parasites infecting pregnant women but not those infecting children.

  3. An evaluation of alternative cleaning methods for removing an organic contaminant from a stainless steel part

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    As of December 1995, the manufacture of Freon, along with many other chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), was prohibited by the Clean Air Act of 1990 (CAA). The ban of CFC solvents has forced manufacturers across the country to search for alternative metal cleaning techniques. The objective of this study was to develop a thorough, scientific based approach for resolving one specific manufacturer`s problem of removing organic contamination from a stainless steel part. This objective was accomplished with an approach that involved: (1) defining the problem, (2) identifying the process constraints, (3) researching alternate cleaning methods, (4) researching applicable government regulations, (5) performing a scientific evaluation and (6) drawing conclusions.

  4. Well cementing method using acid removable low density well cement compositions

    SciTech Connect

    King, B.J.; Totten, P.L.

    1993-05-25

    A method of forming a cement plug or seal in a subterranean zone penetrated by a well bore which can subsequently be removed by dissolution in acid is described comprising: pumping a low density cement composition which sets into a hard substantially impermeable mass into said zone comprised of magnesium oxide, an aqueous magnesium chloride solution, calcium carbonate filler, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer and a gas entrained in said slurry in an amount sufficient to obtain a desired slurry density; and allowing said cement composition to set in said zone.

  5. Method for treating electrolyte to remove Li.sub.2 O

    DOEpatents

    Tomczuk, Zygmunt; Miller, William E.; Johnson, Gerald K.; Willit, James L.

    1998-01-01

    A method of removing Li.sub.2 O present in an electrolyte predominantly of LiCl and KCl. The electrolyte is heated to a temperature not less than about 500.degree. C. and then Al is introduced into the electrolyte in an amount in excess of the stoichiometric amount needed to convert the Li.sub.2 O to a Li-Al alloy and lithium aluminate salt. The salt and aluminum are maintained in contact with agitation for a time sufficient to convert the Li.sub.2 O.

  6. Method for treating electrolyte to remove Li{sub 2}O

    DOEpatents

    Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.; Johnson, G.K.; Willit, J.L.

    1998-01-20

    A method is described for removing Li{sub 2}O present in an electrolyte predominantly of LiCl and KCl. The electrolyte is heated to a temperature not less than about 500 C and then Al is introduced into the electrolyte in an amount in excess of the stoichiometric amount needed to convert the Li{sub 2}O to a Li-Al alloy and lithium aluminate salt. The salt and aluminum are maintained in contact with agitation for a time sufficient to convert the Li{sub 2}O.

  7. A method for treating electrolyte to remove Li{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.; Johnson, G.K.; Willit, J.L.

    1998-04-01

    Electrorefining has been used in processes for recovering uranium and plutonium metals from spent nuclear fuel. The electrorefining is performed in an electrochemical cell in which the chopped fuel elements from the reactor forms the anode, the electrolyte, preferably, is the fused eutectic salt of the LiCl-KCl which contain UCl{sub 3} and PuCl{sub 3}. Purified metal collected at the cathode collects at the bottom of the cell. This invention provides a method for removing lithium oxide from the electrolyte salt, with the end formation of a solid lithium-aluminium alloy.

  8. An Analysis Method for Superconducting Resonator Parameter Extraction with Complex Baseline Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    A new semi-empirical model is proposed for extracting the quality (Q) factors of arrays of superconducting microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs). The determination of the total internal and coupling Q factors enables the computation of the loss in the superconducting transmission lines. The method used allows the simultaneous analysis of multiple interacting discrete resonators with the presence of a complex spectral baseline arising from reflections in the system. The baseline removal allows an unbiased estimate of the device response as measured in a cryogenic instrumentation setting.

  9. Optimized Triton X-114 assisted lipopolysaccharide (LPS) removal method reveals the immunomodulatory effect of food proteins

    PubMed Central

    Perdijk, Olaf; Verhoek, Iris; Govers, Coen; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Tang, Yongfu; Wichers, Harry; Broersen, Kerensa

    2017-01-01

    Scope Investigations into the immunological response of proteins is often masked by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination. We report an optimized Triton X-114 (TX-114) based LPS extraction method for β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and soy protein extract suitable for cell-based immunological assays. Methods and results Optimization of an existing TX-114 based phase LPS extraction method resulted in >99% reduction of LPS levels. However, remaining TX-114 was found to interfere with LPS and protein concentration assays and decreased viability of THP-1 macrophages and HEK-Blue 293 cells. Upon screening a range of TX-114 extraction procedures, TX-114-binding beads were found to most effectively lower TX-114 levels without affecting protein structural properties. LPS-purified proteins showed reduced capacity to activate TLR4 compared to non-treated proteins. LPS-purified BLG did not induce secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from THP-1 macrophages, as non-treated protein did, showing that LPS contamination masks the immunomodulatory effect of BLG. Both HEK293 cells expressing TLR4 and differentiated THP-1 macrophages were shown as a relevant model to screen the protein preparations for biological effects of LPS contamination. Conclusion The reported TX-114 assisted LPS-removal from protein preparations followed by bead based removal of TX-114 allows evaluation of natively folded protein preparations for their immunological potential in cell-based studies. PMID:28355240

  10. Evaluation of Various Cleaning Methods to Remove Bacillus Spores from Spacecraft Hardware Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Chung, Shirley; Allton, Judith; Kern, Roger

    2004-01-01

    A detailed study was made of the biological cleaning effectiveness, defined in terms of the ability to remove bacterial spores, of a number of methods used to clean hardware surfaces. Aluminum (Al 6061) and titanium (Ti 6Al-4V) were chosen for the study as they were deemed the two materials most likely to be used in spacecraft extraterrestrial sampler construction. None of the cleaning protocols tested completely removed viable spores from the surface of the aluminum. In contrast, titanium was capable of being cleaned to sterility by two methods, the JPL standard and the commercial SAMS cleaning process. Further investigation showed that the passivation step employed in the JPL standard method is an effective surface sterilant on both metals but not compatible with aluminum. It is recommended that titanium (Ti 6Al-4V) be considered superior to aluminum (Al 6061) for use in spacecraft sampling hardware, both for its potential to be cleaned to sterilization and for its ability to withstand the most effective cleaning protocols.

  11. Method for Removing Spectral Contaminants to Improve Analysis of Raman Imaging Data

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xun; Chen, Sheng; Ling, Zhe; Zhou, Xia; Ding, Da-Yong; Kim, Yoon Soo; Xu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The spectral contaminants are inevitable during micro-Raman measurements. A key challenge is how to remove them from the original imaging data, since they can distort further results of data analysis. Here, we propose a method named “automatic pre-processing method for Raman imaging data set (APRI)”, which includes the adaptive iteratively reweighted penalized least-squares (airPLS) algorithm and the principal component analysis (PCA). It eliminates the baseline drifts and cosmic spikes by using the spectral features themselves. The utility of APRI is illustrated by removing the spectral contaminants from a Raman imaging data set of a wood sample. In addition, APRI is computationally efficient, conceptually simple and potential to be extended to other methods of spectroscopy, such as infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). With the help of our approach, a typical spectral analysis can be performed by a non-specialist user to obtain useful information from a spectroscopic imaging data set. PMID:28054587

  12. Evaluation of Various Cleaning Methods to Remove Bacillus Spores from Spacecraft Hardware Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Chung, Shirley; Allton, Judith; Kern, Roger

    2004-01-01

    A detailed study was made of the biological cleaning effectiveness, defined in terms of the ability to remove bacterial spores, of a number of methods used to clean hardware surfaces. Aluminum (Al 6061) and titanium (Ti 6Al-4V) were chosen for the study as they were deemed the two materials most likely to be used in spacecraft extraterrestrial sampler construction. None of the cleaning protocols tested completely removed viable spores from the surface of the aluminum. In contrast, titanium was capable of being cleaned to sterility by two methods, the JPL standard and the commercial SAMS cleaning process. Further investigation showed that the passivation step employed in the JPL standard method is an effective surface sterilant on both metals but not compatible with aluminum. It is recommended that titanium (Ti 6Al-4V) be considered superior to aluminum (Al 6061) for use in spacecraft sampling hardware, both for its potential to be cleaned to sterilization and for its ability to withstand the most effective cleaning protocols.

  13. Automatic Tree Data Removal Method for Topography Measurement Result Using Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, H.; Chikatsu, H.

    2017-02-01

    Recently, laser scanning has been receiving greater attention as a useful tool for real-time 3D data acquisition, and various applications such as city modelling, DTM generation and 3D modelling of cultural heritage sites have been proposed. And, former digital data processing were demanded in the past digital archive techniques for cultural heritage sites. However, robust filtering method for distinguishing on- and off-terrain points by terrestrial laser scanner still have many issues. In the past investigation, former digital data processing using air-bone laser scanner were reported. Though, efficient tree removal methods from terrain points for the cultural heritage are not considered. In this paper, authors describe a new robust filtering method for cultural heritage using terrestrial laser scanner with "the echo digital processing technology" as latest data processing techniques of terrestrial laser scanner.

  14. Comparison of spatial interpolation methods for gridded bias removal in surface temperature forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Seyedeh Atefeh; Azadi, Majid; Rahmani, Morteza

    2017-08-01

    All numerical weather prediction (NWP) models inherently have substantial biases, especially in the forecast of near-surface weather variables. Statistical methods can be used to remove the systematic error based on historical bias data at observation stations. However, many end users of weather forecasts need bias corrected forecasts at locations that scarcely have any historical bias data. To circumvent this limitation, the bias of surface temperature forecasts on a regular grid covering Iran is removed, by using the information available at observation stations in the vicinity of any given grid point. To this end, the running mean error method is first used to correct the forecasts at observation stations, then four interpolation methods including inverse distance squared weighting with constant lapse rate (IDSW-CLR), Kriging with constant lapse rate (Kriging-CLR), gradient inverse distance squared with linear lapse rate (GIDS-LR), and gradient inverse distance squared with lapse rate determined by classification and regression tree (GIDS-CART), are employed to interpolate the bias corrected forecasts at neighboring observation stations to any given location. The results show that all four interpolation methods used do reduce the model error significantly, but Kriging-CLR has better performance than the other methods. For Kriging-CLR, root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) were decreased by 26% and 29%, respectively, as compared to the raw forecasts. It is found also, that after applying any of the proposed methods, unlike the raw forecasts, the bias corrected forecasts do not show spatial or temporal dependency.

  15. Method of improving fuel cell performance by removing at least one metal oxide contaminant from a fuel cell electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Choi, Jong-Ho; Zelenay, Piotr

    2009-08-18

    A method of removing contaminants from a fuel cell catalyst electrode. The method includes providing a getter electrode and a fuel cell catalyst electrode having at least one contaminant to a bath and applying a voltage sufficient to drive the contaminant from the fuel cell catalyst electrode to the getter electrode. Methods of removing contaminants from a membrane electrode assembly of a fuel cell and of improving performance of a fuel cell are also provided.

  16. Maternal Methadone Dose, Placental Methadone Concentrations, and Neonatal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Ana; Jones, Hendreé E.; Johnson, Rolley E.; Gray, Teresa R.; Shakleya, Diaa M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few investigations have used placenta as an alternative matrix to detect in utero drug exposure, despite its availability at the time of birth and the large amount of sample. Methadone-maintained opioid-dependent pregnant women provide a unique opportunity to examine the placental disposition of methadone and metabolite [2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP)], to explore their correlations with maternal methadone dose and neonatal outcomes, and to test the ability to detect in utero exposure to illicit drugs. METHODS We calculated the correlations of placental methadone and EDDP concentrations and their correlations with maternal methadone doses and neonatal outcomes. Cocaine- and opiate-positive placenta results were compared with the results for meconium samples and for urine samples collected throughout gestation. RESULTS Positive correlations were found between placental methadone and EDDP concentrations (r = 0.685), and between methadone concentration and methadone dose at delivery (r = 0.542), mean daily dose (r = 0.554), mean third-trimester dose (r = 0.591), and cumulative daily dose (r = 0.639). The EDDP/methadone concentration ratio was negatively correlated with cumulative daily dose (r = 0.541) and positively correlated with peak neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) score (r = 0.513). Placental EDDP concentration was negatively correlated with newborn head circumference (r = 0.579). Cocaine and opiate use was detected in far fewer placenta samples than in thrice-weekly urine and meconium samples, a result suggesting a short detection window for placenta. CONCLUSIONS Quantitative methadone and EDDP measurement may predict NAS severity. The placenta reflects in utero drug exposure for a shorter time than meconium but may be useful when meconium is unavailable or if documentation of recent exposure is needed. PMID:21245372

  17. Clinical Outcome in Singleton and Multiple Pregnancies with Placental Chorangioma

    PubMed Central

    Sirotkina, Meeli; Douroudis, Konstantinos; Papadogiannakis, Nikos; Westgren, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chorangiomas (CAs) are the most common non-trophoblastic tumor-like-lesions of the placenta. Although the clinical significance of small CAs is unknown, the large lesions are often associated with maternal and fetal complications. The aim of our study was to assess the maternal clinical characteristics and neonatal outcome in singleton and multiple pregnancies with placental CA. Materials and Methods Among 15742 selected placentas 170 CAs were diagnosed. Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were analyzed in singleton (n = 121) and multiple (n = 49) pregnancy groups including 121 and 100 neonates, respectively. Results The frequency of APGAR score <7 at 5 minutes (p = 0,012), abnormal pulsatility index (p = 0,034), and abnormal blood flow class (p = 0,011) were significantly higher in neonates from singleton compared to multiple pregnancies. Significantly smaller CAs in singleton pregnancies were related to small for gestational age neonates (p = 0,00040) and neonates admitted to the neonatal care unit (p = 0,028). In singleton pregnancies, significantly smaller CAs were associated to maternal preeclampsia (p = 0,039) and larger CAs to multiparity (p = 0,005) and smoking (p = 0,001) groups. The frequency of preeclampsia was high in both singleton and multiple pregnancy groups (41,32% vs 26,53%, respectively), however, the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance. Discussion A high incidence of preeclampsia in cohort of placental CA might lead to a possible recognition of CAs as potential morphologic indicator of placental hypoxia. Conclusion A more favorable pregnancy outcome in multiple gestations compared to the singleton gestations with CAs might reflect an adaptive mechanism for increased demand of oxygen and associated placental tissue hypoxia in this group. PMID:27835686

  18. Long-term field test of an electrochemical method for sulfide removal from sewage.

    PubMed

    Pikaar, Ilje; Li, Eugena; Rozendal, René A; Yuan, Zhiguo; Keller, Jürg; Rabaey, Korneel

    2012-06-01

    Corrosion caused by hydrogen sulfide leads to significant costs for the rehabilitation or replacement of corroded sewer pipes. Conventional methods to prevent sewer corrosion normally involve the dosing of significant amounts of chemicals with the associated transport and storage costs as well as considerable maintenance and control requirement. Recently, a novel chemical free method for sulfide abatement based on electrochemical sulfide oxidation was shown to be highly effective for the removal of sulfide from synthetic and real sewage. Here, we report on the electrochemical removal of sulfide using Ta/Ir and Pt/Ir coated titanium electrodes under simulated sewer conditions during field trials. The results showed that sulfide can successfully be removed to levels below the normal target value at the end of a simulated rising main (i.e. <1mg/L). A coulombic efficiency for dissolved oxygen generation of ≈ 60% was obtained and was independent of the current density. Scaling of the electrode and the membrane was observed in the cathode compartment and as a result the cell potentials increased over time. The cathode potentials returned to their original potential after switching the polarity every two days, but a more frequent switching would be needed to reduce the energy requirements of the system. Accelerated lifetime experiments indicated that a lifetime of 6.0 ± 1.9 years can be expected under polarity switching conditions at a pH of 14 and significantly longer at lower pH values. As operating the system without switching simplifies construction as well as operation, the choice whether to switch or not will in practice depend on operational cost (higher/lower energy) versus capital cost (reactor and peripherals). Irrespective of the approach, our study demonstrates that electrochemical sulfide control in sewer systems may be an attractive new option.

  19. Iterative outlier removal: A method for identifying outliers in laboratory recalibration studies

    PubMed Central

    Parrinello, Christina M.; Grams, Morgan E.; Sang, Yingying; Couper, David; Wruck, Lisa M.; Li, Danni; Eckfeldt, John H.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Coresh, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Background Extreme values that arise for any reason, including through non-laboratory measurement procedure-related processes (inadequate mixing, evaporation, mislabeling), lead to outliers and inflate errors in recalibration studies. We present an approach termed iterative outlier removal (IOR) for identifying such outliers. Methods We previously identified substantial laboratory drift in uric acid measurements in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study over time. Serum uric acid was originally measured in 1990–92 on a Coulter DACOS instrument using an uricase-based measurement procedure. To recalibrate previous measured concentrations to a newer enzymatic colorimetric measurement procedure, uric acid was re-measured in 200 participants from stored plasma in 2011–13 on a Beckman Olympus 480 autoanalyzer. To conduct IOR, we excluded data points >3 standard deviations (SDs) from the mean difference. We continued this process using the resulting data until no outliers remained. Results IOR detected more outliers and yielded greater precision in simulation. The original mean difference (SD) in uric acid was 1.25 (0.62) mg/dL. After four iterations, 9 outliers were excluded, and the mean difference (SD) was 1.23 (0.45) mg/dL. Conducting only one round of outlier removal (standard approach) would have excluded 4 outliers (mean difference [SD] = 1.22 [0.51] mg/dL). Applying the recalibration (derived from Deming regression) from each approach to the original measurements, the prevalence of hyperuricemia (>7 mg/dL) was 28.5% before IOR and 8.5% after IOR. Conclusion IOR is a useful method for removal of extreme outliers irrelevant to recalibrating laboratory measurements, and identifies more extraneous outliers than the standard approach. PMID:27197675

  20. Good practices in collecting umbilical cord and placental blood 1

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Lauren Auer; Bernardino, Elizabeth; Crozeta, Karla; Guimarães, Paulo Ricardo Bittencourt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to identify the factors related to the quality of umbilical cord and placental blood specimens, and define best practices for their collection in a government bank of umbilical cord and placental blood. Method: this was a descriptive study, quantitative approach, performed at a government umbilical cord and placental blood bank, in two steps: 1) verification of the obstetric, neonatal and operational factors, using a specific tool for gathering data as non-participant observers; 2) definition of best practices by grouping non-conformities observed before, during and after blood collection. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the following statistical software: Statistica(r) and R(r). Results: while there was a correlation with obstetrical and neonatal factors, there was a larger correlation with operational factors, resulting in the need to adjust the professional practices of the nursing staff and obstetrical team involved in collecting this type of blood. Based on these non-conformities we defined best practices for nurses before, during and after blood collection. Conclusion: the best practices defined in this study are an important management tool for the work of nurses in obtaining blood specimens of high cell quality. PMID:27556876

  1. Placental Microbiome and Its Role in Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Bin; Stout, Molly J.; Lee, Iris; Mysorekar, Indira U.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-known fact that the placenta has long-term effects on maternal and fetal health, the placenta remains a poorly understood and understudied organ. Not only is the placenta a site of exchange of nutrients and blood and gases between the fetal and maternal systems, but it also performs critical metabolic functions for supporting fetal development and maintaining maternal-fetal tolerance. It is also abundantly clear that impairment of placental function leads to severe pregnancy complications, including preterm birth (PTB), a significant cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Understanding the causes of PTB and other adverse outcomes is clearly essential for the development of effective methods of prevention and treatment. We focus our review of one major known cause of PTB, namely, infection. We also introduce a new and somewhat unexpected factor(s) that may well affect PTB and every aspect of placental biology and function: the placental microbiome. We discuss the implications of the placenta housing a microbial biomass for PTB and the effect of maternal microbiomes at various niches for fetal colonization and health outcomes. We suggest that the placenta is an integral part of the pipeline for microbe-powered driver of fetal destiny. PMID:25635174

  2. Insights into the removal of terbuthylazine from aqueous solution by several treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Pedro M; Quiñones, Diego H; Terrones, Isidro; Rey, Ana; Beltrán, Fernando J

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the removal of the s-triazine herbicide terbuthylazine (TBA) from aqueous solution by various treatment methods including adsorption onto activated carbon (AC) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), UV254 photolysis, UV254/H2O2, single ozonation, O3/H2O2, catalytic ozonation (AC, MWCNT and TiO2 as catalysts) and some solar driven processes such as TiO2 photocatalytic oxidation and photo-ozonation. TBA was adsorbed onto AC and MWCNT following a pseudo-second order kinetics and Freundlich isotherm. Rapid small scale column tests showed that TBA could be removed from solution by adsorption onto AC better than atrazine. The UV254/H2O2 treatment resulted in excellent removal of TBA primarily due to the oxidation capability of hydroxyl radicals (kHO = 3.310(9) M(-1) s(-1)) generated from H2O2 photolysis. As the H2O2 initial concentration was increased from 5 to 50 mg L(-1) the HO exposure per UV fluence (RHO,UV) increased, making the process more efficient. Single ozonation also allowed complete removal of the herbicide though the process was slow (kO3=15.4 M(-1) s(-1) at pH > 4). The ozonation process could be greatly accelerated by the enhanced generation of HO through O3/H2O2 and O3/AC processes, which also led to more efficient processes in terms of ozone utilization. Commercial TiO2 (TiO2-P25) and lab prepared anatase TiO2 (TiO2-cat) nanoparticles catalyzed the removal of TBA by solar photocatalysis. In contrast, a lab prepared MWCNT-TiO2 composite was not useful as catalyst in solar photo-oxidation processes because of the HO scavenging nature of the MWCNT used as support. A mechanism for TBA degradation by O3 and HO has been suggested after TBA degradation intermediates identification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Placental pericytes and cytomegalovirus infectivity: Implications for HCMV placental pathology and congenital disease.

    PubMed

    Aronoff, David M; Correa, Hernan; Rogers, Lisa M; Arav-Boger, Ravit; Alcendor, Donald J

    2017-09-01

    Placental pericytes are essential for placental microvascular function, stability, and integrity. Mechanisms of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) pathogenesis incorporating placental pericytes are unknown. HCMV-infected placental tissue was stained by dual-labeled immunohistochemistry. Primary placental pericytes, cytotrophoblasts, and villous fibroblasts were exposed to HCMV; and infectivity was analyzed by microscopy and immunofluorescence. Cytokine expression was examined by Luminex assay. A HCMV-GFP recombinant virus was used to examine replication kinetics. Immunohistochemistry showed HCMV in trophoblast and the villous core with T-cell and macrophage infiltration. Primary HCMV isolate from a patient (SBCMV)- infected pericytes showed dysregulation of proinflammatory and angiogenic cytokines when compared to control cells. A tri-cell model of the villous floor showed a unique expression profile. Finally, we show pericytes infected in vivo with HCMV in placental tissue from a congenitally infected child. Placental pericytes support HCMV replication, inducing proinflammatory and angiogenic cytokines that likely contribute to viral dissemination, placenta inflammation, and dysregulation of placental angiogenesis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A method for estimating and removing streaking artifacts in quantitative susceptibility mapping.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Nian; Yu, Fang; Han, Hui; Cao, Wei; Romero, Rebecca; Tantiwongkosi, Bundhit; Duong, Timothy Q; Liu, Chunlei

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a novel MRI method for quantifying tissue magnetic property. In the brain, it reflects the molecular composition and microstructure of the local tissue. However, susceptibility maps reconstructed from single-orientation data still suffer from streaking artifacts which obscure structural details and small lesions. We propose and have developed a general method for estimating streaking artifacts and subtracting them from susceptibility maps. Specifically, this method uses a sparse linear equation and least-squares (LSQR)-algorithm-based method to derive an initial estimation of magnetic susceptibility, a fast quantitative susceptibility mapping method to estimate the susceptibility boundaries, and an iterative approach to estimate the susceptibility artifact from ill-conditioned k-space regions only. With a fixed set of parameters for the initial susceptibility estimation and subsequent streaking artifact estimation and removal, the method provides an unbiased estimate of tissue susceptibility with negligible streaking artifacts, as compared to multi-orientation QSM reconstruction. This method allows for improved delineation of white matter lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis and small structures of the human brain with excellent anatomical details. The proposed methodology can be extended to other existing QSM algorithms. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. A method for estimating and removing streaking artifacts in quantitative susceptibility mapping

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Wang, Nian; Yu, Fang; Han, Hui; Cao, Wei; Romero, Rebecca; Tantiwongkosi, Bundhit; Duong, Timothy Q.; Liu, Chunlei

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a novel MRI method for quantifying tissue magnetic property. In the brain, it reflects the molecular composition and microstructure of the local tissue. However, susceptibility maps reconstructed from single-orientation data still suffer from streaking artifacts which obscure structural details and small lesions. We propose and have developed a general method for estimating streaking artifacts and subtracting them from susceptibility maps. Specifically, this method uses a sparse linear equation and least-squares (LSQR)-algorithm-based method to derive an initial estimation of magnetic susceptibility, a fast quantitative susceptibility mapping method to estimate the susceptibility boundaries, and an iterative approach to estimate the susceptibility artifact from ill-conditioned k-space regions only. With a fixed set of parameters for the initial susceptibility estimation and subsequent streaking artifact estimation and removal, the method provides an unbiased estimate of tissue susceptibility with negligible streaking artifacts, as compared to multi-orientation QSM reconstruction. This method allows for improved delineation of white matter lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis and small structures of the human brain with excellent anatomical details. The proposed methodology can be extended to other existing QSM algorithms. PMID:25536496

  6. Anterior placental location influences onset and progress of labor and postpartum outcome.

    PubMed

    Torricelli, M; Vannuccini, S; Moncini, I; Cannoni, A; Voltolini, C; Conti, N; Di Tommaso, M; Severi, F M; Petraglia, F

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate whether placental location at term is associated with delivery outcome. A prospective study including 2354 patients with singleton pregnancy at term admitted for vaginal delivery was conducted. Placental position was determined before delivery by ultrasonographic examination performed transabdominally with women in the supine position. Maternal characteristics and delivery outcome such as premature rupture of membranes, induction of labor, mode and gestational age at delivery, indication for cesarean section, duration of the third stage, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and manual removal of placenta were correlated with anterior, posterior or fundal placental locations. Among women enrolled: i) 1164 had an anterior placenta, ii) 1087 a posterior placenta, iii) 103 a fundal placenta. Women with anterior placenta showed: i) a higher incidence of induction of labor (p = 0.0001), especially for postdate pregnancies and prolonged prelabor rupture of membranes (p < 0.0001), ii) a higher rate of cesarean section rate for failure to progress in labor (p = 0.02), iii) a prolonged third stage (p = 0.01), iv) a higher incidence of manual removal of placenta (p = 0.003) and a higher rate of PPH in vaginal deliveries (p = 0.02). The present study showed the influence of anterior placental location on the course of labor, with a later onset of labor, a higher rate of induction and cesarean section and postpartum complications. The reason for this influence on labor and delivery complications remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Delmopinol-induced matrix removal facilitates photodynamic therapy and chlorhexidine methods for disinfecting mixed oral biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Stephen Christopher

    It is often observed that the slimy matrixes of various bacterial-formed biofilms can limit their disinfection. This investigation demonstrated that disinfection effectiveness by either photodynamic therapy (PDT) or chlorhexidine irrigation is significantly improved by collapse of that matrix using the non-bactericidal reagent delmopinol as part of the treatment sequence. Cyclic shear-producing conditions were used to grow 4-day, whole salivary and growth media biofilms on glow-discharge-treated polystyrene (N=46) and mini-germanium internal reflection prisms to serve in a periodontal crypt model of disinfection by either methylene-blue-mediated PDT or by chlorhexidine irrigation. Assays for bacterial viability, with and without treatments, were performed by alamarBlueRTM fluorescent methods, statistically applied (ANOVA, Tukey's HSD). Multiple Attenuated Internal Reflection Infrared (MAIR-IR) assays confirmed selective removal of the predominantly polysaccharide matrix materials by the delmopinol treatment, but not by equivalent water or chlorhexidine methods. Confocal-IR microscopy showed that the delmopinol reagent, alone, caused about one-third of each wet biofilm to be removed, while bacterial re-growth was confirmed by alamarBlueRTM assay. Chlorhexidine and PDT suppression of bacterial activity without regrowth was significantly improved with the added delmopinol treatment, and is likely to provide similarly beneficial results in the effective disinfection of diverse biofilms in many settings.

  8. Centrifugal accelerator, system and method for removing unwanted layers from a surface

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Christopher A.; Fisher, Paul W.

    1995-01-01

    A cryoblasting process having a centrifugal accelerator for accelerating frozen pellets of argon or carbon dioxide toward a target area utilizes an accelerator throw wheel designed to induce, during operation, the creation of a low-friction gas bearing within internal passages of the wheel which would otherwise retard acceleration of the pellets as they move through the passages. An associated system and method for removing paint from a surface with cryoblasting techniques involves the treating, such as a preheating, of the painted surface to soften the paint prior to the impacting of frozen pellets thereagainst to increase the rate of paint removal. A system and method for producing large quantities of frozen pellets from a liquid material, such as liquid argon or carbon dioxide, for use in a cryoblasting process utilizes a chamber into which the liquid material is introduced in the form of a jet which disintegrates into droplets. A non-condensible gas, such as inert helium or air, is injected into the chamber at a controlled rate so that the droplets freeze into bodies of relatively high density.

  9. Magnetic heterogeneous catalytic ozonation: a new removal method for phenol in industrial wastewater

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a new strategy in catalytic ozonation removal method for degradation of phenol from industrial wastewater was investigated. Magnetic carbon nano composite as a novel catalyst was synthesized, characterized and then used in the catalytic ozonation process (COP) and compared with the single ozonation process (SOP). The influential parameters were all investigated. The results showed that the removal efficiency of phenol and COD (chemical oxygen demand) in COP (98.5%, 69.8%) was higher than those of SOP (78.7%, 50.5%) and the highest catalytic potential was achieved at optimal neutral pH. First order modeling demonstrated that the reactions were dependent on the concentration of catalyst, with kinetic constants varying from 0.023 1/min (catalyst = 0 g/L) to 0.071 1/min (catalyst = 4 g/L), whereby the optimum dosage of catalyst was found to be 2 g/L. Furthermore, the catalytic properties of the catalyst remained almost unchanged after 5-time reuse. The results regarding the biodegradability of the effluent showed that a 5-min reaction time in COP reduced the concentrations of phenol and COD to the acceptable levels for the efficient post-treatment in the SBR in a 4-h cycle period. Finally, this combined system is proven to be a technically effective method for treating phenolic contaminants. PMID:24572145

  10. Removal of hazardous metals from MSW fly ash--an evaluation of ash leaching methods.

    PubMed

    Fedje, Karin Karlfeldt; Ekberg, Christian; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2010-01-15

    Incineration is a commonly applied management method for municipal solid waste (MSW). However, significant amounts of potentially hazardous metal species are present in the resulting ash, and these may be leached into the environment. A common idea for cleaning the ash is to use enhanced leaching with strong mineral acids. However, due to the alkalinity of the ash, large amounts of acid are needed and this is a drawback. Therefore, this work was undertaken in order to investigate some alternative leaching media (EDTA, ammonium nitrate, ammonium chloride and a number of organic acids) and to compare them with the usual mineral acids and water. All leaching methods gave a significant increase in ash specific surface area due to removal of soluble bulk (matrix) compounds, such as CaCO(3) and alkali metal chlorides. The use of mineral acids and EDTA mobilised many elements, especially Cu, Zn and Pb, whereas the organic acids generally were not very effective as leaching agents for metals. Leaching using NH(4)NO(3) was especially effective for the release of Cu. The results show that washing of MSW filter ash with alternative leaching agents is a possible way to remove hazardous metals from MSW fly ash.

  11. CENTRALITY OF THE UMBILICAL CORD INSERTION IN A HUMAN PLACENTA INFLUENCES THE PLACENTAL EFFICIENCY

    PubMed Central

    Yampolsky, Michael; Salafia, Carolyn M.; Shlakhter, Oleksandr; Haas, Danielle; Eucker, Barbara; Thorp, John

    2009-01-01

    Goal: We assess the effect on placental efficiency of the non-centrality of the umbilical cord insertion and on chorionic vascular distribution to determine if cord centrality measurably affects placental function as reflected in birth weight. Materials and Methods: 1,225 placentas collected from a prospective cohort had digital photographs of the chorionic plate. Of these, 1023 were term, 44 had velamentous cord insertion and 12 had missing clinical data, leaving N=967 (94.5 %) cases for analysis. Mathematical tools included a dynamical stochastic growth model of placental vasculature, Fourier analysis of radial parameterization of placental perimeters, and relative chorionic vascular density (a measure of “gaps” in the vascular coverage) derived from manual tracings of the fetal chorionic surface images. Bivariate correlations used Pearson's or Spearman's rank correlation as appropriate, with p<0.05 considered significant. Results: The correlation of the standard deviation of the placental radius (a measure of non-roundness of the placenta) with cord displacement was negligible (r=0.01). Empirical simulations of the vascular growth model with cord displacement showed no deviation from a normal round-to-oval placental shape for cord displacement of 10 – 50% of placental radius. The correlation of the metabolic scaling exponent β with cord displacement measured by Fourier analysis is 0.17 (p < 0.001). Analysis of the chorionic vascular density in traced images shows a high correlation of the relative vascular distance with cord displacement: 0.59 in one set of 12 images, and 0.20 in the other set of 28 images. Conclusion: Non-central cord insertion has little measurable correlation with placental shape in observed or simulated placentas. However, placentas with a displaced cord show a markedly reduced transport efficiency, reflected in a larger value of β and hence in a smaller birth weight for a given placental weight. Placentas with a non-central cord

  12. Endocrine Activity of Extraembryonic Membranes Extends beyond Placental Amniotes

    PubMed Central

    Albergotti, Lori C.; Hamlin, Heather J.; McCoy, Michael W.; Guillette,, Louis J.

    2009-01-01

    Background During development, all amniotes (mammals, reptiles, and birds) form extraembryonic membranes, which regulate gas and water exchange, remove metabolic wastes, provide shock absorption, and transfer maternally derived nutrients. In viviparous (live-bearing) amniotes, both extraembryonic membranes and maternal uterine tissues contribute to the placenta, an endocrine organ that synthesizes, transports, and metabolizes hormones essential for development. Historically, endocrine properties of the placenta have been viewed as an innovation of placental amniotes. However, an endocrine role of extraembryonic membranes has not been investigated in oviparous (egg-laying) amniotes despite similarities in their basic structure, function, and shared evolutionary ancestry. In this study, we ask whether the oviparous chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chicken (Gallus gallus) has the capability to synthesize and receive signaling of progesterone, a major placental steroid hormone. Methodology/Principal Findings We quantified mRNA expression of key steroidogenic enzymes involved in progesterone synthesis and found that 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which converts pregnenolone to progesterone exhibited a 464 fold increase in the CAM from day 8 to day 18 of embryonic development (F5, 68 = 89.282, p<0.0001). To further investigate progesterone synthesis, we performed explant culture and found that the CAM synthesizes progesterone in vitro in the presence of a steroid precursor. Finally, we quantified mRNA expression and performed protein immunolocalization of the progesterone receptor in the CAM. Conclusions/Significance Collectively, our data indicate that the chick CAM is steroidogenic and has the capability to both synthesize progesterone and receive progesterone signaling. These findings represent a paradigm shift in evolutionary reproductive biology by suggesting that endocrine activity of extraembryonic membranes is not a novel characteristic of placental

  13. Fixed versus Removable Appliance for Palatal Expansion; A 3D Analysis Using the Finite Element Method

    PubMed Central

    Geramy, Allahyar; Shahroudi, Atefe Saffar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Several appliances have been used for palatal expansion for treatment of posterior cross bite. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stress induced in the apical and crestal alveolar bone and the pattern of tooth displacement following expansion via removable expansion plates or fixed-banded palatal expander using the finite element method (FEM) analysis. Materials and Methods: Two 3D FEM models were designed from a mesio-distal slice of the maxilla containing the upper first molars, their periodontium and alveolar bone. Two palatal expanders (removable and fixed) were modeled. The models were designed in SolidWorks 2006 and then transferred to ANSYS Workbench. The appliance halves were displaced 0.1 mm laterally. The von Mises stress in the apical, crestal, and PDL areas and also the vertical displacement of the cusps (palatal and buccal) was were evaluated. Results: The total PDL stress was 0.40003 MPa in the removable appliance (RA) model and 4.88e-2 MPa in the fixed appliance (FA) model and the apical stress was 9.9e-2 and 1.17e-2 MPa, respectively. The crestal stress was 2.99e-1 MPa in RA and 7.62e-2 MPa in the FA. The stress in the cortical bone crest was 0.30327 and 7.9244e-2 MPa for RA and FA, respectively and 3.7271 and 7.4373e-2 MPa in crestal area of spongy bone, respectively. The vertical displacement of the buccal cusp and palatal cusp was 1.64e-2 and 5.90e-2 mm in RA and 1.05e-4 and 1.7e-4 mm in FA, respectively. Conclusion: The overall stress as well as apical and crestal stress in periodontium of anchor teeth was higher in RA than FA; RA elicited higher stress in both cortical and spongy bone. The vertical displacement of molar cusps was more in removable than fixed palatal expander model. PMID:24910679

  14. Evaluation of the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Three Minimally Invasive Methods of Caries Removal: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Manjula, M; Reddy, E Rajendra; Srilaxmi, N; Rani, Tabitha

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Many chemomechanical caries removal (CMCR) agents have been introduced and marketed since 1970s, with each new one being better and effective than the previously introduced. Papacarie and Carisolv are new systems in the field of CMCR techniques. These are reportedly minimally invasive methods of removing carious dentin while preserving sound dentin. Aim: To compare the Efficiency (time taken for caries removal) and effectiveness (Knoop hardness number of the remaining dentin) of caries removal by three minimally invasive methods, i.e. hand excavation and chemomechanical caries removal using Carisolv and Papacarie. Materials and methods: Thirty recently extracted human permanent molars with occlusal carious lesions were divided randomly in three equal groups and bisected through the middle of the lesion mesiodistally and excavated by two methods on each tooth. Results: Statistically significant difference was present among three methods with respect to time and knoop hardness values (KHN) of the remaining dentin. Conclusion: The Efficiency of Hand method is better compared to CMCR techniques and effectiveness of CMCR techniques is better than Hand method in terms of dentin preservation so the chances of maintaining vitality of the pulp will be enhanced. How to cite this article: Boob AR, Manjula M, Reddy ER, Srilaxmi N, Rani T. Evaluation of the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Three Minimally Invasive Methods of Caries Removal: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):11-18. PMID:25206231

  15. A Review of Photocatalysts Prepared by Sol-Gel Method for VOCs Removal

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Ting Ke; Lin, Yi Shing; Chen, Yi Ju; Chu, Hsin

    2010-01-01

    The sol-gel process is a wet-chemical technique (chemical solution deposition), which has been widely used in the fields of materials science, ceramic engineering, and especially in the preparation of photocatalysts. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are prevalent components of indoor air pollution. Among the approaches to remove VOCs from indoor air, photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is regarded as a promising method. This paper is a review of the status of research on the sol-gel method for photocatalyst preparation and for the PCO purification of VOCs. The review and discussion will focus on the preparation and coating of various photocatalysts, operational parameters, and will provide an overview of general PCO models described in the literature. PMID:20640156

  16. Signal Processing Methods for Removing the Effects of Whole Body Vibration upon Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bitner, Rachel M.; Begault, Durand R.

    2014-01-01

    Humans may be exposed to whole-body vibration in environments where clear speech communications are crucial, particularly during the launch phases of space flight and in high-performance aircraft. Prior research has shown that high levels of vibration cause a decrease in speech intelligibility. However, the effects of whole-body vibration upon speech are not well understood, and no attempt has been made to restore speech distorted by whole-body vibration. In this paper, a model for speech under whole-body vibration is proposed and a method to remove its effect is described. The method described reduces the perceptual effects of vibration, yields higher ASR accuracy scores, and may significantly improve intelligibility. Possible applications include incorporation within communication systems to improve radio-communication systems in environments such a spaceflight, aviation, or off-road vehicle operations.

  17. A review of photocatalysts prepared by sol-gel method for VOCs removal.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ting Ke; Lin, Yi Shing; Chen, Yi Ju; Chu, Hsin

    2010-05-28

    The sol-gel process is a wet-chemical technique (chemical solution deposition), which has been widely used in the fields of materials science, ceramic engineering, and especially in the preparation of photocatalysts. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are prevalent components of indoor air pollution. Among the approaches to remove VOCs from indoor air, photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is regarded as a promising method. This paper is a review of the status of research on the sol-gel method for photocatalyst preparation and for the PCO purification of VOCs. The review and discussion will focus on the preparation and coating of various photocatalysts, operational parameters, and will provide an overview of general PCO models described in the literature.

  18. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The “presence” of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its “absence” in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted ∼2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a “soft” polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy. PMID:19261842

  19. Impaired placentation in fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gundogan, F; Elwood, G; Longato, L; Tong, M; Feijoo, A; Carlson, R I; Wands, J R; de la Monte, S M

    2008-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is one of the key features of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), and IUGR can be mediated by impaired placentation. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) regulate placentation due to stimulatory effects on extravillous trophoblasts, which are highly motile and invasive. Previous studies demonstrated that extravillous trophoblasts express high levels of aspartyl-(asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase (AAH), a gene that is regulated by IGF and has a critical role in cell motility and invasion. The present study examines the hypothesis that ethanol impaired placentation is associated with inhibition of AAH expression in trophoblasts. Pregnant Long Evans rats were fed isocaloric liquid diets containing 0% or 37% ethanol by caloric content. Placentas harvested on gestation day 16 were used for histopathological, mRNA, and protein studies to examine AAH expression in relation to the integrity of placentation and ethanol exposure. Chronic ethanol feeding prevented or impaired the physiological conversion of uterine vessels required for expansion of maternal circulation into placenta, a crucial process for adequate placentation. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated significant reductions in IRS-1, IRS-2, and significant increases in IGF-II and IGF-II receptor mRNA levels in ethanol-exposed placentas. These abnormalities were associated with significantly reduced levels of AAH expression in trophoblastic cells, particularly within the mesometrial triangle (deep placental bed) as demonstrated by real time quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, ELISA, and immunohistochemical staining. Ethanol-impaired placentation is associated with inhibition of AAH expression in trophoblasts. This effect of chronic gestational exposure to ethanol may contribute to IUGR in FAS.

  20. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The "presence" of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its "absence" in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted approximately 2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a "soft" polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy.

  1. Generalized methods and solvers for noise removal from piecewise constant signals. I. Background theory.

    PubMed

    Little, Max A; Jones, Nick S

    2011-11-08

    Removing noise from piecewise constant (PWC) signals is a challenging signal processing problem arising in many practical contexts. For example, in exploration geosciences, noisy drill hole records need to be separated into stratigraphic zones, and in biophysics, jumps between molecular dwell states have to be extracted from noisy fluorescence microscopy signals. Many PWC denoising methods exist, including total variation regularization, mean shift clustering, stepwise jump placement, running medians, convex clustering shrinkage and bilateral filtering; conventional linear signal processing methods are fundamentally unsuited. This paper (part I, the first of two) shows that most of these methods are associated with a special case of a generalized functional, minimized to achieve PWC denoising. The minimizer can be obtained by diverse solver algorithms, including stepwise jump placement, convex programming, finite differences, iterated running medians, least angle regression, regularization path following and coordinate descent. In the second paper, part II, we introduce novel PWC denoising methods, and comparisons between these methods performed on synthetic and real signals, showing that the new understanding of the problem gained in part I leads to new methods that have a useful role to play.

  2. Generalized methods and solvers for noise removal from piecewise constant signals. I. Background theory

    PubMed Central

    Little, Max A.; Jones, Nick S.

    2011-01-01

    Removing noise from piecewise constant (PWC) signals is a challenging signal processing problem arising in many practical contexts. For example, in exploration geosciences, noisy drill hole records need to be separated into stratigraphic zones, and in biophysics, jumps between molecular dwell states have to be extracted from noisy fluorescence microscopy signals. Many PWC denoising methods exist, including total variation regularization, mean shift clustering, stepwise jump placement, running medians, convex clustering shrinkage and bilateral filtering; conventional linear signal processing methods are fundamentally unsuited. This paper (part I, the first of two) shows that most of these methods are associated with a special case of a generalized functional, minimized to achieve PWC denoising. The minimizer can be obtained by diverse solver algorithms, including stepwise jump placement, convex programming, finite differences, iterated running medians, least angle regression, regularization path following and coordinate descent. In the second paper, part II, we introduce novel PWC denoising methods, and comparisons between these methods performed on synthetic and real signals, showing that the new understanding of the problem gained in part I leads to new methods that have a useful role to play. PMID:22003312

  3. The plant virus microscope image registration method based on mismatches removing.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lifang; Zhou, Shucheng; Dong, Heng; Mao, Qianzhuo; Lin, Jiaxiang; Chen, Riqing

    2016-01-01

    The electron microscopy is one of the major means to observe the virus. The view of virus microscope images is limited by making specimen and the size of the camera's view field. To solve this problem, the virus sample is produced into multi-slice for information fusion and image registration techniques are applied to obtain large field and whole sections. Image registration techniques have been developed in the past decades for increasing the camera's field of view. Nevertheless, these approaches typically work in batch mode and rely on motorized microscopes. Alternatively, the methods are conceived just to provide visually pleasant registration for high overlap ratio image sequence. This work presents a method for virus microscope image registration acquired with detailed visual information and subpixel accuracy, even when overlap ratio of image sequence is 10% or less. The method proposed focus on the correspondence set and interimage transformation. A mismatch removal strategy is proposed by the spatial consistency and the components of keypoint to enrich the correspondence set. And the translation model parameter as well as tonal inhomogeneities is corrected by the hierarchical estimation and model select. In the experiments performed, we tested different registration approaches and virus images, confirming that the translation model is not always stationary, despite the fact that the images of the sample come from the same sequence. The mismatch removal strategy makes building registration of virus microscope images at subpixel accuracy easier and optional parameters for building registration according to the hierarchical estimation and model select strategies make the proposed method high precision and reliable for low overlap ratio image sequence.

  4. Efficacy of laser-based irrigant activation methods in removing debris from simulated root canal irregularities.

    PubMed

    Deleu, Ellen; Meire, Maarten A; De Moor, Roeland J G

    2015-02-01

    In root canal therapy, irrigating solutions are essential to assist in debridement and disinfection, but their spread and action is often restricted by canal anatomy. Hence, activation of irrigants is suggested to improve their distribution in the canal system, increasing irrigation effectiveness. Activation can be done with lasers, termed laser-activated irrigation (LAI). The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the efficacy of different irrigant activation methods in removing debris from simulated root canal irregularities. Twenty-five straight human canine roots were embedded in resin, split, and their canals prepared to a standardized shape. A groove was cut in the wall of each canal and filled with dentin debris. Canals were filled with sodium hypochlorite and six irrigant activation procedures were tested: conventional needle irrigation (CI), manual-dynamic irrigation with a tapered gutta percha cone (manual-dynamic irrigation (MDI)), passive ultrasonic irrigation, LAI with 2,940-nm erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser with a plain fiber tip inside the canal (Er-flat), LAI with Er:YAG laser with a conical tip held at the canal entrance (Er-PIPS), and LAI with a 980-nm diode laser moving the fiber inside the canal (diode). The amount of remaining debris in the groove was scored and compared among the groups using non-parametric tests. Conventional irrigation removed significantly less debris than all other groups. The Er:YAG with plain fiber tip was more efficient than MDI, CI, diode, and Er:YAG laser with PIPS tip in removing debris from simulated root canal irregularities.

  5. Evaluation of the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Three Minimally Invasive Methods of Caries Removal: An in vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Boob, Ankush Ramnarayan; Manjula, M; Reddy, E Rajendra; Srilaxmi, N; Rani, Tabitha

    2014-01-01

    Many chemomechanical caries removal (CMCR) agents have been introduced and marketed since 1970s, with each new one being better and effective than the previously introduced. Papacarie and Carisolv are new systems in the field of CMCR techniques. These are reportedly minimally invasive methods of removing carious dentin while preserving sound dentin. To compare the Efficiency (time taken for caries removal) and effectiveness (Knoop hardness number of the remaining dentin) of caries removal by three minimally invasive methods, i.e. hand excavation and chemomechanical caries removal using Carisolv and Papacarie. Thirty recently extracted human permanent molars with occlusal carious lesions were divided randomly in three equal groups and bisected through the middle of the lesion mesiodistally and excavated by two methods on each tooth. Statistically significant difference was present among three methods with respect to time and knoop hardness values (KHN) of the remaining dentin. The Efficiency of Hand method is better compared to CMCR techniques and effectiveness of CMCR techniques is better than Hand method in terms of dentin preservation so the chances of maintaining vitality of the pulp will be enhanced. How to cite this article: Boob AR, Manjula M, Reddy ER, Srilaxmi N, Rani T. Evaluation of the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Three Minimally Invasive Methods of Caries Removal: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):11-18.

  6. Placental Growth Measures in Relation to Birth Weight in a Latin American Population.

    PubMed

    Grandi, Carlos; Veiga, Angélica; Mazzitelli, Nancy; Cavalli, Ricardo de Carvalho; Cardoso, Viviane

    2016-08-01

    Introduction The placenta, translates how the fetus experiences the maternal environment and is a principal influence on birth weight (BW). Objective To explore the relationship between placental growth measures (PGMs) and BW in a public maternity hospital. Methods Observational retrospective study of 870 singleton live born infants at Hospital Maternidad Sardá, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, between January 2011 and August 2012 with complete data of PGMs. Details of history, clinical and obstetrical maternal data, labor and delivery and neonatal outcome data, including placental measures derived from the records, were evaluated. The following manual measurements of the placenta according to standard methods were performed: placental weight (PW, g), larger and smaller diameters (cm), eccentricity, width (cm), shape, area (cm(2)), BW/PW ratio (BPR) and PW/BW ratio (PBR), and efficiency. Associations between BW and PGMs were examined using multiple linear regression. Results Birth weight was correlated with placental weight (R(2) = 0.49, p < 0.001), whereas gestational age was moderately correlated with placental weight (R(2) = 0.64, p < 0.001). By gestational age, there was a positive trend for PW and BPR, but an inverse relationship with PBR (p < 0.001). Placental weight alone accounted for 49% of birth weight variability (p < 0,001), whereas all PGMs accounted for 52% (p < 0,001). Combined, PGMs, maternal characteristics (parity, pre-eclampsia, tobacco use), gestational age and gender explained 77.8% of BW variations (p < 0,001). Among preterm births, 59% of BW variances were accounted for by PGMs, compared with 44% at term. All placental measures except BPR were consistently higher in females than in males, which was also not significant. Indices of placental efficiency showed weakly clinical relevance. Conclusions Reliable measures of placental growth estimate 53.6% of BW variances and project this outcome to a

  7. Optimal tattoo removal in a single laser session based on the method of repeated exposures.

    PubMed

    Kossida, Theodora; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios; Katsambas, Andreas; Anderson, R Rox

    2012-02-01

    Unwanted tattoos are treated with Q-switched lasers. Despite a series of treatments, efficacy is limited. We compared a single Q-switched laser treatment pass with 4 treatment passes separated by 20 minutes. Eighteen tattoos on 12 adults were divided in half and randomized. One half received a single treatment pass (the "conventional" method) with a Q-switched alexandrite laser (5.5 J/cm(2), 755 nm, 100-nanosecond pulse duration, 3-mm spot size), and the other half received 4 treatment passes with an interval of 20 minutes between passes (the "R20" method). Tattoo lightening was compared 3 months later, by blinded evaluation of photographs. Biopsy specimens obtained before and immediately after treatment on both halves were also compared in blinded fashion. Immediate whitening reaction occurred on the first treatment pass, with little or no whitening on subsequent passes. Three months later, treatment with the R20 method was much more effective than conventional single-pass laser treatment (P <.01; all tattoos favored the R20 method). Despite greater epidermal injury with the R20 method, neither method caused adverse events or scarring. Light microscopy showed greater dispersion of tattoo ink with the R20 method. This prospective study involved a small number of subjects. The R20 method is much more effective than conventional laser tattoo treatment, removing most tattoos in a single treatment session. New laser device technology is not required to practice this method. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Alternate Materials and Methods for Strontium and Alpha Removal from Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    2000-11-07

    A literature survey indicated a number of alternate materials and methods for the removal of strontium and alpha-emitting radionuclides (actinides). We evaluated the use of alternate materials versus proposed flowsheets for salt processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS). From this evaluation we recommend the following materials for further testing to determine the rate and extent of removal. We do not recommend testing of liquid/liquid extraction and polymer filtration methods at this time.

  9. Increased maternal and fetal cholesterol efflux capacity and placental CYP27A1 expression in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Hiten D; Kurlak, Lesia O; Mansour, Yosef T; Zurkinden, Line; Mohaupt, Markus G; Escher, Geneviève

    2017-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition that leads to increased cardiovascular risk in later life. A decrease in cholesterol efflux capacity is linked to CVD. We hypothesized that in preeclampsia there would be a disruption of maternal/fetal plasma to efflux cholesterol, as well as differences in the concentrations of both placental sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) and apoA1 binding protein (AIBP). Total, HDL-, and ABCA1-mediated cholesterol effluxes were performed with maternal and fetal plasma from women with preeclampsia and normotensive controls (both n = 17). apoA1 and apoE were quantified by chemiluminescence, and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) by GC-MS. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine placental expression/localization of CYP27A1, AIBP, apoA1, apoE, and SRB1. Maternal and fetal total and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacities were increased in preeclampsia (by 10-20%), but ABCA1-mediated efflux was decreased (by 20-35%; P < 0.05). Maternal and fetal apoE concentrations were higher in preeclampsia. Fetal plasma 27-OHC levels were decreased in preeclamptic samples (P < 0.05). Placental protein expression of both CYP27A1 and AIBP were localized around fetal vessels and significantly increased in preeclampsia (P = 0.04). Placental 27-OHC concentrations were also raised in preeclampsia (P < 0.05). Increased HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity and placental CYP27A1/27-OHC could be a rescue mechanism in preeclampsia, to remove cholesterol from cells to limit lipid peroxidation and increase placental angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Removal of Heavy Metals and Organic Contaminants from Aqueous Streams by Novel Filtration Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, N.M.

    2000-08-01

    The removal of hazardous waste, generated by the dismantling of nuclear weapons is a problem that requires urgent attention by the US Department of Energy. Low levels of radioactive contaminants combined with organic solvent residues have leaked from aging containers into the soil and underground water in the surrounding area. Due to the complexity of the problem, it is evident that traditional adsorption methods are ineffective, since the adsorbent tends to saturate with the aqueous component. It has become apparent that a much more aggressive approach is required which involves the use of specially designed materials. We have investigated the potential of solids that combine high surface area/high pore volume and high electrical conductivity, a rare combination of properties found in a single material. In this program we examined the potential of newly developed materials for the trapping of organic solvents within specially engineered cavities without allowing the material to become saturated with water. Catalytically grown carbon nanofibers are a set of novel structures that are produced by the decomposition of selected carbon-containing gases over metal particles. These materials consist of extremely small graphite platelets stacked in various orientations with respect to the fiber axis. Such an arrangement results in a unique structure that is composed of an infinite number of extremely short and narrow pores, suitable for sequestering small molecules. In addition, when the graphene layers are aligned parallel to the fiber axis, an unusual combination of high surface area and low electrical resistivity solids are attained. We have attempted to capitalize on this blend of properties by using such structures for the selective removal of organic contaminants from aqueous streams. Experimental results indicate that nanofibers possessing a structure in which the graphite platelets are aligned perpendicular to the fiber axis and possessing a high degree of

  11. Simulated microbe removal around finger rings using different hand sanitation methods.

    PubMed

    Alur, Archana A; Rane, Madhavi J; Scheetz, James P; Lorenz, Douglas J; Gettleman, Lawrence

    2009-09-01

    It is our opinion that the CDC and the WHO have underestimated cross-contamination under examination gloves in dental clinics while wearing jewelry, such as finger rings. These agencies only "recommend" removing jewelry, and only washing hands for 15 seconds with soap and warm water before donning gloves. This study examined several washing procedures and finger rings using simulated microbes. A gloved rubber hand manikin was made and fitted with a fresh disposable vinyl glove. Four fingers were fitted with rings or no ring, dusted with simulated microbes, and washed with a scrub brush for 5, 15, and 25 seconds under 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C water alone, or with liquid hand soap. Light levels (in lux) of fluorescent powder before and after washing were measured and delta scores calculated for changes in light levels, equivalent to effectiveness of hand washing procedures. A full-factorial, 3-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences among levels of the three study factors-time, temperature, and soap use. Tukey's post hoc honestly significant difference (HSD) test was applied to significant factors to examine pair-wise differences between factor levels. It was found that the longer the hands with rings were washed with a scrub brush under flowing water, the more simulated microbes were removed. By 25 seconds, all methods were essentially the same. Simulated microbes were more difficult to remove from the palm compared to the back of the hand. The liquid hand soap used in this study was more effective with warm water than cold. When given a choice of washing with cold water up to 15 seconds, it would be preferable not to use soap to remove simulated microbes. Qualitatively, the outer surface of finger rings were more effectively cleaned than the crevice below the ring, and the ring with a stone setting appeared to accumulate and retain simulated microbes more than other rings. The most effective treatment was washing with warm water

  12. Simulated Microbe Removal around Finger Rings Using Different Hand Sanitation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Alur, Archana A; Rane, Madhavi J; Scheetz, James P; Lorenz, Douglas J; Gettleman, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Aim It is our opinion that the CDC and the WHO have underestimated cross-contamination under examination gloves in dental clinics while wearing jewelry, such as finger rings. These agencies only “recommend” removing jewelry, and only washing hands for 15 seconds with soap and warm water before donning gloves. This study examined several washing procedures and finger rings using simulated microbes. Methodology A gloved rubber hand manikin was made and fitted with a fresh disposable vinyl glove. Four fingers were fitted with rings or no ring, dusted with simulated microbes, and washed with a scrub brush for 5, 15, and 25 seconds under 20°C and 40°C water alone, or with liquid hand soap. Light levels (in lux) of fluorescent powder before and after washing were measured and delta scores calculated for changes in light levels, equivalent to effectiveness of hand washing procedures. A full-factorial, 3-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences among levels of the three study factors—time, temperature, and soap use. Tukey's post hoc honestly significant difference (HSD) test was applied to significant factors to examine pair-wise differences between factor levels. Results It was found that the longer the hands with rings were washed with a scrub brush under flowing water, the more simulated microbes were removed. By 25 seconds, all methods were essentially the same. Simulated microbes were more difficult to remove from the palm compared to the back of the hand. The liquid hand soap used in this study was more effective with warm water than cold. When given a choice of washing with cold water up to 15 seconds, it would be preferable not to use soap to remove simulated microbes. Qualitatively, the outer surface of finger rings were more effectively cleaned than the crevice below the ring, and the ring with a stone setting appeared to accumulate and retain simulated microbes more than other rings. Conclusion The most effective treatment was

  13. Fixed versus Removable Appliance for Palatal Expansion; A 3D Analysis Using the Finite Element Method.

    PubMed

    Geramy, Allahyar; Shahroudi, Atefe Saffar

    2014-01-01

    Several appliances have been used for palatal expansion for treatment of posterior cross bite. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stress induced in the apical and crestal alveolar bone and the pattern of tooth displacement following expansion via removable expansion plates or fixed-banded palatal expander using the finite element method (FEM) analysis. Two 3D FEM models were designed from a mesio-distal slice of the maxilla containing the upper first molars, their periodontium and alveolar bone. Two palatal expanders (removable and fixed) were modeled. The models were designed in SolidWorks 2006 and then transferred to ANSYS Workbench. The appliance halves were displaced 0.1 mm laterally. The von Mises stress in the apical, crestal, and PDL areas and also the vertical displacement of the cusps (palatal and buccal) was were evaluated. The total PDL stress was 0.40003 MPa in the removable appliance (RA) model and 4.88e-2 MPa in the fixed appliance (FA) model and the apical stress was 9.9e-2 and 1.17e-2 MPa, respectively. The crestal stress was 2.99e-1 MPa in RA and 7.62e-2 MPa in the FA. The stress in the cortical bone crest was 0.30327 and 7.9244e-2 MPa for RA and FA, respectively and 3.7271 and 7.4373e-2 MPa in crestal area of spongy bone, respectively. The vertical displacement of the buccal cusp and palatal cusp was 1.64e-2 and 5.90e-2 mm in RA and 1.05e-4 and 1.7e-4 mm in FA, respectively. The overall stress as well as apical and crestal stress in periodontium of anchor teeth was higher in RA than FA; RA elicited higher stress in both cortical and spongy bone. The vertical displacement of molar cusps was more in removable than fixed palatal expander model.

  14. Hepatotoxic microcystin removal using pumice embedded monolithic composite cryogel as an alternative water treatment method.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, Fatma; Ceylan, Şeyda; Odabaşı, Mehmet; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2016-03-01

    Microcystins are the most commonly encountered water-borne cyanotoxins which present short- and long-term risks to human health. Guidelines at international and national level, and legislation in some countries, have been introduced for the effective health risk management of these potent hepatotoxic, tumour-promoters. The stable cyclic structure of microcystins and their common production by cyanobacteria in waterbodies at times of high total dissolved organic carbon content presents challenges to drinking water treatment facilities, with conventional, advanced and novel strategies under evaluation. Here, we have studied the removal of microcystins using three different forms of pumice particles (PPs), which are embedded into macroporous cryogel columns. Macroporous composite cryogel columns (MCCs) are a new generation of separation media designed to face this challenging task. Three different MCCs were prepared by adding plain PPs, Cu(2+)-attached PPs and Fe(3+)-attached PPs to reaction media before the cryogelation step. Column studies showed that MCCs could be successfully used as an alternative water treatment method for successful microcystin removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Homemade Snare: An Alternative Method for Mechanical Removal of Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Fiarresga, António; Landum, Miguel; Lima, Clara; Gamboa, Óscar; Meireles, José; Sales Luís, José; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2016-01-01

    Canine dirofilariosis is a life-threatening parasitic disease that is increasingly reported worldwide. Once diagnosed the main treatment goals are to improve the animal's clinical condition and to eliminate all life stages of the parasite with minimal posttreatment side effects. This can be achieved through mechanical, surgical, or chemotherapeutical approaches. Currently, manual extraction is the preferred method to remove adult heartworms due to its diminished invasiveness, reduced damage to the vascular endothelium, and shortened anaesthesia duration. However, it remains an expensive technique that can be highly traumatic. To address this issue, a nontraumatic homemade catheter-guided snare was developed for heartworm removal by adapting and folding a 0.014-inch coronary wire (BMW, Abbott Vascular). Transvenous heartworm extraction was performed on a dog severely infected with adult heartworms by inserting the modified snare into a 6-F Judkins right coronary guiding catheter BMW (Cordis) and advancing it into the right ventricle under fluoroscopic guidance. Fifteen adult specimens of Dirofilaria immitis were successfully extracted from the pulmonary artery and right ventricle without complications. To assure the death of both larvae and adults, postoperative treatment was successfully managed using ivermectin, doxycycline, and melarsomine, with no recurrence after surgery.

  16. A Homemade Snare: An Alternative Method for Mechanical Removal of Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Fiarresga, António; Landum, Miguel; Lima, Clara; Gamboa, Óscar; Meireles, José; Sales Luís, José; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2016-01-01

    Canine dirofilariosis is a life-threatening parasitic disease that is increasingly reported worldwide. Once diagnosed the main treatment goals are to improve the animal's clinical condition and to eliminate all life stages of the parasite with minimal posttreatment side effects. This can be achieved through mechanical, surgical, or chemotherapeutical approaches. Currently, manual extraction is the preferred method to remove adult heartworms due to its diminished invasiveness, reduced damage to the vascular endothelium, and shortened anaesthesia duration. However, it remains an expensive technique that can be highly traumatic. To address this issue, a nontraumatic homemade catheter-guided snare was developed for heartworm removal by adapting and folding a 0.014-inch coronary wire (BMW, Abbott Vascular). Transvenous heartworm extraction was performed on a dog severely infected with adult heartworms by inserting the modified snare into a 6-F Judkins right coronary guiding catheter BMW (Cordis) and advancing it into the right ventricle under fluoroscopic guidance. Fifteen adult specimens of Dirofilaria immitis were successfully extracted from the pulmonary artery and right ventricle without complications. To assure the death of both larvae and adults, postoperative treatment was successfully managed using ivermectin, doxycycline, and melarsomine, with no recurrence after surgery. PMID:26981316

  17. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to monitor detergents removal from a membrane protein sample.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chaowei; Han, Fang; Xiong, Ying; Tian, Changlin

    2009-12-01

    In membrane protein biochemical and structural studies, detergents are used to mimic membrane environment and maintain functional, stable conformation of membrane proteins in the absence of lipid bilayers. However, detergent concentration, esp. molar ratio of membrane protein to detergent is usually unknown. Here, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM) method was developed to quantify four detergents which are frequently used in membrane protein structural studies. To remove excessive detergents, a filtered centrifugation using Centricon tubes was applied. A membrane protein Ig-Beta fragment in four different detergent micelles was exemplified. Detergent concentrations in the upper and lower fraction of the Centricon tube were measured after each round of centrifugation. The results were very consistent to basic properties of detergent micelles in aqueous solvents. Therefore, coupling of GC-MS-SIM and detergent removal by Centricon tubes, detergents concentration, esp. molar ratio of membrane protein to detergent could be controlled, which will expedite membrane protein structural and biochemical studies.

  18. Restoring stream habitat connectivity: a proposed method for prioritizing the removal of resident fish passage barriers.

    PubMed

    O'Hanley, Jesse R; Wright, Jed; Diebel, Matthew; Fedora, Mark A; Soucy, Charles L

    2013-08-15

    Systematic methods for prioritizing the repair and removal of fish passage barriers, while growing of late, have hitherto focused almost exclusively on meeting the needs of migratory fish species (e.g., anadromous salmonids). An important but as of yet unaddressed issue is the development of new modeling approaches which are applicable to resident fish species habitat restoration programs. In this paper, we develop a budget constrained optimization model for deciding which barriers to repair or remove in order to maximize habitat availability for stream resident fish. Habitat availability at the local stream reach is determined based on the recently proposed C metric, which accounts for the amount, quality, distance and level of connectivity to different stream habitat types. We assess the computational performance of our model using geospatial barrier and stream data collected from the Pine-Popple Watershed, located in northeast Wisconsin (USA). The optimization model is found to be an efficient and practical decision support tool. Optimal solutions, which are useful in informing basin-wide restoration planning efforts, can be generated on average in only a few minutes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Various Cleaning Methods to Remove Bacillus Spores from Spacecraft Hardware Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Chung, Shirley; Allton, Judith; Kern, Roger

    2004-09-01

    A detailed study was made of the biological cleaning effectiveness, defined in terms of the ability to remove bacterial spores, of a number of methods used to clean hardware surfaces. Aluminum (Al 6061) and titanium (Ti 6Al-4V) were chosen for the study as they were deemed the two materials most likely to be used in spacecraft extraterrestrial sampler construction. Metal coupons (1 cm × 2.5 cm) were precleaned and inoculated with 5.8 × 103 cultivable Bacillus subtilis spores, which are commonly found on spacecraft surfaces and in the assembly environments. The inoculated coupons were subsequently cleaned using: (1) 70% isopropyl alcohol wipe; (2) water wipe; (3) multiple-solvent flight-hardware cleaning procedures used at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); (4) Johnson Space Center-developed ultrapure water rinse; and (5) a commercial, semi-aqueous, multiple-solvent (SAMS) cleaning process. The biological cleaning effectiveness was measured by agar plate assay, sterility test (growing in liquid media), and epifluorescent microscopy. None of the cleaning protocols tested completely removed viable spores from the surface of the aluminum. In contrast, titanium was capable of being cleaned to sterility by two methods, the JPL standard and the commercial SAMS cleaning process. Further investigation showed that the passivation step employed in the JPL standard method is an effective surface sterilant on both metals but not compatible with aluminum. It is recommended that titanium (Ti 6Al-4V) be considered superior to aluminum (Al 6061) for use in spacecraft sampling hardware, both for its potential to be cleaned to sterilization and for its ability to withstand the most effective cleaning protocols.

  20. A non-chromatographic method for the removal of endotoxins from bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Branston, Steven D; Wright, Jason; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli

    2015-08-01

    The Ff filamentous bacteriophages show potential as a new class of therapeutics, displaying utility in materials science as well as pharmaceutical applications. These phages are produced by the infection of E. coli, a Gram-negative bacterium which unavoidably sheds endotoxins into the extracellular space during growth. Since endotoxin molecules are highly immunoreactive, separation from the phage product is of critical importance, particularly those developed for human therapeutic use. The properties of M13, one of the Ff group, present a purification challenge chiefly because the standard scalable method for endotoxin removal from proteins-anion exchange chromatography-is not applicable due to pI similarity between the particles. This article examines the potential of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-NaCl precipitation as a scalable method for the separation of endotoxins from phage M13. Precipitation of M13 by 2% (w/v) PEG 6 000, 500 mM NaCl reduced endotoxin contamination of the phage product by 88%, but additional precipitation rounds did not maintain this proportional decrease. Dynamic light scattering was subsequently used to determine the effectiveness of a detergent to disassociate endotoxin molecules from M13. As a result, PEG-NaCl precipitation was supplemented with up to 2% (v/v) Triton X-100 to improve separation. A 5.7 log10 reduction in endotoxin concentration was achieved over three rounds of precipitation whilst retaining over 97% of the phage. This method compares favorably with the well-known ATPS (Triton X-114) technique for endotoxin removal from protein solutions.

  1. Evaluation of various cleaning methods to remove bacillus spores from spacecraft hardware materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Chung, Shirley; Allton, Judith; Kern, Roger

    2004-01-01

    A detailed study was made of the biological cleaning effectiveness, defined in terms of the ability to remove bacterial spores, of a number of methods used to clean hardware surfaces. Aluminum (Al 6061) and titanium (Ti 6Al-4V) were chosen for the study as they were deemed the two materials most likely to be used in spacecraft extraterrestrial sampler construction. Metal coupons (1 cm x 2.5 cm) were precleaned and inoculated with 5.8 x 10(3) cultivable Bacillus subtilis spores, which are commonly found on spacecraft surfaces and in the assembly environments. The inoculated coupons were subsequently cleaned using: (1) 70% isopropyl alcohol wipe; (2) water wipe; (3) multiple-solvent flight-hardware cleaning procedures used at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); (4) Johnson Space Center-developed ultrapure water rinse; and (5) a commercial, semi-aqueous, multiple-solvent (SAMS) cleaning process. The biological cleaning effectiveness was measured by agar plate assay, sterility test (growing in liquid media), and epifluorescent microscopy. None of the cleaning protocols tested completely removed viable spores from the surface of the aluminum. In contrast, titanium was capable of being cleaned to sterility by two methods, the JPL standard and the commercial SAMS cleaning process. Further investigation showed that the passivation step employed in the JPL standard method is an effective surface sterilant on both metals but not compatible with aluminum. It is recommended that titanium (Ti 6Al-4V) be considered superior to aluminum (Al 6061) for use in spacecraft sampling hardware, both for its potential to be cleaned to sterilization and for its ability to withstand the most effective cleaning protocols.

  2. Evaluation of various cleaning methods to remove bacillus spores from spacecraft hardware materials.

    PubMed

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Chung, Shirley; Allton, Judith; Kern, Roger

    2004-01-01

    A detailed study was made of the biological cleaning effectiveness, defined in terms of the ability to remove bacterial spores, of a number of methods used to clean hardware surfaces. Aluminum (Al 6061) and titanium (Ti 6Al-4V) were chosen for the study as they were deemed the two materials most likely to be used in spacecraft extraterrestrial sampler construction. Metal coupons (1 cm x 2.5 cm) were precleaned and inoculated with 5.8 x 10(3) cultivable Bacillus subtilis spores, which are commonly found on spacecraft surfaces and in the assembly environments. The inoculated coupons were subsequently cleaned using: (1) 70% isopropyl alcohol wipe; (2) water wipe; (3) multiple-solvent flight-hardware cleaning procedures used at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); (4) Johnson Space Center-developed ultrapure water rinse; and (5) a commercial, semi-aqueous, multiple-solvent (SAMS) cleaning process. The biological cleaning effectiveness was measured by agar plate assay, sterility test (growing in liquid media), and epifluorescent microscopy. None of the cleaning protocols tested completely removed viable spores from the surface of the aluminum. In contrast, titanium was capable of being cleaned to sterility by two methods, the JPL standard and the commercial SAMS cleaning process. Further investigation showed that the passivation step employed in the JPL standard method is an effective surface sterilant on both metals but not compatible with aluminum. It is recommended that titanium (Ti 6Al-4V) be considered superior to aluminum (Al 6061) for use in spacecraft sampling hardware, both for its potential to be cleaned to sterilization and for its ability to withstand the most effective cleaning protocols.

  3. Evaluation of various cleaning methods to remove bacillus spores from spacecraft hardware materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Chung, Shirley; Allton, Judith; Kern, Roger

    2004-01-01

    A detailed study was made of the biological cleaning effectiveness, defined in terms of the ability to remove bacterial spores, of a number of methods used to clean hardware surfaces. Aluminum (Al 6061) and titanium (Ti 6Al-4V) were chosen for the study as they were deemed the two materials most likely to be used in spacecraft extraterrestrial sampler construction. Metal coupons (1 cm x 2.5 cm) were precleaned and inoculated with 5.8 x 10(3) cultivable Bacillus subtilis spores, which are commonly found on spacecraft surfaces and in the assembly environments. The inoculated coupons were subsequently cleaned using: (1) 70% isopropyl alcohol wipe; (2) water wipe; (3) multiple-solvent flight-hardware cleaning procedures used at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); (4) Johnson Space Center-developed ultrapure water rinse; and (5) a commercial, semi-aqueous, multiple-solvent (SAMS) cleaning process. The biological cleaning effectiveness was measured by agar plate assay, sterility test (growing in liquid media), and epifluorescent microscopy. None of the cleaning protocols tested completely removed viable spores from the surface of the aluminum. In contrast, titanium was capable of being cleaned to sterility by two methods, the JPL standard and the commercial SAMS cleaning process. Further investigation showed that the passivation step employed in the JPL standard method is an effective surface sterilant on both metals but not compatible with aluminum. It is recommended that titanium (Ti 6Al-4V) be considered superior to aluminum (Al 6061) for use in spacecraft sampling hardware, both for its potential to be cleaned to sterilization and for its ability to withstand the most effective cleaning protocols.

  4. A quality system for placental blood banking.

    PubMed

    Sirchia, G; Rebulla, P; Mozzi, F; Lecchi, L; Lazzari, L; Ratti, I

    1998-06-01

    A Quality System for Placental Blood Banking aimed at the transplantation of haematopoietic stem cells to related and unrelated allogeneic recipients is described. It includes the organizational structure, procedures, processes and resources needed to implement quality management. The Quality System described in this article is based on ISO 9002, a model for quality assurance in production, installation and servicing developed in 1987 and revised in 1994 by the International Organization for Standardization. ISO 9002 includes 20 clauses that provide guidance for the implementation of the Quality System. The development of the Quality System is started by the Placental Blood Bank Medical Director with the definition of a General Quality Plan including: (1) the written description of the Mission, Objectives, Technical and Organizational Policies, and Staff Organization Chart; (2) the definition and acquisition of adequate financial, human and structural resources; (3) the appointment of a Quality System Head, who must identify the Placental Blood Banking process together with the Placental Blood Bank personnel; implement a documentation plan; identify quality indicators; start regular internal audit; report audit results to the Medical Director for review. Following staff training and qualification, the Quality System is launched. The Placental Blood Bank can then undergo audit by an external inspector and be finally certified for compliance to ISO 9002. The Quality System must be maintained and subjected to external audit at regular intervals so that certification is confirmed.

  5. 21 CFR 862.1585 - Human placental lactogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... placental lactogen are used in the diagnosis and clinical management of high-risk pregnancies involving fetal distress associated with placental insufficiency. Measurements of HPL are also used in pregnancies...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1585 - Human placental lactogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... placental lactogen are used in the diagnosis and clinical management of high-risk pregnancies involving fetal distress associated with placental insufficiency. Measurements of HPL are also used in pregnancies...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1585 - Human placental lactogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... placental lactogen are used in the diagnosis and clinical management of high-risk pregnancies involving fetal distress associated with placental insufficiency. Measurements of HPL are also used in pregnancies...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1585 - Human placental lactogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... placental lactogen are used in the diagnosis and clinical management of high-risk pregnancies involving fetal distress associated with placental insufficiency. Measurements of HPL are also used in pregnancies...

  9. Discontinuous Galerkin methods for dispersive shallow water models in closed basins: Spurious eddies and their removal using curved boundary methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmoeller, D. T.; Stastna, M.; Lamb, K. G.

    2016-11-01

    Discontinuous Galerkin methods offer a promising methodology for treating nearly hyperbolic systems such as dispersion-modified shallow water equations in complicated basins. Use of straight-edged triangular elements can lead to the generation of spurious eddies when wave fronts propagate around sharp, re-entrant obstacles such as headlands. While these eddies may be removed by adding strong artificial dissipation (e.g., eddy viscosity), for nearly inviscid simulations that focus on wave phenomena this approach is not reasonable. We demonstrate that the moderate order Discontinuous Galerkin methodology may be extended to curved triangular elements provided that the integral formulations are computed with high-order quadrature and cubature rules. Simulations with the new technique do not exhibit spurious eddy generation in idealized complex domains or real-world basins as exemplified by Pinehurst Lake, Alberta, Canada.

  10. Cloud removing method for daily snow mapping over Central Asia and Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaoqi; Qiu, Yubao; Guo, Huadong; Chen, Lijuan

    2017-02-01

    Central Asia and Xinjiang, China are conjunct areas, located in the hinterland of the Eurasian continent, where the snowfall is an important water resource supplement form. The induced seasonal snow cover is vita factors to the regional energy and water balance, remote sensing plays a key role in the snow mapping filed, while the daily remote sensing products are normally contaminated by the occurrence of cloud, that obviously obstacles the utility of snow cover parameters. In this paper, based on the daily snow product from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS A1), a cloud removing method was developed by considering the regional snow distribution characteristics with latitude and altitude dependence respectively. In the end, the daily cloud free products was compared with the same period of eight days MODIS standard product, revealing that the cloud free snow products are reasonable, while could provide higher temporal resolution, and more details over Center Asia and Xinjiang Province.

  11. Method of removing hydrogen sulfide from gases utilizing a zinc oxide sorbent and regenerating the sorbent

    DOEpatents

    Jalan, Vinod M.; Frost, David G.

    1984-01-01

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500.degree. C. to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent.

  12. Optimization of oil removal from oily wastewater by electrocoagulation using response surface method.

    PubMed

    Tir, Mohamed; Moulai-Mostefa, Nadji

    2008-10-01

    Electrocoagulation process with sacrificial aluminium anode was used to separate oil from oily wastewater emulsion. A preliminary experimental study was performed to evaluate the most accurate operating parameters, which are then used for the determination of oil removal efficiency. An experimental design using response surface method (RSM) was then applied and oil separation was estimated by measuring turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD). An optimal region characterised with low values of turbidity and COD was found. As part of the optimized process, the main effects of the operational parameters were also investigated. The experimental results indicated that electrocoagulation was very efficient and able to achieve 99% turbidity and 90% chemical oxygen demand (COD) in less than 22 min and current density of 25 mA cm(-2). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a high variance coefficient (R(2)) value of 0.998, thus ensuring a satisfactory adjustment of the second-order regression model with the experimental data.

  13. Behavioral and physiological changes in children with Down syndrome using mechanical and chemomechanical (Carisolv) caries removal methods.

    PubMed

    Guaré, Renata de Oliveira; Ciamponi, Ana Lídia; Romano, Marcelo Munhões

    2008-01-01

    This study compared behavioral and physiological changes during caries removal in children with Down syndrome when using a chemomechanical caries removal technique (Carisolv) and a conventional method of caries removal. Twenty children (ASA class 1) between 5 and 12 years of age participated in the study; 10 subjects had Down syndrome and 10 were healthy controls. The behavioral and physiological assessments were carried out during five stages of dental treatment: (1) 5 minutes before local anesthesia; (2) during local anesthesia; (3) during caries removal; (4) immediately after restoration; and (5) 5 minutes after the end of the treatment. The caries removal step resulted in the greatest behavioral and physiological changes. Except for oxygen saturation, statistically significant differences in heart rate (p<0.05) were recorded between children with Down syndrome and the control children.

  14. Placental development during early pregnancy in sheep: Effects of embryo origin on vascularization

    PubMed Central

    Grazul-Bilska, Anna T.; Johnson, Mary Lynn; Borowicz, Pawel P.; Bilski, Jerzy J.; Cymbaluk, Taylor; Norberg, Spencer; Redmer, Dale A.; Reynolds, Lawrence P.

    2014-01-01

    Utero-placental growth and vascular development are critical for pregnancy establishment that may be altered by various factors including assisted reproductive technologies (ART), nutrition, or others, leading to compromised pregnancy. We hypothesized that placental vascularization and expression of angiogenic factors are altered early in pregnancies after transfer of embryos created using selected ART methods. Pregnancies were achieved through natural mating (NAT), or transfer of embryos from natural mating (NAT-ET), or in vitro fertilization (IVF) or activation (IVA). Placental tissues were collected on day 22 of pregnancy. In maternal caruncles (CAR), vascular cell proliferation was less (P<0.05) for IVA than other groups. Compared to NAT, density of blood vessels was less (P<0.05) for IVF and IVA in fetal membranes (FM), and for NAT-ET, IVF and IVA in CAR. In FM, mRNA expression was decreased (P<0.01–0.08) in NAT-ET, IVF and IVA compared to NAT for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor FLT-1, placental growth factor (PGF), neuropilin (NP) 1 and 2, angiopoietin (ANGPT) 1 and 2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), hypoxia inducible factor-1A (HIF1A), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 and its receptor FGFR2. In CAR, mRNA expression was decreased (P<0.01–0.05) in NAT-ET, IVF and IVA compared to NAT for VEGF, FLT-1, PGF, ANGPT1 and TEK. Decreased mRNA expression for 12 of 14 angiogenic factors across FM and CAR in NAT-ET, IVF and IVA pregnancies was associated with reduced placental vascular development, which would lead to poor placental function and compromised fetal and placental growth and development. PMID:24472816

  15. Placental development during early pregnancy in sheep: effects of embryo origin on vascularization.

    PubMed

    Grazul-Bilska, Anna T; Johnson, Mary Lynn; Borowicz, Pawel P; Bilski, Jerzy J; Cymbaluk, Taylor; Norberg, Spencer; Redmer, Dale A; Reynolds, Lawrence P

    2014-05-01

    Utero-placental growth and vascular development are critical for pregnancy establishment that may be altered by various factors including assisted reproductive technologies (ART), nutrition, or others, leading to compromised pregnancy. We hypothesized that placental vascularization and expression of angiogenic factors are altered early in pregnancies after transfer of embryos created using selected ART methods. Pregnancies were achieved through natural mating (NAT), or transfer of embryos from NAT (NAT-ET), or IVF or in vitro activation (IVA). Placental tissues were collected on day 22 of pregnancy. In maternal caruncles (CAR), vascular cell proliferation was less (P<0.05) for IVA than other groups. Compared with NAT, density of blood vessels was less (P<0.05) for IVF and IVA in fetal membranes (FM) and for NAT-ET, IVF, and IVA in CAR. In FM, mRNA expression was decreased (P<0.01-0.08) in NAT-ET, IVF, and IVA compared with NAT for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor FLT1, placental growth factor (PGF), neuropilin 1 (NP1) and NP2, angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1) and ANGPT2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3), hypoxia-inducible factor 1A (HIF1A), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and its receptor FGFR2. In CAR, mRNA expression was decreased (P<0.01-0.05) in NAT-ET, IVF, and IVA compared with NAT for VEGF, FLT1, PGF, ANGPT1, and TEK. Decreased mRNA expression for 12 of 14 angiogenic factors across FM and CAR in NAT-ET, IVF, and IVA pregnancies was associated with reduced placental vascular development, which would lead to poor placental function and compromised fetal and placental growth and development.

  16. A randomised controlled trial of placental cord drainage to reduce feto-maternal transfusion.

    PubMed

    Navaneethakrishnan, R; Anderson, A; Holding, S; Atkinson, C; Lindow, S W

    2010-03-01

    To determine whether placental drainage via the umbilical cord prior to placental delivery reduces the size of feto-maternal transfusion and thus the chance of rhesus isoimmunisation in rhesus negative women. A randomised controlled trial conducted in a tertiary hospital setting in the UK compared 18 rhesus negative women who had placental drainage (10 caesarean section and 8 vaginal deliveries) with 18 rhesus negative women where the cord remained clamped until placental delivery (8 caesarean section and 10 vaginal deliveries). Maternal venous blood samples were taken before delivery and at a mean of 142 min after delivery of the placenta, and analysed using flow cytometry to calculate the size of the feto-maternal transfusion. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Version 13 statistical software. The main outcome measure was the quantification of the volume of fetal cells in the maternal circulation before and after delivery. In the 72 specimens taken, 40 demonstrated measurable amounts of fetal cells in the maternal circulation. In the 18 women who had placental drainage, the mean (SD) size of the feto-maternal transfusion was 0.50 ml (0.79) before and 0.39 ml (0.58) after delivery. In the 18 women who had a clamped cord, the mean (SD) feto-maternal transfusion was 0.46 ml (0.84) before and 0.78 ml (1.1) after delivery. There was no significant difference between the net feto-maternal transfusions in the two groups (Mann-Whitney U 122.5, p 0.19). Placental drainage does not reduce the amount of feto-maternal transfusion and this method of placental delivery is not recommended to reduce feto-maternal transfusion. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electromagnetic coupling in frequency-domain induced polarization data: a method for removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routh, Partha S.; Oldenburg, Douglas W.

    2001-04-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) coupling is generally considered to be noise in induced polarization (IP) data and interpretation is difficult when its contribution is large compared to the IP signal. The effect is exacerbated by conductive environments and large-array survey geometries designed to explore deeper targets. In this paper we present a methodology to remove EM coupling from frequency-domain IP data. We first investigate the effect of EM coupling on the IP data and derive the necessary equations to represent the IP effect for both amplitude and phase responses of the signal. The separation of the inductive response from the total response in the low-frequency regime is derived using the electric field due to a horizontal electric dipole and it is assumed that at low frequencies the interaction of EM effects and IP effects is negligible. The total electric field is then expressed as a product of a scalar function, which is due to IP effects, and an electric field, which depends on the EM coupling response. It is this representation that enables us to obtain the IP response from EM-coupling-contaminated data. To compute the EM coupling response we recognize that conductivity information is necessary. We illustrate this with a synthetic example. The removal method developed in this work for the phase and the per cent frequency effect (PFE) data are applicable to 1-D, 2-D and 3-D structures. The practical utility of the method is illustrated on a 2-D field example that is typical of mineral exploration problems.

  18. Placental genetic variations in circadian clock-related genes increase the risk of placental abruption

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Chunfang; Gelaye, Bizu; Denis, Marie; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Ananth, Cande V; Pacora, Percy N; Salazar, Manuel; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of placental abruption (PA) remains poorly understood. We examined variations in SNPs of circadian clock-related genes in placenta with PA risk. We also explored placental and maternal genomic contributions to PA risk. Placental genomic DNA samples were isolated from 280 PA cases and 244 controls. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina Cardio-MetaboChip. We examined 116 SNPs in 13 genes known to moderate circadian rhythms. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios (ORs). The combined effect of multiple SNPs on PA risk was estimated using a weighted genetic risk score. We examined independent and joint associations of wGRS derived from placental and maternal genomes with PA. Seven SNPs in five genes (ARNTL2, CRY2, DEC1, PER3 and RORA), in the placental genome, were associated with PA risk. Each copy of the minor allele (G) of a SNP in the RORA gene (rs2899663) was associated with a 30% reduced odds of PA (95% CI 0.52-0.95). The odds of PA increased with increasing placental-wGRS (Ptrend<0.001). The ORs were 1.00, 2.16, 3.24 and 4.48 across quartiles. Associations persisted after the maternal-wGRS was included in the model. There was evidence of an additive contribution of placental and maternal genetic contributions to PA risk. Participants with placental- and maternal-wGRS in the highest quartile, compared with those in the lowest quartile, had a 15.57-fold (95% CI 3.34-72.60) increased odds of PA. Placental variants in circadian clock-related genes are associated with PA risk; and the association persists after control of genetic variants in the maternal genome. PMID:27186326

  19. PPAR Signaling in Placental Development and Function.

    PubMed

    Barak, Yaacov; Sadovsky, Yoel; Shalom-Barak, Tali

    2008-01-01

    With the major attention to the pivotal roles of PPARs in diverse aspects of energy metabolism, the essential functions of PPARgamma and PPARbeta/delta in placental development came as a surprise and were often considered a nuisance en route to their genetic analysis. However, these findings provided an opportune entrée into placental biology. Genetic and pharmacological studies, primarily of knockout animal models and cell culture, uncovered networks of PPARgamma and PPARdelta, their heterodimeric RXR partners, associated transcriptional coactivators, and target genes, that regulate various aspects of placental development and function. These studies furnish both specific information about trophoblasts and the placenta and potential hints about the functions of PPARs in other tissues and cell types. They reveal that the remarkable versatility of PPARs extends beyond the orchestration of metabolism to the regulation of cellular differentiation, tissue development, and trophoblast-specific functions. This information and its implications are the subject of this review.

  20. Prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in north-west Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The frequency of pregnancy-associated malaria is increasingly being documented in American countries. In Colombia, with higher frequency of Plasmodium vivax over Plasmodium falciparum infection, recent reports confirmed gestational malaria as a serious public health problem. Thick smear examination is the gold standard to diagnose malaria in endemic settings, but in recent years, molecular diagnostic methods have contributed to elucidate the dimension of the problem of gestational malaria. The study was aimed at exploring the prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in women who delivered at the local hospitals of north-west Colombia, between June 2008 and April 2011. Methods A group of 129 parturient women was selected to explore the prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in a descriptive, prospective and transversal (prevalence) design. Diagnosis was based on the simultaneous application of two independent diagnostic tests: microscopy of thick blood smears and a polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR). Results The prevalence of gestational malaria (thick smear /PCR) was 9.1%/14.0%; placental malaria was 3.3%/16.5% and congenital malaria was absent. A history of gestational malaria during the current pregnancy was significantly associated with gestational malaria at delivery. Plasmodium vivax caused 65% of cases of gestational malaria, whereas P. falciparum caused most cases of placental malaria. Conclusions Gestational and placental malaria are a serious problem in the region, but the risk of congenital malaria is low. A history of malaria during pregnancy may be a practical indicator of infection at delivery. PMID:24053184

  1. 21 CFR 862.1585 - Human placental lactogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Human placental lactogen test system. 862.1585 Section 862.1585 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 862.1585 Human placental lactogen test system. (a) Identification. A human placental...

  2. A Two-Dimensional Variational Analysis Method for NSCAT Ambiguity Removal: Methodology, Sensitivity, and Tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, R. N.; Leidner, S. M.; Henderson, J. M.; Atlas, R.; Ardizzone, J. V.; Bloom, S. C.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we apply a two-dimensional variational analysis method (2d-VAR) to select a wind solution from NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) ambiguous winds. 2d-VAR determines a "best" gridded surface wind analysis by minimizing a cost function. The cost function measures the misfit to the observations, the background, and the filtering and dynamical constraints. The ambiguity closest in direction to the minimizing analysis is selected. 2d-VAR method, sensitivity and numerical behavior are described. 2d-VAR is compared to statistical interpolation (OI) by examining the response of both systems to a single ship observation and to a swath of unique scatterometer winds. 2d-VAR is used with both NSCAT ambiguities and NSCAT backscatter values. Results are roughly comparable. When the background field is poor, 2d-VAR ambiguity removal often selects low probability ambiguities. To avoid this behavior, an initial 2d-VAR analysis, using only the two most likely ambiguities, provides the first guess for an analysis using all the ambiguities or the backscatter data. 2d-VAR and median filter selected ambiguities usually agree. Both methods require horizontal consistency, so disagreements occur in clumps, or as linear features. In these cases, 2d-VAR ambiguities are often more meteorologically reasonable and more consistent with satellite imagery.

  3. Effects of initial air removal methods on microorganisms and characteristics of fermented plant beverages.

    PubMed

    Kantachote, Duangporn; Charernjiratrakul, Wilawan

    2008-01-15

    The effects of 3 different methods for removing the initial air on the properties of fermented plant beverages produced from phom-nang seaweed (Gracilaria fisheri) and wild forest noni (Morinda coreia Ham.) were investigated. Only method M which covered the space above the fermentation liquid with a water filled plastic bag produced no surface film of yeast, had the highest acidity and also antibacterial activity from both plants after 90 days of fermentation. However, the yeast count still exceeded the standard guidelines for plant beverages. The fermented beverage from wild forest noni showed more antibacterial activity against 3 of 4 pathogenic bacteria tested than that from the phomnang seaweed, probably for its higher levels of acidity and ethanol content. Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from the fermentation samples from days 1-5 using the method M from both fermented plant beverages were Leuconostoc mesenteroides supsp. mesenteroides and Leu. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum while presence of Lactobacilus plantarum was only recorded at days 4-5 in the wild forest noni beverage. From days 6-14 the isolates were Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus brevis from wild forest noni beverage, whereas only L. brevis was not detected in the seaweed beverage. During days 21-45 both beverages had a similar LAB population of L. plantarum and L. brevis while L. coryniformis was only found in the wild forest noni beverage. Between days 60-90 in both plant beverages only L. plantarum and Lactobacillius sp. were detected.

  4. Comparison of preoperative hair removal methods for the reduction of surgical site infections: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dingmei; Yao, Yao; Yu, Weifei

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of different methods of preoperative hair removal in reducing surgical site infections. Surgical site infections are a major source of morbidity and prolonged hospitalisation following surgery. However, there is a lack of data regarding the impact of different preoperative hair removal techniques on the incidence of surgical site infections. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials reporting the impact of different methods of preoperative hair removal on reducing surgical site infections were collected through databases, including the Cochrane Library, Joanna Briggs Institute Library, PubMed, Elsevier, EMBASE, Nursing Consult, China Biology Medicine disc, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang data. The articles were published from 1 January 1990-15 March 2016. Meta-analyses were conducted with review manager version 5.0. Fourteen trials were included (16 comparisons) in the review, including 11 randomised controlled trials and three controlled clinical trials. Interventions in the studies were shaving, clipping, no hair removal and the use of depilatory cream. The meta-analyses included 7278 patients, from 10 countries. Nine studies compared shaving with no hair removal, four studies compared shaving with clipping, two studies compared shaving with depilatory cream, and one study compared clipping with no hair removal. No significant differences in the frequency of surgical site infections were observed between any of the methods assessed. No significant differences between shaving, clipping, no hair removal and depilatory cream were observed in the frequency of surgical site infections. Preoperative hair removal should be avoided unless necessary. When it is necessary to remove hair, the existing evidence suggests that clipping is more effective in reducing surgical site infections than shaving or depilatory cream. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Lower Placental Leptin Promoter Methylation in Association with Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution during Pregnancy and Placental Nitrosative Stress at Birth in the ENVIRONAGE Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Saenen, Nelly D.; Vrijens, Karen; Janssen, Bram G.; Roels, Harry A.; Neven, Kristof Y.; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Gyselaers, Wilfried; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Lefebvre, Wouter; De Boever, Patrick; Nawrot, Tim S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Particulate matter with a diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) affects human fetal development during pregnancy. Oxidative stress is a putative mechanism by which PM2.5 may exert its effects. Leptin (LEP) is an energy-regulating hormone involved in fetal growth and development. Objectives: We investigated in placental tissue whether DNA methylation of the LEP promoter is associated with PM2.5 and whether the oxidative/nitrosative stress biomarker 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NTp) is involved. Methods: LEP DNA methylation status of 361 placentas from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort was assessed using bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing. Placental 3-NTp (n = 313) was determined with an ELISA assay. Daily PM2.5 exposure levels were estimated for each mother’s residence, accounting for residential mobility during pregnancy, using a spatiotemporal interpolation model. Results: After adjustment for a priori chosen covariates, placental LEP methylation was 1.4% lower (95% CI: –2.7, –0.19%) in association with an interquartile range increment (7.5 μg/m3) in second-trimester PM2.5 exposure and 0.43% lower (95% CI: –0.85, –0.02%) in association with a doubling of placental 3-NTp content. Conclusions: LEP methylation status in the placenta was negatively associated with PM2.5 exposure during the second trimester, and with placental 3-NTp, a marker of oxidative/nitrosative stress. Additional research is needed to confirm our findings and to assess whether oxidative/nitrosative stress might contribute to associations between PM2.5 and placental epigenetic events. Potential consequences for health during the neonatal period and later in life warrant further exploration. Citation: Saenen ND, Vrijens K, Janssen BG, Roels HA, Neven KY, Vanden Berghe W, Gyselaers W, Vanpoucke C, Lefebvre W, De Boever P, Nawrot TS. 2017. Lower placental leptin promoter methylation in association with fine particulate matter air pollution during pregnancy and placental nitrosative stress at birth in the

  6. Evaluation of Chemical Clarification Polymers and Methods for Removal of Dissolved Metals from CDF Effluent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    chemical flocculation . Clarification is intended for removal of solids from CDF effluent, and in doing so, much of the metals contamination is also...removed with the solids. Likewise, the ability of the chemical flocculation to remove dissolved phase contaminants should also be considered...since this may be an important, simultaneous benefit. As effluent discharge standards become more stringent, the benefits of new chemical flocculation

  7. Presentation of Placental Site Trophoblastic Tumor with Amenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Behnamfar, Fariba; Rouholamin, Safoura; Esteki, Mahboubeh

    2017-01-01

    Placental site throphoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare manifestation of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia that may complicate any type of pregnancy. The disease is unique from other type, and is defined by slow growth, low human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) serum levels, the late-onset metastatic potential, and most significantly, insensitivity to chemotherapy. We describe a case of a 31-year-old woman with prolonged amenorrhea and slightly elevated serum beta hCG (βhCG) level, referred for termination of abnormal pregnancy. During curettage, necrotic tissue was removed and severs vaginal bleeding was controlled with medical therapy. Histology examination showed neoplastic intermediate trophoblastic cells with invasion to the vessel wall compatible with PSTT. After that, hysterectomy was down and serum βhCG declined to undetectable level 2 weeks after surgery and was followed for 2 years without complication. PMID:28401076

  8. Method for removal of metal atoms from aqueous solution using suspended plant cells

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Paul J.; Torres, deceased, Agapito P.; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    1992-01-01

    The use of plant suspension cultures to remove ionic metallic species and TNT-based explosives and their oxidation products from aqueous solution is described. Several plant strains were investigated including D. innoxia, Citrus citrus, and Black Mexican Sweet Corn. All showed significant ability to remove metal ions. Ions removed to sub-ppm levels include barium, iron, and plutonium. D. innoxia cells growing in media containing weapons effluent contaminated with Ba.sup.2+ also remove TNT, other explosives and oxidation products thereof from solution. The use of dead, dehydrated cells were also found to be of use in treating waste directly.

  9. Method for removal of explosives from aqueous solution using suspended plant cells

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Paul J.; Torres, deceased, Agapito P.; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    1994-01-01

    The use of plant suspension cultures to remove ionic metallic species and TNT-based explosives and their oxidation products from aqueous solution is described. Several plant strains were investigated including D. innoxia, Citrus citrus, and Black Mexican Sweet Corn. All showed significant ability to remove metal ions. Ions removed to sub-ppm levels include barium, iron, and plutonium. D. innoxia cells growing in media containing weapons effluent contaminated with Ba.sup.2+ also remove TNT, other explosives and oxidation products thereof from solution. The use of dead, dehydrated cells was also found to be of use in treating waste directly.

  10. A Method to Remove Electromagnetic Coupling from Induced Polarization Data for an ``Exponential'' Earth Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çağlar, İ.

    The electromagnetic (EM) coupling effect in induced polarization (IP) data is an important problem. In many works it has been computed only considering homogeneous or layered earth models with discretely uniform conductivity. In this study, an algorithm has been developed to compute the EM coupling effect in IP data measured on the earth, whose conductivity varies (increases or decreases) exponentially with depth. The EM coupling effects for Percent Frequency Effect (PFE) and phase data are computed for a dipole-dipole array with different separations, however the method can be applied to any electrode array. The results obtained for the cases of increasing and decreasing conductivity as a function of depth indicate that the EM coupling effect strongly depends on the subsurface resistivity and the dipole length. Here an ``exponential'' earth model is considered to remove EM coupling from the IP data in frequency and phase domain. For this purpose, first, the region of pseudo-section is divided into segments, and within each segment a typical average apparent resistivity (ρa) curve is constructed. An exponential conductivity model is fitted to average ρa data. The conductivity model is then used to compute EM responses. Next the data are corrected for the EM coupling contribution. This decoupling process is applied to field data from a galenite-pyrite mineralization area at the Dolluk site, in western Turkey. The results from the decoupling method developed here are compared with other techniques.

  11. Evaluation of a fully automated method to measure the critical removal stress of adult barnacles.

    PubMed

    Conlan, Sheelagh L; Mutton, Robert J; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S

    2008-01-01

    A computer-controlled force gauge designed to measure the adhesive strength of barnacles on test substrata is described. The instrument was evaluated with adult barnacles grown in situ on Silastic T2(R)-coated microscope slides and epoxy replicas adhered to the same substratum with synthetic adhesive. The force per unit area required to detach the barnacles (critical removal stress) using the new automated system was comparable to that obtained with ASTM D5618 (1994) (0.19 and 0.28 MPa compared with 0.18 and 0.27 MPa for two batches of barnacles). The automated method showed a faster rate of force development compared with the manual spring force gauge used for ASTM D5618 (1994). The new instrument was as accurate and precise at determining surface area as manual delineation used with ASTM D5618 (1994). The method provided significant advantages such as higher throughput speed, the ability to test smaller barnacles (which took less time to grow) and to control the force application angle and speed. The variability in measurements was lower than previously reported, suggesting an improved ability to compare the results obtained by different researchers.

  12. Fetal-placental and decidual-placental units: role of endocrine and paracrine regulations in parturition.

    PubMed

    Carbillon, L; Uzan, M; Challier, J C; Merviel, P; Uzan, S

    2000-01-01

    In primates, fetal adrenal and placental steroidogenic enzymatic systems are complementary in a fetal-placental unit, synchronizing fetal maturation and myometrial activation in late gestation. Moreover, as hemochorial placentation characterizes rodents and primates, paracrine regulations between decidua and placenta are essential to the immunotolerance of the conceptus and its development. Thus, the decidual-placental unit remains in a striking state of decidual quiescence throughout gestation, and the reversal of this quiescence is thought to play a key role in myometrial stimulation and the onset of parturition. A comprehensive view of the control of myometrial contractility, through the interaction of paracrine and endocrine modifications in late gestation, is proposed. The failure of these mechanisms underlie prematurity and the use of fetal therapy in threatened preterm labor. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. [Impairments of placental amino acid metabolism in fetal growth restriction].

    PubMed

    Pogorelova, T N; Gunko, V O; Avrutskaya, V V; Kaushanskaya, L V; Durnitsyna, O A

    2017-05-01

    The content of the amino acids in the placenta during physiological pregnancy and fetal growth restriction (FGR) has been investigated my means of the method of ion-exchange chromatography. It has been found that in FGR the placental amino acid pool is characterized by a decreased content of arginine, proline, alanine, serine, cysteine, methionine, tryptophan, leucine, threonine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, glutamine and an increased content of dicarboxylic amino acids, lysine, histidine and glycine. These changes are accompanied by altered activity of some enzymes of amino acid metabolism, and the degree of these changes correlates with the level of corresponding amino acids.

  14. Method to Remove Particulate Matter from Dusty Gases at Low Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos; Clements, J. Sid

    2012-01-01

    Future human exploration of Mars will rely on local Martian resources to reduce the mass, cost, and risk of space exploration launched from Earth. NASA's In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Project seeks to produce mission consumables from local Martian resources, such as atmospheric gas. The Martian atmosphere, however, contains dust particles in the 2-to-10 -micrometer range. These dust particles must be removed before the Martian atmospheric gas can be processed. The low pressure of the Martian atmosphere, at 5 to 10 mbars, prevents the development of large voltages required for a standard electrostatic precipitator. If the voltage is increased too much, the corona transitions into a glow/streamer discharge unsuitable for the operation of a precipitator. If the voltage is not large enough, the dust particles are not sufficiently charged and the field is not strong enough to drive the particles to the collector. A method using electrostatic fields has been developed to collect dust from gaseous environments at low pressures, specifically carbon dioxide at pressures around 5 to 10 mbars. This method, commonly known as electrostatic precipitation, is a mature technology in air at one atmosphere. In this case, the high voltages required for the method to work can easily be achieved. However, in carbon dioxide at low pressures, such as those found on Mars, large voltages are not possible. The innovation reported here consists of two concentric cylindrical electrodes set at specific potential difference that generate an electric field that produces a corona capable of imparting an electrostatic charge to the incoming dust particles. The strength of the field is carefully balanced so as to produce a stable charging corona at 5 to 10 mbars, and is also capable of imparting a force to the particles that drives them to the collecting electrode. There are only two possible ways that dust can be removed from Martian atmospheric gas intakes: with this electrostatic

  15. Comparison and Evaluation Methods for the Removal of Ethylene and Other Hydrocarbons from Air for Biological Studies 1

    PubMed Central

    Eastwell, Kenneth C.; Bassi, Pawan K.; Spencer, Mary E.

    1978-01-01

    A random sampling analysis of laboratory air and of air from commercially available cylinders indicated that they contain appreciable amounts of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, viz. methane, ethane, and ethylene, as contaminants. These impurities could lead to erroneous conclusions in studies of plant growth and metabolism. Different methods for removal of these contaminants were compared and evaluated in the present investigation for their suitability in plant studies. Most of the methods currently being used were found inadequate. The use of metal catalysts at high temperature, adapted from gas analysis techniques, provides an inexpensive and efficient method for removing hydrocarbons from air in both closed and continuous flow systems. PMID:16660593

  16. Relation between utero-placental and feto-placental circulations: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Flo, Kari; Wilsgaard, Tom; Acharya, Ganesh

    2010-10-01

    To explore the relation between total utero-placental (TQ(uta)) and feto-placental (Q(uv)) blood flows and establish longitudinal reference ranges for the TQ(uta)/Q(uv) ratio and the mean uterine artery and umbilical artery pulsatility (UtaPI/UAPI) and resistance index (UtaRI/UARI) ratios. Prospective longitudinal observational study. University hospital in Norway. Fifty-three low-risk pregnant women. Uterine artery and umbilical vein blood flow was measured using Doppler ultrasonography at 4-weekly intervals from 22(+0) to 39(+6) weeks of gestation. Ratios between utero-placental and feto-placental volume blood flows and between indices of uterine and umbilical artery impedance. The TQ(uta)/Q(uv) ratio had a significant association with the gestational age (p < 0.00001) and decreased with advancing gestation during the second half of pregnancy. The mean UtaPI/UAPI (p = 0.094) and mean UtaRI/UARI (p = 0.323) ratios were not significantly associated with gestational age and remained relatively constant. There was no significant association between TQ(uta) and Q(uv) (p = 0.72), mean UtaPI and UAPI (p = 0.56), or mean UtaRI and UARI (p = 0.57). The gestational-age-related changes in the utero-placental and feto-placental circulations do not appear to be affected by each other under physiological conditions. We have established longitudinal reference ranges for the utero-placental and feto-placental blood flow and impedance ratios during the second half of pregnancy.

  17. Tuning the pH-shift protein-isolation method for maximum hemoglobin-removal from blood rich fish muscle.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Mehdi; Marmon, Sofia; Chaijan, Manat; Undeland, Ingrid

    2016-12-01

    A main challenge preventing optimal use of protein isolated from unconventional raw materials (e.g., small pelagic fish and fish by-products) using the pH-shift method is the difficulty to remove enough heme-pigments. Here, the distribution of hemoglobin (Hb) in the different fractions formed during pH-shift processing was studied using Hb-fortified cod mince. Process modifications, additives and prewashing were then investigated to further facilitate Hb-removal. The alkaline pH-shift process version could remove considerably more Hb (77%) compared to the acidic version (37%) when proteins were precipitated at pH 5.5; most Hb was removed during dewatering. Protein precipitation at pH 6.5 improved total Hb removal up to 91% and 74% during alkaline and acid processing, respectively. Adding phytic acid to the first supernatant of the alkaline process version yielded 93% Hb removal. Combining one prewash with phytic acid at pH 5.5 followed by alkaline/acid pH-shift processing increased Hb removal up to 96/92%.

  18. Effect of maternal tobacco smoke exposure on the placental transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Bruchova, H; Vasikova, A; Merkerova, M; Milcova, A; Topinka, J; Balascak, I; Pastorkova, A; Sram, R J; Brdicka, R

    2010-03-01

    Smoking in pregnancy increases a woman's risk of preterm delivery resulting in serious neonatal health problems and chronic lifelong disabilities for the children (e.g., mental retardation, learning problems). To study the effects of tobacco smoke on the placental transcriptome, we performed gene expression profiling on placentas from women exposed to tobacco smoke in pregnancy (N = 12) and from those without significant exposure (N = 64). Gene expression profiles were determined by Illumina HumanRef-8 v2 Expression BeadChips with 18,216 gene probes. Microarray data were normalized by quantile method and filtered for a detection P-value <0.01. Differential gene expression was determined by moderated t-statistic. A linear model was fitted for each gene given a series of arrays using lmFit function. Multiple testing correction was performed using the Benjamini and Hochberg method. Abundant levels of transcripts were found for genes encoding placental hormones (CSH1, CSHL1), pregnancy-specific proteins (PSG3, PSG4, PAPPA), and hemoglobins (HBB, HBG, HBA). Comparative analysis of smokers vs nonsmokers revealed the differential expression of 241 genes (P < 0.05). In smoker cohort, we detected high up-regulation of xenobiotic genes (CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYB5A, COX412), collagen genes (e.g., COL6A3, COL1A1, COL1A2), coagulation genes (F5, F13A1) as well as thrombosis-related genes (CD36, ADAMTS9, GAS6). In smokers, we identified deregulated genes that show tissue non-specific induction and may be considered as general biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure. Further, we also found genes specifically deregulated in the exposed placentas. Functional annotation analysis suggested processes and pathways affected by tobacco smoke exposure that may represent molecular mechanisms of smoke-induced placental abnormalities.

  19. Apparatus and method for removing mercury vapor from a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Ganesan, Kumar

    2008-01-01

    A metallic filter effectively removes mercury vapor from gas streams. The filter captures the mercury which then can be released and collected as product. The metallic filter is a copper mesh sponge plated with a six micrometer thickness of gold. The filter removes up to 90% of mercury vapor from a mercury contaminated gas stream.

  20. Methods and apparatus for removal and control of material in laser drilling of a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Zediker, Mark S.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Moxley, Joel F.

    2016-12-06

    The removal of material from the path of a high power laser beam during down hole laser operations including drilling of a borehole and removal of displaced laser effected borehole material from the borehole during laser operations. In particular, paths, dynamics and parameters of fluid flows for use in conjunction with a laser bottom hole assembly.