Science.gov

Sample records for plain caracteristicas fisico-quimicas

  1. Utopia Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    5 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dark-toned, cratered plain in southwest Utopia Planitia. Large, light-toned, windblown ripples reside on the floors of many of the depressions in the scene, including a long, linear, trough.

    Location near: 30.3oN, 255.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  2. Revisiting Plain Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the plain language movement and its origins. Reviews past and current resources related to plain language writing. Examines criticism of the movement while examining past and current plain language literature, with particular attention to the information design field. (SR)

  3. The Plains City Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Olphen, Marcela; Rios, Francisco; Berube, William; Dexter, Robin; McCarthy, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This case study portrays a contemporary phenomenon that affects many U.S. school districts. Specifically, the authors address the challenges that the superintendent of the Plains City school district faced as a result of a change in the demographic distribution of his district. The gradual development of the pig farming industry in Plains City…

  4. Billing in Plain English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Sarah Jane

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the efforts of the Federal Trade Commission to make credit communications more readable and informative. The group working on the project uses "plain English" as the writing model for forms and manuals. (CH)

  5. The Plains of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpton, V. L.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic plains units of various types comprise at least 80% of the surface of Venus. Though devoid of topographic splendor and, therefore often overlooked, these plains units house a spectacular array of volcanic, tectonic, and impact features. Here I propose that the plains hold the keys to understanding the resurfacing history of Venus and resolving the global stratigraphy debate. The quasi-random distribution of impact craters and the small number that have been conspicuously modified from the outside by plains-forming volcanism have led some to propose that Venus was catastrophically resurfaced around 725×375 Ma with little volcanism since. Challenges, however, hinge on interpretations of certain morphological characteristics of impact craters: For instance, Venusian impact craters exhibit either radar dark (smooth) floor deposits or bright, blocky floors. Bright floor craters (BFC) are typically 100-400 m deeper than dark floor craters (DFC). Furthermore, all 58 impact craters with ephemeral bright ejecta rays and/or distal parabolic ejecta patterns have bright floor deposits. This suggests that BFCs are younger, on average, than DFCs. These observations suggest that DFCs could be partially filled with lava during plains emplacement and, therefore, are not strictly younger than the plains units as widely held. Because the DFC group comprises ~80% of the total crater population on Venus the recalculated emplacement age of the plains would be ~145 Ma if DFCs are indeed volcanically modified during plains formation. Improved image and topographic data are required to measure stratigraphic and morphometric relationships and resolve this issue. Plains units are also home to an abundant and diverse set of volcanic features including steep-sided domes, shield fields, isolated volcanoes, collapse features and lava channels, some of which extend for 1000s of kilometers. The inferred viscosity range of plains-forming lavas, therefore, is immense, ranging from the

  6. Northern Plains 'Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 December 2004 The lower left (southwest) corner of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the location of a somewhat filled and buried meteor impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. The dark dots are boulders. A portion of a similar feature is seen in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image. This picture, showing landforms (including the odd mound north/northeast of the crater) that are typical of the martian northern lowland plains, was obtained as part of the MGS MOC effort to support the search for a landing site for the Phoenix Mars Scout lander. Phoenix will launch in 2007 and land on the northern plains in 2008. This image is located near 68.0oN, 227.4oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  7. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  8. The Productivity of Plain English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.

    Focusing on a meeting held in January 1983, this pamphlet describes the Forum on the Productivity of Plain English, from which grew the permanent Plain English Forum, which is committed to spreading the message that plain English is good business. The pamphlet includes quotations from leaders in business and industry explaining why they feel that…

  9. Cracked Plain, Buried Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    4 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a cracked plain in western Utopia Planitia. The three circular crack patterns indicate the location of three buried meteor impact craters. These landforms are located near 41.9oN, 275.9oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the lower left.

  10. Dunes on Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03047 Dunes on Plains

    These dunes are located on the plains around Doanus Vallis.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 62.3S, Longitude 335.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Northern Plains Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-513, 14 October 2003

    Patterns are common on the northern plains of Mars. Like their terrestrial counterparts in places like Siberia, Alaska, and northern Canada, patterned ground on Mars might be an indicator of the presence of ground ice. Whether it is true that the patterns on Mars are related to ground ice and whether the ice is still present beneath the martian surface are unknown. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows an example of patterned ground on the martian northern plains near 72.4oN, 252.6oW. The dark dots and lines are low mounds and chains of mounds. The circular feature near the center of the image is the location of a buried meteor impact crater; its presence today is marked only by the dark boulders on its rim and ejecta blanket that have managed to remain uncovered at the martian surface. The area shown is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  12. Cracked and Pitted Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-536, 6 November 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a typical view--at 1.5 meters (5 feet) per pixel--of surfaces in far western Utopia Planitia. In this region, the plains have developed cracks and pit chains arranged in a polygonal pattern. The pits form by collapse along the trend of a previously-formed crack. This picture is located near 45.0oN, 275.4oW. This April 2003 image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  13. Ontogeny of a flood plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, J.A.; Pizzuto, J.E.; Meade, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    The ontogeny of five flood-plain segments is described for a period of 18 yr following a major flood in 1978 on the Powder River in southeastern Montana. The flood plains developed on relatively elevated sand and gravel deposits left within the channel by the 1978 flood. In cross section, the flood plains resemble benches with well-developed natural levees. Flood-plain growth occurred as sediment was draped onto preexisting surfaces in layers of sand and mud a few centimeters to decimeters thick, resulting in some lateral, but mostly vertical accretion. Annual and biannual measurements indicated that, as the flood-plain segments grew upward, the annual rate of vertical accretion decreased as the partial duration recurrence interval for the threshold or bankfull discharge increased from 0.16 to 1.3 yr. It is clear that a constant recurrence interval for overbank flow cannot be meaningfully assigned to this type of flood-plain ontogeny. These flood plains did not grow on migrating point bars, and vertical accretion at least initially occurred within the channel, rather than across the valley flat during extensive overbank flows. Sediments of these flood plains define narrow, elongated stratigraphic units that border the active channel and onlap older flood-plain deposits. These characteristics are considerably different from those of many facies models for meandering river deposits. Facies similar to those described in this paper are likely to be preserved, thereby providing important evidence in the geologic record for episodes of periodic channel expansion by ancient rivers.

  14. Origin of lunar light plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, E. C. T.; Hodges, C. A.; Boyce, J. M.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1975-01-01

    In order to determine the origin of Cayley-type lunar light plains, their physical properties, distribution, and relative ages are examined from Apollo orbital and Lunar Orbiter photographs. The distribution and apparent age of the plains deposits and data on highly feldspathic breccias indicate that these superficial materials are neither locally derived nor part of the Imbrium ejecta. The existence of a planar facies of continuous ejecta at Orientale and in the ejecta blankets of small craters is demonstrated. The data and interpretation presented support the hypothesis that the surface and near-surface materials of some light plains, including those at the Apollo 16 site, are at least partly composed of ejecta from the Orientale basin and that the materials of many rugged areas, such as the Descartes highlands, are overlain by similar material. The possibility that some Cayley-type plains may have a different origin is not excluded.

  15. Rocky Martian Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The rocky Martian plain surrounding Viking 2 is seen in high resolution in this 85-degree panorama sweeping from north at the left to east at right during the Martian afternoon on September 5. Large blocks litter the surface. Some are porous, sponge-like rocks like the one at the left edge (size estimate: 1 1/2 to 2 feet); others are dense and fine-grained, such as the very bright rounded block (1 to 1 1/2 feet across) toward lower right. Pebbled surface between the rocks is covered in places by small drifts of very fine material similar to drifts seen at the Viking 1 landing site some 4600 miles to the southwest. The fine-grained material is banked up behind some rocks, but wind tails seen by Viking 1 are not well-developed here. On the right horizon, flat-topped ridges or hills are illuminated by the afternoon sun. Slope of the horizon is due to the 8-degree tilt of the spacecraft.

  16. Characterization of Lunar Farside Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mest, S.C.; Garry, W. B.; Ostrach, L. R.; Han, S.-C.; Staid, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    The Moon contains broad and isolated areas of plains that have been recognized as mare, cryptomare, impact ejecta, or impact melt. These deposits have been extensively studied on the lunar nearside by remote sensing via telescopes and numerous spacecraft, and in some cases, in situ robotically and by astronauts. Only recently have the deposits on the entire farside been able to be observed and evaluated to the same degree. There are spatially extensive plains deposits located throughout the lunar farside highlands whose formation has remained ambiguous. Many of the plains deposits in the lunar farside highlands display higher albedos than mare materials. Some deposits are located in close proximity to relatively younger impact craters suggesting that plains could be composed of cryptomare or ejecta materials. Some deposits are within the range in which ejecta from large basin-forming events (e.g., SPA and Orientale) likely distributed large amounts of ejecta across the surface. Here we are conducting a series of observations and models in order to resolve the nature and origin of lunar farside plains deposits. Understanding these plains is important for understanding the volcanic and impact histories of the lunar farside, and is important for future mapping and thermal modeling studies.

  17. Plain English Laws: Symbolic or Real?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Paul R.; Oswald, Daniel

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed business communication educators and found widespread confusion about the existence and nature of Plain English laws. Concludes that legally compelling business to use plain language in consumer documents may be futile. (PD)

  18. Plain Language Clear and Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Secretariat, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Written for Canadian public servants and written with their help, this handbook presents principles and tips to make official writing clear, concise, and well organized. The handbook defines "plain language" writing as a technique of organizing information in ways that make sense to the reader--using familiar, straightforward words. The handbook…

  19. 'Endurance' Goal Across the Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This mosaic image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera provides an overview of the rover's drive direction toward 'Endurance Crater,' which is in the upper right corner of image.

    The plains appear to be uniform in character from the rovers current position all the way to Endurance Crater. Granules of various sizes blanket the plains. Spherical granules fancifully called blueberries are present some intact and some broken. Larger granules pave the surface, while smaller grains, including broken blueberries, form small dunes. Randomly distributed 1-centimeter (0.4 inch) sized pebbles (as seen just left of center in the foreground of the image) make up a third type of feature on the plains. The pebbles' composition remains to be determined. Scientists plan to examine these in the coming sols.

    Examination of this part of Mars by NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter revealed the presence of hematite, which led NASA to choose Meridiani Planum as Opportunity's landing site. The rover science conducted on the plains of Meridiani Planum serves to integrate what the rovers are seeing on the ground with what orbital data have shown.

    Opportunity will make stop at a small crater called 'Fram' (seen in the upper left, with relatively large rocks nearby) before heading to the rim of Endurance Crater.

  20. Ages of Lunar Light Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, Harald; Howes van der Bogert, Carolyn; Thiessen, Fiona; Robinson, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Light plains are characterized by their relative smoothness and lower crater densities (compared to the highlands), and their occurrence as crater fills. They also exhibit highland-like characteristics, such as high albedos (in comparison to mare basalts) and their geological and stratigraphic setting. Despite the long history of investigating light plains, there are still numerous open questions concerning their mode of emplacement, their mineralogical composition, their ages, and their origin. We dated 16 light plains with crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements. All dated regions were previously identified as light plains in the geologic maps [1-5] and either mapped as smooth light plains (Ip) or light plains with undulatory surfaces (INp). The studied light plains occur both inside and outside the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin within a latitudinal band between ~-36° and ~-75°. In particular, we investigated the following smooth light plains: Janssen (40.82°E, -44.96°; Ip [1]), Nishina (-170.8°E, -44.57°; Ip [2]), South of Nishina (Ip [2]), Obruchev (162.43°E, -38.67°; Ip [2]), Oresme (169.22°E, -42.61°, Ip [2]), Schrödinger (132.93°E, -74.73°; Ip [3]), Nearch (39.01°E, -58.58°; Ip [3]), Nasmyth (-56.39°E, -50.49°; Ip [3]), Manzinus (26.37°E, -67.51°; Ip [3]), Klaproth (-26.26°E, -69.85°; Ip [3]), Phocylides (-57.31°E, -52.79°, Ip [3]), Buffon (-133.53°E, -40.64°; Ip [4]), Roche (136.54°E, -42.37°; Ip [5]). We also dated the following light plains with undulatory surfaces: Koch (150.33°E, -42.13°; INp [2]), Garavito (156.78°E, -47.21°; INp [2]), Eötvös (134.43°E, -35.61°; INp [5]). Our CSFD measurements resulted in absolute model ages of 3.71 to 4.02 Ga for all investigated light plains, thus confirming the Imbrian and/or Nectarian ages of the geologic maps [1-5]. We only dated three INp light plains, but they appear to have ages that are close to the upper limit, i.e., 3.96-4.02 Ga. However, further CSFDs of INp

  1. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to...

  2. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to...

  3. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to...

  4. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to...

  5. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to...

  6. Young Craters on Smooth Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Young craters (the largest of which is about 100 kilometers in diameter) superposed on smooth plains. Larger young craters have central peaks, flat floors, terraced walls, radial ejecta deposits, and surrounding fields of secondary craters. Smooth plains have well-developed ridges extending NW and NE. This image (FDS 167), acquired during the spacecraft's first encounter with Mercury, is located approximately 60 degrees N, 175 degrees W.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  7. Plain Polynomial Arithmetic on GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisul Haque, Sardar; Moreno Maza, Marc

    2012-10-01

    As for serial code on CPUs, parallel code on GPUs for dense polynomial arithmetic relies on a combination of asymptotically fast and plain algorithms. Those are employed for data of large and small size, respectively. Parallelizing both types of algorithms is required in order to achieve peak performances. In this paper, we show that the plain dense polynomial multiplication can be efficiently parallelized on GPUs. Remarkably, it outperforms (highly optimized) FFT-based multiplication up to degree 212 while on CPU the same threshold is usually at 26. We also report on a GPU implementation of the Euclidean Algorithm which is both work-efficient and runs in linear time for input polynomials up to degree 218 thus showing the performance of the GCD algorithm based on systolic arrays.

  8. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  9. Lunar Smooth Plains Identification and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, A. K.; Robinson, M. S.; Mahanti, P.; Lawrence, S. J.; Spudis, P.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    Smooth plains are widespread on the Moon and have diverse origins. The maria comprise the majority of the smooth plains and are volcanic in origin. Highland smooth plains are patchy, and tend to fill large craters and basins; their origins have eluded unambiguous classification. Prior to the Apollo 16 mission, many workers thought that highland plains were volcanic, possibly more silicic than the maria. However, as the Apollo 16 samples are mostly impact breccias, the highland smooth plains were re-interpreted basin impact ejecta, most likely from the Imbrium and possibly Orientale basins. Conversely, some known non-mare volcanic units, such as the Apennine Bench Formation, contain light plains. These interpretations do not rule out alternate origins for a subset of highland smooth plains, including impact melt or volcanic origins (effusive or pyroclastic). We developed an algorithm to identify smooth plains using topographic parameters from the WAC Global Lunar Digital Terrain Model (DTM) (GLD100), sampled at 333 m/pixel. We classify the smooth plains using the Clementine UVVIS FeO map and photometrically corrected Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) images. Terrain with slopes less than 2° (1 km baseline) and standard deviation of slope less than 0.75° (1 km x 1 km box, n=9) are defined as smooth plains. Highland smooth plains are distinguished from basaltic smooth plains using the following criteria: LROC WAC 643 nm normalized reflectance > 0.056, LROC WAC 321 nm / 415 nm ratio < 0.74, and Clementine FeO < 12 wt.% (excluding Clementine non-coverage areas). The remaining smooth plains are classified as maria and are subdivided into two classes: LROC WAC 321 nm / 415 nm ratio > 0.77 is termed blue maria and a ratio ≤ 0.77 is termed red maria. The automatic classification was limited to the 87% of the Moon covered by photometrically normalized WAC data (60°S to 60°N). The differences between the maria and highland smooth plains

  10. Life on the Great Plains. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    In this four-part lesson, students examine the concept of geographic region by exploring the history of the United States Great Plains. In Part I, students gather information about the location and environment of the Great Plains in order to produce a map outlining the region in formal terms. In Part II, students examine how the region has been…

  11. Implementing Plain Language: A Manager's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.

    Drawn from the experience of various ministries and departments in governments across Canada, this guide is meant to be a practical guide in implementing plain language for managers in the Ontario (Canada) government. The guide describes how to use plain language in planning, writing, designing, and editing forms and documents, and how to set up…

  12. Lunar Smooth Plains Identification and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, A. K.; Mahanti, P.; Robinson, M. S.; Lawrence, S. J.; Spudis, P. D.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2012-09-01

    Smooth plains are widespread on the Moon and appear to have diverse origins. The maria comprise the majority of the smooth plains on the Moon and are volcanic in origin. Highland smooth plains are patchy and tend to fill large craters and basins; their origins have eluded unambiguous classification. Prior to the Apollo 16 mission, many workers thought that smooth highland plains were volcanic, possibly more silicic than the basaltic maria [e.g., 1]. However, as the Apollo 16 samples are mostly impact breccias, the highland smooth plains were re-interpreted as being deposits generated by impact events, most likely ejecta from the youngest and largest multi-ring basins, e.g., Imbrium and Orientale [1]. Spectral interpretations by Pieters [2] showed that the highland light plains are not mare basalt, but are composed of significantly more feldspathic, nonmare material [2]. Conversely, some known non-mare volcanic units, such as the Apennine Bench Formation (a deposit of post-Imbrium KREEP basalt [3,4]), contain light plains. These interpretations do not rule out alternate origins for a subset of highland smooth plains, including impact melt or volcanic origins (effusive or pyroclastic). We have developed an algorithm to identify smooth plains using topographic parameters from the WAC Global Lunar Digital Terrain Model (DTM) (GLD100) [5], sampled at 333 m/pixel. We classify the identified smooth plains using the Clementine UVVIS FeO map and photometrically corrected Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) images [6]. In this abstract, we do not address formation mechanisms for the nonmare deposits.

  13. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Edward N. Steadman

    2004-07-01

    The Plains Co{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) activities have focused on developing information on deployment issues to support Task 5 activities by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) activities have focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) has included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) activities have focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  14. Planetary plains: subsidence and warping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G.

    fabric of oceanic floors. Short, medium wave undulations of Pacific's floor (A. Cazenave et al., 1992; D. McAdoo & K. Marks, 1992) present lineations underlining its whole shape. NE lineations predominate on its northern sub-basin, NW lineations on its southern one. They cross at the equatorial zone and together with some other directions give a pattern resembling that observed on the venusian surface. The venusian regional plains typically deformed by wrinkle ridges show interesting similarities to volcanic plains on the Moon and Mars [3]. A subsidence along with warpings can squeeze out some "superfluous" material to surface through planetary scale fissures. This material builds mid-oceanic ridges and huge Hawaii volcano. The Cassini Regio on Iapetus is crossed in the equatorial plain by the dark ridge in some places high 20 km. References: [1] Kochemasov G. G. (2004) Mars and Earth: two dichotomies - one cause. In Workshop on "Hemispheres 1 apart: the origin and modification of the martian crustal dichotomy", LPI Contribution # 1203, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, p. 37. [2] Kochemasov G.G.(1999) Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr. v.1, #3, p.700 . [3] Basilevsky A.T., Head J.W. (2006) Impact craters on regional plains in Venus: Age relations with wrinkle ridges and implications for the geological evolution of Venus // JGR, v.111, EO3006, doi: 10.1029/2005JE002473, 2006. 2

  15. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-01-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  16. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2004-10-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  17. Different ages of lunar light plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neukum, G.

    1977-01-01

    The crater populations of 18 lunar light plains (Cayley plains) show a variation in relative ages by a factor of about 4 in crater frequency in regions in the surroundings of the Orientale and Imbrium basin, and by a factor of greater than 25 for more distant sites. Thus the idea of a moon-wide synchronism in the emplacement of the lunar light plains with the formation of the basins Imbrium or Orientale cannot be supported. Some light plains are younger than the youngest basin Orientale. Since these plains cannot have been emplaced by any other basin-forming event and local impact-derived origin can certainly be excluded, an endogenic (magmatic) origin is proposed for these plains. Age determination data (D sub L values) by Soderblom and Lebofsky (1972) and Soderblom and Boyce (1972) are shown to be correlated with own cumulative crater frequency data (N) for surfaces younger than about 3.8 b.y. It is found that D sub L is proportional to the 0.6 power of N. For ages greater than 3.8 b.y., the D sub L data by those authors, especially their light plains data, are incompatible with the present crater frequency data.

  18. Whillans Ice Plain Stick Slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipovsky, B.; Dunham, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Concern about future sea level rise motivates the study of fast flowing ice. The Whillans Ice Plain (WIP) region of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is notable for decelerating from previously fast motion during the instrumental record. Since most ice flux in Antarctica occurs through ice streams, understanding the conditions that cause ice stream stagnation is of basic importance in understanding the continent's contribution to future sea level rise. Although recent progress has been made in understanding the relationship between basal conditions and ice stream motion, direct observation of the temporal variation in subglacial conditions during ice stream stagnation has remained elusive. The Whillans Ice Plain flows to the sea mostly by way of stick-slip motion. We present numerical simulations of this stick-slip motion that capture the inertial dynamics, seismic waves, and the evolution of sliding with rate- and state-dependent basal friction. Large scale stick-slip behavior is tidally modulated and encompasses the entire WIP. Sliding initiates within one of several locked regions and then propagates outward with low average rupture velocity (~ 200 m/s). Sliding accelerates over a period of 200 s attain values as large as 65 m/d. From Newton's second law, this acceleration is ~ T / (rho H) for average shear stress drop T, ice thickness H, and ice density rho. This implies a 3 Pa stress drop that must be reconciled with the final stress drop of 300 Pa inferred from the total slip and fault dimensions. A possible explanation of this apparent discrepancy is that deceleration of the ice is associated with a substantial decrease in traction within rate-strengthening regions of the bed. During these large-scale sliding events, m-scale patches at the bed produce rapid (20 Hz) stick-slip motion. Each small event occurs over ~ 1/100 s, produces ~ 40 microns of slip, and gives rise to a spectacular form of seismic tremor. Variation between successive tremor episodes allows us

  19. CORN BELT PLAIN RIVER AND STREAMS PROJECT - 3 BIOCRITERIA PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This effort resulted in eight products, as follows: 1) Development of Index of Biotic Integrity Expectations for the Ecoregions of Indiana I. Central Corn Belt Plain; 2) Ibid. II. Huron-Erie Lake Plain; 3) Ibid III. Northern Indiana Till Plain; 4) Ibid .IV.Eastern Corn Belt Plain...

  20. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  1. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  2. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  3. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  4. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  5. The geologic story of the Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trimble, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    For more than half a century after Lewis and Clark crossed the country in 1805-6, the Great Plains was the testing ground of frontier America here America grew to maturity (fig. 1). In 1805-7, explorer Zebulon Pike crossed the southcentral Great Plains, following the Arkansas River from near Great Bend, Kans., to the Rocky Mountains. In later years, Santa Fe traders, lured by the wealth of New Mexican trade, followed Pike's path as far as Bents Fort, Colo., where they turned southwestward away from the river route. Those pioneers who later crossed the plains on the Oregon Trail reached the Platte River near the place that would become Kearney, Nebr., by a nearly direct route from Independence, Mo., and followed the Platte across the central part of the Great Plains.

  6. Flood information for flood-plain planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bue, Conrad D.

    1967-01-01

    Floods are natural and normal phenomena. They are catastrophic simply because man occupies the flood plain, the highwater channel of a river. Man occupies flood plains because it is convenient and profitable to do so, but he must purchase his occupancy at a price-either sustain flood damage, or provide flood-control facilities. Although large sums of money have been, and are being, spent for flood control, flood damage continues to mount. However, neither complete flood control nor abandonment of the flood plain is practicable. Flood plains are a valuable resource and will continue to be occupied, but the nature and degree of occupancy should be compatible with the risk involved and with the degree of protection that is practicable to provide. It is primarily to meet the needs for defining the risk that the flood-inundation maps of the U.S. Geological Survey are prepared.

  7. Great Plains Synfuels` hidden treasures

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, A.K.; Duncan, D.H.

    1996-12-31

    The Great Plains Synfuels Project was commissioned 12 years ago. While demonstrating success regarding SNG production, DGC quietly started development of chemical products derived from the liquid by-product streams of Lurgi moving bed gasifiers. Naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil are the primary by-products, and these contain valuable compounds such as phenol, cresylic acid, catechols, naphthols, fluorene, and BTX. Process technologies have been developed for (1) separation of various impurities from cresylic acid distillate fractions or from whole cresylic acid; (2) extracting cresylic acid from tar oil; (3) conversion of tar pitch to a blend stock used in making anode binder pitch; and (4) separating high purity catechol and methyl catechols. As a result of this work, DGC built a phenol/cresylic acid facility. The cresylic acid side supplies over 10 percent of the world market. The achievement with the catechols is presently leading to bench scale routes for synthesis of chemical intermediates which ultimately may include compounds such as vanillin, pyrogallol, sesamol, homoveratrylamine, and many others, penetrating the fields of flavors and fragrances, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, photographic chemicals, dyes, etc. These efforts stimulate DGC`s growth and will provide an economic uplift. By-products already contribute more than 10% of revenues and are destined to rival natural gas in importance.

  8. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-04-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) and provided information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 2 efforts also included preparation of a draft topical report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region'', which is nearing completion. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The video will be completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in the next quarter. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. The addition of the Canadian province of Alberta to the PCOR Partnership region expanded the decision support system (DSS) geographic information system database. Task 5 screened and qualitatively assessed sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  9. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Lisa S. Botnen

    2005-07-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership characterization work is nearing completion, and most remaining efforts are related to finalizing work products. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) has developed a Topical Report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region''. Task 3 (Public Outreach) has developed an informational Public Television program entitled ''Nature in the Balance'', about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The program was completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in this quarter. Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) efforts are nearing completion, and data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation are being incorporated into a series of topical reports. The expansion of the Decision Support System Geographic Information System database has continued with the development of a ''save bookmark'' feature that allows users to save a map from the system easily. A feature that allows users to develop a report that summarizes CO{sub 2} sequestration parameters was also developed. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options and developing economic estimates for important regional CO{sub 2} sequestration strategies.

  10. Mineral resources of Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas, La Paz County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Tosdal, R.M.; Eppinger, R.G.; Erdman, J.A.; Hanna, W.F.; Pitkin, J.A.; Blank, H.R. Jr.; O'Leary, R.M.; Watterson, J.R. ); Kreidler, T.J. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies in the Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas outlined in areas with moderate to high potential for gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, barite, fluorite, manganese, and sand suitable for foundry, fracturing, and abrasive uses and low resource potential for beryllium, uranium and bentonitic clays.

  11. Silicate weathering in the Ganges alluvial plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frings, Patrick J.; Clymans, Wim; Fontorbe, Guillaume; Gray, William; Chakrapani, Govind J.; Conley, Daniel J.; De La Rocha, Christina

    2015-10-01

    The Ganges is one of the world's largest rivers and lies at the heart of a body of literature that investigates the interaction between mountain orogeny, weathering and global climate change. Three regions can be recognised in the Ganges basin, with the Himalayan orogeny to the north and the plateaus of peninsular India to the south together delimiting the Ganges alluvial plain. Despite constituting approximately 80% of the basin, weathering processes in the peninsula and alluvial plain have received little attention. Here we present an analysis of 51 water samples along a transect of the alluvial plain, including all major tributaries. We focus on the geochemistry of silicon and its isotopes. Area normalised dissolved Si yields are approximately twice as high in rivers of Himalaya origin than the plain and peninsular tributaries (82, 51 and 32 kmol SiO2 km-2 yr-1, respectively). Such dissolved Si fluxes are not widely used as weathering rate indicators because a large but variable fraction of the DSi mobilised during the initial weathering process is retained in secondary clay minerals. However, the silicon isotopic composition of dissolved Si (expressed as δ30Si) varies from + 0.8 ‰ in the Ganges mainstem at the Himalaya front to + 3.0 ‰ in alluvial plain streams and appears to be controlled by weathering congruency, i.e. by the degree of incorporation of Si into secondary phases. The higher δ30Si values therefore reflect decreasing weathering congruency in the lowland river catchments. This is exploited to quantify the degree of removal using a Rayleigh isotope mass balance model, and consequently derive initial silica mobilisation rates of 200, 150 and 107 kmol SiO2 km-2 yr-1, for the Himalaya, peninsular India and the alluvial plain, respectively. Because the non-Himalayan regions dominate the catchment area, the majority of initial silica mobilisation from primary minerals occurs in the alluvial plain and peninsular catchment (41% and 34%, respectively).

  12. Hydrogeochemical analysis for Tasuj plain aquifer, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadiri, Ata Allah; Moghaddam, Asghar Asghari; Tsai, Frank T.-C.; Fijani, Elham

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the hydrogeochemical processes of groundwater in the Tasuj plain, Iran. The Tasuj plain is one of the 12 marginal plains around Urmia Lake which is currently under a critical ecological condition. In the last decades, the Tasuj plain aquifer suffered from severe groundwater level declination and caused degradation of groundwater quality. To better understand hydrogeochemical processes in the Tasuj plain, this study adopted graphical methods and multivariate statistical techniques to analyze groundwater samples. A total of 504 groundwater samples was obtained from 34 different locations (qanats, wells, and springs) over 12 years (1997-2009) and analyzed for 15 water quality parameters. From the results, the Piper diagram indicated four groundwater types and the Stiff diagram showed eight different sources of groundwater samples. The Durov diagram identified five major hydrogeochemical processes in the aquifer. However, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) identified five water types in the groundwater samples because HCA was able to analyze more chemical and physical data than graphical methods. The HCA result was checked by discriminant analysis and found consistency in all samples that were classified into correct groups. Using factor analysis, we identified three factors that accounted for 81.6% of the total variance of the dataset. Based on the high factor loadings of the variables, factors 1 and 2 reflected the natural hydrogeochemical processes and factor 3 explained the effect of agricultural fertilizers and human activities in the Tasuj plain. Dendrograms from 2000 to 2009 were studied to understand the temporal variation of groundwater quality. Comparing the distributions of groundwater types in 2000 and 2009, we found that the mixing zone was expanded. This may be due to artificial groundwater recharge in the recharge area and the effect of inverse ion exchange in the discharge area.

  13. Coastal geomorphology of the Martian northern plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Saunders, Stephen R.; Pieri, David C.; Schneeberger, Dale M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper considers the question of the formation of the outflow channels and valley networks discovered on the Martian northern plains during the Mariner 9 mission. Parker and Saunders (1987) and Parker et al. (1987, 1989) data are used to describe key features common both in the lower reaches of the outflow channels and within and along the margins of the entire northern plains. It is suggested, that of the geological processes capable of producing similar morphologies on earth, lacustrine or marine deposition and subsequent periglacial modification offer the simplest and most consistent explanation for the suit of features found on Mars.

  14. Geologic history of the Cerberus Plains, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanagan, Peter Denham

    This work examines the relative chronology of geologic units within the Cerberus Plains of Mars with an emphasis on lava flows emplaced after the last Marte Valles fluvial episode. High resolution images show the bulk of the Cerberus Plains is covered by platy-ridged and inflated lavas, which are interpreted as insulated sheet flows. Eastern Cerberus Plains lavas originate at Cerberus Fossae fissures and shields. Some flows extend for >2000 km through Marte Valles into Amazonis Planitia. Athabasca Valles are both incised into pristine lavas and embayed by pristine lavas, indicating that Athabascan fluvial events were contemporaneous with volcanic eruptions. Deposits of the Medusae Fossae Formation lie both over and under lavas, suggesting the deposition of the Medusae Fossae Formation was contemporaneous with volcanism. Statistics of small craters indicate lavas in the Western Cerberus Plains may be less than a million years old, but the model isochrons may be unreliable if the small crater population is dominated by secondary craters. Images showing no large craters with diameters >500 m superimposed on Western Cerberus Plains lavas indicate the same surface is younger than 49 Ma. High resolution Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images have revealed the existence of small cones in the Cerberus Plains, Marte Valles, and Amazonis Planitia. These cones are similar in both morphology and planar dimensions to the larger Icelandic rootless cones, which form due to explosive interactions between surficial lavas and near-surface groundwater. If martian cones form in the same manner as terrestrial rootless cones, then equatorial ground-ice or ground water must have been present near the surface in geologically recent times. Evidence for a shallow lake in the Western Cerberus Plains during the Late Amazonian is also presented. High-resolution images show features interpreted as flood-eroded scarps and fluvial spillways exiting the lake. Based on present-day topography, a lake

  15. Titan's Plains: Global Distribution and Possible Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, R. M.; Le Gall, A.; Kirk, R. L.; Kargel, J. S.; Stofan, E. R.; Mitchell, K. L.; Lucas, A.; Janssen, M. A.; Wall, S. D.; Malaska, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Titan's diverse and Earth-like geologic features have been mapped and interpreted based on their morphological characteristics (Lopes et al., 2010, Icarus 205; Aharonson et al., 2012, Titan: Surface, Atmosphere, Magnetosphere, Cambridge University Press). While the interpretation for the origin of some units, such as dunes and well-preserved impact craters, has been relatively straightforward, others have been more challenging. In particular, the undifferentiated plains first mapped by Lopes et al. (2010) remain mysterious. These vast expanses, mostly found at mid-latitudes are relatively featureless and appear to have low relief. Their gradational boundaries and paucity of features in SAR data make geologic interpretation particularly difficult using only this dataset. Plains may be sedimentary in origin, resulting from fluvial or lacustrine deposition or accumulation of photolysis products created in the upper atmosphere. Alternatively, the plains may be cryovolcanic, consisting of overlapping flows of low relief, obscured by accumulation of sediments. In this paper, we use SAR, radiometry, scatterometry, and SARTopo data to examine the characteristics of the plains and compare them with other geologic units. We also compare their global distribution with that of other units and examine the implications of a possible cryovolcanic origin.

  16. Great plains regional climate assessment technical report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Great Plains region (GP) plays important role in providing food and energy to the economy of the United States. Multiple climatic and non-climatic stressors put multiple sectors, livelihoods and communities at risk, including agriculture, water, ecosystems and rural and tribal communities. The G...

  17. Second chance for the plains bison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freese, Curtis H.; Aune, K.; Boyd, D.; Derr, James N.; Forrest, Steven C.; Gates, C. Cormack; Gogan, Peter J.; Grassel, Shaun M.; Halbert, Natalie D.; Kunkel, Kyran; Redford, K.

    2007-01-01

    Before European settlement the plains bison (Bison bison bison) numbered in the tens of millions across most of the temperate region of North America. Within the span of a few decades during the mid- to late-1800s its numbers were reduced by hunting and other factors to a few hundred. The plight of the plains bison led to one of the first major movements in North America to save an endangered species. A few individuals and the American Bison Society rescued the remaining animals. Attempts to hybridize cattle and bison when bison numbers were low resulted in extensive cattle gene introgression in bison. Today, though approximately 500,000 plains bison exist in North America, few are free of cattle gene introgression, 96% are subject to anthropogenic selection for commodity production, and only 4% are in herds managed primarily for conservation purposes. Small herd size, artificial selection, cattle-gene introgression, and other factors threaten the diversity and integrity of the bison genome. In addition, the bison is for all practical purposes ecologically extinct across its former range, with multiple consequences for grassland biodiversity. Urgent measures are needed to conserve the wild bison genome and to restore the ecological role of bison in grassland ecosystems. Socioeconomic trends in the Great Plains, combined with new information about bison conservation needs and new conservation initiatives by both the public and public sectors, have set the stage for significant progress in bison conservation over the next few years.

  18. Water Production Functions For High Plains Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demands on limited water supplies will require maximizing crop production per unit water. Field studies are being carried out near Greeley, Colorado to develop water production functions for crops grown in the Great Plains. These yield per unit water relationships can be used to determi...

  19. Water Production Functions For High Plains Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declining water supplies is the critical resource issue for irrigated agriculture in the High Plains and much of the western U.S. Farmers need to maximize production per unit water consumed to remain economically viable and sustain irrigated agriculture. The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Wat...

  20. Water Production Functions for High Plains Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water Production Functions for High Plains Crops Water consumptive use by a crop can be reduced through limited (deficit) irrigation. If the reduced consumptive use (CU) can be quantified, the saved water can be transferred to other users. If the value of the transferred water is greater than the fa...

  1. Plains Culture Area. Native American Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Cathy; Fernandes, Roger

    One in a series of Native American instructional materials, this booklet introduces elementary students to the tribes of the plains culture area, extending from the Rocky Mountains to the Mississippi River and from Texas to Canada. Written in simple language, the booklet begins with a brief description of the region--its extreme climate and the…

  2. Climate vulnerabilities in the southern plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The value of agricultural production in the Southern Plains exceeded $59 bil (2012 Agricultural Census) with livestock accounting for 58% of total agricultural sales. Crop and livestock commodities exceeding $1 bil include wheat, corn, horticultural crops, cotton, hay and forages, sorghum, soybean, ...

  3. Arapahos on the Great Plains. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoonhunter, Bob; Woodenlegs, Martha

    The student workbook is derived from "An Ethnological Report on Cheyenne and Arapaho: Aboriginal Occupation," by Zachary Gussow and "Northern Snows to Southern Summers--An Arapaho Odyssey," by Bob Spoonhunter. The first section discusses the Arapaho origins by recounting many different legends that explain how they arrived on the Great Plains. The…

  4. Reading for Young People: The Great Plains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Mildred

    One of five annotated bibliographies that describe books about certain regions of the United States, this compilation focuses on books about the Great Plains. The stated purposes of these regional bibliographies are: (1) to introduce young people living in the subject region to books dealing with their cultural heritage, (2) to help young people…

  5. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Defective plain bearing. 215.111 Section 215.111... § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has a plain bearing— (a) That is missing, cracked, or broken; (b) On which the bearing liner— (1)...

  6. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing box: General. 215.107... Suspension System § 215.107 Defective plain bearing box: General. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  7. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Defective plain bearing box: General. 215.107... Suspension System § 215.107 Defective plain bearing box: General. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  8. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Defective plain bearing wedge. 215.113 Section 215... Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...

  9. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing wedge. 215.113 Section 215... Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...

  10. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing. 215.111 Section 215.111... § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has a plain bearing— (a) That is missing, cracked, or broken; (b) On which the bearing liner— (1)...

  11. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Defective plain bearing. 215.111 Section 215.111... § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has a plain bearing— (a) That is missing, cracked, or broken; (b) On which the bearing liner— (1)...

  12. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Defective plain bearing box: General. 215.107... Suspension System § 215.107 Defective plain bearing box: General. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  13. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  14. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Defective plain bearing wedge. 215.113 Section 215... Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...

  15. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Defective plain bearing wedge. 215.113 Section 215... Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...

  16. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Defective plain bearing box: General. 215.107... Suspension System § 215.107 Defective plain bearing box: General. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  17. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Defective plain bearing. 215.111 Section 215.111... § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has a plain bearing— (a) That is missing, cracked, or broken; (b) On which the bearing liner— (1)...

  18. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Defective plain bearing wedge. 215.113 Section 215... Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...

  19. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Defective plain bearing box: General. 215.107... Suspension System § 215.107 Defective plain bearing box: General. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  20. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Defective plain bearing. 215.111 Section 215.111... § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has a plain bearing— (a) That is missing, cracked, or broken; (b) On which the bearing liner— (1)...

  1. Writing Government Policies and Procedures in Plain Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Don

    2008-01-01

    Plain language involves more than just a few simple techniques, such as using everyday words, short sentences, and active voice. Although there is no single definition, "plain language" basically stands for several dozen well-established principles of clear communication. In this article, the author discusses the significance of plain language…

  2. 27 CFR 9.144 - Texas High Plains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Texas High Plains. 9.144... Texas High Plains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas High Plains.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Texas High...

  3. 27 CFR 9.144 - Texas High Plains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Texas High Plains. 9.144... Texas High Plains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas High Plains.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Texas High...

  4. 27 CFR 9.144 - Texas High Plains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Texas High Plains. 9.144... Texas High Plains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas High Plains.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Texas High...

  5. 27 CFR 9.144 - Texas High Plains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Texas High Plains. 9.144... Texas High Plains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas High Plains.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Texas High...

  6. Pieced in the Plains: Kansas Amish Quilts and Cultural Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smucker, Janneken L.

    2004-01-01

    While the Old Order Amish are often thought of as the plain dressing religious sect that attracts millions of tourists annually to Pennsylvania Dutch country, this Anabaptist group also has a significant history in the Great Plains. The Amish who settled in the Great Plains share commonalities with the Old Order Amish who remained in more…

  7. 27 CFR 9.144 - Texas High Plains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Texas High Plains. 9.144... Texas High Plains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas High Plains.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Texas High...

  8. 12 CFR 611.1217 - Plain language requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plain language requirements. 611.1217 Section 611.1217 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Termination of System Institution Status § 611.1217 Plain language requirements. (a) Plain language presentation....

  9. 12 CFR 611.1217 - Plain language requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plain language requirements. 611.1217 Section 611.1217 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Termination of System Institution Status § 611.1217 Plain language requirements. (a) Plain language presentation....

  10. Geomorphological development of Eastern Mongolian plain, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    khukhuudei, Ulambadrakh; otgonbayar, Orolzodmaa

    2016-04-01

    Several summaries and investigations of the geomorphological description and feature for Eastern Mongolian plain (EMP), the one of the largest geomorphological district, fully covering east side of Mongolia (Murzayev, 1949; Vlodavets, 1950, 1955; Marinov, Khasin, 1954; Marinov, 1966; Nikolayeva, 1971; Selivanov, 1972; Chichagov, 1974, 1976; Grigorov, 1975; Korjuyev, 1982; Syirnev, 1982, 1984) had been publishing continuously. But literature for geomorphology of EMP have been not appeared during over the past 20 years. However, we re-combine the geomorphological development of EMP, according to the results of many publications for surrounding regions of Russia and China and unpublished maps. Main morphology of EMP has the plain, containing with aeolian, fluvial and lacustrine landforms. Plain morphology defined that denudation plains to North Kherlen, South Kherlen, Baruun Urt, Uulbayan, Delgerekh and other which developed on the Paleozoic rocks, layered plain to Choibalsan, Tamsag, Ongon, Gert, Sumiin nuur and Torey- on the Late Cretaceous and Neogene sediments and accumulation plain with alluvial and lacustrine origin such as Menen, Buir nuur, Tamsagbulag, Khalzan and other. These plains of EMP related with tectonics and structure of region and inherited the development of the Mesozoic, particularly Late Mesozoic structure. Large basins of EMP are Tamsag, Choibalsan and Torey and other small basins - from 7-10 km to 25-30 km width and rather a several 10 km extend, cutting a basement. The origin of plain morphology for EMP is interpreted as two main stages of the geomorphological development model, based on geology. In first stage or Late Jurassic (?) - Lower Cretaceous period, there was developed rift basin, then, in second stage or since Late Cretaceous period, plain morphology originated from the intermountain basin that dominated by exogenic process and kept in current EMP area. Data relevant to the development history of EMP are following. 1. Rift volcanism

  11. Chenier plain development: feedbacks between waves, mud and sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardin, W.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Cheniers are sandy ridges parallel to the coast established by high energy waves. Here we discuss Chenier plains ontogeny through dimensional analysis and numerical results from the morphodynamic model Delft3D-SWAN. Our results show that wave energy and shelf slope play an important role in the formation of Chenier plains. In our numerical experiments waves affect Chenier plain development in three ways: by winnowing sediment from the mudflat, by eroding mud and accumulating sand over the beach during extreme wave events. We further show that different sediment characteristics and wave climates can lead to three alternative coastal landscapes: strand plains, mudflats, or the more complex Chenier plains. Low inner-shelf slopes are the most favorable for strand plain and Chenier plain formation, while high slopes decrease the likelihood of mudflat development and preservation.

  12. Outwash plains and thermokarst on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costard, F.M.; Kargel, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial distribution of different types of rampart craters on Mars suggests a hemispheric asymmetry in the distribution of ground ice. The northern plains, especially major topographic depressions near the terminations of outflow channels, have high percentages of rampart craters. Two of these basins, Acidalia and Utopia Planitiae, received extraordinarily large amounts of water and sediment from the Chryse and Elysium outflow channels. In both regions, the analysis of high-resolution Viking pictures (12 m/pixel) indicates a concentration of kilometer-scale depressions that are similar in size and form to thermokarstic features in Yakutia (Siberia) and parts of the arctic coastal plain of North America. Accordingly, we infer that (1) Utopia Planitia and Acidalia Planitia may contain thick, laterally continuous, ice-rich sedimentary deposits related to outflow channel-forming floods, and (2) these areas of Mars may have experienced thermokarstic processes similar to modern thermokarstic processes in some periglacial regions of Earth.

  13. High Plains regional ground-water study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennehy, Kevin F.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, industry and government have made large financial investments aimed at improving water quality across the Nation. Significant progress has been made; however, many water-quality concerns remain. In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began implementing a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment Program to provide consistent and scientifically sound information for managing the Nation's water resources. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers, (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality. Assessing the quality of water in every location in the Nation would not be practical; therefore, NAWQA Program studies are conducted within a set of areas called study units (fig. 1). These study units are composed of more than 50 important river and aquifer systems that represent the diverse geography, water resources, and land and water uses of the Nation. The High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study is one such study area, designed to address issues relevant to the High Plains Aquifer system while supplementing water-quality information collected in other study units across the Nation. Implementation of the NAWQA Program for the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study area began in 1998.

  14. Simplified Micromechanics of Plain Weave Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1996-01-01

    A micromechanics based methodology to simulate the complete hygro-thermomechanical behavior of plain weave composites is developed. This methodology is based on micromechanics and the classical laminate theory. The methodology predicts a complete set of thermal, hygral and mechanical properties of plain woven composites, generates necessary data for use in a finite element structural analysis, and predicts stresses all the way from the laminate to the constituent level. This methodology is used in conjunction with a composite mechanics code to analyze and predict the properties/response of a generic graphite/epoxy woven textile composite and a plain weave ceramic composite. The fiber architecture, including the fiber waviness and fiber end distributions through the thickness, is properly accounted for. Predicted results compare reasonably well with those from detailed three-dimensional finite element analyses as well as available experimental data. However, the main advantage of the proposed methodology is its high computational efficiency as compared with three-dimensional finite element analyses.

  15. Ground-water conditions in the Plaine de Moustiques, Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1949-01-01

    The Plaine des Moustiques lies on the north coast of Haiti about 12 kilometers west-southwest of Port-de-Paix. During January 1949 the writers made a brief geologic study to determine the availability of ground water in the plain for irrigation. At present irrigation is practiced by diversions from the Rivière des Moustiques. However, the dry-season flow of this stream is generally inadequate for irrigation or is sufficient to cover only a small part of the Irrigable area of the plain. According to Lieurance1 there is a total of about 1,120 hectares of irrigable land in the plain.

  16. Sensitivity of plain radiography for pediatric cervical spine injury.

    PubMed

    Cui, Li W; Probst, Marc A; Hoffman, Jerome R; Mower, William R

    2016-10-01

    Pediatric patients with suspected cervical spine injuries (CSI) often receive a computed tomography (CT) scan as an initial diagnostic imaging test. While sensitive, CT of the cervical spine carries significant radiation and risk of lethal malignant transformation later in life. Plain radiographs carry significantly less radiation and could serve as the preferred screening tool, provided they have a high functional sensitivity in detecting pediatric patients with CSI. We hypothesize that plain cervical spine radiographs can reliably detect pediatric patients with CSI and seek to quantify the functional sensitivity of plain radiography as compared to CT. We analyzed data from the NEXUS cervical spine study to assess the sensitivity of plain radiographs in the evaluation of CSI. We identified all pediatric patients who underwent plain radiographic imaging, and all pediatric patients found to have CSI. We then determined the sensitivity of plain radiographs in detecting pediatric patients with CSI. We identified 44 pediatric patients with CSI in the dataset with age ranging from 2 to 18 years old. Thirty-two of the 44 pediatric patients received cervical spine plain films as a part of their workup. Plain films were able to identify all 32 pediatric patients with CSI to yield a sensitivity of 100 % in detecting injury victims (95 % confidence interval 89.1-100.0 %). Plain radiography was highly sensitive for the identification of CSI in our cohort of pediatric patients and is useful as a screening tool in the evaluation of pediatric CSI. PMID:27321014

  17. Great Plains Gasification Project status report

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, D.C.

    1985-08-01

    The Great Plains Gasification Project is the first commercial synthetic fuels project based on coal conversion in the US. The goal is to convert North Dakota lignite into pipeline quality synthetic natural gas (SNG). The project consists of an open pit coal mine, a gasification plant, and an SNG pipeline in Mercer County, North Dakota. The project took 12 years from its conception to the production in 1984 of SNG for users. The author describes the plant's basic processes, the start-up activities and schedule, and some of the more interesting start-up problems.

  18. Creep of plain weave polymer matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Abhishek

    Polymer matrix composites are increasingly used in various industrial sectors to reduce structural weight and improve performance. Woven (also known as textile) composites are one class of polymer matrix composites with increasing market share mostly due to their lightweight, their flexibility to form into desired shape, their mechanical properties and toughness. Due to the viscoelasticity of the polymer matrix, time-dependent degradation in modulus (creep) and strength (creep rupture) are two of the major mechanical properties required by engineers to design a structure reliably when using these materials. Unfortunately, creep and creep rupture of woven composites have received little attention by the research community and thus, there is a dire need to generate additional knowledge and prediction models, given the increasing market share of woven composites in load bearing structural applications. Currently, available creep models are limited in scope and have not been validated for any loading orientation and time period beyond the experimental time window. In this thesis, an analytical creep model, namely the Modified Equivalent Laminate Model (MELM), was developed to predict tensile creep of plain weave composites for any orientation of the load with respect to the orientation of the fill and warp fibers, using creep of unidirectional composites. The ability of the model to predict creep for any orientation of the load is a "first" in this area. The model was validated using an extensive experimental involving the tensile creep of plain weave composites under varying loading orientation and service conditions. Plain weave epoxy (F263)/ carbon fiber (T300) composite, currently used in aerospace applications, was procured as fabrics from Hexcel Corporation. Creep tests were conducted under two loading conditions: on-axis loading (0°) and off-axis loading (45°). Constant load creep, in the temperature range of 80-240°C and stress range of 1-70% UTS of the

  19. 1. ORIGINAL STONE ARCH BRIDGE OVER THE DES PLAINES RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ORIGINAL STONE ARCH BRIDGE OVER THE DES PLAINES RIVER AT NINTH STREET IN LOCKPORT. THE BRIDGE WAS BUILT ABOUT 1865. NOTE METAL CLAMP ON THE NEAR PIER AND THE 20TH CENTURY REINFORCED CONCRETE ADDITION. - Lockport Historic District, Stone Arch Bridge, Spanning Des Plaines River at Ninth Street, Lockport, Will County, IL

  20. Circles of the World: Traditional Art of the Plains Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, Richard

    1985-01-01

    The art of the Plains Indians is discussed, and an art exhibition of their work to be held at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco from January 12 to April 29, 1985, is described. The exhibit shows and explains how Plains art served aspects of the Indians' traditional life. (RM)

  1. O Wakaga. Activities for Learning about the Plains Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Linda Skinner

    A companion to The Mamook Book (ED 214 720), the student activity book teaches about Plains Indian cultures (in particular about Lakota life) through a series of activities such as: coloring panoramas of a Plains tipi encampment and a contemporary reservation; depicting historical and contemporary children; making a mobile; constructing a tipi and…

  2. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  3. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  4. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  5. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  6. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  7. Isolation, transmission and purification of the High Plains virus.

    PubMed

    Louie, Raymond; Seifers, Dallas L; Bradfute, Oscar E

    2006-08-01

    The wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer) often simultaneously transmits the High Plains virus and Wheat streak mosaic virus under field conditions, resulting in doubly infected plants. In this study, a pure culture of the High Plains virus (isolate HPV95ID), which was infected with both High Plains virus and Wheat streak mosaic virus, was mechanically transmitted from barley (Hordeum vulgáre L.) to maize (Zea mays L.) by vascular puncture inoculation. Different water temperatures and durations for soaking kernels at pre-inoculation and different incubation temperatures and durations at post-inoculation on transmission of High Plains virus were studied. Transmissions of the High Plains virus were significantly different for post-inoculation incubations at 11, 21, or 30 degrees C after a 2 h pre-inoculation soaking at 30 degrees C and post-inoculation incubations of kernels for 1 day versus 2 days. Use of Cs2SO4 in a partial purification protocol resulted in infectious final fractions. Bioassays, serological assays, analyses by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and examinations by electron microscopy confirmed isolation of a pure culture of High Plains virus from infectious final partially purified fractions. We demonstrate infectivity of the final fractions and associate it with the High Plains disease symptoms, the 32 kDa protein and double membrane bodies and discuss this evidence to support the viral nature of High Plains virus. PMID:16672165

  8. Analyzing the Various Approaches of Plain Language Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Betsy A., And Others

    1986-01-01

    Proposes a two-phase evaluation of the plain language laws that are designed to ensure that consumers can understand and use the personal business contracts they sign so that the best model for plain language legislation can be identified. (DF)

  9. Plains Indians of North America. Grade Level: Fourth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Beth

    This is a fourth-grade teaching unit on the Plains Indians of North America. It is composed of a content outline, statement of unit goals, unit behavioral objectives, initiating activities, developmental activities, closing activities, unit evaluation plan, and a bibliography. The content outline shows that the unit covers the Plains Indian's…

  10. High Plains Regional Ground-water Study web site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon L.

    2000-01-01

    Now available on the Internet is a web site for the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program- High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study. The purpose of the web site is to provide public access to a wide variety of information on the USGS investigation of the ground-water resources within the High Plains aquifer system. Typical pages on the web site include the following: descriptions of the High Plains NAWQA, the National NAWQA Program, the study-area setting, current and past activities, significant findings, chemical and ancillary data (which can be downloaded), listing and access to publications, links to other sites about the High Plains area, and links to other web sites studying High Plains ground-water resources. The High Plains aquifer is a regional aquifer system that underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States (Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming). Because the study area is so large, the Internet is an ideal way to provide project data and information on a near real-time basis. The web site will be a collection of living documents where project data and information are updated as it becomes available throughout the life of the project. If you have an interest in the High Plains area, you can check this site periodically to learn how the High Plains NAWQA activities are progressing over time and access new data and publications as they become available.

  11. Akkruva Small Shield Plains: Definition of a Significant Regional Plains Unit on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubele, J. C.

    1996-03-01

    Continued analysis of the Magellan radar image data for Venus has begun to address fundamental questions regarding the geologic evolution of the surface of the planet (with implications for processes operating within the interior of the planet). The tools of this analysis are geologic mapping and the definition of local and regional stratigraphic relationships between defined geologic units. Of particular interest are units related to the formation and/or resurfacing of the plains terrain, which covers 80% of the surface of Venus. Two quad~ngles in the Niobe Planitia region, V12 (Vellamo Planitia), centered at 37 degrees N and 135 degrees, and Vll (Shimti Tessera), centered at 37 degrees N and 105 degrees, have been mapped as part of the VDAP and Venus Geological Mapping effort. Preliminary mapping results have been reported previously; this abstract expands the description and discussion of a new plains unit defined on the basis of mapping in this region.

  12. Tobacco plain packaging: Evidence based policy or public health advocacy?

    PubMed

    McKeganey, Neil; Russell, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    In December 2012, Australia became the first country to require all tobacco products be sold solely in standardised or 'plain' packaging, bereft of the manufacturers' trademarked branding and colours, although retaining large graphic and text health warnings. Following the publication of Sir Cyril Chantler's review of the evidence on the effects of plain tobacco packaging, the Ministers of the United Kingdom Parliament voted in March 2015 to implement similar legislation. Support for plain packaging derives from the belief that tobacco products sold in plain packs have reduced appeal and so are more likely to deter young people and non-smokers from starting tobacco use, and more likely to motivate smokers to quit and stay quit. This article considers why support for the plain packaging policy has grown among tobacco control researchers, public health advocates and government ministers, and reviews Australian survey data that speak to the possible introductory effect of plain packaging on smoking prevalence within Australia. The article concludes by emphasising the need for more detailed research to be undertaken before judging the capacity of the plain packaging policy to deliver the multitude of positive effects that have been claimed by its most ardent supporters.

  13. Tobacco plain packaging: Evidence based policy or public health advocacy?

    PubMed

    McKeganey, Neil; Russell, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    In December 2012, Australia became the first country to require all tobacco products be sold solely in standardised or 'plain' packaging, bereft of the manufacturers' trademarked branding and colours, although retaining large graphic and text health warnings. Following the publication of Sir Cyril Chantler's review of the evidence on the effects of plain tobacco packaging, the Ministers of the United Kingdom Parliament voted in March 2015 to implement similar legislation. Support for plain packaging derives from the belief that tobacco products sold in plain packs have reduced appeal and so are more likely to deter young people and non-smokers from starting tobacco use, and more likely to motivate smokers to quit and stay quit. This article considers why support for the plain packaging policy has grown among tobacco control researchers, public health advocates and government ministers, and reviews Australian survey data that speak to the possible introductory effect of plain packaging on smoking prevalence within Australia. The article concludes by emphasising the need for more detailed research to be undertaken before judging the capacity of the plain packaging policy to deliver the multitude of positive effects that have been claimed by its most ardent supporters. PMID:26041731

  14. EXTERNAL EFFECTS OF IRRIGATORS' PUMPING DECISIONS, HIGH PLAINS AQUIFER.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, William M.; Schefter, John E.

    1987-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer, which underlies about 174,000 square miles (1 square mile equals 2. 59 km**2) in the Great Plains, is the principal source of water in one of the nation's major agricultural areas. This paper examines relationships between the scale of management areas and physical factors, resulting from the lateral movement of groundwater, that limit the ability of irrigators in the High Plains to reduce their own future pumping lifts. At the scale of individual farms, irrigators have very limited ability to 'bank' water in order to obtain reduced future pumping lifts.

  15. The geomorphology of the Mississippi River chenier plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penland, S.; Suter, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The chenier plain of the Mississippi River is a shore-parallel zone of alternating transgressive clastic ridges separated by progradational mudflats. The term chenier is derived from the cajun term chene for oak, the tree species that colonizes the crests of the higher ridges. The Mississippi River chenier plain stretches 200 km from Sabine Pass, Texas, to Southwest Point, Louisiana and ranges between 20 and 30 km wide, with elevations of 2-6 m. The timing and the process of formation could be re-evaluated in the light of new chronostratigraphic findings in the Mississippi River delta plain. The stratigraphic relationship between the Teche and Lafourche delta complexes and Ship Shoal offshore indicates that these delta complexes belong to different delta plains that developed at different sealevels. It appears that the Teche delta complex is associated with the late Holocene delta plain which developed 7000 to 3000 yrs B.P. when sealevel stood 5-6 m lower than present. A regional transgression occurred between approximately 3000 BP and 2500 yrs B.P., leading to the transgressive submergence of the late Holocene delta plain, producing the regional Teche shoreline. The timing of this transgression conforms to the age of the most landward ridge in the chenier plain, the Little Chenier-Little Pecan Island trend, which dates at about 2500 yrs B.P. This ridge trend was originally interpreted as representing the Teche delta complex switching event with the landward Holocene/Pleistocene contact representing the high stand shoreline. The implication of this new interpretation is that the Little Chenier-Little Pecan Island trend represents the high stand shoreline, a continuation of the Teche shoreline separating the late Holocene and Recent delta plains, and that the Holocene/Pleistocene contact represents the leading edge of the marshes transgressing onto the Prairie Terrace. Significant mudflat progradation seems to require a westerly position of the Mississippi River

  16. San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The 1,200-kilometer (800-mile)San Andreas is the longest fault in California and one of the longest in North America. This perspective view of a portion of the fault was generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which flew on NASA's Space Shuttle last February, and an enhanced, true-color Landsat satellite image. The view shown looks southeast along the San Andreas where it cuts along the base of the mountains in the Temblor Range near Bakersfield. The fault is the distinctively linear feature to the right of the mountains. To the left of the range is a portion of the agriculturally rich San Joaquin Valley. In the background is the snow-capped peak of Mt. Pinos at an elevation of 2,692 meters (8,831 feet). The complex topography in the area is some of the most spectacular along the course of the fault. To the right of the fault is the famous Carrizo Plain. Dry conditions on the plain have helped preserve the surface trace of the fault, which is scrutinized by both amateur and professional geologists. In 1857, one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded in the United States occurred just north of the Carrizo Plain. With an estimated magnitude of 8.0, the quake severely shook buildings in Los Angeles, caused significant surface rupture along a 350-kilometer (220-mile) segment of the fault, and was felt as far away as Las Vegas, Nev. This portion of the San Andreas is an important area of study for seismologists. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60

  17. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters.

    Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about

  18. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task 3, the

  19. The Great Plains IDEA Gerontology Program: An Online, Interinstitutional Graduate Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Gregory F.

    2011-01-01

    The Great-Plains IDEA Gerontology Program is a graduate program developed and implemented by the Great Plains Interactive Distance Education Alliance (Great Plains IDEA). The Great Plains IDEA (Alliance) originated as a consortium of Colleges of Human Sciences ranging across the central United States. This Alliance's accomplishments have included…

  20. 4. NORTH ROOM, WEST WALL, THIRD FLOOR. NOTE PLAIN MANTLEPIECE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH ROOM, WEST WALL, THIRD FLOOR. NOTE PLAIN MANTLEPIECE AND ORIGINAL WINDOW. See also PA-1345 C-5 - Marshall's Court Area Study, David Simpson House, 411 Marshall's Court, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. 18. PLAIN OFFICE; SHOWS WOODWORK AND WALL TREATMENT. ROOM 2662, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. PLAIN OFFICE; SHOWS WOODWORK AND WALL TREATMENT. ROOM 2662, SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH SIDE. - Hughes Aircraft Company, Processing & Electronics Building, 6775 Centinela Avenue, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY IN MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAINS HEADWATER STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to assess the applicability of landscape metrics, in conjunction with stream water quality to estimate the biological integrity of headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains using multivariate techniques.

  3. Flying over Pluto’s icy plains and Hillary Mountains

    NASA Video Gallery

    This simulated flyover of two regions on Pluto, northwestern Sputnik Planum (Sputnik Plain) and Hillary Montes (Hillary Mountains), was created from New Horizons close-approach images. Sputnik Plan...

  4. Frozen Plains in the Heart of Pluto's 'Heart'

    NASA Video Gallery

    In the center left of Pluto’s vast heart-shaped feature – informally named “Tombaugh Regio” - lies a vast, craterless plain that appears to be no more than 100 million years old, and is possibly st...

  5. Particulate Loads Caused by Wind Erosion in the Great Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Lawrence J.; Woodruff, Neil P.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the annual flux of suspended particulates caused by wind erosion in the Great Plains is estimated. This study demonstrated that climate causes wide variations in air pollution from wind erosion. (BT)

  6. From technical jargon to plain English for application.

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, O R

    1991-01-01

    These examples of translating technical jargon into plain English application words, acronyms, letter codes, and simple tests were necessary as we developed Precision Teaching. I hope our experience is useful to others facing the problems of applying technology in practical settings. At the least, our experience should give you an idea of the work and time involved in making your own translations. Above all, be patient. Accurate plain English translations do not come easily. They cannot be made at your desk. A search often takes years to produce one new accurate plain English translation. Rapid publication pressures, journal editorial policies, and investments in materials, books, and computer programs all combine to hamper these translations. It's possible that you will find some of our plain English equivalents useful in your own applied behavior analysis applications. PMID:1752836

  7. SECOND FLOOR, VIEW OF THE NORTH PLAIN OF THE 1772 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECOND FLOOR, VIEW OF THE NORTH PLAIN OF THE 1772 ROOF TO SHOW ROUND-BUTT WOOD SHINGLES; THIS ROOF IS PROTECTED BY THE 1784 SHED ADDITION - Murray-Dick-Fawcett House, 517 Prince Street, Alexandria, Independent City, VA

  8. Animated Flyover of Pluto’s Icy Mountain and Plains

    NASA Video Gallery

    This simulated flyover of Pluto’s Norgay Montes (Norgay Mountains) and Sputnik Planum (Sputnik Plain) was created from New Horizons closest-approach images. Norgay Montes have been informally named...

  9. [Fleas (Siphonaptera) infesting birds of West Siberian plain].

    PubMed

    Sapegina, V F; Ravkin, Iu S

    2003-01-01

    The four species of fleas associated with birds in West Siberian Plain have been recorded. Ceratophyllus styx is a specific parasite of Riparia riparia. Ceratophyllus garei, C. gallinae, and C. tribulis parasitize various setting of birds.

  10. Snake River Plain FORGE Site Characterization Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert Podgorney

    2016-04-18

    The site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. This collection includes data on seismic events, groundwater, geomechanical models, gravity surveys, magnetics, resistivity, magnetotellurics (MT), rock physics, stress, the geologic setting, and supporting documentation, including several papers. Also included are 3D models (Petrel and Jewelsuite) of the proposed site. Data for wells INEL-1, WO-2, and USGS-142 have been included as links to separate data collections. These data have been assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Other contributors include the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CEAS), the University of Idaho, Idaho State University, Boise State University, University of Wyoming, University of Oklahoma, Energy and Geoscience Institute-University of Utah, US Geothermal, Baker Hughes Campbell Scientific Inc., Chena Power, US Geological Survey (USGS), Idaho Department of Water Resources, Idaho Geological Survey, and Mink GeoHydro.

  11. Great Plains Gasification Project status report

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, D.C.; Stockwell, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Great Plains Coal Gasification Project is designed to convert North Dakota lignite into pipeline quality high Btu synthetic natural gas (SNG). Located in Mercer County, North Dakota, the project consists of a coal gasification plant, coal mine, and an SNG pipeline. Construction of the project started in the summer of 1981 and was essentially complete by the fourth quarter of 1984. The plant operating staff started initial start-up planning in early 1982 and moved to the plant site in late 1982. The first unit taken over from construction was the secondary water treating unit and initial operations began on August 19, 1983. The remainder of the plant was commissioned and started up in a planned sequence with initial production of SNG occurring on July 28, 1983. Both trains were in operation and the plant was producing at about 70 percent of design capacity by December 1984-a date that has been targeted for in a start-up schedule prepared some 4-5 years earlier.

  12. Landsat linear features in Montana plains

    SciTech Connect

    Shurr, G.W.

    1983-08-01

    Multispectral scanner images obtained from satellites provide a unique regional perspective of geologic features on the earth's surface. Linear features observed on Landsat images are particularly conspicuous and can be mapped easily. In Montana, east of long. 110/sup 0/W and in adjoining parts of Canada, the Dakotas, and Wyoming, linear features have been mapped on 14 images. Black and white film products in bands 5 and 7 at a scale of 1:1,000,000 were employed. Specific linear features observed on both bands were compiled on a mosaic covering more than 90,000 mi/sup 2/ (233,000 km/sup 2/). Trends to the northwest and northeast are most common, but north-south and east-west linear features are also observed. Four separate tectonic regions of the Montana plains seem to be characterized by different populations of linear features. Published syntheses of geophysical, structural and stratigraphic data can be used to establish the geologic significance of specific linear features. Magnetic, gravity, and seimsic data suggest that linear features may reflect basement structural elements such as fault-bounded blocks. Some specific geologic structures shown on structure contour maps are marked by linear features. Paleotectonic features interpreted from stratigraphic maps have surface expression on Landsat that have not been recognized previously.

  13. Great Plains Drought in Simulations of Twentieth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrary, R. R.; Randall, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    The Great Plains region of the United States was influenced by a number of multi-year droughts during the twentieth century. Most notable were the "Dust Bowl" drought of the 1930s and the 1950s Great Plains drought. In this study we evaluate the ability of three of the Coupled Global Climate Models (CGCMs) used in the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the IPCC to simulate Great Plains drought with the same frequency and intensity as was observed during the twentieth century. The models chosen for this study are: GFDL CM 2.0, NCAR CCSM3, and UKMO HadCM3. We find that the models accurately capture the climatology of the hydrologic cycle of the Great Plains, but that they tend to overestimate the variability in Great Plains precipitation. We also find that in each model simulation at least one long-term drought occurs over the Great Plains region during their representations 20th Century Climate. The multi-year droughts produced by the models exhibit similar magnitudes and spatial scales as was observed during the twentieth century. This study also investigates the relative roles that external forcing from the tropical Pacific and local feedbacks between the land surface and the atmosphere have in the initiation and perpetuation of Great Plains drought in each model. We find that cool, La Nina-like conditions in the tropical pacific are often associated with long-term drought conditions over the Great Plains in GFDL CM 2.0 and UKMO HadCM3, but there appears to be no systematic relationship between tropical Pacific SST variability and Great Plains drought in CCSM3. It is possible the strong coupling between the land surface and the atmosphere in the NCAR model causes precipitation anomalies to lock into phase over the Great Plains thereby perpetuating drought conditions. Results from this study are intended to help assess whether or not these climate models are credible for use in the assessment of future drought over the Great Plains region of the United States.

  14. Guide for selecting Manning's roughness coefficients for natural channels and flood plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arcement, George J.; Schneider, Verne R.

    1989-01-01

    Although much research has been done on Manning's roughness coefficient, n, for stream channels, very little has been done concerning the roughness values for densely vegetated flood plains. The n value is determined from the values of the factors that affect the roughness of channels and flood plains. In densely vegetated flood plains, the major roughness is caused by trees, vines, and brush. The n value for this type of flood plain can be determined by measuring the vegetation density of the flood plain. Photographs of flood-plain segments where n values have been verified can be used as a comparison standard to aid in assigning n values to similar flood plains.

  15. Ground water in the Cul-de-Sac Plain, Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1949-01-01

    The Cul-de-Sac Plain is perhaps the most important agricultural area in Haiti because of its nearness and accessibility to Port-au-Prince, the nation's capital, metropolis, and principal seaport. Most of the agricultural produce consumed in Port-au-Prince as well as a considerable part of that exported from Haiti is grown in the plain. Because of variable and poorly distributed rainfall, high temperature, and high evaporation, semiarid climatic conditions prevail in the plain. Irrigation is, therefore, necessary for successful farming. There are no regulatory or storage facilities on the streams that enter the plain, but the mean and low-water stream flow and the discharge of springs are almost entirely appropriated for irrigation. Ground water has been utilized for irrigation to an increasing extent by the Haitian American Sugar Company, which has put down about 100 wells in the plain since 1919. Outside the existing irrigated areas of the plain are large tracts of potentially irrigable land that are uncultivated and agriculturally unproductive for lack of water. The object of the present study was to determine the possibilities of bringing these lands into cultivation by irrigation from wells. This study was part of a larger program of the Food Supply Division, Institute of Inter-American Affairs, to increase the production of food in Haiti. From September through November 1948 the senior author, a member of the U. S. Geological Survey, spent three months in the field in an investigation of the geology and ground-water resources of the Cul-de-Sac Plain. He was ably assisted by Mr. Rémy C. Lemoine, Haitian engineer-geologist, employed by the Food Supply Division. The field work included principally the geologic mapping of' the plain and the adjacent mountain borders, a ground-water inventory of existing wells and springs, and a general evaluation of significant geologic and hydrologic features.

  16. Agriculture on the Chaco Plain, Paraguay, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This view of extensive agriculture on the Chaco Plain, Paraguay, (22.5S, 60.5W) depicts the fertility of the soils between the Andes Mountains and the Paraguay - Parana Rivers in the northwestern Paraguay. The Gran Chaco Plain is flat landscape built up by sediments. Frontier settlements like Marsical Estigarribia, seen in the image, are dominated by agriculture along the stream courses that abound in the area.

  17. Critical Mach Numbers of Thin Airfoil Sections with Plain Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pardee, Otway O'm.; Heaslet, Max A.

    1946-01-01

    Critical Mach number as function of lift coefficient is determined for certain moderately thick NACA low-drag airfoils. Results, given graphically, included calculations on same airfoil sections with plain flaps for small flap deflections. Curves indicate optimum critical conditions for airfoils with flaps in such form that they can be compared with corresponding results for zero flap deflections. Plain flaps increase life-coefficient range for which critical Mach number is in region of high values characteristic of low-drag airfoils.

  18. Ground water in the Cul-de-Sac Plain, Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1949-01-01

    The Cul-de-Sac Plain is perhaps the most important agricultural area in Haiti because of its nearness and accessibility to Port-au-Prince, the nation's capital, metropolis, and principal seaport. Most of the agricultural produce consumed in Port-au-Prince as well as a considerable part of that exported from Haiti is grown in the plain.Because of variable and poorly distributed rainfall, high temperature, and high evaporation, semiarid climatic conditions prevail in the plain. Irrigation is, therefore, necessary for successful farming. There are no regulatory or storage facilities on the streams that enter the plain, but the mean and low-water stream flow and the discharge of springs are almost entirely appropriated for irrigation. Ground water has been utilized for irrigation to an increasing extent by the Haitian American Sugar Company, which has put down about 100 wells in the plain since 1919.Outside the existing irrigated areas of the plain are large tracts of potentially irrigable land that are uncultivated and agriculturally unproductive for lack of water. The object of the present study was to determine the possibilities of bringing these lands into cultivation by irrigation from wells. This study was part of a larger program of the Food Supply Division, Institute of Inter-American Affairs, to increase the production of food in Haiti.From September through November 1948 the senior author, a member of the U. S. Geological Survey, spent three months in the field in an investigation of the geology and ground-water resources of the Cul-de-Sac Plain. He was ably assisted by Mr. Rémy C. Lemoine, Haitian engineer-geologist, employed by the Food Supply Division. The field work included principally the geologic mapping of' the plain and the adjacent mountain borders, a ground-water inventory of existing wells and springs, and a general evaluation of significant geologic and hydrologic features.

  19. Eco-environmental quality evaluation of Huaibei Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Zhu, Y.; Lü, H.; Li, Y.; Zhou, X.; Chen, Y.

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, the destruction of the ecological environment in Huaibei Plain has limited the development of the economy. Doing research on eco-environment quality evaluation methods may be helpful to the recovery of the eco-environment in Huaibei Plain and the construction of ecological civilization. A new assessment system was introduced in this paper on the basis of a traditional eco-environmental evaluation method; the NPP index was used to replace biological abundance index and vegetation coverage index. This new method was used to evaluate the eco-environment quality of Huaibei Plain. Results indicate that: (a) the eco-environment of Huaibei Plain has been getting worse since 1990, but has improved since 2000; (b) the water-network density index is the key factor which affects the eco-environment of Huaibei Plain; (c) If human activities, pollution control, land degradation and urban area development are not taken into consideration, the eco-environment of Huaibei Plain in dry years will be serious.

  20. Isotopes and sustainability of ground water resources, North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Zongyu, Chen; Zhenlong, Nie; Zhaoji, Zhang; Jixiang, Qi; Yunju, Nan

    2005-01-01

    Ground water in deep confined aquifers is one of the major water resources for agricultural, industrial, and domestic uses in the North China Plain. Detailed information on ground water age and recharge is vital for the proper management of these water resources, and to this end, we used carbon 14 of dissolved inorganic carbon and tritium in water to measure the age and determine the recharge areas of ground water in the North China Plain. These isotopic data suggest that most ground water in the piedmont part of the North China Plain is <40 years old and is recharged locally. In contrast, ground water in the central and littoral portions of the North China Plain is 10,000 to 25,000 years old. The delta18O (deltaD) values of this ground water are 1.7 per thousand (11 per thousand) less than that in the piedmont plain ground water and possibly reflect water recharged during a cooler climate during the last glaciation. The temperature of this recharge, based on delta18O values, ranges from 3.7 degrees C to 8.4 degrees C, compared to 12 degrees C to 13 degrees C of modern recharge water. The isotopic data set combined indicates that ground water in the central and littoral part of the North China Plain is being mined under non-steady state conditions.

  1. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Collin N; Kraemer, John D; Johnson, Andrea C; Mays, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized “plain” cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers’ interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts. PMID:25897269

  2. The Virginia Coastal Plain Hydrogeologic Framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFarland, E. Randolph; Bruce, T. Scott

    2006-01-01

    A refined descriptive hydrogeologic framework of the Coastal Plain of eastern Virginia provides a new perspective on the regional ground-water system by incorporating recent understanding gained by discovery of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater and determination of other geological relations. The seaward-thickening wedge of extensive, eastward-dipping strata of largely unconsolidated sediments is classified into a series of 19 hydrogeologic units, based on interpretations of geophysical logs and allied descriptions and analyses from a regional network of 403 boreholes. Potomac aquifer sediments of Early Cretaceous age form the primary ground-water supply resource. The Potomac aquifer is designated as a single aquifer because the fine-grained interbeds, which are spatially highly variable and inherently discontinuous, are not sufficiently dense across a continuous expanse to act as regional barriers to ground-water flow. Part of the Potomac aquifer in the outer part of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater consists of megablock beds, which are relatively undeformed internally but are bounded by widely separated faults. The Potomac aquifer is entirely truncated across the inner part of the crater. The Potomac confining zone approximates a transition from the Potomac aquifer to overlying hydrogeologic units. New or revised designations of sediments of Late Cretaceous age that are present only south of the James River include the upper Cenomanian confining unit, the Virginia Beach aquifer and confining zone, and the Peedee aquifer and confining zone. The Virginia Beach aquifer is a locally important ground-water supply resource. Sediments of late Paleocene to early Eocene age that compose the Aquia aquifer and overlying Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit are truncated along the margin of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater. Sediments of late Eocene age compose three newly designated confining units within the crater, which are from bottom to top, the impact-generated Exmore clast

  3. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O'Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

    2006-01-01

    During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  4. Chinese Tallow: Invading the Southeastern Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    Chinese tallow is an ornamental tree with colorful autumn foliage that can survive full sunlight and shade, flooding, drought, and in some cases fire. To horticulturists this kind of tree sounds like a dream, but to ecologists, land managers, and land owners this kind of tree can be a nightmare, especially when it invades an area and takes over native vegetation. Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), a nonnative tree from China, is currently transforming the southeastern Coastal Plain. Over the last 30 years, Chinese tallow has become a common tree in old fields and bottomland swamps of coastal Louisiana. Several studies at the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC), Lafayette, Louisiana, are aimed at understanding the factors that contribute to Chinese tallow growth, spread, and management. When tallow invades, it eventually monopolizes an area, creating a forest without native animal or plant species. This tree exhibits classic traits of most nonnative invaders: it is attractive so people want to distribute it, it has incredible resiliency, it grows quickly and in a variety of soils, and it is resistant to pests. In the coastal prairie of Louisiana and Texas, Chinese tallow can grow up to 30 feet and shade out native sun-loving prairie species. The disappearing of prairie species is troublesome because less than 1% of original coastal prairie remains, and in Louisiana, less than 500 of the original 2.2 million acres still exist. Tallow reproduces and grows quickly and can cause large-scale ecosystem modification (fig. 1). For example, when it completely replaces native vegetation, it has a negative effect on birds by degrading the habitat. Besides shading out grasses that cattle like to eat, it can also be potentially harmful to humans and animals because of its berries (fig. 2) and plant sap that contain toxins. There is some concern its leaves may shed toxins that change the soil chemistry and make it difficult for other plants to grow.

  5. Geologic map of the northern plains of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Hare, Trent M.

    2005-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars cover nearly a third of the planet and constitute the planet's broadest region of lowlands. Apparently formed early in Mars' history, the northern lowlands served as a repository both for sediments shed from the adjacent ancient highlands and for volcanic flows and deposits from sources within and near the lowlands. Geomorphic evidence for extensive tectonic deformation and reworking of surface materials through release of volatiles occurs throughout the northern plains. In the polar region, Planum Boreum contains evidence for the accumulation of ice and dust, and surrounding dune fields suggest widespread aeolian transport and erosion. The most recent regional- and global-scale maps describing the geology of the northern plains are largely based on Viking Orbiter image data (Dial, 1984; Witbeck and Underwood, 1984; Scott and Tanaka, 1986; Greeley and Guest, 1987; Tanaka and Scott, 1987; Tanaka and others, 1992a; Rotto and Tanaka, 1995; Crumpler and others, 2001; McGill, 2002). These maps reveal highland, plains, volcanic, and polar units based on morphologic character, albedo, and relative ages using local stratigraphic relations and crater counts. This geologic map of the northern plains is the first published map that covers a significant part of Mars using topography and image data from both the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey missions. The new data provide a fresh perspective on the geology of the region that reveals many previously unrecognizable units, features, and temporal relations. In addition, we adapted and instituted terrestrial mapping methods and stratigraphic conventions that we think result in a clearer and more objective map. We focus on mapping with the intent of reconstructing the history of geologic activity within the northern plains, including deposition, volcanism, erosion, tectonism, impact cratering, and other processes with the aid of comprehensive crater-density determinations. Mapped areas include all

  6. Chinese tallow: Invading the southeastern Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Chinese tallow is an ornamental tree with colorful autumn foliage that can survive full sunlight and shade, flooding, drought, and in some cases fire. To horticulturists this kind of tree sounds like a dream, but to ecologists, land managers, and land owners this kind of tree can be a nightmare, especially when it invades an area and takes over native vegetation. Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), a nonnative tree from China, is currently transforming the southeastern Coastal Plain.Over the last 30 years, Chinese tallow has become a common tree in old fields and bottomland swamps of coastal Louisiana. Several studies at the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC), Lafayette, Louisiana, are aimed at understanding the factors that contribute to Chinese tallow growth, spread, and management.When tallow invades, it eventually monopolizes an area, creating a forest without native animal or plant species. This tree exhibits classic traits of most nonnative invaders: it is attractive so people want to distribute it, it has incredible resiliency, it grows quickly and in a variety of soils, and it is resistant to pests.In the coastal prairie of Louisiana and Texas, Chinese tallow can grow up to 30 feet and shade out native sun-loving prairie species. The disappearing of prairie species is troublesome because less than 1% of original coastal prairie remains, and in Louisiana, less than 500 of the original 2.2 million acres still exist.Tallow reproduces and grows quickly and can cause large-scale ecosystem modification (fig. 1). For example, when it completely replaces native vegetation, it has a negative effect on birds by degrading the habitat. Besides shading out grasses that cattle like to eat, it can also be potentially harmful to humans and animals because of its berries (fig. 2) and plant sap that contain toxins. There is some concern its leaves may shed toxins that change the soil chemistry and make it difficult for other plants to grow.

  7. Venus - False Color of Volcanic Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This Magellan full-resolution mosaic of Venus, centered at 10 degrees north latitude, 301 degrees east longitude, shows an area replete with diverse volcanic features. The image, of an area 489 kilometers long by 311 kilometers wide (303 by 193 miles), is dominated by volcanic plains which appear mottled because of varying roughnesses of each solidified lava flow. The rougher the terrain the brighter it appears in the radar image. The small, bright bumps clustered in the left portion of the image are a grouping of small volcanoes called a shield field. Each shield volcano is approximately 2 to 5 kilometers (1.2 to 3.1 miles) in diameter and has very subdued relief. It is believed that the lava flows that make up each shield originates from a common source. To the right of the shield field is another type of volcano, called a scalloped dome. It is 25 kilometers (16 miles) in diameter and has a central pit. Some of the indistinct lobe-shaped pattern around the dome may either be lava flows or rocky debris which has fallen from the scalloped cliffs surrounding the domes. The small radial ridges characteristic of scalloped domes are remnants of catastrophic landslides. To the right of that feature is a large depression called a volcanic caldera. The caldera was formed when lava was expelled from an underground chamber, which when emptied, subsequently collapsed forming the depression. The feature furthermost to the east (right) is another scalloped dome, 35 kilometers (22 miles) in diameter. That feature is unusual in that lava came out through the southeastern margin, rafting a large portion of the dome for 20 kilometers (12 miles). The lava continues into the lower right portion of the area in the image. Its steep rounded boundaries suggest it was a very sticky, oozing lava. That same type of lava is what scientists propose formed the steep-sided domes such as the bright, round feature, slightly northeast of center. It is highly likely that the features are all part

  8. Space Radar Image of Central Plain, Oman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Bright, arc-shaped limestone hills and complex, branching drainage patterns dominate this three-frequency space radar image of a desert area in the north central plain of Oman. The hill along the left side of the image, called Jabal Fuhud, lies just south of the town of Fuhud, which appears as small bright rectangular features. The thin red lines that can be seen radiating out from this town are roads. The 'u'-shaped hill in the right center of the image is called Jabal Natih. Layers in the limestone appear as stripes which parallel the crest of the hill. This region is an active area of petroleum production because these geological structures form natural traps for oil and gas. The branching patterns on the image are ancient drainage channels that formed when the climate in this area was much wetter. Two large dry river channels, called wadis, appear on the image. Wadi Umayri is the yellow stripe at the lower right corner of the image. A second orange-colored wadi runs from right to left below the two sets of hills. The bright yellow patterns between the wadis are areas of bedrock covered with a thin layer of sand. These rocks would not be visible in conventional satellite images or photographs. This image is centered at 22.25 degrees north latitude, 56.58 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 42 kilometers by 78 kilometers (26 miles by 48 miles). North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 10, 1994, on board the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  9. Smooth plains on Mercury. A comparison with Vesta.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambon, F.; Capaccioni, F.; Carli, C.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Filacchione, G.; Giacomini, L.

    Mercury, the closest planet to the Sun, has been visited by the MESSENGER spacecraft \\citet{solomon2007}. After 3 years of orbit around Mercury a global coverage of the surface has been done revealing that ∼27% of Mercury's surface is covered by smooth plains \\citet{denevi2013}. Large part of Mercury's smooth plain (SP) seems to have volcanic origin. Different composition has been observed, most of the SP have a magnesian alkali-basalt-like composition, while some of them have been interpreted as ultramafic. A further 2% of smooth plains have been identified as Odin-type plains and represent the knobby and hummocky plains surrounding the Caloris basin \\citet{denevi2013}. Application of classification methods \\citet{adams2006} applied to color image data of the MESSENGER wide angle camera (MDIS-WAC) \\citet{MDIS} and a spectral analysis of the spec- trometer data (MASCS-VIRS) \\citet{MASCS} are useful to highlight the differences in composition of the smooth planes. A compa rison between Mercury's SP and those of other solar system bodies, such as Vesta \\citet{desanctis2012}, reveals useful to obtain information on the origin and the evolution of this bodies.

  10. Flood hydrology and methylmercury availability in coastal plain rivers.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul M; Journey, Celeste A; Chapelle, Francis H; Lowery, Mark A; Conrads, Paul A

    2010-12-15

    Mercury (Hg) burdens in top-predator fish differ substantially between adjacent South Carolina Coastal Plain river basins with similar wetlands coverage. In the Congaree River, floodwaters frequently originate in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont regions, where wetlands coverage and surface water dissolved methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations are low. Piedmont-driven flood events can lead to downward hydraulic gradients in the Coastal Plain riparian wetland margins, inhibiting MeHg transport from wetland sediments, and decreasing MeHg availability in the Congaree River habitat. In the adjacent Edisto River basin, floodwaters originate only within Coastal Plain sediments, maintaining upward hydraulic gradients even during flood events, promoting MeHg transport to the water column, and enhancing MeHg availability in the Edisto River habitat. These results indicate that flood hydrodynamics contribute to the variability in Hg vulnerability between Coastal Plain rivers and that comprehensive regional assessment of the relationship between flood hydrodynamics and Hg risk in Coastal Plain streams is warranted.

  11. Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) Experiment Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D; Parsons, D; Geerts, B

    2015-03-01

    The Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) experiment is a large field campaign that is being supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) with contributions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Atmospheric and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The overarching goal of the PECAN experiment is to improve the understanding and simulation of the processes that initiate and maintain convection and convective precipitation at night over the central portion of the Great Plains region of the United States (Parsons et al. 2013). These goals are important because (1) a large fraction of the yearly precipitation in the Great Plains comes from nocturnal convection, (2) nocturnal convection in the Great Plains is most often decoupled from the ground and, thus, is forced by other phenomena aloft (e.g., propagating bores, frontal boundaries, low-level jets [LLJ], etc.), (3) there is a relative lack of understanding how these disturbances initiate and maintain nocturnal convection, and (4) this lack of understanding greatly hampers the ability of numerical weather and climate models to simulate nocturnal convection well. This leads to significant uncertainties in predicting the onset, location, frequency, and intensity of convective cloud systems and associated weather hazards over the Great Plains.

  12. Flood hydrology and methylmercury availability in Coastal Plain rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) burdens in top-predator fish differ substantially between adjacent South Carolina Coastal Plain river basins with similar wetlands coverage. In the Congaree River, floodwaters frequently originate in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont regions, where wetlands coverage and surface water dissolved methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations are low. Piedmont-driven flood events can lead to downward hydraulic gradients in the Coastal Plain riparian wetland margins, inhibiting MeHg transport from wetland sediments, and decreasing MeHg availability in the Congaree River habitat. In the adjacent Edisto River basin, floodwaters originate only within Coastal Plain sediments, maintaining upward hydraulic gradients even during flood events, promoting MeHg transport to the water column, and enhancing MeHg availability in the Edisto River habitat. These results indicate that flood hydrodynamics contribute to the variability in Hg vulnerability between Coastal Plain rivers and that comprehensive regional assessment of the relationship between flood hydrodynamics and Hg risk in Coastal Plain streams is warranted.

  13. Fractures/Pits in Northern Plains (Utopia Plains: 44.9 N, 274.7 W)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Although northern plains are often called 'flat' or 'featureless' by people who study altimetry data, clearly this isn't true. This area has an indurated (strong or cemented) crust that has been subjected to directional stress (that's why the beaded-pitted fractures are almost all aligned the same direction) and that has been undermined (hence the pitting at both the small scale--the beaded fractures--and the large scale--the large irregular depressions.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  14. Climate change projections for the Texas High Plains and Rolling Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modala, Naga Raghuveer; Ale, Srinivasulu; Goldberg, Daniel W.; Olivares, Miriam; Munster, Clyde L.; Rajan, Nithya; Feagin, Rusty A.

    2016-03-01

    Potential changes in future climate in the Texas Plains region were investigated in the context of agriculture by analyzing three climate model projections under the A2 climate scenario (medium-high emission scenario). Spatially downscaled historic (1971-2000) and future (2041-2070) climate datasets (rainfall and temperature) were downloaded from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). Climate variables predicted by three regional climate models (RCMs) namely the Regional Climate Model Version3-Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (RCM3-GFDL), Regional Climate Model Version3-Third Generation Coupled Global Climate Model (RCM3-CGCM3), and Canadian Regional Climate Model-Community Climate System Model (CRCM-CCSM) were evaluated in this study. Gaussian and Gamma distribution mapping techniques were employed to remove the bias in temperature and rainfall data, respectively. Both the minimum and maximum temperatures across the study region in the future showed an upward trend, with the temperatures increasing in the range of 1.9 to 2.9 °C and 2.0 to 3.2 °C, respectively. All three climate models predicted a decline in rainfall within a range of 30 to 127 mm in majority of counties across the study region. In addition, they predicted an increase in the intensity of extreme rainfall events in the future. The frost-free season as predicted by the three models showed an increase by 2.6-3.4 weeks across the region, and the number of frost days declined by 17.9 to 30 %. Overall, these projections indicate considerable changes to the climate in the Texas Plains region in the future, and these changes could potentially impact agriculture in this region.

  15. Simulating Groundwater Recharge Across the Southern High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smidt, S. J.; Haacker, E. M.; Kendall, A. D.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying recharge and water availability across the Southern High Plains is a difficult, but necessary, challenge for future groundwater and agricultural projections. Overland flow is not common due to limited precipitation, dry soils, and high evapotranspiration. The majority of runoff is temporarily stored in playa lakes, leading to the bulk of recharge across the region occurring in localized infiltration zones beneath these lakes. Despite the importance of regional recharge estimates, limited information exists that integrates complex characteristics of the land, climate, and hydrology in order to quantify recharge across the entire Southern High Plains aquifer. This study applies the Landscape Hydrology Model (LHM) to capture these characteristics and simulate surface water flow and groundwater recharge. This model simulates the complete water cycle across large regions, including irrigation estimates, establishing a framework to estimate recharge and groundwater availability in the Southern High Plains region. Results from this study can be used to predict the likely impacts of climate change and improve water management strategies.

  16. Land Cover Trends in the Southern Florida Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kambly, Steven; Moreland, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of land use and land cover change in the Southern Florida Coastal Plain ecoregion for the period from 1973 to 2000. The ecoregion is one of 84 level III ecoregions defined by the Environmental Protection Agency; ecoregions have been designed to serve as a spatial framework for environmental resource management and denote areas that contain a geographically distinct assemblage of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The Southern Florida Coastal Plain ecoregion covers an area of approximately 22,407 square kilometers [8,651 square miles] across the lower portion of the Florida peninsula, from Lake Okeechobee southward through the Florida Keys. It comprises flat plains with wet soils, marshland and swamp land cover with Everglades and palmetto prairie vegetation types.

  17. Water Flow in the High Plains Aquifer in Northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luckey, Richard R.; Osborn, Noel I.; Becker, Mark F.; Andrews, William J.

    2000-01-01

    The High Plains is a major agricultural area, supported primarily by water from the High Plains aquifer, which is used to irrigate wheat and corn and to raise cattle and swine. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board (OWRB) began a study of the High Plains aquifer in 1996. One purpose of the study was to develop a ground-water flow model that the OWRB could use to allocate the amount of water withdrawn from the a aquifer. The study area in Oklahoma covers all or parts of Beaver, Cimarron, Dewey, Ellis, Harper, Texas, and Woodward Counties. To provide appropriate hydrologic boundaries for the ground-water flow model, the study area was expanded to include parts of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, and Texas.

  18. Putting the 'informed' into 'consent': a matter of plain language.

    PubMed

    Green, J B; Duncan, R E; Barnes, G L; Oberklaid, F

    2003-12-01

    Health professionals frequently write at the same level for lay readers as they write for peers. In relation to health research and ethical requirements to provide written explanation of studies, this can complicate the notion of informed consent. Plain language information statements need to be clearly understood by research subjects if the ethics process for research approval is to fulfil its objective. Many delays in gaining ethics approval for child-related research are caused by substandard plain language statements (PLS). We describe specific issues for information statements for research with children, young people and their parents/guardians, particularly in consideration of the literacy capabilities of the general population. We highlight the usefulness of everyday language when explaining research and science in writing to families, and present some guidelines for writing PLS that have emerged from the introduction of a plain language service by an Ethics in Human Research Committee. PMID:14629504

  19. Ice in the northern plains: Relic of a frozen ocean?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.

    1993-01-01

    Viking images revealed many features in the northern plains and along their boundary that early investigators believed to be formed by ice-related processes. The features are possible pingos, pseudocraters, table mountains and moberg ridges, thermokarst depressions, moraines, patterned ground, and lobate aprons that suggest viscous flow such as that of ice or rock glaciers. More recently, many of these features were reinterpreted as related to sedimentation in hypothetical former polar lakes, oceans, or alluvial plains or as shoreline features of associated water bodies. Some evidence that points toward the existence of former bodies of standing water in the northern plains, but is also consistent with the idea that these bodies were ice covered or completely frozen is reviewed.

  20. Tobacco branding, plain packaging, pictorial warnings, and symbolic consumption.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2012-05-01

    We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure.

  1. East China plains: a "basin" of ozone pollution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chun; Wang, Yuhang; Zeng, Tao

    2009-03-15

    Economic growth and associated pollution emissions in China are concentrated over three connected plains to the east In this work, we analyze an episode of highly elevated ozone over East China on June 9-14, 2004, using a 3-D chemical transport model. During this episode, the East China plains were under a high-pressure system, which suppressed the ventilation of pollutants from the boundary layer. Simulated ozone concentrations over a major fraction of East China reached high levels, all the way down to the Pearl River Delta region in the southern border. The convergence of pollutant emissions and population over the vast stretch of the geographically flat plains of East China makes the region susceptible to high-ozone exposure. During this episode, the high-03 region extended over an area >1 million km2, which hosts a population of >800 million people. Model results indicate that controlling anthropogenic NOx emissions effectively reduces the area with high-ozone exposure.

  2. Attack on Australia: tobacco industry challenges to plain packaging.

    PubMed

    Jarman, Holly

    2013-08-01

    In 2011, the Australian Government passed landmark legislation requiring tobacco manufacturers to adopt 'plain packaging', a government-mandated design standardized across all brands of tobacco products. In response, plain packaging policy in Australia has faced multiple, simultaneous challenges from a global, well-resourced industry able to use all available fora to seek redress. Generalizing from the Australian experience, we analyze four types of challenges to plain packaging from the tobacco industry. We characterize three ways in which industry questions public health policies through international trade and investment law, on: (i) the intent or purpose of the policy; (ii) the economic consequences of it; and (iii) the regulatory authority behind it. We make recommendations and suggest that public health policymakers can know with some precision what attacks will be launched on tobacco control policies, and prepare their strategies and legislation accordingly.

  3. A two-dimensional dam-break flood plain model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hromadka, T.V., II; Berenbrock, C.E.; Freckleton, J.R.; Guymon, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    A simple two-dimensional dam-break model is developed for flood plain study purposes. Both a finite difference grid and an irregular triangle element integrated finite difference formulation are presented. The governing flow equations are approximately solved as a diffusion model coupled to the equation of continuity. Application of the model to a hypothetical dam-break study indicates that the approach can be used to predict a two-dimensional dam-break flood plain over a broad, flat plain more accurately than a one-dimensional model, especially when the flow can break-out of the main channel and then return to the channel at other downstream reaches. ?? 1985.

  4. Tobacco branding, plain packaging, pictorial warnings, and symbolic consumption.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2012-05-01

    We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure. PMID:22203384

  5. Lineaments in coastal plain sediments as seen in ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withington, C. F.

    1973-01-01

    Examination of satellite imagery over the Atlantic Coastal Plain near Washington, D. C. shows numerous lineaments, which cannot be accounted for by any known cultural or natural features. At least some of these lineaments represent the surface expression of faults, for one of them has been correlated with the outcrop of a fault that had been traced for several miles in southern Prince Georges County, Maryland. If a substantial number of these lineaments do indeed represent fault traces, the fact that they show on the surface suggests that the geologic history of the Coastal Plain is much more complex than has previously been recognized, and that faulting may have occurred in the Holocene, much later than has generally been recognized. The importance that such recent movements could have on future development of the Coastal Plain should be emphasized.

  6. Nature, Distribution, and Origin of Titan's Undifferentiated Plains ("Blandlands")

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, R. M. C.; Malaska, M. J.; Solomonidou, A.; Le Gall, A. A.; Janssen, M. A.; Neish, C.; Turtle, E. P.; Birch, S. P.; Hayes, A.; Radebaugh, J.; Coustenis, A.; Stiles, B. W.; Kirk, R. L.; Mitchell, K. L.; Lawrence, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Undifferentiated Plains on Titan are vast expanses of terrains that appear radar-dark and fairly uniform in Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images and are often referred to as "blandlands". While the interpretation of several other geologic units on Titan - such as dunes, lakes, and well-preserved impact craters - has been relatively straightforward, the origin of the Undifferentiated Plains has remained elusive. SAR images show that these terrains are mostly found at mid-latitudes and show no major topographic features. Their gradational boundaries and paucity of recognizable features make geologic interpretation challenging. We mapped the distribution of these terrains using SAR swaths up to flyby T92 (7/2013), which cover > 50% of Titan's surface. We compared SAR images with other data sets, including topography, the response from RADAR radiometry, hyperspectral imaging data from Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS), and near infrared imaging from the Imaging Science Subsystem. We examined and evaluated different formation mechanisms, including (i) cryovolcanic origin, consisting of overlapping flows of low relief or (ii) sedimentary origins, resulting from fluvial/lacustrine or aeolian deposition, or accumulation of photolysis products created in the atmosphere. Our results are consistent with a sedimentary origin for the Undifferentiated Plains. We discuss the possible contributing processes (photolysis products, aeolian, and fluvial/lacustrine deposition). VIMS and radiometry analysis of the Undifferentiated Plains presented here is consistent with tholin-like materials as a major component for the materials in the Plains. We conclude that the Undifferentiated Plains are sedimentary in origin and likely formed by a combination of aeolian, fluvial and lacustrine deposition, together with atmospheric organic particle deposition, possibly in differing proportions depending on location.

  7. Causes and Predictability of the 2012 Great Plains Drought

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerling, M.; Eischeid, J.; Kumar, A.; Leung, R.; Mariotti, A.; Mo, K.; Schubert, S.; Seager, R.

    2013-01-01

    Central Great Plains precipitation deficits during May-August 2012 were the most severe since at least 1895, eclipsing the Dust Bowl summers of 1934 and 1936. Drought developed suddenly in May, following near-normal precipitation during winter and early spring. Its proximate causes were a reduction in atmospheric moisture transport into the Great Plains from the Gulf of Mexico. Processes that generally provide air mass lift and condensation were mostly absent, including a lack of frontal cyclones in late spring followed by suppressed deep convection in summer owing to large-scale subsidence and atmospheric stabilization. Seasonal forecasts did not predict the summer 2012 central Great Plains drought development, which therefore arrived without early warning. Climate simulations and empirical analysis suggest that ocean surface temperatures together with changes in greenhouse gases did not induce a substantial reduction in summertime precipitation over the central Great Plains during 2012. Yet, diagnosis of the retrospective climate simulations also reveals a regime shift toward warmer and drier summertime Great Plains conditions during the recent decade, most probably due to natural decadal variability. As a consequence, the probability for severe summer Great Plains drought may have increased in the last decade compared to the 1980s and 1990s, and the so-called tail-risk for severe drought may have been heightened in summer 2012. Such an extreme drought event was nonetheless still found to be a rare occurrence within the spread of 2012 climate model simulations. Implications of this study's findings for U.S. seasonal drought forecasting are discussed.

  8. Stratigraphic and hydrogeologic framework of the Alabama Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Tertiary and Cretaceous sand aquifers of the Southeastern United States Coastal Plain comprise a major multlstate aquifer system informally defined as the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system, which is being studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer System Analysis (RASA) program. The major objectives of each RASA study are to identify, delineate, and map the distribution of permeable clastlc rock, to examine the pattern of ground-water flow within the regional aquifers, and to develop digital computer simulations to understand the flow system. The Coastal Plain aquifers in Alabama are being studied as a part of this system. This report describes the stratlgraphlc framework of the Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary Systems in Alabama to aid in delineating aquifers and confining units within the thick sequence of sediments that comprises the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system in the State. Stratigraphlc units of Cretaceous and Tertiary age that make up most of the aquifer system in the Coastal Plain of Alabama consist of clastlc deposits of Early Cretaceous age; the Coker and Gordo Formations of the Tuscaloosa Group, Eutaw Formation, and Selma Group of Late Cretaceous age; and the Midway, Wilcox, and Clalborne Groups of Tertiary age. However, stratigraphlc units of late Eocene to Holocene age partially overlie and are hydraulically connected to clastic deposits in southern Alabama. These upper carbonate and clastlc stratlgraphic units also are part of the adjoining Florldan and Gulf Coastal Lowlands aquifer systems. The Coastal Plain aquifer system is underlain by pre-Cretaceous rocks consisting of low-permeabillty sedimentary rocks of Paleozolc, Triassic, and Jurassic age, and a complex of metamorphic and igneous rocks of Precambrian and Paleozolc age similar to those found near the surface in the Piedmont physiographic province. Twelve hydrogeologlc units in the Alabama Coastal Plain are defined--slx aquifers and six confining

  9. Snake River Plain FORGE Well Data for USGS-142

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Podgorney

    2015-11-23

    Well data for the USGS-142 well located in eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. This data collection includes lithology reports, borehole logs, and photos of rhyolite core samples. This collection of data has been assembled as part of the site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. They were assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  10. Dynamics of playa lakes in the Texas High Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. C., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Regional viewing of ERTS-1 imagery around the test sites shows that storm paths can be accurately traced and a count made of the number of intermittent lake basins filled by the storm. Therefore, during wet years ERTS-type imagery can be used to conduct a reliable count of the tens of thousands of natural lake basins on the southern High Plains which contain water. This type of regional overview of water filled basins in the normally arid southern High Plains is illustrated by bands 6 and 7, ERTS E-1078-16524.

  11. Exploring geothermal structures in the Ilan Plain, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chen-Tung; Wang, Chien-Ying; Shih, Ruey-Chan

    2016-04-01

    The Ilan Plain in northeast Taiwan is located at the southwestern tip of the Okinawa Trough, which extends westward into the Taiwan orogeny. The Ilan Plain covered by thick sediments is clipped by the Hsuehshan Range in the northwest side and the Central Range in the south side. High geothermal gradients with plenteous hot springs of this area may result from magmatism associated with the back-arc spreading of the Okinawa Trough. In this study, we use geophysical methods to explore underground structures in the whole Ilan Plain, especially around the LangYang river and the SanShin area. We aim to find high geothermal potential spots in the plain area. The research is divided into three parts. First, we use the explosion source refraction with 119 Texan instruments, covering most of the Ilan Plain. Second, we use two mini-vibrators to investigate the area along the LangYang river by reflection seismics. Third, we explore a significant fault by refraction seismics and semi-reflection seismics with the impactor source. Combining large-scale and local scale seismic data, we find that in the Ilan Plain the shallow part is filled with Quaternary alluvial deposits. The basement is gradual thicker from the east to the center and then thin out to the west. In the deep part, there is a significant difference between the northern and southern sides of LangYang river. The northern is deposited with the Szeleng sandstone, dipping obliquely to the south. But, the southern side is separated into the Szeleng sandstone and the Kanko formation, dipping smooth to the north. This suggests that the fault which known as Zailian fault has an offset about 1 km just along the LangYang river and extends to the east along the river. The heat sources from magmatism under the offshore volcanic island (Kueishantao) migrate into the Ilan Plain which may provide heat to the Szeleng sandstone. The hydrothermal solutions migrate in the Szeleng sandstone and move up to the shallow along the Zailian

  12. Plain and Rolled Images from Paired Fingerprint Cards

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Plain and Rolled Images from Paired Fingerprint Cards (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 29 is being distributed for use in development and testing fingerprint matching systems. The data consist of 216 ten-print fingerprint card pairs with both the rolled and plains (from a bottom of the fingerprint card) scanned at 19.7 pixels per mm. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  13. Water Ice Clouds over the Northern Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 14 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 48.5 N and 240.5 W, displays splotchy water ice clouds that obscure the northern lowland plains in the region where the Viking 2 spacecraft landed. This image is far enough north to catch the edge of the north polar hood that develops during the northern winter. This is a cap of water and carbon dioxide ice clouds that form over the Martian north pole. As Mars progresses into northern spring, the persistent north polar hood ice clouds will dissipate and the surface viewing conditions will improve greatly. As the season develops, an equatorial belt of water ice clouds will form. This belt of water ice clouds is as characteristic of the Martian climate as the southern hemisphere summer dust storm season. Seasons on Mars have a dramatic effect on the state of the dynamic Martian atmosphere. The Story Muted in an almost air-brushed manner, this image doesn't have the crispness that most THEMIS images have. That's because clouds were rising over the surface of the red planet on the day this picture was taken. Finding clouds on Mars might remind us of conditions here on Earth, but these Martian clouds are made of frozen water and frozen carbon dioxide -- in other words, clouds of ice and 'dry ice.' Strange as that may sound, the clouds seen here form on a pretty regular basis at the north Martian pole during its winter season. As springtime comes to the northern hemisphere of Mars (and fall comes to the southern), these clouds will slowly disappear, and a nice belt of water ice clouds will form around the equator. So, if you were a THEMIS camera aimer, that might tell you when your best viewing conditions for different areas on Mars would be. As interesting as clear pictures of Martian landforms are, however, you wouldn't want to bypass the weather altogether. Pictures showing seasonal shifts are great for scientists to study, because they reveal a lot about the patterns of the Martian climate and the

  14. Constraints on the Derivation of Cerberus Plains Floodwaters From Cerberus Plains Volcanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanagan, P. D.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Burr, D. M.; McEwen, A. S.

    2002-12-01

    Based on calculations of volatile release from estimated total volumes of Cerberus Plains (CP) volcanics and estimated water content of martian basalts, Plescia [1] proposed that water vapor released by CP volcanism may have precipitated over the plains and produced fluvial systems. Since refined measurements of the dimensions of individual lava flows based on MOLA data is now possible, the dimensions of the youngest flows are easy to measure and lower bounds on the dimensions of older, embayed flows can be determined. If magmatically derived water vapor from individual volcanic events precipitated over the plains and provided the water for outflow events, then the mass of dissolved water should equal or exceed the mass of flood waters. Lava flows embaying Marte Valles (MV) extend for at least 1200 km, are roughly 40 km in width within the MV outflow channel, and have flow fronts approximately 25m high. The total volume for these flows is 1.2e3 km3. Assuming a bulk density of 2000 kg/m3 and 0.5 wt% H2O content, this equates to 1.2e13 kg H2O. Burr et al. [2] estimated a discharge of 5e6 m3/s for MV. If all the erupted water vapor were instantly condensed at the vent, it could provide the MV discharge rate for only about an hour. These values may overestimate the quantities of water released if the lavas were not devolatilized completely. It is also unlikely that all the H2O in the lava would contribute to MV flood waters as some of the water would likely be precipitated regionally and result in widespread networks of dendritic channels; networks of small dendritic channels are noted in the vicinity of MV [2], but they are confined to just a few locales. Additionally, it may be unlikely that all the volatiles were released simultaneously as the eruption duration of CP lavas was likely on the order of years [3]. For these reasons, we conclude that condensation from the eruption plume could not form the major erosional flood channels seen in the CP. If the lavas are

  15. SWAT application in low-gradient Coastal Plain landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-gradient coastal plain watersheds present unique challenges for watershed modeling. Broad low-gradient floodplains with considerable in-stream vegetation contribute to low-velocity streamflow. In addition, direct interaction between streamflow and surficial aquifers must also be considered. H...

  16. Long Term Agroecosystem Research in the southern plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southern Plains (SP) site of the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is headquartered at USDA-ARS’s Grazinglands Research Laboratory (GRL) in El Reno, Oklahoma. The GRL was established in 1948. A long-term watershed and climate research program was established in the Little Washita ...

  17. Regional dynamics of grassland change in the western Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drummond, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the contemporary land-cover changes in two western Great Plains ecoregions between 1973 and 2000. Agriculture and other land uses can have a substantial effect on grassland cover that varies regionally depending on the primary driving forces of change. In order to better understand change, the rates, types, and causes of land conversion were examined for 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000 using Landsat satellite data and a statistical sampling strategy. The overall estimated rate of land-cover change between 1973 and 2000 was 7.4% in the Northwestern Great Plains and 11.5% in the Western High Plains. Trends in both ecoregions have similarities, although the dynamics of change differ temporally depending on driving forces. Between 1973 and 1986, grassland cover declined when economic opportunity drove an expansion of agriculture. Between 1986 and 2000, grassland expanded as public policy and a combination of socioeconomic factors drove a conversion from agriculture to grassland. ?? 2007 Copyright by the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

  18. Fields of Opportunity: Wind Machines Return to the Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowers, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a rebirth of wind machines on the rural landscape. In ironic fashion the wind's kinetic energy has grown in significance through its ability to generate commercial amounts of electricity, the commodity that a few generations earlier hastened the demise of the old Great Plains windmill. Yet the reemergence of wind…

  19. MAP OF ECOREGIONS OF THE MISSISSIPPI ALLUVIAL PLAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecoregions of The Mississippi Alluvial Plain (73) have been identified, mapped, and described and provide a geographic structure for environmental resources research, assessment, monitoring, and management. This project is part of a larger effort by the U.S. EPA to create a ...

  20. REMOVING RADIUM FROM WATER BY PLAIN AND TREATED ACTIVATED ALUMINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research determined the feasibility of using BaSO4-impregnated activated alumina and plain activated alumina for radium removal from groundwater by fixed-bed adsorption. The major factors influencing radium adsorption onto the two types of alumina were identified. The radium ...

  1. Long-term Agroecosystem Research in the Northern Great Plains.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmer, M.; Sanderson, M.; Liebig, M. A.; Wienhold, B.; Awada, T.; Papiernik, S.; Osborne, S.; Kemp, W.; Okalebo, J. A.; Riedall, W.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern Great Plains is the bread basket of the United States, accounting for a substantial portion of U.S. agricultural production. This region faces critical challenges regarding balancing food needs, resource conservation (e.g Ogallala aquifer), environmental concerns, and rural economy development. Developing transformative, multifunctional systems will require equally imaginative and efficient tools to help farmers manage complex agroecosystems in a rapidly changing climate. The Northern Plains long-term agroecosystem research (LTAR) site at Mandan, ND and the Platte River High Plains LTAR (ARS/University of Nebraska-Lincoln) at Lincoln, NE in collaboration with USDA-ARS research units in Brookings, SD and Fargo, ND are collaborating to address the grand challenge of providing and sustaining multiple service provisions from Northern Great Plains agroecosystems. We propose to attain these goals through sustainable intensification based on the adoption of conservation agriculture principles including reduced soil disturbance, livestock integration, and greater complexity and diversity in the cropping system. Here, we summarize new concepts these locations have pioneered in dynamic cropping systems, resource use efficiency, and agricultural management technologies. As part of the LTAR network, we will conduct long-term cross-site research to design and assess new agricultural practices and systems aimed at improving our understanding of decision making processes and outcomes across an array of agricultural systems.

  2. Vernacular Literacy on the Lake Titicaca High Plains, Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Frank; Apaza, Emilio Chambi

    2006-01-01

    Ethnographic "New Literacy Studies" question the idea that literacy as such has any uniform effects, arguing instead that effects of literacy inhere in the social practices that impart it. What change, then, does literacy produce where it arrived from two opposed sets of practices? In Quechua-and Aymara-speaking villages on the high plains of Lake…

  3. Introducing Plain Language Principles to Business Communication Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Rachelle R.

    2012-01-01

    In response to current federal mandates requiring selected businesses and government agencies to use plain language (PL) when reporting information to the public, this article advocates the introduction of PL principles into current business communication curricula. Despite recent PL mandates and advances, many current business textbooks and…

  4. Women of the Plains and Mountains: Programs for Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesmith, Lorraine, Comp.

    Rural librarians in Colorado, Kansas, and Oklahoma are involved in a 1-year project designed to assist them in implementing humanities programming for adults; "Women of the Plains and Mountains" is one of three packets compiled for the project. The packet is designed to provide a step-by-step guide for the librarian with little or no experience in…

  5. Literature of the Plains and Mountains: Programs for Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesmith, Lorraine, Comp.

    A 1-year project in Colorado, Kansas, and Oklahoma is designed to assist rural librarians in implementing humanities programming for adults; "Literature of the Plains and Mountains" is one of three packets compiled for the project. The packet is designed to provide a step-by-step guide for the librarian with little or no experience in adult…

  6. Heritage of the Plains and Mountains: Programs for Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesmith, Lorraine, Comp.

    Thirty rural libraries in Colorado, Kansas, and Oklahoma have been selected to participate in a 1-year project to assist public librarians in implementing humanities programming for adults; "Heritage of the Plains and Mountains" is one of three packets compiled for the project. The packet is designed to provide a step-by-step guide for the…

  7. Astrobiology and the Basaltic Plains in Gusev Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, D. J.; Clark, B. C.; Crumpler, L. S.; Farmer, J. D.; Grotzinger, John P.; Haskin, Larry A.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Schroeder, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This report assesses the availability of nutrient elements, energy and liquid water on the plains surrounding Columbia Memorial Station by evaluating observations by the MER rover Spirit in the context of previous Mars missions, Earth-based studies of martian meteorites and studies of microbial communities on Earth that represent potential analogs of martian biota.

  8. Summative Evaluation of Mountain-Plains. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, Michael B.; And Others

    This second document in a three-volume summative evaluation report presents a portion of the internal evaluation conducted by the Mountain-Plains program, a residential, family-based education program developed to improve the economic potential and lifestyle of selected student families in a six-state region. (The three-volume report presents both…

  9. Great Plains Workshop held to prepare for USArray deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Mary S.; Gao, Stephen S.; Liu, Kelly H.; Nicolaysen, Kirsten E.; Oviatt, Charles G.

    Relative to most parts of North America, the Great Plains region, which is bordered by the Rocky Mountain Front on the west and the Mississippi River on the east, has been understudied in terms of the structure, formation, and evolution of the underlying crust, mantle, and core. The anticipated arrival of the USArray portable seismic stations, which will cover the entire United States regardless of surface geology and tectonic activities, and the deployment of the accompanying flexible array stations and the permanent seismic stations in this area, will fill this gap and address numerous problems related to the structure and dynamics of the Earth. Detailed information about USArraycan be found at http://www.earthscope.org/usarray/.To maximize the effectiveness of the upcoming USArray, formulate cooperative studies, and identify geologic targets for detailed studies using the flexible array stations of USArray, a pre-EarthScope Great Plains workshop was recently hosted by Kansas State University's Department of Geology The workshop brought together about 40 geoscientists with interests ranging from surface processes to mantle dynamics, from about 25 institutions. Participants discussed scientific objectives related to USArray's Great Plains coverage, with an emphasis on future collaborations to maximize our understanding of the geology of the Great Plains region, from the Earth's surface to the core-mantle boundary. This will lead to a better understanding of the geologic development of cratonic regions, and provide valuable data for integrated studies of continental lithosphere and deep Earth structure over a wide range of scales.

  10. Rural School District Reorganization on the Great Plains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Miles

    2002-01-01

    Rural school district reorganization and school consolidation are put into perspective by reviewing the large population increases that fueled small-school growth in the Great Plains, 1870-1930. Since the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, population losses, improvements in transportation, and arguments advocating economies of scale and increased…

  11. Flour Flame Thrower: The "Flaming Potential" of Plain Flour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Plain flour has a lot of chemical energy packed into it. When the flour is in a clump or pile it does not ignite although it may blacken. This is because there is not enough flour exposed to the oxygen in the air. Aerosolising the flour exposes it to much more oxygen allowing a self sustaining combustion reaction to occur when an ignition source…

  12. 19th Century Plains Indian Robe Painting: Wearable Art Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Gerald R.

    1983-01-01

    The Indians of the Great Plains of North America once wore some of the most magnificent works of art in the form of bison robes that were painted in a variety of modes. These forms of expression have become obsolete and their function has been replaced by new materials. (Availability: CHEA National Office, 151 Slater Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1P…

  13. A Brief Overview of the Mountain-Plains Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Rowan W.

    This report discusses the five-year history of the Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program. In broad terms, the program is viewed as a human development program and not simply as a technical training program. The adult population it serves is defined as rural disadvantaged, and the primary selection criterion is…

  14. Education Tomorrow: A Collection of Articles From Mountain-Plains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenenbock, Michael C., Comp.

    The booklet contains 18 articles, essentially journalistic efforts topically organized according to the categories overview, research, education, human growth and development, and support, which describe the Mountain-Plains Program, a regional program in comprehensive family career education in Montana. Article titles and their authors are:…

  15. METRIC estimated ET evaluation on the semiarid Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declining groundwater levels in the Southern High Plains of the United States, and the fact that agriculture in this region uses more than 90% of groundwater withdrawals, requires efficient agricultural water use. Accurate regional evapotranspiration (ET) maps would provide valuable information on c...

  16. A Socioeconomic Profile of the Northern Great Plains Coal Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Paul R.; And Others

    When historic (1940-70) and recent (1970-74) trends in population, income, and employment for the Northern Great Plains coal region are compared with that for the entire U.S. and all U.S. nonmetro counties, data reveal a minimal population increase from 1940 to 1970, a period of declining agricultural employment and high outmigration rates. In…

  17. Deathscapes, Topocide, Domicide: The Plains in Contemporary Print Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dando, Christina E.

    2009-01-01

    The American print media are a powerful mechanism for communicating information about places and environment to the American public. When it comes to a landscape such as the Great Plains, experienced by many Americans as either sleep-through land in a car or flyover land in a plane, the print media may be their only real source of information…

  18. The Horse and the Plains Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuessler, Raymond

    Produced by the Montana Council for Indian Education as part of its Indian Culture Series, the five short articles in the book explain how the Plains Indians got horses in legend and in fact. The stories describe the behavior codes, rules, cultural and social significance, and eventual cessation of horse raids, and the ceremony and tradition…

  19. Groundwater modeling of the Texas High Plains using MODFLOW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to develop and calibrate a groundwater model for a four county area in the Texas High Plains of the Ogallala Aquifer Region. This study is a major component of a comprehensive regional analysis of groundwater depletion in the Ogallala Aquifer Region with the purpose o...

  20. Visualizing Gender Variability in Plains Indian Pictographic Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carocci, Max

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the few published references to gender variation among Plains Indians in order to contribute to a growing corpus of literature concerned with building a more complete picture of the social and cultural lives of individuals accustomed to these practices. In recent years these people have been known among Native Americans under…

  1. The dawn of the Southern Plains Range Research Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On 31 October 1913, U.S. Senator Thomas P. Gore announced that Woodward would be the site of the government experiment farm in western Oklahoma. This marked the beginning of a century of USDA agricultural research on the southern Great Plains. A 160 acre parcel of land located southwest of the cit...

  2. Producing and Marketing Proso Millet in the Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proso millet is a short-season summer crop that produces well in the semi-arid western Great Plains and is suitable for diversifying and intensifying dryland production systems. Proso allows transition back to winter wheat in cropping rotations. No-till methods work well with proso establishment. Pr...

  3. The Renewal of Population Loss in the Nonmetropolitan Great Plains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Don E.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of population trends in 293 nonmetropolitan counties in the Great Plains, 1950-90, reveals that the rural population turnaround of the 1970s has indeed ended. During the 1980s, 84% of these counties had total population declines, and 96% had net outmigration. The most important variable in producing positive trends was inmigration of…

  4. Wind Shear Characteristics at Central Plains Tall Towers (presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

    2006-06-05

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Analyze wind shear characteristics at tall tower sites for diverse areas in the central plains (Texas to North Dakota)--Turbines hub heights are now 70-100 m above ground and Wind measurements at 70-100+ m have been rare. (2) Present conclusions about wind shear characteristics for prime wind energy development regions.

  5. 25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge in background. Van Nest, Bronx Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 12.75./78. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  6. BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY IN MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAINS HEADWATER STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to assess the applicability of using landscape variables in conjunction with water quality and benthic data to efficiently estimate stream condition of select headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains. Eighty-two streams with riffle sit...

  7. Acanthosis Nigricans among Northern Plains American Indian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Blakely; Noonan, Curtis; Bentley, Bonnie; Conway, Kathrene; Corcoran, Mary; FourStar, Kris; Gress, Shannon; Wagner, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present cross-sectional and prospective data on acanthosis nigricans (AN) prevalence in the context of other risk factors for diabetes including high body mass index (BMI), abnormal blood pressure (BP), physical inactivity and family history of diabetes among Northern Plains American Indian (AI) children.…

  8. A Plain English Map of the Human Glycolysis Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Presents a plain English map of the gene coding for the glycolysis enzymes in humans to be used as a teaching tool. The map can be used to illustrate that every reaction in a cell requires an enzyme, and that every enzyme is a protein coded for by a gene somewhere on the chromosomes. (WRM)

  9. The future of irrigation on the High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The future of irrigation on the U.S. High Plains was examined through the lens of past changes in water supply and innovations in irrigation technology, management and agronomy. The innovations have greatly increased the efficiency of water application and use, and the agricultural productivity of t...

  10. River diversions, avulsions and captures in the Tortuguero coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galve, Jorge Pedro; Alvarado, Guillermo; Pérez Peña, José Vicente; Azañón, José Miguel; Mora, Mauricio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The Tortuguero area is a coastal plain that forms part of the North Limón sedimentary basin, the back-arc region of the Caribbean side of Costa Rica. This coastal plain is characterised by an abnormal drainage pattern with river captures, diversions and shifts in channel directions. We are analyzing this anomalous drainage network adopting a classical geomorphological approach combined with geomorphometric techniques. The SRTM DEM at 1 arc-second of resolution (~30 m) from NASA, topographic maps 1:50,000, satellital images and the digital cartography of the drainage network have been used for inventorying the channel pattern anomalies. River segments were categorized according to sinuosity, orientation, slope changes and incision using GIS tools. Initially, anomalies in the analyzed river courses suggested that buried thrust fronts could disrupt their natural pattern. However, we have not identified any evidence to link the activity of buried structures with the disruption of natural drainage. Blind thrusts detected through seismic subsurface exploration in the SE sector of the Tortuguero plain do not seem to produce changes in the sinuosity, orientation, slope and incision of rivers as those observed in the deeply studied tectonically active area of the Po Plain (Italy). The identified river pattern anomalies have been explained due to other alternative causes: (1) the migration of the mouths of Reventazón, Pacuare and Matina rivers is produced by sand sedimentation in the coast because of a successive ridge beach formation. This migration to the SE has the same direction than the main ocean currents those deposited the sand. (2) The anomalous course of Parismina river is most probably conditioned by the fracturation of the dissected volcanic apron of Turrialba volcano. (3) Channel migration and capture of Barbilla river by Matina river can be triggered by the tectonic tilting of the coastal plain towards the SE. The subsidence of the SE sector of the plain was

  11. Plains tectonism on Venus: The deformation belts of Lavinia Planitia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, Steven W.; Jankowski, David G.; Simons, Mark; Solomon, Sean C.; Hager, Bradford H.; Mcgill, George E.

    1993-01-01

    High-resolution radar images from the Magellan spacecraft have revealed the first details of the morphology of the Lavinia Planitia region of Venus. A number of geologic units can be distinguished, including volcanic plains units with a range of ages. Transecting these plains over much of the Lavinia region are two types of generally orthogonal features that we interpret to be compressional wrinkle ridges and extensional grooves. The dominant tectonic features of Lavinia are broad elevated belts of intense deformation that transect the plains with complex geometry. They are many tens to a few hundred kilometers wide, as much as 1000 km long, and elevated hundreds of meters above the surrounding plains. Two classes of deformation belts are seen in the Lavinia region. 'Ridge belts' are composed of parallel ridges, each a few hundred meters in elevation, that we interpret to be folds. Typical fold spacings are 5-10 km. 'Fracture belts' are dominated instead by intense faulting, with faults in some instances paired to form narrow grabens. There is also some evidence for modest amounts of horizontal shear distributed across both ridge and fracture belts. Crosscutting relationships among the belts show there to be a range in belt ages. In western Lavinia, in particular, many ridge and fracture belts appear to bear a relationship to the much smaller wrinkle ridges and grooves on the surrounding plains: ridge morphology tends to dominate belts that lie more nearly parallel to local plains wrinkle ridges, and fracture morphology tends to dominate belts that lie more nearly parallel to local plains grooves. We use simple models to explore the formation of ridge and fracture belts. We show that convective motions in the mantle can couple to the crust to cause horizontal stresses of a magnitude sufficient to induce the formation of deformation belts like those observed in Lavinia. We also use the small-scale wavelengths of deformation observed within individual ridge belts to

  12. Dendroclimatic potential of plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) from the Northern Great Plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edmonson, Jesse; Friedman, Jonathan; Meko, David; Touchan, Ramzi; Scott, Julian; Edmonson, Alan

    2014-01-01

    A new 368-year tree-ring chronology (A.D. 1643–2010) has been developed in western North Dakota using plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) growing on the relatively undisturbed floodplain of the Little Missouri River in the North Unit of Theodore Roosevelt National Park. We document many slow-growing living trees between 150–370 years old that contradict the common understanding that cottonwoods grow fast and die young. In this northern location, cottonwood produces distinct annual rings with dramatic interannual variability that strongly crossdate. The detrended tree-ring chronology is significantly positively correlated with local growing season precipitation and soil moisture conditions (r  =  0.69). This time series shows periods of prolonged low radial tree growth during the known droughts of the instrumental record (e.g. 1931–1939 and 1980–1981) and also during prehistory (e.g. 1816–1823 and 1856–1865) when other paleoclimate studies have documented droughts in this region. Tree rings of cottonwood will be a useful tool to help reconstruct climate, streamflow, and the floodplain history of the Little Missouri River and other northern river systems.

  13. Ground-water geology of the Gonaives Plain, Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1950-01-01

    The Gonaives Plain lies in northern Haiti at the head of the Gulf of Gonaives. Ground water in the plain is used widely for domestic and stock purposes but only to limited extent for irrigation. The future agricultural development of the plain will depend in large measure on the proper utilization of available ground-water supplies for irrigation. The rocks in the region of the Gonaives Plain belong to the upper (?) Cretaceous series of the Cretaceous system, the Nocene and Oligovene series of the Tertiary system, and the Pleistocene and Recent series of the Quarternary system. The structural depression occupied by the Gonaives Plain was formed in post-Miocene time by the dislocation of Oligocene and older rocks along normal faults and by the tilting of the adjacent crustal blocks. The lower parts of the depression contain a Pleistocene and Recent alluvial fill deposited by streams tributary to the plain. The upper (?) Cretaceous rocks include aniesite and basalt lava flows locally intercalated with some beds of tuff and agglomerate. These rocks are generally dense and impervious but locally small springs rise from fractures and bedding planes or from weathered zones. The Nocene rocks are hard, thin-bedded, cherty limestones with some beds of massive chalky limestone. Considerable ground water circulates through joints, bedding planes, and solution passages in these rocks giving rise to important springs such as Sources Madame Charles. These springs discharge at the rate of about 110 liters per second. The Oligocene rocks include limestone, shely limestone, limy sandstone, marl, and shale. The limestone beds contain solution passages and other openings and these may afford capacity for the circulation of ground water. However, no wells or springs in Oligocene rocks were observed during the present study. The alluvial fill of the plain is composed of interbedded lenses of clay, silt, sand, and gravel. These deposits contain a zone of saturation whose upper limit is

  14. 49 CFR 215.109 - Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication... Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.109 Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication system. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has a plain bearing box with...

  15. 49 CFR 215.109 - Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication... Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.109 Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication system. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has a plain bearing box with...

  16. 49 CFR 215.109 - Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication... Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.109 Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication system. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has a plain bearing box with...

  17. 49 CFR 215.109 - Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication... Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.109 Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication system. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has a plain bearing box with...

  18. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood-plain and...

  19. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood-plain and...

  20. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flood-plain and...

  1. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood-plain and...

  2. Constructing a Home on the Range: Homemaking in Early-Twentieth-Century Plains Photograph Albums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dando, Christina E.

    2008-01-01

    For people living near the coasts or mountains of America, it must be hard to imagine longing for a "home on the plains"--but many Americans have had, and still have, a home on the Plains. The stereotypical American image of the Plains is flatness, austerity, emptiness. Not all would consider this an ideal landscape for home. So how did the people…

  3. 40 CFR 81.152 - Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.152 Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the...

  4. 40 CFR 81.149 - Northern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.149 Northern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the...

  5. 41 CFR 102-2.140 - What elements of plain language appear in the FMR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... language appear in the FMR? 102-2.140 Section 102-2.140 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... MANAGEMENT REGULATION SYSTEM Plain Language Regulatory Style § 102-2.140 What elements of plain language appear in the FMR? The FMR is written in a “plain language” regulatory style. This style is easy to...

  6. 41 CFR 102-2.140 - What elements of plain language appear in the FMR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... language appear in the FMR? 102-2.140 Section 102-2.140 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... MANAGEMENT REGULATION SYSTEM Plain Language Regulatory Style § 102-2.140 What elements of plain language appear in the FMR? The FMR is written in a “plain language” regulatory style. This style is easy to...

  7. Women's Life Course in Northern Plains Indian Societies: Achieving the Honored Rank of Old Lady.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, Alice B.

    Among Indian groups of the Northwestern Plains (Blackfoot, Plains Cree, Dakota, Plains Ojibwa), older persons are respected for the spiritual power they have obtained. Differences exist between the several ethnic groups, but in general they assume that attainment of maturity and then old age proves spiritual power and makes the elder a proper…

  8. Identification of thick sedimentary plains north of Hellas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salese, Francesco; Mangold, Nicolas; Ansan, Veronique; Carter, John; Ody, Anouck; Poulet, François; Ori, Gian Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the origin and timing of intercrater plains is crucial to understand the Martian history in relation with endogenic and/or exogenic cycles. Intercrater plains north of Hellas basin on Mars are thought to have hosted different sedimentary environments during the Late Noachian/Early Hesperian, and they offer a well-preserved insight into the regional geological history of Mars. Our new geologic mapping of the intercrater plains north of Hellas Basin is based on the rich data set from MRO and Mars Express and provides new insights into the region's geological history. These findings appear to constrain the interpretation of the nature and age of intercrater plains in this region, although we acknowledge that for example the source of the sedimentary deposits must be subject to further analysis. The northern part of Hellas basin displays topographically flat area, which was characterized during the Late Noachian by sedimentary deposition and later, in the Late Hesperian, by fissural volcanism. The map and crater retention ages enable us to interpret the geologic history of the region. The stratigraphically lower unit is represented by crustal outcrops. Across most of the region, the sedimentary unit covers the basement and is eroded into mesas, erosional windows and perched by fresh craters. Intercrater plains' sedimentary deposits north of Hellas display horizontal light-toned layered rich in Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates and local crossbedding stratification. The Noachian sedimentary deposits of the intercrater plains north of Hellas are locally covered by Hesperian lava flows, showing that intercrater plains are sedimentary and volcanic in origin. We found different erosional (regional and local) surfaces, at HiRISE scale inside sediments due to local erosional windows and at CTX scale we found two important regional erosional surfaces. The oldest between crustal outcrops and sediments, which is likely Middle Noachian in age and the youngest between sediments

  9. Arctic Refuge coastal plain terrestrial wildlife research summaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    In 1980, when the U.S. Congress enacted the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA), it also mandated a study of the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Section 1002 of ANILCA stated that a comprehensive inventory of fish and wildlife resources would be conducted on 1.5 million acres of the Arctic Refuge coastal plain (1002 Area). Potential petroleum reserves in the 1002 Area were also to be evaluated from surface geological studies and seismic exploration surveys. Results of these studies and recommendations for future management of the Arctic Refuge coastal plain were to be prepared in a report to Congress. In 1987, the Department of the Interior published the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, Coastal Plain Resource Assessment - Report and Recommendations to the Congress of the United States and Final Environmental Impact Statement. This report to Congress identified the potential for oil and gas production (updated* most recently by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2001), described the biological resources, and evaluated the potential adverse effects to fish and wildlife resources. The 1987 report analyzed the potential environmental consequences of five management alternatives for the coastal plain, ranging from wilderness designation to opening the entire area to lease for oil and gas developement. The report's summary recommended opening the 1002 Area to an orderly oil and gas leasing program, but cautioned that adverse effects to some wildlife populations were possible. Congress did not act on this recommendation nor any other alternative for the 1002 Area, and scientists continued studies of key wildlife species and habitats on the coastal plain of the Arctic Refuge and surrounding areas. This report contains updated summaries of those scientific investigations of caribou, muskoxen, predators (grizzly bears, wolves, golden eagles), polar bears, snow geese, and their wildlife habitats. Contributions to this report were

  10. Properties of a 5500-year-old flood-plain in the Loup River Basin, Nebraska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, David W.

    2003-12-01

    Flood-plain aggradation within the Loup River Basin of central Nebraska was episodic and alternated with incision throughout much of the Holocene. A widespread episode of flood-plain stability, however, occurred about 5700-5100 cal. year BP. The purpose of this paper is to describe the properties of this buried flood-plain at six sites in the basin, to consider why the properties of the buried flood-plain vary from site to site, and to evaluate possible reasons why the Loup River flood-plains stabilized 5500 years ago. Episodic valley-bottom aggradation was common during flood-plain formation at five of the six sites. The radiocarbon ages, particle-size data, and organic-carbon data for the buried flood-plain reveal that valley-bottom aggradation generally slowed between about 5700 and 5100 cal. year BP. Erratic down-profile changes in percentages of sand, clay, and organic matter indicate flood-plain sedimentation and soil formation were often episodic. Sand and clay rarely show a steady fining-upward trend. Organic matter fluctuates with depth; at some sites multiple, incipient A horizons were buried during waning valley-bottom aggradation. At two localities, the buried flood-plain is evident as a clay-rich stratum that must have been deposited in a paleochannel. Flood-plain stabilization between 5700 and 5100 cal. year BP probably occurred in response to the effects of external climate forcing on vegetation and hydrologic changes. Flood-plains of other rivers in the central Great Plains also stabilized at this time, further supporting a climatic explanation for slowing of valley aggradation and formation of a flood-plain at this time. Recognition of buried flood-plains is important to both soil mapping in valleys and to the discovery of cultural resources in valleys.

  11. Major Air Pollutants Over the Western Plain in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S. C.; Chang, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    The Western Plain of Taiwan where more than two thirds of Taiwan¡¦s 23 million population reside is practically a megacity. Oxidants and particulate matter at levels hazardous to human health are found throughout the Western Plain. In addition, deposition of large amounts of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions has severely stressed the ecosystem. While emission controls have effectively brought down the concentrations of particulate matter in the last decade, ozone concentrations have increased significantly. The cause(s) of the ozone increase is not fully understood. Data taken by Taiwan EPA air quality stations suggest that smaller titration by nitrogen oxide in recent years is a contributor to the ozone increase in urban areas. There is some indication that an increase in synoptic scale background ozone concentration is also a contributor, implying a significant role of long-range transport.

  12. Three-dimensional stress analysis of plain weave composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitcomb, John D.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques were developed and described for performing three-dimensional finite element analysis of plain weave composites. Emphasized here are aspects of the analysis which are different from analysis of traditional laminated composites, such as the mesh generation and representative unit cells. The analysis was used to study several different variations of plain weaves which illustrate the effects of tow waviness on composite moduli, Poisson's ratios, and internal strain distributions. In-plane moduli decreased almost linearly with increasing tow waviness. The tow waviness was shown to cause large normal and shear strain concentrations in composites subjected to uniaxial load. These strain concentrations may lead to earlier damage initiation than occurs in traditional cross-ply laminates.

  13. Update on the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project

    SciTech Connect

    Imler, D.L.

    1985-12-01

    The Great Plains Gasification Plant is the US's first commercial synthetic fuels project based on coal conversion. The ANG Coal Gasification Company is the administer of the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project for the United States Department of Energy. The Project is designed to convert 14 M TPD of North Dakota of lignite into 137.5 MM SCFD of pipeline quality synthetic natural gas (SNG). Located in Mercer County, North Dakota, the gasification plant, and an SNG pipeline. Some 12 years passed from the time the project was conceived unit it became a reality by producing SNG into the Northern Border pipeline in 1984 for use by millions of residential, commercial, and industrial consumers. In this paper, the basic processes utilized in the plant are presented. This is followed by a discussion of the start-up activities and schedule. Finally, some of the more interesting start-up problems are described.

  14. Flood-plain delineation using multispectral data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harker, G. R.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The paper explores the application of a remote sensing technique that may permit the determination of flood-plain areas without the extensive work associated with existing techniques. Multispectral scanner data were simulated by utilizing the density differences in a color-infrared transparency for a section of the Navasota River, Texas. The transparency was taken from a low-flying aircraft and covered an area approximating a square mile. The simulated data were processed by an automatic classification technique previously developed in the remote sensing field. The technique used involves the application of the maximum likelihood rule in order to categorize the data being processed. An attempt was made to distinguish between areas known to be in the flood plain and those outside. A reasonabke correlation was found between boundaries based on computer-processed multispectral data and those produced by techniques currently in use.

  15. Hydrogeologic Framework of the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zapecza, Otto S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents the results of a water-resources, oriented subsurface mapping program within the Coastal Plain of New Jersey. The occurrence and configuration of 15 regional hydrogeologic units have been defined, primarily on the basis of an interpretation of borehole geophysical data. The nine aquifers and six confining beds are composed of unconsolidated clay, silt, sand, and gravel and range in age from Cretaceous to Quaternary. Electric and gamma-ray logs from more than 1,000 Coastal Plain wells were examined. Of these, interpretive data for 302 sites were selected, on the basis of logged depth, quality of data, and data distribution, to prepare structure contour and thickness maps for each aquifer and a thickness map for each confining bed. These maps, together with 14 hydrogeologic sections, show the geometry, lateral extent, and vertical and horizontal relationships among the 15 hydrogeologic units. The hydrogeologic maps and sections show that distinct lower, middle, and upper aquifers are present within the Potomac, Raritan-Magothy aquifer system near the Delaware River from Burlington County to Salem County. Although the lower aquifer is recognized only in this area, the middle aquifer extends into the northeastern Coastal Plain of New Jersey, where it is stratigraphically equivalent to the Farrington aquifer. The upper aquifer extends throughout most of the New Jersey Coastal Plain and is stratigraphically equivalent to the Old Bridge aquifer in the northeastern Coastal Plain. The overlying Merchantville-Woodbury confining bed is the most regionally extensive confining bed within the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Its thickness ranges from less than 100 feet near the outcrop to more than 450 feet along the coast. The Englishtown aquifer system acts as a single aquifer throughout most of its subsurface extent, but it contains two water-bearing sands in pars of Monmouth and Ocean Counties. The overlying Marshalltown-Wenonah confining bed is a thin, leaky

  16. Estimation of the surface heat fluxes over Taiwan's Chiayi Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, T.; Liou, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Traditionally, surface energy fluxes are obtained by model simulations or empirical equations with auxiliary meteorological data. These methods may not effectively represent the surface heat fluxes in a regional scale due to scene variability. On the other hand, remote sensing has the advantage to acquire data of a large area in an instantaneous view. They can be further used to retrieve surface radiation and heat fluxes over a large area. In this study, the airborne and satellite images in conjunction with meteorological data and ground observations were used to estimate the surface heat fluxes over Taiwan's Chiayi Plain. The results indicate that surface heat fluxes can be properly determined from both airborne and satellite images. The correlation coefficient of surface heat fluxes with in situ corresponding observations is over 0.60. We also observe that the remote sensing data can efficiently provide a long term monitoring of surface heat fluxes over Taiwan's Chiayi Plain.

  17. Snake River Plain FORGE Well Data for INEL-1

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert Podgorney

    1979-03-01

    Well data for the INEL-1 well located in eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. This data collection includes caliper logs, lithology reports, borehole logs, temperature at depth data, neutron density and gamma data, full color logs, fracture analysis, photos, and rock strength parameters for the INEL-1 well. This collection of data has been assembled as part of the site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. They were assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  18. Snake River Plain FORGE Well Data for WO-2

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert Podgorney

    1991-07-29

    Well data for the WO-2 well located in eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. This data collection includes lithology reports, borehole logs, temperature at depth data, neutron density and gamma data, and rock strength parameters for the WO-2 well. This collection of data has been assembled as part of the site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. They were assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  19. Plain Language for Expert or Lay Audiences: Designing Text Using Protocol-Aided Revision. Technical Report No. 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schriver, Karen A.

    This paper recognizes that critics of the "plain language movement" point out that what is "plain" to one audience may mystify and confuse another. It adds that questions such as "Plain language for whom?" and "How can we know whether a text is written in plain language?" raise legitimate concerns about the danger of ignoring the fact that what is…

  20. 12. Examples of the elaborate and plain pressedsteel ceiling panels, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Examples of the elaborate and plain pressed-steel ceiling panels, here removed to the exterior of the building for photographing. A segment of the cornice has been placed above the larger panel. The panel on the left is comprised of four square components; the panel on the right is a single piece. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. Plain film measurement error in acute displaced midshaft clavicle fractures

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Lori Anne; Hunt, Stephen; Squire, Daniel; Moores, Carl; Stone, Craig; O’Dea, Frank; Furey, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background Clavicle fractures are common and optimal treatment remains controversial. Recent literature suggests operative fixation of acute displaced mid-shaft clavicle fractures (DMCFs) shortened more than 2 cm improves outcomes. We aimed to identify correlation between plain film and computed tomography (CT) measurement of displacement and the inter- and intraobserver reliability of repeated radiographic measurements. Methods We obtained radiographs and CT scans of patients with acute DMCFs. Three orthopedic staff and 3 residents measured radiographic displacement at time zero and 2 weeks later. The CT measurements identified absolute shortening in 3 dimensions (by subtracting the length of the fractured from the intact clavicle). We then compared shortening measured on radiographs and shortening measured in 3 dimensions on CT. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were calculated. Results We reviewed the fractures of 22 patients. Bland–Altman repeatability coefficient calculations indicated that radiograph and CT measurements of shortening could not be correlated owing to an unacceptable amount of measurement error (6 cm). Interobserver reliability for plain radiograph measurements was excellent (Cronbach α = 0.90). Likewise, intraobserver reliabilities for plain radiograph measurements as calculated with paired t tests indicated excellent correlation (p > 0.05 in all but 1 observer [p = 0.04]). Conclusion To establish shortening as an indication for DMCF fixation, reliable measurement tools are required. The low correlation between plain film and CT measurements we observed suggests further research is necessary to establish what imaging modality reliably predicts shortening. Our results indicate weak correlation between radiograph and CT measurement of acute DMCF shortening. PMID:27438054

  2. Groundwater quality in the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Tracy A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-10-03

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California established the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Santa Barbara Coastal Plain is one of the study units.

  3. Nature, distribution, and origin of Titan's Undifferentiated Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Malaska, M. J.; Solomonidou, A.; Le Gall, A.; Janssen, M. A.; Neish, C. D.; Turtle, E. P.; Birch, S. P. D.; Hayes, A. G.; Radebaugh, J.; Coustenis, A.; Schoenfeld, A.; Stiles, B. W.; Kirk, R. L.; Mitchell, K. L.; Stofan, E. R.; Lawrence, K. J.

    2016-05-01

    The Undifferentiated Plains on Titan, first mapped by Lopes et al. (Lopes, R.M.C. et al., 2010. Icarus, 205, 540-588), are vast expanses of terrains that appear radar-dark and fairly uniform in Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. As a result, these terrains are often referred to as "blandlands". While the interpretation of several other geologic units on Titan - such as dunes, lakes, and well-preserved impact craters - has been relatively straightforward, the origin of the Undifferentiated Plains has remained elusive. SAR images show that these "blandlands" are mostly found at mid-latitudes and appear relatively featureless at radar wavelengths, with no major topographic features. Their gradational boundaries and paucity of recognizable features in SAR data make geologic interpretation particularly challenging. We have mapped the distribution of these terrains using SAR swaths up to flyby T92 (July 2013), which cover >50% of Titan's surface. We compared SAR images with other data sets where available, including topography derived from the SARTopo method and stereo DEMs, the response from RADAR radiometry, hyperspectral imaging data from Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS), and near infrared imaging from the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS). We examined and evaluated different formation mechanisms, including (i) cryovolcanic origin, consisting of overlapping flows of low relief or (ii) sedimentary origins, resulting from fluvial/lacustrine or aeolian deposition, or accumulation of photolysis products created in the atmosphere. Our analysis indicates that the Undifferentiated Plains unit is consistent with a composition predominantly containing organic rather than icy materials and formed by depositional and/or sedimentary processes. We conclude that aeolian processes played a major part in the formation of the Undifferentiated Plains; however, other processes (fluvial, deposition of photolysis products) are likely to have contributed

  4. METRIC Estimated ET Evaluation on the Semiarid Southern High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, J. L.; Gowda, P. H.; Colaizzi, P. D.; Evett, S. R.; Howell, T. A.; Copeland, K.

    2007-05-01

    Declining groundwater levels in the Southern High Plains of the United States, and the fact that agriculture in this region uses more than 90% of groundwater withdrawals, combine to increase the demand for efficient agricultural water use. Accurate regional evapotranspiration (ET) maps would provide valuable information on crop water use. In this study, we applied METRIC (Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution using Internalized Calibration), a remote sensing based ET algorithm, and micrometeorological data measured at a grass reference ET weather station maintained by the Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration Network (TXHPET). For this purpose, a Landsat Thematic Mapper image covering a major portion of the Southern High Plains (parts of Texas Panhandle and northeastern New Mexico) was acquired for 23 July 2006 at 11:26 AM CST. Comprehensive ground-truth data were collected to develop a detailed land use map showing major crops grown in the region. Performance of the METRIC model was evaluated using measured ET data on five weighing lysimeters at Bushland, TX [35 Deg. 11' N, 102 Deg. 06' W; 1,170 m elevation MSL] managed by the Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS. Lysimeter-measured ET rates varied from 2.4 to 7.8 mm/d. Good agreement was found between the remote sensing based ET and measured ET. Comparison of estimated daily mapped ET values with lysimetric measurements had an accuracy within 9% of the measured ET (r2 = 0.89) with a mean square error of 0.9 mm/d. The use of METRIC for advective conditions of the Southern High Plains is promising; however, more evaluation is needed for different agroclimatological conditions.

  5. Boise geothermal system, western Snake River plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, S.H.; Burnham, W.L.

    1984-07-01

    The Boise geothermal system lies in an area of high heat flow along the northern margin of the western Snake River plain. Exploratory drilling for petroleum and geothermal water, seismic reflection profiling, and regional gravity data permit construction of a detailed structure section across the western plain. A faulted acoustic basement of volcanic rocks lies at depths of 2400 to 6000 ft (730-1830 m) beneath late Cenozoic lacustrine and fluvial deposits in the center of the plain. Volcanic rocks of the acoustic basement are typically basalt out in the plain, but the acoustic basement along the north margin in the vicinity of Boise is largely silicic volcanic rock. Geologic mapping and geothermal well data have provided information on the late Cenozoic geologic units and structures important to the understanding of the Boise geothermal system. The main geothermal aquifer is a sequence of rhyolite layers and minor arkosic and tuffaceous sediment of the Miocene Idavada Volcanics. The aquifer is confined by a sequence of impermeable basaltic tuffs. The aquifer has sufficient fracture permeability to yield 150/sup 0/-170/sup 0/F (65/sup 0/-76.6/sup 0/C) hot water for space heating at a rate of 600 to 1200 gpm from wells drilled in the metropolitan area, north of the Boise River. In this area the rhyolite lies at a depth of 900-2000 ft (274-610 m). Artesian pressure typically lifts water to an elevation of about 2760 ft (840 m). A conceptual model of recharge assumes percolation driven by the topographic head to a depth of more than 7000 ft (2135 m) beneath the granitic highlands northeast of the city. Heated water convects upward through northwest-trending range-front faults.

  6. Hydrogeologic conditions in the coastal plain of New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vowinkel, Eric F.; Foster, W. Kendall

    1981-01-01

    A wedge-shaped mass of unconsolidated sediments composed of alternating layers of clay, silt, sand, and gravel underlies the Coastal Plain of New Jersey. The hydrologic units of this mass vary in thickness, lateral extent, lithology, and water-bearing characteristics. Some of the units act as aquifers, whereas other units act as confining layers. The entire sediment wedge is almost an independent and isolated hydrologic system. Components of the long-term hydrologic budget for the Coastal Plain are precipitation, streamflow, and water loss. Under natural conditions, average precipitation is about 44 inches per year; while streamflow and water loss are about 20 and 24 inches per year, respectively. More than 75 percent of the streamflow in the Coastal Plain is derived from ground-water runoff. Some activities of man have modified the natural hydrologic cycle in the Coastal Plain. The primary activity affecting the system has been the withdrawal of ground water. Major changes in the flow patterns of water in several aquifers have been recognized during the past few decades partially as a result of increasing ground-water withdrawal. Where head gradients are large enough, water can be induced to flow from adjacent surface-water bodies or through confining beds. Induced recharge from the Delaware River to the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system is occurring as a result of pumping stresses in the outcrop area of the aquifer. Recharge from the river to the aquifer from Salem to Burlington County was estimated to be about 113 cubic feet per second in 1978. (USGS)

  7. Monitoring vegetation systems in the Great Plains with ERTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Haas, R. H.; Schell, J. A.; Deering, D. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Great Plains Corridor rangeland project utilizes natural vegetation systems as phenological indicators of seasonal development and climatic effects upon regional growth conditions. A method has been developed for quantitative measurement of vegetation conditions over broad regions using ERTS-1 MSS data. Radiance values recorded in ERTS-1 spectral bands 5 and 7, corrected for sun angle, are used to compute a band ratio parameter which is shown to be correlated with aboveground green biomass on rangelands.

  8. Groundwater Quality in the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, T.A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-10-03

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California established the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Santa Barbara Coastal Plain is one of the study units.

  9. Hot-Cross-Bun' on the Northern Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera narrow angle image (top) shows what, at first glance, might look like a 'hot crossed bun' on the martian northern plains. The context for this landform is shown in the picture on the right. Unlike the southern highlands of Mars, the northern plains are lower and have far fewer impact craters on them. The relatively few craters that are present in the north have been severely eroded and/or buried. The context image shows a circle of mounds on the northern plains near the Phlegra Montes. These mounds were once the rim of a crater formed by impact of a meteorite. The mound in the high-resolution view (top) has been cracked and was at one time mostly covered by a thin veneer of light-toned material that is now seen only partly covering it. These two pictures were taken simultaneously on August 16, 1999, and occur near 45.9oN, 191.1oW. Both images are illuminated by sunlight from the lower right, the high resolution picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide by 10.8 km (6.7 mi) long; the context image is about 115 km (71 miles) on a side. The bright, wispy features in the context image are clouds, their dark shadows can be seen cast upon the surface to the right of each cloud feature.

  10. [Risk assessment of quaternary groundwater contamination in Beijing Plain].

    PubMed

    Guo, Gao-Xuan; Li, Yu; Xu, Liang; Li, Zhi-Ping; Yang, Qing; Xu, Miao-Juan

    2014-02-01

    Firstly, advances in investigation and evaluation of groundwater pollution in China in the last decade were presented, and several issues in the field which hinder the development of groundwater environment were pointed out. Then, four key concepts in risk assessment of groundwater pollution were briefly described with more emphasis on the difference between groundwater pollution assessment and groundwater quality assessment in this paper. After that, a method on risk assessment of groundwater pollution which included four indicators, the pollution assessment, the quality assessment, the vulnerability and the pollution load of groundwater, was presented based on the regional characteristics of Beijing Plain. Also, AHP and expert scoring method were applied to determine the weight of the four evaluation factors. Finally, the application of this method in Beijing Plain showed the area with high, relative high, medium, relative low and low risk of groundwater contamination was 1 232.1 km2, 699.3 km2, 1 951.4 km, 2 644 km2, and 133.2 km2, respectively. The study results showed that the higher risk in the western region was likely caused by the higher pollution load and its higher vulnerability, while the relatively high risk in the southeast of Beijing plain area, the Tongzhou District, is mainly caused by historical pollution sources.

  11. Options of sustainable groundwater development in Beijing Plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yangxiao; Wang, Liya; Liu, Jiurong; Li, Wenpeng; Zheng, Yuejun

    Overexploitation of groundwater resources has supported rapid social and economical developments in Beijing City in last 30 years. The newly constructed emergency well fields have saved Beijing from a critical water crisis caused by a long drought spell of eight consecutive years from 1999 to 2006. But this unsustainable development has resulted in serious consequences: discharges to rivers ceased, large number of pumping wells went dry, and land subsidence caused destruction of underground infrastructure. The completion of the middle route of South to North water transfer project to transfer water from Yangtze river to Beijing City by 2010 provides opportunity to reverse the trend of groundwater depletion and to achieve a long-term sustainable development of groundwater resources in Beijing Plain. Four options of groundwater development in Beijing Plain were formulated and assessed with a regional transient groundwater flow model. The business as usual scenario was used as a reference for the comparative analysis and indicates fast depletion of groundwater resources. The reduction of abstraction scenario has immediate and fast recovery of groundwater levels, especially at the cone of depression. The scenario of artificially enhanced groundwater recharge would replenish groundwater resources and maintain the capacity of present water supply well fields. The combined scenario of the reduction of abstraction and the increase of recharge could bring the aquifer systems into a new equilibrium state in 50 years. A hydrological sustainability of groundwater resources development could then be achieved in Beijing Plain.

  12. Paleoindian large mammal hunters on the plains of North America

    PubMed Central

    Frison, George C.

    1998-01-01

    From ≈11,200 to 8,000 years ago, the Great Plains of North America were populated by small Paleoindian hunting groups with well developed weaponry and the expertise to successfully hunt large mammals, especially mammoths and bison. Mammoths became extinct on the Plains by 11,000 years ago, and, although paleoecological conditions were worsening, their demise may have been hastened by human predation. After this, the main target of the Plains Paleoindian hunters consisted of subspecies of bison, Bison antiquus and Bison occidentalis. As bison populations gradually diminished, apparently because of worsening ecological conditions, by ≈8,000 years ago, human subsistence was forced into a greater dependence on small animal and plant foods. Human paleoecology studies of the Paleoindian time period rely heavily on multidisciplinary efforts. Geomorphologists, botanists, soil scientists, palynologists, biologists, and other specialists aid archaeologists in data recovery and analysis, although, with few exceptions, their contributions are derived from the fringes rather than the mainstream of their disciplines. PMID:9826742

  13. The High Plains Aquifer, USA: Groundwater development and sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennehy, K.F.; Litke, D.W.; McMahon, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    The High Plains Aquifer, located in the United States, is one of the largest freshwater aquifers in the world and is threatened by continued decline in water levels and deteriorating water quality. Understanding the physical and cultural features of this area is essential to assessing the factors that affect this groundwater resource. About 27% of the irrigated land in the United States overlies this aquifer, which yields about 30% of the nation's groundwater used for irrigation of crops including wheat, corn, sorghum, cotton and alfalfa. In addition, the aquifer provides drinking water to 82% of the 2.3 million people who live within the aquifer boundary. The High Plains Aquifer has been significantly impacted by human activities. Groundwater withdrawals from the aquifer exceed recharge in many areas, resulting in substantial declines in groundwater level. Residents once believed that the aquifer was an unlimited resource of high-quality water, but they now face the prospect that much of the water may be gone in the near future. Also, agricultural chemicals are affecting the groundwater quality. Increasing concentrations of nitrate and salinity can first impair the use of the water for public supply and then affect its suitability for irrigation. A variety of technical and institutional measures are currently being planned and implemented across the aquifer area in an attempt to sustain this groundwater resource for future generations. However, because groundwater withdrawals remain high and water quality impairments are becoming more commonplace, the sustainability of the High Plains Aquifer is uncertain.

  14. Hydrologic Controls On Methylmercury Availability In Coastal Plain Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, P. M.; Brigham, M. E.; Burns, D. A.; Button, D. T.; Lutz, M. A.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.; Riva-Murray, K.; Journey, C.

    2011-12-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) in streams is often attributed to methylation in up-gradient wetland areas, with episodic flood events maximizing wetland-stream hydrologic connectivity and dominating MeHg supply to the stream habitat. A number of studies have demonstrated that Coastal Plain streams in the southeastern United States are particularly vulnerable to high MeHg bioaccumulation and have attributed this vulnerability to wetland abundance and strong hydrologic connectivity between wetland areas and adjacent stream aquatic habitat. Because characteristically coarse-grained Coastal Plain sediments favor vertical infiltration with little surface runoff, flood events attributable to Coastal Plain precipitation are driven by rising groundwater, promoting efficient transport of MeHg from wetland/floodplain source areas to the stream habitat and increasing in-stream availability. Several observations at McTier Creek, South Carolina, however, suggest that good hydrologic connectivity and efficient MeHg transport in Coastal Plain systems are not limited to flood conditions. Close correspondence between stream and shallow-groundwater water levels at McTier indicate good hydrologic connectivity exists prior to flood conditions. Dissolved MeHg concentrations do not increase under flood conditions. Thus, we assessed the flux of water and dissolved mercury (Hg) species (FMeHg and total Hg (FTHg)) from surface water and groundwater sources in a short reach at McTier Creek during separate events in April and July 2009, to determine the importance of shallow groundwater Hg transport from floodplain areas to the stream under non-flood conditions. Mass balance assessments indicated that, under non-flood conditions, the primary supply of water, FMeHg, and FTHg within the reach (excluding upstream surface-water influx) was groundwater discharge, rather than tributary transport from wetlands, in-stream MeHg production, or atmospheric deposition. The results indicate efficient transport of

  15. Controls on river morphology in the Ganga Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingle, Elizabeth; Sinclair, Hugh; Attal, Mikael; Milodowski, David; Singh, Vimal

    2016-04-01

    The Ganga Plain represents a large proportion of the current foreland basin to the Himalaya. The Himalayan-sourced waters irrigate the Plain via major river networks that support ~7% of the global population. However, some of these rivers are also the source of devastating floods. The tendency for some of these rivers to flood is directly linked to their large scale morphology. Systematic variations in the large scale morphology of the river systems are recognised across the extent of the Ganga foreland basin. In general, the rivers that drain the east Ganga Plain have channels that are perched at a higher elevation relative to their floodplain, leading to more frequent channel avulsion and flooding. In contrast, those further west have channels that are incised into the floodplain and are historically less prone to flooding. Understanding the controls on these contrasting river forms is fundamental to determining the sensitivity of these systems to projected climate change and the growing water resource demands across the Plain. Here, we present a new basin scale approach to quantifying floodplain and channel topography that identifies the degree to which channels are super-elevated or entrenched relative to their adjacent floodplain. We explore the probable controls on these observations through an analysis of basin subsidence rates, sediment grain size data and sediment supply from the main river systems that traverse the Plain (Yamuna, Ganga, Karnali, Gandak and Kosi rivers). Subsidence rates are approximated by combining basement profiles derived from seismic data with known convergence velocities; results suggest a more slowly subsiding basin in the west than the east. Grain size fining rates are also used as a proxy of relative subsidence rates along the strike of the basin; the results also indicate higher fining rates (and hence subsidence rates for given sediment supply) in the east. By integrating these observations, we propose that higher subsidence

  16. Smooth plains on Mercury. A comparison with Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambon, Francesca; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Carli, Cristian; Filacchione, Gianrico; Ferrari, Sabrina; Benkhoff, Johannes; Massironi, Matteo; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Lorenza; Palumbo, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    Mercury, the closest planet to the Sun, has been visited by MESSENGER spacecraft and it is the target of the future BepiColombo mission. After 3 years of orbit around Mercury a global coverage of the surface has been done. A recent work by Denevi et al. (2014), based on the MESSENGER data, revels that ~27% of Mercury's surface is covered by smooth plains (SP). Large part of Mercury's SP seems to have volcanic origin, while a further 2% have been identified as Odin-type plains which are of difficult interpretation and represent the knobby and hummocky plains surrounding the Caloris basin. SPs are widespread on Mercury's surface and they have an uneven distribution. Large part of SPs are mainly concentrated in the northern hemisphere, within the Caloris basins and in the circum-Caloris plains. Moreover has been observed that differences in material correspond to spectral slope variations. High-reflectance red plains (HRP) are characterized by spectral slope values greater than the average while low-reflectance blue plains (LBP) are identified thanks to their lower-than-average spectral slopes. X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) data show that HRP-type areas are associated with a low-Fe (<4wt% Fe) basalt-like composition, while the LBP are Fe poor ultramafic composition (high Mg/Si and Ca/Si and low Al/Si)(Nittler et al., 2011; Weider et al., 2012; Denevi at al., 2014). Vesta, explored by Dawn in 2011, does not show Mercury-like smooth plain, but it presents highly localized smooth material, such as in the Marcia crater floor and rim (Yingst et al., 2014). This unit is characterized by low albedo and has been interpreted as very young impact melt. Another example of smooth terrain on Vesta has been found in the Rheasilvia basin. This area occurs in irregularly-bounded of very smooth material, located on slopes or topographically lower regions (Yingst et al., 2014). This unit has been interpreted as ejecta emplaced during the Rheasilvia impact event, which could be modified by

  17. Reconstruction of the Friuli Venezia Giulia Plain aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaris, Chiara; Cimolino, Aurelie; Cucchi, Franco; Deana, Alberto; Treu, Francesco; Zini, Luca

    2010-05-01

    The constantly increasing of water demand for human consumptions has necessitated a reconstruction of the hydrogeologic characteristics and properties as well isotopic features of the aquifers of the Friuli Venezia Giulia Plain (FP). The DiSGAM and DICA have been engaged by the Hydraulic Survey of the FVG Region in order to coordinate an integrated study finalized to the FP confined and unconfined aquifer geometries reconstruction and to provide guide-lines for water rational exploitation (Agreement D.G.R. n. 1827 dd. 27.07.2007). The Friuli Venezia Giulia Plain, located in the northeastern sector of Italy, hosts well developed Plio-Quaternary unconfined and confined alluvial aquifers. The main surface drainage of the Plain is the Tagliamento River. The regional hydrogeological situation is characterized in the north by an extensive alluvial unconfined aquifer mostly contained in carbonate gravels. This area extends from the Pre-Alps to the resurgence belt. The resurgence belt is 2 to 8 km wide and 80 kilometres long. In this area the water table intersects the topographic surface forming numerous plain springs and rivers. The resurgence belt sets a geohydrological boundary between the Upper and Lower Friulian Plain. In this strip the unconfined aquifer changes into a multi-layered confined that reach a thickness of up to 500 m with a progressive increase in a westward direction towards the Adriatic Sea. In order to define underground aquifer relations and patterns, more than 1800 stratigraphic columns have been collected from different public departments water well database. Well logs have been georeferred, missing elevations calculated by regional DTM, possible correspondences controlled and datasets updated. In order to better correlate spatial data, an unique implemented lithostratigraphy legend has been created from present different ones; it is composed of: Lithological Entries (relating lithology and granulometric features; permeability linked different

  18. Alluvial plain dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Umberto

    2016-05-01

    Alluvial plains are formed with sediments that rivers deposit on the adjacent flood-basin, mainly through crevasse splays and avulsions. These result from a combination of processes, some of which push the river towards the crevasse threshold, while others act as triggers. Based on the floodplain sedimentation patterns of large rivers in the southern Amazonian foreland basin, it has been suggested that alluvial plain sediment accumulation is primarily the result of river crevasse splays and sheet sands triggered by above-normal precipitation events due to La Niña. However, more than 90 % of the Amazonian river network is made of small rivers and it is unknown whether small river floodplain sedimentation is influenced by the ENSO cycle as well. Using Landsat images from 1984 to 2014, here I analyse the behaviour of all 12 tributaries of the Río Mamoré with a catchment in the Andes. I show that these are very active rivers and that the frequency of crevasses is not linked to ENSO activity. The data suggest that most of the sediments eroded from the Andes by the tributaries of the Mamoré are deposited in the alluvial plains, before reaching the parent river. The mid-to-late Holocene paleo-channels of these rivers are located tens of kilometres further away from the Andes than the modern crevasses. I conclude that the frequency of crevasses is controlled by intrabasinal processes that act on a yearly to decadal timescale, while the average location of the crevasses is controlled by climatic or neo-tectonic events that act on a millennial scale. Finally, I discuss the implications of river dynamics on rural livelihoods and biodiversity in the Llanos de Moxos, a seasonally flooded savannah covering most of the southern Amazonian foreland basin and the world's largest RAMSAR site.

  19. Alluvial plain dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, U.

    2015-10-01

    Alluvial plains are formed with sediments that rivers deposit on the adjacent flood-basin, mainly through crevasse splays and avulsions. These result from a combination of processes, some of which push the river towards the crevasse threshold, while others act as triggers. Based on the floodplain sedimentation patterns of large rivers in the southern Amazonian foreland basin, it has been suggested that alluvial plain sediment accumulation is primarily the result of river crevasse splays triggered by above normal precipitation events due to La Niña. However, more than 90 % of the Amazonian river network is made of small rivers and it is unknown whether small river floodplain sedimentation is influenced by the ENSO cycle as well. Using Landsat images from 1984 to 2014, here I analyse the behaviour of all the twelve tributaries of the Río Mamoré with a catchment in the Andes. I show that these are very active rivers and that the frequency of crevasses is not linked to ENSO activity. I found that most of the sediments eroded from the Andes by the tributaries of the Mamoré are deposited in the alluvial plains, before reaching the parent river. The mid- to late Holocene paleo-channels of these rivers are located tens of kilometres further away from the Andes than the modern crevasses. I conclude that the frequency of crevasses is controlled by intrabasinal processes that act on a year to decade time scale, while the average location of the crevasses is controlled by climatic or neo-tectonic events that act on a millennial scale. Finally, I discuss the implications of river dynamics on rural livelihoods and biodiversity in the Llanos de Moxos, a seasonally flooded savannah covering most of the southern Amazonian foreland basin and the world's largest RAMSAR site.

  20. Drainage flows: A mountain-plains interface numerical case study

    SciTech Connect

    Poulos, G.S.; Bossert, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    In January/February, 1991 an intensive set of measurements was taken around Rocky Flats near Denver, CO, USA under the auspices of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program. This region of the country is known as the Front Range, and is characterized by a transition from the relatively flat terrain of the Great Plains to the highly varied terrain of the Rocky Mountains. The mountains are oriented north-south and rise from 1800m above mean sea level (MSL) to 3600m MSL at the Continental Divide. Numerous east-west oriented valleys begin in the mountains and end at the plains interface. This terrain makes the Front Range a challenging region to model. One of the more important flows created by this severe terrain are the highly-varying drainage flows found during stagnant, wintertime conditions. These flows can interact with larger-scale mountain and synoptic winds. One goal of the ASCOT 1991 program was to gain insight into multi-scale meteorological interaction by observing wintertime drainage conditions at the mountain-valley-plains interface. ASCOT data included surface and upper air measurements on approximately a 50km{sup 2} scale. Simultaneously, an SF{sub 6} tracer release study was being conducted around Rocky Flats, a nuclear materials production facility. Detailed surface concentration measurements were completed for the SF{sub 6} plume. This combination of meteorological and tracer concentration data provided a unique data set for comparisons of mesoscale and dispersion modeling results with observations and for evaluating our capability to predict pollutant transport. Our approach is to use the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model to simulate atmospheric conditions and the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) to model the dispersion of the SF{sub 6}.

  1. Drainage flows: A mountain-plains interface numerical case study

    SciTech Connect

    Poulos, G.S.; Bossert, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    In January/February, 1991 an intensive set of measurements was taken around Rocky Flats near Denver, CO, USA under the auspices of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program. This region of the country is known as the Front Range, and is characterized by a transition from the relatively flat terrain of the Great Plains to the highly varied terrain of the Rocky Mountains. The mountains are oriented north-south and rise from 1800m above mean sea level (MSL) to 3600m MSL at the Continental Divide. Numerous east-west oriented valleys begin in the mountains and end at the plains interface. This terrain makes the Front Range a challenging region to model. One of the more important flows created by this severe terrain are the highly-varying drainage flows found during stagnant, wintertime conditions. These flows can interact with larger-scale mountain and synoptic winds. One goal of the ASCOT 1991 program was to gain insight into multi-scale meteorological interaction by observing wintertime drainage conditions at the mountain-valley-plains interface. ASCOT data included surface and upper air measurements on approximately a 50km{sup 2} scale. Simultaneously, an SF{sub 6} tracer release study was being conducted around Rocky Flats, a nuclear materials production facility. Detailed surface concentration measurements were completed for the SF{sub 6} plume. This combination of meteorological and tracer concentration data provided a unique data set for comparisons of mesoscale and dispersion modeling results with observations and for evaluating our capability to predict pollutant transport. Our approach is to use the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model to simulate atmospheric conditions and the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) to model the dispersion of the SF{sub 6}.

  2. Dating fluvial archives of the Riverine Plain, Southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Daniela; Cohen, Tim; Reinfelds, Ivars; Jacobs, Zenobia; Shulmeister, James

    2016-04-01

    The Riverine Plain of Southeastern Australia is characterized by a multiplicity of relict river channels. Compared to the modern drainage system the most prominent of those distinct features are defined by large bankfull channel widths, large meander wavelengths and coarse sediment loads. Such morphological differences provide evidence for regimes of higher discharge, stemming from significant changes in runoff volumes, flood-frequency regimes and sediment supply. An existing geochronology for some of these channels is based on multi-grain thermoluminescence (Murrumbidgee River; Page et al., 1996) or radio-carbon dating (Goulburn River; Bowler, 1978) and indicates enhanced fluvial activity between 30 to 13 ka. The absence of exact Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ± 3 ka) ages of the Murrumbidgee palaeochannels was interpreted to indicate decreased fluvial activity during the peak of the LGM but was not inferred for the nearby Goulburn River. Recent developments in optical dating, especially measurements of individual grains of quartz, allow for an examination of these previous findings. Key sites along the Murrumbidgee and Goulburn Rivers have been revisited and new sites of the adjacent Murray River have been investigated. A revised, high-resolution geochronology based on single-grain optically stimulated luminescence dating is used to examine the precise occurrence of those massive channels and their implications for the Southern Hemisphere LGM. References: Page, K., Nanson, G., Price, D. (1996). Chronology of Murrumbidgee River palaeochannels on the Riverine Plain, southeastern Australia. Journal of Quaternary Science 11(4): 311-326. Bowler, J. (1978). Quaternary Climate and Tectonics in the Evolution of the Riverine Plain, Southeastern Australia. In: Davies, J. & Williams, M. (Editors). Landform Evolution in Australia, Australian National University Press: Canberra. p. 70-112.

  3. High-Resolution Image of Europa's Ridged Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This spectacular image taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft camera shows a region of ridged plains on Jupiter's moon Europa. The plains are comprised of many parallel and cross-cutting ridges, commonly in pairs. The majority of the region is of very bright, but darker material is seen primarily in valleys between ridges. Some of the most prominent ridges have dark deposits along their margins and in their central valleys. Some of this dark material probably moved down the flanks of the ridges and has piled up along their bases. The most prominent ridges are about a kilometer in width (less than a mile). In the top right hand corner of the image the end of a dark wide ridge (about 2 kilometers or 1.2 miles across) is visible. Several deep fractures cut through this ridge and continue into the plains. The brightness of the region suggests that frost covers much of Europa's surface. This image looks different from those obtained earlier in Galileo's mission, because this image was taken with the Sun higher in Europa's sky.

    This image was taken on December 16, 1997 at a range of 1,300 kilometers (800 miles) by Galileo's solid state imaging system. North is to the top of the picture, and the Sun illuminates the surface from the upper left. This image, centered at approximately 14 degrees south latitude and 194 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) on each side. The resolution is 26 meters (85 feet) per picture element.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  4. The role of plains volcanism in the formation of Mercury's crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denevi, B. W.; Robinson, M. S.; Murchie, S. L.; Barnouin, O. S.; Blewett, D. T.; Chabot, N. L.; Ernst, C. M.; Head, J. W.; Ostrach, L. R.; Solomon, S. C.; Watters, T. R.

    2011-12-01

    Mercury has experienced widespread resurfacing. Plains cover much of the surface, and no terrain is as heavily cratered as the lunar highlands. Plains formation appears to have occurred throughout much of Mercury's history. Intercrater plains formation extended through the period of heavy bombardment, and smooth plains formation may have continued into the second half of solar system history, with a continuum of ages in between. However, the mode of formation of these plains is not clear in all cases. Strong evidence for a volcanic origin of many plains units indicates that volcanism played an important role in shaping Mercury's crust, but many plains units lack clear evidence for source regions, flooding or embayment relationships, or color boundaries, suggesting that alternate mechanisms of formation are possible (e.g., impact-produced melt or fluidized basin ejecta). We focus on the origin of these more ambiguous plains units, particularly the intercrater plains, to understand their role in crustal formation. Preliminary maps of plains covering ~55% of Mercury were produced from Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flyby data. We have extended these maps with global orbital image mosaics (monochrome at 250 m/pixel; color at 1 km/pixel) and targeted high-resolution images (up to ~10 m/pixel). We find many regions where morphologic boundaries between plains units are gradational and no difference in spectral properties is detected. The distinction between such units appears to be largely the enhanced population of secondary craters in some locations, which destroy evidence of an original morphologic boundary or mask the original character of the unit. Many of these units also lack a clear association with any large basin, suggesting that an origin as basin ejecta is unlikely. Thus, some portion of more heavily cratered plains units may simply be degraded versions of smooth plains and share a common volcanic origin. We also explore the origin of smooth plains units contained

  5. Emplacement and tectonic deformation of smooth plains in the Caloris basin, Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watters, Thomas R.; Murchie, Scott L.; Robinson, Mark S.; Solomon, Sean C.; Denevi, Brett W.; André, Sarah L.; Head, James W.

    2009-08-01

    MESSENGER's first flyby of Mercury provided the first complete view of the Caloris basin and its interior smooth plains. Multispectral imaging shows that the interior plains are spectrally distinct from surrounding terrain, with a reflectance about 15-20% higher and a steeper spectral slope than the global average. The Caloris basin rim massifs and hummocky material, in contrast, have lower reflectance and a shallower spectral slope than the global average and extend around the entire basin. Isolated, relatively red patches along the margins of Caloris each surround irregularly shaped, scalloped-edged, rimless depressions that are interpreted to be volcanic vents, some with associated pyroclastic deposits. A nearly continuous annulus of smooth plains exterior to the basin displays spectral characteristics that contrast sharply with those of the basin-interior smooth plains. The exterior smooth plains are lower in reflectance and spectrally similar to the Caloris rim massifs and the hummocky materials. The rims and floors of larger impact craters in the interior plains expose low-reflectance material. There is widespread evidence of contractional and extensional tectonic deformation of the Caloris interior smooth plains. A set of linear radial graben, Pantheon Fossae, radiates outward from a zone near the basin center, and some of these graben extend to and intersect a set of generally basin-concentric graben distributed along the outer margin of the Caloris basin floor. The average areal extensional strain expressed by the mapped system of graben is ~ 0.08%. Wrinkle ridges also deform the interior smooth plains and predate both basin-radial and basin-concentric graben. The average areal contractional strain expressed by the mapped wrinkle ridges is ~ 0.07%. The density of wrinkle ridges on the western interior smooth plains is less than on the eastern interior plains, in contrast to the more even distribution of graben. A similar difference is seen between the

  6. Are Noachian-age ridged plains (Nplr) actually Early Hesperian in age?. [Mars volcanology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H. V.; Doudnikoff, C. E.; Mongeon, A. M.

    1991-01-01

    The Nplr ridged plains studied are quite thin (less than 150 m, with some less than 90 m) based on the smallest surviving craters from the different preserved crater retention surfaces. The thinness of the Nplr ridged plains permits craters from older surfaces to show through, leading to a greater total crater count than actually applies to the ridged-plains component of those surfaces. It is found that the ridged-plains mapped as Noachian-age Nplr actually resurfaced older Noachian cratered terrain in the Early Hesperian, creating crater retention surfaces of N(1) equals (25,000 +/- 3000) in the Memnonia and Argyre regions.

  7. Historical and current environmental influences on an endemic great plains fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, John R.; Paukert, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Native fishes of the Great Plains are at risk of decline due to disturbances to physical habitat caused by changes in land and water use, as well as shifts in species assemblages driven by the invasion of introduced species with the loss of natives. We used historical and current fish assemblage data in conjunction with current habitat information to assess these influences on an endemic Great Plains stream fish, the plains topminnow (Fundulus sciadicus). Of the 31 sites where the plains topminnow occurred historically (1939-1940), it was found in only seven of those sites in 2003-2005. Our results demonstrate a shift in fish assemblage over time that coincides with the loss of plains topminnow. Changes in fish assemblages were characterized by increases in occurrence of exotic, invasive and generalist species with declines in occurrences of native fishes. An information theoretic approach was used to evaluate candidate models of current fish assemblage and physical/chemical habitat on the presence of the plains topminnow. Candidate models that included both instream habitat (e.g., vegetation coverage, undercut banks) and the native fish species assemblage are important to predicting presence of the plains topminnow within its historic range. Conservation of Great Plains fishes including the plains topminnow will need a combination of habitat protection and enhancement.

  8. [Patterns of pulmonary vascularization on plain-film chest X-rays].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Carnero, P; Bustos García de Castro, A

    2014-01-01

    Plain chest films are a fundamental tool in the practice of medicine. The apparent simplicity of plain chest films sometimes leads us to forget that interpreting them correctly can provide very valuable information, especially if the interpretation is grounded in key clinical information. To interpret a plain chest film, it is important to pay attention to the pulmonary vascularization. This article reviews the normal shape and distribution of the pulmonary vessels on plain chest films and the most common pathologic vascular patterns, including those seen in pulmonary hypertension, hyperemia, hypovascularization, and alternative perfusion.

  9. Standardised (plain) packaging: the time for implementation has come.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Janet; Edwards, Richard; Daube A O, Mike

    2015-07-03

    Although a growing number of countries have passed legislation to introduce standardised (or 'plain') packaging, New Zealand's legislation is currently stalled. The research evidence supporting standardised packaging is strong. Furthermore, evaluations from Australia, the first country to introduce this measure, show standardised packaging is reducing the appeal of smoking. Tobacco consumption in Australia has also fallen since the introduction of standardised packaging. The government should reassert its commitment to New Zealand's Smokefree 2025 goal by recognising the Australian evidence and passing and implementing standardised packaging as soon as possible.

  10. Geochemistry of the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knobel, L.L.; Chapelle, F.H.; Meisler, Harold

    1998-01-01

    Sediments of the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain comprise a complex multiaquifer flow system. On a large scale (greater than 500 square miles) ground water in this system evolves from predominantly calcium magnesium bicarbonate water with a low dissolved-solids content and low pH, near outcrop-recharge areas, to predominantly sodium bicarbonate water with a high-dissolved solids content and high pH, downgradient. This sodium bicarbonate water then grades into a sodium chloride water. This large-scale predictable progression of hydrochemical facies results from the summation of many smaller scale geochemical processes that chiefly depend on the sedimentary depositional environments of the aquifers.

  11. Dynamics of playa lakes in the Texas High Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. C., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 MSS imagery has been found useful for taking a regional wet census of the tens of thousands of lake basins on the Southern High Plains, Texas and New Mexico. Once the ground truth which has been correlated with the MSS imagery, is correlated with CCT data, and reliable computer classifications are determined, a lake census from CCT printouts will be possible. Correlation of satellite imagery products with water fluctuations and water budget is also underway.

  12. Indications of Subsurface Ice: Polygons on the Northern Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Someone's kitchen floor? A stone patio?This picture actually does show a floor--the floor of an old impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. Each 'tile' is somewhat larger than a football field. Polygonal patterns are familiar to Mars geologists because they are also common in arctic and antarctic environments on Earth. Typically, such polygons result from the stresses induced in frozen ground by the freeze-thaw cycles of subsurface ice. This picture was taken by MOC in May 1999 and is illuminated from the lower left.

  13. Ages of the lunar nearside light plains and maria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, J. M.; Dial, A. L.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    An extension of a previous work on relative age mapping for the lunar nearside is presented. The ages were determined from Apollo (Hasselblad, metric, and panoramic) and Lunar Orbiter photographs; three major subdivisions were observed: maria and two older light plains units. The plains units center around 3.8 b.y. and 4.0 b.y., respectively. Ages of maria decrease westward. The oldest maria is 3.7 b.y.; it comprises Mare Tranquillitatis and two small areas in southeastern Mare Imbrium. Oceanus Procellarum, southwestern Mare Imbrium, northern Mare Humorum, and northwestern Mare Serenitatis contain the youngest maria; the youngest of these formed about 1.7 b.y. ago. Emplacement of all three subdivisions occurred over a 2.3 b.y. interval. The three-stage model of mare emplacement proposed by Soderblom (1970a) is confirmed. Thus the sequence is (1) high-Ti basalts in the eastern hemisphere, (2) low-Ti basalts filling circular ring-maria, and (3) high-Ti basalts in the western hemisphere.

  14. Effect of fire in the Northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Kruse, A.D.; Piehl, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    This publication is a review of selected literature about prescribed burning in the Northern Great Plains (NGP) for management of wildlife. It also will be useful to other resource managers and researchers and to persons interested in the NGP. It is more 'descriptive' than 'interpretative.'The publication is a joint effort of the South Dakota State Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (SDCFWRU), South Dakota State University, Brookings; the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC), Jamestown, N.D.; and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Fergus Falls, Minn. Manuscript typing and library services were shared between SDCFWRU and NPWRC.This publication (EC 761) is the second of three SDSU Extension circulars on grassland fires. EC 760 is Prescribed burning guidelines in the Northern Great Plains; EC 762 is Annotated bibliography of fire literature relative to northern grasslands in South-Central Canada and North-Central United States and contains many more citations than presented in this publication. All three circulars may be obtained from either the Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences Department; SDSU Box 2206; ph (605) 688-6121; or from the Ag Communications Bulletin Room; SDSU Box 2231; ph (605) 688-5628; both in Brookings, S.D. 57007.

  15. Saline lakes of the glaciated Northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Unless you have flown over the region or seen aerial photographs, it is hard to grasp the scale of the millions of lakes and wetlands that dot the prairie landscape of the glaciated Northern Great Plains (Figure 1). This region of abundant aquatic habitats within a grassland matrix provides for the needs of a wide diversity of wildlife species and has appropriately been deemed the "duck factory of North America." While the sheer number of lakes and wetlands within this area of the Northern Great Plains can be truly awe-inspiring, their diversity in terms of the chemical composition of their water adds an equally important component supporting biotic diversity and productivity. Water within these lakes and wetlands can range from extremely fresh with salinities approaching that of rainwater to hypersaline with salinity ten times greater than that of seawater. Additionally, while variation in salinity among these water bodies can be great, the ionic composition of lakes and wetlands with similar salinities can vary markedly, influencing the overall spatial and temporal diversity of the region's biota.

  16. Wassel's Type V Polydactyly with Plain Radiographic and CT Findings

    PubMed Central

    Mete, Berna Dirim; Altay, Canan; Gursoy, Merve; Oyar, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Duplication of the thumb is the most common polydactyly of the hand. Wassel's classification is frequently used to classify the polydactyly of the hand. His classification was based on the level of duplication and the number of bones in the thumb, and has seven groups (Types I–VII) according to the level of the bifurcation, except for his Type VII. The most common type is the bifurcation at the metacarpophalangeal joint (Type IV). In this paper, we report a very rare case of Type V thumb polydactyly in a 42-year-old man, who presented with swan neck deformity of the radial thumb and discuss the plain radiography and computed tomography (CT) findings. Kumar recently reported plain radiography findings in a case of bifid first metacarpal in a 13-year-old girl, who presented with swan neck deformity of the left thumb. To our knowledge, our case is the second presented case that has a swan neck deformity with bifid metacarpal. PMID:25861550

  17. Making information accessible: developing plain English discharge instructions.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A; Miller, M

    1996-09-01

    Discharge education has always been an important role for nurses working in acute care contexts. With the advent of case mix funding and subsequent trends towards early discharge from hospital, this educational role is assuming increasing importance. This paper addresses one aspect of a participatory action research study where a group of nurses, working in a paediatric orthopaedic ward, explored their discharge education practices and resources. The seemingly large number of post-discharge telephone queries received from parents of children treated on the ward prompted these nurses to question whether their discharge teaching practices were effective. Data collected on these telephone queries identified parental concerns regarding the care of their child at home in a plaster. This finding prompted group members to explore the ways that written information relating to care of the plaster at home might be implicated in the situation. An analysis of an existing 'home cast care' discharge instruction sheet raised issues concerning the content and language used in such resources. The paper describes the subsequent development of a plain English 'plaster care' discharge instruction sheet and argues the importance of using plain English in such resources. PMID:8876413

  18. Climate Change Impacts of Irrigation on the Central High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotterman, K. A.; Kendall, A. D.; Basso, B.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Since the 1940s, the High Plains Aquifer (HPA) has been pivotal for irrigation over the Central High Plains (CHP), a region spanning parts of five states in the central U.S.. Today after decades of over-pumping, many areas of the CHP are no longer able to irrigate due to localized depletion of the HPA. With a range of global climate models predicting an increase in temperature and decrease in growing-season precipitation for the CHP, demand for irrigation is likely to increase and exacerbate drawdown and depletion of the aquifer. Here we apply the Landscape Hydrology Model (LHM) coupled with the crop simulation model SALUS to simulate irrigation water use in response to historical climate and land use. This model is validated using historical groundwater levels. We then simulate future climate scenarios to predict how irrigation demand and water availability will alter the hydrology of the CHP. This study provides a predictive relationship of future irrigation demand linked to both climate change and agricultural management, and presents a modeling approach to answer two questions: How will future climate change affect irrigation demand? How will climate change and irrigation demand affect groundwater availability for the future? Different climate scenarios based on the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) are used to simulate the impact of different projected future climate conditions through the year 2100. By examining predicted groundwater levels along with saturated thickness we analyze where irrigation is likely to be viable in the future and compare this to current irrigation extent.

  19. Groundwater Modeling of the Texas High Plains using Modflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, J. E.; Gowda, P. H.; Misra, D.; Marek, T.; Howell, T. A.

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and calibrate a groundwater model for a 4-county area in the Texas High Plains of the Ogallala Aquifer Region. This study is a major component of a comprehensive regional analysis of groundwater depletion in the Ogallala Aquifer Region with the purpose of understanding short- and long-term effects of existing and alternative land use scenarios on groundwater changes. A comprehensive geographic information system (GIS) database was developed for this purpose that included a recent land cover map. This 2008 land cover map was developed using Landsat satellite imagery with ground-truth points for Dallam, Sherman, Hartley, and Moore Counties in Texas. Other GIS layers included aquifer elevation contours, surficial geology, hydraulic conductivity contours, saturated thickness areas, well locations and piezometric heads, aquifer discharge and recharge areas, topography, hydrographic data, ecological regions, and soil type data. The hydrologic simulations were done using MODFLOW. Anticipated outcomes from this modeling effort include the effect of change in land use/land cover on sustainability of the aquifer life in the study region. Our results will be used to develop strategies to conserve groundwater in the Ogallala Aquifer beneath Central High Plains and improve regional water planning.

  20. Effects of fire in the Northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, Kenneth F.; Kruse, Arnold D.; Piehl, James L.

    1989-01-01

    This publication is a review of selected literature about prescribed burning in the Northern Great Plains (NGP) for management of wildlife. It also will be useful to other resource managers and researchers and to persons interested in the NGP. It is more 'descriptive' than 'interpretative.'The publication is a joint effort of the South Dakota State Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (SDCFWRU), South Dakota State University, Brookings; the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC), Jamestown, N.D.; and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Fergus Falls, Minn. Manuscript typing and library services were shared between SDCFWRU and NPWRC.This publication (EC 761) is the second of three SDSU Extension circulars on grassland fires. EC 760 is Prescribed burning guidelines in the Northern Great Plains; EC 762 is Annotated bibliography of fire literature relative to northern grasslands in South-Central Canada and North-Central United States and contains many more citations than presented in this publication. All three circulars may be obtained from either the Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences Department; SDSU Box 2206; ph (605) 688-6121; or from the Ag Communications Bulletin Room; SDSU Box 2231; ph (605) 688-5628; both in Brookings, S.D. 57007.

  1. Bayesian versus 'plain-vanilla Bayesian' multitarget statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Ronald P. S.

    2004-08-01

    Finite-set statistics (FISST) is a direct generalization of single-sensor, single-target Bayes statistics to the multisensor-multitarget realm, based on random set theory. Various aspects of FISST are being investigated by several research teams around the world. In recent years, however, a few partisans have claimed that a "plain-vanilla Bayesian approach" suffices as down-to-earth, "straightforward," and general "first principles" for multitarget problems. Therefore, FISST is mere mathematical "obfuscation." In this and a companion paper I demonstrate the speciousness of these claims. In this paper I summarize general Bayes statistics, what is required to use it in multisensor-multitarget problems, and why FISST is necessary to make it practical. Then I demonstrate that the "plain-vanilla Bayesian approach" is so heedlessly formulated that it is erroneous, not even Bayesian denigrates FISST concepts while unwittingly assuming them, and has resulted in a succession of algorithms afflicted by inherent -- but less than candidly acknowledged -- computational "logjams."

  2. [Biodegradation Coefficients of Typical Pollutants in the Plain Rivers Network].

    PubMed

    Feng, Shuai; Li, Xu-yongl; Deng, Jian-cai

    2016-05-15

    Biodegradation is a significant part of pollutant integrated degradation, the process rate of which is represented by the biodegradation coefficient. To investigate the biodegradation law of typical pollutants in the plain rivers network located in the upstream of the Lake Taihu, experiments were conducted in site in September 2015, one order kinetics model was used to measure the biodegradation coefficients for permanganate index, ammonia, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, and influencing factors of the biodegradation coefficients were also analyzed. The results showed that the biodegradation coefficients for permanganate index, ammonia, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were 0.008 3-0.126 4 d⁻¹, 0.002 1-0.213 8 d⁻¹, 0.002 1-0.090 5 d⁻¹ and 0.011 0- 0.152 8 d⁻¹, respectively. The influencing factors of the biodegradation coefficients for permanganate index were permanganate index and pH; those for ammonia were ammonia concentration and pH; those for total nitrogen were inorganic nitrogen concentration, total dissolved solid concentration and nitrite concentration; and those for total phosphorus were background concentration and pH. The research results were of important guiding significance for pollutants removal and ecological restoration of the plain rivers network located in the unstream of the Lake Taihu. PMID:27506025

  3. [Biodegradation Coefficients of Typical Pollutants in the Plain Rivers Network].

    PubMed

    Feng, Shuai; Li, Xu-yongl; Deng, Jian-cai

    2016-05-15

    Biodegradation is a significant part of pollutant integrated degradation, the process rate of which is represented by the biodegradation coefficient. To investigate the biodegradation law of typical pollutants in the plain rivers network located in the upstream of the Lake Taihu, experiments were conducted in site in September 2015, one order kinetics model was used to measure the biodegradation coefficients for permanganate index, ammonia, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, and influencing factors of the biodegradation coefficients were also analyzed. The results showed that the biodegradation coefficients for permanganate index, ammonia, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were 0.008 3-0.126 4 d⁻¹, 0.002 1-0.213 8 d⁻¹, 0.002 1-0.090 5 d⁻¹ and 0.011 0- 0.152 8 d⁻¹, respectively. The influencing factors of the biodegradation coefficients for permanganate index were permanganate index and pH; those for ammonia were ammonia concentration and pH; those for total nitrogen were inorganic nitrogen concentration, total dissolved solid concentration and nitrite concentration; and those for total phosphorus were background concentration and pH. The research results were of important guiding significance for pollutants removal and ecological restoration of the plain rivers network located in the unstream of the Lake Taihu.

  4. Wassel's Type V Polydactyly with Plain Radiographic and CT Findings.

    PubMed

    Mete, Berna Dirim; Altay, Canan; Gursoy, Merve; Oyar, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Duplication of the thumb is the most common polydactyly of the hand. Wassel's classification is frequently used to classify the polydactyly of the hand. His classification was based on the level of duplication and the number of bones in the thumb, and has seven groups (Types I-VII) according to the level of the bifurcation, except for his Type VII. The most common type is the bifurcation at the metacarpophalangeal joint (Type IV). In this paper, we report a very rare case of Type V thumb polydactyly in a 42-year-old man, who presented with swan neck deformity of the radial thumb and discuss the plain radiography and computed tomography (CT) findings. Kumar recently reported plain radiography findings in a case of bifid first metacarpal in a 13-year-old girl, who presented with swan neck deformity of the left thumb. To our knowledge, our case is the second presented case that has a swan neck deformity with bifid metacarpal. PMID:25861550

  5. Trace metal enrichment in agricultural soils of Jianghan Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, R.; Ying, S.; Daniel, J. N.; Bu, J.; Gan, Y.; Wang, Y.; Schaefer, M.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Coal consumption in China is increasing annually due to constantly rising energy demand. As a result, a massive amount of coal combustion byproducts, particularly in the form of fly ash, are expelled from power plants and distributed through atmospheric transport. The fly ash is eventually deposited on to land, potentially contaminating agricultural soils. Coal fly ash contains high concentration of a suite of toxic trace metals including lead, chromium, and arsenic. In this study, we surveyed the concentration of trace metals in agricultural soils at 131 sites within a 20 km radius of Yangluo Power Plant, a 2400 MW plant within the highly populated Jianghan Plain of Central China. Using X-ray fluorecence (XRF) spectrometry, the total concentration of trace metals in homogenized surface and subsurface soil samples were measured to calculate the corresponding enrichment factor at each site. Our initial findings demonstrate that Pb is enriched in a majority of sites, independent of land use, whereas As and Cr are generally not enriched in this region. Further studies using Pb isotopes as a source-tracing tool will help determine the Pb pollution's origin. Ultimately, the results of this study may inform whether crops grown within the Jianghan Plain have the potential of being contaminated by metals emitted from coal power plants.

  6. Hydrogeologic framework of the North Carolina Coastal Plain aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D.; Coble, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework of the North Carolina Coastal Plain aquifer system consists of ten aquifers separated by nine confining units. From top to bottom the aquifers are: the surficial aquifer, Yorktown aquifer, Pungo River aquifer, Castle Hayne aquifer, Beaufort aquifer, Peedee aquifer, Black Creek aquifer, upper Cape Fear aquifer, lower Cape Fear aquifer, and the Lower Cretaceous aquifer. The uppermost aquifer (the surficial aquifer in most places) is a water-table aquifer and the bottom of the system is underlain by crystalline bedrock. The sedimentary deposits forming the aquifers are of Holocene to Cretaceous age and are composed mostly of sand with lesser amounts of gravel and limestone. Confining units between aquifers are composed primarily of clay and silt. The thickness of the aquifers ranges from zero along the Fall Line to more than 10,000 feet at Cape Hatteras. Prominent structural features are the increasing easterly homoclinal dip of the sediments and the Cape Fear arch, the axis of which trends in a southeast direction. The stratigraphic continuity is determined from correlations of 161 geophysical logs along with data from drillers' and geologists' logs. Aquifers were defined by means of these logs plus water-level and water-quality data and evidence of the continuity of pumping effects. Eighteen hydrogeologic sections depict the correlation of these aquifers throughout the Coastal Plain.

  7. Hydrogeologic framework of the North Carolina coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D.; Coble, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework of the North Carolina Coastal Plain aquifer system consists of 10 aquifers separated by 9 confining units. From top to bottom, the aquifers are the surficial aquifer, Yorktown aquifer, Pungo River aquifer, Castle Hayne aquifer, Beaufort aquifer, Peedee aquifer, Black Creek aquifer, upper Cape Fear aquifer, lower Cape Fear aquifer, and Lower Cretaceous aquifer. The uppermost aquifer (the surficial aquifer in most places) is a water-table aquifer, and the bottom of the system is underlain by crystalline bedrock. The sedimentary deposits forming the aquifers are of Holocene to Cretaceous age and are composed mostly of sand, with lesser amounts of gravel and limestone. The confining units between the aquifers are composed primarily of clay and silt. The thickness of the aquifers ranges from zero along the Fall Line to more than 10,000 feet at Cape Hatteras. Prominent structural features are the increasing easterly homoclinal dip of the sediments and the Cape Fear arch, the axis of which trends in a southeast direction. Stratigraphic continuity was determined from correlations of 161 geophysical logs along with data from drillers? and geologists? logs. Aquifers were defined by means of these logs as well as water-level and water-quality data and evidence of the continuity of pumping effects. Eighteen hydrogeologic sections depict the correlation of these aquifers throughout the North Carolina Coastal Plain.

  8. Whooping crane stopover site use intensity within the Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Brandt, David A.; Harrell, Wade C.; Metzger, Kristine L.; Baasch, David M.; Hefley, Trevor J.

    2015-09-23

    Whooping cranes (Grus americana) of the Aransas-Wood Buffalo population migrate twice each year through the Great Plains in North America. Recovery activities for this endangered species include providing adequate places to stop and rest during migration, which are generally referred to as stopover sites. To assist in recovery efforts, initial estimates of stopover site use intensity are presented, which provide opportunity to identify areas across the migration range used more intensively by whooping cranes. We used location data acquired from 58 unique individuals fitted with platform transmitting terminals that collected global position system locations. Radio-tagged birds provided 2,158 stopover sites over 10 migrations and 5 years (2010–14). Using a grid-based approach, we identified 1,095 20-square-kilometer grid cells that contained stopover sites. We categorized occupied grid cells based on density of stopover sites and the amount of time cranes spent in the area. This assessment resulted in four categories of stopover site use: unoccupied, low intensity, core intensity, and extended-use core intensity. Although provisional, this evaluation of stopover site use intensity offers the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and partners a tool to identify landscapes that may be of greater conservation significance to migrating whooping cranes. Initially, the tool will be used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other interested parties in evaluating the Great Plains Wind Energy Habitat Conservation Plan.

  9. Estimating canopy fuel parameters for Atlantic Coastal Plain forest types.

    SciTech Connect

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2007-01-15

    Abstract It is necessary to quantify forest canopy characteristics to assess crown fire hazard, prioritize treatment areas, and design treatments to reduce crown fire potential. A number of fire behavior models such as FARSITE, FIRETEC, and NEXUS require as input four particular canopy fuel parameters: 1) canopy cover, 2) stand height, 3) crown base height, and 4) canopy bulk density. These canopy characteristics must be mapped across the landscape at high spatial resolution to accurately simulate crown fire. Currently no models exist to forecast these four canopy parameters for forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a region that supports millions of acres of loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine forests as well as pine-broadleaf forests and mixed species broadleaf forests. Many forest cover types are recognized, too many to efficiently model. For expediency, forests of the Savannah River Site are categorized as belonging to 1 of 7 broad forest type groups, based on composition: 1) loblolly pine, 2) longleaf pine, 3) slash pine, 4) pine-hardwood, 5) hardwood-pine, 6) hardwoods, and 7) cypress-tupelo. These 7 broad forest types typify forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain region, from Maryland to Florida.

  10. GAP analysis of wetland bird habitat diversity in Sanjiang Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiping; Li, Chuang; Liu, Qingfeng; Yu, Yang

    2008-10-01

    Sanjiang Plain was chosen as the study area in this paper, based on the relationship between species and their habitats, using principles of landscape ecology and protection biology, "3S" technique, GAP analysis of biodiversity protection on a regional scale, same surface areas of hexagons as forecasting and evaluating units to analyze protection status of wetlands birds and diversity of their habitats, to find the unprotected biodiversity hotspots there and then analyze the priority protection. As expressed from the research, some birds under second class state protection as Bubo bubo, Falco peregrinus, Accipiter gentilis, Falco tinnunculu, and Strix uralensis have not been well protected, ecological systems of forest hummocks, reed swamps and river wetlands gets worse protection. Thirteen hotspots have been discovered in this area, which are mainly distributed in surroundings near nature reserve and coast of some great rivers. GAP analysis for regions lacking data proposed in this paper not only put forward scientific evidence for the protection and management of wetland biodiversity in Sanjiang Plain, but also enriched theories and methods for China biodiversity protection.

  11. Great Plains ASPEN model development: Phosam section. Final topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, S S; Kirman, J J

    1985-02-01

    An ASPEN model has been developed of the PHOSAM Section, Section 4600, of the Great Plains Gasification Plant. The bases for this model are the process description given in Section 6.18 of the Great Plains Project Management Plan and the Lummus Phosam Schematic Process Flow Diagram, Dwg. No. SKD-7102-IM-O. The ASPEN model that has been developed contains the complete set of components that are assumed to be in the gasifier effluent. The model is primarily a flowsheet simulation that will give the material and energy balance and equipment duties for a given set of process conditions. The model is unable to predict fully changes in process conditions that would result from load changes on equipment of fixed sizes, such as a rating model would predict. The model can be used to simulate the steady-state operation of the plant at or near design conditions or to design other PHOSAM units. Because of the limited amount of process information that was available, several major process assumptions had to be made in the development of the flowsheet model. Patent literature was consulted to establish the ammonia concentration in the circulating fluid. Case studies were made with the ammonia content of the feed 25% higher and 25% lower than the base feed. Results of these runs show slightly lower recoveries of ammonia with less ammonia in the feed. As expected, the duties of the Stripper and Fractionator reboilers were higher with more ammonia in the feed. 63 references.

  12. Geochemical signature of provenance, tectonics and chemical weathering in the Quaternary flood plain sediments of the Hindon River, Gangetic plain, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, M. E. A.; Wani, H.; Mondal, Bulbul

    2012-09-01

    The Ganga basin in the Himalayan foreland is a part of the world's largest area of modern alluvial sedimentation. Flood plain sediments of the Hindon River of the Gangetic plain have been analyzed for sediment texture, major and trace elements including rare earth elements (REEs). The results have been used to characterize the source rock composition and to understand the intensity of chemical weathering, tectonics and their interplay in the Hindon flood plain. The sediments of the Hindon flood plain dominantly consist of sand sized particles with little silt and clay. The geochemistry of the Hindon sediments has been compared to the Siwalik mudstone of the Siwalik Group (Siwaliks). The Siwalik sedimentary rocks like sandstones, mudstones and conglomerates are the known source rocks for the Hindon flood plain sediments. Mudstone geochemistry has been considered best to represent the source rock characteristics. The UCC (Upper Continental Crust) normalized major and trace elements of the Hindon flood plain sediments are very similar to the Siwalik mudstone except for Th and Cr. Furthermore, the average chondrite normalized REE pattern of the Hindon flood plain sediments is similar to the Siwalik mudstone. Textural immaturity, K/Rb ratios and the average CIA (Chemical Index of Alteration) and PIA (Plagioclase Index of Alteration) values of the Hindon flood plain sediments indicate that the sediments have not been affected by chemical weathering. Our study suggests that the active tectonics of the Himalayas and monsoon climate enhances only physical erosion of the source rocks (Siwaliks) rather than the chemical alteration. These factors help the Hindon sediments to retain their parental and tectonic signature even after recycling.

  13. Death, Murder, and Mayhem: Stories of Violence and Healing on the Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Susan Naramore

    2009-01-01

    Unexpected, dramatic stories of death have left deep marks on the physical landscape and in the cultural psyche since humans first began to weave narrative from the Plains. When scholars and writers converged in Omaha, Nebraska for the 34th Interdisciplinary Symposium of the Center for Great Plains Center, many stories received scholarly and…

  14. 2011 North Plains research field 12-200 limited irrigation corn production study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Plains Water Conservation District started a water conservation project in 2010 on corn irrigation aimed at using just 12 inches of irrigation and producing 200 bu/ac of corn. This report is for 2011, the second year of the study, conducted at the North Plains Research Field (NPRF) in Ett...

  15. 49 CFR 215.109 - Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication... Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.109 Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication system...) Metal parts contacting the journal; or (e) Is— (1) Missing; or (2) Not in contact with the journal....

  16. 75 FR 25877 - Notice of Intent To Solicit Nominations, Carrizo Plain National Monument Advisory Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... positions on the Carrizo Plain National Monument Advisory Committee (MAC). MAC members provide advice and..., Johna_Hurl@ca.blm.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The MAC provides representative citizen counsel and... of the comprehensive plan for the Carrizo Plain National Monument. The MAC consists of nine...

  17. The Status of Plain Language Legislation in the Fifty States and President Carter's Executive Order 12044.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan, Lina

    A study was conducted to examine plain language legislation in the 50 states and to evaluate the progress made in simplifying government regulations as a result of President Carter's executive order mandating the use of clear language in regulations. In the first part of the study, laws and bills relating to plain language in consumer contracts…

  18. 44 CFR 60.7 - Revisions of criteria for flood plain management regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... flood plain management regulations. 60.7 Section 60.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for Flood Plain Management...

  19. 44 CFR 60.7 - Revisions of criteria for flood plain management regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... flood plain management regulations. 60.7 Section 60.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for Flood Plain Management...

  20. 44 CFR 60.7 - Revisions of criteria for flood plain management regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... flood plain management regulations. 60.7 Section 60.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for Flood Plain Management...

  1. 44 CFR 60.7 - Revisions of criteria for flood plain management regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... flood plain management regulations. 60.7 Section 60.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for Flood Plain Management...

  2. 44 CFR 60.7 - Revisions of criteria for flood plain management regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... flood plain management regulations. 60.7 Section 60.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for Flood Plain Management...

  3. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A FISH ASSEMBLAGE INDEX OF BIOTIC INTEGRITY FOR NORTHWESTERN GREAT PLAINS STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative indicators of biological integrity are needed for streams in the Great Plains of North America, but it was not known if the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) approach would be effective in this semi-arid region. Great Plains streams have a depauperate and tolerant i...

  4. Groundwater recharge at five representative sites in the Hebei Plain, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaohui; Jin, Menggui; van Genuchten, Martinus Th; Wang, Bingguo

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimates of groundwater recharge are essential for effective management of groundwater, especially when supplies are limited such as in many arid and semiarid areas. In the Hebei Plain, China, water shortage is increasingly restricting socioeconomic development, especially for agriculture, which heavily relies on groundwater. Human activities have greatly changed groundwater recharge there during the past several decades. To obtain better estimates of recharge in the plain, five representative sites were selected to investigate the effects of irrigation and water table depth on groundwater recharge. At each site, a one-dimensional unsaturated flow model (Hydrus-1D) was calibrated using field data of climate, soil moisture, and groundwater levels. A sensitivity analysis of evapotranspirative fluxes and various soil hydraulic parameters confirmed that fine-textured surface soils generally generate less recharge. Model calculations showed that recharge on average is about 175 mm/year in the piedmont plain to the west, and 133 mm/year in both the central alluvial and lacustrine plains and the coastal plain to the east. Temporal and spatial variations in the recharge processes were significant in response to rainfall and irrigation. Peak time-lags between infiltration (rainfall plus irrigation) and recharge were 18 to 35 days in the piedmont plain and 3 to 5 days in the central alluvial and lacustrine plains, but only 1 or 2 days in the coastal plain. This implies that different time-lags corresponding to different water table depths must be considered when estimating or modeling groundwater recharge.

  5. Mountain-Plains: The Meaning of a Model Career Education Learning System for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Rowan W.; Fenenbock, Michael C.

    The document describes the Mountain-Plains career education model and discusses its implications for higher education. The Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., is a non-profit corporation chartered by the State of Montana and funded through the National Institute of Education for a five-year cycle of research and…

  6. Drawn by the Bison: Late Prehistoric Native Migration into the Central Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritterbush, Lauren W.

    2002-01-01

    Popular images of the Great Plains frequently portray horse-mounted Indians engaged in dramatic bison hunts. The importance of these hunts is emphasized by the oft-mentioned dependence of the Plains Indians on bison. This animal served as a source of not only food but also materials for shelter, clothing, containers, and many other necessities of…

  7. 40 CFR 81.241 - Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Southwestern Mountains-Augustine... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.241 Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate...

  8. 40 CFR 81.241 - Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Southwestern Mountains-Augustine... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.241 Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate...

  9. 40 CFR 81.241 - Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southwestern Mountains-Augustine... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.241 Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate...

  10. 40 CFR 81.241 - Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Southwestern Mountains-Augustine... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.241 Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate...

  11. 40 CFR 81.241 - Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Southwestern Mountains-Augustine... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.241 Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate...

  12. Carbon and Water cycling in Southern Great Plains ecosystems converted to switchgrass production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report here the initiation of a multi-disciplinary, integrative program to investigate the effects of conversion of traditional southern Great Plains pasture and wheat systems to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) production. The project is based at the USDA-ARS Southern Plains Range Research Stat...

  13. The Buffalo Commons: Great Plains Residents' Responses to a Radical Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The American Great Plains has gained and shed various regional meanings since Euro-American exploration began. From a desert to a garden to a dust bowl to a breadbasket, this region's identity has shifted radically and dramatically over the last 200 years. In the mid-1980s unusual things were happening on the Plains that suggested yet another…

  14. Religion, Idealism, and African American Autobiography in the Northern Plains: Era Bell Thompson's "American Daughter"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Kevin; Weins, Leah

    2003-01-01

    Era Bell Thompson's "American Daughter", published in 1946 by the University of Chicago Press, is an autobiographical account of an African American woman who comes of age on the plains of North Dakota in the early twentieth century. It deserves to read and included in Great Plains studies because it recounts one of the rarest of American…

  15. 44 CFR 63.12 - Setback and community flood plain management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Setback and community flood plain management requirements. 63.12 Section 63.12 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... Setback and community flood plain management requirements. (a) Where benefits have been paid under...

  16. Agroecosystem diversity and pollinator ecosystem services on the northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The northern Great Plains provide critical habitat to pollinators. In 2012, North and South Dakota produced one-third of the total honey in the U.S. According to large scale analyses, crop diversity in the northern Great Plains has increased during the past 35 years. Increased diversity, greater com...

  17. 2010 North Plains Research Field 12-200 Limited Irrigation Corn Production Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Plains Groundwater Conservation District (NPGCD) in the Texas High Plains embarked on a demonstration program to illustrate if the region could produce 200 bushels and acres of corn using just 12 inches of irrigation water (named the 12-200 Project). This report is a summary of the first y...

  18. Exploring Perception of Indians about Plain Packaging of Tobacco Products: A Mixed Method Research

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Monika; Tewari, Abha; Grills, Nathan; Nazar, Gaurang P.; Sonrexa, Juhi; Gupta, Vinay K.; Moodie, Rob; Reddy, K. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed perceptions and support among the Indian populace about plain packaging for all tobacco products. Twelve focus group discussions (n = 124), stakeholder analysis with 24 officials and an opinion poll with 346 participants were conducted between December 2011 and May 2012, Delhi. Plain packages for tobacco products were favored by majority of participants (69%) and key stakeholders (92%). The majority of participants perceived that plain packaging would reduce the appeal and promotional value of the tobacco pack (>80%), prevent initiation of tobacco use among children and youth (>60%), motivate tobacco users to quit (>80%), increase notice ability, and effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on tobacco packs (>90%), reduce tobacco usage (75% of key stakeholders). Majority of participants favored light gray color for plain packaging. This study provides key evidence to advocate with Indian Government and other countries in South Asia region to introduce plain packaging legislation for all tobacco products. PMID:24350204

  19. Geohydrology of the High Plains Aquifer, western Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stullken, L.E.; Watts, K.R.; Lindgren, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,050 sq mi of eight states (Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming) and contains approximately 3.3 billion acre-ft of water in storage. Saturated thicknesses within the aquifer are as great as 600 ft near the southern border of southwest Kansas. The aquifer is replenished primarily by infiltration from precipitation. Average precipitation at the Garden City Experiment Station is 18.93 in/yr. Groundwater flow is generally from west to east under unconfined conditions. Hydraulic connection with subcropping consolidated aquifers allows ground water to flow vertically in minor quantities. The aquifer is depleted primarily by irrigation. Hydraulic conductivity estimates from 1,612 lithologic logs had an average value of 75 ft/day, with a standard deviation of 35 ft/day. Specific yields estimated from the same lithologic logs had a mean of 0.17 and a standard deviation of 0.047. Water from the High Plains aquifer in Kansas generally is suitable for human and animal consumption and irrigation of crops. Typically, it is a calcium bicarbonate type water, with concentrations of total dissolved solids ranging from 250 to 500 mg/L. The quality of water in the aquifer deteriorates toward the east due to mixing with recharge water containing dissolved minerals leached from the overlying soil and unsaturated zones and mineralized water from adjacent bedrock units. The simulated water budget for the steady state model of predevelopment (pre-1950) conditions in the High Plains aquifer in northwest Kansas showed that annual recharge to the aquifer from infiltration of precipitation was 87,000 acre-ft/yr and from boundary inflow, 21,000 acre-ft/yr. Annual discharge from the aquifer was 108,000 acre-ft/yr, including 81,000 acre-ft/yr from leakage to streams, 23,000 acre-ft from outflow at the boundaries of the aquifer, and 4,000 acre-ft from municipal and industrial pumpage. (Lantz-PTT)

  20. History of plains resurfacing in the Scandia region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Hayward, Rosalyn K.; Rodriguez, J. Alexis P.; Skinner, James A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a preliminary photogeologic map of the Scandia region of Mars with the objective of reconstructing its resurfacing history. The Scandia region includes the lower section of the regional lowland slope of Vastitas Borealis extending about 500–1800 km away from Alba Mons into the Scandia sub-basin below −4800 m elevation. Twenty mapped geologic units express the diverse stratigraphy of the region. We particularly focus on the materials making up the Vastitas Borealis plains and its Scandia sub-region, where erosional processes have obscured stratigraphic relations and made the reconstruction of the resurfacing history particularly challenging. Geologic mapping implicates the deposition, erosion, and deformation/degradation of geologic units predominantly during Late Hesperian and Early Amazonian time (~3.6–3.3 Ga). During this time, Alba Mons was active, outflow channels were debouching sediments into the northern plains, and basal ice layers of the north polar plateau were accumulating. We identify zones of regional tectonic contraction and extension as well as gradation and mantling. Depressions and scarps within these zones indicate collapse and gradation of Scandia outcrops and surfaces at scales of meters to hundreds of meters. We find that Scandia Tholi display concentric ridges, rugged peaks, irregular depressions, and moats that suggest uplift and tilting of layered plains material by diapirs and extrusion, erosion, and deflation of viscous, sedimentary slurries as previously suggested. These appear to be long-lived features that both pre-date and post-date impact craters. Mesa-forming features may have similar origins and occur along the southern margin of the Scandia region, including near the Phoenix Mars Lander site. Distinctive lobate materials associated with local impact craters suggest impact-induced mobilization of surface materials. We suggest that the formation of the Scandia region features potentially resulted from crustal heating

  1. [Effects of marshland reclamation on evapotranspiration in the Sanjiang Plain].

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhi-jun; Zhang, Wen; Huang, Yao; Zhao, Xiao-song; Song, Chang-chun

    2010-04-01

    Extensive reclamation of marshland into cropland has had tremendous effects on the ecological environment in the Sanjiang Plain. Observations over marshland, rice paddy and soybean field were made with eddy covariance measuring systems from May to October in 2005, 2006 and 2007. The objective of this study was to identify the effects of the conversion of marshland to cropland on evapotranspiration in the Sanjiang Plain. The results showed that the diurnal variation curves of latent heat flux were single peaked in marshland, rice paddy and soybean field. The daily maximum latent heat flux increased by 14%-130% in rice paddy in the three measuring years, however, in soybean field, it increased by 3%-77% in 2006 but decreased by 25%-40% in 2005 and 2007 by comparison with that in marshland. This difference was due to the change of leaf area index when marshland was reclaimed into cropland. Seasonal change of latent heat flux was identical for the three land use types. Daily averaged latent heat flux of rice paddy, from May to October, showed 38%-53% increase compared with that of marshland, which resulted from the increase in net radiation and leaf area index. When marshland was reclaimed into soybean field, the variation of daily averaged latent heat flux depended primarily on precipitation. Precipitation was the main factor that controlled evapotranspiration over soybean field which was usually in condition of soil water deficit. Drought caused 11%-17% decrease of daily averaged latent heat flux over soybean field in 2005 and 2007, while sufficient precipitation caused 22% increase in 2006, comparing to marshland. Similarly, during the growing season from June to September, total evapotranspiration of rice paddy increased by 24%-51% compared with that of marshland, and the total evapotranspiration of soybean field decreased by 19%-23% in 2005 and 2007 and increased by 19% in 2006. It is concluded that the evapotranspiration changes significantly when the marshland

  2. Pesticides in Ground Water of the Maryland Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denver, Judith M.; Ator, Scott W.

    2006-01-01

    Selected pesticides are detectable at low levels (generally less than 0.1 microgram per liter) in unconfined ground water in many parts of the Maryland Coastal Plain. Samples were recently collected (2001-04) from 47 wells in the Coastal Plain and analyzed for selected pesticides and degradate compounds (products of pesticide degradation). Most pesticide degradation occurs in the soil zone before infiltration to the water table, and degradates of selected pesticides were commonly detected in ground water, often at higher concentrations than their respective parent compounds. Pesticides and their degradates often occur in ground water in mixtures of multiple compounds, reflecting similar patterns in usage. All measured concentrations in ground water were below established standards for drinking water, and nearly all were below other health-based guidelines. Although drinking-water standards and guidelines are typically much higher than observed concentrations in ground water, they do not exist for many detected compounds (particularly degradates), or for mixtures of multiple compounds. The distribution of observed pesticide compounds reflects known usage patterns, as well as chemical properties and environmental factors that affect the fate and transport of these compounds in the environment. Many commonly used pesticides, such as glyphosate, pendimethalin, and 2,4-D were not detected in ground water, likely because they were sorbed onto organic matter or degraded in the soil zone. Others that are more soluble and (or) persistent, like atrazine, metolachlor, and several of their degradates, were commonly detected in ground water where they have been used. Atrazine, for example, an herbicide used primarily on corn, was most commonly detected in ground water on the Eastern Shore (where agriculture is common), particularly where soils are well drained. Conversely, dieldrin, an insecticide previously used heavily for termite control, was detected only on the Western

  3. Drought variability over Thessaly plain, Greece. Present and future changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Kapsomenakis, John; Dalezios, Nicolas R.; Kotsopoulos, Spyridon; Poulos, Serafim

    2015-04-01

    The diachronic variability of precipitation is of major scientific concern, because it is linked to water availability or deficiency on regional scale. The latter, resulted from a prolonged period of abnormally low precipitation or permanent absence of precipitation, is associated with dryness, having on one hand, a substantial impact on agricultural production and thus the society itself, and on the other hand, the redistribution of flora and fauna. In some cases, dryness drive climate refugees, and this is a great challenge - threat - that must be faced - mitigated - by stake holders in international organizations and fora. The Aridity Index (AI) measures the degree of dryness of the climate at a given region, and according to the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) it is defined as the ratio of precipitation to the potential evapotranspiration. In this study, we investigate the climate change impacts on AI over Thessaly plain, Greece. Thessaly, the largest plain and granary of Greece, includes a total area of 14,036 km2, which represents almost 11% of the Greek territory. Regarding the geomorphology, the ground is 50% mountainous-hilly and 50% flat, irrigated by Peneus, the third largest river in the country, which flows through the axis east-west. The assessment of AI was conducted utilizing daily evapotranspiration losses, based on the modified FAO-56 Penman-Monteith formula, and daily precipitation totals from a number of Regional Climate Models (RCMs), within the ENSEMBLE European Project. Further, the projected changes of AI between the period 1961-1990 (reference period) and the periods 2021-2050 (near future) and 2071-2100 (far future) along with the inter-model standard deviations are presented, under SRES A1B. The findings of the analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal changes of AI over Thessaly plain, focusing on their societal aspects. Acknowlegdements. This work is supported by the project AGROCLIMA (11SYN_3_1913), which is funded by

  4. Late Pleistocene dune activity in the central Great Plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, J.A.; Swinehart, J.B.; Hanson, P.R.; Loope, D.B.; Goble, R.J.; Miao, X.; Schmeisser, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Stabilized dunes of the central Great Plains, especially the megabarchans and large barchanoid ridges of the Nebraska Sand Hills, provide dramatic evidence of late Quaternary environmental change. Episodic Holocene dune activity in this region is now well-documented, but Late Pleistocene dune mobility has remained poorly documented, despite early interpretations of the Sand Hills dunes as Pleistocene relicts. New optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from drill cores and outcrops provide evidence of Late Pleistocene dune activity at sites distributed across the central Great Plains. In addition, Late Pleistocene eolian sands deposited at 20-25 ka are interbedded with loess south of the Sand Hills. Several of the large dunes sampled in the Sand Hills clearly contain a substantial core of Late Pleistocene sand; thus, they had developed by the Late Pleistocene and were fully mobile at that time, although substantial sand deposition and extensive longitudinal dune construction occurred during the Holocene. Many of the Late Pleistocene OSL ages fall between 17 and 14 ka, but it is likely that these ages represent only the later part of a longer period of dune construction and migration. At several sites, significant Late Pleistocene or Holocene large-dune migration also probably occurred after the time represented by the Pleistocene OSL ages. Sedimentary structures in Late Pleistocene eolian sand and the forms of large dunes potentially constructed in the Late Pleistocene both indicate sand transport dominated by northerly to westerly winds, consistent with Late Pleistocene loess transport directions. Numerical modeling of the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum has often yielded mean monthly surface winds southwest of the Laurentide Ice Sheet that are consistent with this geologic evidence, despite strengthened anticyclonic circulation over the ice sheet. Mobility of large dunes during the Late Pleistocene on the central Great Plains may have been the result of

  5. Empirically Modeling Carbon Fluxes over the Northern Great Plains Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wylie, B. K.; Ji, L.; Gilmanov, T.; Tieszen, L. L.

    2007-12-01

    Grasslands cover nearly one-fifth of the global terrestrial surface and store most of their carbon below ground. The grassland ecosystem in the Great Plains occupies over 1.5 million km2 of land area and is the primary resource for livestock production in North America. However, the contributions of grasslands to local and regional carbon budgets remain uncertain due to the lack of carbon flux data for the expansive grassland ecosystems under various managements, land uses, and climate variability. A quantitative understanding of carbon fluxes across these systems is essential for developing regional, national, and global carbon budgets and providing guidance to policy makers and managers when substantial conversion to biofuels are implemented. Additionally, these estimates will provide insights into how the grassland ecosystem will respond to future climate and what systems are sustainable and offer net carbon sinks. This knowledge base and decisions support tools are needed for developing land management strategies for the region under a variety of environmental conditions and land use options. In the past, we used a remote sensing-based piecewise regression (PWR) model to estimate the grassland carbon fluxes in the northern Great Plains using the 1-km SPOT VEGETATION normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. We estimated the carbon fluxes through integrated spatial databases and remotely sensed extrapolations of flux tower data to regional scales. The PWR model was applied to derive an empirical relationship between environmental variables and tower-based measurements. The PWR equations were then applied through time and space to estimate carbon fluxes across the study area at 1-km resolution. We now improve this modeling approach by 1) using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data with higher temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions (8-day, 500-m, and 7-band) as input; 2) incorporating the actual vegetation evapotranspiration

  6. Groundwater and microbial processes of Alabama coastal plain aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Elizabeth; Lee, Ming-Kuo; Morton, Cynthia

    2003-11-01

    We integrate groundwater geochemistry, microbiology, and numerical modeling techniques to study the origin of elevated salinity and chemical evolution of groundwaters in the coastal plain aquifers of Alabama. Our field data indicate that chemical composition of groundwater evolves by various geochemical and microbial processes as it moves deeper into the subsurface. Sequential peaks of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and Na+ along flow paths indicate that separation of ions may be driven by cation exchange. Microbial-mediated reactions are important for the formation of several discrete hydrochemical zones containing Fe2+, Mn2+, Sr2+, and SO42- rich groundwaters. Elevated Fe2+, Mn2+, and Sr2+ concentrations may be derived from bacterial iron and manganese reduction. High sulfate concentrations observed a short distance from the recharge may be partly explained by microbial sulfur oxidation and nitrate reduction (denitrification). The presence of denitrifying and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in water further supports these reactions. Major ion compositions and δD and δ18O values are used to determine the source of salinity and the nature of mixing of different groundwaters. Three water types were identified; these include carbonate groundwater, brines associated with evaporites, and groundwater of meteoric origin. Groundwater age differences and flow velocities were calculated using the 36Cl/Cl ratios. Calculated groundwater flow velocities within the Eutaw and Tuscaloosa aquifers are about 0.20 m/yr and 0.15 m/yr, respectively. We modeled basin-scale hydrologic and solute transport processes in a cross section extending from the aquifer outcrops to the Gulf Coast. The modeling result shows that the buried Jurassic Louann Salt can significantly increase groundwater salinity in the overlying coastal plain aquifers by density-driven advection and hydrodynamic dispersion. The modeling results are consistent with Cl/Br ratios and O/H isotope signatures, which indicate that salinity of

  7. Geology, geochemistry, and tectonostratigraphic relations of the crystalline basement beneath the coastal plain of New Jersey and contiguous areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Volkert, Richard A.; Drake, Avery Ala; Sugarman, Peter J.

    1996-01-01

    Coastal plain sediments are underlain by pre-Mesozoic crystalline rocks. The inner coastal plain is underlain by schist that is correlated with the Potomac Terrane, as well as by mafic rocks probably equivalent to the Wilmington or Bel Air-Rising Sun terranes. The northern and central outer coastal plain is underlain by metasedimentary rocks similar to the Brompton-Cameron Terrane. Rocks beneath the southern coastal plain probably correlate with those of the Chopawamsic and Roanoke Rapids terranes.

  8. Active tectonics of the Oran (Algeria) Quaternary plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    youcef, Bouhadad; rabah, Bensalem; e-hadi, oubaiche

    2016-04-01

    The Oran region, in north-western Algeria, has been hit several times in the past by destructive moderate-sized and strong earthquakes. The Oran October 9th , 1790 (I0= X) was among the strongest seismic events in the western Mediterranean area comparable, if we consider the described effects, to the El- Asnam (1980, Ms=7.3) and Zemmouri (2003, Mw=6.8) earthquakes. Such strong seismic events requires the presence of major active geological structures that are re-activated several times in the past. In this work we present results of a multi- disciplinary study combining geomorphic analysis, field earthquake geological investigations and geophysical methods, undertaken to study the southern border of the Oran Quaternary plain. A 50 km long, SW-dipping and NE-SW trending active fault has been identified that showing clear quaternary deformation. Keywords: earthquake geology, active fault, geomorphic, geophysics, Algeria.

  9. The 16 May 1909 northern Great Plains earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.; Stickney, M.C.; Rogers, Gary C.

    2011-01-01

    The largest historical earthquake in the northern Great Plains occurred on 16 May 1909. Our analysis of intensity assignments places the earthquake location (48.81° N, 105.38° W) close to the Montana–Saskatchewan border with an intensity magnitude MI of 5.3–5.4. Observations from two seismic observatories in Europe give an average Ms value of 5.3. The 1909 earthquake is near an alignment of epicenters of small earthquakes in Montana and Saskatchewan and on strike with the mapped Hinsdale fault in Montana. Thus, the 1909 earthquake may have occurred on a 300-km-long seismically active fault, which could have seismic-hazard implications for the region, particularly for the hydraulically emplaced earth-filled Fort Peck Dam, constructed in the 1930s on the Missouri River in northeast Montana.

  10. [The appearances of chondropathia patellae on plain films (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schumacher, K A; Glöckler, W T; Mutschler, W; Rittmeyer, K

    1979-12-01

    The ability to diagnose chondropathia patellae on plain radiographs was studied in 64 patients in whom the disease had been confirmed either by operation or arthroscopy. All cases of stage III chondropathia were diagnosable by radiological examination; in stage I, 67%, and in stage II, 73% could be diagnosed. The diagnosis depends on the co-existence of marginal irregularities, irregularities of the subchondral bone lamellae, spotty diffuse demineralisation, marginal osteophytes, irregularities at the insertion of the quadriceps tendon and soft tissue changes such as joint effusions. These changes are best identified on the so-called "defilée" view. Disalignment of the axis of the patella and post-traumatic defects are of particular importance for the development of chondropathia, but in the present clinical material, the existence of dysplasia of the patella or of the femoral condyle was not associated with a demonstrable increase of chondromalacia.

  11. Characteristics of groundwater recharge on the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiu-Cui; Wu, Jing-Wei; Cai, Shu-Ying; Yang, Jin-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is an important component of the groundwater system. On the North China Plain (NCP), groundwater is the main water supply. Because of large-scale overexploitation, the water table has declined, which has produced severe adverse effects on the environment and ecosystem. In this article, tracer experiment and watershed model were used to calculate and analyze NCP groundwater recharge. In the tracer experiment, average recharge was 108 mm/year and recharge coefficient 0.16. With its improved irrigation, vegetation coverage and evapotranspiration modules, the INFIL3.0 model was used for calculation of groundwater recharge. Regional modeling results showed an average recharge of 102 mm/year and recharge coefficient 0.14, for 2001-2009. These values are very similar to those from the field tracer experiment. Influences in the two methods were analyzed. The results can provide an important reference for NCP groundwater recharge.

  12. The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network.

    PubMed

    Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679 159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  13. Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in the Accra plains of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortatsi, Benony K.

    2006-06-01

    Chemical and isotopic analyses are used to characterize and identify the relevant water-rock interactions, which are responsible for the poor groundwater quality in the Accra Plains. Four main water types are identified. Processes that singly or in combination influence the chemical composition of each water type include halite dissolution carbonate dissolution and precipitation, seawater intrusion, cation exchange, evaporative concentration of solutes and aluminosilicates dissolution. These processes contribute considerably to the concentration of major ions in the groundwater. Stable isotope contents of the groundwater suggest mainly direct integrative recharge. A few samples plot along the meteoric-seawater mix line which is coincidentally the evaporative line. The Cl-/Br- ratios of some of these are close to 300 confirming marine origin, others probably concentrated by evaporation have their Cl-/Br- ratios significantly lower than 300. Groundwater is qualitatively good for drinking purposes only along the foothills of the Akwapim Togoland ranges.

  14. Deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols on the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Y.; Zhao, C. S.; Ma, N.; Liu, H. J.; Bian, Y. X.; Tao, J. C.; Hu, Min

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we report that the deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols on the North China Plain are frequently observed using a humidified nephelometer system. The deliquescence relative humidity (RH) primarily ranges from 73% to 81%, with an average of 76.8%. The observed deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols exhibit distinct diurnal patterns and are highly correlated with ammonium sulfate. The diurnal variations of ammonium and nitrate may play significant roles on occurrences of observed deliquescent phenomena. The frequently observed deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols in this paper imply that current parameterization schemes that describe the RH dependence of particle light scattering may result in a significant bias when estimating aerosol effects on climate.

  15. Summertime Low-Level Jets over the Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Stensrud, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The sky over the southern Great Plains Cloud and Atmospheric Radiation Testbed (CART) site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program during the predawn and early morning hours often is partially obstructed by stratocumulus, stratus fractus, or cumulus fractus that are moving rapidly to the north, even through the surface winds are weak. This cloud movement is evidence of the low-level jet (LLJ), a wind speed maximum that occurs in the lowest few kilometers of the atmosphere. Owing to the wide spacing between upper-air sounding sites and the relatively infrequent sounding launches, LLJ evolution has been difficult to observe adequately, even though the effects of LLJs on moisture flux into North America are large. Model simulation of the LLJ is described.

  16. ESTAR Measurements During the Southern Great Plains Experiment (SGP99)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Jackson, T. J.; Swift, C. T.; Haken, M.; Bidwell, S.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    During the Southern Great Plains experiment, the synthetic aperture radiometer, ESTAR, mapped L-band brightness temperature over a swath about 50 km wide and about 300 km long extending west from Oklahoma City to El Reno and north from the Little Washita River watershed to the Kansas border. ESTAR flew on the NASA P-3B Orion aircraft at an altitude of 7.6 km and maps were made on 7 days between July 8-20, 1999. The brightness temperature maps reflect the patterns of soil moisture expected from rainfall and are consistent with values of soil moisture observed at the research sites within the SGP99 study area and with previous measurements in this area. The data add to the resources for hydrologic modeling in this area and are further validation of the technology represented by ESTAR as a potential path to a future mission to map soil moisture globally from space.

  17. Environmental Radioactivity Measurements in Harran Plain of Sanliurfa, Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Bozkurt, A.; Yorulmaz, N.; Kam, E.

    2007-04-23

    This study aims to assess the environmental radioactivity levels of Harran Plain located within the boundaries of the south-eastern province of Sanliurfa, Turkey. In addition to being at the center of Turkey's major irrigation and development project (South Eastern Anatolian Project, GAP), this 1500 km2 region is famous for its historic attractions. The outdoor gamma dose rates were measured at selected points of the study area using a plastic scintillator. The activity concentrations in the soil samples collected from the study area were determined by gamma spectrometry for the natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K and the fission product 137Cs. The gross alpha and beta activities in the water samples collected from the region was measured using a low-level gamma spectrometry device. A comparison of the measurement results obtained in this study with those of national and world averages are presented in graphical and tabular forms.

  18. A Sustainable Biomass Industry for the North American Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Norman J.; Smith, Steven J.

    2009-12-01

    The North American Great Plains (hereafter NAGP) region is economically distressed and prone to severe ecological disruptions such as soil erosion. Its water resources are over-used and subject to pollution from agricultural fertilizers and chemicals, issues common to agricultural lands globally. On the other hand, the region is well suited to the production of herbaceous biomass that can be combusted directly for power or converted to liquid transportation fuels. This paper reviews the geography, history and current condition of the NAGP and offers suggestions about how the agriculture, economy and environment of this and similar regions around the world can be made more sustainable and able to contribute to a reduction in CO2 emissions and consequent global warming.

  19. Wind Shear Characteristics at Central Plains Tall Towers

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

    2006-01-01

    The object of this study is to analyze wind shear characteristics at tall tower sites in the Central Plains of the United States. The hub heights of modern turbines used for wind farm projects are now 70 meters (m) to 100 m above ground and some advanced turbines under development for deployment during the second half of this decade are rated at 2-5 megawatts of energy generation with rotor diameters near 100 m and hub heights of 100-120 m. These advanced turbines will take advantage of the higher wind speeds aloft to generate more wind energy. Specific knowledge of important wind shear characteristics near and at turbine hub height is needed to optimize turbine design and wind farm layout. Unfortunately, wind speed shear measurements at heights of 80-120 m were virtually nonexistent a few years ago and are still quite uncommon today. The Central Plains is a prime wind energy development region and knowledge about the wind shear characteristics will reduce uncertainty about the resource and enhance wind farm design. Previous analyses of tall tower data (Schwartz and Elliott, 2005) concentrated on data from specific states. The wind energy community has recognized the need to fill the gap of direct wind speed measurements at levels 70 m and higher above the ground. Programs instituted during the last 5 years at the state level and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) State Energy Program initiative have placed anemometers and vanes at several levels on existing tall (70 m+) communication towers. The Central Plains has a fairly high concentration of tall tower sites. The distribution of tall tower sites varies among the states in the Central Plains, because the tall tower program is new and the available state and federal funding to establish tall towers is variable. Our wind resource assessment group at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has obtained much of these necessary measurement data from both individual state sources and regional

  20. Arsenic in Water Resources of the Southern Pampa Plains, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Paoloni, Juan D.; Sequeira, Mario E.; Espósito, Martín E.; Fiorentino, Carmen E.; del C. Blanco, María

    2009-01-01

    Confronted with the need for accessible sources of good quality water and in view of the fact that the threat to public health posed by arsenic occurs mainly through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, the presence and distribution of arsenic was evaluated in the southern Pampa Plains of Bahía Blanca district in Argentina. The findings show variable concentrations of arsenic in a complex distribution pattern. Complementary information is provided on the behavior of the groundwater resource and its salinity in terms of dissolved ions. Groundwater is the most severely affected, 97% of the samples exceeding the guideline value for arsenic in drinking water as recommended by the WHO (Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 2004). and showing maximum concentrations of up to 0.30 mg/L. Informing those responsible for preventive medicine and alerting the community at large will facilitate measures to mitigate exposure and ensure the safety of drinking water. PMID:19936127

  1. Dynamics of playa lakes in the Texas High Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. C., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Three small playa lake basins on the southern High Plains, Texas, have been examined by geologists, pedologists, hydrologists, and botanists to establish ground truth for correlation with ERTS-1 imagery. Although the sites are recognizable, details of the three playa basins are too small, at present resolution, to be accurately determined by the available MSS imagery. However, a fourth study site, consisting of a dual playa complex approximately 5 miles long in a basin of 9 square miles, does resolve available imagery allowing accurate measurement of water fluctuations and water depth. Of the available MSS imagery, Band 5 is the most usable. Definition of Band 4 is less due to reduced tonal contrast. The greatest tonal contrast appears on Band 6 and Band 7 between dry land and water areas. Band 6 is particularly good for defining large water areas, Band 7 being best for small lake basins, and Band 5 for growing fields.

  2. Sediment Retention Within Coastal Plain Bottomland Forested Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, K. M.; Hupp, C. R.

    2002-12-01

    Coastal Plain forested wetlands are unique ecosystems where fluvial geomorphic processes control sediment retention and vegetation patterns, which are intimately connected to each other. Yet, these inter-disciplinary associations are typically lacking in traditional ecologic or geomorphic research within these ecosystems. Floodplain sedimentation rates and patterns, suspended sediment concentrations, substrate characteristics, vegetation and fluvial geomorphology were measured in field studies in eight 1-ha sites along three tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay to determine the dominant physical processes controlling deposition, substrate, and vegetation patterns in forested wetlands. Annual deposition was measured at 104 locations with feldspar clay pads. Sedimentation rates across the floodplain sites are highly variable, ranging from 0.5 mm/yr to 26.6 mm/yr. Multiple regression analyses suggest that the spatial patterns in net-annual and long-term deposition and substrate properties (grain sizes, sand:clay, and sorting) are controlled by the frequency and duration of inundation events and the total number of inundated days per year, the manner that sediment is distributed through the floodplain (dominant flow paths and/or the presence of slough networks, for example), and the potential for deposition of suspended sediments. Similarly, floodplain community diversity is significantly related to fluvial geomorphic processes (annual net deposition rates, percent inundation per year, and inundation duration per event). The results of this study provide valuable information on the development and evolution of Coastal Plain floodplains in the context of vegetation diversity patterns that have significant implications for the restoration and conservation of these systems.

  3. Lacustrine carbonates of the northern Great Plains of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last, Fawn M.; Last, William M.

    2012-11-01

    The northern Great Plains of western Canada, a vast region stretching from the Precambrian Shield east of Winnipeg, Manitoba, westward for some 1600 km to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, contains literally millions of lakes and wetlands. Although often characterized as a saline, Na-SO4 system, in fact the wide range of water chemistries exhibited by the lakes results in an unusually large diversity of sediment composition. Despite a long history of limnogeological study, it is only recently that the spectrum of carbonate minerals and sedimentological processes in these lakes has been realized. About 30 species of carbonate minerals have been reported from the modern and Holocene sediment of about 50 basins in the region. The ubiquity of detrital calcite and dolomite is a legacy of the carbonate bedrock and carbonate-rich glacial sediments. Elevated salinities of the lakes, together with high alkalinities, productivity, and pH values, act in concert to create thermodynamically saturated or supersaturated conditions with respect to many carbonate minerals. The most common non-detrital components are Mg-calcite, aragonite and non-stoichiometric dolomite. Many of the basins whose brines have very high Mg/Ca ratios also contain hydromagnesite, magnesite, and nesquehonite. Although not common, sodium carbonates, including trona, natron and nahcolite, also occur in some of the hypersaline lakes. Because of their great range of formative conditions, carbonates have been the workhorse for much of the physical and geochemical paleolimnology in the Canadian Great Plains. However, the often-difficult task of distinguishing endogenic lacustrine carbonates from allogenic and authigenic minerals has limited the use of carbonate stratigraphy in the region. Despite this problem, the carbonates have been useful in deciphering (i) past changes in hydrology and drainage basin characteristics, (ii) lake level and water column stratification fluctuations, and (iii) water chemistry

  4. Building Indigenous Community Resilience in the Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, B.

    2014-12-01

    Indigenous community resilience is rooted in the seasoned lifeways, developed over generations, incorporated into systems of knowledge, and realized in artifacts of infrastructure through keen observations of the truth and consequences of their interactions with the environment found in place over time. Their value lies, not in their nature as artifacts, but in the underlying patterns and processes of culture: how previous adaptations were derived and evolved, and how the principles and processes of detailed observation may inform future adaptations. This presentation examines how such holistic community approaches, reflected in design and practice, can be applied to contemporary issues of energy and housing in a rapidly changing climate. The Indigenous Peoples of the Great Plains seek to utilize the latest scientific climate modeling to support the development of large, utility scale distributed renewable energy projects and to re-invigorate an indigenous housing concept of straw bale construction, originating in this region. In the energy context, we explore the potential for the development of an intertribal wind energy dynamo on the Great Plains, utilizing elements of existing federal policies for Indian energy development and existing federal infrastructure initially created to serve hydropower resources, which may be significantly altered under current and prospective drought scenarios. For housing, we consider the opportunity to address the built environment in Indian Country, where Tribes have greater control as it consists largely of residences needed for their growing populations. Straw bale construction allows for greater use of local natural and renewable materials in a strategy for preparedness for the weather extremes and insurance perils already common to the region, provides solutions to chronic unemployment and increasing energy costs, while offering greater affordable comfort in both low and high temperature extremes. The development of large

  5. Overlaps among phenological phases in flood plain forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartošová, Lenka; Bauer, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing concern that climate change has significant impacts on species phenology, seasonal population dynamics, and thus interaction (a)synchrony between species. Species that have historically undergone life history events on the same seasonal calendar may lose synchrony and therefore lose the ability to interact as they have in the past. In view of the match/mismatch hypothesis, the different extents or directions of the phenological shifts among interacting species may have significant implications for community structure and dynamics. That's why our principal goal of the study is to determine the phenological responses within the ecosystem of flood plain forest and analyzed the phenological overlapping among each phenological periods of given species. The phenological observations were done at flood-plain forest experimental site during the period 1961-2012. The whole ecosystem in this study create 17 species (15 plants and 2 bird species) and each species is composed of 2 phenological phases. Phenological periods of all species of ecosystem overlap each other and 43 of these overlapping were chosen and the length, trend and correlation with temperature were elaborated. The analysis of phenophases overlapping of chosen species showed that the length of overlay is getting significantly shorter in 1 case. On the other hand the situation when the length of overlaps is getting significantly longer arose in 4 cases. Remaining overlaps (38) of all phenological periods among various species is getting shorter or longer but with no significance or have not changed anyhow. This study was funded by project "Building up a multidisciplinary scientific team focused on drought" No. CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0248. and of projects no. LD13030 supporting participation of the Czech Republic in the COST action ES1106.

  6. Floods, floodplains, delta plains — A satellite imaging approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syvitski, James P. M.; Overeem, Irina; Brakenridge, G. Robert; Hannon, Mark

    2012-08-01

    Thirty-three lowland floodplains and their associated delta plains are characterized with data from three remote sensing systems (AMSR-E, SRTM and MODIS). These data provide new quantitative information to characterize Late Quaternary floodplain landscapes and their penchant for flooding over the last decade. Daily proxy records for discharge since 2002 and for each of the 33 river systems can be derived with novel Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) methods. A descriptive framework based on analysis of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data is used to capture the major landscape-scale floodplain elements or zones: 1) container valleys with their long and narrow pathways of largely sediment transit and bypass, 2) floodplain depressions that act as loci for frequent flooding and sediment storage, 3) zones of nodal avulsions common to many continental scale rivers, and often located seaward of container valleys, and 4) coastal floodplains and delta plains that offer both sediment bypass and storage but under the influence of marine processes. The SRTM data allow mapping of smaller-scale architectural elements in unprecedented systematic manner. Floodplain depressions were found to play a major role, which may largely be overlooked in conceptual floodplain models. Lastly, MODIS data (independently and combined with AMSR-E) allows the tracking of flood hydrographs and pathways and sedimentation patterns on a near-daily timescale worldwide. These remote-sensing data show that 85% of the studied major river systems experienced extensive flooding in the last decade. A new quantitative paradigm of floodplain processes, honoring the frequency and extent of floods, can be develop by careful analysis of these new remotely sensed data.

  7. Organized Stone Stripes in the Northern Plains of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, D. P.

    2008-12-01

    Polygonally-patterned ground at scales of meters to tens of meters is nearly ubiquitous in the northern plains of Mars. Collections of cobble to boulder-sized clasts are commonly found superimposed on polygonal terrain in a regular pattern that resembles the surface of a basketball [Mellon et al., 2008; Malin and Edgett, 2001]. Here we describe a variation of this basketball terrain, dubbed "stone stripes," in which piles of clastic debris are arranged into a series of parallel to subparallel ridges spaced at intervals of ~40 m. Stone stripes appear to be continuous or nearly continuous over areas of tens to hundreds of square kilometers. This type of landform is most prevalent poleward of ~70°N latitude, at the northern margin of Utopia Planitia . We hypothesize that the orientation of stone stripes is controlled by regional structures, such as wrinkle ridges. First results from a survey of THEMIS VIS images within the area from 60°N-80°N and from 70°E-130°E show no obvious correlation between wrinkle ridge orientation and the orientation of stone stripes. Work is ongoing to further characterize the orientation of stone stripes in relation to regional structures and local and regional topographic slopes. Mellon et al., (2008), Periglacial landforms at the Phoenix landing site and the northern plains of Mars, Journal of Geophysical Research, doi:10.1029/2007JE003039, in press. Malin and Edgett, (2001), Mars global surveyor mars orbiter camera: Interplanetary cruise through primary mission, Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 23429-23570.

  8. Stratigraphy of Glen Rose Formation, Gulf coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Pittman, J.G. )

    1989-09-01

    Strata of the Glen Rose Formation and equivalent units crop out in a continuous band across the Edwards Plateau, the area of outcrop skirting the Llano uplift, the Lampasas cut plain, north-central Texas, southeastern Oklahoma, and southwestern Arkansas. These rocks dip into the subsurface of the Gulf coastal plain. Although the Glen Rose interval has been studied on outcrop and in the subsurface in these areas through numerous investigations of local scale and several regional review papers, a synthesis integrating subsurface with outcrop across the broad region and a more detailed lithostratigraphic framework are needed. On outcrop on the Edwards Plateau, the Glen Rose is divided into upper and lower members by the Corbula bed, a thin but widespread accumulation of the minute clam Carycorbula matinae. In this region, the Corbula bed lies beneath anhydrite and gypsum beds (dissolution zones on outcrop), which may be traced through laterally equivalent limestones in the subsurface around the Llano uplift to thin anhydrite stringers above the Ferry Lake Anhydrite in northeastern Texas. These stringers may be traced to the lower part of the Thorp Springs Member of the Glen Rose din the subsurface and outcrop area of north-central Texas. In the Paluxy River Valley, the Corbula bed occurs beneath the Thorp Springs. This specific correlation allows clear demarcation between beds of the upper and lower Glen Rose members in the region. Correlation of this type within the Glen Rose interval allows a detailed understanding of the depositional history of this sequence and provides a more explicitly defined lithostratigraphic framework into which future studies may be integrated.

  9. 44 CFR 60.12 - Flood plain management criteria for State-owned properties in special hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flood plain management... MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for State Flood Plain Management Regulations § 60.12 Flood plain management criteria for State-owned properties...

  10. 44 CFR 60.12 - Flood plain management criteria for State-owned properties in special hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for State Flood Plain Management Regulations § 60.12 Flood plain management criteria for State-owned properties in... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plain...

  11. Behavior of boundary layer ozone and its precursors over a great alluvial plain of the world: Indo-Gangetic Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beig, G.; Ali, K.

    2006-12-01

    We investigate the special behavior in the distribution of boundary layer ozone and its precursors over world's most extensive tract of uninterrupted alluvium and intensively farmed zones situated in the foothills of Himalayas as major river basin, known as Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). The study makes use of a Chemistry-Transport Model forced with dynamical fields and new emission inventories of pollutants established for 2001. It is found that the IGP region is highly vulnerable to human induced pollutant emissions due to conducive synoptic weather pattern which make it a source regions of ozone precursors within which these tracers remain confined and reinforce photochemical production of ozone. In addition, the continental tropical convergence zone and long range transport play a vital role. As a result, elevated levels of ozone concentration (maximum up to 80 ppbv) and its precursors with cellular structure of spatial variation with large seasonality are noticed.

  12. Simulation of Groundwater Conditions in The Alluvial Plains of The Taihang Mountains of The North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Y.; Stisen, S.; Jensen, K. H.; Villholth, K. G.; Sandholt, I.; Lei, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The hydrological model, MIKE SHE, has been applied to the Hebei province of the North China Plain to examine the components of the groundwater balance and to assess the groundwater resources. The model simulates the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge by taking into consideration the spatial patterns of soil characteristics, land use and irrigation. Recharge is the most important input to the groundwater system while groundwater abstraction for irrigation is the dominant output from the system. The model was auto-calibrated against daily observations of groundwater heads from a number of wells spread across the region and actual evapotranspiration measured at an agricultural station the period 1996-2002. The model simulations compared well with observations and reasonable values were obtained for both root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (R). The model analysis documented that groundwater tables in the region are subject to sharp declines due to heavy overexploitation of the groundwater resources by irrigation. The calibrated model was subsequently used for scenario simulations of the effect of different cropping patterns. The results showed that the crop rotation irrigated winter wheat and summer maize has the most significant impact on groundwater mining as irrigation requirements for winter wheat are extensive. Currently this is the most widespread crop rotation in North China Plain. In contract, the cultivation pattern of summer crop and winter fallow, like winter fallow and sweet potato, winter fallow and cotton, winter fallow and millet, and winter fallow and summer maize, cause less groundwater mining and some also can reverse water tables declining. The scenario simulations suggest that conversion of the crop rotations into rainfed summer crop and winter fallow is a potential solution for reversing the current decline in groundwater tables.

  13. Distinctive upper mantle anisotropy beneath the High Lava Plains and Eastern Snake River Plain, Pacific Northwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Lara S.; Long, Maureen D.

    2013-10-01

    The Pacific Northwest (PNW) has experienced voluminous intraplate volcanism over the past ˜17 Ma, beginning with the Steens/Columbia River flood basalts and continuing with the still-ongoing volcanism in the High Lava Plains (HLP) and eastern Snake River Plain (SRP). Here we present two complementary datasets (SKS splitting and Rayleigh wave phase velocity anisotropy) that place constraints on the anisotropic structure of the upper mantle beneath the HLP and SRP regions. Beneath the HLP, SKS phases reveal dominantly E-W fast splitting directions and large (up to ˜2.7 s) delay times, with pronounced lateral variations in δt. Lateral and depth variability in the strength of anisotropy beneath the HLP is also evident from Rayleigh wave dispersion. Beneath the SRP, SKS splitting delay times are much smaller (˜0.5 s), and surface wave observations suggest a region of upper mantle anisotropy (˜50-150 km depth) with a geometry that deviates significantly from the generally plate motion parallel fast directions observed just outside of the SRP. Beneath the HLP, the geometry of the anomalously strong anisotropy is similar to the anisotropy in the deeper parts of the upper mantle, resulting in constructive interference and large SKS splitting delay times. Beneath the SRP, the geometry of the anomalous anisotropic region in the shallow mantle is different, resulting in destructive interference and reduced SKS splitting delay times. We discuss several possible explanations for these observations, including variations in olivine lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) strength, transitions in olivine fabric type, and a contribution from aligned partial melt.

  14. Hydrologic characteristics of soils in the High Plains, northern Great Plains, and Central Texas Carbonates Regional Aquifer Systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dugan, Jack T.; Hobbs, Ryne D.; Ihm, Laurie A.

    1990-01-01

    Certain physical characteristics of soils, including permeability, available water capacity, thickness, and topographic position, have a measurable effect on the hydrology of an area. These characteristics control the rate at which precipitation infiltrates or is transmitted through the soil, and thus they have an important role in determining the rates of actual evapotranspiration (consumptive water use), groundwater recharge, and surface runoff. In studies of groundwater hydrology, it is useful to differentiate soils spatially according to their physical characteristics and to assign values that indicate their hydrologic responses.The principal purpose of this report is to describe the relation between the hydrologic characteristics of the soils in the study area and those environmental factors that affect the development and distribution of the soils. This objective will be achieved by (1) defining both qualitatively and quantitatively those soil characteristics that affect hydrology, and (2) classifying and delineating the boundaries of the soils in the study area according to these hydrologic characteristics.The study area includes the High Plains, Northern Great Plains, the Central Texas Carbonates, and parts of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer Systems as described by the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) Program (Sun, 1986, p.5and Sun, personal commun., June 1985) and shown in figures 1 through 5. The spatial patterns of the soils classified according to their quantifiable hydrologic characteristics will subsequently serve as an integral component in the analysis of actual evapotranspiration (consumptive water use), consumptive irrigation requirements, and potential ground-water recharge of the study area.The classification system used to describe the soils in this report is compatible with that of Dugan (1986). Dugan described the same characteristics of soils that are immediately underlain by principal aquifers of

  15. Geomorphic characterization and diversity of the fluvial systems of the Gangetic Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, R.; Jain, Vikrant; Babu, G. Prasad; Ghosh, S.

    2005-09-01

    The extensive Gangetic alluvial plains are drained by rivers which differ strongly in terms of hydrological and sediment transport characteristics. These differences are manifested in the geomorphic diversity of the plains. The Western Gangetic Plains (WGP) are marked by a degradational topography with incised channels and extensive badland development in some parts, while the Eastern Gangetic Plains (EGP) are characterized by shallow, aggrading channels with frequent avulsions and extensive flooding. We interpret such geomorphic diversity in terms of differences in stream power and sediment supply from the catchment areas. The rivers draining the western plains are marked by higher stream power and lower sediment yield that result in degradation. In comparison, the rivers draining the eastern Gangetic Plains have lower stream power and higher sediment yield that result in aggradation. The variation of stream power, a function of channel slope and high sediment yield, is attributed to differences in rainfall and rate of uplift in the hinterland. It is suggested that such differences have resulted in a marked geomorphic diversity across the plains. It is also suggested that such diversity has existed for a fairly long time because of climatic and tectonic variance.

  16. Detailed Analysis of the Intra-Ejecta Dark Plains of Caloris Basin, Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buczkowski, Debra L.; Seelos, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    The Caloris basin on Mercury is floored by light-toned plains and surrounded by an annulus of dark-toned material interpreted to be ejecta blocks and smooth, dark, ridged plains. Strangely, preliminary crater counts indicate that these intra-ejecta dark plains are younger than the light-toned plains within the Caloris basin. This would imply a second, younger plains emplacement event, possibly involving lower albedo material volcanics, which resurfaced the original ejecta deposit. On the other hand, the dark plains may be pre-Caloris light plains covered by a thin layer of dark ejecta. Another alternative to the hypothesis of young, dark volcanism is the possibility that previous crater counts have not thoroughly distinguished between superposed craters (fresh) and partly-buried craters (old) and therefore have not accurately determined the ages of the Caloris units. This abstract outlines the tasks associated with a new mapping project of the Caloris basin, intended to improve our knowledge of the geology and geologic history of the basin, and thus facilitate an understanding of the thermal evolution of this region of Mercury.

  17. Workshop on the Martian Northern Plains: Sedimentological, Periglacial, and Paleoclimatic Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kargel, Jeffrey S. (Editor); Moore, Jeffrey (Editor); Parker, Timothy (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Papers that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on the Martian Northern Plains: Sedimentological, Periglacial, and Paleoclimatic Evolution, on 12-14 Aug. 1993 in Fairbanks, Alaska are included. Topics covered include: hydrological consequences of ponded water on Mars; morphological and morphometric studies of impact craters in the Northern Plains of Mars; a wet-geology and cold-climate Mars model: punctuation of a slow dynamics approach to equilibrium; the distribution of ground ice on Mars; and stratigraphy of the Martian Northern Plains.

  18. Irrigation Management in the Texas High Plains: Present Status, Challenges, and Opportunities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowda, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential component of the water balance and a major consumptive use of irrigation water and precipitation on cropland. Any attempt to improve water use efficiency must be based on reliable estimates of ET for irrigation scheduling purposes. In the Texas High Plains, irrigation scheduling is implemented using lysimeter-based crop coefficients and reference ET data from the Texas High Plains ET Network. This presentation will discuss the current state of irrigation management in the Texas High Plains, knowledge gaps, ongoing developments, and role of remote sensing based regional ET mapping algorithms with respect to irrigated agriculture.

  19. Mid Pliocene sea levels along the southeast US coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, A.; Hearty, P. J.; Raymo, M. E.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Inglis, J.

    2012-12-01

    Proxy data suggest that during the Mid-Pliocene Warm Period (MPWP) atmospheric CO2 levels were roughly similar to today (between 350 and 450 ppmv) and that global average temperature was elevated by as much as 3°C with respect to preindustrial values. Estimates of sea level (SL) during the MPWP range from +10 m to >+40 m relative to present, reflecting uncertainties in our knowledge of the sensitivity to modest climate warming of the East Antarctic, West Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets. A primary objective of the PLIOMAX project (www.pliomax.org) is to combine models of paleosea-level signals with geological observations to significantly improve constraints on eustatic sea level during the MPWP. In this regard, the southeast US coastal plain is of strategic importance in MPWP sea level studies (Dowsett and Cronin, Geology, 1990). In fact, it is one of the few places where predicted glacio-isostatic effects are expected to exhibit a significant geographic variation (in this case, north-to-south). The coastal plain may also be influenced by dynamic topography driven by mantle convective flow. In this area, two factors drive the up-to-the-west dynamic tilting of the coast. The first is the descent of the Farallon slab, now located under the mid-part of the North American continent. The other is upwelling return flow under the east coast (Moucha et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2008). That is, over the last few million years, dynamic topography is responsible for potentially tens of meters of uplift (sea-level fall) of the Pliocene shoreline along the southeast US coastal plain. We have mapped an almost continuous MPWP shoreline cut into Miocene and older formations. However, as a result of multiple inter-state investigations extending over the last century, both the geomorphic escarpment and the associated deposits have been named differently across the region. In Virginia, the Chippenham Thornburg scarp is associated with the Moore House formation; in North and

  20. Space-Time-Isotopic Trends of Snake River Plain Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, M. M.; Hanan, B. B.; Shervais, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    The Snake River Plain (SRP) volcanic province is an 800 km track of basalt extending from the Owyhee Plateau to its current terminus, the Yellowstone Plateau. It is one of several late-Tertiary magmatic terranes that also include the Cascades magmatic arc, the Columbia River basalts, and the Oregon Plateau basalts; all of which are adjacent to the Basin and Range Province extensional system (Hughes and McCurry, 2002). This province represents the track of the Yellowstone plume and consists of basalt that is compositionally similar to ocean-island basalt. This basalt overlies a series of rhyolitic eruptive centers (overlapping caldera complexes, ignimbrites, and caldera-filling eruptions) that signal the arrival of the plume head (Christiansen, 2001) and herald the onset of plume-related rhyolitic and basaltic volcanism (Pierce et al., 2002). Observed within the SRP are two basalt types: the dominant low-K olivine tholeiites and less common high-K alkaline basalts. We report new Sr-, Nd-, and Pb-isotopic analyses of these two basalt types from all three SRP provinces: eastern, central, and western. Low-K tholeiites are enriched in 143Nd/144Nd and 86Sr/87Sr and forms a quasi-linear array in Pb-isotope space, along with Craters of the Moon and eastern SRP basalts. High-K lavas are found largely in the western plain, and have a uniquely different isotopic signature. They are depleted in 143Nd/144Nd and 86Sr/87Sr, relative to the low-K tholeiites, and plot closer to the BSE component of Zindler and Hart (1986). They also share the same Pb-isotopic space with high-K basalts from Smith Prairie (Boise River Group 2 of Vetter and Shervais, 1992). One low-K tholeiite - Eureka North, plots with these high alkali basalts. Mass balance models have demonstrated an increasing plume component from the Yellowstone caldera in the east to the craton edge in the west. The lavas analyzed in this study conform remarkably to this model. The mass fraction of plume component in western

  1. Saproxylic beetles of the Po plain woodlands, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bogliani, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Forest ecosystems play an important role for the conservation of biodiversity, and for the protection of ecological processes. The Po plain woodlands which once covered the whole Plain, today are reduced in isolated highly threatened remnants by modern intensive agriculture. These close to natural floodplain forests are one of the most scarce and endangered ecosystems in Europe. Saproxylic species represent a major part of biodiversity of woodlands. The saproxylic insects are considered one of the most reliable bio-indicators of high-quality mature woodlands and have a very important role in regard to the protection and monitoring of forest biodiversity due to their highly specific living environments. As a result of the dramatic reduction of mature forests and the decreased availability of deadwood most of the saproxylic communities are greatly diminishing. The study was conducted in the Ticino Valley Regional Park and the aim is to contribute to the expansion of knowledge on the saproxylic beetles of Lombardy. We investigated 6 sampling sites belonging to alluvial and riparian mixed forests. For each forest we selected 12 trees. For beetles’ collection we used two different traps: Eclector Traps and Trunk Window Traps (total of 72 traps and 864 samples collected). We determined 4.387 beetles from 87 saproxylic species belonging to 21 families. Of these species 51 were not included in the previous checklist of the Park. By comparing the two different techniques used for catching saproxylic beetles, we found a significantly high difference in species richness between Window Traps (WT) and Eclector Traps (ET) with a higher number of species captured in the Window Traps. However, the combined use of two different types of traps significantly expanded the spectrum of insects captured Among the species reported as Least Concern in the IUCN Red List, we found interesting species such as the Elateridae Calambus bipustulats, the Eucnemidae Melasis buprestoides

  2. [Effects of Canalization on the Iron Deposition in Sanjiang Plain].

    PubMed

    Su, Wen-hui; Yu, Xiao-fei; Wang, Guo-ping; Luan, Jin-hua; Zou, Yuan-chun

    2015-04-01

    Canalization is the representative process and landscape of wetland reclamation. A typical ditch system of four levels near the Honghe National Nature Reserve in Sanjiang Plain was selected. Deposition plates were set on the sediments along the ditch level and the remained natural wetland nearby was quantitatively sampled for two years as the control. The deposition fluxes, total iron concentration, iron oxides and their components, as well as biogenic elements in the sediments collected by deposition plates were measured. The results showed that the litter, mud/sand and total deposition fluxes showed no significant differences between different ditch levels, with the means of (57.00 ± 16.90) g x (m2 x a)(-1), (3 997.57 ± 798.98) g x (m2 x a)(-1) and (4054.57 ± 792.91) g x (m2 x a)(-1), respectively. The litter flux decreased with the increase of ditch level, and the flux in the natural wetland [ (120.26 ± 19.42) g x (m2 x a)(-1) ] was significantly greater than that of the ditches. The mud/sand [ (35.41 ± 11.15 ) g x (m2 x a)(-1)] and total deposition fluxes [ (155.67 ± 20.75) g x ( m2 x a](-1) ] were significantly smaller than those of the ditches. There were no significant differences in the total iron between different ditches and natural wetland, while the free iron oxide content in the ditch sediments was significantly lower than that of natural wetland sediment. Except for the main ditch, the amorphous and complex iron oxides in the other ditch and natural wetland sediments showed no significant differences. The free degree of the iron oxide in ditch sediments was 60.2% of that in the natural wetland, while the differences in the complex degree and the activated degree were insignificant. The differences in the total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were insignificant, and all were smaller than those of the natural wetland, with the percentages of 14.6%, 31.6% and 41.0%, respectively. It could be concluded that the effects of

  3. Effects of Concrete Channels on Stream Biogeochemistry, Maryland Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestegaard, K. L.; Gilbert, L.; Phemister, K.

    2005-05-01

    In the 1950's and 60's, extensive networks of cement-lined channels were built in suburban watersheds near Washington, D.C. to convey storm water to downstream locations. These cement-lined stream channels limit interactions between surface and groundwater and they provide sources of alkalinity in Maryland Coastal Plain watersheds that normally have low alkalinity. This project was designed to 1) compare base flow water chemistry in headwater reaches of urban and non-urban streams, and 2) to evaluate downstream changes in water chemistry in channelized urban streams in comparison with non-urban reference streams. During a drought year, headwater streams in both urban and non-urban sites had significant concentrations of Fe(II) that were discharged from groundwater sources and rapidly oxidized by iron-oxidizing bacteria. During a wet year, the concentrations of Fe(II) were higher in headwater urban streams than in the non-urban streams. This suggests that impervious surfaces in headwater urban watersheds prevent the recharge of oxygen-rich waters during storm events, which maintains iron-rich groundwater discharge to the stream. Downstream changes in water chemistry are prominent in cement-lined urban channels because they are associated with distinctive microbial communities. The headwater zones of channelized streams are dominated by iron-ozidizing bacteria, that are replaced downstream by manganese-oxidizing zones, and replaced further downstream by biofilms dominated by photosynthesizing cyanobacteria. The reaches dominated by cyanobacteria exhibit diurnal changes in pH due to uptake of CO2 for photosynthesis. Diurnal changes range from 7.5 to 8.8 in the summer months to 7.0 to 7.5 in the cooler months, indicating both the impact of photosynthesis and the additional source of alkalinity provided by concrete. The dissolved oxygen, pH, and other characteristics of tributaries dominated by cyanobacteria are similar to the water chemistry characteristics observed in

  4. Modes of formation of lunar light plains and the detection of cryptomaria deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, James W.; Mustard, John; Antonenko, Irene; Hawke, B. Ray

    1993-01-01

    The early volcanic and impact histories of the Moon are closely linked and the record preserved in surface morphology and samples is tightly convolved because of the interaction of the two processes. The deconvolution of the record is an important goal in order to assess early volcanic flux and the mode of emplacement of large crater and basin deposits. For example, lunar light plains have been variously interpreted as volcanic, impact, and volcanic covered by impact deposits. The development of criteria for the determination of the origin of light plains and the detection of cryptomaria is a key to the deconvolution of this early record. We outline the various hypotheses for the origin of and potential modes of occurrence of light plains and cryptomaria, and develop criteria for their recognition and documentation. We use the example of the Schiller-Schickard and Balmer cryptomaria to illustrate the application of these techniques to the problem of light plains interpretation and cryptomaria documentation.

  5. A Plain English Map of the Chromosomes of the Fruit Fly Drosophila Melanogaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Presents a plain English map of the chromosomes of the fruit fly that contains genes from very different kinds of studies. Represents the work of nearly a century by thousands of researchers using a tremendous variety of techniques. (JRH)

  6. THE EFFECTS OF RIPARIAN MANAGEMENT ON DETRITUS PROCESSING AND INVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES IN COASTAL PLAIN INTERMITTENT STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silviculture is the primary land use within many Coastal Plain watersheds of the southeastern United States, where most forested wetlands are found along headwater intermittent streams. Our study compared invertebrate assemblages and breakdown of buried detritus (leaves, wood, a...

  7. Volcanism of the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho: A comparative planetary geology-guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; King, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The Planetary Geology Field Conference on the central Snake River Plain was conceived and developed to accomplish several objectives. Primarily, field conferences are sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to draw attention to aspects of terrestrial geology that appear to be important in interpreting the origin and evolution of extraterrestrial planetary surfaces. Another aspect is to present results of recent research in a region. A final objective of this conference is to bring together investigators of diverse backgrounds who share a common interest in the Snake River Plain. The Snake River Plain appears to be similar in surface morphology to many volcanic regions on the Moon, Mars, and possibly Mercury. Therefore, the Snake River Plain, in combination with the relatively good state of preservation, the lack of forests or other heavy vegetation, and the good network of jeep trails, is an area nearly ideal for analog studies.

  8. Bimodal basalt-rhyolite magmatism in the central and western Snake River Plain, Idaho and Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCurry, M.; Bonnichsen, B.; White, C.; Godchaux, M.M.; Hughes, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this trip is to examine Miocene to Pleistocene basalt and rhyolite flows, ignimbrites and hypabyssal intrusions in a transect from the western Snake River Plain graben across the older part of the Snake River Plain "hot-spot-track." The earlier, dominantly explosive rhyolitic phase of volcanism will be examined primarily in the Cassia Mountains, near Twin Falls, Idaho. The second day of the field trip will focus on the Graveyard Point intrusion, a strongly differentiated diabase sill in easternmost Oregon. This late Tertiary sill is well exposed from floor to roof in sections up to 150 m thick, and is an example of the type of solidified shallow magma chamber that may be present beneath some Snake River Plain basalt volcanoes. The field trip will conclude with an examination of the diverse styles of effusive and explosive basaltic volcanism in the central and western Snake River Plain.

  9. Nutrient yield of the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida; water-quality assessment plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattraw, H.C.; Elder, John F.

    1980-01-01

    The Apalachicola River in northwestern Florida is the location of one of four current U.S. Geological Survey National River Quality Assessments. The investigation of the Apalachicola River and flood plain is designed to quantify the organic detritus and nutrient yield to the productive, estuarine Apalachicola Bay. The extensive riverine flood plain is subject to seasonal flooding which transports large quantities of accumulated, decaying leaf litter from the flood plain into the river and ultimately into Apalachicola Bay. The Apalachicola River Quality Assessment has four major objectives; (1) Determine the accumulation of organic substances and trace elements in benthic organisms and fine-grained sediments; (2) Define the distribution of the major tree communities on the flood plain; (3) Assess the role of leaf fall and decomposition on nutrient yield; and (4) Identify and quantify major sources and pathways of nutrients to the river. Extensive emphasis is given to investigation approaches and techniques to facilitate technology transfer to similar wetland ecosystems. (USGS)

  10. Geohydrology of the High Plains Aquifer system, Cheyenne urban area, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.; Crist, Marvin A.

    1991-01-01

    The Cheyenne area is on broad tablelands that form part of the High Plains aquifer. Surficial deposits, along with the Ogallala Formation and the White River Group, are included in the High Plains aquifer in the study area, and both unconfined and confined ground-water conditions exist within 100 feet of land surface. During wet years, shallow ground-water problems affect urban development. The High Plains aquifer is considered an aquifer system in the Cheyenne area. Water-yielding sandstone and conglomerate units are surrounded by sequences of clay and silt; although the water-yielding units under confined conditions may be areally extensive, they are not easily identified. Urban development has modified the High Plains aquifer system locally as indicated by the mapped potentiometric surfaces, the perched water zones, and the surface-drainage patterns. That part of the system in the shallow zones is affected by excavations and by structures that penetrate the saturated zones. (USGS)

  11. Invertebrate colonization of leaves and roots within sediments of intermittent coastal plain streams across hydrologic phases

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared benthic invertebrate assemblages colonizing three types of buried substrates (leaves, roots and plastic roots) among three intermittent Coastal Plain streams over a one year period. Invertebrate density was significantly lower in root litterbags than in plastic root l...

  12. Historical Influences on Contemporary Tobacco Use by Northern Plains and Southwestern American Indians

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    There are great differences in smoking- and tobacco-related mortality between American Indians on the Northern Plains and those in the Southwest that are best explained by (1) ecological differences between the two regions, including the relative inaccessibility and aridity of the Southwest and the lack of buffalo, and (2) differences between French and Spanish Indian relations policies. The consequence was the disruption of inter- and intratribal relations on the Northern Plains, where as a response to disruption the calumet (pipe) ceremony became widespread, whereas it did not in the Southwest. Tobacco was, thus, integrated into social relationships with religious sanctions on the Northern Plains, which increased the acceptability of commercial cigarettes in the 20th century. Smoking is, therefore, more deeply embedded in religious practices and social relationships on the Northern Plains than in the Southwest. PMID:26691134

  13. Mercury dynamics in a coastal plain watershed: insights from multiple models and empirical data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interactions among atmospherically deposited mercury, abundant wetlands, and surface waters with elevated acidity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) often lead to widespread mercury-related fish consumption advisories in the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States (US). H...

  14. Surface energy balance based evapotranspiration mapping in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture on the Texas High Plains (THP) uses approximately 89% of groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer. Consequently, groundwater levels are declining faster than the recharge rate. Therefore, efficient agricultural water use is essential for economic viability and sustainability of ...

  15. Savannah River Region: Transition between the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Zullo, V.A.; Harris, W.B.; Price, V.

    1990-12-31

    The focus of the this conference of Coastal Plains geologists was on the Savannah River region of Georgia and South Carolina, and particularly on the geology of the US Department of Energy`s 300 square mile Savannah River Site (SRS) in western South Carolina. Current geological studies indicate that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section in the Savannah River region is transitional between that of the Gulf Coastal Plain to the southwest and that of the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the northeast. With the transitional aspect of the region as its theme, the first session was devoted to overviews of Cretaceous and Paleogene geology in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Succeeding presentations and resulting discussions dealt with more specific problems in structural, lithostratigraphic, hydrological, biostratigraphic, and cyclostratigraphic analysis, and of correlation to standard stratigraphic frameworks. For these conference proceedings, individual papers have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  16. Evidence of Oxyspirura petrowi in migratory songbirds found in the rolling plains of West Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Dunham, Nicholas R; Kendall, Ronald J

    2014-07-01

    Three Northern Mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos) and one Curve-billed Thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostre) from the Rolling Plains of Texas, USA were sampled for eyeworms in September 2013. All four birds were infected with the eyeworm Oxyspirura petrowi.

  17. Historical Influences on Contemporary Tobacco Use by Northern Plains and Southwestern American Indians.

    PubMed

    Kunitz, Stephen J

    2016-02-01

    There are great differences in smoking- and tobacco-related mortality between American Indians on the Northern Plains and those in the Southwest that are best explained by (1) ecological differences between the two regions, including the relative inaccessibility and aridity of the Southwest and the lack of buffalo, and (2) differences between French and Spanish Indian relations policies. The consequence was the disruption of inter- and intratribal relations on the Northern Plains, where as a response to disruption the calumet (pipe) ceremony became widespread, whereas it did not in the Southwest. Tobacco was, thus, integrated into social relationships with religious sanctions on the Northern Plains, which increased the acceptability of commercial cigarettes in the 20th century. Smoking is, therefore, more deeply embedded in religious practices and social relationships on the Northern Plains than in the Southwest. PMID:26691134

  18. Data-driven models of groundwater salinization in coastal plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felisa, G.; Ciriello, V.; Antonellini, M.; Di Federico, V.; Tartakovsky, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Salinization of shallow coastal aquifers is particularly critical for ecosystems and agricultural activities. Management of such aquifers is an open challenge, because predictive models, on which science-based decisions are to be made, often fail to capture the complexity of relevant natural and anthropogenic processes. Complicating matters further is the sparsity of hydrologic and geochemical data that are required to parameterize spatially distributed models of flow and transport. These limitations often undermine the veracity of modeling predictions and raise the question of their utility. As an alternative, we employ data-driven statistical approaches to investigate the underlying mechanisms of groundwater salinization in low coastal plains. A time-series analysis and auto-regressive moving average models allow us to establish dynamic relations between key hydrogeological variables of interest. The approach is applied to the data collected at the phreatic coastal aquifer of Ravenna, Italy. We show that, even in absence of long time series, this approach succeeds in capturing the behavior of this complex system, and provides the basis for making predictions and decisions.

  19. Waterfowl research priorities in the northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, R.R.; Johnson, D.H.; Johnson, M.A.; Kirby, R.E.; Nelson, J.W.; Reynolds, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    It is necessary periodically to identify research priorities so that future research will be directed toward the most pertinent issues in waterfowl ecology and management. To that end, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center convened a quorum of experts on the ecology of breeding waterfowl, the Waterfowl Working Group, to 1) develop a mission statement, 2) identify waterfowl research priorities in the northern Great Plains, and 3) determine the frequency for re-identifying research needs. Research needs (nonprioritized) identified by the group and described in detail herein included: 1) determine effects of landscape factors on demographics and recruitment of ducks in the Prairie Pothole Region; 2) develop, improve, or update estimates of important parameters used in existing models for management and planning; 3) evaluate waterfowl management activities at broad, regional scales; 4) direct studies at waterfowl species of concern; and 5) evaluate applicability of the bird-conservation-area concept to waterfowl. The Waterfowl Working Group will reconsider research priorities at 2-year intervals.

  20. Groundwater discharge along a channelized Coastal Plain stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaSage, D.M.; Sexton, J.L.; Mukherjee, A.; Fryar, A.E.; Greb, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    In the Coastal Plain of the southeastern USA, streams have commonly been artificially channelized for flood control and agricultural drainage. However, groundwater discharge along such streams has received relatively little attention. Using a combination of stream- and spring-flow measurements, spring temperature measurements, temperature profiling along the stream-bed, and geologic mapping, we delineated zones of diffuse and focused discharge along Little Bayou Creek, a channelized, first-order perennial stream in western Kentucky. Seasonal variability in groundwater discharge mimics hydraulic-head fluctuations in a nearby monitoring well and spring-discharge fluctuations elsewhere in the region, and is likely to reflect seasonal variability in recharge. Diffuse discharge occurs where the stream is incised into the semi-confined regional gravel aquifer, which is comprised of the Mounds Gravel. Focused discharge occurs upstream where the channel appears to have intersected preferential pathways within the confining unit. Seasonal fluctuations in discharge from individual springs are repressed where piping results in bank collapse. Thereby, focused discharge can contribute to the morphological evolution of the stream channel. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Evapotranspiration of winter wheat field in North China Plain].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiaxuan; Li, Yuzhong; Yan, Chang-Rong; Zhao, Quansheng; Mei, Xurong

    2006-12-01

    By using eddy covariance and remote sensing techniques, the relationships between winter wheat soil moisture content and farmland evapotranspiration or canopy temperature were analyzed at field scale under various environmental conditions in the North China Plain. The results showed that when the soil moisture content was below 65% of field capacity, the evaporative fraction under full canopy was low and stable during the middle part of clear days. Under clear sky condition, there was a good non-linear correlation between latent heat flux and crop canopy temperature with diurnal and seasonal patterns. The temperature difference between crop canopy and air as well as the relative evapotranspiration had a close link to the relative moisture content of 0 - 100 cm soil layer. Based on the in situ measurements of daily evapotranspiration amount (ET(d)), daily net radiation flux (Rn(d), mm), average canopy temperature (T(e), degrees C) from 13 : 30 to 14: 00, and daily maximum air temperature (T(a max), degrees C) during the field experiment, the parameters of simplified estimation model for daily evapotranspiration were established.

  2. Shallow Groundwater Mercury Supply in a Coastal Plain Stream

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Fluvial methylmercury (MeHg) is attributed to methylation in up-gradient wetland areas. This hypothesis depends on efficient wetland-to-stream hydraulic transport under nonflood and flood conditions. Fluxes of water and dissolved (filtered) mercury (Hg) species (FMeHg and total Hg (FTHg)) were quantified in April and July of 2009 in a reach at McTier Creek, South Carolina to determine the relative importance of tributary surface water and shallow groundwater Hg transport from wetland/floodplain areas to the stream under nonflood conditions. The reach represented less than 6% of upstream main-channel distance and 2% of upstream basin area. Surface-water discharge increased within the reach by approximately 10%. Mean FMeHg and FTHg fluxes increased within the reach by 23–27% and 9–15%, respectively. Mass balances indicated that, under nonflood conditions, the primary supply of water, FMeHg, and FTHg within the reach (excluding upstream surface water influx) was groundwater discharge, rather than tributary transport from wetlands, in-stream MeHg production, or atmospheric Hg deposition. These results illustrate the importance of riparian wetland/floodplain areas as sources of fluvial MeHg and of groundwater Hg transport as a fundamental control on Hg supply to Coastal Plain streams. PMID:22734594

  3. Abyssal plains heat exchange could explain global deficit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-07-01

    When researchers measure the amount of heat flowing conductively from the seafloor to the ocean waters and then compare that value against a theoretical prediction of that heat loss, they observe that the global average measured heat flow is lower than expected. Researchers think that advection, a heat transfer mechanism that is difficult to measure, makes up this difference between predicted and observed heat exchange. They suggest that as seawater circulates through the permeable upper layers of the seafloor crust, driven by a thermal gradient, the water accumulates heat, drawing it into the ocean. Scientists have recently proposed that seafloor sediment plays an important role in controlling the geometry of such intraocean crust circulation. In the abyssal plains, the accumulation of millions of years' worth of low permeability sediment limits direct contact between the ocean and the crust. Where the sediment is thin or absent—for example, at outcrops—water is thought to be able to move between the ocean and the crust. Scientists propose that seawater can travel through the crust for tens of kilometers beneath the sediment, moving laterally from outcrop to outcrop.

  4. Downdrafts within High Plains cumulonimbi. I - General kinematic structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knupp, Kevin R.

    1987-01-01

    Results from a comprehensive investigation in which observations from several case studies are integrated with three-dimensional cloud model results to examine the general kinematic structure of downdrafts associated with High Plains precipitating convection are presented. One particular downdraft type, the low-level precipitation-associated downdraft, is the focus of this paper. General airflow and trajectory patterns within low-level downdrafts are convergent from 0.8 km upwards to downdraft top, typically less than 5 km AGL. Observed mass flux profiles often increase rapidly with height as a result of strong buoyancy forcing below the melting level. Inflow to the low-level downdraft, although vertically continuous can be separated into two branches. The up-down branch originating within the planetary boundary layer initially rises up to 4 km and then descends within the main precipitation-associated downdraft. The midlevel branch, usually more pronounced during early downdraft stages, originates from above the PBL and transports low-valued theta sub e air to low levels. The depth of the low-level downdraft can be approximated by the environmental sounding transition level, defined as the vertical height interval separating conditionally unstable to neutral air below from roughly stable air above. The low-level downdraft is most frequently located along the upshear storm flank relative to the updraft, although a downshear downdraft may become common under higher environmental wind shear.

  5. Subtropical-polar jet interactions in Southern Plains dust storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Vellore, Ramesh K.; Lewis, John M.; Underwood, S. Jeffrey; Pauley, Patricia M.; Martin, Jonathan E.; Rabin, Robert M.; Krishnan, R.

    2013-12-01

    origin of two separate Southern High Plains dust storms, which occurred over a 2 day period in February 2007, is traced to an interaction between the subtropical jet (STJ) and the polar jet (PJ). A large-scale thermal wind imbalance resulting from the confluence of these two jets led to a series of mesoscale circulations that ultimately produced the dust storms. Understanding the connectivity between the dust storms with differing geometries is central to the present investigation. The study rests on the interpretation of analyses from upper air and surface observations complemented by imagery from satellites, the 32 km gridded data set from the North American Regional Reanalysis, and a fine-resolution (6 km grid) simulation from the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Principal assertions from the present study are (1) scale interaction is fundamental to the creation of an environment conducive to dust storm development, (2) low to middle tropospheric mass adjustment is the primary response to a large-scale imbalance, (3) the mesoscale mass adjustment is associated with circulations about a highly accelerative jet streak resulting from the merger of the PJ and STJ, (4) the structure of the jet streak resulting from this merger governs the evolution of the geometry of the dust plumes, with plumes that initially had a straight-line orientation developing a semicircular geometry, and (5) it is concluded that improvements in dust storm prediction will depend on an augmentation to the upper air network in concert with a flow-dependent data assimilation strategy.

  6. Geogenic arsenic in groundwaters from Terai Alluvial Plain of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, P.; Tandukar, N.; Nekul, A.; Valero, A. A.; Mukherjee, A. B.; Jacks, G.

    2003-05-01

    The origin and mobility of arsenic (As) in the groundwater environment has received serious attention in recent years. Recent studies have reported naturally occurring As in groundwaters of the Terai Alluvial Plains (TAP) in southern Nepal, where groundwater exploitation has increased since the 1960s. The source of As in TAP is geogenic and leached primarily due to weathering of As bearing rocks and sediments in the Himalayas. In our present study, we have investigated the groundwater chemistry in the central part of the TAP in Nawalparasi district. TAP groundwaters are near-neutral to alkaline, with predominantly reducing character and high HCO3^- low SO^{2-}_4 and NO3^- concentrations. Elevated HCO3 levels possibly result due to the oxidation of organic matter, low SO4^{2-} levels reflect sulfate reduction. Elevated NH4^+ concentrations in these groundwaters suggest dissimilatory nitrate reduction in the aquifers. Total arsenic (Astot) levels in groundwater varied from 1.7 μg/L to as high as 404 μg/L with dominance of As (III) species and elevated levels of dissolved Fe and Mn. Arsenic is mobilized in groundwaters as a result of desorption of As-oxyanions adsorbed onto Fe-and Mnoxides as well as reductive dissolution of these surface reactive phases from the sediments along with release ouf as in anoxie groundwaters.

  7. The Great Plains gasification project: Here today, for tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, B.O.

    1985-01-01

    Just a few years ago, there was a proliferation of synfuels projects. Pilot plants first proved their viability with long and successful test runs, then closed as market conditions shifted the focus away from synfuels. Plentiful oil, foreign and domestic, has put a serious damper on synfuels development. Due to the recent oil glut, Exxon cancelled its Colony Shale Oil Project, pulled up its stakes and left several ghost boom-towns in its wake. President Reagan-who originally wanted to eliminate the entire synfuels program-now wants to see the $13.5 billion budget of the Synthetic Fuels Corp. (SFC), a government agency, slashed by $10 billion. During the past several months, there has been some major news regarding synfuels projects. Two of the most familiar to those who follow the coal industry have just begun operating: The Cool Water Coal Gasification Project in Daggett, CA, (See Coal Mining, April, 1982, p. 126), and The Great Plains Coal Gasification Project near Beulah, ND which began operations in December toward producing 125,000,000 cu ft/day of high-Btu substitute natural gas (SNG) (the equivalent of 20,000 barrels of oil per day) from 14,000 tpd of lignite mined nearby. At a time when the government and private sector both seem to be putting the whammy on synfuels development, these plants are starting full operations.

  8. Avian associations of the Northern Great Plains grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrud, H.A.; Kologiski, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    The grassland region of the northern Great Plains was divided into six broad subregions by application of an avian indicator species analysis to data obtained from 582 sample plots censused during the breeding season. Common, ubiquitous species and rare species had little classificatory value and were eliminated from the data set used to derive the avian associations. Initial statistical division of the plots likely reflected structure of the dominant plant species used for nesting; later divisions probably were related to foraging or nesting cover requirements based on vegetation height or density, habitat heterogeneity, or possibly to the existence of mutually similar distributions or shared areas of greater than average abundance for certain groups of species. Knowledge of the effects of grazing, mostly by cattle, on habitat use by the breeding bird species was used to interpret the results of the indicator species analysis. Moderate grazing resulted in greater species richness in nearly all subregions; effects of grazing on total bird density were more variable.

  9. Groundwater Discharge along a Channelized Coastal Plain Stream

    SciTech Connect

    LaSage, Danita M; Sexton, Joshua L; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Fryar, Alan E; Greb, Stephen F

    2015-10-01

    In the Coastal Plain of the southeastern USA, streams have commonly been artificially channelized for flood control and agricultural drainage. However, groundwater discharge along such streams has received relatively little attention. Using a combination of stream- and spring-flow measurements, spring temperature measurements, temperature profiling along the stream-bed, and geologic mapping, we delineated zones of diffuse and focused discharge along Little Bayou Creek, a channelized, first-order perennial stream in western Kentucky. Seasonal variability in groundwater discharge mimics hydraulic-head fluctuations in a nearby monitoring well and spring-discharge fluctuations elsewhere in the region, and is likely to reflect seasonal variability in recharge. Diffuse discharge occurs where the stream is incised into the semi-confined regional gravel aquifer, which is comprised of the Mounds Gravel. Focused discharge occurs upstream where the channel appears to have intersected preferential pathways within the confining unit. Seasonal fluctuations in discharge from individual springs are repressed where piping results in bank collapse. Thereby, focused discharge can contribute to the morphological evolution of the stream channel.

  10. Environmental factors that influence prescribed burning in the Northern Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kruse, A.D.; Higgins, K.F.; Piehl, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Several environmental conditions were recorded and analyzed for 192 prescribed burns in the Northern Great Plains. The purpose of these burns was to improve wildlife habitat and manipulate native prairie vegetation. All of the fires occurred in grassland and shrubsteppe vegetation types. Fuels were predominantly grasses and forbs intermixed with patches of shrubs. Nearly all of the fuels were 0.05 cm/h, do not burn. However, these are good conditions to burn stockpiles of unwanted fuels that are usually high risk elements during regular prescribed burns.2) Produce partial burns. Partial burns are defined as those where fire is discontinuous and patches of standing and lodged vegetation are left unburned. Partial burns occur most often when fine fuels feel moist when handled, where less than 2 days have passed since the last measurable precipitation, and when cloud cover is complete. Other conditions associated with partial burns are relative humidities >50 percent, temperatures 32 km/h, relative humidities 35 deg.C. These conditions occur most often in July, August, and September, but can occur anytime from April through October.

  11. Variation characteristics of ultraviolet radiation over the north china plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo; Wang, Yuesi

    2014-01-01

    In situ measured data of broadband solar radiation ( R s) and ultraviolet ( U v) radiation were used to investigate the spatiotemporal variation properties of U v radiation and the ratio of U v radiation to R s over the North China Plain (NCP). Based on the analysis, an empirical model for estimating U v radiation under all weather conditions in this region was developed. The results showed that the annual U v radiation over the NCP ranges from 0.38-0.52 MJ m-2 d-1. The highest value during the study period was recorded at the Changwu site, which is located near the margin of the Loess Plateau, while the lowest value appeared at the station in Beijing. The seasonal variation pattern of the ratio of U v radiation to R s is similar to that of U v radiation; namely, the highest value appears in August and then decreases gradually until the lowest value appears in November. A small increasing trend in the U v radiation levels and the ratio of U v radiation to R s was observed over the NCP. The evaluation results showed that the empirical estimation model can be widely used to estimate U v radiation under all atmospheric conditions. The relative error between the modeled and measured daily values were within ±15%.

  12. Great Plains ASPEN model development: gasifier model. Final topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    A rigorous model of a moving-bed, dry-bottom gasifier, RGAS, has been incorporated into ASPEN. The model is designed to calculate the variables which characterize gasifier performance: (1) the composition of the outlet gas; (2) the flow of the outlet gas; (3) the temperature of the outlet gas; (4) the temperature profile of the solids (especially important in dry bottom gasifiers because of the necessity of maintaining the maximum temperature of the bed below the ash softening temperature); and (5) the rate of steam generation in the jacket (if applicable). The option of using alternative kinetic expressions has been incorporated into the model structure. Presently, RGAS can be used to simulate gasifier performance using the kinetic expressions for gasification established at West Virginia University and the University of Delaware. The models of both West Virginia University and the University of Delaware were tuned to agree with the Great Plains gasifier flowsheet. Then, several case studies were run to determine the sensitivity of each model to changes in such inputs as: (1) feed rates; (2) feed temperatures; (3) reaction parameters; and (4) heat transfer coefficient. The data from these case studies have been compared with experimental findings. For example, increasing the oxygen feed rate or increasing the temperature of the inlet gas feed both serve to increase the reactor temperature which, in turn, increases the carbon conversion and steam generation rate. On the other hand, increasing the steam feed rate does the opposite. These results agree with trends observed experimentally. 5 references.

  13. Mid-Wisconsinan environments on the eastern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, R.G.; Bettis, E. Arthur; Mandel, R.D.; Dorale, J.A.; Fredlund, G.G.

    2009-01-01

    Few sites on the eastern Great Plains contain paleobotanical records for the mid-Wisconsin. We report on four sites, two stream cutbanks and two quarry exposures, ranging in age from >50 to ???23.4 ka. The oldest site at >50 ka contains a suite of macrofossils from prairie and disturbed ground habitats, with no representation of trees, indicating an open prairie. By ???38 ka the assemblages include aquatic, wetland, mudflat, and prairie elements with rare specimens of Populus, Betula cf. papyrifera, Salix and at the most northerly site, Picea. This assemblage suggests a prairie/parkland with interspersed marshes, cooler temperatures and increased moisture. Populus and Salix continued to be represented from ???36 to ???29 ka, but the only other taxon was Carex. A hiatus may be present at some time during this interval. After ???29 ka, Picea became dominant on the uplands and it was joined by sedges in local wetlands. At sites near riverine loess sources, loess accumulation began to fill in the wetlands and organic deposition ceased some time after 29 ka. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) of the Great Plains, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Daniel; Gilmanov, Tagir; Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce; Zhang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Flux tower networks, such as AmeriFlux and FLUXNET, consist of a growing number of eddy covariance flux tower sites that provide a synoptic record of the exchange of carbon, water, and energy between the ecosystem and atmosphere at various temporal frequencies. These towers also detect and measure certain site characteristics, such as wind, temperature, precipitation, humidity, atmospheric pressure, soil features, and phenological progressions. Efforts are continuous to combine flux tower network data with remote sensing data to upscale the conditions observed at specific sites to a regional and, ultimately, worldwide scale. Data-driven regression tree models have the ability to incorporate flux tower records and remote sensing data to quantify exchanges of carbon with the atmosphere (Wylie and others, 2007; Xiao and others, 2010; Zhang and others, 2010; Zhang and others, 2011). Previous study results demonstrated the dramatic effect weather has on NEP and revealed specific ecoregions and times acting as carbon sinks or sources. As of 2012, more than 100 site-years of flux tower measurements, represented by more than 50 individual cropland or grassland sites throughout the Great Plains and surrounding area, have been acquired, quality controlled, and partitioned into gross photosynthesis (Pg) and ecosystem Re using detailed light-response, soil temperature, and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) based analysis.

  15. Hot particles of the Yenisei River flood plain, Russia.

    PubMed

    Bolsunovsky AYa; Tcherkezian, V O

    2001-01-01

    Some high-activity hot particles (HP) were found in the flood plain of the Yenisei River, near the Krasnoyarsk Mining-and-Chemical Combine (MCC), and their radionuclide compositions were determined. The ratios of plutonium and caesium isotopes in the particles are indicative of their reactor origin. The 137Cs activity of the particles amounts to 29,200 kBq/particle, which is higher than the corresponding activities of the fuel particles that formed as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. All the particles have been divided into two major groups according to the 137Cs/34Cs ratio: in the first group, the 137Cs/134Cs ratio is more than or equal to 3000, and in the second the 137Cs/134Cs ratio is less than or equal to 1000. The particles of the first and the second groups were preliminarily estimated to be formed 30 and 20 years ago, which suggests that there must have been at least two accidents at the MCC reactors, with part of the fuel released into the Yenisei River.

  16. Peridynamic modeling of plain and reinforced concrete structures.

    SciTech Connect

    Silling, Stewart Andrew; Gerstle, Walter H.; Sau, Nicolas

    2005-08-01

    The peridynamic model was introduced by Silling in 1998. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of the quasistatic peridynamic model to two-dimensional, linear elastic, plane stress and plane strain problems, with special attention to the modeling of plain and reinforced concrete structures. We consider just one deviation from linearity--that which arises due to the irreversible sudden breaking of bonds between particles. The peridynamic model starts with the assumption that Newton's second law holds true on every infinitesimally small free body (or particle) within the domain of analysis. A specified force density function, called the pairwise force function, (with units of force per unit volume per unit volume) between each pair of infinitesimally small particles is postulated to act if the particles are closer together than some finite distance, called the material horizon. The pairwise force function may be assumed to be a function of the relative position and the relative displacement between the two particles. In this paper, we assume that for two particles closer together than the specified 'material horizon' the pairwise force function increases linearly with respect to the stretch, but at some specified stretch, the pairwise force function is irreversibly reduced to zero.

  17. Shallow groundwater mercury supply in a coastal plain stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Lowery, Mark A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Burns, Douglas A.; Button, Daniel T.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Riva-Murray, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Fluvial methylmercury (MeHg) is attributed to methylation in up-gradient wetland areas. This hypothesis depends on efficient wetland-to-stream hydraulic transport under nonflood and flood conditions. Fluxes of water and dissolved (filtered) mercury (Hg) species (FMeHg and total Hg (FTHg)) were quantified in April and July of 2009 in a reach at McTier Creek, South Carolina to determine the relative importance of tributary surface water and shallow groundwater Hg transport from wetland/floodplain areas to the stream under nonflood conditions. The reach represented less than 6% of upstream main-channel distance and 2% of upstream basin area. Surface-water discharge increased within the reach by approximately 10%. Mean FMeHg and FTHg fluxes increased within the reach by 23–27% and 9–15%, respectively. Mass balances indicated that, under nonflood conditions, the primary supply of water, FMeHg, and FTHg within the reach (excluding upstream surface water influx) was groundwater discharge, rather than tributary transport from wetlands, in-stream MeHg production, or atmospheric Hg deposition. These results illustrate the importance of riparian wetland/floodplain areas as sources of fluvial MeHg and of groundwater Hg transport as a fundamental control on Hg supply to Coastal Plain streams.

  18. Geohydrologic framework of the Snake River plain regional aquifer system, Idaho and eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Across most of the plain, Quaternary basalt aquifers overlie aquifers in the Tertiary Idavada Volcanics and Banbury Basalt of the Idaho Group. The older volcanic rocks are typically much less transmissive than the Quaternary basalt. Faults and frac- tures are permeable zones for water storage and conduits for water movement. In places near the margins of the plain, the Idavada Volcanics contains important geothermal aquifers.

  19. The potential impact of plain packaging of cigarette products among Brazilian young women: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tobacco use is responsible for 5.4 million deaths every year worldwide and is a leading cause of preventable death. The burden of these deaths is rapidly shifting to low and middle-income countries, such as Brazil. Brazil has prohibited most forms of tobacco advertising; however, the cigarette pack remains a primary source of marketing. The current study examined how tobacco packaging influences brand appeal and perceptions of health risk among young women in Brazil. Methods A between-subjects experiment was conducted in which 640 Brazilian women aged 16–26 participated in an online survey. Participants were randomized to view 10 cigarette packages according to one of three experimental conditions: standard branded packages, the same packs without brand imagery (“plain packaging”), or the same packs without brand imagery or descriptors (e.g., flavors). Participants rated packages on perceived appeal, taste, health risk, smoothness, and smoker attributes. Finally, participants were shown a range of branded and plain packs from which they could select one as a free gift, which constituted a behavioral measure of appeal. Results Branded packs were rated as significantly more appealing, better tasting, and smoother on the throat than plain packs. Branded packs were also associated with a greater number of positive smoker attributes including style and sophistication, and were perceived as more likely to be smoked by females than the plain packs. Removing descriptors from the plain packs further decreased the ratings of appeal, taste and smoothness, and also reduced associations with positive attributes. In the pack offer, participants were three times more likely to select branded packs than plain packs. Conclusions Plain packaging and removal of descriptors may reduce the appeal of smoking for youth and young adults, and consequently reduce smoking susceptibility. Overall, the findings provide support for plain packaging regulations, such as those in

  20. Water Level Declines in the High Plains Aquifer: Predevelopment to Resource Senescence.

    PubMed

    Haacker, Erin M K; Kendall, Anthony D; Hyndman, David W

    2016-03-01

    A large imbalance between recharge and water withdrawal has caused vital regions of the High Plains Aquifer (HPA) to experience significant declines in storage. A new predevelopment map coupled with a synthesis of annual water levels demonstrates that aquifer storage has declined by approximately 410 km(3) since the 1930s, a 15% larger decline than previous estimates. If current rates of decline continue, much of the Southern High Plains and parts of the Central High Plains will have insufficient water for irrigation within the next 20 to 30 years, whereas most of the Northern High Plains will experience little change in storage. In the western parts of the Central and northern part of the Southern High Plains, saturated thickness has locally declined by more than 50%, and is currently declining at rates of 10% to 20% of initial thickness per decade. The most agriculturally productive portions of the High Plains will not support irrigated production within a matter of decades without significant changes in management.

  1. Compositional evolution of lava plains in the Syria-Thaumasia Block, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun; Xiao, Long

    2014-05-01

    Tharsis is the most prominent volcanic province on Mars, yet the compositions of lava flows and how composition relates to the development of Tharsis are poorly known. Most of Tharsis is covered with air-fall dust, which inhibits spectroscopic determination of lava mineralogy. The Syria-Thaumasia Block (STB) is a complex tectono-volcanic province closely related to the Tharsis bulge. The lava plains of STB have different emplacement ages, which provide an opportunity to examine whether magma composition changed with the evolution of Tharsis. In this study, we assessed the lava plains using Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data. Using derived physical properties, we targeted dust-free regions from four different-aged geological units' surfaces and determined the mineralogical composition by modeling the average TES surface spectrum from each of the four surfaces. All units have similar mineralogy but the younger two units have elevated abundance of high-SiO2 phases. The spatial distribution of wrinkle ridges indicates lava plains of unit HNr (older ridged plains material) and Hr (younger ridged plains material) were emplaced before the rise of Tharsis, whereas Hsl (flows of lower member) and Hsu (upper member) were emplaced after Tharsis uplift was initiated. We show that the magma composition differed in the lava plains of STB after the uplift of Tharsis. This study further characterizes early martian magma composition and evolution.

  2. The distribution and origin of lunar light plains around Orientale basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, H. M.; Denevi, B. W.; Boyd, A. K.; Robinson, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    Lunar light plains are relatively flat, smooth to gently rolling deposits that occur in crater floors and other topographic lows in the lunar highlands, with albedo values comparable to surrounding highland terrain. Once interpreted to be the product of highland volcanism, Apollo 16 samples from the light plains of the Cayley Formation led to the interpretation that most light plains form from the deposition of fluidized basin ejecta. Conflicting relative age estimates suggest that light plains are ejecta from the Orientale and Imbrium basins, or from a larger number of impact events combined with possible volcanic eruptions. Here we examine the distribution, variability, and origin of light plains associated with the Orientale basin using data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC). We find that the distribution, composition, and age of the light plains to the north and northwest of the Orientale basin are consistent with an origin with the formation of Orientale. In this case, the Orientale basin-forming impact significantly altered the surface within four basin radii from the rim.

  3. Dynamical connection between Great Plains low-level winds and variability of central Gulf States precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Bing; Dickinson, Robert E.; Fu, Rong

    2016-04-01

    The Great Plains low-level jet has been related to summer precipitation over the northern Great Plains and Midwest through its moisture transport and convergence at the jet exit area. Much less studied has been its negative relationship with precipitation over the southern Great Plains and the Gulf coastal area. This work shows that the southerly low-level winds at 30°-40°N over the southern Great Plains are significantly correlated with anticyclonic vorticity to its east over the central Gulf States (30°-35°N, 85°-95°W) from May to July. When the low-level jet is strong in June and July, anomalous anticyclonic vorticity over the central Gulf States leads to divergence and consequent subsidence suppressing precipitation over that region. In contrast, an enhanced southerly flow at the entrance region of the jet over the Gulf of Mexico, largely uncorrelated with the meridional wind over the southern Great Plains, is correlated with increased precipitation over the central Gulf States. Precipitation is large over the central Gulf States when the meridional wind over the southern Great Plains is weakest and over the Gulf of Mexico is strongest. This increase is consistent with the increased moisture transport and dynamic balance between loss of vorticity by advection and friction and gain by convergence.

  4. Phylogeny, biogeography and systematic revision of plain long-nosed squirrels (genus Dremomys, Nannosciurinae).

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Melissa T R; Helgen, Kristofer M; Maldonado, Jesus E; Rockwood, Larry L; Tsuchiya, Mirian T N; Leonard, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    The plain long-nosed squirrels, genus Dremomys, are high elevation species in East and Southeast Asia. Here we present a complete molecular phylogeny for the genus based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Concatenated mitochondrial and nuclear gene trees were constructed to determine the tree topology, and date the tree. All speciation events within the plain-long nosed squirrels (genus Dremomys) were ancient (dated to the Pliocene or Miocene), and averaged older than many speciation events in the related Sunda squirrels, genus Sundasciurus. Within the plain long-nosed squirrels, the most recent interspecific split occurred 2.9 million years ago, older than some splits within Sunda squirrels, which dated to the Pleistocene. Our results demonstrate that the plain long-nosed squirrels are not monophyletic. The single species with a distinct distribution, the Bornean mountain ground squirrel (Dremomys everetti), which is endemic to the high mountains of Borneo, is nested within the Sunda squirrels with high support. This species diverged from its sister taxa in the Sunda squirrels 6.62 million years ago, and other plain long-nosed squirrels over 11 million years ago. Our analyses of morphological traits in these related genera support the re-classification of the Bornean mountain ground squirrel, Dremomys everetti, to the genus Sundasciurus, which changes its name to Sundasciurus everetti. Past inclusion in the plain long-nosed squirrels (Dremomys) reflects convergent evolution between these high elevation species.

  5. Water-Level Changes in the High Plains Aquifer, 1980 to 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, Virginia L.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    1997-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies one of the major agricultural areas in the world, including parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Ground-water irrigation expanded rapidly after 1940 in the area underlain by the High Plains aquifer (called the 'High Plains region' in this report): 1949--2.1 million acres; 1959--6.1 million acres; 1969--9.0 million acres; 1978--12.9 million acres; and 1980--13.7 million acres (Gutentag and others, 1984; Thelin and Heimes, 1987). In 1990, 95 percent of the water withdrawn from the High Plains aquifer, 15.7 million acre-feet, was used for irrigation (Marilee Horn, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 1996). Water-level declines appeared in the High Plains aquifer soon after extensive ground-water irrigation development began. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet. In response to these declines, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resource agencies, began a ground-water monitoring program in 1988 to assess water-level change in the aquifer annually, using water-level measurements in more than 7,000 wells. The water-level measurements are made in winter or early spring, when water levels generally represent nonpumping conditions.

  6. Occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the Spring River flood plain and tributary flood plains, Cherokee County, Kansas, 2009--11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2013-01-01

    Historical mining activity in the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD), located in parts of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma, has resulted in a substantial ongoing input of cadmium, lead, and zinc to the environment. To provide some of the information needed to support remediation efforts in the Cherokee County, Kansas, superfund site, a 4-year study was begun in 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey that was requested and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A combination of surficial-soil sampling and coring was used to investigate the occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the flood plains of the Spring River and several tributaries within the superfund site. Lead- and zinc-contaminated flood plains are a concern, in part, because they represent a long-term source of contamination to the fluvial environment. Lead and zinc contamination was assessed with reference to probable-effect concentrations (PECs), which represent the concentrations above which adverse aquatic biological effects are likely to occur. The general PECs for lead and zinc were 128 and 459 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. The TSMD-specific PECs for lead and zinc were 150 and 2,083 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. Typically, surficial soils in the Spring River flood plain had lead and zinc concentrations that were less than the general PECs. Lead and zinc concentrations in the surficial-soil samples were variable with distance downstream and with distance from the Spring River channel, and the largest lead and zinc concentrations usually were located near the channel. Lead and zinc concentrations larger than the general or TSMD-specific PECs, or both, were infrequent at depth in the Spring River flood plain. When present, such contamination typically was confined to the upper 2 feet of the core and frequently was confined to the upper 6 inches. Tributaries with few or no lead- and zinc-mined areas in the basin—Brush Creek

  7. Braid-plain dynamics and bank erosion along the Matanuska River, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    Braid-plain activity and geomorphic features in the Matanuska River in southcentral Alaska between 1949 and 2006 were examined to support a bank erosion hazard assessment. The glacial Matanuska River drains 6,500 km2 and is braided for 85 percent of its 150 km course, which parallels a major highway and flows through the towns of Sutton and Palmer, Alaska. The historical braid plain was defined as the envelope of areas with active channels, unvegetated bars, or vegetated bars with evidence of channels since 1949 and delineated in a GIS from 1949, 1962, and 2006 aerial orthoimagery. We created a strip map of bank height and composition (primarily bedrock and unconsolidated sediment) at braid-plain margins and outlined valley bottom features (terraces and tributary fans) adjacent to the braid plain to assess erodibility. Braid-plain dynamism has created a mosaic of extensive lightly vegetated bars interspersed with forested bars in strips along the banks and in small mid-channel positions. Abandoned channels filled with groundwater or tributary streamflow have created clearwater side channels within these bars that serve as the primary spawning location for chum, sockeye, and coho salmon in the Matanuska River basin. Erosion magnitudes for the periods 1949-1962 and 1962-2006 were computed as braid-plain expansion at transects across the historical braid-plain boundaries. Episodic, spatially distributed erosion and the antiquity of some eroded surfaces suggests that average annual erosion rates at a location are not adequate for assessing future erosion at that location in a braid plain. Lateral expansion caused bank erosion of 100 -275 m at 20 locations over the full period, about half at tributary fans and most occurring in a single time period. Minor growth of tributary fans constricted the braid plain, and emerging terraces have the potential to shrink the braid plain. Eroded banks included undated but pre-historic fluvial terraces and tributary fans. Where

  8. Vulnerability of recently recharged ground water in the High Plains aquifer to nitrate contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Qi, Sharon L.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrate concentrations greater than background levels have been detected in ground water of the High Plains aquifer. Empirically based models and corresponding maps were developed that predict the vulnerability of the aquifer to nonpoint-source nitrate contamination. The models predict the probability of detecting nitrate concentrations larger than 4 milligrams per liter in ground water of the High Plains aquifer that was recharged during the last 50 years. The models were calibrated by correlating concentrations of nitrate in ground water from 336 wells that intercept recently recharged (less than 50 years) water with anthropogenic and hydrogeologic explanatory variables. Particle-tracking simulations delineated well-contributing areas and determined well-screen depths that intercept recently recharged ground water. The models were developed using multivariate logistic regression, and a map was generated from these models using a geographic information system. Two multivariate logistic regression models of vulnerability were found to have the most statistical significance and the best model fit and predictive ability. The two models represent the Northern High Plains and the combined Central and Southern High Plains, and they indicate that ground-water vulnerability of the entire High Plains aquifer is best explained by the spatial distribution of nonirrigated and irrigated agricultural lands, organic matter of the soil, depth to the regional water table, and clay content of the unsaturated zone. Vulnerability of the Northern High Plains is greater in areas that have more nonirrigated and irrigated agricultural lands and less organic matter in the soil. The vulnerability of the Central and Southern High Plains also is greater in areas that have more nonirrigated and irrigated agricultural lands and also in areas with shallow depths to water table and less clay in the unsaturated zone. The majority (53.3 percent) of the High Plains aquifer has less than a 40

  9. Glaciation of the Coastal Plain of Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgenson, M. T.; Shur, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Our 15 years of studies of permafrost soils on the coastal plain of northern Alaska show that it was affected by a continental ice sheet during the last glacial maximum. Evidence for this includes: occurrence of buried glacial basal ice at Barter Island; widespread sandy diamicton from Demarcation Bay to Barrow of late Pleistocene age; orientation of surficial deposits; poorly integrated drainage and gentle ridge and swale topography; the continuity of glacial-related deposits from the coast to the Brooks Foothills; and perennially frozen sediments unlike those of unglaciated Arctic regions. We documented a 10-m-high exposure ~1 km long at Barter Island that had abundant basal glacier ice with large-scale deformation structures, complex ice-contact deposits, and highly deformed bedded silt, sand, and gravel inclusions within the basal ice. Similar ice structures were observed at Prudhoe Bay and Cape Halkett. The glacial till is highly unusual in that it is comprised of massive, non-fossiliferous, brackish, slightly pebbly loamy sand with occasional gravel to cobble-sized clasts. In most areas the till is only 2-5 m thick, although at Barter Island the till was up to 10- m thick. Gravel particles, which comprise 1-5% of the deposits, usually are 0.5-2 cm long, mostly durable chert, highly polished, and frequently cracked off at one end, with the broken face faceted and polished. We believe the material mostly originated from marine deposits on the continental shelf, although rocks of Canadian provenance also occur. Prevalent, large (1-5 m) deformation features of discontinuous yellow oxidized and gray reduced sediment suggest deformation of sediment during collapse of the ice sheet. The sandy till is found along most of the Beaufort coast with the exception of deltas and lagoons and is found inland as much as 80 km. The sandy till is easily eroded, causing the morainal margin to be indistinct and the topography subdued. Previous thermoluminescence dating by

  10. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Costa Rica Coastal Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the northern coastal plain of Costa Rica with the Cordillera Central, composed of a number of active and dormant volcanoes, rising in the background. This view looks toward the south over the Rio San Juan, which marks the boundary between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The smaller river joining Rio San Juan in the center of the image is Rio Sarapiqui, which is navigable upstream as far inland as Puerto Viejo (Old Port) de Sarapiqui at the mountain's base. This river was an important transportation route for those few hardy settlers who first moved into this region, although as recently as 1953 a mere three thatched-roof houses were all that comprised the village of Puerto Viejo.

    This coastal plain is a sedimentary basin formed about 50 million years ago composed of river alluvium and lahar (mud and ash flow) deposits from the volcanoes of the Cordillera Central. It comprises the province of Heredia (the smallest of Costa Rica's seven) and demonstrates a wide range of climatic conditions, from warm and humid lowlands to cool and damp highlands, and including the mild but seasonally wet and dry Central Valley.

    This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large

  11. Terminal fans and the Ganga plain tectonism of the Indo-Gangetic foreland basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, R. M.; Pati, P.; Biswal, T. K.

    2015-12-01

    Study of spatial and temporal distribution of Holocene terminal fans in the Indo-Gangetic foreland basin suggests the segmentation of the basin was initiated at 9.3 Ka and continued up to 0.75 Ka in three distinct episodes. The earliest episode (9.3-7.3 Ka) was exclusively confined in the upper Gangetic plain. This episode covers 29% of total time span and contributes 13% of total faults including their reactivations. Development of six faults associated with terminal fans having large age gaps indicate relatively slow rate of faulting activities in the early Holocene. The second episode was started at 6.4 Ka and continued upto 2.3 Ka covering 60% time of the total time span and contributed 69% of total faults (including their reactivations). Though in most of the time the faulting events were confined in the upper Gangetic plain, but development of few faults in the middle Gangetic plain in the middle of this episode shows a transitional shift of tectonic front from the upper to the middle Gangetic plain. The third faulting episode (1.5-0.75 Ka) is mainly confined in the middle Gangetic plain. This episode covers 11% time of the total time span and contributes 18% of faults. Out of the eight faults, seven of them are in the middle Gangetic plains. These three episodes have contributed in segmentation of the Gangetic plains, but the second episode was responsible for major segmentation of the region. Two major tectonically stable periods (7.3-6.4 Ka and 2.3-1.5 Ka) and three minor periods (i.e 0.5 Ka) have been observed in the region. Episodic development of faults in individual tectonic blocks indicates the stress distribution along the plains is non-uniform which can also be correlated to the adjacent corresponding segments of the Himalayan tectonics. It has been observed that, in each fault-bounded block the faulting events start slowly and later becomes more frequent. The youngest faulting episode of the present study coincides with that of previous study and

  12. Catastrophic failure of the Northern Great Plains: A unifying hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, E.N. . Science Div.)

    1992-01-01

    The Northern Great Plains, at peak Laurentide glaciation, was a 1,600 km thick barrier between meltwater sources and the lower Missouri Valley. Meltwater and floodwaters flowed along the ice margin, moved between the Black Hills and Laurentide ice. Water was trapped between ice to the N and E and mountains to the W and S. The Pine Ridge Escarpment began as the S wall of a W-trending headcut while other headcuts eroded N, parallel to the ice margin. Sheetflow from the west and northwest stripped the easily-eroded surface between major headcuts. The Cheyenne Valley headcut then captured sheetflow from the eastern Powder River Basin, both N and S of the Black Hills. Sheetflow moving through the western Powder River Basin, however, continued to spill over the southern wall of the initial headcut, carving the upper White River Valley. These floodwaters filled the lower White River Valley, including the Scenic and Sage Creek Basins, and breached divides by spilling over into the newly formed Cheyenne Valley. Another W-trending headcut next initiated the upper Little Missouri Valley by diverting sheetflow from the northeastern Powder River Basin. The Little Missouri Valley was extended northward by diversion of flow to a fourth major headcut and then again by diversion to the Missouri Valley headcut. Sheetflow, moving SE into the Powder River Basin, was progressively captured and diverted as SW-trending headcuts formed the Yellowstone-Powder, Yellowstone-Tongue, and Yellowstone-Bighorn valleys. At the same time sheetflow was progressively captured and diverted by a northerly set of SW-trending headcuts which eroded the Redwater, Big Dry, and Musselshell valleys. Major spillways finally breached the 1,600 km thick barrier by cutting between the Highwood and Bearpaw Mountains and between Milk River Ridge and the Cypress Hills.

  13. Bat use of a high-plains urban wildlife refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Everette, A.L.; O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stone, L.A.; McCance, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Bats are significant components of mammalian diversity and in many areas are of management concern. However, little attention has been given to bats in urban or prairie landscapes. In 1997 and 1998, we determined species richness, relative abundance, roosting habits, and echolocation activity of bats at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA), the largest urban unit in the United States refuge system, located on the high plains near Denver, Colorado. An inventory using mist nets revealed 3 species foraging at the site: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans). Big brown bats comprised 86% of captures (n=176). This pattern was consistent with continental-scale predictions of bat species richness and evenness based on availability of potential roosts. Relative abundance based on captures was similar to that revealed by echolocation detector surveys, except that the latter revealed the likely presence of at least 2 additional species (Myotis spp. and red bats [Lasiurus borealis]). Echolocation activity was significantly greater (P=0.009) in areas with tree or water habitat edges than in open prairie, suggesting that maintaining such features is important for bats. Big brown bats commuted greater distances (9.20-18.8 km) from roosts in urban core areas to foraging sites on the refuge than typically reported for this species elsewhere, emphasizing the value of the site to these bats. Urban refuges can provide habitat of importance to bat populations, but may be characterized by abundant bats that roost in buildings if a variety of other kinds of roosting habitats are unavailable.

  14. Biological integrity in mid-atlantic coastal plains headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Megan, Mehaffey H; Nash, Maliha S; Neale, Anne C; Pitchford, Ann M

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the applicability of using landscape variables in conjunction with water quality and benthic data to efficiently estimate stream condition of select headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains. Eighty-two streams with riffle sites were selected from eight-two independent watersheds across the region for sampling and analyses. Clustering of the watersheds by landscape resulted in three distinct groups (forest, crop, and urban) which coincided with watersheds dominant land cover or use. We used non-parametric analyses to test differences in benthos and water chemistry between groups, and used regression analyses to evaluate responses of benthic communities to water chemistry within each of the landscape groups. We found that typical water chemistry measures associated with urban runoff such as specific conductance and dissolved chloride were significantly higher in the urban group. In the crop group, we found variables commonly associated with farming such as nutrients and pesticides significantly greater than in the other two groups. Regression analyses demonstrated that the numbers of tolerant and facultative macroinvertebrates increased significantly in forested watersheds with small shifts in pollutants, while in human use dominated watersheds the intolerant macroinvertebrates were more sensitive to shifts in chemicals present at lower concentrations. The results from this study suggest that landscape based clustering can be used to link upstream landscape characteristics, water chemistry and biotic integrity in order to assess stream condition and likely cause of degradation without the use of reference sites. Notice: Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

  15. Determinants of fish assemblage structure in Northwestern Great Plains streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullen, J.A.; Bramblett, R.G.; Guy, C.S.; Zale, A.V.; Roberts, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Prairie streams are known for their harsh and stochastic physical conditions, and the fish assemblages therein have been shown to be temporally variable. We assessed the spatial and temporal variation in fish assemblage structure in five intermittent, adventitious northwestern Great Plains streams representing a gradient of watershed areas. Fish assemblages and abiotic conditions varied more spatially than temporally. The most important variables explaining fish assemblage structure were longitudinal position and the proportion of fine substrates. The proportion of fine substrates increased proceeding upstream, approaching 100% in all five streams, and species richness declined upstream with increasing fine substrates. High levels of fine substrate in the upper reaches appeared to limit the distribution of obligate lithophilic fish species to reaches further downstream. Species richness and substrates were similar among all five streams at the lowermost and uppermost sites. However, in the middle reaches, species richness increased, the amount of fine substrate decreased, and connectivity increased as watershed area increased. Season and some dimensions of habitat (including thalweg depth, absolute distance to the main-stem river, and watershed size) were not essential in explaining the variation in fish assemblages. Fish species richness varied more temporally than overall fish assemblage structure did because common species were consistently abundant across seasons, whereas rare species were sometimes absent or perhaps not detected by sampling. The similarity in our results among five streams varying in watershed size and those from other studies supports the generalization that spatial variation exceeds temporal variation in the fish assemblages of prairie and warmwater streams. Furthermore, given longitudinal position, substrate, and stream size, general predictions regarding fish assemblage structure and function in prairie streams are possible. ?? American

  16. Localized sulfate-reducing zones in a coastal plain aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, C.J.; Coates, J.D.; Schoonen, M.A.A.

    1999-01-01

    High concentrations of dissolved iron in ground water of coastal plain or alluvial aquifers contribute to the biofouling of public supply wells for which treatment and remediation is costly. Many of these aquifers, however, contain zones in which microbial sulfate reduction and the associated precipitation of iron-sulfide minerals decreases iron mobility. The principal water-bearing aquifer (Magothy Aquifer of Cretaceous age) in Suffolk County, New York, contains localized sulfate-reducing zones in and near lignite deposits, which generally are associated with clay lenses. Microbial analyses of core samples amended with [14C]-acetate indicate that microbial sulfate reduction is the predominant terminal-electron-accepting process (TEAP) in poorly permeable, lignite-rich sediments at shallow depths and near the ground water divide. The sulfate-reducing zones are characterized by abundant lignite and iron-sulfide minerals, low concentrations of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, and by proximity to clay lenses that contain pore water with relatively high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved organic carbon. The low permeability of these zones and, hence, the long residence time of ground water within them, permit the preservation and (or) allow the formation of iron-sulfide minerals, including pyrite and marcasite. Both sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) are present beneath and beyond the shallow sulfate-reducing zones. A unique Fe(III)-reducing organism, MD-612, was found in core sediments from a depth of 187 m near the southern shore of Long Island. The distribution of poorly permeable, lignite-rich, sulfate-reducing zones with decreased iron concentration is varied within the principal aquifer and accounts for the observed distribution of dissolved sulfate, iron, and iron sulfides in the aquifer. Locating such zones for the placement of production wells would be difficult, however, because these zones are of limited aerial extent.

  17. Rates of Microbial Metabolism in Deep Coastal Plain Aquifers

    PubMed Central

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Lovley, Derek R.

    1990-01-01

    Rates of microbial metabolism in deep anaerobic aquifers of the Atlantic coastal plain of South Carolina were investigated by both microbiological and geochemical techniques. Rates of [2-14C]acetate and [U-14C]glucose oxidation as well as geochemical evidence indicated that metabolic rates were faster in the sandy sediments composing the aquifers than in the clayey sediments of the confining layers. In the sandy aquifer sediments, estimates of the rates of CO2 production (millimoles of CO2 per liter per year) based on the oxidation of [2-14C] acetate were 9.4 × 10−3 to 2.4 × 10−1 for the Black Creek aquifer, 1.1 × 10−2 for the Middendorf aquifer, and <7 × 10−5 for the Cape Fear aquifer. These estimates were at least 2 orders of magnitude lower than previously published estimates that were based on the accumulation of CO2 in laboratory incubations of similar deep subsurface sediments. In contrast, geochemical modeling of groundwater chemistry changes along aquifer flowpaths gave rate estimates that ranged from 10−4 to 10−6 mmol of CO2 per liter per year. The age of these sediments (ca. 80 million years) and their organic carbon content suggest that average rates of CO2 production could have been no more than 10−4 mmol per liter per year. Thus, laboratory incubations may greatly overestimate the in situ rates of microbial metabolism in deep subsurface environments. This has important implications for the use of laboratory incubations in attempts to estimate biorestoration capacities of deep aquifers. The rate estimates from geochemical modeling indicate that deep aquifers are among the most oligotrophic aquatic environments in which there is ongoing microbial metabolism. PMID:16348227

  18. Governmental policies drive the LUCC trajectories in the Jianghan Plain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongzhi; Shao, Qihui; Li, Rendong; Song, Mingjie; Zhou, Yong

    2013-12-01

    The prosperity of farmers is closely tied to governmental policies. The Jianghan Plain is an important region for commodity grains, cotton and edible oil for China. The trajectories of land use and land cover change (LUCC) of the study area from 1995 to 2010 were studied based on the LUCC database of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The LUCC was characterised by a continuous decrease of arable land and continuous increase of waters and construction land. The LUCC was obviously concurrent with the implementation of related national policies. The transition to construction land was ever well controlled by 'Notice regarding the further strengthening of land management and arable land protection' promulgated in 1997. However, it flourished again with the 'Rise of Central China Strategy' taking effect since 2006. The transition of construction land to others reflects an uncommon trend, which must be strengthened with the strict implementation of the overall plan, which imposes a limited acreage quota of construction land to each district. The policies were quite contradictory to the transition of waters. LUCC related to waters is most active, which was driven by both natural forces and national policies. Just after the devastating flood of 1998, the state council of China put forward the Green Policy to govern the major rivers. As to the study area, it is mainly to 'push over dykes to let flood through and return farmland to lakes'. In 2004, the Grain Direct Subsidy Policy was implemented, which, along with the surge in the price of rice, resulted in a strengthening trend of conversion of ponds to paddy fields.

  19. Lateglacial and Holocene environmental changes in Ganga plain, Northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S.; Joachimski, M.; Sharma, M.; Tobschall, H. J.; Singh, I. B.; Sharma, C.; Chauhan, M. S.; Morgenroth, G.

    2004-01-01

    Stable isotope, elemental geochemistry and pollen analysis of a sediment profile from Sanai lake, Central Ganga Plain, were used to document climatic oscillations during the last ˜15,000 yr in Indian subcontinent. Micaceous sandy sediments at the base of the profile indicate an active channel and humid conditions before ˜15,000 14C yr BP. The channel was abandoned during comparatively arid conditions (15,000-13,000 14C yr BP) and converted into a swamp. Enhanced humidity around 13,000 14C yr BP led to submergence of marshes and establishment of a large lake. A dry phase is also identified around an estimated age of 11,500-10,500 14C yr BP which might correspond to the Younger Dryas event witnessed globally. The Early to Mid-Holocene climatic optimum (˜10,000-5800 14C yr BP) is characterised by a lake environment. Occurence of warmth loving aquatic plants, lower δ 18O values of gastropod aragonite, heavier δ 13C org values indicate a sensitive response of the lake ecology to the climatic warming and increased rainfall. This is followed by an arid event during 5000-2000 14C yr BP and from ˜1700 14C yr BP there is evidence of climatic amelioration. The sequence and magnitude of the millenium-scale climatic oscillations documented along the lake profile correlate well with records from other parts of the Indian subcontinent indicating that the recorded changes are an expression of broad scale, probably global and climatic change.

  20. Prescribed burning guidelines in the Northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, Kenneth F.; Piehl, James L.; Kruse, Arnold D.

    1989-01-01

    The use of fire to manage grasslands for wildlife is a relatively new management option for resource managers in the Northern Great Plains (NGP). Nearly all of the burning during the past 20-25 years has been conducted without the aid of specific guidelines for the region. This state-of-the-art set of recommendations was compiled because of this void.Records of 902 grassland fires (primarily on U.S. Fish and Wildlife lands), personal experiences, and synopses of other published fire research were used in developing the guidelines in this manual.Fifty-two percent of the 902 fires were in native prairie grasslands with lesser amounts in tame and native grass plantings, wetlands, and woodlands.Prescription grassland fires averaged 31 ha (77 acres) per burn. The personnel needed to safely conduct a grassland fire depended on the size of the burn the kind of firebreaks, available equipment, and weather conditions. Costs and hours of effort to conduct fires were inversely related to burn area size. Cost ratios are extremely high for fires of less than 4 ha (10 acres). They are essentially the same for burns of 16 to 113 ha (40 to 280 acres).The two primary reasons for burning grasslands are wildlife habitat improvement and native prairie restoration. Fire use steadily increased between 1965 and 1984, but the greatest increase occurred following workshop instruction in 1978.These guidelines present a set of reasons, criteria, techniques, and examples of simple prescriptions which aid in the planning and execution of a safe and effective prescribed burning program for wildlife enhancement in grassland areas of the NGP.

  1. Rates of microbial metabolism in deep coastal plain aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Chapelle, F.H. ); Lovley, D.R. )

    1990-06-01

    Rates of microbial metabolism in deep anaerobic aquifers of the Atlantic coastal plain of South Carolina were investigated by both microbiological and geochemical techniques. Rates of (2-{sup 14}C)acetate and (U-{sup 14}C)glucose oxidation as well as geochemical evidence indicated that metabolic rates were faster in the sandy sediments composing the aquifers than in the clayey sediments of the confirming layers. In the many aquifer sediments, estimates of the rates of CO{sub 2} production (millimoles of CO{sub 2} per liter per year) based on the oxidation of (2-{sup 14}C) acetate were 9.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} to 2.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}1} for the Black Creek aquifer, 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} for the Middendorf aquifer, and < 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} for the Cape Fear aquifer. These estimates were at least 2 orders of magnitude lower than previously published estimates that were based on the accumulation of CO{sub 2} in laboratory incubations of similar deep subsurface sediments. In contrast, geochemical modeling of groundwater chemistry changes along aquifer flowpaths gave rate estimates that ranged from 10{sup {minus}4} to 10{sup {minus}6} mmol of CO{sub 2} production could have been no more than 10{sup {minus}4} mmol per liter per year. Thus, laboratory incubations may greatly overestimate the in situ rates of microbial metabolism in deep subsurface environments. This has important implications for the use of laboratory incubations in attempts to estimate biorestoration capacities of deep aquifers. The rate estimates from geochemical modeling indicate that deep aquifers are among the most oligotrophic aquatic environments in which there is ongoing microbial metabolism.

  2. Rates of microbial metabolism in deep coastal plain aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; Lovley, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Rates of microbial metabolism in deep anaerobic aquifers of the Atlantic coastal plain of South Carolina were investigated by both microbiological and geochemical techniques. Rates of [2-14C]acetate and [U-14C]glucose oxidation as well as geochemical evidence indicated that metabolic rates were faster in the sandy sediments composing the aquifers than in the clayey sediments of the confining layers. In the sandy aquifer sediments, estimates of the rates of CO2 production (millimoles of CO2 per liter per year) based on the oxidation of [2-14C]acetate were 9.4 x 10-3 to 2.4 x 10-1 for the Black Creek aquifer, 1.1 x 10-2 for the Middendorf aquifer, and <7 x 10-5 for the Cape Fear aquifer. These estimates were at least 2 orders of magnitude lower than previously published estimates that were based on the accumulation of CO2 in laboratory incubations of similar deep subsurface sediments. In contrast, geochemical modeling of groundwater chemistry changes along aquifer flowpaths gave rate estimates that ranged from 10-4 to 10-6 mmol of CO2 per liter per year. The age of these sediments (ca. 80 million years) and their organic carbon content suggest that average rates of CO2 production could have been no more than 10-4 mmol per liter per year. Thus, laboratory incubations may greatly overestimate the in situ rates of microbial metabolism in deep subsurface environments. This has important implications for the use of laboratory incubations in attempts to estimate biorestoration capacities of deep aquifers. The rate estimates from geochemical modeling indicate that deep aquifers are among the most oligotrophic aquatic environments in which there is ongoing microbial metabolism.

  3. Flood plain and channel dynamics of the Quinault and Queets Rivers, Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Jim E.; Jones, Myrtle A.; Haluska, Tana L.

    2003-03-01

    Comparison of historic channel migration rates, modern planform conditions, and overall sediment, wood, and flow conditions and interactions for the Quinault River and Queets River in the western Olympic Peninsula, Washington, reveals decadal- to century-scale interactions between gravel-bed channels and forested flood plains in temperate maritime environments. The downstream alluvial portions of these two rivers can be divided into three reaches of different slope, flow, sediment, and wood regimes: (i) the upper Quinault River is aggrading behind Lake Quinault, a natural lake that traps most sediment and wood transported from the Olympic Mountain headwaters. (ii) The lower Quinault River, downstream of Lake Quinault, transports only sediment and wood derived from reworking of flood-plain deposits and contributed from valley margins. (iii) The Queets River has unimpeded movement of sediment and water from the mountainous headwaters to the Pacific Ocean. Measurements of channel planform characteristics and historic migration rates and patterns show that these three reaches have correspondingly distinct channel and flood-plain morphologies and dynamics. The aggrading and sediment-rich upper Quinault River has the widest flood plain, widest active channel, greatest number of low-flow channels and flanking gravel bars, and an average channel migration rate of 12.7±3.3 m/year between 1900 and 1994. The comparatively sediment-poor lower Quinault River has the narrowest flood plain, narrowest active channel, and lowest channel migration rate (4.0±1.2 m/year); and most flow is through a single channel with few adjacent gravel bars. The Queets River has attributes intermediate between the lower and upper Quinault Rivers, including an average channel migration rate of 7.5±2.9 m/year. Flood-plain turnover rates are similar for all three reaches, with channels eroding the flood plain at the rate of about 0.2% of the flood-plain area per year, and with corresponding flood-plain

  4. Downstream effects of dams on channel geometry and bottomland vegetation: Regional patterns in the Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, J.M.; Osterkamp, W.R.; Scott, M.L.; Auble, G.T.

    1998-01-01

    The response of rivers and riparian forests to upstream dams shows a regional pattern related to physiographic and climatic factors that influence channel geometry. We carried out a spatial analysis of the response of channel geometry to 35 dams in the Great Plains and Central Lowlands, USA. The principal response of a braided channel to an upstream dam is channel-narrowing, and the principal response of a meandering channel is a reduction in channel migration rate. Prior to water management, braided channels were most common in the southwestern Plains where sand is abundant, whereas meandering channels were most common in the northern and eastern Plains. The dominant response to upstream dams has been channel-narrowing in the southwestern Plains (e.g., six of nine cases in the High Plains) and reduction in migration rate in the north and east (e.g., all of twelve cases in the Missouri Plateau and Western Lake Regions). Channel-narrowing is associated with a burst of establishment of native and exotic woody riparian pioneer species on the former channel bed. In contrast, reduction in channel migration rate is associated with a decrease in reproduction of woody riparian pioneers. Thus, riparian pioneer forests along large rivers in the southwestern Plains have temporarily increased following dam construction while such forests in the north and east have decreased. These patterns explain apparent contradictions in conclusions of studies that focused on single rivers or small regions and provide a framework for predicting effects of dams on large rivers in the Great Plains and elsewhere. These conclusions are valid only for large rivers. A spatial analysis of channel width along 286 streams ranging in mean annual discharge from 0.004 to 1370 cubic meters per second did not produce the same clear regional pattern, in part because the channel geometries of small and large streams are affected differently by a sandy watershed.

  5. Integrated hydrological modeling of the North China Plain: Options for sustainable groundwater use in the alluvial plain of Mt. Taihang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yunqiao; Villholth, Karen G.; Jensen, Karsten H.; Stisen, Simon; Lei, Yuping

    2012-09-01

    SummaryThe integrated hydrological model MIKE SHE was applied to a part of the North China Plain to examine the dynamics of the hydrological system and to assess water management options to restore depleted groundwater resources. The model simulates the spatio-temporal distribution of recharge to and the associated dynamics of the alluvial aquifers based on climatic conditions, land use, soil characteristics, irrigation and coupled unsaturated-saturated zone processes. The model was auto-calibrated for the period 1996-2002 against daily observations of groundwater head from wells distributed across the 7230 km2 region and actual evapotranspiration measured at an agricultural station located within the model area. The model simulations compared well with observations and acceptable values were obtained for both root mean square error and correlation coefficient. The calibrated model was subsequently used for scenario analysis of the effect of different cropping rotations, irrigation intensity, and other water management options, like the implementation of the South to North Water Transfer (SNWT) project. The model analysis verified that groundwater tables in the region are subject to steep declines (up to 1 m/yr) due to decades of intensive exploitation of the groundwater resources for crop irrigation, primarily the widespread crop rotation of irrigated winter wheat and mostly rainfed summer maize. The SNWT project mitigates water stress in Shijiazhuang city and areas adjacent to wastewater canals but cannot solely reverse declining water tables across the region. Combining the SNWT project and implementing region-wide crop and irrigation system changes, including deficit irrigation, wastewater irrigation, and alternating winter fallow, provides a feasible means to stabilize groundwater levels in the area.

  6. Atmosphere-Land-Surface Interaction over the Southern Great Plains: Diagnosis of Mechanisms from SGP ARM Data

    SciTech Connect

    Sumant Nigam

    2013-02-01

    Work reported included analysis of pentad (5 day) averaged data, proposal of a hypothesis concerning the key role of the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation in 20th century drought and wet periods over the Great Plains, analysis of recurrent super-synoptic evolution of the Great Plains low-level jet, and study of pentad evolution of the 1988 drought and 1993 flood over the Great Plains from a NARR perspective on the atmospheric and terrestrial water balance.

  7. Coastal morphodynamics and Chenier-Plain evolution in southwestern Louisiana, USA: A geomorphic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Randolph A.; Taylor, Matthew J.; Byrnes, Mark R.

    2007-08-01

    Using 28 topographic profiles, air-photo interpretation, and historical shoreline-change data, coastal processes were evaluated along the Chenier Plain to explain the occurrence, distribution, and geomorphic hierarchy of primary landforms, and existing hypotheses regarding Chenier-Plain evolution were reconsidered. The Chenier Plain of SW Louisiana, classified as a low-profile, microtidal, storm-dominated coast, is located west and downdrift of the Mississippi River deltaic plain. This Late-Holocene, marginal-deltaic environment is 200 km long and up to 30 km wide, and is composed primarily of mud deposits capped by marsh interspersed with thin sand- and shell-rich ridges ("cheniers") that have elevations of up to 4 m. In this study, the term "ridge" is used as a morphologic term for a narrow, linear or curvilinear topographic high that consists of sand and shelly material accumulated by waves and other physical coastal processes. Thus, most ridges in the Chenier Plain represent relict open-Gulf shorelines. On the basis of past movement trends of individual shorelines, ridges may be further classified as transgressive, regressive, or laterally accreted. Geomorphic zones that contain two or more regressive, transgressive, or laterally accreted ridges are termed complexes. Consequently, we further refine the Chenier-Plain definition by Otvos and Price [Otvos, E.G. and Price, W.A., 1979. Problems of chenier genesis and terminology—an overview. Marine Geology, 31: 251-263] and define Chenier Plain as containing at least two or more chenier complexes. Based on these definitions, a geomorphic hierarchy of landforms was refined relative to dominant process for the Louisiana Chenier Plain. The Chenier Plain is defined as a first-order feature (5000 km 2) composed of three second-order features (30 to 300 km 2): chenier complex, beach-ridge complex, and spit complex. Individual ridges of each complex type were further separated into third-order features: chenier, beach

  8. Light Plains in the South-Pole Aitken Basin: Surface Ages and Mineralogical Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiessen, F.; Hiesinger, H.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Pasckert, J. H.; Robinson, M. S.

    2012-04-01

    We studied light plains in the north-eastern South-Pole Aitken basin to investigate their origin, ages, and mineralogical composition. Light plains, also known as the Cayley Formation, occur on the near- and farside of the Moon. Due to their smooth texture, lower crater densities, and occurrence as crater fills, they were thought to be of volcanic origin [e.g., 1]. However, Apollo 16 samples of light plains deposits were in fact highly brecciated rocks [2]. Therefore, the Imbrium and Orientale impacts were thought to have formed light plains because they reshaped the surface thousands of kilometers from their impact sites. Subsequent studies revealed varying surface ages of light plains [e.g., 3] and different mineralogical compositions, which are in some cases more highland-like and in others more mare-like. Hence, an origin solely from the Imbrium and/or Orientale impacts is unlikely. Thus, the question whether light plains formed due to large impacts or regional cratering, or through endogenic processes remains open. We performed crater size-frequency measurements [e.g., 4] on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera images and obtained absolute model ages between 3.43 and 3.81 Ga. We observed neither a distinctive peak of light plains ages nor clustering of similar ages in any specific regions of the studied area. Due to the fact that the derived ages vary as much as 380 Ma, an origin by a single event seems unlikely. Moreover, some ages even post-date the Imbrium and Orientale impacts, and thus an origin related to those impacts is not likely. Examination of multispectral data from Clementine [5] shows that the Ti abundances vary between 0.2 and 3 wt % and Fe abundances between 12.5 and 19 wt %. We observed a regional difference in distribution: light plains units within the Apollo basin have lower Fe and Ti values and are more highland-like, whereas light plains outside the Apollo basin show higher Fe and Ti values and are more mare-like. Furthermore, M

  9. A Surficial Hydrogeologic Framework for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.; Krantz, David E.; Newell, Wayne L.; Martucci, Sarah K.

    2005-01-01

    A surficial hydrogeologic framework was developed for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, from New Jersey through North Carolina. The framework includes seven distinct hydrogeologic subregions within which the primary natural physical factors affecting the flow and chemistry of shallow ground water and small streams are relatively consistent. Within most subregions, the transport of chemicals from the land surface to ground water and streams can be described by a fairly uniform set of natural processes; some subregions include mixed hydrogeologic settings that are indistinguishable at the regional scale. The hydrogeologic framework and accompanying physiographic and geologic delineations are presented in digital and printed format. The seven hydrogeologic subregions that constitute the framework were delineated primarily on the basis of physiography and the predominant texture (typical grain size) of surficial and (where surficial sediments are particularly thin) subcropping sediments. Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was constructed by standardizing and extrapolating previously published interpretations for the Coastal Plain of South Carolina and New Jersey, based on similar work in the other States. Surficial and subcropping geology were similarly compiled from previous publications by resolving inconsistencies in nomenclature, interpretation, and scale, and interpolating across unmapped areas. A bulk sediment texture was determined for each mapped geologic unit on the basis of published descriptions. Fundamental differences among the seven hydrogeologic subregions are described on the basis of hypotheses about surficial and shallow subsurface hydrology and water chemistry in each, as well as variable land use, soils, and topography. On the regional scale, the Coastal Lowlands (Subregion 1), the Middle Coastal Plain Fine Sediments (Subregion 3), the Middle Coastal Plain Sands with Overlying Gravels (Subregion 4), and the Inner Coastal Plain Upland

  10. Introduction effects of the Australian plain packaging policy on adult smokers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Hayes, Linda; Durkin, Sarah; Borland, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether smokers smoking from packs required under Australia's plain packaging law had different smoking beliefs and quitting thoughts, compared with those still smoking from branded packs. Design Cross-sectional survey during the roll-out phase of the law, analysed by timing of survey. Setting Australian state of Victoria, November 2012. Participants 536 cigarette smokers with a usual brand, of whom 72.3% were smoking from a plain pack and 27.7% were smoking from a branded pack. Primary outcome measures Perceived quality and satisfaction of cigarettes compared with 1 year ago, frequency of thoughts of smoking harm, perceived exaggeration of harms, frequency of thoughts of quitting, quitting priority in life, intention to quit, approval of large graphic health warnings and plain packaging. Results Compared with branded pack smokers, those smoking from plain packs perceived their cigarettes to be lower in quality (adjusted OR (AdjOR)=1.66, p=0.045), tended to perceive their cigarettes as less satisfying than a year ago (AdjOR=1.70, p=0.052), were more likely to have thought about quitting at least once a day in the past week (AdjOR=1.81, p=0.013) and to rate quitting as a higher priority in their lives (F=13.11, df=1, p<0.001). Plain pack smokers were more likely to support the policy than branded pack smokers (AdjOR=1.51, p=0.049). Branded and plain pack smokers did not differ on measures of less immediate smoking intentions, frequency of thoughts about harms or perceived exaggeration of harms. Appeal outcomes, but not other outcomes, were sensitive to the extent of roll-out, with responses from branded pack smokers approaching those of plain pack smokers, once 80% of survey respondents were smoking from plain packs 1–2 weeks before the December implementation date. Conclusions The early indication is that plain packaging is associated with lower smoking appeal, more support for the policy and more urgency to quit among adult smokers

  11. Widespread Plains Volcanism on Mercury Ended by 3.6 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, P. K.; Ostrach, L. R.; Fassett, C.; Chapman, C. R.; Evans, A. J.; Klimczak, C.; Banks, M. E.; Head, J. W., III; Solomon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    The largest volcanic plains deposits on Mercury are situated in its northern hemisphere and include the extensive northern smooth plains and the Caloris interior plains. Crater size-frequency analyses have shown that both deposits were emplaced around 3.8 Ga, for any of the published model production function (MPF) chronologies for impact crater formation on Mercury. The largest volcanic deposit in the southern hemisphere, the Rembrandt interior plains, has a model age of ~3.7 Ga. To test the hypothesis that all major volcanic smooth plains on Mercury were emplaced at about the same time, we determined crater size-frequency distributions for nine additional deposits (see Table 1). The diameters of craters that superpose the smooth plains at each site were measured with CraterTools, yielding crater areal densities in terms of N(10), the number of craters ≥10 km in diameter per 106 km2 area (Table 1). Our crater density measurements span N(10) values of 29-146, a range that encompasses corresponding values for the larger areas of smooth plains. With CraterStats, we fit our data (for craters ≥4 km in diameter) to the MPF chronologies of Le Feuvre and Wieczorek. For porous scaling, the model ages of all nine sites span a narrow window (Table 1). Non-porous scaling fails to match the crater size-frequency distributions. We show that widespread plains volcanism, likely the primary process by which Mercury's crust developed, had ended by 3.6 Ga. Younger volcanic deposits have been identified on the planet, but only within impact structures and at volumes much less than the smallest deposit considered here. Superposition relations between shortening landforms and craters on Mercury indicate that global contraction in response to interior cooling was underway by ~3.6 Ga. The cessation of widespread plains volcanism on Mercury may therefore reflect the onset of a stress state within the planet's lithosphere that inhibited magma ascent. Conversely, mantle thermochemical

  12. Episodic acidification of a coastal plain stream in Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Brien, A. K.; Eshleman, K.N.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates the episodic acidification of Reedy Creek, a wetland-influenced coastal plain stream near Richmond, Virginia. Primary objectives of the study were to quantify the episodic variability of acid- base chemistry in Reedy Creek, to examine the seasonal variability in episodic response and to explain the hydrological and geochemical factors that contribute to episodic acidification. Chemical response was similar in each of the seven storms examined, however, the ranges in concentrations observed were commonly greater in summer/fall storms than in winter/spring storms. An increase in SO4/2- concentration with discharge was observed during all storms and peak concentration occurred at or near peak flow. Small increases in Mg2+, Ca2+, K+ concentrations and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were observed during most storms. At the same time, ANC, Na+ and Cl- concentrations usually decreased with increasing discharge. In summer/fall storms, the absolute increase in SO4/2- concentration was one-third to 15 times the increase observed in winter/spring storms; the decrease in ANC during summer/fall storms was usually within the range of the decrease observed in winter/spring storms. In contrast, the decrease in Na+ and Cl- concentrations during winter/spring storms was much greater than that observed during summer/fall storms. Data show that while base flow anion deficit was higher in summer/fall than in winter/spring, anion deficit decreased during most summer/fall storms. In contrast, base flow anion deficit was lower in spring and winter, but increased during winter/spring storms. Increased SO4/2- concentration was the main cause of episodic acidification during storms at Reedy Creek, but increased anion deficit indicates organic acids may contribute to episodic acidification during winter/spring storms. Changes in SO4/2- concentration coincident with the hydrograph rise indicate quick routing of water through the watershed. Saturation overland flow

  13. Southern Great Plains Ice Nuclei Characterization Experiment Final Campaign Summary

    SciTech Connect

    DeMott, PJ; Suski, KJ; Hill, TCJ; Levin, EJT

    2015-03-01

    The first ever ice nucleating particle (INP) measurements to be collected at the Southern Great Plains site were made during a period from late April to June 2014, as a trial for possible longer-term measurements at the site. These measurements will also be used to lay the foundation for understanding and parameterizing (for cloud resolving modeling) the sources of these climatically important aerosols as well as to augment the existing database containing this knowledge. Siting the measurements during the spring was intended to capture INP sources in or to this region from plant, soil, dust transported over long distances, biomass burning, and pollution aerosols at a time when they may influence warm-season convective clouds and precipitation. Data have been archived of real-time measurements of INP number concentrations as a function of processing conditions (temperature and relative humidity) during 18 days of sampling that spanned two distinctly different weather situations: a warm, dry and windy period with regional dust and biomass burning influences in early May, and a cooler period of frequent precipitation during early June. Precipitation delayed winter wheat harvesting, preventing intended sampling during that perturbation on atmospheric aerosols. INP concentrations were highest and most variable at all temperatures in the dry period, where we attribute the INP activity primarily to soil dust emissions. Additional offline INP analyses are underway to extend the characterization of INP to cover the entire mixed phase cloud regime from -5°C to -35°C during the full study. Initial comparisons between methods on four days show good agreement and excellent future promise. The additional offline immersion freezing data will be archived as soon as completed under separate funding. Analyses of additional specialized studies for specific attribution of INP to biological and smoke sources are continuing via the National Science Foundation and National Aeronautics

  14. [Phosphorus fractions under different land uses in Sanjiang plain].

    PubMed

    Qin, Sheng-jin; Liu, Jing-shuang; Wang, Guo-ping; Zhou, Wang-ming

    2007-12-01

    Five land-uses type (soybean-filed, rice-field, abandoned cultivation, artificial forest, natural wetland) were obtained before planting and soil P fractions were determined by a modified Hedley fraction method. The result showed that the content of total P (TP) in natural wetland was higher than other soil. While the proportion of total inorganic P (TPi) in TP of farm land soil was higher than that of wetland. Adversely, the proportion of total organic P (TPo) was higher in wetland and least in rice-field. There was no obvious difference between that of abandoned field and artificial forest. The values of labile inorganic phosphorus (labile Pi) under different land-uses were similar. The contents of Resin-P and NaHCO3-Pi varied at a range of 32-36.3 mg x kg(-1) and 33.77-50.42 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The contents of NaOH-Pi and C.HCl-Pi in farmland were higher than those of wetland, especially in rice-field which was 152.4 mg x kg(-1). But for D.HCl-Pi, the content was higher in wetland with the value of 84.3 mg x kg(-1), and the contents of NaOH-Pi, C. HCl-Pi and D.HCl-Pi in abandoned field and artificial forest were in the middle of the above two land use patterns, which indicated that the restoration of soil P in abandoned farmland tended to approach the level of natural wetland. The value and percentage of Po was decreased greatly with the reclamation of wetland, and the decrease of C. HCl-Po was the most significant in all forms of organic P, and its values in soybean-filed and rice-field were only 25.96% and 19.26% of that in wetland. As the time went by the content of Po in abandoned arable land increased with very slow speed, which indicated that the restoration of wetland after reclamation would need a long time. The distribution of soil P in different P fractions has significant difference for the land-use change in Sanjiang plain.

  15. Gusev Dust Devil Movie, Sol 456 (Plain and Isolated)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This movie clip shows a dust devil scooting across a plain inside Gusev Crater on Mars as seen from the NASA rover Spirit's hillside vantage point during the rover's 456th martian day, or sol (April 15, 2005). The individual images were taken about 20 seconds apart by Spirit's navigation camera. Each frame in this movie has the raw image on the top half and a processed version in the lower half that enhances contrast and removes stationary objects, producing an image that is uniformly gray except for features that change from frame to frame.

    The movie results from a new way of watching for dust devils, which are whirlwinds that hoist dust from the surface into the air. Spirit began seeing dust devils in isolated images in March 2005. At first, the rover team relied on luck. It might catch a dust devil in an image or it might miss by a few minutes. Using the new detection strategy, the rover takes a series of 21 images. Spirit sends a few of them to Earth, as well as little thumbnail images of all of them. Team members use the 3 big images and all the small images to decide whether the additional big images have dust devils. For this movie, they specifically told Spirit to send back frames that they knew had dust devils.

    Scientists expected dust devils since before Spirit landed. The landing area inside Gusev Crater is filled with dark streaks left behind when dust devils pick dust up from an area. It is also filled with bright 'hollows,' which are dust-filled miniature craters. Dust covers most of the terrain. Winds flow into and out of Gusev crater every day. The Sun heats the surface so that the surface is warm to the touch even though the atmosphere at 2 meters (6 feet) above the surface would be chilly. That temperature contrast causes convection. Mixing the dust, winds, and convection should trigger dust devils.

    Scientists will use the images to study several things. Tracking the dust devils tells which way the wind blows at different times

  16. Gusev Dust Devil Movie, Sol 459 (Plain and Isolated)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This movie clip shows a dust devil scooting across a plain inside Gusev Crater on Mars as seen from the NASA rover Spirit's hillside vantage point during the rover's 459th martian day, or sol (April 18, 2005). The individual images were taken about 20 seconds apart by Spirit's navigation camera. Each frame in this movie has the raw image on the top half and a processed version in the lower half that enhances contrast and removes stationary objects, producing an image that is uniformly gray except for features that change from frame to frame.

    The movie results from a new way of watching for dust devils, which are whirlwinds that hoist dust from the surface into the air. Spirit began seeing dust devils in isolated images in March 2005. At first, the rover team relied on luck. It might catch a dust devil in an image or it might miss by a few minutes. Using the new detection strategy, the rover takes a series of 21 images. Spirit sends a few of them to Earth, as well as little thumbnail images of all of them. Team members use the 3 big images and all the small images to decide whether the additional big images have dust devils. For this movie, they specifically told Spirit to send back frames that they knew had dust devils.

    Scientists expected dust devils since before Spirit landed. The landing area inside Gusev Crater is filled with dark streaks left behind when dust devils pick dust up from an area. It is also filled with bright 'hollows,' which are dust-filled miniature craters. Dust covers most of the terrain. Winds flow into and out of Gusev crater every day. The Sun heats the surface so that the surface is warm to the touch even though the atmosphere at 2 meters (6 feet) above the surface would be chilly. That temperature contrast causes convection. Mixing the dust, winds, and convection should trigger dust devils.

    Scientists will use the images to study several things. Tracking the dust devils tells which way the wind blows at different times

  17. Spatial variation of aerosol optical properties in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xuehua

    2013-04-01

    The column-integrated optical properties of aerosol in Beijing and Xianghe situated at North China Plain were investigated based on Sun/sky radiometer measurements made at Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites. Only version 2 and level 2 quality-assured data were presented and analyzed in this paper. Time intervals differ for the two sites, with Beijing having 9 years of data (Mar.-May, 2001; Apr., 2002-Dec., 2011),while Xianghe having 6 years of data (Mar.-Apr., 2001;Sep., 2004-Dec.,2011). Monthly mean 500 nm AOT values reach a maximum in June (0.95) and exceed 0.55 from March through September, and the minimum values occur during the late fall and winter months of November through February at Beijing. The monthly mean AOT values at Xianghe are very close to those measured at Beijing. The absolute differences of AOT between the two sites are less than 0.1 except in June and July. The reason of large difference in June and July is the frequently cloud contamination in summer result in the monthly means over the two sites computed from a large number of measurements of different date. The monthly averaged AOT with the same date in June and July are re-computed and the absolute difference of AOT between Beijing and Xianghe reduced to 0.01 and 0.03 in June and July respectively. The monthly mean Angstrom Exponent (AE) in Beijing and Xianghe sites are very close, with the absolute difference less than 0.075. The monthly mean AE in the two sites varied between ~1.0 and ~1.3 except in spring (March-May), therefore clearly dominated by fine mode aerosol for most of the year. All monthly averaged SSA at Beijing showed much lower value as compared to Xianghe though the seasonal variations are similar for the two sites, which indicates that aerosol absorption is greater in Beijing. All monthly averaged imaginary part of refractive index at Beijing has much higher value than Xianghe. The absolute differences of SSA between the two sites range from 0.016 to 0.037 except that

  18. Variability in ultraplankton at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain study site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Adrian P.; Zubkov, Mikhail V.; Holland, Ross J.; Tarran, Glen; Burkill, Peter

    2010-08-01

    Observations of the ultraplankton (<5 μm) are presented from a 4 day mesoscale survey centred on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) study site (49°00'N 16°30'W), in July 2006. The organisms enumerated include two groups of phytoplankton, Synechococcus cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, large viruses, and two size classes of heterotrophic protist. The dataset comprises over 400 samples from the mixed layer taken over a 100 × 100 km 2 area at a spatial resolution of typically 2-3 km. For phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria there is a clear bimodal structure to the histograms of abundance indicative of two distinct communities in the region. Using the strong bimodality of one of the phytoplankton groups' histogram as a basis, the dataset is split into two subsets, with roughly 200 points in each, corresponding to the two histogram peaks. Doing so provides evidence that Synechococcus and viruses may also have a bimodal structure. Correlations between all pairings of these five organisms (both phytoplankton groups, Synechococcus, heterotrophic bacteria and viruses) are positive and quite high (r>0.7). The two communities can therefore be characterised as high and low abundance. Although there is a coincidence of low abundances with high temperatures in the southwest corner of the region, where there was known to be an eddy present, the spatial distributions of these organisms over the whole region is poorly predicted by temperature (or salinity or density). Furthermore, the spatial distributions of heterotrophic protists are found to differ strongly from those of the other organisms, having a unimodal structure and no obvious large scale structure. The more random structure of the heterotrophs' spatial distribution compared to their prey is consistent with previous results from the continental shelf, but is demonstrated for the open ocean here for the first time. Spatial variability is a large potential source of error in point samples, such as those

  19. Physical loss and modification of Southern Great Plains playas.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lacrecia A; Haukos, David A; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2012-12-15

    Playas are the primary wetland system in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) of North America providing critical stopover habitats for migratory birds in the Western Hemisphere. Collectively, these wetlands form the keystone ecosystem in this region supporting biodiversity for North America and provide habitat for native plants and animals that are essential for maintenance of international biological diversity along with other local and regional ecological services. Large-scale landscape changes in this region, primarily as a result of agriculturally-based anthropogenic impacts, threaten playas with functional loss and physical extinction. These impacts are not considered in current estimates of the number of extant functional playas, leading to biased estimates by groups or agencies extrapolating research or monitoring results, conducting conservation planning, and modeling impacts of future climate change. Using a combination of stochastic and empirical data, we identified impacts to playas and playa watersheds and quantified the extent and rate of these impacts relative to physical loss. Only 0.2% of playas had no wetland or watershed modification and we conservatively estimate that 17% of playas recently existing on the landscape no longer are represented by an apparent depression. With the inclusion of sediment volume estimates where ≥100% of the volume of original differentiated playa soil has been filled, 60% or 16,855 playas have been physically lost from the SGP despite a continued presence of a depression. Data also show that small playas are being lost more rapidly than larger ones; the average size (±SE) of extant playas has increased from 7.5 ± 0.47 to 8.5 ± 0.55 ha. The reduced ecological condition of 95.3% of playas remaining on the landscape exceeds historical predictions of a maximum 85% of playas ever being modified. Given the results of this study these changes can now be accounted for, resulting in more informed management and

  20. Physical loss and modification of Southern Great Plains playas.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lacrecia A; Haukos, David A; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2012-12-15

    Playas are the primary wetland system in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) of North America providing critical stopover habitats for migratory birds in the Western Hemisphere. Collectively, these wetlands form the keystone ecosystem in this region supporting biodiversity for North America and provide habitat for native plants and animals that are essential for maintenance of international biological diversity along with other local and regional ecological services. Large-scale landscape changes in this region, primarily as a result of agriculturally-based anthropogenic impacts, threaten playas with functional loss and physical extinction. These impacts are not considered in current estimates of the number of extant functional playas, leading to biased estimates by groups or agencies extrapolating research or monitoring results, conducting conservation planning, and modeling impacts of future climate change. Using a combination of stochastic and empirical data, we identified impacts to playas and playa watersheds and quantified the extent and rate of these impacts relative to physical loss. Only 0.2% of playas had no wetland or watershed modification and we conservatively estimate that 17% of playas recently existing on the landscape no longer are represented by an apparent depression. With the inclusion of sediment volume estimates where ≥100% of the volume of original differentiated playa soil has been filled, 60% or 16,855 playas have been physically lost from the SGP despite a continued presence of a depression. Data also show that small playas are being lost more rapidly than larger ones; the average size (±SE) of extant playas has increased from 7.5 ± 0.47 to 8.5 ± 0.55 ha. The reduced ecological condition of 95.3% of playas remaining on the landscape exceeds historical predictions of a maximum 85% of playas ever being modified. Given the results of this study these changes can now be accounted for, resulting in more informed management and

  1. Flood plain and channel dynamics of the Quinault and Queets Rivers, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, J. E.; Jones, M.A.; Haluska, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    Observations from this study and previous studies on the Queets River show that channel and flood-plain dynamics and morphology are affected by interactions between flow, sediment, and standing and entrained wood, some of which likely involve time frames similar to 200–500-year flood-plain half-lives. On the upper Quinault River and Queets River, log jams promote bar growth and consequent channel shifting, short-distance avulsions, and meander cutoffs, resulting in mobile and wide active channels. On the lower Quinault River, large portions of the channel are stable and flow within vegetated flood plains. However, locally, channel-spanning log jams have caused channel avulsions within reaches that have been subsequently mobile for several decades. In all three reaches, log jams appear to be areas of conifer germination and growth that may later further influence channel and flood-plain conditions on long time scales by forming flood-plain areas resistant to channel migration and by providing key members of future log jams. Appreciation of these processes and dynamics and associated temporal and spatial scales is necessary to formulate effective long-term approaches to managing fluvial ecosystems in forested environments.

  2. Present-day surface deformation and tectonic insights of the extensional Ilan Plain, NE Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Chu-Chun; Chang, Chung-Pai; Siame, Lionel; Lee, Jian-Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Taiwan's mountain belt is an ideal location to address major questions regarding mechanisms of lithospheric deformation in convergent settings, mountain building processes from oceanic subduction to continental subduction, and post orogenic extension. In the northeast of this belt, the Ilan Plain is a triangular, deltaic plain characterized by a flat topography close to the sea level, and surrounded by the high mountains of the Hsuehshan Range to the northwest, and the Central Range to the southeast. Its eastern coast faces the western tip of the Okinawa Trough, the back-arc basin of the Ryukyu subduction zone. In this study, we analyzed the present-day surface deformation of the Ilan Plain, aiming at deciphering its relationships with basement faults and the regional geodynamic setting. Our approach is mainly based on surface vertical displacements revealed by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (PSI), which indicate that there is an area of active subsidence (∼18 mm/yr) located in the southern part of the plain in probable connection with active basement faults and in agreement with previous geodetic measurements and existing geophysical data. Our PSI results also suggest that the subsidence occurring in the Ilan Plain has moved from north to south during Quaternary in relation with extrusion of the belt due to the westward propagation of the Okinawa Trough through the Taiwan Mountains.

  3. Titan’s “blandlands”: nature, distribution, and possible origin of Titan’s plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly M.; Malaska, M. J.; Le Gall, A.; Hayes, A.; Mitchell, K. L.; Kirk, R.; Radebaugh, J.; Neish, C.; Stofan, E.; Janssen, M.; Wall, S. D.; Lucas, A.; Lorenz, R. D.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2013-10-01

    Titan’s diverse and Earth-like geologic features have been mapped and interpreted based on their morphological characteristics (e.g. Lopes et al., 2010, Icarus 205; Aharonson et al., 2012, Titan: Surface, Atmosphere, Magnetosphere, Cambridge University Press). While the interpretation for the origin of some units, such as dunes and well-preserved impact craters, has been relatively straightforward, others have been more challenging. In particular, the undifferentiated plains first mapped by Lopes et al. (2010) remain mysterious. These vast expanses, often referred to as “blandlands” (also “undifferentiated plains unit”, Lopes et al., 2010) are mostly found at mid-latitudes and appear relatively featureless at radar wavelengths, with no significant topography. Their gradational boundaries and paucity of features in SAR data make geologic interpretation particularly challenging. We examine and evaluate different formation mechanisms. Plains may be sedimentary in origin, resulting from fluvial or lacustrine deposition or accumulation of photolysis products created in the upper atmosphere. Alternatively, the plains may be cryovolcanic, consisting of overlapping flows of low relief, obscured by accumulation of sediments. In this paper, we use SAR, radiometry, scatterometry, and SARTopo data to examine the characteristics of the plains and compare them with other geologic units. We also compare their global distribution with that of other units and examine the implications.

  4. Effects of flooding upon woody vegetation along parts of the Potomac River flood plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yanosky, T.M.

    1982-01-01

    A two-part study along the Potomac River flood plain near Washington, D.C., was undertaken to investigate the effects of flooding upon woody vegetation. Floods abrade bark, damage branches and canopies, and often uproot trees. The first study was of vegetation in five monumented flood-plain plots which differed in the frequency and severity of floodflow over a 10-year period. Basal area and survival of trees appears to be related to velocity of floodflow, which in turn is related to flood magnitude and channel shape. However, the effects of flooding also depend on the nature of the flood-plain surface and size and growth habit of vegetation. In the second study, a catastrophic flood after Hurricane Agnes in June 1972 was found to cause large-scale changes in the age, form, and species composition of flood-plain forest below Great Falls, Va. The impact of the flood depended primarily on the flow regime of the river; destruction was greatest in areas exposed to the maximum flood foce, and minimal at sheltered locations. Age determinations from dead trunks and surviving trees suggest that most trees in severely damaged areas started to grow since the last great flood, which occurred in 1952. Trees along sheltered reaches survived several previous catastrophic floods. In addition, species varied in ability to withstand damage from the Hurricane Agnes flood. Least likely to recover were species growing on infrequently flooded surfaces, which may explain, in part, their absence at lower flood-plain elevations. (USGS)

  5. Mars exploration rover geologic traverse by the spirit rover in the plains of Gusev crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crumpler, L.S.; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.F.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.A.; Christensen, P.R.; DesMarais, D.J.; Farmer, J.D.; Fergason, R.; Golombek, M.P.; Grant, F.D.; Grant, J. A.; Greeley, R.; Hahn, B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Knudson, A.T.; Landis, G.A.; Li, R.; Maki, J.; McSween, H.Y.; Ming, D. W.; Moersch, J.E.; Payne, M.C.; Rice, J.W.; Richter, L.; Ruff, S.W.; Sims, M.; Thompson, S.D.; Tosca, N.; Wang, A.; Whelley, P.; Wright, S.P.; Wyatt, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Spirit rover completed a 2.5 km traverse across gently sloping plains on the floor of Gusev crater from its location on the outer rim of Bonneville crater to the lower slopes of the Columbia Hills, Mars. Using the Athena suite of instruments in a transect approach, a systematic series of overlapping panoramic mosaics, remote sensing observations, surface analyses, and trenching operations documented the lateral variations in landforms, geologic materials, and chemistry of the surface throughout the traverse, demonstrating the ability to apply the techniques of field geology by remote rover operations. Textures and shapes of rocks within the plains are consistent with derivation from impact excavation and mixing of the upper few meters of basaltic lavas. The contact between surrounding plains and crater ejecta is generally abrupt and marked by increases in clast abundance and decimeter-scale steps in relief. Basaltic materials of the plains overlie less indurated and more altered rock types at a time-stratigraphic contact between the plains and Columbia Hills that occurs over a distance of one to two meters. This implies that regional geologic contacts are well preserved and that Earth-like field geologic mapping will be possible on Mars despite eons of overturn by small impacts. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  6. Geohazards (floods and landslides) in the Ndop plain, Cameroon volcanic line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wotchoko, Pierre; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Itiga, Zénon; Nkouathio, David Guimolaire; Guedjeo, Christian Suh; Ngnoupeck, Gerald; Dongmo, Armand Kagou; Wandji, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    The Ndop Plain, located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), is a volcano-tectonic plain, formed by a series of tectonic movements, volcanic eruptions and sedimentation phases. Floods (annually) and landslides (occasionally) occur with devastating environmental effects. However, this plain attracts a lot of inhabitants owing to its fertile alluvial soils. With demographic explosion in the plain, the inhabitants (143,000 people) tend to farm and inhabit new zones which are prone to these geohazards. In this paper, we use field observations, laboratory analyses, satellite imagery and complementary methods using appropriate software to establish hazard (flood and landslide) maps of the Ndop Plain. Natural factors as well as anthropogenic factors are considered. The hazard maps revealed that 25% of the area is exposed to flood hazard (13% exposed to high flood hazard, 12% to moderate) and 5% of the area is exposed to landslide hazard (2% exposed to high landslide hazard, 3% to moderate). Some mitigation measures for floods (building of artificial levees, raising foundations of buildings and the meticulous regulation of the flood guards at Bamendjing Dam) and landslides (slope terracing, planting of trees, and building retaining walls) are proposed.

  7. Cigarette packaging and health warnings: the impact of plain packaging and message framing on young smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; Niaura, Raymond S.; Evans, W. Douglas; Hammond, David; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the impact of pictorial cigarette warning labels, warning label message framing, and plain cigarette packaging on young adult smokers’ motivation to quit. Methods Smokers ages 18–30 (n=740) from a consumer research panel were randomized to one of four experimental conditions where they viewed online images of 4 cigarette packs with warnings about lung disease, cancer, stroke/heart disease, and death, respectively. Packs differed across conditions by warning message framing (gain versus loss) and packaging (branded versus plain). Measures captured demographics, smoking behavior, covariates, and motivation to quit in response to cigarette packs. Results Pictorial warnings about lung disease and cancer generated the strongest motivation to quit across conditions. Adjusting for pre-test motivation and covariates, a message framing by packaging interaction revealed gain-framed warnings on plain packs generated greater motivation to quit for lung disease, cancer, and mortality warnings (p < 0.05), compared with loss-framed warnings on plain packs. Conclusions Warnings combining pictorial depictions of smoking-related health risks with text-based messages about how quitting reduces risks may achieve better outcomes among young adults, especially in countries considering or implementing plain packaging regulations. PMID:24420310

  8. [Responses of soil humidity on Songnen Plain to climate change in 1980-2005].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li-xia; Li, Shuai; Ji, Yang-hui; Zhu, Hai-xia; Yan, Ping; Wang, Ping; Wang, Chen-yi; Han, Jun-jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the 1980-2005 observation data of ten-day soil humidity, monthly air temperature, and monthly precipitation during crop growth period (from May to September) from 16 agrometeorological stations on Songnen Plain, the spatiotemporal variation of surface soil (0-30 cm) humidity and its responses to the air temperature and precipitation in study area were analyzed by using statistical method. The results showed that on Songnen Plain, the surface soil humidity during crop growth period in 1980-2005 had a decreasing trend, and tended to be aridified, especially in the west and south parts of the Plain. Before the 1990s, the surface soil on the Plain was relatively humid, but thereafter, the humidity kept decreasing, and partial dryness occurred. In the study period, the mean air temperature during crop growth period had a periodical increase before 1992, with a small fluctuation in a cycle of 6 years, but increased obviously after then. The precipitation during crop growth period had a larger inter-annual variation, with a cycle of 4-5 years. The surface soil humidity during crop growth period was significantly negatively correlated to air temperature and positively correlated to precipitation. Both air temperature and precipitation were the main climatic factors affecting the variation of surface soil humidity on Songnen Plain.

  9. Determinacion de Caracteristicas Opticas del Telescopio OAN150

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    En el Observatorio de Calar Alto, en Almería, España, está ubicado un telescopio de 15O-cms de diámetro -construído por REOSC- perteneciente al Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, con sede en Madrid, España. La infraestructura técnica del OAN ha sido tradicionalmente débil y actualmente se está haciendo un esfuerzo por fortalecerla. Existe una información muy limitada del telescopio en general; de su óptica en particular se conocían los valores de los parámetros principales pero sin saber si éstos corresponden a valores teóricos ó de construcción. Por ello se consideró necesario iniciar una investigación para conocer en detalle los valores reales de las componentes ópticas del telescopio, obteniéndose algunos resultados de interés. El primario del telescopio OANl5O es aproximadamente F/3 y el siste ma en su conjunto es F/8.2, con su sistema corrector de campo. En términos generales, la imagen es satisfactoria en todo el campo y, sin sistema corrector, la imagen axial también es buena. En un futuro muy cercano se piensa diseñar instrumentación adicional para este telescopio. Conocer con mayor precisión sus características puede ser de gran utilidad para tal fin, pues se efectúan los cálculos considerando conjuntamente al telescopio y al instrumento.

  10. A model for the formation of wrinkle ridges in volcanic plains on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragoni, Michele; Piombo, Antonello

    2003-02-01

    Ridged plains, the most abundant geologic terrain on Venus, are volcanic plains deformed by wrinkle ridges after their emplacement. It has been suggested that the ridges are the product of thermal stresses induced in the lithosphere by the increase of surface temperature due to the greenhouse effect of gases released during the emplacement of the volcanic plains. A model for the formation of wrinkle ridges is proposed where the ridges are assumed to be the surface effect of dislocations produced by compressive stress in the Venusian lithosphere. The lithosphere is modeled as a thermoelastic half-space, the surface of which is subject to a linear temperature increase during 100 Ma. The state of stress is calculated and the maximum distance is obtained at which dislocations can be placed in order that the compressive stress at the Venusian surface is everywhere lower than the rock strength. The model predictions in terms of dislocation density and crustal shortening appear to be consistent with observations.

  11. Ground water contamination and costs of pesticide restrictions in the southeastern coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Danielson, L.E.; Carlson, G.A.; Liu, S.; Weber, J.B.; Warren, R.

    1993-01-01

    The project developed new methodology for estimating: (1) groundwater contamination potential (GWCP) in the Southeast Coastal Plain, and (2) the potential economic impacts of selected policies that restrict pesticide use. The potential for ground water contamination was estimated by use of a simple matrix for combining ratings for both soil leaching potential and pesticide leaching potential. Key soil variables included soil texture, soil acidity and organic matter content. Key pesticide characteristics included Koc, pesticide half-life, the rate of application and the fraction of the pesticide hitting the soil. Comparisons of pesticide use from various farmer and expert opinion surveys were made for pesticide groups and for individual pesticide products. Methodology for merging the GWCP changes and lost benefits from selected herbicide cancellations was developed using corn production in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Economic evaluations of pesticide cancellations for corn included national and Coastal Plain estimates for atrazine; metolachlor; dicamba; dicamba and atrazine; and dicamba, atrazine and metolachlor.

  12. A conceptual model to facilitate amphibian conservation in the northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushnet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    As pressures on agricultural landscapes to meet worldwide resource needs increase, amphibian populations face numerous threats including habitat destruction, chemical contaminants, disease outbreaks, wetland sedimentation, and synergistic effects of these perturbations. To facilitate conservation planning, we developed a conceptual model depicting elements critical for amphibian conservation in the northern Great Plains. First, we linked upland, wetland, and landscape features to specific ecological attributes. Ecological attributes included adult survival; reproduction and survival to metamorphosis; and successful dispersal and recolonization. Second, we linked ecosystem drivers, ecosystem stressors, and ecological effects of the region to each ecological attribute. Lastly, we summarized information on these ecological attributes and the drivers, stressors, and effects that work in concert to influence the maintenance of viable and genetically diverse amphibian populations in the northern Great Plains. While our focus was on the northern Great Plains, our conceptual model can be tailored to other geographic regions and taxa.

  13. Prediction of episodic acidification in Maryland Coastal Plain streams. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerritsen, J.; Dietz, J.; Wilson, H.T.; Janicki, A.J.

    1989-12-01

    Episodic acidification from acidic precipitation in Coastal Plain streams of the Chesapeake Bay watershed is a potential threat to spawning and survival of anadromous fish species. The study is part of a process of selection of streams for mitigation of acidic episodes to increase the spawning success of anadromous fish stocks. It describes the development of practical, empirical models to predict the chemical response of Coastal Plain streams during precipitation events. One of the design criteria for the models was that they predict the response of a stream to precipitation events using data that are relatively easy to obtain. Data used to build and test the models were from several intensive studies of episodic acidification in the Maryland Coastal Plain. Regression models were developed to predict minimum pH during an event, change in pH during an event and minimum ANC (alkalinity) during an event. Two models were developed for each dependent variable.

  14. Are Noachian-age ridged plains (Nplr) actually early Hesperian in age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert V.; Doudnikoff, C. E.; Mongeon, A. M.

    1990-01-01

    Whether or not the Nplr units in Memnonia and Argyre truly represent ridged plains volcanism of Noachian age or are simply areas of younger (Early Hesperian age) volcanism which failed to bury older craters and therefore have a greater total crater age than really applies to the ridged plains portion of those terrains is examined. The Nuekum and Hiller technique is used to determine the number of preserved crater retention surfaces in the Memnonia and Argyre regions where Scott and Tanaka show Nplr units to be common. The results for cratered terrain (Npl) in Memnonia is summarized along with those for ridged plains (Nplr) in both Memnonia and Argyre, and they are compared with similar results obtained for Tempe Terra and Lunae Plunum.

  15. Geologic Map of the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain Area, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Keller, Edward A.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a newly revised and expanded digital geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map to 2,000 feet on the ground)1 and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. The map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the coastal plain within the contiguous Dos Pueblos Canyon, Goleta, Santa Barbara, and Carpinteria 7.5' quadrangles. The new map supersedes an earlier preliminary geologic map of the central part of the coastal plain (Minor and others, 2002; revised 2006) that provided coastal coverage only within the Goleta and Santa Barbara quadrangles. In addition to new mapping to the west and east, geologic mapping in parts of the central map area has been significantly revised from the preliminary map compilation - especially north of downtown Santa Barbara in the Mission Ridge area - based on new structural interpretations supplemented by new biostratigraphic data. All surficial and bedrock map units, including several new units recognized in the areas of expanded mapping, are described in detail in the accompanying pamphlet. Abundant new biostratigraphic and biochronologic data based on microfossil identifications are presented in expanded unit descriptions of the marine Neogene Monterey and Sisquoc Formations. Site-specific fault kinematic observations embedded in the digital map database are more complete owing to the addition of slip-sense determinations. Finally, the pamphlet accompanying the present report includes an expanded and refined summary of stratigraphic and structural observations and interpretations that are based on the composite geologic data contained in the new map compilation. The Santa Barbara coastal plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along an east-west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest

  16. Besnoitiosis in a southern plains woodrat (Neotoma micropus) from Uvalde, Texas.

    PubMed

    Charles, Roxanne A; Ellis, Angela E; Dubey, J P; Barnes, John C; Yabsley, Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Recently, Besnoitia neotomofelis was described from a southern plains woodrat (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas. During May 2010, 1 of 55 southern plains woodrats trapped in Uvalde County, Texas, was diagnosed with besnoitiosis. Grossly, the woodrat had bilateral swellings of the cheeks, and numerous Besnoitia sp.-like cysts were observed in the tongue, facial region, musculature of the limbs, and subcutis of the dorsum and flanks. Little to no inflammation was noted around cysts. The cysts were morphologically similar to B. neotomofelis based on light and transmission electron microcopy. The sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region-1 was identical to the type isolate of B. neotomofelis. Attempts to isolate Besnoitia sp. in laboratory mice failed; however, Toxoplasma gondii was isolated in a Swiss Webster mouse. This represents the first report of besnoitiosis caused by B. neotomofelis in a southern plains woodrat and the first concurrent Besnoitia sp. and T. gondii infection in any host species.

  17. Evaluation of stream chemistry and watershed characteristics in the mid-atlantic coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Janicki, A.; Morgan, M.; Lynch, J.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to apply the stream classification model developed from Maryland Synoptic Stream Chemistry Study data base to assess the relative importance of acidic deposition and other anthropogenic disturbances on acidity in Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain streams. Data pertaining to Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain watershed geology, soils, land use type, and stream chemistry were obtained from USEPA National Stream Survey, USGS and County Soil Conservation Services from New Jersey to North Carolina. These data were used in a regression analysis to establish the relative importance of ions determining stream water acidity. The study results support the conclusion that acidic deposition has substantially altered the acid base chemistry of Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain Streams.

  18. Saturated thickness of the High Plains regional aquifer in 1980, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1982-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The 1980 saturated thickness of the High Plains regional aquifer in Oklahoma is shown for the eastern area (plate 1), consisting of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties, and for the Panhandle area (plate 2), consisting of Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver Counties.

  19. Contrasting soils and landscapes of the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markewich, H.W.; Pavich, M.J.; Buell, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces comprise 80 percent of the Atlantic Coastal states from New Jersey to Georgia. The provinces are climatically similar. The soil moisture regime is udic. The soil temperature regime is typically thermic from Virginia through Georgia, although it is mesic at altitudes above 400 m in Georgia and above 320 m in Virginia. The soil temperature regime is mesic for the Piedmont and Coastal Plain from Maryland through New Jersey. The tightly folded, structurally complex crystalline rocks of the Piedmont and the gently dipping "layer-cake" clastic sedimentary rocks and sediments of the Coastal Plain respond differently to weathering, pedogenesis, and erosion. The different responses result in two physiographically contrasting terrains; each has distinctive near-surface hydrology, regolith, drainage morphology, and morphometry. The Piedmont is predominantly an erosional terrain. Interfluves are as narrow as 0.5 to 2 km, and are convex upward. Valleys are as narrow as 0.1 to 0.5 km and generally V-shaped in cross section. Alluvial terraces are rare and discontinuous. Soils in the Piedmont are typically less than 1 m thick, have less sand and more clay than Coastal Plain soils, and generally have not developed sandy epipedons. Infiltration rates for Piedmont soils are low at 6-15 cm/h. The soil/saprolite, soil/rock, and saprolite/rock boundaries are distinct (can be placed within 10 cm) and are characterized by ponding and/or lateral movement of water. Water movement through soil into saprolite, and from saprolite into rock, is along joints, foliation, bedding planes and faults. Soils and isotopic data indicate residence times consistent with a Pleistocene age for most Piedmont soils. The Coastal Plain is both an erosional and a constructional terrain. Interfluves commonly are broader than 2 km and are flat. Valleys are commonly as wide as 1 km to greater than 10 km, and contain numerous alluvial and estuarine terrace

  20. Bimodal magmatism, basaltic volcanic styles, tectonics, and geomorphic processes of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, S.S.; Smith, R.P.; Hackett, W.R.; McCurry, M.; Anderson, S.R.; Ferdock, G.C.

    1997-01-01

    Geology presented in this field guide covers a wide spectrum of internal and surficial processes of the eastern Snake River Plain, one of the largest components of the combined late Cenozoic igneous provinces of the western United States. Focus is on widespread Quaternary basaltic plains volcanism that produced coalescent shields and complex eruptive centers that yielded compositionally evolved magmas. The guide is constructed in several parts beginning with discussion sections that provide an overview of the geology followed by road directions, with explanations, for specific locations. The geology overview briefly summarizes the collective knowledge gained, and petrologic implications made, over the past few decades. The field guide covers plains volcanism, lava flow emplacement, basaltic shield growth, phreatomagmatic eruptions, and complex and evolved eruptive centers. Locations and explanations are also provided for the hydrogeology, groundwater contamination, and environmental issues such as range fires and cataclysmic floods associated with the region.

  1. Pressure distribution over an NACA 23012 airfoil with a slotted and a plain flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzinger, Carl J; Delano, James B

    1938-01-01

    Report presents the results of pressure-distribution of an NACA 23012 airfoil equipped with a slotted flap and with a plain flap conducted in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel. A test installation was used in which the 7-foot-span airfoil was mounted vertically between the upper and lower sides of the closed test section so that two-dimensional flow was approximated. The pressures were measured on the upper and lower surfaces at one chord section both on the main airfoil and on the flaps for several different flap deflections and at several angles of attack. The data are presented in the form of pressure-distribution diagrams and as graphs of calculated section coefficients for the airfoil-and-flap combinations and also for the flaps alone. The results are useful for application to rib and flap structural design; in addition, the plain-flap data furnish considerable information applicable to the structural design of plain ailerons.

  2. Effects of controlled agricultural practices on water quality in the Minnesota sand-plain aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, H.W.; Stoner, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies of Minnesota's sand plains indicate that ground-water chemistry is related to agricultural practices. Surficial sand-plain aquifers cover 8,000,000 acres of Minnesota and are a major source of water for domestic use, irrigation, and some municipal systems. The sand-plain aquifers consist of sand and gravel deposits that are from 20 to greater than 100 feet thick and are covered by a thin sandy loam that generally is less than 2 feet thick. Sand-plain aquifers are recharged by the downward percolation of precipitation through the soil root zone and the unsaturated zone in the sand to the water table. The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation and forms the top of the sand-plain aquifer. Sand-plain aquifers are susceptible to contamination by agricultural chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides), if downward-percolating recharge water contains these chemicals. The concentrations of nitrate, pesticides, and some other chemical constituents fluctuate seasonally and differ with depth below the water table (Anderson, 1989). Despite the availability of water-quality data for about 260 wells that were collected during previous studies in three U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project areas in Minnesota, it is not known how concentrations of agricultural chemicals in ground water relate to the rate and timing of fertilizer and pesticide application or to the tillage practices used. Field-scale research is needed to determine the effects of different farming practices on the concentrations of nitrate, pesticides, and other agricultural chemicals in ground water in the unsaturated and saturated zones.

  3. Mapping Titan’s Undifferentiated Plains (“Blandlands”) to infer their origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly M.; Malaska, Michael J.; Schoenfeld, Ashley M.; LeGall, Alice; Hayes, Alexander G.; Birch, Samuel P.; Solomonidou, Anezina

    2014-11-01

    The undifferentiated plains first mapped by Lopes et al. (2010, Icarus, 205) are vast expanses of terrains that appear bland in Cassini RADAR Synthetic Aperture Radar images, hence the designation “blandlands”. While the interpretation of several other geologic units on Titan, such as dunes and well-preserved impact craters, has been relatively straightforward, the origin of the “blandlands” has remained mysterious. SAR images show that the “blandlands” are mostly found at mid-latitudes and appear relatively featureless at radar wavelengths, with no significant topographic variations. Their gradational boundaries and paucity of features in SAR data make geologic interpretation particularly challenging. We have mapped the distribution of these terrains using SAR swaths up to T92 (July 2013), which cover > 50% of Titan’s surface. We compared SAR images with their de-noised counterparts, the topography using the SARTopo method (Stiles et al., 2009, Icarus 202) and, where possible, the response from radiometry. We examined and evaluated different formation mechanisms. Plains may be sedimentary in origin, resulting from fluvial or lacustrine deposition or accumulation of photolysis products created in the upper atmosphere. Alternatively, the plains may be cryovolcanic, consisting of overlapping flows of low relief, obscured by accumulation of sediments. In this paper, we use SAR, radiometry, and SARTopo data to examine the characteristics of the plains and compare them with other geologic units. The results from our analysis suggest that the sedimentary origin is the most likely, and that plain materials are similar or the same as dune materials. Plains occur mostly at mid-latitudes, while dunes occur mostly at low latitudes. This may be a result of wind patterns, decrease in sand supply, or changes in properties of sand, perhaps moisture content, all of which would inhibit the formation of large dunes.

  4. Hydrologic and geochemical characterization of the Santa Rosa Plain watershed, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishikawa, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    The Santa Rosa Plain is home to approximately half of the population of Sonoma County, California, and faces growth in population and demand for water. Water managers are confronted with the challenge of meeting the increasing water demand with a combination of water sources, including local groundwater, whose future availability could be uncertain. To meet this challenge, water managers are seeking to acquire the knowledge and tools needed to understand the likely effects of future groundwater development in the Santa Rosa Plain and to identify efficient strategies for surface- and groundwater management that will ensure the long-term viability of the water supply. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sonoma County Water Agency and other stakeholders in the area (cities of Cotati, Rohnert Park, Santa Rosa, and Sebastopol, town of Windsor, Cal-American Water Company, and the County of Sonoma), undertook this study to characterize the hydrology of the Santa Rosa Plain and to develop tools to better understand and manage the groundwater system. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop an updated assessment of the hydrogeology and geochemistry of the Santa Rosa Plain; (2) to develop a fully coupled surface-water and groundwater-flow model for the Santa Rosa Plain watershed; and (3) to evaluate the potential hydrologic effects of alternative groundwater-management strategies for the basin. The purpose of this report is to describe the surface-water and groundwater hydrology, hydrogeology, and water-quality characteristics of the Santa Rosa Plain watershed and to develop a conceptual model of the hydrologic system in support of the first objective. The results from completing the second and third objectives will be described in a separate report.

  5. Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Longuevergne, Laurent; Reedy, Robert C.; Alley, William M.; McGuire, Virginia L.; McMahon, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Aquifer overexploitation could significantly impact crop production in the United States because 60% of irrigation relies on groundwater. Groundwater depletion in the irrigated High Plains and California Central Valley accounts for ~50% of groundwater depletion in the United States since 1900. A newly developed High Plains recharge map shows that high recharge in the northern High Plains results in sustainable pumpage, whereas lower recharge in the central and southern High Plains has resulted in focused depletion of 330 km3 of fossil groundwater, mostly recharged during the past 13,000 y. Depletion is highly localized with about a third of depletion occurring in 4% of the High Plains land area. Extrapolation of the current depletion rate suggests that 35% of the southern High Plains will be unable to support irrigation within the next 30 y. Reducing irrigation withdrawals could extend the lifespan of the aquifer but would not result in sustainable management of this fossil groundwater. The Central Valley is a more dynamic, engineered system, with north/south diversions of surface water since the 1950s contributing to ~7× higher recharge. However, these diversions are regulated because of impacts on endangered species. A newly developed Central Valley Hydrologic Model shows that groundwater depletion since the 1960s, totaling 80 km3, occurs mostly in the south (Tulare Basin) and primarily during droughts. Increasing water storage through artificial recharge of excess surface water in aquifers by up to 3 km3 shows promise for coping with droughts and improving sustainability of groundwater resources in the Central Valley.

  6. Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Faunt, Claudia; Longuevergne, Laurent; Reedy, Robert C.; Alley, William M.; McGuire, Virginia L.; McMahon, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Aquifer overexploitation could significantly impact crop production in the United States because 60% of irrigation relies on groundwater. Groundwater depletion in the irrigated High Plains and California Central Valley accounts for ∼50% of groundwater depletion in the United States since 1900. A newly developed High Plains recharge map shows that high recharge in the northern High Plains results in sustainable pumpage, whereas lower recharge in the central and southern High Plains has resulted in focused depletion of 330 km3 of fossil groundwater, mostly recharged during the past 13,000 y. Depletion is highly localized with about a third of depletion occurring in 4% of the High Plains land area. Extrapolation of the current depletion rate suggests that 35% of the southern High Plains will be unable to support irrigation within the next 30 y. Reducing irrigation withdrawals could extend the lifespan of the aquifer but would not result in sustainable management of this fossil groundwater. The Central Valley is a more dynamic, engineered system, with north/south diversions of surface water since the 1950s contributing to ∼7× higher recharge. However, these diversions are regulated because of impacts on endangered species. A newly developed Central Valley Hydrologic Model shows that groundwater depletion since the 1960s, totaling 80 km3, occurs mostly in the south (Tulare Basin) and primarily during droughts. Increasing water storage through artificial recharge of excess surface water in aquifers by up to 3 km3 shows promise for coping with droughts and improving sustainability of groundwater resources in the Central Valley.

  7. Circulation of Surface Water And Groundwater. Geophysical approach (electrical tomography). Western Haouz plain. Western Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ibtissam, Chouikri; Mandour Abdennabi, El; Mohammed, Jeffal; Mahjoub, Himi; Rochdane, Samia; Karroum, Morad; Elgettafi, Mohammed; Casas, Albert

    2016-04-01

    The Western Haouz plain and the Mejjate plain constitute a vast alluvial plain of about 2800 km2. The area is located between 30 and 80 km south-west of Marrakech city and it is characterized by a semi-arid climate. The morphology of the plain is known by a flat topography, monotone and it is drained by three wadis: Nfis wadi, Assif El Mal wadi and Chichaoua wadi. The compilation of Geological, Geophysical and hydrogeological data shows that the Western Haouz plain is divided into two parts, it is a synclinal form separated by Marmouta horst and Guemassa horst. In the southern part, the Mejjate syncline is subsiding and shows a several formations from the shales of the Paleozoic to the alluvium of the quaternary. In the northern part, the syncline is less developed and it is formed by the conglomerates of the Mio-Pliocene and the alluvium of the Quaternary. The gravity map established shows positive anomalies due to the outcrop of the basement, and negative anomalies in the subsiding basins. Hydrogeologically, the geometry of the reservoirs and the groundwater circulation are controlled by geology (Rifts, flexure, anticline and syncline). The southern part of the plain between the Marmouta anticline and the piedmont of the High Atlas Mountains shows two aquifers; the unconfined aquifer housed in thick formations of Quaternary and Mio-Pliocene; and the confined aquifer housed in dolomitic limestones of the Cenomanian-Turonian. The confined aquifer is fed at the northern flank of the High Atlas showing karts morphology and high cliff of limestone slab of the Turonian. The outlet of the deep confined aquifer is shown by Abainou source with a variation between 300 and 600 l/s south of the Marmouta anticline and constitutes a barrier for the deep waters flow circulations.

  8. Summary of the Snake River plain Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in Idaho and eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindholm, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    The 15,600 sq mi Snake River Plain in southern Idaho and eastern Oregon was studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis program. Quaternary basalt of the Snake River Group underlies most of the 10,800 square mile eastern plain and constitutes the most productive aquifers. Transmissivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer commonly ranges from 100,000 to 1,000,000 square feet per day. Vertical hydraulic conductivity is several orders of magnitude lower than horizontal hydraulic conductivity and is related to the degree of jointing. Alluvial sand and gravel in the Boise River valley constitutes the most productive aquifers in the 4,800 square mile western plain. Along much of its length, the Snake River gains groundwater. Between Milner and King Hill, the river gained 4.7 million acre-ft in 1980, most as spring flow from the north side. The chemical composition of groundwater in the plain is essentially the same as that in streams and ground- water from tributary drainage basins. The use of surface water for irrigation for 100 years has caused major changes in the hydrologic system on the plain. During that time, recharge on the main part of the eastern plain increased about 70 percent, discharge about 80 percent. In 1980, about 8.9 million acre-ft of Snake River water was diverted and 2.3 million acre-ft of groundwater was pumped from 5,300 wells for irrigation.

  9. Soil and geomorphic evolution within the rolling red plains using pleistocene volcanic ash deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Brian J.; Ward, Phil A.; Shannon, Jean T.

    1990-09-01

    Pleistocene volcanic ash deposits are found within alluvium from the Arkansas river south to the Brazos river. This drainage area includes tributaries originating in the High Plains, the Raton volcanic field and the Rocky Mountain Front Range within the states of Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Texas, and Oklahoma. Thirteen ash deposits are dated from within the High Plains of Kansas and Texas eastward into central Oklahoma to understand the geomorphic history and improve soil and geologic mapping. Within the study area unsolidated Tertiary and Quaternary sediments deposited in a west to east direction overlie Triassic, Permian, and Pennsylvanian bedrock. Volcanic ash deposits are predominantly Early to Middle Pleistocene age. Volcanic ash deposits were dated by the fission track method on shards. The ash deposits are contained within four land resource regions, the Southern and Central High Plains, the High Plains Breaks, the Rolling Red Plains, and the Reddish Prairies. Extensive Middle Pleistocene constructional stream terrace surfaces occur within the Rolling Red Plains. Multiple stream terrace surfaces were recognized across the study area with the highest level being dated Early Pleistocene to Pliocene and the lowest bordering the Holocene floodplains. Topographic cross-sections (100 km long at 1:24,000 scale) transecting dated ash deposits and perpendicular to major river systems were used to distinguish terrace levels. Constructional terrace surfaces dated by ash deposits range from 21 to 100 m above and 1 to 16 km distance from present river channels. Soil orders formed in Quaternary alluvium are Entisols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Alfisols and Vertisols. Ustic and udic soil moisture regimes and a thermic (15 to 22°C mean annual temperature) soil temperature regime dominate the study area. The same soil series is often mapped on terrace surfaces spanning Early to Middle Pleistocene age because current classification does not recognize differences in deeply

  10. Exchanges of sediment between the flood plain and channel of the Amazon River in Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, T.; Mertes, L.A.K.; Meade, R.H.; Richey, J.E.; Forsberg, B.R.

    1998-01-01

    Sediment transport through the Brazilian sector of the Amazon River valley, a distance of 2010 km, involves exchanges between the channel and the flood plain that in each direction exceed the annual flux of sediment out of the river at O??bidos (???1200 Mt yr-1). The exchanges occur through bank erosion, bar deposition, settling from diffuse overbank flow, and sedimentation in flood-plain channels. We estimated the magnitude of these exchanges for each of 10 reaches of the valley, and combined them with calculations of sediment transport into and out of the reaches based on sediment sampling and flow records to define a sediment budget for each reach. Residuals in the sediment budget of a reach include errors of estimation and erosion or deposition within the channel. The annual supply of sediment entering the channel from bank erosion was estimated to average 1570 Mt yr-1 (1.3 ?? the O??bidos flux) and the amount transferred from channel transport to the bars (380 Mt yr-1) and the flood plain (460 Mt yr-1 in channelized flow; 1230 Mt yr-1 in diffuse overbank flow) totaled 2070 Mt yr-1 (1.7 ?? the O??bidos flux). Thus, deposition on the bars and flood plain exceeded bank erosion by 500 Mt yr-1 over a 10-16 yr period. Sampling and calculation of sediment loads in the channel indicate a net accumulation in the valley floor of approximately 200 Mt yr-1 over 16 yr, crudely validating the process-based calculations of the sediment budget, which in turn illuminate the physical controls on each exchange process. Another 300-400 Mt yr-1 are deposited in a delta plain downstream of O??bidos. The components of the sediment budget reflect hydrologie characteristics of the valley floor and geomorphic characteristics of the channel and flood plain, which in turn are influenced by tectonic features of the Amazon structural trough.

  11. Socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers’ ratings of plain and branded cigarette packaging: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Chris; Durkin, Sarah; D'Este, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to test the potential impact of plain packaging for cigarettes on brand appeal among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers using the new design for cigarettes implemented in Australia, which combines plain packaging with larger health warning labels. Design A 2×2 factorial design trial embedded within a cross-sectional computer touchscreen survey. Data were collected between March and December 2012. Setting Socially disadvantaged welfare aid recipients were recruited through a large Social and Community Service Organisation in New South Wales, Australia. Participants N=354 smokers. The majority of the sample had not completed high school (64%), earned less than $A300/week (55%) and received their income from Government payments (95%). Interventions Participants were randomised to one of the four different pack conditions determined by brand name: Winfield versus Benson & Hedges, and packaging type: branded versus plain. Participants were required to rate their assigned pack on measures of brand appeal and purchase intentions. Results Plain packaging was associated with significantly reduced smoker ratings of ‘positive pack characteristics’ (p<0.001), ‘positive smoker characteristics’ (p=0.003) and ‘positive taste characteristics’ (p=0.033) in the Winfield brand name condition only. Across the four pack conditions, no main differences were found for ‘negative smoker characteristics’ (p=0.427) or ‘negative harm characteristics’ (p=0.411). In comparison to plain packaging, the presentation of branded packaging was associated with higher odds of smokers’ purchase intentions (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.34 to 3.54; p=0.002). Conclusions Plain packs stripped of branding elements, featuring larger health warning labels, were associated with reduced positive cigarette brand image and purchase intentions among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. PMID:24503299

  12. Changes in water levels and storage in the High Plains Aquifer, predevelopment to 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the onset of substantial irrigation with groundwater from the aquifer (about 1950 and termed "predevelopment" in this fact sheet). By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (ft) (Luckey and others, 1981). In 1987, in response to declining water levels, Congress directed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources entities, to assess and track water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2009. Drainable water in storage is the fraction of water in the aquifer that will drain by gravity and can be withdrawn by wells. The remaining water in the aquifer is held to the aquifer material by capillary forces and generally cannot be withdrawn by wells. Drainable water in storage is termed "water in storage" in this report. A companion USGS report presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2011).

  13. Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Bridget R; Faunt, Claudia C; Longuevergne, Laurent; Reedy, Robert C; Alley, William M; McGuire, Virginia L; McMahon, Peter B

    2012-06-12

    Aquifer overexploitation could significantly impact crop production in the United States because 60% of irrigation relies on groundwater. Groundwater depletion in the irrigated High Plains and California Central Valley accounts for ~50% of groundwater depletion in the United States since 1900. A newly developed High Plains recharge map shows that high recharge in the northern High Plains results in sustainable pumpage, whereas lower recharge in the central and southern High Plains has resulted in focused depletion of 330 km(3) of fossil groundwater, mostly recharged during the past 13,000 y. Depletion is highly localized with about a third of depletion occurring in 4% of the High Plains land area. Extrapolation of the current depletion rate suggests that 35% of the southern High Plains will be unable to support irrigation within the next 30 y. Reducing irrigation withdrawals could extend the lifespan of the aquifer but would not result in sustainable management of this fossil groundwater. The Central Valley is a more dynamic, engineered system, with north/south diversions of surface water since the 1950s contributing to ~7× higher recharge. However, these diversions are regulated because of impacts on endangered species. A newly developed Central Valley Hydrologic Model shows that groundwater depletion since the 1960s, totaling 80 km(3), occurs mostly in the south (Tulare Basin) and primarily during droughts. Increasing water storage through artificial recharge of excess surface water in aquifers by up to 3 km(3) shows promise for coping with droughts and improving sustainability of groundwater resources in the Central Valley.

  14. Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Longuevergne, Laurent; Reedy, Robert C.; Alley, William M.; McGuire, Virginia L.; McMahon, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Aquifer overexploitation could significantly impact crop production in the United States because 60% of irrigation relies on groundwater. Groundwater depletion in the irrigated High Plains and California Central Valley accounts for ∼50% of groundwater depletion in the United States since 1900. A newly developed High Plains recharge map shows that high recharge in the northern High Plains results in sustainable pumpage, whereas lower recharge in the central and southern High Plains has resulted in focused depletion of 330 km3 of fossil groundwater, mostly recharged during the past 13,000 y. Depletion is highly localized with about a third of depletion occurring in 4% of the High Plains land area. Extrapolation of the current depletion rate suggests that 35% of the southern High Plains will be unable to support irrigation within the next 30 y. Reducing irrigation withdrawals could extend the lifespan of the aquifer but would not result in sustainable management of this fossil groundwater. The Central Valley is a more dynamic, engineered system, with north/south diversions of surface water since the 1950s contributing to ∼7× higher recharge. However, these diversions are regulated because of impacts on endangered species. A newly developed Central Valley Hydrologic Model shows that groundwater depletion since the 1960s, totaling 80 km3, occurs mostly in the south (Tulare Basin) and primarily during droughts. Increasing water storage through artificial recharge of excess surface water in aquifers by up to 3 km3 shows promise for coping with droughts and improving sustainability of groundwater resources in the Central Valley. PMID:22645352

  15. The High Plains Groundwater Availability Study: Abundant Groundwater Doesn't Necessarily Mean Abundant Surface Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, S. M.; Stanton, J. S.; Flynn, A. T.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Groundwater Resources Program is conducting an assessment of groundwater availability to gain a clearer understanding of the status of the Nation's groundwater resources and the natural and human factors that can affect those resources. Additional goals are to better estimate availability and suitability of those resources in the future for various uses. The High Plains aquifer is a nationally important water resource that underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of eight western states. The aquifer serves as a primary source of drinking water for approximately 2.3 million people and also sustains more than one quarter of the Nation's agricultural production. In 2000, total water withdrawals of 17.5 billion gallons per day from the aquifer accounted for 20 percent of all groundwater withdrawn in the United States, making it the most intensively pumped aquifer in the Nation. In the Central and Southern High Plains, the aquifer historically had less saturated thickness, and current resource management issues are focused on the availability of water, and reduced ability to irrigate as water levels and well productivity have declined. In contrast, the Northern High Plains aquifer includes the thickest part of the aquifer and a larger saturated thickness than the other parts of the aquifer, and current water resource management issues are related to the interaction of groundwater with surface water and resource management triggered primarily by the availability of surface water. The presentation will cover major components of the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study, including estimating water budget components for the entire High Plains aquifer, building a refined groundwater model for the Northern High Plains aquifer, and using that model to better understand surface- and groundwater interaction and characterize water availability.

  16. Upscaling carbon fluxes over the Great Plains grasslands: Sinks and sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Li; Wylie, Bruce K.; Ji, Lei; Gilmanov, Tagir G.; Tieszen, Larry L.; Howar, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that the grasslands may be carbon sinks or near equilibrium, and they often shift between carbon sources in drought years and carbon sinks in other years. It is important to understand the responses of net ecosystem production (NEP) to various climatic conditions across the U.S. Great Plains grasslands. Based on 15 grassland flux towers, we developed a piecewise regression model and mapped the grassland NEP at 250 m spatial resolution over the Great Plains from 2000 to 2008. The results showed that the Great Plains was a net sink with an averaged annual NEP of 24 ± 14 g C m−2 yr−1, ranging from a low value of 0.3 g C m−2 yr−1 in 2002 to a high value of 47.7 g C m−2 yr−1 in 2005. The regional averaged NEP for the entire Great Plains grasslands was estimated to be 336 Tg C yr−1 from 2000 to 2008. In the 9 year period including 4 dry years, the annual NEP was very variable in both space and time. It appeared that the carbon gains for the Great Plains were more sensitive to droughts in the west than the east. The droughts in 2000, 2002, 2006, and 2008 resulted in increased carbon losses over drought-affected areas, and the Great Plains grasslands turned into a relatively low sink with NEP values of 15.8, 0.3, 20.1, and 10.2 g C m−2 yr−1 for the 4 years, respectively.

  17. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Cratering histories of the intercrater plains. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon are defined, in part, by their high densities of small craters. The crater size frequency statistics presented in this chapter may help constrain the relative ages and origins of these surfaces. To this end, the effects of common geologic processes on crater frequency statistics are compared with the diameter frequency distributions of the intercrater regions of the Moon and Mercury. Such analyses may determine whether secondary craters dominate the distribution at small diameters, and whether volcanic plains or ballistic deposits form the intercrater surface. Determining the mass frequency distribution and flux of the impacting population is a more difficult problem. The necessary information such as scaling relationships between projectile energy and crater diameter, the relative fluxes of solar system objects, and the absolute ages of surface units is model dependent and poorly constrained, especially for Mercury.

  18. Receiver Function Analysis of the Lithospheric Structure Beneath the Western Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurner, S.; Zhai, Y.; Levander, A.

    2010-12-01

    The lithosphere in the western Great Plain region of the Southwestern U.S. has been subject to tectonic deformation from the Proterozoic to present day. Proterozoic island arc terranes accreted onto the North American continent between 1.8 and 1.1 Ga, forming the original continent, and there is evidence for Proterozoic continental extension which formed basement penetrating faults between 1.5 and .6 Ga . This was followed by the uplift of the Ancestral Rockies and, most recently, the subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America. Extension has occurred throughout the Basin and Range and formed the Rio Grand Rift (RGR). However, the relative impact that large scale tectonic forces, regional asthenospheric upwelling, and preexisting structural weaknesses have on the extension of the RGR is still undetermined. This study seeks to better understand the current tectonic system east of the Colorado Plateau beneath the RGR and western Great Plains. We use teleseismic receiver functions to investigate the nature of extension in the RGR as well as its connection to the small-scale convection thought to be occurring beneath the Colorado Plateau-RGR-Great Plains region. Our receiver function images were generated from 85 earthquake events recorded at 187 USArray Transportable Array seismic stations located throughout the western Great Plains (Latitude: 28-48, Longitude: -105-100). Previous studies have indicated crustal thickness between 39 km and 50 km beneath the Great Plains and as thin as 35 km beneath the RGR (Wilson et.al, 2005). Tomography results have shown high velocity anomalies on both sides of the RGR, extending to 600 km depth beneath the western Great Plains, and a low velocity anomaly directly beneath the RGR (Gok et. al, 2003, Wilson et. al, 2005, Gao et. al, Song and Helmberger, 2007). The western Great Plains high velocity anomaly has been interpreted to be part of the downwelling portion of an edge driven convection system induced by a lateral

  19. Inventory and analyses of information for flood plain management in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, D.G.; Wald, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Governmental units that have been identified as having flood hazard areas but do not have detailed base flood information are required to use the ' best available data ' to regulate new development or expansion of existing development in flood prone areas. Information for flood plain management has been identified for 95 governmental units in North Dakota and includes the determination of what data are available regarding flood hazards, hydraulics, and hydrology, and a review of these data to determine their adequacy for use in flood plain management. (USGS)

  20. A decade of investigations on groundwater arsenic contamination in Middle Ganga Plain, India.

    PubMed

    Saha, Dipankar; Sahu, Sudarsan

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater arsenic (As) load in excess of drinking limit (50 µg L(-1)) in the Gangetic Plains was first detected in 2002. Though the menace was known since about two decades from the downstream part of the plains in the Bengal Basin, comprising of Lower Ganga Plain and deltaic plains of Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna River system, little thought was given to its possible threat in the upstream parts in the Gangetic Plains beyond Garo-Rajmahal Hills. The contamination in Bengal Basin has become one of the extensively studied issues in the world and regarded as the severest case of health hazard in the history of mankind. The researches and investigations in the Gangetic Plains during the last decade (2003-2013) revealed that the eastern half of the plains, also referred as Middle Ganga Plain (MGP), is particularly affected by contamination, jeopardising the shallow aquifer-based drinking water supply. The present paper reviews researches and investigations carried out so far in MGP by various research institutes and government departments on wide array of issues of groundwater As such as its spatio-temporal variation, mobilisation paths, water level behaviour and flow regime, configuration of contaminated and safe aquifers and their recharge mechanism. Elevated conc. of groundwater As has been observed in grey and dark grey sediments of Holocene age (Newer Alluvium) deposited in a fluvio-lacustrine environment in the floodplain of the Ganga and most of its northern tributaries from Himalayas. Older Alluvium, comprising Pleistocene brownish yellow sediment, extending as deeper aquifers in Newer Alluvium areas, is low in groundwater As. Similarities and differences on issues between the MGP and the Bengal Basin have been discussed. The researches point towards the mobilisation process as reductive dissolution of iron hydroxide coating, rich in adsorbed As, mediated by microbial processes. The area is marked with shallow water level (<8.0 m below ground) with ample

  1. Composition and Characteristics of Aerosols in the Southern High Plains of Texas (USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, Thomas E.; Stout, John E.; Peinado, Porfirio

    2009-03-10

    Aerosol samples on polycarbonate filters were collected daily for several years in the Southern High Plains region of western Texas. Selected samples representing a variety of size modes, locations, and air quality conditions were analyzed by PIXE. Silicon and other crustal elements dominated during dust storms and in the coarse mode; sulfur dominated during anthropogenic pollution episodes and in the fine mode. A mixture of both aerosol types was present even during 'clear' conditions. The Al/Si ratio in dust events increases with wind speed. These data provide an initial assessment of aerosol chemistry in the West Texas plains.

  2. Tuffaceous ephemeral lake deposits on an alluvial plain, Middle Tertiary of central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartow, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Oligocene and Miocene Valley Springs Formation represents a large fluvial depositional system that extended westward from sediment-filled palaeovalleys in the high Sierra Nevada to a piedmont alluvial plain under the present Central Valley. The Valley Springs Formation consists largely of tuffaceous mudrocks, tuffaceous sandstone, polymict conglomerate and rhyodacitic tuff. The tuffaceous mudrock lithofacies probably represents a complex of ephemeral lake and marsh environments on a low gradient alluvial plain. The inferred abundance of shallow lakes, ponds and marshes implies a climate that was wetter than the semi-arid climate of the region today. -from Author

  3. [Polyploid races of earthworms (Lumbricidae, Oligochaeta) in the East European plain and Siberia].

    PubMed

    Vsevolodova-Perel', T S; Bulatova, N Sh

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of polyploid races of earthworms in the East European plain and Siberia was analyzed. Amphimictic autopolyploid races of two species of the Asian genus Eisenia, E. nordenskioldi and A. atlavinyteae, are widespread in Siberia, from its southern boundary to the arctic region, while polyploid Lumbricidae in the East-European plain, except for the Volga region, are represented mainly by parthenogenetic forms of other genera. This is presumably related to differences in the Pleistocene environmental history between the two adjacent geographic regions of Eurasia.

  4. The Northern Plains MSATT Meeting, and a call for a field-oriented successor to MSATT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kargel, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    The workshop was devoted to a review of our knowledge of the Martian northern plains and presentation of recent ideas pertaining to the geologic and climatic evolution of this interesting region. The meeting was held in Fairbanks to allow easy access to Mars-like terrains in central and northern Alaska. There is no place on Earth that is a close analog of the Martian northern plains, but parts of Alaska come reasonably close in some respects, so we may expect that some of the processes occurring there are similar to processes that have occurred on Mars.

  5. A decade of investigations on groundwater arsenic contamination in Middle Ganga Plain, India.

    PubMed

    Saha, Dipankar; Sahu, Sudarsan

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater arsenic (As) load in excess of drinking limit (50 µg L(-1)) in the Gangetic Plains was first detected in 2002. Though the menace was known since about two decades from the downstream part of the plains in the Bengal Basin, comprising of Lower Ganga Plain and deltaic plains of Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna River system, little thought was given to its possible threat in the upstream parts in the Gangetic Plains beyond Garo-Rajmahal Hills. The contamination in Bengal Basin has become one of the extensively studied issues in the world and regarded as the severest case of health hazard in the history of mankind. The researches and investigations in the Gangetic Plains during the last decade (2003-2013) revealed that the eastern half of the plains, also referred as Middle Ganga Plain (MGP), is particularly affected by contamination, jeopardising the shallow aquifer-based drinking water supply. The present paper reviews researches and investigations carried out so far in MGP by various research institutes and government departments on wide array of issues of groundwater As such as its spatio-temporal variation, mobilisation paths, water level behaviour and flow regime, configuration of contaminated and safe aquifers and their recharge mechanism. Elevated conc. of groundwater As has been observed in grey and dark grey sediments of Holocene age (Newer Alluvium) deposited in a fluvio-lacustrine environment in the floodplain of the Ganga and most of its northern tributaries from Himalayas. Older Alluvium, comprising Pleistocene brownish yellow sediment, extending as deeper aquifers in Newer Alluvium areas, is low in groundwater As. Similarities and differences on issues between the MGP and the Bengal Basin have been discussed. The researches point towards the mobilisation process as reductive dissolution of iron hydroxide coating, rich in adsorbed As, mediated by microbial processes. The area is marked with shallow water level (<8.0 m below ground) with ample

  6. 137Cs contamination of Techa river flood plain in Brodokalmak settlement.

    PubMed

    Chesnokov, A V; Govorun, A P; Ivanitskaya, M V; Liksonov, V I; Shcherbak, S B

    1999-06-01

    137Cs contamination of the Techa river flood plain inside the Brodokalmak settlement has been mapped. The collimated scintillated detector technique was used for 137Cs deposit measurements. The 137Cs contamination is very heterogeneous. A comparison of this technique with the traditional sample method was performed at selected locations. The sampling data are in good agreement with in-situ data. Soil surface activity of 90Sr was determined from the samples. It was shown that 137Cs contamination correlates with 90Sr contamination within the flood plain of the settlement.

  7. Flood Plain Lakes Along the Elbe River - a Forgotten Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    Flood Plain Lakes Along the Elbe River - a Forgotten Risk Introduction: Along the German part of the Elbe River, more than 1000 "side structures" form potential sinks of contaminated sediment. They are mostly remains of previous river courses which have been cut off by natural causes or anthropogenic alterations of the river (oxbow lakes), or are floodplain lakes that were formed during high water conditions. These water bodies sometimes have a small opening towards the Elbe, or are hydrodynamically connected only in situations of high discharges. High discharges in the Elbe River, however, are mainly responsible for transporting historic contaminants along with suspended matter from former historic sources in the middle Elbe downstream. As these may settle when the current dies down at the end of a high discharge period, side structures have been under suspicion to have accumulated contaminated material over the last decades. Until this study was conducted, nothing was known about erodibility and contamination of sediment in these lakes even though they could have a large impact on the Elbe River itself: A preliminary investigation showed that the total surface of side structures in the Elbe floodplain adds up to about 50 km2. In case that deposited sediment is contaminated and only the upper 20 cm are prone to resuspension and transport during flooding, 10 Mio m3 of contaminated sediment could potentially be added to the contaminant load during a high water event. This study was carried out to evaluate the risk from these side structures for the environmental quality of the Elbe River. Methods: 15 side structures were investigated. Sediment cores were taken on 1 to 3 locations per water body in order to obtain the following information: • Depth of sediment layer • Erodibility of surface sediment, measured immediately after sampling - using the "Gust Microcosm", • Eroded mass at over-critical shear stress, measured in the lab by eroding a sediment core for

  8. Channel narrowing and vegetation development following a great plains flood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, J.M.; Osterkamp, W.R.; Lewis, W.M.

    1996-01-01

    Streams in the plains of eastern Colorado are prone to intense floods following summer thunderstorms. Here, and in other semiarid and arid regions, channel recovery after a flood may take several decades. As a result, flood history strongly influences spatial and temporal variability in bottomland vegetation. Interpretation of these patterns must be based on understanding the long-term response of bottomland morphology and vegetation to specific floods. A major flood in 1965 on Plum Creek, a perennial sandbed stream, removed most of the bottomland vegetatiqn and transformed the single-thread stream into a wider, braided channel. Channel narrowing began in 1973 and continues today. In 1991, we determined occurrences of 150 vascular plant species in 341 plots (0.5 m2) along a 7-km reach of Plum Creek near Louviers, Colorado. We related patterns of vegetation to elevation, litter cover, vegetative cover, sediment particle size, shade, and year of formation of the underlying surface (based on age of the excavated root flare of the oldest woody plants). Geomorphic investigation determined that Plum Creek fluvial surfaces sort into five groups by year of formation: terraces of fine sand formed before 1965; terraces of coarse sand deposited by the 1965 flood; stable bars formed by channel narrowing during periods of relatively high bed level (1973-1986); stable bars similarly formed during a recent period of low bed level (1987-1990); and the present channel bed (1991). Canonical correspondence analysis indicates a strong influence of elevation and litter cover, and lesser effects of vegetative cover, shade, and sediment particle size. However, the sum of all canonical eigenvalues explained by these factors is less than that explained by an analysis including only the dummy variables that define the five geomorphically determined age groups. The effect of age group is significant even when all five other environmental variables are specified as covariables. Therefore, the

  9. Study of the United States coal resources. [Appalachian Plateau, Interior Basins, Gulf Coastal Plain, Rocky Mountain Basins, High Plains, North Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Ferm, J.C.; Muthig, P.J.

    1982-09-15

    The objectives of this study were: (1) the identification of geologically significant coal resources for the United States, including Alaska; and (2) the preparation of statistically controlled tonnage estimates for each resource type. Particular emphasis was placed on the identification and description of coals in terms of seam thickness, inclination, depth of cover, discontinuities caused by faulting and igneous intrusion, and occurrence as isolated or multiseam deposits. The national resource was organized into six major coal provinces: the Appalachian Plateau, the Interior Basins, the Gulf Coastal Plain, the Rocky Mountain Basins, the High Plains, and North Alaska. Total coal tonnage for a subarea was estimated from an analysis of the cumulative coal thickness derived from borehole or surface section records and subsequently categorized in terms of seam thickness, dip, overburden, multiseam proportions, coal quality, and tonnage impacted by severe faulting and igneous intrusions. Results indicate an aggregate resource in place of 11.6 trillion tons, of which North Alaska accounts for 3.5 trillion tons of subbituminous and bituminous coal; the Rocky Mountains, 2.2 trillion tons of bituminous and subbituminous deposits; and the Gulf Coast, 3.8 trillion tons of lignites. The Appalachian Plateau and Interior Basins are estimated to contain slightly less than 1 trillion tons each of bituminous coal, and the High Plains slightly more than 0.5 trillion tons of lignite. The Appalachian Plateau and Interior Basins are estimated to contain slightly less than 1 trillion tons each, and the High Plains Province is estimated to contain a bit more than 0.5 trillion tons. The implications of the results for research on advanced mining systems are discussed. 27 figures, 25 tables.

  10. 78 FR 64973 - Call for Nominations for the Bureau of Land Management's Carrizo Plain National Monument Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... on the Carrizo Plain National Monument Advisory Committee (MAC). MAC members provide advice and... normal business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The MAC provides representative citizen counsel and... of the comprehensive plan for the Carrizo Plain National Monument. The MAC consists of 10...

  11. 76 FR 28850 - Northern Plains Railroad, Inc.-Intra-Corporate Family Operation Exemption-Mohall Central Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Northern Plains Railroad, Inc.--Intra-Corporate Family Operation Exemption--Mohall Central Railroad, Inc. Northern Plains Railroad, Inc. (NPR), a Class III rail common carrier, has filed a verified notice of...

  12. Farmers, Ranchers, and the Railroad: The Evolution of Fence Law in the Great Plains, 1865-1900

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawashima, Yasuhide

    2010-01-01

    This article is divided into three parts. The first examines specific fencing policies in Kansas, Nebraska, and other Plains states, highlighting the transformation from the "fence-out" to "fence-in" (herd laws) policies. The second part discusses the coming of the railroads to the Great Plains and the farmers and the ranchers as beneficiaries who…

  13. Importance of Small Isolated Wetlands for Herpetofaunal Diversity in Managed, Young Growth Forests in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, K.R.; Guynn, D.C., Jr.; Hanlin, H.G.

    2002-03-27

    Assessment and comparison of richness, abundance and difference of herpetofauna at five small isolated wetlands located within a commercial forest landscape in the South Carolina Coastal Plain. Data indicates small isolated wetlands are focal points of herpetofaunal richness and abundance in managed coastal plain forest and contribute more to regional biodiversity than is implied by their small size or ephemeral hydrology.

  14. 77 FR 12873 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Spokane Tribe of Indians West Plains Casino...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... West Plains Casino and Mixed Use Project, City of Airway Heights, Spokane County, WA AGENCY: Bureau of.... Environmental Protection Agency for the Spokane Tribe of Indians West Plains casino and mixed use project, City... determination by the Secretary of the Interior; and (2) development of a casino-resort facility,...

  15. 77 FR 25595 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, Calumet-Saganashkee Channel on all waters of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal from Mile Marker 296.1 to Mile Marker 296.7 at various...

  16. 75 FR 64147 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago... Plaines River, Chicago Ship and Sanitary Canal, Chicago River, Calumet-Saganashkee Channel on all waters of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal between Mile Marker 291.0 and Mile Marker 296.1 from 4 p.m....

  17. 77 FR 35854 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago... Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, Calumet-Saganashkee Channel on all waters of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal from Mile Marker 296.1 to Mile Marker 296.7 at various...

  18. Coastal Evolution of the Mississippi River Chenier Plain: A Geomorphic Process-Response Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, R. A.; Taylor, M. J.; Byrnes, M. R.

    2007-12-01

    Using 28 topographic profiles, air-photo interpretation, and historical shoreline-change data, coastal processes were evaluated along the Mississippi River Chenier Plain to explain the occurrence, distribution, and geomorphic hierarchy of primary landforms. The Louisiana Chenier Plain, classified as a low-profile, microtidal, storm- dominated coast, is located west and downdrift of the Mississippi River deltaic plain. This late-Holocene, marginal-deltaic environment is 200 km long, less than 30 km wide, and composed of mud deposits capped by marsh interspersed with thin sand- and shell-rich ridges ("cheniers") that are less than 4 m in elevation. Most Chenier-Plain ridges represent open-Gulf paleoshorelines. Past shoreline morphodynamics allow ridges to be classified as transgressive (cheniers), regressive (beach ridges), or laterally accreted (spits). Geomorphic zones that contain two or more regressive, transgressive, or laterally accreted ridges are termed complexes. Consequently, we further refine the Chenier-Plain definition by Otvos and Price (1979, Marine Geology) and define Chenier Plain as containing at least two or more chenier complexes. As such, a geomorphic hierarchy of landforms is devised relative to dominant coastal process. The Chenier Plain is defined as a first-order feature (5000 km2) composed of three second-order features (30 to 300 km2): chenier complex, beach ridge complex, and spit complex. Individual ridges of each complex type were further separated into third-order features: chenier, beach ridge, and spit. To understand long-term evolution of the Chenier Plain, modern tidal-inlet processes operating at Sabine, Calcasieu, and Mermentau river entrances were also examined relative to the inlet-stability ratio. Prior to human modification and stabilization efforts, the Mermentau River entrance is classified as wave-dominated, Sabine Pass as tide-dominated, and Calcasieu Pass as tide-dominated to mixed. Hoyt (1969, American Association of

  19. New Chronologies of Dune Activation Extracted from the Central Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. C.; Halfen, A. F.

    2011-12-01

    Recent investigations of dunefield activation histories in the Great Plains of North America have documented many long-duration, spatially-extensive, Holocene droughts. These "megadroughts" have been documented mostly in the larger dunefields of the Great Plains, e.g., the Nebraska Sand Hills, making it difficult for researchers to characterize these events region-wide. Several studies being conducted by the authors aim to extract a better spatial and temporal representation of megadroughts across the region by investigating smaller, less known dunefields of the Central Great Plains. Thus far, these studies have yielded new activation histories from three dunefields, the Kansas River, Hutchinson, and Arkansas Valley dunefields, which together span the precipitation gradient from eastern Kansas to eastern Colorado. While each of these dunefields have a unique history, collectively their activation chronologies yield new and important information on Holocene megadrought activity in the Great Plains, which may have been more spatially diverse and complex than previously thought. The Kansas River dunefield mantles a remnant high terrace of the lower Kansas River valley in the east-Central Great Plains and is one of the most easterly dunefields in the Great Plains. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages indicate dune activation last occurred ~36-31 ka, i.e., during MIS 3 between Heinrich Events 4 and 3 and was coincidental with loess deposition (Gillman Canyon Formation). The Kansas River dunefield also shows some evidence of minor activation during the middle Holocene, however this activity was likely limited to erosion of the dune surface and not full activation. About 200 km southwest of the Kansas River dunefield is the Hutchinson dunefield (HD), located immediately northeast of the Big Bend of the Arkansas River. OSL ages document dunefield-wide activity in the HD between ~1200 and 120 years ago, with peaks of activity centered after the Medieval Climatic

  20. Geochemistry of shallow ground water in coastal plain environments in the southeastern United States: Implications for aquifer susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tesoriero, A.J.; Spruill, T.B.; Eimers, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water chemistry data from coastal plain environments have been examined to determine the geochemical conditions and processes that occur in these areas and assess their implications for aquifer susceptibility. Two distinct geochemical environments were studied to represent a range of conditions: an inner coastal plain setting having more well-drained soils and lower organic carbon (C) content and an outer coastal plain environment that has more poorly drained soils and high organic C content. Higher concentrations of most major ions and dissolved inorganic and organic C in the outer coastal plain setting indicate a greater degree of mineral dissolution and organic matter oxidation. Accordingly, outer coastal plain waters are more reducing than inner coastal plain waters. Low dissolved oxygen (O2) and nitrate (NO 3-) concentrations and high iron (Fe) concentrations indicate that ferric iron (Fe (III)) is an important electron acceptor in this setting, while dissolved O2 is the most common terminal electron acceptor in the inner coastal plain setting. The presence of a wide range of redox conditions in the shallow aquifer system examined here underscores the importance of providing a detailed geochemical characterization of ground water when assessing the intrinsic susceptibility of coastal plain settings. The greater prevalence of aerobic conditions in the inner coastal plain setting makes this region more susceptible to contamination by constituents that are more stable under these conditions and is consistent with the significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of NO3- found in this setting. Herbicides and their transformation products were frequently detected (36% of wells sampled), however concentrations were typically low (<0.1 ??g/L). Shallow water table depths often found in coastal plain settings may result in an increased risk of the detection of pesticides (e.g., alachlor) that degrade rapidly in the unsaturated zone.