Science.gov

Sample records for plan auge ha

  1. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Closure Plan - Plutonium Finishing Plant Treatment Unit Glovebox HA-20MB

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    PRIGNANO, A.L.

    2003-06-25

    This closure plan describes the planned activities and performance standards for closing the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) glovebox HA-20MB that housed an interim status ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act'' (RCRA) of 1976 treatment unit. This closure plan is certified and submitted to Ecology for incorporation into the Hanford Facility RCRA Permit (HF RCRA Permit) in accordance with Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement; TPA) Milestone M-83-30 requiring submittal of a certified closure plan for ''glovebox HA-20MB'' by July 31, 2003. Glovebox HA-20MB is located within the 231-5Z Building in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility.more » Currently glovebox HA-20MB is being used for non-RCRA analytical purposes. The schedule of closure activities under this plan supports completion of TPA Milestone M-83-44 to deactivate and prepare for dismantlement the above grade portions of the 234-5Z and ZA, 243-Z, and 291-Z and 291-Z-1 stack buildings by September 30, 2015. Under this closure plan, glovebox HA-20MB will undergo clean closure to the performance standards of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 with respect to all dangerous waste contamination from glovebox HA-20MB RCRA operations. Because the intention is to clean close the PFP treatment unit, postclosure activities are not applicable to this closure plan. To clean close the unit, it will be demonstrated that dangerous waste has not been left at levels above the closure performance standard for removal and decontamination. If it is determined that clean closure is not possible or is environmentally impractical, the closure plan will be modified to address required postclosure activities. Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. Any information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge. Clearance form only

  2. Hurricane Harvey - Aug. 24, 2017

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-24

    The International Space Station’s external cameras captured a dramatic view of Hurricane Harvey as it bore down on the central Texas coast Aug. 24. The National Hurricane Center predicts a landfall for Harvey near Corpus Christi, Texas early Aug. 26 with potentially record floods expected along the Texas coastline through next week.

  3. Non-AUG translation: a new start for protein synthesis in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Kearse, Michael G.; Wilusz, Jeremy E.

    2017-01-01

    Although it was long thought that eukaryotic translation almost always initiates at an AUG start codon, recent advancements in ribosome footprint mapping have revealed that non-AUG start codons are used at an astonishing frequency. These non-AUG initiation events are not simply errors but instead are used to generate or regulate proteins with key cellular functions; for example, during development or stress. Misregulation of non-AUG initiation events contributes to multiple human diseases, including cancer and neurodegeneration, and modulation of non-AUG usage may represent a novel therapeutic strategy. It is thus becoming increasingly clear that start codon selection is regulated by many trans-acting initiation factors as well as sequence/structural elements within messenger RNAs and that non-AUG translation has a profound impact on cellular states. PMID:28982758

  4. 30 CFR 780.14 - Operation plan: Maps and plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and non-coal waste storage area; (6) Each water diversion, collection, conveyance, treatment, storage... water impoundment, refuse pile, and coal mine waste impoundment for which plans are required by § 780.25... architecture. [44 FR 15357, Mar. 13, 1979; 44 FR 49685, Aug. 24, 1979, as amended at 45 FR 51550, Aug. 4, 1980...

  5. Mars Weather Map, Aug. 5

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-10

    This global map of Mars was acquired on Aug. 5, 2012, by the Mars Color Imager instrument on NASA MRO. One global map is generated each day to forecast weather conditions for the entry, descent and landing of NASA Curiosity rover.

  6. An efficient Volumetric Arc Therapy treatment planning approach for hippocampal-avoidance whole-brain radiation therapy (HA-WBRT).

    PubMed

    Shen, Jin; Bender, Edward; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Kuo, Hsiang-Chi; Basavatia, Amar; Hong, Linda; Bodner, William; Garg, Madhur K; Kalnicki, Shalom; Tomé, Wolfgang A

    2015-01-01

    An efficient and simple class solution is proposed for hippocampal-avoidance whole-brain radiation therapy (HA-WBRT) planning using the Volumetric Arc Therapy (VMAT) delivery technique following the NRG Oncology protocol NRG-CC001 treatment planning guidelines. The whole-brain planning target volume (PTV) was subdivided into subplanning volumes that lie in plane and out of plane with the hippocampal-avoidance volume. To further improve VMAT treatment plans, a partial-field dual-arc technique was developed. Both the arcs were allowed to overlap on the in-plane subtarget volume, and in addition, one arc covered the superior out-of-plane sub-PTV, while the other covered the inferior out-of-plane subtarget volume. For all plans (n = 20), the NRG-CC001 protocol dose-volume criteria were met. Mean values of volumes for the hippocampus and the hippocampal-avoidance volume were 4.1 cm(3) ± 1.0 cm(3) and 28.52 cm(3) ± 3.22 cm(3), respectively. For the PTV, the average values of D(2%) and D(98%) were 36.1 Gy ± 0.8 Gy and 26.2 Gy ± 0.6 Gy, respectively. The hippocampus D(100%) mean value was 8.5 Gy ± 0.2 Gy and the maximum dose was 15.7 Gy ± 0.3 Gy. The corresponding plan quality indices were 0.30 ± 0.01 (homogeneity index), 0.94 ± 0.01 (target conformality), and 0.75 ± 0.02 (confirmation number). The median total monitor unit (MU) per fraction was 806 MU (interquartile range [IQR]: 792 to 818 MU) and the average beam total delivery time was 121.2 seconds (IQR: 120.6 to 121.35 seconds). All plans passed the gamma evaluation using the 5-mm, 4% criteria, with γ > 1 of not more than 9.1% data points for all fields. An efficient and simple planning class solution for HA-WBRT using VMAT has been developed that allows all protocol constraints of NRG-CC001 to be met. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dosimetric study of different radiotherapy planning approaches for hippocampal avoidance whole-brain radiation therapy (HA-WBRT) based on fused CT and MRI imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bu-Hai; Hua, Wei; Gu, Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Li, Jun; Liu, Li-Qin; Huang, Yu-Xiang

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric characteristics for hippocampal avoidance (HA) between the treatment plans based on fused CT and MRI imaging during whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) pertaining to: (1) 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), (2) dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (dIMRT), and (3) RapidArc for patients with brain metastases. In our study, HA was defined as hippocampus beyond 5 mm, and planning target volume (PTV) was obtained subtracting HA volume from the volume of whole brain. There were 10 selected patients diagnosed with brain metastases receiving WBRT. These patients received plans for 3D-CRT (two fields), dIMRT (seven non-coplanar fields) and RapidArc (dual arc). The prescribed dose 30 Gy in 10 fractions was delivered to the whole-brain clinical target volume of patients. On the premise of meeting the clinical requirements, we compared target dose distribution, target coverage (TC), homogeneity index (HI), dose of organs at risk (OARs), monitor units (MU) and treatment time between the above three radiotherapy plans. V90 %, V95 % and TC of PTV for 3D-CRT plan were lowest of the three plans. V90 %, V95 % and HI of PTV in RapidArc plan were superior to the other two plans. TC of PTV in RapidArc plan was similar with dIMRT plan (P > 0.05). 3D-CRT was the optimal plan in the three plans for hippocampal protection. The median dose (Dmedian) and the maximum doses (Dmax) of hippocampus in 3D-CRT were 4.95, 10.87 Gy, which were lowest among the three planning approaches (P < 0.05). Dmedian and Dmax of hippocampus in dIMRT were 10.68, 14.11 Gy. Dmedian and Dmax of hippocampus in RapidArc were 10.30 gGy, 13.92 Gy. These parameters of the last two plans pertain to no significant difference (P > 0.05). When WBRT (30 Gy,10F) was equivalent to single dose 2 Gy,NTDmean of hippocampus in 3D-CRT, dIMRT and RapidArc were reduced to 3.60, 8.47, 8.20 Gy2, respectively. In addition, compared with dIMRT, MU of RapidArc was

  8. Mars Weather Map, Aug. 4, 2012

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-05

    This global map of Mars was acquired on Aug. 4, 2012, by the Mars Color Imager instrument on NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to forecast weather conditions for the entry, descent and landing of NASA Curiosity rover.

  9. uAUG-mediated translational initiations are responsible for human mu opioid receptor gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kyu Young; Kim, Chun Sung; Hwang, Cheol Kyu; Choi, Hack Sun; Law, Ping-Yee; Wei, Li-Na; Loh, Horace H

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Mu opioid receptor (MOR) is the main site of interaction for major clinical analgesics, particularly morphine. MOR expression is regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. However, the protein expression of the MOR gene is relatively low and the translational control of MOR gene has not been well studied. The 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of the human MOR (OPRM1) mRNA contains four upstream AUG codons (uAUG) preceding the main translation initiation site. We mutated the four uAUGs individually and in combination. Mutations of the third uAUG, containing the same open reading frame, had the strongest inhibitory effect. The inhibitory effect caused by the third in-frame uAUG was confirmed by in vitro translation and receptor-binding assays. Toeprinting results showed that OPRM1 ribosomes initiated efficiently at the first uAUG, and subsequently re-initiated at the in-frame #3 uAUG and the physiological AUG site. This re-initiation resulted in negative expression of OPRM1 under normal conditions. These results indicate that re-initiation in MOR gene expression could play an important role in OPRM1 regulation. PMID:19438807

  10. Mars Weather Map, Aug. 2, 2012

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-04

    This global map of Mars was acquired on Aug. 2, 2012, by the Mars Color Imager instrument on NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. One global map is generated each day to forecast weather conditions for the entry, descent and landing of NASA Curiosity.

  11. SU-E-T-581: Planning Evaluation of Step-And-Shoot IMRT, RapidArc and Helical TomoTherapy for Hippocampal-Avoidance Whole Brain Radiotherapy (HA-WBRT).

    PubMed

    Evans, J; Chen, Q; Wuthrick, E; Weldon, M; Rong, Y

    2012-06-01

    Several planning strategies are available for hippocampal- avoidance whole-brain radiotherapy (HA-WBRT) following RTOG protocol 0933, but have yet to be compared on a common set of patient data. In this inter-institutional investigation, we evaluate three modalities likely to be employed by protocol participants; step-and-shoot IMRT, volumetric modulated arc therapy, and helical tomotherapy. A common set of patients is used for comparison, including credentialing and successfully accrued patients. Eight patient datasets were selected and de-identified prior to planning. Structures were contoured by physicians per protocol using fused MRI datasets. Three plans were generated for each dataset: Philips Pinnacle 9-field non-coplanar IMRT using protocol recommended beam parameters, Varian's RapidArc using two coplanar arcs, and Accuray's TomoTherapy using a 1cm jaw width. With the goal of meeting the compliance criteria outlined in RTOG 0933 (target coverage and dose limits to the hippocampus and optic structures), three planners independently planned each modality without prior knowledge of the patient's other plans to reduce bias. The three plans for each patient were compared according to the protocol's dosimetric compliance criteria. A homogeneity index was also computed to compare target dose uniformity. All plans achieved the protocol dose criteria, except for one RapidArc plan with slightly inferior dose to the optic chiasm. TomoTherapy offered superior dose homogeneity for all patients. For the two linac based methods, RapidArc was found to provide dose homogeneity at least as good as, and in most cases superior to, 9-field step-and-shoot IMRT. Helical TomoTherapy offers superior dose homogeneity for HA-WBRT following RTOG 0933. Compared to step-and-shoot IMRT, volumetric modulated arc techniques, such as RapidArc, can offer improved homogeneity for HA- WBRT and are generally more efficient/expeditious to deliver than the noncoplanar 9-field arrangement

  12. KCBX Letter to EPA - Aug. 27, 2014

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A quality control check revealed that temperature data for June 26-Aug. 6, 2014 from the meteorological monitor at NT-NW was not accurate. KCBX replaced the invalidated data with hourly ambient temperature data from other equipment and sent updated files.

  13. 48 CFR 1052.234-72 - Core Earned Value Management System AUG 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Management System AUG 2011 1052.234-72 Section 1052.234-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... and Clauses 1052.234-72 Core Earned Value Management System AUG 2011 As prescribed in DTAR 1034.203... an earned value management system (EVMS). (a) The Contractor shall use an earned value management...

  14. 48 CFR 1052.234-72 - Core Earned Value Management System AUG 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Management System AUG 2011 1052.234-72 Section 1052.234-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... and Clauses 1052.234-72 Core Earned Value Management System AUG 2011 As prescribed in DTAR 1034.203... an earned value management system (EVMS). (a) The Contractor shall use an earned value management...

  15. 48 CFR 1052.234-72 - Core Earned Value Management System AUG 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Management System AUG 2011 1052.234-72 Section 1052.234-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... and Clauses 1052.234-72 Core Earned Value Management System AUG 2011 As prescribed in DTAR 1034.203... an earned value management system (EVMS). (a) The Contractor shall use an earned value management...

  16. The Muon Collider as a $H/A$ factory

    DOE PAGES

    Eichten, Estia; Martin, Adam; Univ. of Notre Dame, IN

    2013-11-22

    We show that a muon collider is ideally suited for the study of heavy H/A scalars, cousins of the Higgs boson found in two-Higgs doublet models and required in supersymmetric models. The key aspects of H/A are: (1) they are narrow, yet have a width-to-mass ratio far larger than the expected muon collider beam-energy resolution, and (2) the larger muon Yukawa allows efficient s-channel production. We study in detail a representative Natural Supersymmetry model which has a 1.5 Tev H/A withmore » $$m_H$$- $$m_A$$ = 10 Gev. The large event rates at resonant peak allow the determination of the individual H and A resonance parameters (including CP) and the decays into electroweakinos provides a wealth of information unavailable to any other present or planned collider.« less

  17. Au-Ge MEAM potential fitted to the binary phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanming; Santana, Adriano; Cai, Wei

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a modified embedded atom method potential for the gold-germanium (Au-Ge) binary system that is fitted to the experimental binary phase diagram. The phase diagram is obtained from the common tangent construction of the free energy curves calculated by the adiabatic switching method. While maintaining the accuracy of the melting points of pure Au and Ge, this potential reproduces the eutectic temperature, eutectic composition and the solubility of Ge in solid Au, all in good agreement with the experimental values. To demonstrate the self-consistency of the potential, we performed benchmark molecular dynamics simulations of Ge crystal growth and etching in contact with a Au-Ge liquid alloy.

  18. 48 CFR 2452.216-73 - Performance evaluation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Performance evaluation plan... 2452.216-73 Performance evaluation plan. As prescribed in 2416.406(e)(3), insert the following clause in all award fee contracts: Performance Evaluation Plan (AUG 1987) (a) The Government shall...

  19. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. 30, 1938 (b) EXT.-FRONT, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Captain William Wildes House, 872 Commercial Street, Weymouth, Norfolk County, MA

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. 30, 1938 (a) EXT.-VIEW OF FRONT, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Captain William Wildes House, 872 Commercial Street, Weymouth, Norfolk County, MA

  1. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. 30, 1938 (l) INT.-PANELED WALL & FIREPLACE, GUEST HOUSE - Captain William Wildes House, 872 Commercial Street, Weymouth, Norfolk County, MA

  2. Hinode Satellite Captures Total Solar Eclipse Video Aug. 21

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and NASA released this video of Aug. 21 total solar eclipse taken by the X-ray telescope aboard the Hinode joint solar observation satellite as it orbited high above the Pacific Ocean.

  3. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. 30, 1938 (i) INT.- MANTEL, SOUTHEAST ROOM, 2nd. FLOOR - Captain William Wildes House, 872 Commercial Street, Weymouth, Norfolk County, MA

  4. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. 30, 1938 (g) INT.- MANTEL, SOUTHWEST ROOM, 1st. FLOOR - Captain William Wildes House, 872 Commercial Street, Weymouth, Norfolk County, MA

  5. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. 30, 1938 (j) INT.-MANTEL, SOUTHWEST ROOM, 2nd. FLOOR - Captain William Wildes House, 872 Commercial Street, Weymouth, Norfolk County, MA

  6. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. 3, 1938 (k) INT.- MANTLE, NORTHEAST ROOM, 2nd. FLOOR - Captain William Wildes House, 872 Commercial Street, Weymouth, Norfolk County, MA

  7. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. 30, 1938 (m) INT.-WALL PAPER, SOUTHWEST ROOM, 2nd. FLOOR - Captain William Wildes House, 872 Commercial Street, Weymouth, Norfolk County, MA

  8. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. 30, 1938 (h) INT.- NORTH WALL, SOUTHEAST ROOM, 1st. FLOOR - Captain William Wildes House, 872 Commercial Street, Weymouth, Norfolk County, MA

  9. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer Aug. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer Aug. 6, 1940 (y) 3- MILE STONE, 45 CENTRE ST., ROXBURY - Milestones D, Y, Z, AA, BB, FF & NN, Various Roxbury locations, Roxbury, Suffolk County, MA

  10. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer Aug. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer Aug. 8, 1940 (z) 4- MILE STONE, 366c CENTRE ST., ROXBURY - Milestones D, Y, Z, AA, BB, FF & NN, Various Roxbury locations, Roxbury, Suffolk County, MA

  11. 40 CFR 62.5870 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Minnesota Existing Large... combustors in Minnesota and should apply only to these sources. [63 FR 43083, Aug. 12, 1998] ...

  12. 40 CFR 62.5870 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Minnesota Existing Large... combustors in Minnesota and should apply only to these sources. [63 FR 43083, Aug. 12, 1998] ...

  13. 40 CFR 62.5870 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Minnesota Existing Large... combustors in Minnesota and should apply only to these sources. [63 FR 43083, Aug. 12, 1998] ...

  14. 40 CFR 62.5870 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Minnesota Existing Large... combustors in Minnesota and should apply only to these sources. [63 FR 43083, Aug. 12, 1998] ...

  15. 40 CFR 62.5870 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Minnesota Existing Large... combustors in Minnesota and should apply only to these sources. [63 FR 43083, Aug. 12, 1998] ...

  16. Reversible Association of the Hemagglutinin Subcomplex, HA-33/HA-17 Trimer, with the Botulinum Toxin Complex.

    PubMed

    Sagane, Yoshimasa; Mutoh, Shingo; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Tomonori; Miyashita, Shin-Ichiro; Miyata, Keita; Ohyama, Tohru; Niwa, Koichi; Watanabe, Toshihiro

    2017-10-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) associates with nontoxic proteins, either a nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA) or the complex of NTNHA and hemagglutinin (HA), to form M- or L-toxin complexes (TCs). Single BoNT and NTNHA molecules are associated and form M-TC. A trimer of the 70-kDa HA protein (HA-70) attaches to the M-TC to form M-TC/HA-70. Further, 1-3 arm-like 33- and 17-kDa HA molecules (HA-33/HA-17 trimer), consisting of 1 HA-17 protein and 2 HA-33 proteins, can attach to the M-TC/HA-70 complex, yielding 1-, 2-, and 3-arm L-TC. In this study, the purified 1- and 2-arm L-TCs spontaneously converted into another L-TC species after acquiring the HA-33/HA-17 trimer from other TCs during long-term storage and freezing/thawing. Transmission electron microscopy analysis provided evidence of the formation of detached HA-33/HA-17 trimers in the purified TC preparation. These findings provide evidence of reversible association/dissociation of the M-TC/HA-70 complex with the HA-33/HA-17 trimers, as well as dynamic conversion of the quaternary structure of botulinum TC in culture.

  17. McClellan AFB, California, RI/FS Quality Assurance Project Plan. Installation Restoration Program (IRP) Stage 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-07

    AD-A5 6 ... 1... . .. .. .... INSTALLATION RESTORATION PROGRAM (IRP) STAGE 3 7m~ QUALITY ASSURANCE -k- PROJECT PLAN for McCLELLAN AFB , CALIFORNIA...FINAL.. S AUG 2. 1 1992 L PREPARED FOR: .... ... McCLELLAN AFB IEM McCLELLAN AFB , CALIFORNIA 9652-599 ................... fr pu licrele se...PLAN FINAL ’’ : " FOR McCLELLAN AFB /EM McCLELLAN AFB , CALIFORNIA 95652-5990 August 1992 AUG 2 11992 PREPARED BY: DI Radian Corporation10389 Old

  18. Growth of well-aligned ZnO nanorods using auge catalyst by vapor phase transportation.

    PubMed

    Ha, S Y; Jung, M N; Park, S H; Ko, H J; Ko, H; Oh, D C; Yao, T; Chang, J H

    2006-11-01

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods have been achieved using new alloy (AuGe) catalyst. Zn powder was used as a source material and it was transported in a horizontal tube furnace onto an AuGe deposited Si substrates. The structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high resolution X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence. ZnO nanorods grown at 650 degrees C on 53 nm thick AuGe layer show uniform shape with the length of 8 +/- 0.5 microm and the diameter of 150 +/- 5 nm. Also, the tilting angle of ZnO nanorods (+/- 5.5 degrees) is confirmed by HRXRD. High structural quality of the nanorods is conformed by the photoluminescence measurement. All samples show strong UV emission without considerable deep level emission. However, weak deep level emission appears at high (700 degrees C) temperature due to the increase of oxygen desertion.

  19. Sugar-induced conformational change found in the HA-33/HA-17 trimer of the botulinum toxin complex.

    PubMed

    Sagane, Yoshimasa; Hayashi, Shintaro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Miyashita, Shin-Ichiro; Inui, Ken; Miyata, Keita; Yajima, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Tomonori; Hasegawa, Kimiko; Yamano, Akihito; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Ohyama, Tohru; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Niwa, Koichi

    2013-08-30

    Large-sized botulinum toxin complex (L-TC) is formed by conjugation of neurotoxin, nontoxic nonhemagglutinin and hemagglutinin (HA) complex. The HA complex is formed by association of three HA-70 molecules and three HA-33/HA-17 trimers, comprised of a single HA-17 and two HA-33 proteins. The HA-33/HA-17 trimer isolated from serotype D L-TC has the ability to bind to and penetrate through the intestinal epithelial cell monolayer in a sialic acid-dependent manner, and thus it plays an important role in toxin delivery through the intestinal cell wall. In this study, we determined the solution structure of the HA-33/HA-17 trimer by using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The SAXS image of HA-33/HA-17 exhibited broadly similar appearance to the crystal image of the complex. On the other hand, in the presence of N-acetylneuraminic acid, glucose and galactose, the solution structure of the HA-33/HA-17 trimer was drastically altered compared to the structure in the absence of the sugars. Sugar-induced structural change of the HA-33/HA-17 trimer may contribute to cell binding and subsequent transport across the intestinal cell layer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Navigation: National Plans; NAVSTAR-GPS; Laser Gyros

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-31

    REFERENC-~CP STER . TECHNICAL REPORT ! "NO. 12686,-’-. - NAVIGATION: NATIONAL PLANS ; NAVSTAR-GPS; LASER GYROS CONTRACT NO. DAAK30-80-C-0073 31 AUGUST...Technical ReportAW Ng. riiNational Plans ; Navstar-GPS; S... : NavstarGPS; a3 Sept 1980 - 31 Aug 1982 ....Lasr Gyros. 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER PRA...identify by block number) Navigation Navigation Satellites Laser Gyros Position-Location . NAVSTAR-GPS Fiberoptic Gyros Planning Global Positioning System

  1. Conformational divergence in the HA-33/HA-17 trimer of serotype C and D botulinum toxin complex.

    PubMed

    Sagane, Yoshimasa; Hayashi, Shintaro; Akiyama, Tomonori; Matsumoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Kimiko; Yamano, Akihito; Suzuki, Tomonori; Niwa, Koichi; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Yajima, Shunsuke

    2016-08-05

    Clostridium botulinum produces a large toxin complex (L-TC) comprising botulinum neurotoxin associated with auxiliary nontoxic proteins. A complex of 33- and 17-kDa hemagglutinins (an HA-33/HA-17 trimer) enhances L-TC transport across the intestinal epithelial cell layer via binding HA-33 to a sugar on the cell surface. At least two subtypes of serotype C/D HA-33 exhibit differing preferences for the sugars sialic acid and galactose. Here, we compared the three-dimensional structures of the galactose-binding HA-33 and HA-33/HA-17 trimers produced by the C-Yoichi strain. Comparisons of serotype C/D HA-33 sequences reveal a variable region with relatively low sequence similarity across the C. botulinum strains; the variability of this region may influence the manner of sugar-recognition by HA-33. Crystal structures of sialic acid- and galactose-binding HA-33 are broadly similar in appearance. However, small-angle X-ray scattering revealed distinct solution structures for HA-33/HA-17 trimers. A structural change in the C-terminal variable region of HA-33 might cause a dramatic shift in the conformation and sugar-recognition mode of HA-33/HA-17 trimer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 7 CFR 1940.334 - Direct participation of State Agencies in the preparation of FmHA or its successor agency under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 provides, early in the planning stages of the project... preparation of FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 EISs. 1940.334 Section 1940.334... Agencies in the preparation of FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 EISs. FmHA or its...

  3. 7 CFR 1940.334 - Direct participation of State Agencies in the preparation of FmHA or its successor agency under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 provides, early in the planning stages of the project... preparation of FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 EISs. 1940.334 Section 1940.334... Agencies in the preparation of FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 EISs. FmHA or its...

  4. 7 CFR 1940.334 - Direct participation of State Agencies in the preparation of FmHA or its successor agency under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 provides, early in the planning stages of the project... preparation of FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 EISs. 1940.334 Section 1940.334... Agencies in the preparation of FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 EISs. FmHA or its...

  5. 7 CFR 1940.334 - Direct participation of State Agencies in the preparation of FmHA or its successor agency under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 provides, early in the planning stages of the project... preparation of FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 EISs. 1940.334 Section 1940.334... Agencies in the preparation of FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 EISs. FmHA or its...

  6. 7 CFR 1940.334 - Direct participation of State Agencies in the preparation of FmHA or its successor agency under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 provides, early in the planning stages of the project... preparation of FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 EISs. 1940.334 Section 1940.334... Agencies in the preparation of FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 EISs. FmHA or its...

  7. Distance between RBS and AUG plays an important role in overexpression of recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Berwal, Sunil K; Sreejith, R K; Pal, Jayanta K

    2010-10-15

    The spacing between ribosome binding site (RBS) and AUG is crucial for efficient overexpression of genes when cloned in prokaryotic expression vectors. We undertook a brief study on the overexpression of genes cloned in Escherichia coli expression vectors, wherein the spacing between the RBS and the start codon was varied. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis indicated a high level of protein expression only in constructs where the spacing between RBS and AUG was approximately 40 nucleotides or more, despite the synthesis of the transcripts in the representative cases investigated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Regulation of Hyaluronan (HA) Metabolism Mediated by HYBID (Hyaluronan-binding Protein Involved in HA Depolymerization, KIAA1199) and HA Synthases in Growth Factor-stimulated Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Aya; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Sachiko; Morikawa, Tomohiko; Kawabata, Keigo; Kobayashi, Masaki; Sakai, Shingo; Takahashi, Yoshito; Okada, Yasunori; Inoue, Shintaro

    2015-12-25

    Regulation of hyaluronan (HA) synthesis and degradation is essential to maintenance of extracellular matrix homeostasis. We recently reported that HYBID (HYaluronan-Binding protein Involved in hyaluronan Depolymerization), also called KIAA1199, plays a key role in HA depolymerization in skin and arthritic synovial fibroblasts. However, regulation of HA metabolism mediated by HYBID and HA synthases (HASs) under stimulation with growth factors remains obscure. Here we report that TGF-β1, basic FGF, EGF, and PDGF-BB commonly enhance total amount of HA in skin fibroblasts through up-regulation of HAS expression, but molecular size of newly produced HA is dependent on HYBID expression levels. Stimulation of HAS1/2 expression and suppression of HYBID expression by TGF-β1 were abrogated by blockade of the MAPK and/or Smad signaling and the PI3K-Akt signaling, respectively. In normal human skin, expression of the TGF-β1 receptors correlated positively with HAS2 expression and inversely with HYBID expression. On the other hand, TGF-β1 up-regulated HAS1/2 expression but exerted only a slight suppressive effect on HYBID expression in synovial fibroblasts from the patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, resulting in the production of lower molecular weight HA compared with normal skin and synovial fibroblasts. These data demonstrate that although TGF-β1, basic FGF, EGF, and PDGF-BB enhance HA production in skin fibroblasts, TGF-β1 most efficiently contributes to production of high molecular weight HA by HAS up-regulation and HYBID down-regulation and suggests that inefficient down-regulation of HYBID by TGF-β1 in arthritic synovial fibroblasts may be linked to accumulation of depolymerized HA in synovial fluids in arthritis patients. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1 and HA-2 polymorphisms in Taiwan: frequency and application in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lio, Hoi-Yan; Tang, Jih-Luh; Wu, Jui; Wu, Shang-Ju; Lin, Chun-Ying; Yang, Ya-Chien

    2010-09-01

    Minor histocompatibility antigens influence the occurrence of graft-vs.-host disease and graft-vs.-leukemia effects after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We determined the population frequencies of HA-1 and HA-2 alleles in Taiwan and exploited their potential applications in allogeneic HSCT. HA-1 and HA-2 were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism in healthy controls (221 for HA-1 and 306 for HA-2) and HLA-matched donor-recipient sibling pairs with HSCT (92 for HA-1 and 38 for HA-2). The association of genetic polymorphisms with HSCT outcome was evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. The allele frequencies in controls were 35.3% and 64.7% for HA-1(H) and HA-1(R), and 89.0% and 11.0% for HA-2(V) and HA-2(M), respectively. HA-1 disparity was denoted in 16.3% of HLA-matched donor-recipient sibling pairs, while it was not associated with HSCT outcome. HA-2 disparity was not observed in the donor-recipient pairs studied. The possibilities of using HA-1 and HA-2 variabilities as molecular markers for hematopoietic chimerism after HSCT were 39.2% and 18.4%, respectively. Our data provide the information on allele and genotype frequencies of HA-1 and HA-2 in a Taiwanese population, and suggest that prospective genomic typing for HA-1 and HA-2 alleles of the donor and recipient could be a useful approach for molecular identification of hematopoietic chimerism after HSCT, rather than prognosis of clinical outcome.

  10. 93. Neg. No. F78K, Aug 11, 1930, EXTERIORASSEMBLY BUILDING, NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. Neg. No. F-78K, Aug 11, 1930, EXTERIOR-ASSEMBLY BUILDING, NORTH SIDE, WITH TAYLOR-TRUCK-A-WAY TRUCKS AND TRAILORS - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. Differential osteogenic activity of osteoprogenitor cells on HA and TCP/HA scaffold of tissue engineered bone.

    PubMed

    Ng, Angela M H; Tan, K K; Phang, M Y; Aziyati, O; Tan, G H; Isa, M R; Aminuddin, B S; Naseem, M; Fauziah, O; Ruszymah, B H I

    2008-05-01

    Biomaterial, an essential component of tissue engineering, serves as a scaffold for cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation; provides the three dimensional (3D) structure and, in some applications, the mechanical strength required for the engineered tissue. Both synthetic and naturally occurring calcium phosphate based biomaterial have been used as bone fillers or bone extenders in orthopedic and reconstructive surgeries. This study aims to evaluate two popular calcium phosphate based biomaterial i.e., hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP/HA) granules as scaffold materials in bone tissue engineering. In our strategy for constructing tissue engineered bone, human osteoprogenitor cells derived from periosteum were incorporated with human plasma-derived fibrin and seeded onto HA or TCP/HA forming 3D tissue constructs and further maintained in osteogenic medium for 4 weeks to induce osteogenic differentiation. Constructs were subsequently implanted intramuscularly in nude mice for 8 weeks after which mice were euthanized and constructs harvested for evaluation. The differential cell response to the biomaterial (HA or TCP/HA) adopted as scaffold was illustrated by the histology of undecalcified constructs and evaluation using SEM and TEM. Both HA and TCP/HA constructs showed evidence of cell proliferation, calcium deposition, and collagen bundle formation albeit lesser in the former. Our findings demonstrated that TCP/HA is superior between the two in early bone formation and hence is the scaffold material of choice in bone tissue engineering. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. In vitro testing of calcium phosphate (HA, TCP, and biphasic HA-TCP) whiskers.

    PubMed

    Jalota, Sahil; Bhaduri, Sarit B; Tas, A Cuneyt

    2006-09-01

    Calcium phosphate [single-phase hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2)), single-phase tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP, Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)), and biphasic HA-TCP] whiskers were formed by using a novel microwave-assisted molten salt mediated process. Aqueous solutions containing NaNO(3), HNO(3), Ca(NO(3))(2) x 4H(2)O, and KH(2)PO(4) (with or without urea) were used as starting reagents. These solutions were irradiated in a household microwave oven for 5 min. As-recovered precursors were then simply stirred in water at room temperature for 1 h to obtain the whiskers of the desired calcium phosphate (CaP) bioceramics. These whiskers were evaluated, respectively, in vitro by (1) soaking those in synthetic body fluid (SBF) solutions at 37 degrees C for one week, and (2) performing cell attachment and total protein assay tests on the neat whiskers by using a mouse osteoblast cell line (7F2). beta-TCP, HA, and HA-TCP biphasic whiskers were all found to possess apatite-inducing ability when soaked in SBF. SBF-soaked whiskers were found to have BET surface areas ranging from 45 to 112 m(2)/g. Although the osteoblast viability and protein concentrations were found to be the highest on the neat HA whiskers, cells were attached and proliferated on all the whiskers.

  13. Interfacial kinetics in nanosized Au/Ge films: An in situ TEM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryshtal, Aleksandr P.; Minenkov, Alexey A.; Ferreira, Paulo J.

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the morphology and crystalline structure of Au/Ge films in a wide range of temperatures by in situ TEM heating. Au/Ge films with Au mass thickness of 0.2-0.3 nm and Ge thickness of 5 nm were produced in vacuum by the sequential deposition of components on a carbon substrate at room temperature. It has been shown that particles with an average size of 4 nm, formed by Au film de-wetting, melt on the germanium substrate at temperatures 110-160 °C, which are below the eutectic temperature for the bulk. The effect of crystallization-induced capillary motion of liquid eutectic particles over Ge surface has been found in this work. Formation of metastable fcc phase of Ge has been observed at the liquid-germanium interface and behind the moving particle. Formation of a liquid phase with its subsequent crystallization at the metal-semiconductor interface seems to play a key role in the metal-induced crystallization effect.

  14. Interaction of ICRF Fields with the Plasma Boundary in AUG and JET and Guidelines for Antenna Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobkov, V.; Bilato, R.; Braun, F.; Colas, L.; Dux, R.; Van Eester, D.; Giannone, L.; Goniche, M.; Herrmann, A.; Jacquet, P.; Kallenbach, A.; Krivska, A.; Lerche, E.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Milanesio, D.; Monakhov, I.; Müller, H. W.; Neu, R.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Pütterich, Th.; Rohde, V.

    2009-11-01

    W sputtering during ICRF on ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) and temperature rise on JET A2 antenna septa are considered in connection with plasma conditions at the antenna plasma facing components and E‖ near-fields. Large antenna-plasma clearance, high gas puff and low light impurity content are favorable to reduce W sputtering in AUG. The spatial distribution of spectroscopically measured effective W sputtering yields clearly points to the existence of strong E‖ fields at the antenna box ("feeder fields") which dominate over the fields in front of the antenna straps. The picture of E‖ fields, obtained by HFSS code, corroborates the dominant role of E‖ at the antenna box on the formation of sheath-driving RF voltages for AUG. Large antenna-plasma clearance and low gas puff are favorable to reduce septum temperature of JET A2 antennas. Assuming a linear relation between the septum temperature and the sheath driving RF voltage calculated by HFSS, the changes of the temperature with dipole phasing (00ππ, 0ππ0 or 0π0π) are well described by the related changes of the RF voltages. Similarly to the AUG antenna, the strongest E‖ are found at the limiters of the JET A2 antenna for all used dipole phasings and at the septum for the phasings different from 0π0π. A simple general rule can be used to minimize E‖ at the antenna: image currents can be allowed only at the surfaces which do not intersect magnetic field lines at large angles of incidence. Possible antenna modifications generally rely either on a reduction of the image currents, on their short-circuiting by introducing additional conducting surfaces or on imposing the E‖ = 0 boundary condition. On the example of AUG antenna, possible options to minimize the sheath driving voltages are presented.

  15. 7 CFR 1951.9 - Distribution of payments when a borrower owes more than one type of FmHA or its successor agency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... than one type of FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loan. 1951.9 Section 1951.9... of payments when a borrower owes more than one type of FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law... that will be released for other purposes in accordance with the annual plan (Form FmHA or its successor...

  16. Conformational changes in the P site and mRNA entry channel evoked by AUG recognition in yeast translation preinitiation complexes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Saini, Adesh K.; Shin, Byung-Sik; Nanda, Jagpreet; Hinnebusch, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    The translation preinitiation complex (PIC) is thought to assume an open conformation when scanning the mRNA leader, with AUG recognition evoking a closed conformation and more stable P site interaction of Met-tRNAi; however, physical evidence is lacking that AUG recognition constrains interaction of mRNA with the 40S binding cleft. We compared patterns of hydroxyl radical cleavage of rRNA by Fe(II)-BABE tethered to unique sites in eIF1A in yeast PICs reconstituted with mRNA harboring an AUG or near-cognate (AUC) start codon. rRNA residues in the P site display reduced cleavage in AUG versus AUC PICs; and enhanced cleavage in the AUC complexes was diminished by mutations of scanning enhancer elements of eIF1A that increase near-cognate recognition in vivo. This suggests that accessibility of these rRNA residues is reduced by accommodation of Met-tRNAi in the P site (PIN state) and by their interactions with the anticodon stem of Met-tRNAi. Our cleavage data also provide evidence that AUG recognition evokes dissociation of eIF1 from its 40S binding site, ejection of the eIF1A-CTT from the P-site and rearrangement to a closed conformation of the entry channel with reduced mobility of mRNA. PMID:25670678

  17. 29 CFR 1952.367 - Changes to approved plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plans. (a) Legislation. (1) On March 29, 1994, the Assistant Secretary approved New Mexico's revised... Secretary on September 24, 1997. [59 FR 14556, Mar. 29, 1994. Redesignated at 59 FR 42496, Aug. 18, 1994, as amended at 62 FR 49911, Sept. 24, 1997; 67 FR 60129, Sept. 25, 2002] ...

  18. Two Coronal Mass Ejections Events Close to the Total Solar Eclipse Aug. 11, 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churyumov, K. I.; Ivanchuk, V. I.

    We present some results of exploration of the solar corona on the basis of analysis of its images obtained in Romania by K.I.Churyumov and in Bulgaria by V.Mormyl' and S.Kharchuk Aug. 11 1999. Structure of the corona is characterized by the presence of numerous power and thin rays which have mainly radial orientation in regard to the Sun. The high-latitude rays of the north hemisphere (especially in the NE sector) are inclined in the direction of the N-pole. The interesting peculiarity of the solar corona Aug. 11 1999 is the existence of the sabre-like thin double ray on the NE-limb, which goes from the solar limb region at p ~ 50o. It is close to the peculiar center of ``repulsion'', which is observed for the fan of rays of the E-limb. We proposed that the similar rays and the observed center of ``repulsion'' were an indicator (postcursor) which shows that in this place of the corona the phenomena of the coronal mass ejections (CME) of the coronal plasma occurred. This views was confirmed by observations of the solar corona with the help of the Lasco C2 coronograph of SOHO Aug. 10/11 1999. In the region of the NW-quadrant and near the W-equator the enough sharp transequatorial arc by height ~ 0.7Rsolar with the center at ϕo = +10 deg is detected. It is nonfull arcs which intersects set of rays structures and near its foundation on the altitude /~ 0.3Rsolar there is a coronal condensation with characteristic sizes Δ l ~ 0.1Rsolar. We think that it is tied with development of a coronal mass ejection (CME) detected by the coronograph Lasco C2 of SOHO Aug. 11/12, 1999. On the best pictures it is seen that CME had the angle sizes ~ 90 deg and filled in nearly the all NW quadrant as a not uniform buble. On the basis of the published data we determined several

  19. Effect of molecular weight of hyaluronic acid (HA) on viscoelasticity and particle texturing feel of HA dermal biphasic fillers.

    PubMed

    Chun, Cheolbyong; Lee, Deuk Yong; Kim, Jin-Tae; Kwon, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Young-Zu; Kim, Seok-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) dermal biphasic fillers are synthesized for their efficacy in correcting aesthetic defects such as wrinkles, scars and facial contouring defects. The fillers consist of crosslinked HA microspheres suspended in a noncrosslinked HA. To extend the duration of HAs within the dermis and obtain the particle texturing feel, HAs are crosslinked to obtain the suitable mechanical properties. Hyaluronic acid (HA) dermal biphasic fillers are prepared by mixing the crosslinked HA microspheres and the noncrosslinked HAs. The elastic modulus of the fillers increased with raising the volume fraction of the microspheres. The mechanical properties and the particle texturing feel of the fillers made from crosslinked HA (1058 kDa) microspheres suspended in noncrosslinked HA (1368 kDa) are successfully achieved, which are adequate for the fillers. Dermal biphasic HA fillers made from 1058 kDa exhibit suitable elastic moduli (211 to 420 Pa) and particle texturing feel (scale 7 ~ 9).

  20. SMAP Global Map of Surface Soil Moisture Aug. 25-27, 2015

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-02

    A three-day composite global map of surface soil moisture as retrieved from NASA SMAP radiometer instrument between Aug. 25-27, 2015. Dry areas appear yellow/orange, such as the Sahara Desert, western Australia and the western U.S. Wet areas appear blue, representing the impacts of localized storms. White areas indicate snow, ice or frozen ground. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19877

  1. Molecular aspects of zygotic embryogenesis in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): correlation of positive histone marks with HaWUS expression and putative link HaWUS/HaL1L.

    PubMed

    Salvini, Mariangela; Fambrini, Marco; Giorgetti, Lucia; Pugliesi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The link HaWUS/ HaL1L , the opposite transcriptional behavior, and the decrease/increase in positive histone marks bond to both genes suggest an inhibitory effect of WUS on HaL1L in sunflower zygotic embryos. In Arabidopsis, a group of transcription factors implicated in the earliest events of embryogenesis is the WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX (WOX) protein family including WUSCHEL (WUS) and other 14 WOX protein, some of which contain a conserved WUS-box domain in addition to the homeodomain. WUS transcripts appear very early in embryogenesis, at the 16-cell embryo stage, but gradually become restricted to the center of the developing shoot apical meristem (SAM) primordium and continues to be expressed in cells of the niche/organizing center of SAM and floral meristems to maintain stem cell population. Moreover, WUS has decisive roles in the embryonic program presumably promoting the vegetative-to-embryonic transition and/or maintaining the identity of the embryonic stem cells. However, data on the direct interaction between WUS and key genes for seed development (as LEC1 and L1L) are not collected. The novelty of this report consists in the characterization of Helianthus annuus WUS (HaWUS) gene and in its analysis regarding the pattern of the methylated lysine 4 (K4) of the Histone H3 and of the acetylated histone H3 during the zygotic embryo development. Also, a parallel investigation was performed for HaL1L gene since two copies of the WUS-binding site (WUSATA), previously identified on HaL1L nucleotide sequence, were able to be bound by the HaWUS recombinant protein suggesting a not described effect of HaWUS on HaL1L transcription.

  2. The Impact of HA Oligomer Content on Physical, Mechanical, and Biologic Properties of Divinyl Sulfone-Crosslinked HA Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Samir; Kang, Qian K; Ramamurthi, Anand

    2009-01-01

    In recent studies, we showed that exogenous hyaluronic acid oligomers (HA-o) stimulate functional endothelialization, though native long-chain HA is more bioinert and possibly more biocompatible. Thus, in this study, hydrogels containing high molecular weight (HMW) HA (1×106 Da) and HA oligomer mixtures (HA-o: 0.75–10 kDa) were created by crosslinking with divinyl sulfone (DVS). The incorporation of HA oligomers was found to compromise the physical and mechanical properties of the gels (rheology, apparent crosslinking density, swelling ratio, degradation) and to very mildly enhance inflammatory cell recruitment in vivo; increasing the DVS crosslinker content within the gels in general, had the opposite effect, though the relatively high concentration of DVS within these gels (necessary to create a solid gel) also stimulated a mild sub-cutaneous inflammatory response in vivo and VCAM-1 expression by ECs cultured atop; ICAM-expression levels remained very low irrespective extent of DVS crosslinking or HA-o content. The greatest EC attachment and proliferation (MTT assay) was observed on gels that contained the highest amount of HA-o. The study shows that the beneficial EC response to HA oligomers and biocompatibility of HA is mostly unaltered by their chemical derivatization and crosslinking into a hydrogel. However, the study also demonstrates that the relatively high concentrations of DVS, necessary to create solid gels, compromises their biocompatibility. Moreover, the poor mechanics of even these heavily crosslinked gels, in the context of vascular implantation, necessitates the investigation of other, more appropriate crosslinking agents. Alternately, the outcomes of this study may be used to guide an approach based on chemical immobilization and controlled surface-presentation of both bioactive HA oligomers and more biocompatible HMW HAon synthetic or tissue engineered grafts already in use, without the use of a crosslinker, so that improved, predictable

  3. Activity-guided separation and characterization of new halocin HA3 from fermented broth of Haloferax larsenii HA3.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay; Tiwari, Santosh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Haloferax larsenii HA3 was able to grow optimally in HS medium containing 15% NaCl, at pH 7.2 and 42 °C in aerobic conditions. Strain HA3 was found to be round shape, Gram-negative, catalase-positive, sensitive to bile acid, and resistant to chloramphenicol, and could not utilize arginine. The lipid profile revealed the presence of glycerol diether moiety (GDEM) suggesting Haloarchaea characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities showed that it was closely related to H. larsenii ZJ206. Interestingly, strain HA3 was found to produce halocin HA3 which was purified using ultrafiltration and chromatography. It was found to be stable up to 80 °C, pH 2.0-10.0, organic solvents, surfactants, and detergents tested. However, the activity of halocin HA3 was completely reduced in the presence of proteinase K and trypsin. It was found to be halocidal against H. larsenii HA10, rupturing cell boundary and leading to cell death. The molecular weight of halocin HA3 was found to be ~13 kDa and MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis suggested no homology with known halocins. The N-terminal ten amino-acid residues, NH 2 MNLGIILETN-COOH, suggested a new/novel halocin. These properties of halocin HA3 may be applicable for control of Haloarchaea in environments and salted foods.

  4. 40 CFR 62.8106 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Identification of plan—negative declaration. Letter from the New York State Department of Environmental... incinerators in the State of New York subject to part 60, subpart DDDD of this chapter. [66 FR 41148, Aug. 7... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS New...

  5. Characterization of New PEEK/HA Composites with 3D HA Network Fabricated by Extrusion Freeforming.

    PubMed

    Vaezi, Mohammad; Black, Cameron; Gibbs, David M R; Oreffo, Richard O C; Brady, Mark; Moshrefi-Torbati, Mohamed; Yang, Shoufeng

    2016-05-26

    Addition of bioactive materials such as calcium phosphates or Bioglass, and incorporation of porosity into polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has been identified as an effective approach to improve bone-implant interfaces and osseointegration of PEEK-based devices. In this paper, a novel production technique based on the extrusion freeforming method is proposed that yields a bioactive PEEK/hydroxyapatite (PEEK/HA) composite with a unique configuration in which the bioactive phase (i.e., HA) distribution is computer-controlled within a PEEK matrix. The 100% interconnectivity of the HA network in the biocomposite confers an advantage over alternative forms of other microstructural configurations. Moreover, the technique can be employed to produce porous PEEK structures with controlled pore size and distribution, facilitating greater cellular infiltration and biological integration of PEEK composites within patient tissue. The results of unconfined, uniaxial compressive tests on these new PEEK/HA biocomposites with 40% HA under both static and cyclic mode were promising, showing the composites possess yield and compressive strength within the range of human cortical bone suitable for load bearing applications. In addition, preliminary evidence supporting initial biological safety of the new technique developed is demonstrated in this paper. Sufficient cell attachment, sustained viability in contact with the sample over a seven-day period, evidence of cell bridging and matrix deposition all confirmed excellent biocompatibility.

  6. 29 CFR 1952.106 - Where the plan may be inspected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Oregon § 1952.106... Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division, Department of Consumer and Business Services, Room 430, Labor and Industries Building, 350 Winter Street NE, Salem, Oregon 97310. [59 FR 42495, Aug. 18, 1994] ...

  7. 29 CFR 1952.106 - Where the plan may be inspected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Oregon § 1952.106... Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division, Department of Consumer and Business Services, Room 430, Labor and Industries Building, 350 Winter Street NE, Salem, Oregon 97310. [59 FR 42495, Aug. 18, 1994] ...

  8. 29 CFR 1952.106 - Where the plan may be inspected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Oregon § 1952.106... Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division, Department of Consumer and Business Services, Room 430, Labor and Industries Building, 350 Winter Street NE, Salem, Oregon 97310. [59 FR 42495, Aug. 18, 1994] ...

  9. Biomedical potential of chitosan/HA and chitosan/β-1,3-glucan/HA biomaterials as scaffolds for bone regeneration--A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Przekora, Agata; Palka, Krzysztof; Ginalska, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare biomedical potential of chitosan/hydroxyapatite (chit/HA) and novel chitosan/β-1,3-glucan/hydroxyapatite (chit/glu/HA) materials as scaffolds for bone regeneration via characterization of their biocompatibility, porosity, mechanical properties, and water uptake behaviour. Biocompatibility of the scaffolds was assessed in direct-contact with the materials using normal human foetal osteoblast cell line. Cytotoxicity and osteoblast proliferation rate were evaluated. Porosity was assessed using computed microtomography analysis and mechanical properties were determined by compression testing. Obtained results demonstrated that chit/HA scaffold possessed significantly better mechanical properties (compressive strength: 1.23 MPa, Young's modulus: 0.46 MPa) than chit/glu/HA material (compressive strength: 0.26 MPa, Young's modulus: 0.25 MPa). However, addition of bacterial β-1,3-glucan to the chit/HA scaffold improved its flexibility and porosity. Moreover, chit/glu/HA scaffold revealed significantly higher water uptake capability (52.6% after 24h of soaking) compared to the chit/HA (30.7%) and thus can serve as a very good drug delivery carrier. Chit/glu/HA scaffold was also more favourable to osteoblast survival (near 100% viability after 24-h culture), proliferation, and spreading compared to the chit/HA (63% viability). The chit/glu/HA possesses better biomedical potential than chit/HA scaffold. Nevertheless, poor mechanical properties of the chit/glu/HA limit its application to non-load bearing implantation area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. HA metabolism in skin homeostasis and inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Kavasi, Rafaela-Maria; Berdiaki, Aikaterini; Spyridaki, Ioanna; Corsini, Emanuela; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Tzanakakis, George; Nikitovic, Dragana

    2017-03-01

    Hyaluronan (HA), an unsulfated glycosaminoglycan, is an important component of the complex extracellular matrix network which surrounds and supports cells in tissues. HA is detected in all vertebrate tissues, but the bulk of HA is produced and deposited in the skin. In this review we focus on the role of HA in skin-associated inflammatory disease and wound healing. Properties of HA are directly dependent on its molecular weight. Thus, high molecular weight HA (HMWHA) is deposited in normal tissues during homeostasis and promotes their stability whereas low molecular weight HA fragments (LMWHA), on the other hand, may arise from enzymatic or chemical activities. The degradation of HMWHA to LMWHA fragments, often leads to the generation of biologically active oligosaccharides with different properties and postulated functions in wound scar formation and inflammation. More detailed studies of HA involvement in skin-associated inflammatory disease may result in novel treatment modalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of the type of HA on the degradation of PLGA/HA composites.

    PubMed

    Naik, Ashutosh; Shepherd, David V; Shepherd, Jennifer H; Best, Serena M; Cameron, Ruth E

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the importance of the potentially competing effects of buffering effects of the calcium phosphate filler and particle-mediated water sorption on the degradation products of poly(d,l lactide-co-glycolide (50:50))(PLGA)/hydroxyapatite(HA) composites. Further the influence of type of HA on the mechanical properties of the composites was investigated. Phase pure HA was synthesised via a reaction between aqueous solutions of calcium hydroxide and orthophosphoric acid. The powder produced was either used as produced (uncalcined) or calcined in air or calcined in a humidified argon atmosphere. An in-vitro degradation study was carried out in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The results obtained indicated that the degradation rate of the composite might be better understood if both the buffering effects and the rate of water sorption by the composites are considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization, Corrosion Resistance, and Cell Response of High-Velocity Flame-Sprayed HA and HA/TiO2 Coatings on 316L SS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Tejinder Pal; Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Hazoor

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate corrosion and biocompatibility behavior of thermal spray hydroxyapatite (HA) and hydroxyapatite/titania bond (HA/TiO2)-coated 316L stainless steel (316L SS). In HA/TiO2 coatings, TiO2 was used as a bond coat between HA top coat and 316L SS substrate. The coatings were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, and corrosion resistance determined for the uncoated substrate and the two coatings. The biological behavior was investigated by the cell culture studies using osteosarcoma cell line KHOS-NP (R-970-5). The corrosion resistance of the steel was found to increase after the deposition of the HA and HA/TiO2 bond coatings. Both HA, as well as, HA/TiO2 coatings exhibit excellent bond strength of 49 and 47 MPa, respectively. The cell culture studies showed that HA-coated 316L SS specimens appeared more biocompatible than the uncoated and HA/TiO2-coated 316L SS specimens.

  13. Selective pre-priming of HA-specific CD4 T cells restores immunological reactivity to HA on heterosubtypic influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Alam, Shabnam; Chan, Cory; Qiu, Xing; Shannon, Ian; White, Chantelle L; Sant, Andrea J; Nayak, Jennifer L

    2017-01-01

    A hallmark of the immune response to influenza is repeated encounters with proteins containing both genetically conserved and variable components. Therefore, the B and T cell repertoire is continually being remodeled, with competition between memory and naïve lymphocytes. Our previous work using a mouse model of secondary heterosubtypic influenza infection has shown that this competition results in a focusing of CD4 T cell response specificity towards internal virion proteins with a selective decrease in CD4 T cell reactivity to the novel HA epitopes. Strikingly, this shift in CD4 T cell specificity was associated with a diminished anti-HA antibody response. Here, we sought to determine whether the loss in HA-specific reactivity that occurs as a consequence of immunological memory could be reversed by selectively priming HA-specific CD4 T cells prior to secondary infection. Using a peptide-based priming strategy, we found that selective expansion of the anti-HA CD4 T cell memory repertoire enhanced HA-specific antibody production upon heterosubtypic infection. These results suggest that the potentially deleterious consequences of repeated exposure to conserved influenza internal virion proteins could be reversed by vaccination strategies that selectively arm the HA-specific CD4 T cell compartment. This could be a potentially useful pre-pandemic vaccination strategy to promote accelerated neutralizing antibody production on challenge with a pandemic influenza strain that contains few conserved HA epitopes.

  14. Simultaneous detection of assembly and disassembly of multivalent HA tag and anti-HA antibody in single in-capillary assay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhao; Qin, Yuqin; Qin, Haifang; Liu, Li; Ding, Shumin; Teng, Yiwan; Ji, Junling; Qiu, Lin; Jiang, Pengju

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we have developed an in-capillary assay for simultaneous detection of the assembly and disassembly of the multivalent HA tag peptide and antibody. HA tag with hexahistidine at C terminus (YPYDVPDYAG4 H6 , termed YPYDH6 ) was conjugated with quantum dots (QDs) by metal-affinity force to form a multivalent HA tag (QD-YPYDH6 ). QD-YPYDH6 and monoclonal anti-HA antibody (anti-HA) were sequentially injected into the capillary. They were mixed and assembled inside the capillary. The reaction products were online discriminated and detected by fluorescence coupled capillary electrophoresis (CE-FL). For the in-capillary assay, the binding efficiency of the multivalent HA tag and antibody on was influenced by the molar ratio and injection time. Such novel assay could even give out the self-assembly kinetic constant of QDs and YPYDH6 as KD of 34.1 μM with n (binding cooperativeness) of 2.2 by Hill equation. More importantly, the simultaneous detection of the assembly and imidazole (Im) induced disassembly of the QD-YPYDH6 -anti-HA complex was achieved in a single in-capillary assay. Our study demonstrated a new method for the online detection of antigen-antibody interactions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. NASA Provides Coast-to-Coast Coverage of Aug. 21 Solar Eclipse (Beatrice, NE)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    On Monday, Aug. 21, NASA provided coast-to-coast coverage of the solar eclipse across America – featuring views of the phenomenon from unique vantage points, including from the ground, from aircraft, and from spacecraft including the ISS, during a live broadcast seen on NASA Television and the agency’s website. This is footage from Beatrice, Nebraska.

  16. NASA Provides Coast-to-Coast Coverage of Aug. 21 Solar Eclipse (Salem, OR)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    On Monday, Aug. 21, NASA provided coast-to-coast coverage of the solar eclipse across America – featuring views of the phenomenon from unique vantage points, including from the ground, from aircraft, and from spacecraft including the ISS, during a live broadcast seen on NASA Television and the agency’s website. This is footage from Salem, Oregon.

  17. Knowledge-Based Planning Model for Courses of Action Generation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-07

    AO-AIS 608 KNOWLEDGE-BASED PLANNING MODEL FOR COURSES OF ACTION mJI OENERATION(U) ARMY MAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA USI FE D R COLLINS ET AL. 97APR...agencies. This document may not be released for open publication until it has been cleared by the appropriate military service or government agency. 00 DTIC...I ELECTE KNOWLEDGE-BASED PLANNING MODEL C AUG 5~ FOR COURSES OF ACTION GENERATION DD BY COLONEL D. R. COLLINS LIEUTENANT COLONEL(P) T. A. BAUCUM

  18. Effect of Water-Glass Coating on HA and HA-TCP Samples for MSCs Adhesion, Proliferation, and Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Indu; Kim, Duk Yeon; Kyong-Jin, Jung; Song, In-Hwan; Kim, Sukyoung

    2016-01-01

    Ca-P and silicon based materials have become very popular as bone tissue engineering materials. In this study, water-glass (also known as sodium silicate glass) was coated on sintered hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-TCP (TCP stands for tricalcium phosphate) samples and subsequently heat-treated at 600°C for 2 hrs. X-rays diffraction showed the presence of β- and α-TCP phases along with HA in the HA-TCP samples. Samples without coating, with water-glass coating, and heat-treated after water-glass coating were used to observe the adhesion and proliferation response of bone marrow derived-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Cell culture was carried out for 4 hrs, 1 day, and 7 days. Interestingly, all samples showed similar response for cell adhesion and proliferation up to 7-day culture but fibronectin, E-cadherin, and osteogenic differentiation related genes (osteocalcin and osteopontin) were significantly induced in heat-treated water-glass coated HA-TCP samples. A water-glass coating on Ca-P samples was not found to influence the cell proliferation response significantly but activated some extracellular matrix genes and induced osteogenic differentiation in the MSCs.

  19. HaLT2- an enhanced lumber grading trainer

    Treesearch

    Powsiri Klinkhachorn; Charles Gatchell; Charles McMillin; Ravi Kothari; Dennis Yost

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on HaLT2, an improved version of HaLT (Hardwood Lumber Traning Program)- a computer program that provides training in lumber grading. The newly added enhancements In HaLT2 will provide training for both novice and experienced hardwood lumber graders in accordance with National Hardwood Lumber Assodation (NHLA) rules. HaLT2 is more accurate, easier to...

  20. Homology modeling study toward identifying structural properties in the HA2 B-loop that would influence the HA1 receptor-binding site.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Imai, Kenichi; Shimizu, Kazufumi; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2013-07-01

    Influenza hemagglutinin (HA) consists of a fibrous globular stem (HA2) inserted into the viral membrane supporting a globular head (HA1). HA1 receptor-binding has been hypothesized to be structurally correlated to the HA2 B-loop, however, this was never fully understood. Here, we elucidated the structural relationship between the HA2 B-loop and the HA1 receptor-binding site (RBS). Throughout this study, we analyzed 2486 H1N1 HA homology models obtained from human, swine and avian strains during 1976-2012. Quality of all homology models were verified before further analyses. We established that amino acid residue 882 is putatively strain-conserved and differs in the human (K882), swine (H882) and avian (N882) strains. Moreover, we observed that the amino acid at residue 882 and, similarly, its orientation has the potential to influence the HA1 RBS diameter measurements which we hypothesize may consequentially affect influenza H1N1 viral infectivity, immune escape, transmissibility, and evolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. NASA Provides Coast-to-Coast Coverage of Aug. 21 Solar Eclipse (Carbondale, IL)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    On Monday, Aug. 21, NASA provided coast-to-coast coverage of the solar eclipse across America – featuring views of the phenomenon from unique vantage points, including from the ground, from aircraft, and from spacecraft including the ISS, during a live broadcast seen on NASA Television and the agency’s website. This is footage from Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, Illinois.

  2. NASA Provides Coast-to-Coast Coverage of Aug. 21 Solar Eclipse (Hopkinsville_KY)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    On Monday, Aug. 21, NASA provided coast-to-coast coverage of the solar eclipse across America – featuring views of the phenomenon from unique vantage points, including from the ground, from aircraft, and from spacecraft including the ISS, during a live broadcast seen on NASA Television and the agency’s website. This is footage from the Homestead National Monument in Hopkinsville, Kentucky.

  3. Evaluation of the plasma hydrogen isotope content by residual gas analysis at JET and AUG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drenik, A.; Alegre, D.; Brezinsek, S.; De Castro, A.; Kruezi, U.; Oberkofler, M.; Panjan, M.; Primc, G.; Reichbauer, T.; Resnik, M.; Rohde, V.; Seibt, M.; Schneider, P. A.; Wauters, T.; Zaplotnik, R.; ASDEX-Upgrade, the; EUROfusion MST1 Teams; contributors, JET

    2017-12-01

    The isotope content of the plasma reflects on the dynamics of isotope changeover experiments, efficiency of wall conditioning and the performance of a fusion device in the active phase of operation. The assessment of the isotope ratio of hydrogen and methane molecules is used as a novel method of assessing the plasma isotope ratios at JET and ASDEX-Upgrade (AUG). The isotope ratios of both molecules in general shows similar trends as the isotope ratio detected by other diagnostics. At JET, the absolute values of RGA signals are in relatively good agreement with each other and with spectroscopy data, while at AUG the deviation from neutral particle analyser data are larger, and the results show a consistent spatial distribution of the isotope ratio. It is further shown that the isotope ratio of the hydrogen molecule can be used to study the degree of dissociation of the injected gas during changeover experiments.

  4. Registration of two double rust resistant germplasms, HA-R12 and HA-R13 for confection sunflower

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasms HA-R12 (Reg. No. ______, PI 673104) and HA-R13 (Reg. No. ______, PI 673105) were developed by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, and released in Jul...

  5. Synergistic interaction of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) with the surface of PLLA/Col/HA and PLLA/HA scaffolds produces rapid osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Raghavendran, Hanumantha Rao Balaji; Mohan, Saktiswaren; Genasan, Krishnamurithy; Murali, Malliga Raman; Naveen, Sangeetha Vasudevaraj; Talebian, Sepehr; McKean, Robert; Kamarul, Tunku

    2016-03-01

    Scaffolds with structural features similar to the extracellular matrix stimulate rapid osteogenic differentiation in favorable microenvironment and with growth factor supplementation. In this study, the osteogenic potential of electrospun poly-l-lactide/hydroxyapatite/collagen (PLLA/Col/HA, PLLA/HA and PLLA/Col) scaffolds were tested in vitro with the supplementation of platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB). Cell attachment and topography, mineralization, extracellular matrix protein localization, and gene expression of the human mesenchymal stromal cells were compared between the fibrous scaffolds PLLA/Col/HA, PLLA/Col, and PLLA/HA. The levels of osteocalcin, calcium, and mineralization were significantly greater in the PLLA/Col/HA and PLLA/HA compared with PLLA/Col. High expression of fibronectin, intracellular adhesion molecule, cadherin, and collagen 1 (Col1) suggests that PLLA/Col/HA and PLLA/HA scaffolds had superior osteoinductivity than PLLA/Col. Additionally, osteopontin, osteocalcin, osterix, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and bone morphogenic protein (BMP2) expression were higher in PLLA/Col/HA and PLLA/HA compared with PLLA/Col. In comparison with PLLA/Col, the PLLA/Col/HA and PLLA/HA scaffolds presented a significant upregulation of the genes Runx2, Col 1, Integrin, osteonectin (ON), bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein (BGALP), osteopontin (OPN), and BMP2. The upregulation of these genes was further increased with PDGF-BB supplementation. These results show that PDGF-BB acts synergistically with PLLA/Col/HA and PLLA/HA to enhance the osteogenic differentiation potential. Therefore, this combination can be used for the rapid expansion of bone marrow stromal cells into bone-forming cells for tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Imaging of Homeostatic, Neoplastic, and Injured Tissues by HA-Based Probes

    PubMed Central

    Veiseh, Mandana; Breadner, Daniel; Ma, Jenny; Akentieva, Natalia; Savani, Rashmin C; Harrison, Rene; Mikilus, David; Collis, Lisa; Gustafson, Stefan; Lee, Ting-Yim; Koropatnick, James; Luyt, Leonard G.; Bissell, Mina J.; Turley, Eva A.

    2013-01-01

    An increase in hyaluronan (HA) synthesis, cellular uptake, and metabolism occurs during the remodeling of tissue microenvironments following injury and during disease processes such as cancer. We hypothesized that multimodality HA-based probes selectively target and detectably accumulate at sites of high HA metabolism, thus providing a flexible imaging strategy for monitoring disease and repair processes. Kinetic analyses confirmed favorable available serum levels of the probe following intravenous (i.v.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) injection. Nuclear (technetium-HA, 99mTc-HA, and iodine-HA, 125I-HA), optical (fluorescent Texas Red-HA, TR-HA), and magnetic resonance (gadolinium-HA, Gd-HA) probes imaged liver (99mTc-HA), breast cancer cells/xenografts (TR-HA, Gd-HA), and vascular injury (125I-HA, TR-HA). Targeting of HA probes to these sites appeared to result from selective HA receptor-dependent localization. Our results suggest that HA-based probes, which do not require polysaccharide backbone modification to achieve favorable half-life and distribution, can detect elevated HA metabolism in homeostatic, injured, and diseased tissues. PMID:22066590

  7. Antibacterial Property of Cold-Sprayed HA-Ag/PEEK Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanpo, Noppakun; Tan, Meng Lu; Cheang, Philip; Khor, K. A.

    2009-03-01

    The antibacterial behavior of HA-Ag (silver-doped hydroxyapatite) nanopowder and their composite coatings were investigated against Escherichia coli (DH5α). HA-Ag nanopowder and PEEK (poly-ether-ether-ketone)-based HA-Ag composite powders were synthesized using in-house powder processing techniques. Bacteria culture assay of HA-Ag nanopowder and their composite powders displayed excellent bacteriostatic activity against E. coli. The antibacterial activity increased with increasing concentration of HA-Ag nanoparticle in these composite powders. These nanocomposite powders were subsequently used as feedstock to generate antibacterial coatings via cold spray technology. The ratios of HA-Ag to PEEK in their composite powders were 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80 (wt.%). Microstructural characterization and phase analysis of feedstock powders and as-deposited coatings were carried out using FESEM/EDX and XRD. Antibacterial nanocomposite HA-Ag/PEEK coatings were successfully deposited using cold spraying parameters of 11-12 bars at preheated air temperature between 150 and 160 °C. These as-sprayed coatings of HA-Ag/PEEK composite powders comprising varying HA-Ag and PEEK ratios retained their inherent antibacterial property as verified from bacterial assay. The results indicated that the antibacterial activity increased with increasing HA-Ag nanopowder concentration in the composite powder feedstock and cold-sprayed coating.

  8. NASA Provides Coast-to-Coast Coverage of Aug. 21 Solar Eclipse (Rocky Mountains)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    On Monday, Aug. 21, NASA provided coast-to-coast coverage of the solar eclipse across America – featuring views of the phenomenon from unique vantage points, including from the ground, from aircraft, and from spacecraft including the ISS, during a live broadcast seen on NASA Television and the agency’s website. This is footage from Great Smoky Mountains National Park (North Carolina and Tennessee).

  9. Highly stretchable HA/SA hydrogels for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chengcheng; Yang, Rui; Hua, Xiaobin; Chen, Hong; Xu, Jumei; Wu, Rile; Cen, Lian

    2018-04-01

    A highly stretchable hyaluronic acid (HA)/sodium alginate (SA) hydrogel was developed in this study based on an interpenetrating polymer network. HA/SA hydrogels were prepared by mixing two polysaccharides followed by covalent crosslinking via epoxy groups on HA molecules and ionic crosslinking via divalent ions on SA chains sequentially. The effect of HA/SA ratio on the pore size and distribution, swelling ratio, elongation and rheological properties as well as protein loading and release properties of HA/SA hydrogels was explored. Moreover, a surface modification method, layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technique, was applied to modify the hydrogel to evaluate the hydrogel's tenability in varying biological performance. It was then shown that the hydrogels had the pore sizes ranging from 100 to 50 μm. With the increase in SA content of the resulting hydrogels, the pore size, swelling ratio, and storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) of the hydrogel all decreased, whereas the in vitro bulk weight loss was fastened. Moreover, elongation at break (EB) value increased first, reached a peak value and then decreased, that is HA8/SA1 (HA:SA = 8:1) had the highest EB value of 417%. This hydrogel could retain 33.2% of the pre-loaded protein even after 72 h, which could be further attenuated when LBL was used to shell the hydrogel. The growth of fibroblasts on HA8/SA1 hydrogel gave preliminary assessment on its suitability as a cellular carrier, while the LBL modified HA8/SA1 hydrogel also favored the anchoring of keratinocytes, further enhancing its cell carrier role for tissue regeneration, especially skin engineering.

  10. NASA Provides Coast-to-Coast Coverage of Aug. 21 Solar Eclipse (Jefferson City, MO)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    On Monday, Aug. 21, NASA provided coast-to-coast coverage of the solar eclipse across America – featuring views of the phenomenon from unique vantage points, including from the ground, from aircraft, and from spacecraft including the ISS, during a live broadcast seen on NASA Television and the agency’s website. This is footage from Jefferson City, Missouri.

  11. Glycosylation of Residue 141 of Subtype H7 Influenza A Hemagglutinin (HA) Affects HA-Pseudovirus Infectivity and Sensitivity to Site A Neutralizing Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Facundo, Esmeralda; Vassell, Russell; Schmeisser, Falko; Weir, Jerry P; Weiss, Carol D; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Human infections with H7 subtype influenza virus have been reported, including an H7N7 outbreak in Netherlands in 2003 and H7N9 infections in China in 2013. Previously, we reported murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize the antigenic site A of H7 hemagglutinin (HA). To better understand protective immunity of H7 vaccines and vaccine candidate selection, we used these mAbs to assess the antigenic relatedness among two H7 HA isolated from past human infections and determine residues that affect susceptibility to neutralization. We found that these mAbs neutralize pseudoviruses bearing HA of A/Shanghai/02/2013(H7N9), but not A/Netherlands/219/2003(H7N7). Glycosylation of the asparagine residue at position 141 (N141) (N133, H3 HA numbering) in the HA of A/Netherlands/219/2003 HA is responsible for this resistance, and it affects the infectivity of HA-pseudoviruses. The presence of threonine at position 143 (T135, H3 HA numbering) in the HA of A/Netherlands/219/2003, rather than an alanine found in the HA of A/Shanghai/02/2013(H7N9), accounts for these differences. These results demonstrate a key role for glycosylation of residue N141 in affecting H7 influenza HA-mediated entry and sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies, which have implications for candidate vaccine design.

  12. Left hippocampus sparing whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT): A planning study.

    PubMed

    Kazda, Tomas; Vrzal, Miroslav; Prochazka, Tomas; Dvoracek, Petr; Burkon, Petr; Pospisil, Petr; Dziacky, Adam; Nikl, Tomas; Jancalek, Radim; Slampa, Pavel; Lakomy, Radek

    2017-12-01

    Unilateral sparing of the dominant (left) hippocampus during whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) could mitigate cognitive decline, especially verbal memory, similar to the widely investigated bilateral hippocampus avoidance (HA-WBRT). The aim of this planning study is dosimetrical comparison of HA-WBRT with only left hippocampus sparing (LHA-WBRT) plans. HA-WBRT plans for 10 patients were prepared in accordance with RTOG 0933 trial and served as baseline for comparisons with several LHA-WBRT plans prepared with an effort: 1) to maintain the same left hippocampus dosimetry ("BEST PTV") and 2) to maintain same dosimetry in planning target volume as in HA-WBRT ("BEST LH"). All HA-WBRT plans met RTOG 0933 protocol criteria with a mean Conformity index 1.09 and mean Homogeneity index (HI) 0.21. Mean right and left hippocampal D100% was 7.8 Gy and 8.5 Gy and mean Dmax 14.0 Gy and 13.8 Gy, respectively. "BEST PTV" plans reduced HI by 31.2% (P=0.005) which is mirrored by lower PTV_D2% (-0.8 Gy, P=0.005) and higher PTV_D98% (+1.3 Gy, P=0.005) as well as decreased optic pathway's Dmax by 1 Gy. In "BEST LH", mean D100% and Dmax for the left hippocampus were significantly reduced by 11.2% (P=0.005) and 10.9% (P=0.005) respectively. LHA-WBRT could improve target coverage and/or further decrease in dose to spared hippocampus. Future clinical trials must confirm whether statistically significant reduction in left hippocampal dose is also clinically significant.

  13. HA Antibody-Mediated FcγRIIIa Activity Is Both Dependent on FcR Engagement and Interactions between HA and Sialic Acids.

    PubMed

    Cox, Freek; Kwaks, Ted; Brandenburg, Boerries; Koldijk, Martin H; Klaren, Vincent; Smal, Bastiaan; Korse, Hans J W M; Geelen, Eric; Tettero, Lisanne; Zuijdgeest, David; Stoop, Esther J M; Saeland, Eirikur; Vogels, Ronald; Friesen, Robert H E; Koudstaal, Wouter; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    Interactions with receptors for the Fc region of IgG (FcγRs) have been shown to contribute to the in vivo protection against influenza A viruses provided by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that bind to the viral hemagglutinin (HA) stem. In particular, Fc-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to contribute to protection by stem-binding bnAbs. Fc-mediated effector functions appear not to contribute to protection provided by strain-specific HA head-binding antibodies. We used a panel of anti-stem and anti-head influenza A and B monoclonal antibodies with identical human IgG1 Fc domains and investigated their ability to mediate ADCC-associated FcγRIIIa activation. Antibodies which do not interfere with sialic acid binding of HA can mediate FcγRIIIa activation. However, the FcγRIIIa activation was inhibited when a mutant HA, unable to bind sialic acids, was used. Antibodies which block sialic acid receptor interactions of HA interfered with FcγRIIIa activation. The inhibition of FcγRIIIa activation by HA head-binding and sialic acid receptor-blocking antibodies was confirmed in plasma samples of H5N1 vaccinated human subjects. Together, these results suggest that in addition to Fc-FcγR binding, interactions between HA and sialic acids on immune cells are required for optimal Fc-mediated effector functions by anti-HA antibodies.

  14. Osteogenic properties of PBLG-g-HA/PLLA nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lan; Yang, Shuang; Miron, Richard J; Wei, Junchao; Zhang, Yufeng; Zhang, Meng

    2014-01-01

    New development of biomaterial scaffolds remains a prominent issue for the regeneration of lost or fractured bone. Of these scaffolds, a number of bioactive polymers have been synthesized and fabricated for diverse biological roles. Although recent evidence has demonstrated that composite scaffolds such as HA/PLLA have improved properties when compared to either HA or PLLA alone, recent investigations have demonstrated that the phase compatibility between HA and PLLA layers is weak preventing optimal enhancement of the mechanical properties and making the composites prone to breakdown. In the present study, poly (γ-benzyl-L-glutamate) modified hydroxyapatite/(poly (L-lactic acid)) (PBLG-g-HA/PLLA) composite scaffolds were fabricated with improved phase compatibility and tested for their osteogenic properties in 18 Wistar female rats by analyzing new bone formation in 3 mm bilateral femur defects in vivo. At time points, 2, 4 and 8 weeks post surgery, bone formation was evaluated by µ-CT and histological analysis by comparing 4 treatment groups; 1) blank defect, 2) PLLA, 3) HA/PLLA and 4) PBLG-g-HA/PLLA scaffolds. The in vivo analysis demonstrated that new bone formation was much more prominent in HA/PLLA and PBLG-g-HA/PLLA groups as depicted by µ-CT, H&E staining and immunohistochemistry for collagen I. TRAP staining was also utilized to determine the influence of osteoclast cell number and staining intensity to the various scaffolds. No significant differences in either staining intensity or osteoclast numbers between all treatment modalities was observed, however blank defects did contain a higher number of osteoclast-like cells. The results from the present study illustrate the potential of PBLG-g-HA/PLLA scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications by demonstrating favorable osteogenic properties.

  15. Effect of humic acid (HA) on sulfonamide sorption by biochars.

    PubMed

    Lian, Fei; Sun, Binbin; Chen, Xi; Zhu, Lingyan; Liu, Zhongqi; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-09-01

    Effect of quantity and fractionation of loaded humic acid (HA) on biochar sorption for sulfonamides was investigated. The HA was applied in two different modes, i.e. pre-coating and co-introduction with sorbate. In pre-coating mode, the polar fractions of HA tended to interact with low-temperature biochars via H-bonding, while the hydrophobic fractions were likely to be adsorbed by high-temperature biochars through hydrophobic and π-π interactions, leading to different composition and structure of the HA adlayers. The influences of HA fractionation on biochar sorption for sulfonamides varied significantly, depending on the nature of interaction between HA fraction and sorbate. Meanwhile, co-introduction of HA with sulfonamides revealed that the effect of HA on sulfonamide sorption was also dependent on HA concentration. These findings suggest that the amount and fractionation of adsorbed HA are tailored by the surface properties of underlying biochars, which differently affect the sorption for organic contaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. NASA Provides Coast-to-Coast Coverage of Aug. 21 Solar Eclipse (Moon's Shadow Seen From Gulfstream III Aircraft, Off Oregon Coast)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    On Monday, Aug. 21 NASA provided coast-to-coast coverage of the solar eclipse across America- featuring views of the phenomenon from unique vantage points, including from the ground, from aircraft, and from spacecraft including the ISS, during live broadcast seen on NASA Television and the agency’s website. Footage of the moon's shadow moving across the planet is captured from NASA's Gulfstream III aircraft as it flew in the skies off the coast of Oregon during the Aug. 21 solar eclipse

  17. Changeable HA to improve MIPv6 protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qing-gui

    2015-12-01

    For mobile IPv6, home agent (HA) plays an important role. Each mobile node (MN) has a home IP address, it will be not changeable. Also, the home agent (HA) of MN is not changeable. This rule provides the convenient for the ongoing communication without interruption. But it has some obvious drawbacks. Here, the new variable HA scheme is proposed. Every MN has a dynamic cache table, recording the information such as its home address, care-of address, and history address etc. If the accumulated time in one region exceeds that in the hometown, the foreign agent (FA) could become home agent (HA), the home agent could become history agent. Later, the performance of the new protocol is simulated with OPNET software, whose result shows the performance of the new protocol works better than that of the traditional protocol.

  18. NASA Provides Coast-to-Coast Coverage of Aug. 21 Solar Eclipse (Exploratorium, Madras, OR)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    On Monday, Aug. 21, NASA provided coast-to-coast coverage of the solar eclipse across America – featuring views of the phenomenon from unique vantage points, including from the ground, from aircraft, and from spacecraft including the ISS, during a live broadcast seen on NASA Television and the agency’s website. This is footage from the Exploratorium in Madras, Oregon.

  19. NASA Provides Coast-to-Coast Coverage of Aug. 21 Solar Eclipse (Idaho Falls, ID)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    On Monday, Aug. 21, NASA provided coast-to-coast coverage of the solar eclipse across America – featuring views of the phenomenon from unique vantage points, including from the ground, from aircraft, and from spacecraft including the ISS, during a live broadcast seen on NASA Television and the agency’s website. This is footage from the Museum of Idaho, in Idaho Falls.

  20. NASA Provides Coast-to-Coast Coverage of Aug. 21 Solar Eclipse (Solar Dynamics Observatory)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    On Monday, Aug. 21, NASA provided coast-to-coast coverage of the solar eclipse across America – featuring views of the phenomenon from unique vantage points, including from the ground, from aircraft, and from spacecraft including the ISS, during a live broadcast seen on NASA Television and the agency’s website. This is footage from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory.

  1. Registration of two confection sunflower germplasm Lines, HA-R10 and HA-R11, Resistant to sunflower rust

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm lines, HA-R10 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670043) and HA-R11 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670044) were developed by the USDA-ARS Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and released December, 20...

  2. Assessment of multi-criteria optimization (MCO) for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in hippocampal avoidance whole brain radiation therapy (HA-WBRT).

    PubMed

    Zieminski, Stephen; Khandekar, Melin; Wang, Yi

    2018-03-01

    This study compared the dosimetric performance of (a) volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with standard optimization (STD) and (b) multi-criteria optimization (MCO) to (c) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with MCO for hippocampal avoidance whole brain radiation therapy (HA-WBRT) in RayStation treatment planning system (TPS). Ten HA-WBRT patients previously treated with MCO-IMRT or MCO-VMAT on an Elekta Infinity accelerator with Agility multileaf collimators (5-mm leaves) were re-planned for the other two modalities. All patients received 30 Gy in 15 fractions to the planning target volume (PTV), namely, PTV30 expanded with a 2-mm margin from the whole brain excluding hippocampus with margin. The patients all had metastatic lesions (up to 12) of variable sizes and proximity to the hippocampus, treated with an additional 7.5 Gy from a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) to PTV37.5. The IMRT plans used eight to eleven non-coplanar fields, whereas the VMAT plans used two coplanar full arcs and a vertex half arc. The averaged target coverage, dose to organs-at-risk (OARs) and monitor unit provided by the three modalities were compared, and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed. MCO-VMAT provided statistically significant reduction of D100 of hippocampus compared to STD-VMAT, and Dmax of cochleas compared to MCO-IMRT. With statistical significance, MCO-VMAT improved V30 of PTV30 by 14.2% and 4.8%, respectively, compared to MCO-IMRT and STD-VMAT. It also raised D95 of PTV37.5 by 0.4 Gy compared to both MCO-IMRT and STD-VMAT. Improved plan quality parameters such as a decrease in overall plan Dmax and total monitor units (MU) were also observed for MCO-VMAT. MCO-VMAT is found to be the optimal modality for HA-WBRT in terms of PTV coverage, OAR sparing and delivery efficiency, compared to MCO-IMRT or STD-VMAT. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of

  3. Putative suppressing effect of IgG Fc-conjugated haemagglutinin (HA) stalk of influenza virus H7N9 on the neutralizing immunogenicity of Fc-conjugated HA head: implication for rational design of HA-based influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    He, B; Xia, S; Yu, F; Fu, Y; Li, W; Wang, Q; Lu, L; Jiang, S

    2016-02-01

    The emergence of influenza A H7N9 in infection has posed a great threat to public health globally. Poor immunogenicity of H7N9 haemagglutinin (HA) is a major obstacle to the development of an effective H7N9 vaccine. Here, we found that the vaccine containing the H7HA head conjugated with IgG Fc (Hd-Fc) induced strong neutralizing antibody responses and protection against H7N9 infection, whilst the Fc-conjugated H7HA stalk (St-Fc)-based vaccine could not induce neutralizing antibodies, although the St-Fc-immunized mice were partially protected. The vaccines containing the full-length extracellular domain of HA conjugated with Fc and the mixture of Hd-Fc plus St-Fc induced significantly lower neutralizing antibody and haemagglutination inhibition titres than the Hd-Fc-based vaccine. These results suggest that the St-Fc may have inhibitory effects on the neutralizing immunogenicity of Hd-Fc. Therefore, the neutralizing domain(s), such as the receptor-binding domain, in the HA head should be kept and the non-neutralizing domain(s) in the HA stalk with the ability to potentially suppress the neutralizing immunogenicity of HA head should be removed from Fc-conjugated HA-based influenza vaccines to increase the neutralizing antibody response.

  4. International Space Station Research Plan, Assembly Sequence Rev., F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    muscles ü Higher risk for bone fracture upon return to Earth ü Potential for “slipped discs” ü Diminished ability to quickly respond to emergencies...Office of Biological and Physical Research International Space Station Research Plan Assembly Sequence Rev. F, Aug. 2000l . , . Report...Organization Name(s) and Address(es) NASA, Office of Biological and Physical Research Performing Organization Report Number Sponsoring/Monitoring Agency

  5. Generation of recombinant pandemic H1N1 influenza virus with the HA cleavable by bromelain and identification of the residues influencing HA bromelain cleavage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weijia; Suguitan, Amorsolo L; Zengel, James; Chen, Zhongying; Jin, Hong

    2012-01-20

    The proteolytic enzyme bromelain has been traditionally used to cleave the hemagglutinin (HA) protein at the C-terminus of the HA2 region to release the HA proteins from influenza virions. The bromelain cleaved HA (BHA) has been routinely used as an antigen to generate antiserum that is essential for influenza vaccine product release. The HA of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A/California/7/2009 (CA09) virus could not be cleaved efficiently by bromelain. To ensure timely delivery of BHA for antiserum production, we generated a chimeric virus that contained the HA1 region from CA09 and the HA2 region from the seasonal H1N1 A/South Dakota/6/2007 (SD07) virus that is cleavable by bromelain. The BHA from this chimeric virus was antigenically identical to CA09 and induced high levels of HA-specific antibodies and protected ferrets from wild-type H1N1 CA09 virus challenge. To determine the molecular basis of inefficient cleavage of CA09 HA by bromelain, the amino acids that differed between the HA2 of CA09 and SD07 were introduced into recombinant CA09 virus to assess their effect on bromelain cleavage. The D373N or E374G substitution in the HA2 stalk region of CA09 HA enabled efficient cleavage of CA09 HA by bromelain. Sequence analysis of the pandemic H1N1-like viruses isolated from 2010 revealed emergence of the E374K change. We found that K374 enabled the HA to be cleaved by bromelain and confirmed that the 374 residue is critical for HA bromelain cleavage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Strategic Goals Implementation Plan V3.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Management/Core Business Mission (WSLM/CBM). (Nov 07) Demonstrate real-time data access from 12 Major Defense Acquisition Programs. (Feb 08) Initiate...72 Outcome/ Success Initiatives/OPR 3 - 6 mos. 12 mos. 18 mos. 24 mos. Metrics 6.1.3 Manage AT&L Defense Agencies like the businesses they...Feb and Aug each year through (2011) ✓ Conduct mid- year review of BRAC Business Plans. (Mar 08 and annually) 7.1.2 Sustain Global Defense Posture

  7. Preparation and characterization of bio-composite PEEK/nHA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y. S.; Bian, C. C.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Zhao, Y.; Yang, L.

    2017-01-01

    PEEK/nHA composite material, with excellent mechanical property as polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and biological activity as hydroxyapatite (HA), has attracted wide attention of medical experts and materials science experts. The addition of hydroxyapatite was the decisive factor for biological activity in PEEK/nHA composite. In this paper, acicular nanohydroxyapatite was prepared by chemical precipitation method with Ca(NO3)2, (NH4)2HPO4 as raw material; PEEK/nHA composite was prepared by solution blending and vacuum sintering method. The composite was characterized with FT-IR, XRD, DSC, TG and mechanical property test. Results showed that the composite has good thermal stability and compressive property when the mass ratio of PEEK to nHA is 10:3; and high nHA content can improve the biological activity of the composite, which can meet the basic requirements for bone tissue engineering scaffold.

  8. Hyaluronan (HA) interacting proteins RHAMM and hyaluronidase impact prostate cancer cell behavior and invadopodia formation in 3D HA-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Gurski, Lisa A; Xu, Xian; Labrada, Lyana N; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Xiao, Longxi; van Golen, Kenneth L; Jia, Xinqiao; Farach-Carson, Mary C

    2012-01-01

    To study the individual functions of hyaluronan interacting proteins in prostate cancer (PCa) motility through connective tissues, we developed a novel three-dimensional (3D) hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel assay that provides a flexible, quantifiable, and physiologically relevant alternative to current methods. Invasion in this system reflects the prevalence of HA in connective tissues and its role in the promotion of cancer cell motility and tissue invasion, making the system ideal to study invasion through bone marrow or other HA-rich connective tissues. The bio-compatible cross-linking process we used allows for direct encapsulation of cancer cells within the gel where they adopt a distinct, cluster-like morphology. Metastatic PCa cells in these hydrogels develop fingerlike structures, "invadopodia", consistent with their invasive properties. The number of invadopodia, as well as cluster size, shape, and convergence, can provide a quantifiable measure of invasive potential. Among candidate hyaluronan interacting proteins that could be responsible for the behavior we observed, we found that culture in the HA hydrogel triggers invasive PCa cells to differentially express and localize receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (RHAMM)/CD168 which, in the absence of CD44, appears to contribute to PCa motility and invasion by interacting with the HA hydrogel components. PCa cell invasion through the HA hydrogel also was found to depend on the activity of hyaluronidases. Studies shown here reveal that while hyaluronidase activity is necessary for invadopodia and inter-connecting cluster formation, activity alone is not sufficient for acquisition of invasiveness to occur. We therefore suggest that development of invasive behavior in 3D HA-based systems requires development of additional cellular features, such as activation of motility associated pathways that regulate formation of invadopodia. Thus, we report development of a 3D system amenable to dissection of

  9. NASA Provides Coast-to-Coast Coverage of Aug. 21 Solar Eclipse (The International Space Station)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    On Monday, Aug. 21, NASA provided coast-to-coast coverage of the solar eclipse across America – featuring views of the phenomenon from unique vantage points, including from the ground, from aircraft, and from spacecraft including the ISS, during a live broadcast seen on NASA Television and the agency’s website. This is footage from The International Space Station.

  10. 7 CFR 1924.5 - Planning development work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Planning development work. 1924.5 Section 1924.5... Planning development work. (a) Extent of development. For an FO loan, the plans for development will... for development work. The total cash cost of all planned development will be shown on Form FmHA or its...

  11. Influence of insertion site of the avian influenza virus haemagglutinin (HA) gene within the Newcastle disease virus genome on HA expression.

    PubMed

    Ramp, Kristina; Skiba, Martin; Karger, Axel; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Römer-Oberdörfer, Angela

    2011-02-01

    Members of the order Mononegavirales express their genes in a transcription gradient from 3' to 5'. To assess how this impacts on expression of a foreign transgene, the haemagglutinin (HA) of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A/chicken/Vietnam/P41/05 (subtype H5N1) was inserted between the phosphoprotein (P) and matrix protein (M), M and fusion protein (F), or F and haemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein (HN) genes of attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) Clone 30. In addition, the gene encoding the neuraminidase of HPAIV A/duck/Vietnam/TG24-01/05 (subtype H5N1) was inserted into the NDV genome either alone or in combination with the HA gene. All recombinants replicated well in embryonated chicken eggs. The expression levels of HA-specific mRNA and protein were quantified by Northern blot analysis and mass spectrometry, with good correlation. HA expression levels differed only moderately and were highest in the recombinant carrying the HA insertion between the F and HN genes of NDV.

  12. Osteoinductive-nanoscaled silk/HA composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering application.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaowei; Bai, Shumeng; Lu, Qiang; Liu, Xi; Liu, Shanshan; Zhu, Hesun

    2015-10-01

    Osteoinductive silk/hydroxyapatite (HA) composite scaffolds for bone regeneration were prepared by combining silk with HA/silk core-shell nanoparticles. The HA/silk nanoparticles were directly dispersed in silk solution to form uniform silk/HA blend and then composite scaffolds after a freeze-drying process. The HA/silk nanoparticles uniformly distributed in silk scaffolds at nanometer scale at varying HA content up to 40%, and substantially improved the compressive strength of the scaffolds produced. Rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) were cultured in these scaffolds and cell proliferation was analyzed by confocal microscopy and DNA assay. Gene expression and biochemical assays were employed to study the influence of increasing HA/silk nanoparticles on in vitro osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs. Increasing HA/silk nanoparticles inside silk scaffolds improved the growth and osteogenic capability of rBMSCs in the absence of osteogenic growth factors, and also significantly increased the calcium and collagen I deposition. In addition, compared to silk/HA composite scaffolds containing HA aggregates, the scaffolds loaded with HA/silk nanoparticles showed remarkably higher stiffness and better osteogenic property at same HA content, implying a preferable microenvironment for rBMSCs. These results suggest that the osteogenic property as well as mechanical property of silk/HA scaffolds could be further improved through fabricating their structure and topography at nanometer scale, providing more suitable systems for bone regeneration. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. High strength yttria-reinforced HA scaffolds fabricated via honeycomb ceramic extrusion.

    PubMed

    Elbadawi, M; Shbeh, M

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of hydroxyapatite (HA) reinforced with yttria on porous scaffolds fabricated via honeycomb ceramic extrusion. Yttria was selected as it has been demonstrated to toughen other ceramics. Moreover, yttria has been surmised to suppress dehydroxylation in HA, a characteristic that prefigures decomposition thereof during sintering into mechanically weaker phases. However, the compressive strength of yttria-reinforced hydroxyapatite (Y-HA) porous scaffolds has hitherto not been reported. Y-HA was synthesised by calcining a commercially available HA with 10wt% yttria at 1000°C. Y-HA was then fabricated into porous scaffolds using an in-house honeycomb extruder, and subsequently sintered at 1200 and 1250°C. The results were compared to the uncalcined as-received commercial powder (AR-HA) and calcined pure HA powder at 1000°C (C-HA). It was discovered that calcination alone caused marked improvements to the stoichiometry, thermal stability, porosity and compressive strength of scaffolds. The improvements were ascribed to the calcined powders with less susceptibility to both agglomeration and enhanced densification. Still, differences were observed between C-HA and Y-HA at 1250°C. The compressive strength increased from 105.9 to 127.3MPa, a larger microporosity was descried and the HA matrix in Y-HA was more stoichiometric. The latter was confirmed by XRD and EDS analyses. Therefore, it was concluded that the reinforcing of hydroxyapatite with yttria improved the compressive strength and suppressed dehydroxylation of porous HA scaffolds. In addition, the compressive strength achieved demonstrated great potential for load-bearing application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The DELPHI expert process of the German umbrella project AUGE as basis for recommendations to CO2 storage in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilz, Peter; Schoebel, Birgit; Liebscher, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Within the GEOTECHNOLOGIEN funding scheme for geological CO2 storage by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) in Germany 33 projects (135 subprojects) have been funded with a total budget of 58 Mio € (excluding industry funds) from 2005 to 2014. In 2012, the German parliament passed the transposition of the EU CCS Directive 2009/31/EG into the national "Carbon Dioxide Storage Law" (KSpG). Annex 1 of the KSpG provides a description of criteria for the characterization and assessment of a potential CO2 storage site. Annex 2 describes the expected monitoring system of a CO2 storage site. The criteria given in the appendices are of general nature, which reflects (1) that the CO2 storage technology is still being developed and (2) that site specific aspects needs to be considered. In 2012 an umbrella project called AUGE has been launched in order to compile and summarize the results of the GEOTECHNOLOGIEN projects to underpin the two Annexes scientifically. By integration of the individual project results AUGE aims at derive recommendations for the review and implementation of the KSpG. The recommendations shall be drafted based on a common ground of science, public authorities and industry. Therefore, the AUGE project includes a Delphi expert process as an essential part. It is realized in cooperation with the company COMPARE Consulting, Göppingen. The implementation of the Delphi-Process is organized in three steps: • After the technical preparation of a standardized questionnaire (2014/2015) it was sent to 129 experts from science, industry and public authorities in Germany. After a few weeks of consideration time, 40 persons (30 %) had decided to participate actively in this inquiry. • Following the results of the first interrogation campaign, the second survey campaign started at the end of 2015. The same list of questions was used, complemented with the results of the first inquiry campaign. The intention is reduce the variance of the

  15. Sequential modelling of ICRF wave near RF fields and asymptotic RF sheaths description for AUG ICRF antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquot, Jonathan; Tierens, Wouter; Zhang, Wei; Bobkov, Volodymyr; Colas, Laurent; Noterdaeme, Jean-Marie

    2017-10-01

    A sequence of simulations is performed with RAPLICASOL and SSWICH to compare two AUG ICRF antennas. RAPLICASOL outputs have been used as input to SSWICH-SW for the AUG ICRF antennas. Using parallel electric field maps and the scattering matrix produced by RAPLICASOL, SSWICH-SW, reduced to its asymptotic part, is able to produce a 2D radial/poloidal map of the DC plasma potential accounting for the antenna input settings (total power, power balance, phasing). Two models of antennas are compared: 2-strap antenna vs 3-strap antenna. The 2D DC potential structures are correlated to structures of the parallel electric field map for different phasing and power balance. The overall DC plasma potential on the 3-strap antenna is lower due to better global RF currents compensation. Spatial proximity between regions of high RF electric field and regions where high DC plasma potentials are observed is an important factor for sheath rectification.

  16. 5’-Terminal AUGs in Escherichia coli mRNAs with Shine-Dalgarno Sequences: Identification and Analysis of Their Roles in Non-Canonical Translation Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Heather J.; Fleming, Ian M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the Escherichia coli transcriptome identified a unique subset of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that contain a conventional untranslated leader and Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence upstream of the gene’s start codon while also containing an AUG triplet at the mRNA’s 5’- terminus (5’-uAUG). Fusion of the coding sequence specified by the 5’-terminal putative AUG start codon to a lacZ reporter gene, as well as primer extension inhibition assays, reveal that the majority of the 5’-terminal upstream open reading frames (5’-uORFs) tested support some level of lacZ translation, indicating that these mRNAs can function both as leaderless and canonical SD-leadered mRNAs. Although some of the uORFs were expressed at low levels, others were expressed at levels close to that of the respective downstream genes and as high as the naturally leaderless cI mRNA of bacteriophage λ. These 5’-terminal uORFs potentially encode peptides of varying lengths, but their functions, if any, are unknown. In an effort to determine whether expression from the 5’-terminal uORFs impact expression of the immediately downstream cistron, we examined expression from the downstream coding sequence after mutations were introduced that inhibit efficient 5’-uORF translation. These mutations were found to affect expression from the downstream cistrons to varying degrees, suggesting that some 5’-uORFs may play roles in downstream regulation. Since the 5’-uAUGs found on these conventionally leadered mRNAs can function to bind ribosomes and initiate translation, this indicates that canonical mRNAs containing 5’-uAUGs should be examined for their potential to function also as leaderless mRNAs. PMID:27467758

  17. Transport features of nano-hydroxylapatite (n-HA) embedded silicone rubber (SR) systems: influence of SR/n-HA interaction, degree of reinforcement and morphology.

    PubMed

    M, Bindu; G, Unnikrishnan

    2017-09-27

    We report the transport characteristics of silicone rubber/nano-hydroxylapatite (SR/n-HA) systems at room temperature with reference to the effects of n-HA loading, morphology and penetrant nature, using toluene, xylene, ethyl acetate and butyl acetate in the liquid phase and methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol and butanol in the vapour phase as probe molecules. The interaction between the n-HA particles and SR matrix has been confirmed by FTIR analysis. As the n-HA content in the SR matrix increased, the penetrant uptake has been found to decrease. The observations have been correlated with the density and void content of the systems. Scanning electron microscopy images have been found to be complementary to the observed transport features. The reinforcement effect of n-HA particles on the SR matrix has been verified by Kraus equation. Molecular mass between the cross links has been observed to decrease with an increase in n-HA loading. The results have been compared with affine, phantom network, parallel, series and Maxwell models. The transport data have been complemented by observations on biological fluid uptake with urea, d-glucose, KI, saline water, phosphate buffer and artificial urine as the media.

  18. Stalking influenza by vaccination with pre-fusion headless HA mini-stem.

    PubMed

    Valkenburg, Sophie A; Mallajosyula, V Vamsee Aditya; Li, Olive T W; Chin, Alex W H; Carnell, George; Temperton, Nigel; Varadarajan, Raghavan; Poon, Leo L M

    2016-03-07

    Inaccuracies in prediction of circulating viral strain genotypes and the possibility of novel reassortants causing a pandemic outbreak necessitate the development of an anti-influenza vaccine with increased breadth of protection and potential for rapid production and deployment. The hemagglutinin (HA) stem is a promising target for universal influenza vaccine as stem-specific antibodies have the potential to be broadly cross-reactive towards different HA subtypes. Here, we report the design of a bacterially expressed polypeptide that mimics a H5 HA stem by protein minimization to focus the antibody response towards the HA stem. The HA mini-stem folds as a trimer mimicking the HA prefusion conformation. It is resistant to thermal/chemical stress, and it binds to conformation-specific, HA stem-directed broadly neutralizing antibodies with high affinity. Mice vaccinated with the group 1 HA mini-stems are protected from morbidity and mortality against lethal challenge by both group 1 (H5 and H1) and group 2 (H3) influenza viruses, the first report of cross-group protection. Passive transfer of immune serum demonstrates the protection is mediated by stem-specific antibodies. Furthermore, antibodies induced by these HA stems have broad HA reactivity, yet they do not have antibody-dependent enhancement activity.

  19. 48 CFR 1052.234-71 - Notice of Earned Value Management System-Post-Award IBR (Core) AUG 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Management System-Post-Award IBR (Core) AUG 2011 1052.234-71 Section 1052.234-71 Federal Acquisition... Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1052.234-71 Notice of Earned Value Management System—Post-Award IBR... require the contractor to use an earned value management system (EVMS) and for which the Government...

  20. 48 CFR 1052.234-70 - Notice of Earned Value Management System-Pre-Award IBR (Core) AUG 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Management System-Pre-Award IBR (Core) AUG 2011 1052.234-70 Section 1052.234-70 Federal Acquisition... Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1052.234-70 Notice of Earned Value Management System—Pre-Award IBR (Core... require the Contractor to use an earned value management system (EVMS) and for which the Government...

  1. 48 CFR 1052.234-70 - Notice of Earned Value Management System-Pre-Award IBR (Core) AUG 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Management System-Pre-Award IBR (Core) AUG 2011 1052.234-70 Section 1052.234-70 Federal Acquisition... Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1052.234-70 Notice of Earned Value Management System—Pre-Award IBR (Core... require the Contractor to use an earned value management system (EVMS) and for which the Government...

  2. 48 CFR 1052.234-71 - Notice of Earned Value Management System-Post-Award IBR (Core) AUG 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Management System-Post-Award IBR (Core) AUG 2011 1052.234-71 Section 1052.234-71 Federal Acquisition... Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1052.234-71 Notice of Earned Value Management System—Post-Award IBR... require the contractor to use an earned value management system (EVMS) and for which the Government...

  3. 48 CFR 1052.234-71 - Notice of Earned Value Management System-Post-Award IBR (Core) AUG 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Management System-Post-Award IBR (Core) AUG 2011 1052.234-71 Section 1052.234-71 Federal Acquisition... Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1052.234-71 Notice of Earned Value Management System—Post-Award IBR... require the contractor to use an earned value management system (EVMS) and for which the Government...

  4. 48 CFR 1052.234-70 - Notice of Earned Value Management System-Pre-Award IBR (Core) AUG 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Management System-Pre-Award IBR (Core) AUG 2011 1052.234-70 Section 1052.234-70 Federal Acquisition... Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1052.234-70 Notice of Earned Value Management System—Pre-Award IBR (Core... require the Contractor to use an earned value management system (EVMS) and for which the Government...

  5. 48 CFR 1052.234-71 - Notice of Earned Value Management System-Post-Award IBR (Core) AUG 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Management System-Post-Award IBR (Core) AUG 2011 1052.234-71 Section 1052.234-71 Federal Acquisition... Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1052.234-71 Notice of Earned Value Management System—Post-Award IBR... require the contractor to use an earned value management system (EVMS) and for which the Government...

  6. 48 CFR 1052.234-70 - Notice of Earned Value Management System-Pre-Award IBR (Core) AUG 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Management System-Pre-Award IBR (Core) AUG 2011 1052.234-70 Section 1052.234-70 Federal Acquisition... Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1052.234-70 Notice of Earned Value Management System—Pre-Award IBR (Core... require the Contractor to use an earned value management system (EVMS) and for which the Government...

  7. Preparation, optimization and property of PVA-HA/PAA composite hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Liu, Jinlong; Yang, Xuehui; Zhang, Dekun

    2017-09-01

    PVA-HA/PAA composite hydrogel is prepared by freezing-thawing, PEG dehydration and annealing method. Orthogonal design method is used to choose the optimization combination. Results showed that HA and PVA have the maximum effect on water content. PVA and freezing-thawing cycles have the maximum effect on creep resistance and stress relaxation rate of hydrogel. Annealing temperature and freezing-thawing cycles have the maximum effect on compressive elastic modulus of hydrogel. Comparing with the water content and mechanical properties of 16 kinds of combination, PVA-HA/PAA composite hydrogel with freezing-thawing cycles of 3, annealing temperature of 120°C, PVA of 16%, HA of 2%, PAA of 4% has the optimization comprehensive properties. PVA-HA/PAA composite hydrogel has a porous network structure. There are some interactions between PVA, HA and PAA in hydrogel and the properties of hydrogel are strengthened. The annealing treatment improves the crystalline and crosslinking of hydrogel. Therefore, the annealing PVA-HA/PAA composite hydrogel has good thermostability, strength and mechanical properties. It also has good lubrication property and its friction coefficient is relative low. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Construction of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) block loaded with cultured chondrocytes].

    PubMed

    Yan, M; Dang, G

    1999-07-01

    To construct a kind of bone healing enhancing implant with cultured chondrocytes bound to hydroxyapatite (HA). Chondrocytes were obtained from the costicartilage of rat and were cultured on the porous HA blocks, 3 mm x 3 mm x 4 mm size, for three and seven days. Scanning electron micrograph was taken to show whether the cells grew outside and inside the pore of HA block. The cells cultured on tiny glass sheet for 2 days were used to prove where the cells come from by in situ hybridization technique with alpha1 (II) cDNA probe. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the pores of the HA surface and inside of the blocks are filled with cultured cells, especially the longer cultured block. The cells were chondrocytes confirmed by in situ hybridization. The porous HA can be used as cell cultured substrate and chondrocyte can adhere and proliferate inside the porous HA block.

  9. The Efficacy and Safety of HA IDF Plus (with Lidocaine) Versus HA IDF (Without Lidocaine) in Nasolabial Folds Injection: A Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Split-Face Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Hun; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Park, Eun-Soo

    2017-04-01

    Injection-related pain of dermal fillers is a consistent and bothersome problem for patients undergoing soft tissue augmentation. Reducing the pain could improve overall patient satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to compare the pain relief, efficacy, and safety of HA IDF plus containing lidocaine with HA IDF without lidocaine during correction of nasolabial folds (NLFs). Sixty-two subjects were enrolled in a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, split-face study of HA IDF plus and HA IDF for NLF correction. For split-face study, HA IDF plus was injected to one side of NLF, and HA IDF was injected to the other side. The first evaluation variable was the injection site pain measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). The second evaluation variables included the global aesthetic improvement scale, wrinkle severity rating scale, and adverse events. Immediately after injection, 91.94% of subjects experienced at least 10 mm decrease in VAS scores at the side injected with HA IDF plus compared with HA IDF, and the rate of subjects is statistically significant. The two fillers were not significantly different in safety profile or wrinkle correction during the follow-up visit. HA IDF plus significantly reduced the injection-related pain during NLFs correction compared with HA IDF without altering clinical outcomes or safety. Both HA IDF plus and HA IDF were considerably tolerated and most adverse reactions were mild and transient. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  10. NASA Provides Coast-to-Coast Coverage of Aug. 21 Solar Eclipse (Clarksville, TN – Austin Peay)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    On Monday, Aug. 21, NASA provided coast-to-coast coverage of the solar eclipse across America – featuring views of the phenomenon from unique vantage points, including from the ground, from aircraft, and from spacecraft including the ISS, during a live broadcast seen on NASA Television and the agency’s website. This is footage from Austin Peay State University, in Clarksville, TN.

  11. Surface characterization of colloidal-sol gel derived biphasic HA/FA coatings.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kui; Zhang, Sam; Weng, Wenjian

    2007-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) powders are ultrasonically dispersed in the precursor of fluoridated hydroxyapatite (FHA) or fluorapatite (FA) to form a "colloidal sol". HA/FA biphasic coatings are prepared on Ti6Al4V substrate via dip coating, 150 degrees C drying and 600 degrees C firing. The coatings show homogenous distribution of HA particles in the FA matrix. The relative phase proportion can be tailored by the amount of HA in the colloidal sol. The surfaces of the coatings consist of two kinds of distinct domains: HA and FA, resulting in a compositionally heterogeneous surface. The biphasic coating surface becomes increasingly rougher with HA powders, from around 200 nm of pure FA to 400-600 nm in Ra of biphasic coatings. The rougher biphasic HA/FA surfaces with chemically controllable domains will favor cell attachment, apatite layer deposition and necessary dissolution in clinical applications.

  12. Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance (PL&HA) Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Carson, John M., III

    2016-01-01

    The Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance (PL&HA) domain addresses the development, integration, testing, and spaceflight infusion of sensing, processing, and GN&C (Guidance, Navigation and Control) functions critical to the success and safety of future human and robotic exploration missions. PL&HA sensors also have applications to other mission events, such as rendezvous and docking.

  13. Promotion of PDT efficacy by HA14-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, David; Price, Michael; Haagenson, Kelly

    2008-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can target the members of the Bcl-2 family that protect cells from the initiation of apoptosis, a well-known death pathway. We examined the ability of HA14-1, a non-peptidic Bcl-2/Bcl-xL antagonist, to promote the efficacy of PDT. The photosensitizer was the porphycene CPO that causes photodamage to Bcl-2 located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Using low PDT doses together with LD5-20 concentrations of HA14-1, we found a marked synergistic effect. These results indicate that such an effect occurs when PDT is coupled with pharmacologic suppression of Bcl-2 function. HA14-1 is an unstable compound that decomposes in aqueous solution. This resulted in a rapid (~60 sec) burst of fluorescence that closely mimicked the properties of many fluorescent probes, but was traced to an effect produced when HA14-1 contacts serum proteins. Other Bcl-2 antagonists that do not produce any intrinsic fluorescence also promoted PDT efficacy. Moreover, briefly storing HA14-1 in aqueous medium until the fluorescent burst is over does not inhibit a subsequent synergistic promotion of PDT efficacy. We conclude that Bcl-2 antagonists can promote the efficacy of low-dose PDT in a manner unrelated to ROS production. The most likely explanation is an enhanced loss of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family function such that a threshold for initiation of apoptosis is crossed.

  14. HA-1077 inhibits cell migration/invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Moreira Carboni, Simone de Sales Costa; Rodrigues Lima, Nathália Alves; Pinheiro, Nanci Mendes; Tavares-Murta, Beatriz Martins; Crema, Virgínia Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most malignant lesion occurring in the head and neck. The Rho-kinases (ROCKs), effectors of Rho proteins, are involved in actin cytoskeletal organization, cell migration, and maintenance cortex. The HA-1077 inhibits the ROCKs. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of treatment with HA-1077 on cell motility in SCC-4 cells, a cell line originating from human OSCC. F-actin of SCC-4 cells treated or not with HA-1077 (1, 50 and 100 μmol/l), and also HA-1077 50 μmol/l and/or inhibitors Y-27632 30 μmol/l was stained with rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin and analyzed by confocal microscopy. Approximately 1×10 cells/well, control and treated with HA-1077 (25, 50, and 100 μmol/l) were added to the migration plate assay. In addition, 1×10 cells/well, control and treated with HA-1077 50 μmol/l, were tested by invasion assays (plate coated with Matrigel). The inhibition of ROCKs with HA-1077 and/or Y-27632 leads to morphological changes, affecting the organization of the actin. The inhibitory effect of HA-1077 (P<0.0001) was dose dependent as the number of cells migrated at 100 μmol/l was statistically different: 25 μmol/l (P<0.0001) and 50 μmol/l (P<0.01). The number of cells treated with HA-1077 50 μmol/l decreased compared with control cells that invaded through Matrigel (P<0.0001). This study shows an inhibitory effect of HA-1077 on cell migration and invasion, suggesting that the use of HA-1077 can be a potential therapy for OSCC.

  15. Automatic planning on hippocampal avoidance whole-brain radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Zheng, Dandan; Zhang, Chi; Ma, Rongtao; Bennion, Nathan R; Lei, Yu; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Enke, Charles A; Zhou, Sumin

    2017-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that radiation-induced damage to the hippocampus plays a role in neurocognitive decline for patients receiving whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT). Hippocampal avoidance whole-brain radiotherapy (HA-WBRT) has been proposed to reduce the putative neurocognitive deficits by limiting the dose to the hippocampus. However, urgency of palliation for patients as well as the complexities of the treatment planning may be barriers to protocol enrollment to accumulate further clinical evidence. This warrants expedited quality planning of HA-WBRT. Pinnacle 3 Automatic treatment planning was designed to increase planning efficiency while maintaining or improving plan quality and consistency. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the performance of the Pinnacle 3 Auto-Planning on HA-WBRT treatment planning. Ten patients previously treated for brain metastases were selected. Hippocampal volumes were contoured on T1 magnetic resonance (MR) images, and planning target volumes (PTVs) were generated based on RTOG0933. The following 2 types of plans were generated by Pinnacle 3 Auto-Planning: the one with 2 coplanar volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) arcs and the other with 9-field noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). D 2% and D 98% of PTV were used to calculate homogeneity index (HI). HI and Paddick Conformity index (CI) of PTV as well as D 100% and D max of the hippocampus were used to evaluate the plan quality. All the auto-plans met the dose coverage and constraint objectives based on RTOG0933. The auto-plans eliminated the necessity of generating pseudostructures by the planners, and it required little manual intervention which expedited the planning process. IMRT quality assurance (QA) results also suggest that all the auto-plans are practically acceptable on delivery. Pinnacle 3 Auto-Planning generates acceptable plans by RTOG0933 criteria without time-consuming planning process. The expedited quality planning achieved by

  16. Automatic planning on hippocampal avoidance whole-brain radiotherapy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wang, Shuo, E-mail: shuo0220@gmail.com; Zheng, Dandan; Zhang, Chi

    Mounting evidence suggests that radiation-induced damage to the hippocampus plays a role in neurocognitive decline for patients receiving whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT). Hippocampal avoidance whole-brain radiotherapy (HA-WBRT) has been proposed to reduce the putative neurocognitive deficits by limiting the dose to the hippocampus. However, urgency of palliation for patients as well as the complexities of the treatment planning may be barriers to protocol enrollment to accumulate further clinical evidence. This warrants expedited quality planning of HA-WBRT. Pinnacle{sup 3} Automatic treatment planning was designed to increase planning efficiency while maintaining or improving plan quality and consistency. The aim of the present studymore » is to evaluate the performance of the Pinnacle{sup 3} Auto-Planning on HA-WBRT treatment planning. Ten patients previously treated for brain metastases were selected. Hippocampal volumes were contoured on T1 magnetic resonance (MR) images, and planning target volumes (PTVs) were generated based on RTOG0933. The following 2 types of plans were generated by Pinnacle{sup 3} Auto-Planning: the one with 2 coplanar volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) arcs and the other with 9-field noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). D{sub 2%} and D{sub 98%} of PTV were used to calculate homogeneity index (HI). HI and Paddick Conformity index (CI) of PTV as well as D{sub 100%} and D{sub max} of the hippocampus were used to evaluate the plan quality. All the auto-plans met the dose coverage and constraint objectives based on RTOG0933. The auto-plans eliminated the necessity of generating pseudostructures by the planners, and it required little manual intervention which expedited the planning process. IMRT quality assurance (QA) results also suggest that all the auto-plans are practically acceptable on delivery. Pinnacle{sup 3} Auto-Planning generates acceptable plans by RTOG0933 criteria without time-consuming planning

  17. 24 CFR 903.11 - Are certain PHAs eligible to submit a streamlined Annual Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... streamlined Annual Plan must include the information required by § 903.7(a), (b), (c), (d), (g), (h), (k), (m), (n), (o), (p) and (r). The information required by § 903.7(m) must be included only to the extent... § 903.7(a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (k), (l), (o), (p) and (r). [65 FR 49484, Aug. 14, 2000, as amended...

  18. Formation and bioactivity of HA nanorods on micro-arc oxidized zirconium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan; Zhu, Shaoyu; Han, Yong; Xiao, Chengzhang; Tang, Wu

    2014-10-01

    A microporous and CaO partially stabilized zirconia (Ca-PSZ) coating covered with hydroxyapatite (HA) nanorods is fabricated on Zr substrate by a hybrid approach of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and hydrothermal treatment (HT). The effect of P ions in HT solution on the density and morphology of HA was investigated; the hydrophilicity and apatite-forming ability of the Ca-PSZ coating with HA nanorods were also examined. High-density HA nanorods (with a mean diameter of 50 nm and length of 450 nm) grow on the Ca-PSZ coating after HT in a solution containing 0.002 M β-glycerophosphate disodium (β-GP). However, only a few of coarse-grained HA crystallites grow in the MAOed pores after HT in distilled water or in an ammonia aqueous solution with an initial pH value equal to the solution containing 0.002 M β-GP. P ions in the HT solution are thought to significantly promote the formation of HA nanorods. The Ca-PSZ coating covered with HA nanorods displays good hydrophilicity and excellent apatite-inducing ability, and the induced apatite prefers to nucleate on the basal-faceted surfaces of HA nanorods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ha-ras(val12) induces HSP70b transcription via the HSE/HSF1 system, but HSP70b expression is suppressed in Ha-ras(val12)-transformed cells.

    PubMed

    Stanhill, A; Levin, V; Hendel, A; Shachar, I; Kazanov, D; Arber, N; Kaminski, N; Engelberg, D

    2006-03-09

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are overexpressed in many tumors, but are downregulated in some tumors. To check for a direct effect of Ha-Ras(val12) on HSP70 transcription, we transiently expressed the oncoprotein in Rat1 fibroblasts and monitored its effect on HSP70b promoter-driven reporter gene. We show that expression of Ha-Ras(val12) induced this promoter. Promoter analysis via systematic deletions and point mutations revealed that Ha-Ras(val12) induces HSP70b transcription via heat shock elements (HSEs). Also, Ha-Ras(val12) induction of HSE-mediated transcription was dramatically reduced in HSF1-/- cells. Yet, residual effect of Ha-Ras(val12) that was still measured in HSF1-/- cells suggests that some of the Ha-Ras(val12) effect is Hsf1-independent. When HSF1-/- cells, stably expressing Ha-Ras(val12), were grown on soft agar only small colonies were formed suggesting a role for heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1) in Ha-Ras(val12)-mediated transformation. Although Ha-ras(Val12) seems to be an inducer of HSP70's expression, we found that in Ha-ras(Val12-)transformed fibroblasts expression of this gene is suppressed. This suppression is correlated with higher sensitivity of Ha-ras(val12)-transformed cells to heat shock. We suggest that Ha-ras(Val12) is involved in Hsf1 activation, thereby inducing the cellular protective response. Cells that repress this response are perhaps those that acquire the capability to further proliferate and become transformed clones.

  20. Influence of carbonate ion in the crystallization medium on the formation and chemical composition of CaHA-SrHA solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, Anton; Kuz'mina, Maria; Frank-Kamenetskaya, Olga; Zorina, Maina

    2015-06-01

    The study of the influence of carbonate ions in a solution to Sr-distribution in system «solution-crystal» and to ion substitutions and the non-stoichiometry of formed CaHA-SrHA solid solutions was carried out. The CaHA-SrHA solid solutions were synthesized by precipitation from aqueous solutions with the atomic C/P ratio equal to 0, 0.05 and 0.1 at T = 90 °C. Resulting precipitates were studied using various methods including X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and different chemical analyses. The results of the study have shown that in the range of values of (Ca + Sr)/P in the water solution from 40% to 85%, the presence of carbonate ions (C/P = 0.05-0.1) promotes the incorporation of strontium in the apatite. Crystalline apatite solid solutions formed from water solutions of such composition are more defective compared to apatites that are mainly calcium or strontium. They are characterized by a smaller size coherence scattering domain length along [0 0 1] direction and a greater number of carbonate ions, water molecules and vacancies at the Ca-sites.

  1. Crystal structure of the HA3 subcomponent of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toshio; Kotani, Mao; Tonozuka, Takashi; Ide, Azusa; Oguma, Keiji; Nishikawa, Atsushi

    2009-01-30

    The Clostridium botulinum type C 16S progenitor toxin contains a neurotoxin and several nontoxic components, designated nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (HA), HA1 (HA-33), HA2 (HA-17), HA3a (HA-22-23), and HA3b (HA-53). The HA3b subcomponent seems to play an important role cooperatively with HA1 in the internalization of the toxin by gastrointestinal epithelial cells via binding of these subcomponents to specific oligosaccharides. In this study, we investigated the sugar-binding specificity of the HA3b subcomponent using recombinant protein fused to glutathione S-transferase and determined the three-dimensional structure of the HA3a-HA3b complex based on X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure was determined at a resolution of 2.6 A. HA3b contains three domains, domains I to III, and the structure of domain I resembles HA3a. In crystal packing, three HA3a-HA3b molecules are assembled to form a three-leaved propeller-like structure. The three HA3b domain I and three HA3a alternate, forming a trimer of dimers. In a database search, no proteins with high structural homology to any of the domains (Z score >10) were found. Especially, HA3a and HA3b domain I, mainly composed of beta-sheets, reveal a unique fold. In binding assays, HA3b bound sialic acid with high affinity, but did not bind galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine, or N-acetylglucosamine. The electron density of liganded N-acetylneuraminic acid was determined by crystal soaking. In the sugar-complex structure, the N-acetylneuraminic acid-binding site was located in the cleft formed between domains II and III of HA3b. This report provides the first determination of the three-dimensional structure of the HA3a-HA3b complex and its sialic acid binding site. Our results will provide useful information for elucidating the mechanism of assembly of the C16S toxin and for understanding the interactions with oligosaccharides on epithelial cells and internalization of the botulinum toxin complex.

  2. Nanocrystallized SrHA/SrHA SrTiO3/SrTiO3 TiO2 multilayer coatings formed by micro-arc oxidation for photocatalytic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y.; Chen, D. H.; Zhang, L.

    2008-08-01

    Novel photocatalytic coatings containing strontium hydroxyapatite (SrHA), strontium titanate (SrTiO3), and TiO2 were formed by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in an aqueous electrolyte containing strontium acetate and β-glycerophosphate disodium at 530 V for 0.1-5 min. The structure evolution of the coatings was investigated as a function of processing time, and the photocatalytic activity of the coatings was evaluated by measuring the decomposition rate of methyl orange under ultraviolet irradiation. During the MAO processing of the coatings, it was observed that some granules appeared in the electrolyte adjacent to the anode and they increased in amount as the processing time was prolonged. The obtained results show that the granules are amorphous and poorly crystallized SrHA with negative charges. The coating prepared for 5 min presents a microporous structure of SrHA/SrHA-SrTiO3/SrTiO3-TiO2 multilayers, in which the SrHA outermost layer and the SrHA-SrTiO3 intermediate layer are nanocrystallized. It is suggested that formation of the granules, electro-migration of the granules onto the pre-formed layer, and crystallization of the adhered granules are possible mechanisms for the formation of a SrHA/SrHA-SrTiO3/SrTiO3-TiO2 multilayer coating. This coating shows much higher photocatalytic decomposition efficiency relative to the MAO-formed TiO2 coating, and is expected to have an important photocatalytic application.

  3. Crystalline ha coating on peek via chemical deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almasi, D.; Izman, S.; Assadian, M.; Ghanbari, M.; Abdul Kadir, M. R.

    2014-09-01

    Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) has a similar elastic modulus to bone and can be a suitable alternative to metallic implants. However, PEEK is bioinert and does not integrate well with the surrounding tissues. The current commercial method for solving this problem is by coating PEEK substrates with calcium phosphates via plasma spraying. However, this method produces a low bonding strength between the substrate and the coating layer, as well as non-uniform density of the coating. In this study, chemical deposition was used to deposit HA crystalline particles on PEEK substrate without any subsequent crystallisation process therefore producing crystalline treated layer. EDX results confirmed the deposition of HA, and the XRD results confirmed that the treated layer was crystalline HA. FT-IR analysis confirmed the chemical bonding between HA and the substrate. Surface roughness increased from 24.27 nm to 34.08 nm for 3 min immersion time. The water contact angle showed an increase in wettability of the treated sample from 71.6 to 36.4 degrees, which in turn increased its bioactivity. The proposed method is a suitable alternative to other conventional methods as high temperature was not involved in the process which could damage the surface of the substrate.

  4. HVOF-Sprayed Nano TiO2-HA Coatings Exhibiting Enhanced Biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, R. S.; Dimitrievska, S.; Bureau, M. N.; Marple, B. R.; Petit, A.; Mwale, F.; Antoniou, J.

    2010-01-01

    Biomedical thermal spray coatings produced via high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) from nanostructured titania (n-TiO2) and 10 wt.% hydroxyapatite (HA) (n-TiO2-10wt.%HA) powders have been engineered as possible future alternatives to HA coatings deposited via air plasma spray (APS). This approach was chosen due to (i) the stability of TiO2 in the human body (i.e., no dissolution) and (ii) bond strength values on Ti-6Al-4V substrates more than two times higher than those of APS HA coatings. To explore the bioperformance of these novel materials and coatings, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured from 1 to 21 days on the surface of HVOF-sprayed n-TiO2 and n-TiO2-10 wt.%HA coatings. APS HA coatings and uncoated Ti-6Al-4V substrates were employed as controls. The profiles of the hMSCs were evaluated for (i) cellular proliferation, (ii) biochemical analysis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, (iii) cytoskeleton organization (fluorescent/confocal microscopy), and (iv) cell/substrate interaction via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The biochemical analysis indicated that the hMSCs cultured on n-TiO2-10 wt.%HA coatings exhibited superior levels of bioactivity than hMSCs cultured on APS HA and pure n-TiO2 coatings. The cytoskeleton organization demonstrated a higher degree of cellular proliferation on the HVOF-sprayed n-TiO2-10wt.%HA coatings when compared to the control coatings. These results are considered promising for engineering improved performance in the next generation of thermally sprayed biomedical coatings.

  5. 7 CFR 1940.333 - Applicability to planning assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Applicability to planning assistance. 1940.333 Section..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... to planning assistance. The award of FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 funds for...

  6. Characterization of Three Novel Fatty Acid- and Retinoid-Binding Protein Genes (Ha-far-1, Ha-far-2 and Hf-far-1) from the Cereal Cyst Nematodes Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Huan; Luo, Shujie; Huang, Wenkun; Cui, Jiangkuan; Li, Xin; Kong, Lingan; Jiang, Daohong; Chitwood, David J.; Peng, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi are major parasites of wheat, reducing production worldwide. Both are sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, and their development and parasitism depend strongly on nutrients obtained from hosts. Secreted fatty acid- and retinol-binding (FAR) proteins are nematode-specific lipid carrier proteins used for nutrient acquisition as well as suppression of plant defenses. In this study, we obtained three novel FAR genes Ha-far-1 (KU877266), Ha-far-2 (KU877267), Hf-far-1 (KU877268). Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 were cloned from H. avenae, encoding proteins of 191 and 280 amino acids with molecular masses about 17 and 30 kDa, respectively and sequence identity of 28%. Protein Blast in NCBI revealed that Ha-FAR-1 sequence is 78% similar to the Gp-FAR-1 protein from Globodera pallida, while Ha-FAR-2 is 30% similar to Rs-FAR-1 from Radopholus similis. Only one FAR protein Hf-FAR-1was identified in H. filipjevi; it had 96% sequence identity to Ha-FAR-1. The three proteins are alpha-helix-rich and contain the conserved domain of Gp-FAR-1, but Ha-FAR-2 had a remarkable peptide at the C-terminus which was random-coil-rich. Both Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 had casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, while Ha-FAR-2 had predicted N-glycosylation sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three proteins clustered together, though Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 adjoined each other in a plant-parasitic nematode branch, but Ha-FAR-2 was distinct from the other proteins in the group. Fluorescence-based ligand binding analysis showed the three FAR proteins bound to a fluorescent fatty acid derivative and retinol and with dissociation constants similar to FARs from other species, though Ha-FAR-2 binding ability was weaker than that of the two others. In situ hybridization detected mRNAs of Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 in the hypodermis. The qRT-PCR results showed that the Ha-far-1and Ha-far-2 were expressed in all developmental stages; Ha-far-1 expressed 70 times more than Ha-far-2 in

  7. Characterization of Three Novel Fatty Acid- and Retinoid-Binding Protein Genes (Ha-far-1, Ha-far-2 and Hf-far-1) from the Cereal Cyst Nematodes Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Fen; Luo, Lilian; Peng, Huan; Luo, Shujie; Huang, Wenkun; Cui, Jiangkuan; Li, Xin; Kong, Lingan; Jiang, Daohong; Chitwood, David J; Peng, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi are major parasites of wheat, reducing production worldwide. Both are sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, and their development and parasitism depend strongly on nutrients obtained from hosts. Secreted fatty acid- and retinol-binding (FAR) proteins are nematode-specific lipid carrier proteins used for nutrient acquisition as well as suppression of plant defenses. In this study, we obtained three novel FAR genes Ha-far-1 (KU877266), Ha-far-2 (KU877267), Hf-far-1 (KU877268). Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 were cloned from H. avenae, encoding proteins of 191 and 280 amino acids with molecular masses about 17 and 30 kDa, respectively and sequence identity of 28%. Protein Blast in NCBI revealed that Ha-FAR-1 sequence is 78% similar to the Gp-FAR-1 protein from Globodera pallida, while Ha-FAR-2 is 30% similar to Rs-FAR-1 from Radopholus similis. Only one FAR protein Hf-FAR-1was identified in H. filipjevi; it had 96% sequence identity to Ha-FAR-1. The three proteins are alpha-helix-rich and contain the conserved domain of Gp-FAR-1, but Ha-FAR-2 had a remarkable peptide at the C-terminus which was random-coil-rich. Both Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 had casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, while Ha-FAR-2 had predicted N-glycosylation sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three proteins clustered together, though Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 adjoined each other in a plant-parasitic nematode branch, but Ha-FAR-2 was distinct from the other proteins in the group. Fluorescence-based ligand binding analysis showed the three FAR proteins bound to a fluorescent fatty acid derivative and retinol and with dissociation constants similar to FARs from other species, though Ha-FAR-2 binding ability was weaker than that of the two others. In situ hybridization detected mRNAs of Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 in the hypodermis. The qRT-PCR results showed that the Ha-far-1and Ha-far-2 were expressed in all developmental stages; Ha-far-1 expressed 70 times more than Ha-far-2 in

  8. CRUSER News. Issue 30, Aug 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Versatile Low Cost Tactical SUAS by Dr. Richard Guiler, Physical Sciences Inc. • Small Unmanned Aircraft System ( SUAS )/Unattended Ground Sensor...NPS faculty JIFX 13-4 was held last week and included several different planned experiments in the unmanned systems /robot- ics thread. One of the many... planned experiments for the unmanned systems / robotics thread. • Tactical Operations for Multiple Swarm UAVs by Dr Timothy Chung, NPS • ងlb

  9. New Coll-HA/BT composite materials for hard tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zanfir, Andrei Vlad; Voicu, Georgeta; Busuioc, Cristina; Jinga, Sorin Ion; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Iordache, Florin

    2016-05-01

    The integration of ceramic powders in composite materials for bone scaffolds can improve the osseointegration process. This work was aimed to the synthesis and characterization of new collagen-hydroxyapatite/barium titanate (Coll-HA/BT) composite materials starting from barium titanate (BT) nanopowder, hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder and collagen (Coll) gel. BT nanopowder was produced by combining two wet-chemical approaches, sol-gel and hydrothermal methods. The resulting materials were characterized in terms of phase composition and microstructure by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the composite materials were assessed by in vitro tests. The synthesized BT particles exhibit an average size of around 35 nm and a spherical morphology, with a pseudo-cubic or tetragonal symmetry. The diffraction spectra of Coll-HA and Coll-HA/BT composite materials indicate a pronounced interaction between Col and the mineral phases, meaning a good mineralization of Col fibres. As well, the in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all biological samples, especially for Coll-HA/BT composite materials, fact that can be attributed to the ferromagnetic properties of BT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Toward a US Army Pacific (USARPAC) rapid deployment medical component in support of Human Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR) operations: challenges with "Going in Light".

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ralph J

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the exploratory development and study efforts regarding the viability of a novel "going-in light" or "Going Light" medical component in support of US Army Pacific (USARPAC) Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR) missions, namely, a BLU-MED ® incremental modular equipment package along with a Rapid Deployment Medical Team (RDMT). The study was conducted to uncover a way for the U.S. Army to: (1) better medically support the greater U.S. military Pacific Command, (2) prepare the Army for Pacific HA/DR contingencies, and (3) imprint a swift presence and positive contribution to Pacific HA/DR operations. The findings were derived from an intensive quasi-Military Decision Making Planning (MDMP) process, specifically, the Oracle Delphi. This process was used to: (1) review a needs assessment on the profile of disasters in general and the Pacific in particular and (2) critically examine the viability and issues surrounding a Pacific HA/DR medical response of going in light and incrementally. The Pacific area of operations contains 9 of 15 countries most at risk for disasters in the most disaster-prone region of the world. So, it is not a matter of whether a major, potentially large-scale lethal disaster will occur but rather when. Solid empirical research has shown that by every outcome measured Joint Forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines) medical HA/DR operations have been inordinately successful and cost-effective when they employed U.S. Army medical assets inland near disasters' kinetic impact and combined sister services' logistical support and expertise. In this regard, USARPAC has the potential to go in light and successfully fill a vital HA/DR medical response gap with the RDMT and a BLU-MED ® . However, initially going in fast and light and expanding and contracting as the situation dictates comes with subsequent challenges as briefly described herein that must be addressed. The challenges to going in light are not

  11. Effects of incorporation of HA/ZrO(2) into glass ionomer cement (GIC).

    PubMed

    Gu, Y W; Yap, A U J; Cheang, P; Khor, K A

    2005-03-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are a class of bioactive cements that bond directly to bone. In this paper, a new bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA)/zirconia (ZrO(2))-filled GIC composite was developed to improve the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the GICs with the surrounding bone and connective tissues. Nano-sized HA/30 wt% ZrO(2) powders were heat treated at 700 degrees Celsius and 800 degrees Celsius for 3 h to elucidate the influence of the crystallinity of composite powders on the performance of HA/ZrO(2)-GICs. The effects of different volume percentages of HA/ZrO(2) powders (4, 12, 28 and 40 vol%) substituted within GICs were investigated based on their microhardness, compressive strength and diametral tensile strength. The HA/ZrO(2)-GICs composite was soaked in distilled water for 1 day and 1 week before subjecting the samples to mechanical testing. Results showed that the glass and HA/ZrO(2) particles were distributed uniformly in the GIC matrix. The substitution of highly crystalline HA/ZrO(2) improved the mechanical properties of the HA/ZrO(2)-GICs due to the slow resorption rate for highly crystalline powders in distilled water. The mechanical properties of HA/ZrO(2)-GICs increased with increasing soak time due to the continuous formation of aluminium salt bridges, which improved the final strength of the cements. The compositions 4 and 12 vol% HA/ZrO(2)-GICs exhibited superior mechanical properties than the original GICs. The mechanical properties of HA/ZrO(2)-GICs were found to be much better than those of HA-GICs because ZrO(2) has the attributes of high strength, high modulus, and is significantly harder than glass and HA particles. Furthermore, ZrO(2) does not dissolve with increasing soaking time.

  12. Volumetric modulated arc therapy of head-and-neck cancer on a fast-rotating O-ring linac: Plan quality and delivery time comparison with a C-arm linac.

    PubMed

    Michiels, Steven; Poels, Kenneth; Crijns, Wouter; Delombaerde, Laurence; De Roover, Robin; Vanstraelen, Bianca; Haustermans, Karin; Nuyts, Sandra; Depuydt, Tom

    2018-05-05

    Linac improvements in gantry speed, leaf speed and dose rate may increase the time-efficiency of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery. The plan quality achievable with faster VMAT however remains to be investigated. In this study, a fast-rotating O-ring linac with fast-moving leaves is compared with a C-arm linac in terms of plan quality and delivery time for VMAT of head-and-neck cancer (HNC). For 30 patients with HNC, treatment planning was performed using dual-arc (HA2) and triple-arc (HA3) VMAT on a Halcyon fast-rotating O-ring linac and using dual-arc VMAT on a TrueBeam C-arm linac (TB2). Target coverage metrics and complication probabilities were compared. Plan delivery was verified using 3%/3 mm gamma-index analysis of helical diode array measurements. Volumetric image acquisition and plan delivery times were compared. All studied VMAT-techniques fulfilled the target coverage objectives. D 2% to the boost volume was higher for HA2 (median 103.7%, 1st-3rd quartile [103.5%;104.0%]) and HA3 (103.2% [103.0%;103.7%)] than for TB2 (102.6% [102.3%;103.0%)], resulting in an increased boost target dose heterogeneity for HA2 and HA3. Complication probabilities were comparable between HA2 and TB2, while HA3 showed a xerostomia probability reduction (0.8% [0.2%;1.8%]) and dysphagia probability reduction (1.0% [0.2%;1.8%]) compared with TB2. Gamma-index agreement scores were never below 93.0% for HA2, HA3 and TB2. Volumetric imaging and plan delivery time was shorter for HA2 (1 m 24 s ± 1 s) and HA3 (1 m 54 s ± 1 s) than for TB2 (2 m 47 s ± 1 s). For VMAT of HNC, the fast-rotating O-ring linac at least maintains the plan quality of two arcs on a C-arm linac while reducing the image acquisition and plan delivery time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sr-containing hydroxyapatite: morphologies of HA crystals and bioactivity on osteoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Aina, Valentina; Bergandi, Loredana; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Malavasi, Gianluca; Imrie, Flora E; Gibson, Iain R; Cerrato, Giuseppina; Ghigo, Dario

    2013-04-01

    A series of Sr-substituted hydroxyapatites (HA), of general formula Ca(10-x)Srx(PO4)6(OH)2, where x=2 and 4, were synthesized by solid state methods and characterized extensively. The reactivity of these materials in cell culture medium was evaluated, and the behavior towards MG-63 osteoblast cells (in terms of cytotoxicity and proliferation assays) was studied. Future in vivo studies will give further insights into the behavior of the materials. A paper by Lagergren et al. (1975), concerning Sr-substituted HA prepared by a solid state method, reports that the presence of Sr in the apatite composition strongly influences the apatite diffraction patterns. Zeglinsky et al. (2012) investigated Sr-substituted HA by ab initio methods and Rietveld analyses and reported changes in the HA unit cell volume and shape due to the Sr addition. To further clarify the role played by the addition of Sr on the physico-chemical properties of these materials we prepared Sr-substituted HA compositions by a solid state method, using different reagents, thermal treatments and a multi-technique approach. Our results indicated that the introduction of Sr at the levels considered here does influence the structure of HA. There is also evidence of a decrease in the crystallinity degree of the materials upon Sr addition. The introduction of increasing amounts of Sr into the HA composition causes a decrease in the specific surface area and an enrichment of Sr-apatite phase at the surface of the samples. Bioactivity tests show that the presence of Sr causes changes in particle size and/or morphology during soaking in MEM solution; on the contrary the morphology of pure HA does not change after 14 days of reaction. The presence of Sr, as Sr-substituted HA and SrCl2, in cultures of human MG-63 osteoblasts did not produce any cytotoxic effect. In fact, Sr-substituted HA increased the proliferation of osteoblast cells and enhanced cell differentiation: Sr in HA has a positive effect on MG-63 cells

  14. Investigation of boundary conditions for biomimetic HA deposition on titanium oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, M; Astrand, M; Wiklund, U; Engqvist, H

    2009-07-01

    To improve the clinical outcome of metal implants, i.e. earlier loading and reduction of the incidence of revision surgery, better bone bonding ability is wanted. One method to achieve this is to change the surface chemistry to give a surface that facilitates bone bonding in vivo, i.e. a bioactive surface. Crystalline titanium oxide has recently been proven to be bioactive in vitro and is an interesting option to the more common hydroxylapatite (HA) coatings on implants. A materials possible in vitro bioactivity is tested through soaking in simulated body fluid and studies of possible HA formation on the surface. For bioactive materials, the formed HA layer can also be used as a coating. The aim of the current paper is to investigate some boundary conditions for HA formation on crystalline titanium oxide surfaces regarding influence from coating thickness, soaking time and soaking temperature. The influence from soaking time and temperature on the HA growth were investigated on oxidised Ti samples, (24 h at 800 degrees C) resulting in a rutile surface structure. The oxidised samples were tested at three temperatures (4, 37 and 65 degrees C) and four times (1 h, 1 day, 1 week and 4 weeks). The influence from titanium coating thickness on the HA growth was investigated via depositing thin films of crystalline titanium dioxide on Ti plates using a reactive magnetron sputtering process. Four different PVD runs with coating thicknesses between 19 and 74 nm were tested. The soaking temperature had an effect on the HA formation and growth on both rutile surfaces and native oxide on Ti substrates. Higher temperatures lead to easier formation of HA. It was even possible, at 65 degrees C, to grow HA on native titanium oxide from soaking in PBS. The coating quality was better for HA formed at 65 degrees C compared to 37 degrees C. All PVD-coatings showed HA growth after 1 week in PBS at 37 degrees C, thus even very thin coatings of crystalline titanium oxide coatings are

  15. Interface activation and surface characteristics of Ti/TiN/HA coated sintered stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Han-Cheol; Ko, Yeong-Mu

    2006-02-01

    Interface activation and surface characteristics of Ti/TiN/HA film coated sintered stainless steels (SSS) have been investigated by electrochemical and biocompatibility tests. HA (hydroxyapatite), Ti, and Ti/TiN film coatings were applied using electron-beam deposition method (EB-PVD). Ti, Ti/TiN, and Ti/TiN/HA film coated surfaces and layers were investigated by SEM and XPS. The coated films showed micro-columnar structure, and Ti/TiN/HA films were denser than Ti or HA-only film. The corrosion resistance of the HA coating was similar to that of Ti/TiN/HA film coating when Cu content reached 4 wt.%, but the corrosion resistance of the HA coating decreased when Cu content increased from 4 wt.% in 0.9% NaCl solution. Therefore, HA-only coating could ensure corrosion resistance when Cu content does not exceed 4 wt.%. The results of biocompatibility tests of SSS on dogs showed that bone formation and biocompatibility were favorable when Cu content did not exceed 4 wt.%. The biocompatibility with bone was generally favorable in Ti/TiN/HA film coating and HA-only coating, while bone formation was somewhat faster for the HA film coated surface than for the Ti/TiN/HA film coating. Also, good cell growth and osseointegration without toxicity were observed.

  16. HA and double-layer HA-P2O5/CaO glass coatings: influence of chemical composition on human bone marrow cells osteoblastic behavior.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, M P; Fernandes, M H; Santos, J D; Monteiro, F J

    2001-07-01

    Human osteoblastic bone marrow derived cells were cultured for 28 days onto the surface of a glass reinforced hydroxyapatite (HA) composite and a commercial type HA plasma sprayed coatings, both in the "as-received" condition and after an immersion treatment with culture medium during 21 days. Cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed as a function of the chemical composition of the coatings and the immersion treatment. Cell attachment, growth and differentiation of osteoblastic bone marrow cells seeded onto "as-received" plasma sprayed coatings were strongly affected by the time-dependent variation of the surface structure occurring during the first hours of culture. Initial interactions leading to higher amounts of adsorbed protein and zeta potential shifts towards negative charges appeared to result in surface structures with better biological performance. Cultures grown onto the pretreated coatings showed higher rate of cell proliferation and increased functional activity, as compared to those grown onto the corresponding "as-received" materials. However, the cell behavior was similar in the glass composite and HA coatings. The results showed that the glass composites present better characteristics for bone cell growth and function than HA. In addition, this work also provide evidence that the biological performance of the glass composites can be modulated and improved by manipulations in the chemical composition, namely in the content of glass added to HA. Copyright 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  17. Bond Dissociation Free Energies (BDFEs) of the Acidic H-A Bonds in HA(*)(-) Radical Anions by Three Different Pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongyu; Bordwell, Frederick G.

    1996-09-20

    Cleavage of radical anions, HA(*)(-), have been considered to give either H(*) + A(-) (path a) or H(-) + A(*) (path b), and factors determining the preferred mode of cleavage have been discussed. It is conceivable that cleavage to give a proton and a radical dianion, HA(*)(-) right harpoon over left harpoon H(+) + A(*)(2)(-) (path c), might also be feasible. A method, based on a thermodynamic cycle, to estimate the bond dissociation free energy (BDFE) by path c has been devised. Comparison of the BDFEs for cleavage of the radical anions derived from 24 nitroaromatic OH, SH, NH, and CH acids by paths a, b, c has shown that path c is favored thermodynamically.

  18. The Mechanical Properties and Modeling of Creep Behavior of UHMWPE/Nano-HA Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fan; Gao, Lilan; Gao, Hong; Cui, Yun

    2017-09-01

    Composites with different levels of hydroxyapatite (HA) content and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were prepared in this work. Mechanical properties of the composites were examined here, and to evaluate the effect of HA particles on the time-dependent behavior of the pure matrix, the creep and recovery performance of composites at various stress levels were also researched. As expected, the addition of HA influenced the time-dependent response of the UHMWPE and the effect had a strong dependence on the HA content. The creep and recovery strain of the composites significantly decreased with increasing HA content, and tensile properties were also impaired, which was due to the concentration of HA fillers. The mechanism and effect of HA dispersed into the UHMWPE matrix were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, since variations in the adjusted parameters revealed the impact of HA on the creep behavior of the UHMWPE matrix, Findley's model was employed. The results indicated that the analytical model was accurate for the prediction of creep of the pure matrix and its composites.

  19. 24 CFR 964.18 - HA role in activities under subparts B & C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., including the management of specific functions of a public housing development that may be mutually agreeable to the HA and the resident council/resident management corporation. (4) A HA shall provide the... participation in management. (5) If requested, a HA should provide a duly recognized resident council office...

  20. NASA Provides Coast-to-Coast Coverage of Aug. 21 Solar Eclipse (NASA Gulfstream III Aircraft, Off Oregon Coast)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    On Monday, Aug. 21, NASA provided coast-to-coast coverage of the solar eclipse across America – featuring views of the phenomenon from unique vantage points, including from the ground, from aircraft, and from spacecraft including the ISS, during a live broadcast seen on NASA Television and the agency’s website. This is footage from NASA’s Gulfstream III research aircraft, flying off the Coast of Oregon.

  1. Wear characterization of nano-hydroxyapatite with addition of titanium (HA-Ti)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosmamuhamadani, R.; Arawi, A. Z. O.; Talari, M. K.; Mahat, M. M.; Bonnia, N. N.; Sabrina; Yahaya, M.; Sulaiman, S.; Ismail, M. I. S.

    2018-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca10 (PO4)6(OH)2, HA), is an attractive material of an inorganic compound whose chemical composition and crystallographic structures are similar to the composition of the bone. A natural source such as egg shells is composed of 94 wt. % of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which can be calcined as calcium oxide (CaO) by the calcinations process. The efficient temperature to produce CaO is 900 °C for 2 hours. The synthesis of nano-HA was done by the mixing the diammonium phosphate (DAP) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and subjected into a microwave for 30 minutes at 1100 W irradiation power. Ball milling process was used for 30 minutes to mix the nano-HA with different compositions of titanium. These were pressed to form pallets by hand hydraulic pump (force=2300 psi). The pallets then were sintered at 1200 °C with the heating rate of 3 °C/min for 2 hours. The pallets were tested by several mechanical testing including hardness, compression strength and wear. From the results, HA-25wt. %Ti composite gave the highest hardness, compression and coefficient of friction for wear test values which were 89.6 Hv, 82.5MPa and 0.76μ respectively. It showed that by adding Ti to nano-HA, the mechanical properties of nano-HA could be enhanced. The microstructure analyses by optical micrograph showed that nano-HA-Ti particles displayed shape likes needle morphology. The particles showed the high tendency to form the agglomerations.

  2. Cellular proliferation, cellular viability, and biocompatibility of HA-ZnO composites.

    PubMed

    Saha, Naresh; Dubey, Ashutosh K; Basu, Bikramjit

    2012-01-01

    One of the important issues in the development of hydroxyapatite (HA)-based biomaterials is the prosthetic infection, which limits wider use of monolithic HA despite superior cellular response. Recently, we reported that ZnO addition to HA can induce bactericidal property. It is therefore important to assess how ZnO addition influences the cytotoxicity property and cell adhesion/proliferation on HA-ZnO composite surfaces in vitro. In the above perspective, the objective of this study is to investigate the cell type and material composition dependent cellular proliferation and viability of pressureless sintered HA-ZnO composites. The combination of cell viability data as well as morphological observations of cultured human osteoblast-like SaOS2 cells and mouse fibroblast L929 cells suggests that HA-ZnO composites containing 10 Wt % or lower ZnO exhibit the ability to support cell adhesion and proliferation. Both SaOS2 and L929 cells exhibit extensive multidirectional network of actin cytoskeleton and cell flattening on the lower ZnO containing (≤10 Wt %) HA-ZnO composites. The in vitro results illustrate how variation in ZnO content can influence significantly the cell vitality, as evaluated using MTT biochemical assay. Also, the critical statistical analysis reveals that ZnO addition needs to be carefully tailored to ensure good in vitro cytocompatibility. The underlying reasons for difference in biological properties are analyzed. It is suggested that surface wettability as well as dissolution of ZnO, both contribute to the observed differences in cellular viability and proliferation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acid (HA) and Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injection versus Hyaluronic acid (HA) injection alone in Patients with Grade III and IV Knee Osteoarthritis (OA): A Retrospective Study on Functional Outcome.

    PubMed

    Saturveithan, C; Premganesh, G; Fakhrizzaki, S; Mahathir, M; Karuna, K; Rauf, K; William, H; Akmal, H; Sivapathasundaram, N; Jaspreet, K

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) is widely utilized in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis whereas platelet rich plasma (PRP) enhances the regeneration of articular cartilage. This study analyses the efficacy of HA and PRP in grade III and IV knee osteoarthritis. Methodology: This is a cross sectional study with retrospective review of 64 patients (101 knees) which includes 56 knees injected with HA+ PRP, and 45 knees with HA only. Results: During the post six months International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) evaluation, HA+PRP group showed marked improvement of 24.33 compared to 12.15 in HA group. Decrement in visual analogue score (VAS) in HA+PRP was 1.9 compared to 0.8 in HA group. Conclusion: We propose intra-articular HA and PRP injections as an optional treatment modality in Grade III and IV knee osteoarthritis in terms of functional outcome and pain control for up to six months when arthroplasty is not an option.

  4. Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acid (HA) and Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injection versus Hyaluronic acid (HA) injection alone in Patients with Grade III and IV Knee Osteoarthritis (OA): A Retrospective Study on Functional Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Premganesh, G; Fakhrizzaki, S; Mahathir, M; Karuna, K; Rauf, K; William, H; Akmal, H; Sivapathasundaram, N; Jaspreet, K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) is widely utilized in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis whereas platelet rich plasma (PRP) enhances the regeneration of articular cartilage. This study analyses the efficacy of HA and PRP in grade III and IV knee osteoarthritis. Methodology: This is a cross sectional study with retrospective review of 64 patients (101 knees) which includes 56 knees injected with HA+ PRP, and 45 knees with HA only. Results: During the post six months International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) evaluation, HA+PRP group showed marked improvement of 24.33 compared to 12.15 in HA group. Decrement in visual analogue score (VAS) in HA+PRP was 1.9 compared to 0.8 in HA group. Conclusion: We propose intra-articular HA and PRP injections as an optional treatment modality in Grade III and IV knee osteoarthritis in terms of functional outcome and pain control for up to six months when arthroplasty is not an option. PMID:28435559

  5. Quantification of hyaluronan (HA) using a simplified fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) procedure.

    PubMed

    Midura, Ronald J; Cali, Valbona; Lauer, Mark E; Calabro, Anthony; Hascall, Vincent C

    2018-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) exhibits numerous important roles in physiology and pathologies, and these facts necessitate an ability to accurately and reproducibly measure its quantities in tissues and cell cultures. Our group previously reported a rigorous and analytical procedure to quantify HA (and chondroitin sulfate, CS) using a reductive amination chemistry and separation of the fluorophore-conjugated, unsaturated disaccharides unique to HA and CS on high concentration acrylamide gels. This procedure is known as fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) and has been adapted for the detection and quantification of all glycosaminoglycan types. While this previous FACE procedure is relatively straightforward to implement by carbohydrate research investigators, many nonglycoscience laboratories now studying HA biology might have difficulties establishing this prior FACE procedure as a routine assay for HA. To address this need, we have greatly simplified our prior FACE procedure for accurate and reproducible assessment of HA in tissues and cell cultures. This chapter describes in detail this simplified FACE procedure and, because it uses an enzyme that degrades both HA and CS, investigators will also gain additional insight into the quantities of CS in the same samples dedicated for HA analysis. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanical strength of [HA/Bioplastic/Sericin] composite part printed by bioprinter

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tontowi, Alva Edy, E-mail: alvaedytontowi@ugm.ac.id; Setiawan, Agris

    The aim of this research was to determine the effect of hydroxyapatite (HA) content in printed biocomposite to its mechanical strength. The biocomposite paste was prepared by composing HA, bioplastic and sericin with various ratios of [HA/Bioplastic]: 40/60, 50/50, 60,40 and 70/30. Sericin of 0.3% weight was added to the biocomposite. Mechanical test was conducted to observe tensile (ASTM D 638 type 4) and flexural strength (ASTM D 790). Both type of specimens were fabricated using 3D Printer. Printing process parameter (infill speed, print speed and layer height) were set up as 60 mm/s, 10 mm/s, 0.35 mm, respectively. Resultsmore » showed that biocomposite with [HA/Biplastic]. weight ratio of 60/40(w/w) has an optimum tensile (3.89 ± 1.26 MPa) and flexural strength (2.51 ± 0.45 MPa). Scanning electron microscope observation indicated that microstructure of specimen was influenced by the percentage of the hydroxyapatite. There was no agglomeration of HA particle within the composite.« less

  7. CILogon-HA. Higher Assurance Federated Identities for DOE Science

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Basney, James

    The CILogon-HA project extended the existing open source CILogon service (initially developed with funding from the National Science Foundation) to provide credentials at multiple levels of assurance to users of DOE facilities for collaborative science. CILogon translates mechanism and policy across higher education and grid trust federations, bridging from the InCommon identity federation (which federates university and DOE lab identities) to the Interoperable Global Trust Federation (which defines standards across the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid, the Open Science Grid, and other cyberinfrastructure). The CILogon-HA project expanded the CILogon service to support over 160 identity providers (including 6 DOE facilities) andmore » 3 internationally accredited certification authorities. To provide continuity of operations upon the end of the CILogon-HA project period, project staff transitioned the CILogon service to operation by XSEDE.« less

  8. Design of peptide mimetics to block pro-inflammatory functions of HA fragments.

    PubMed

    Hauser-Kawaguchi, Alexandra; Luyt, Leonard G; Turley, Eva

    2018-01-31

    Hyaluronan is a simple extracellular matrix polysaccharide that actively regulates inflammation in tissue repair and disease processes. The native HA polymer, which is large (>500 kDa), contributes to the maintenance of homeostasis. In remodeling and diseased tissues, polymer size is strikingly polydisperse, ranging from <10 kDa to >500 kDa. In a diseased or stressed tissue context, both smaller HA fragments and high molecular weight HA polymers can acquire pro-inflammatory functions, which result in the activation of multiple receptors, triggering pro-inflammatory signaling to diverse stimuli. Peptide mimics that bind and scavenge HA fragments have been developed, which show efficacy in animal models of inflammation. These studies indicate both that HA fragments are key to driving inflammation and that scavenging these is a viable therapeutic approach to blunting inflammation in disease processes. This mini-review summarizes the peptide-based methods that have been reported to date for blocking HA signaling events as an anti-inflammatory therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Antibacterial activation of hydroxyapatite (HA) with controlled porosity by different antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Chai, F; Hornez, J-C; Blanchemain, N; Neut, C; Descamps, M; Hildebrand, H F

    2007-11-01

    In order to prevent the increasing frequency of per-operative infections, bioceramics can be loaded with anti-bacterial agents, which will release with respect to their chemical characteristics. A novel hydroxyapatite (HA) was elaborated with specific internal porosities for using as a bone-bioactive antibiotic (ATB) carrier material. UV spectrophotometry and bacteria inhibition tests were performed for testing the ATB adsorption and the microbiological effectiveness after loading with different antibiotics. The impregnation time, ATB impregnating concentration, impregnation condition and other factors, which might influence the ATB loading effect, were studied by exposure to different releasing solvents and different pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. It clearly showed that the facility of ATB loading on this porous HA is even possible just under simple non-vacuum impregnation conditions in a not-so-long impregnating interval. The results also showed that, for all three types of ATB (vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin), adsorbed amount on the micro-porous HA were hugely higher than that on dense HA. The micro-porosity of test HA had also significantly prolonged the release time of antibiotics even under mimic physiological conditions. Furthermore, it also has primarily proved by a pilot test that the antibacterial efficiency of crude micro-porous HA could be further significantly improved by other methods of functionalization such as cold plasma technique.

  10. Rapidly sintering of interconnected porous Ti-HA biocomposite with high strength and enhanced bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; He, Z Y; Zhang, Y Q; Jiang, Y H; Zhou, R

    2016-10-01

    In this work, interconnected porous Ti-HA biocomposites with enhanced bioactivity, high porosity and compressive strength were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and space holder method. Pore characteristics, mechanical properties, corrosion behaviors and in vitro bioactivity of the porous Ti-HA were investigated. Results showed that porous Ti-HA with 5-30wt% HA contents possessed not only low elastic modulus of 8.2-15.8GPa (close to that of human bone) but also high compressive strength (86-388MPa). Although the HA partially decomposed and formed secondary phases, the sintered porous Ti-HA can still be good bioactivity. The homogeneity and the thickness of apatite layer increased significantly with the increase of HA. But with the thickness of apatite layer increased, micro-cracks appeared on the surface of porous Ti-30%HA. A model was built to discuss the current distribution and sintering mechanism of HA on Ti matrix during SPS process. It indicated that the excessive addition of HA would deteriorate the sintering quality, thus decreasing the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, the combination of interconnected pore characteristics, low elastic modulus, high compressive strength and enhanced bioactivity might make porous Ti-HA biocomposites prepared by SPS a promising candidate for hard tissue implants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental Assessment for the Implementation of the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan for 45th Space Wing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    the Proposed Action and as a basis for assessing the significance of potential impacts. The areas of environmental consideration were air quality... ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INTEGRATED NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR 45th SPACE WING August...DATE AUG 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Environmental Assessment for the Implementation of

  12. HDPE-HA composites synthetized by in situ polymerization with different filler content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermán, V.; Karam, A.; Albano, C.; Romero, K.; González, G.

    2012-07-01

    In Situ ethylene polymerization was used to synthesize high density polyethylene - hydroxyapatite (HDPE-HA) composites, employing Cp2ZrCl2/MAO as catalytic system. A good dispersion of HA into the HDPE matrix was obtained when the following synthesis conditions were combined: high stirring velocities (2000 rpm), low quantities of solvent (100 mL), and 10 °C. Under these conditions different filler content was used to synthetized HDPE-HA composites. An interaction between HA and HDPE was obtained by FTIR. On the other hand, thermal analysis indicated that no significant differences were observed between HDPE and the composites.

  13. Functional Characterization of the Role of the N-terminal Domain of the c/Nip1 Subunit of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 3 (eIF3) in AUG Recognition*

    PubMed Central

    Karásková, Martina; Gunišová, Stanislava; Herrmannová, Anna; Wagner, Susan; Munzarová, Vanda; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotes, for a protein to be synthesized, the 40 S subunit has to first scan the 5′-UTR of the mRNA until it has encountered the AUG start codon. Several initiation factors that ensure high fidelity of AUG recognition were identified previously, including eIF1A, eIF1, eIF2, and eIF5. In addition, eIF3 was proposed to coordinate their functions in this process as well as to promote their initial binding to 40 S subunits. Here we subjected several previously identified segments of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the eIF3c/Nip1 subunit, which mediates eIF3 binding to eIF1 and eIF5, to semirandom mutagenesis to investigate the molecular mechanism of eIF3 involvement in these reactions. Three major classes of mutant substitutions or internal deletions were isolated that affect either the assembly of preinitiation complexes (PICs), scanning for AUG, or both. We show that eIF5 binds to the extreme c/Nip1-NTD (residues 1–45) and that impairing this interaction predominantly affects the PIC formation. eIF1 interacts with the region (60–137) that immediately follows, and altering this contact deregulates AUG recognition. Together, our data indicate that binding of eIF1 to the c/Nip1-NTD is equally important for its initial recruitment to PICs and for its proper functioning in selecting the translational start site. PMID:22718758

  14. [Biocompatibility of HA/TCP biphasic ceramics with co-cultured human osteoblasts in vitro].

    PubMed

    Lu, X; Li, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, Z; Lu, B; Bu, H; Li, Y; Cheng, J

    2001-12-01

    The biocompatibility of HA/TCP ceramic was evaluated by investigation of attachment and growth of osteoblasts on biomaterial, as well as monitoring the effects of biomaterial on expression of functional phenotypes of co-cultured osteoblasts in vitro. When co-cultured with HA/TCP ceramics, osteoblasts firstly attached to the surface of HA/TCP disk, then attached to notches and grew into the micropores of biomaterial during further culture period. At last, the ceramics were almost packed with osteoblasts. Additionally, osteoblasts co-cultured with HA/TCP were similar to osteoblasts cultured under normal condition in osteoblastic phenotypes; the secreted lots of collagen type I, possess strong activity of Alkaline Phosphatase and mineralized extracellular matrix. The fact that osteoblasts could grow well on HA/TCP ceramics and the biomaterial did not affect their physiological function suggest that HA/TCP ceramic is biocompatible with human osteoblasts.

  15. Structural fatigue in the 34-meter HA-dec antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Hek, Ronald A.; Saldua, Benjamin P.

    1991-01-01

    Three 26-m hour-angle/declination (HA-dec) antennas, designed for a life span of 20 years, were built in the early 1960s for the NASA Deep Space Network. After 16 years the antennas were upgraded. The design required a structural weight increase of about 50 percent in both the HA and dec structures to achieve the desired improvements. The fatigue caused by the resulting stress-reversal conditions is discussed. The structural failures and their analyses are described.

  16. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Platelet Gel Improve Bone Deposition within CAD-CAM Custom-Made Ceramic HA Scaffolds for Condyle Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Ciocca, L.; Donati, D.; Ragazzini, S.; Dozza, B.; Rossi, F.; Fantini, M.; Spadari, A.; Romagnoli, N.; Landi, E.; Tampieri, A.; Piattelli, A.; Iezzi, G.; Scotti, R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. This study evaluated the efficacy of a regenerative approach using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and CAD-CAM customized pure and porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds to replace the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle. Methods. Pure HA scaffolds with a 70% total porosity volume were prototyped using CAD-CAM technology to replace the two temporomandibular condyles (left and right) of the same animal. MSCs were derived from the aspirated iliac crest bone marrow, and platelets were obtained from the venous blood of the sheep. Custom-made surgical guides were created by direct metal laser sintering and were used to export the virtual planning of the bone cut lines into the surgical environment. Sheep were sacrificed 4 months postoperatively. The HA scaffolds were explanted, histological specimens were prepared, and histomorphometric analysis was performed. Results. Analysis of the porosity reduction for apposition of newly formed bone showed a statistically significant difference in bone formation between condyles loaded with MSC and condyles without (P < 0.05). The bone ingrowth (BI) relative values of split-mouth comparison (right versus left side) showed a significant difference between condyles with and without MSCs (P < 0.05). Analysis of the test and control sides in the same animal using a split-mouth study design was performed; the condyle with MSCs showed greater bone formation. Conclusion. The split-mouth design confirmed an increment of bone regeneration into the HA scaffold of up to 797% upon application of MSCs. PMID:24073409

  17. Mesenchymal stem cells and platelet gel improve bone deposition within CAD-CAM custom-made ceramic HA scaffolds for condyle substitution.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, L; Donati, D; Ragazzini, S; Dozza, B; Rossi, F; Fantini, M; Spadari, A; Romagnoli, N; Landi, E; Tampieri, A; Piattelli, A; Iezzi, G; Scotti, R

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a regenerative approach using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and CAD-CAM customized pure and porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds to replace the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle. Pure HA scaffolds with a 70% total porosity volume were prototyped using CAD-CAM technology to replace the two temporomandibular condyles (left and right) of the same animal. MSCs were derived from the aspirated iliac crest bone marrow, and platelets were obtained from the venous blood of the sheep. Custom-made surgical guides were created by direct metal laser sintering and were used to export the virtual planning of the bone cut lines into the surgical environment. Sheep were sacrificed 4 months postoperatively. The HA scaffolds were explanted, histological specimens were prepared, and histomorphometric analysis was performed. Analysis of the porosity reduction for apposition of newly formed bone showed a statistically significant difference in bone formation between condyles loaded with MSC and condyles without (P < 0.05). The bone ingrowth (BI) relative values of split-mouth comparison (right versus left side) showed a significant difference between condyles with and without MSCs (P < 0.05). Analysis of the test and control sides in the same animal using a split-mouth study design was performed; the condyle with MSCs showed greater bone formation. The split-mouth design confirmed an increment of bone regeneration into the HA scaffold of up to 797% upon application of MSCs.

  18. Prediction of IOI-HA scores using speech reception thresholds and speech discrimination scores in quiet.

    PubMed

    Brännström, K Jonas; Lantz, Johannes; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Olsen, Steen Østergaard

    2014-02-01

    Outcome measures can be used to improve the quality of the rehabilitation by identifying and understanding which variables influence the outcome. This information can be used to improve outcomes for clients. In clinical practice, pure-tone audiometry, speech reception thresholds (SRTs), and speech discrimination scores (SDSs) in quiet or in noise are common assessments made prior to hearing aid (HA) fittings. It is not known whether SRT and SDS in quiet relate to HA outcome measured with the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between pure-tone average (PTA), SRT, and SDS in quiet and IOI-HA in both first-time and experienced HA users. SRT and SDS were measured in a sample of HA users who also responded to the IOI-HA. Fifty-eight Danish-speaking adult HA users. The psychometric properties were evaluated and compared to previous studies using the IOI-HA. The associations and differences between the outcome scores and a number of descriptive variables (age, gender, fitted monaurally/binaurally with HA, first-time/experienced HA users, years of HA use, time since last HA fitting, best ear PTA, best ear SRT, or best ear SDS) were examined. A multiple forward stepwise regression analysis was conducted using scores on the separate IOI-HA items, the global score, and scores on the introspection and interaction subscales as dependent variables to examine whether the descriptive variables could predict these outcome measures. Scores on single IOI-HA items, the global score, and scores on the introspection (items 1, 2, 4, and 7) and interaction (items 3, 5, and 6) subscales closely resemble those previously reported. Multiple regression analysis showed that the best ear SDS predicts about 18-19% of the outcome on items 3 and 5 separately, and about 16% on the interaction subscale (sum of items 3, 5, and 6) CONCLUSIONS: The best ears SDS explains some of the variance displayed in the IOI-HA

  19. Stability of a stem-loop involving the initiator AUG controls the efficiency of internal initiation of translation on hepatitis C virus RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Honda, M; Brown, E A; Lemon, S M

    1996-01-01

    The initiation of translation on the positive-sense RNA genome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is directed by an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) that occupies most of the 341-nt 5' nontranslated RNA (5'NTR). Previous studies indicate that this IRES differs from picornaviral IRESs in that its activity is dependent upon RNA sequence downstream of the initiator AUG. Here, we demonstrate that the initiator AUG of HCV is located within a stem-loop (stem-loop IV) involving nt -12 to +12 (with reference to the AUG). This structure is conserved among HCV strains, and is present in the 5'NTR of the phylogenetically distant GB virus B. Mutant, nearly genome-length RNAs containing nucleotide substitutions predicted to enhance the stability of stem-loop IV were generally deficient in cap-independent translation both in vitro and in vivo. Additional mutations that destabilize the stem-loop restored translation to normal. Thus, the stability of the stem-loop is strongly but inversely correlated with the efficiency of internal initiation of translation. In contrast, mutations that stabilize this stem-loop had comparatively little effect on translation of 5' truncated RNAs by scanning ribosomes, suggesting that internal initiation of translation follows binding of the 40S ribosome directly at the site of stem-loop IV. Because stem-loop IV is not required for internal entry of ribosomes but is able to regulate this process, we speculate that it may be stabilized by interactions with a viral protein, providing a mechanism for feedback regulation of translation, which may be important for viral persistence. PMID:8849773

  20. Impacts of Vegetation and Urban planning on micro climate in Hashtgerd new Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodoudi, S.; Langer, I.; Cubasch, U.

    2012-12-01

    One of the objectives of climatological part of project Young Cities 'Developing Energy-Efficient Urban Fabric in the Tehran-Karaj Region' is to simulate the micro climate (with 1m resolution) in 35ha of new town Hashtgerd, which is located 65 km far from mega city Tehran. The Project aims are developing, implementing and evaluating building and planning schemes and technologies which allow to plan and build sustainable, energy-efficient and climate sensible form mass housing settlements in arid and semi-arid regions ("energy-efficient fabric"). Climate sensitive form also means designing and planning for climate change and its related effects for Hashtgerd New Town. By configuration of buildings and open spaces according to solar radiation, wind and vegetation, climate sensitive urban form can create outdoor thermal comfort. To simulate the climate on small spatial scales, the micro climate model Envi-met has been used to simulate the micro climate in 35 ha. The Eulerian model ENVI-met is a micro-scale climate model which gives information about the influence of architecture and buildings as well as vegetation and green area on the micro climate up to 1 m resolution. Envi-met has been run with information from topography, downscaled climate data with neuro-fuzzy method, meteorological measurements, building height and different vegetation variants (low and high number of trees) Through the optimal Urban Design and Planning for the 35ha area the micro climate results shows, that with vegetation the micro climate in street canopies will be change: - 2 m temperature is decreased by about 2 K - relative humidity increase by about 10 % - soil temperature is decreased by about 3 K - wind speed is decreased by about 60% The style of buildings allows free movement of air, which is of high importance for fresh air supply. The increase of inbuilt areas in 35 ha reduces the heat island effect through cooling caused by vegetation and increase of air humidity which caused by

  1. Preparation and characterization of NiW-nHA composite catalyst for hydrocracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Gang; Hou, Yongzhao; Liu, Lei; Liu, Hongru; Liu, Can; Liu, Jing; Qiao, Huiting; Liu, Wenyong; Fan, Yubo; Shen, Shituan; Rong, Long

    2012-11-01

    The synthesis, characterization and catalytic capability of the NiW-nano-hydroxyapatite (NiW-nHA) composite were investigated in this paper. The NiW-nHA catalyst was prepared by a co-precipitation method. Then Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) were used to analyze this material. In addition, the catalytic capacity of the NiW-nHA composite was also examined by FT-IR and gas chromatography (GC). The results of FT-IR analysis indicated that Ni, W and nHA combined closely. TEM observation revealed that this catalyst was needle shaped and the crystal retained a nanometer size. XRD data also suggested that a new phase of CaWO4 appeared and the lattice parameters of nHA changed in this system. nHA was the carrier of metals. The rates of Ni/W-loading were 73.24% and 65.99% according to the EDX data, respectively. Furthermore, the conversion of 91.88% Jatropha oil was achieved at 360 °C and 3 MPa h-1 over NiW-nHA catalyst. The straight chain alkanes ranging from C15 to C18 were the main components in the production. The yield of C15-C18 alkanes was up to 83.56 wt%. The reaction pathway involved hydrocracking of the C&z.dbd;C bonds of these triglycerides from Jatropha oil. This paper developed a novel non-sulfided catalyst to obtain a ``green biofuel'' from vegetable oil.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of plasma-sprayed HA/SiO(2) coatings for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Morks, M F

    2008-01-01

    Fused silica powder has been mixed with hydroxyapatite (HA) powder and plasma sprayed by using gas tunnel-type plasma jet. The influence of silica content (10 wt% and 20 wt%) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of HA-silica coatings was investigated. For investigating the microstructure and mechanical properties of HA-silica coatings, SUS 304 stainless steel was used as substrate material. The spraying was carried out on roughened substrate in an atmospheric chamber. Scanning electron microscope micrographs of cross-sectioned HA/SiO(2) coatings showed that the sprayed HA coatings with 10 and 20 wt% SiO(2) have dense structure with low porosity compared to the pure HA coatings. On the other hand, as the amount of silica was increased the coatings became denser, harder and exhibited high abrasive wear resistance. The presence of silica significantly improved the adhesive strength of HA/SiO(2) coatings mainly due to the increase in bonding strength of the coating at the interface.

  3. The optimal SAM surface functional group for producing a biomimetic HA coating on Ti.

    PubMed

    Liu, D P; Majewski, P; O'Neill, B K; Ngothai, Y; Colby, C B

    2006-06-15

    Commercial interest is growing in biomimetic methods that employ self assembled mono-layers (SAMs) to produce biocompatible HA coatings on Ti-based orthopedic implants. Recently, separate studies have considered HA formation for various SAM surface functional groups. However, these have often neglected to verify crystallinity of the HA coating, which is essential for optimal bioactivity. Furthermore, differing experimental and analytical methods make performance comparisons difficult. This article investigates and evaluates HA formation for four of the most promising surface functional groups: --OH, --SO(3)H, --PO(4)H(2) and --COOH. All of them successfully formed a HA coating at Ca/P ratios between 1.49 and 1.62. However, only the --SO(3)H and --COOH end groups produced a predominantly crystalline HA. Furthermore, the --COOH end group yielded the thickest layer and possessed crystalline characteristics very similar to that of the human bone. The --COOH end group appears to provide the optimal SAM surface interface for nucleation and growth of biomimetic crystalline HA. Intriguingly, this finding may lend support to explanations elsewhere of why human bone sialoprotein is such a potent nucleator of HA and is attributed to the protein's glutamic acid-rich sequences.

  4. High-resolution crystal structure of HA33 of botulinum neurotoxin type B progenitor toxin complex.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwangkook; Lam, Kwok-Ho; Kruel, Anna Magdalena; Perry, Kay; Rummel, Andreas; Jin, Rongsheng

    2014-04-04

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are produced as progenitor toxin complexes (PTCs) by Clostridium botulinum. The PTCs are composed of BoNT and non-toxic neurotoxin-associated proteins (NAPs), which serve to protect and deliver BoNT through the gastrointestinal tract in food borne botulism. HA33 is a key NAP component that specifically recognizes host carbohydrates and helps enrich PTC on the intestinal lumen preceding its transport across the epithelial barriers. Here, we report the crystal structure of HA33 of type B PTC (HA33/B) in complex with lactose at 1.46Å resolution. The structural comparisons among HA33 of serotypes A-D reveal two different HA33-glycan interaction modes. The glycan-binding pockets on HA33/A and B are more suitable to recognize galactose-containing glycans in comparison to the equivalent sites on HA33/C and D. On the contrary, HA33/C and D could potentially recognize Neu5Ac as an independent receptor, whereas HA33/A and B do not. These findings indicate that the different oral toxicity and host susceptibility observed among different BoNT serotypes could be partly determined by the serotype-specific interaction between HA33 and host carbohydrate receptors. Furthermore, we have identified a key structural water molecule that mediates the HA33/B-lactose interactions. It provides the structural basis for development of new receptor-mimicking compounds, which have enhanced binding affinity with HA33 through their water-displacing moiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of the 2011 FDA transvaginal mesh safety update on AUGS members' use of synthetic mesh and biologic grafts in pelvic reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Clemons, Jeffrey L; Weinstein, Milena; Guess, Marsha K; Alperin, Marianna; Moalli, Pamela; Gregory, William Thomas; Lukacz, Emily S; Sung, Vivian W; Chen, Bertha H; Bradley, Catherine S

    2013-01-01

    To describe the frequency of use and recent change in use of synthetic mesh and biologic grafts in pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and stress urinary incontinence surgery by American Urogynecology Society (AUGS) members. An electronic survey of AUGS members was conducted between December 2011 and January 2012. Frequency of graft use in POP (overall and by transvaginal and transabdominal approaches) and stress urinary incontinence surgery was queried relative to the timing of the 2011 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety update. Rates of materials' use before and after the statement were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Fifty-three percent (507/962) of AUGS members responded and were included in analysis; 79% were urogynecologists. Before the FDA warning, in POP surgery, most (90%) used synthetic mesh and fewer (34%) used biologic grafts; 99% used synthetic mesh slings. After the FDA statement, respondents reported an overall decrease in the percent of POP cases in which they used synthetic mesh (P < 0.001) but no change in biologic graft use for POP (P = 0.37) or synthetic mesh sling use (P = 0.10). Specifically, transvaginal mesh use decreased: 40% reported decreased use and 12% stopped use. However, transvaginal mesh was still used by 61% of respondents in at least some cases. No change (62%) or increased use (12%) of mesh was reported for transabdominal POP procedures. Synthetic mesh use in transvaginal POP surgery decreased after the 2011 FDA safety update, but synthetic mesh use for transabdominal POP repair and sling procedures and overall biologic graft use in POP surgery did not decrease.

  6. J-Plus: Measuring Ha Emission Line Flux In The Nearby Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logroño-García, Rafael; Vilella-Rojo, Gonzalo; López-San Juan, Carlos; Varela, Jesús; Viironen, Kerttu

    2017-10-01

    In the present presentation we aim to validate the methodology designed to extract the Ha emission line flux from J-PLUS data, a twelve optical filter survey carried out with the 2 deg² field of view T80Cam camera, mounted at the JAST/T80 telescope in the OAJ, Teruel, Spain. We use the information of the twelve J-PLUS bands, including the J0660 narrow-band filter located at rest-frame Ha, over 42 deg² to extract de-reddened and [NII] decontaminated Ha emission line fluxes of 46 star-forming regions with previous SDSS and/or CALIFA spectroscopic information. The agreement of the J-PLUS photometric Ha flux and the spectroscopic one is remarkable, with a ratio R = 1,01 +/- 0,27. This demonstrates that we are able to recover reliable Ha fluxes from J-PLUS photometric data. With an expected final area of 8,500 deg2, the large J-PLUS footprint will permit the study of the spatially resolved star formation rate of thousands nearby galaxies at z 0,015, as well as the influence of the close environment. As an illustrative example, we looked to the close pair of interacting galaxies NGC3994 and NGC3995, finding an enhancement of the star formation rate not only in the central part of NGC3994 but also in outer parts of the disc.

  7. Bone remodelling around HA-coated acetabular cups

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, P. T.; Søballe, K.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate bone remodelling around the cup in cementless THA. Previous studies indicate an advantage of better sealing of the bone-prosthesis interface by HA/TCP coating of implants, inhibiting polyethylene-induced osteolysis. One hundred patients gave informed consent to participate in a controlled randomized study between porous coated Trilogy versus Trilogy Calcicoat (HA/TCP coated). The cup was inserted in press-fit fixation. The femoral component was a cementless porous coated titanium alloy stem (Bi-Metric), with a modular 28-mm CrCo head. The Harris Hip Score (HHS) and bone mineral density (BMD) determined by DEXA scanning were used to study the effect. Measurements revealed no difference between the two groups after 3 years either in the clinical outcome or in terms of periprosthetic bone density. Patients with a body mass index above normal regained more bone mineral than patients with normal weight. This finding supports the assumption that load is beneficial to bone remodelling. PMID:16761153

  8. Detection of the HA-33 protein in botulinum neurotoxin type G complex by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kalb, Suzanne R; Baudys, Jakub; Barr, John R

    2015-10-23

    The disease botulism is caused by intoxication with botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), extremely toxic proteins which cause paralysis. This neurotoxin is produced by some members of the Clostridium botulinum and closely related species, and is produced as a protein complex consisting of the neurotoxin and neurotoxin-associated proteins (NAPs). There are seven known serotypes of BoNT, A-G, and the composition of the NAPs can differ between these serotypes. It was previously published that the BoNT/G complex consisted of BoNT/G, nontoxic-nonhemagglutinin (NTNH), Hemagglutinin 70 (HA-70), and HA-17, but that HA-33, a component of the protein complex of other serotypes of BoNT, was not found. Components of the BoNT/G complex were first separated by SDS-PAGE, and bands corresponding to components of the complex were digested and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Gel bands were identified with sequence coverages of 91% for BoNT/G, 91% for NTNH, 89% for HA-70, and 88% for HA-17. Notably, one gel band was also clearly identified as HA-33 with 93% sequence coverage. The BoNT/G complex consists of BoNT/G, NTNH, HA-70, HA-17, and HA-33. These proteins form the progenitor form of BoNT/G, similar to all other HA positive progenitor toxin complexes.

  9. Mechanical, thermal, rheological and morphological behaviour of irradiated PP/HA composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, C.; Albano, C.; Karam, A.; Domínguez, N.; Sánchez, Y.; González, G.

    2005-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites are being developed as bone graft materials. In this research, the effect of γ irradiation on mechanical, rheological, thermal and morphological behaviour of PP-HA composites was studied. The melt flow index of polymer increased markedly when it was exposed to radiation. This is indicative of chain scission reaction as the predominant process. During the tensile testing, the composites exhibited brittle behaviour, showing no fluency point. Elongation at break showed a tendency to decrease with the increase in radiation dose while stress at break did not show significant variation with radiation dose. High HA content (>20%) and radiation dose (25 kGy) had significant influence on thermal stability.

  10. Electrophoretic deposition of double-layer HA/Al composite coating on NiTi.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Esmaeil; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar; Khalili, Vida

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the bioactivity of NiTi alloys, which are being known as the suitable materials for biomedical applications, numerous NiTi disks were electrophoretically coated by hetero-coagulated hydroxyapatite/aluminum composite coatings in three main voltages from suspensions with different Al concentrations. In this paper, the amount of Ni ions release and bioactivity of prepared samples as well as bonding strength of the coating to substrate were investigated. The surface characterization of the coating by XRD, EDX, SEM, and FTIR showed that HA particles bonded by Al particles. It caused the formation of a free crack coating on NiTi disks. Moreover, the bonding strength of HA/Al coatings to NiTi substrate were improved by two times as compared to that of the pure HA coatings. Immersing of coated samples in SBF for 1 week showed that apatite formation ability was improved on HA/Al composite coating and Ni ions release from the surface of composite coating decreased. These results induce the appropriate bioactivity and biocompatibility of the deposited HA/Al composite coatings on NiTi disks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 3D bioprinting of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) hydrogel with intrinsic osteogenicity.

    PubMed

    Poldervaart, Michelle T; Goversen, Birgit; de Ruijter, Mylene; Abbadessa, Anna; Melchels, Ferry P W; Öner, F Cumhur; Dhert, Wouter J A; Vermonden, Tina; Alblas, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    In bone regenerative medicine there is a need for suitable bone substitutes. Hydrogels have excellent biocompatible and biodegradable characteristics, but their visco-elastic properties limit their applicability, especially with respect to 3D bioprinting. In this study, we modified the naturally occurring extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid (HA), in order to yield photo-crosslinkable hydrogels with increased mechanical stiffness and long-term stability, and with minimal decrease in cytocompatibility. Application of these tailor-made methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) gels for bone tissue engineering and 3D bioprinting was the subject of investigation. Visco-elastic properties of MeHA gels, measured by rheology and dynamic mechanical analysis, showed that irradiation of the hydrogels with UV light led to increased storage moduli and elastic moduli, indicating increasing gel rigidity. Subsequently, human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were incorporated into MeHA hydrogels, and cell viability remained 64.4% after 21 days of culture. Osteogenic differentiation of MSCs occurred spontaneously in hydrogels with high concentrations of MeHA polymer, in absence of additional osteogenic stimuli. Addition of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) to the culture medium further increased osteogenic differentiation, as evidenced by increased matrix mineralisation. MeHA hydrogels demonstrated to be suitable for 3D bioprinting, and were printed into porous and anatomically shaped scaffolds. Taken together, photosensitive MeHA-based hydrogels fulfilled our criteria for cellular bioprinted bone constructs within a narrow window of concentration.

  12. 3D bioprinting of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) hydrogel with intrinsic osteogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Poldervaart, Michelle T.; Goversen, Birgit; de Ruijter, Mylene; Abbadessa, Anna; Melchels, Ferry P. W.; Öner, F. Cumhur; Dhert, Wouter J. A.; Vermonden, Tina

    2017-01-01

    In bone regenerative medicine there is a need for suitable bone substitutes. Hydrogels have excellent biocompatible and biodegradable characteristics, but their visco-elastic properties limit their applicability, especially with respect to 3D bioprinting. In this study, we modified the naturally occurring extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid (HA), in order to yield photo-crosslinkable hydrogels with increased mechanical stiffness and long-term stability, and with minimal decrease in cytocompatibility. Application of these tailor-made methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) gels for bone tissue engineering and 3D bioprinting was the subject of investigation. Visco-elastic properties of MeHA gels, measured by rheology and dynamic mechanical analysis, showed that irradiation of the hydrogels with UV light led to increased storage moduli and elastic moduli, indicating increasing gel rigidity. Subsequently, human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were incorporated into MeHA hydrogels, and cell viability remained 64.4% after 21 days of culture. Osteogenic differentiation of MSCs occurred spontaneously in hydrogels with high concentrations of MeHA polymer, in absence of additional osteogenic stimuli. Addition of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) to the culture medium further increased osteogenic differentiation, as evidenced by increased matrix mineralisation. MeHA hydrogels demonstrated to be suitable for 3D bioprinting, and were printed into porous and anatomically shaped scaffolds. Taken together, photosensitive MeHA-based hydrogels fulfilled our criteria for cellular bioprinted bone constructs within a narrow window of concentration. PMID:28586346

  13. A Modified ELISA Accurately Measures Secretion of High Molecular Weight Hyaluronan (HA) by Graves' Disease Orbital Cells

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Christine C.

    2014-01-01

    Excess production of hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid [HA]) in the retro-orbital space is a major component of Graves' ophthalmopathy, and regulation of HA production by orbital cells is a major research area. In most previous studies, HA was measured by ELISAs that used HA-binding proteins for detection and rooster comb HA as standards. We show that the binding efficiency of HA-binding protein in the ELISA is a function of HA polymer size. Using gel electrophoresis, we show that HA secreted from orbital cells is primarily comprised of polymers more than 500 000. We modified a commercially available ELISA by using 1 million molecular weight HA as standard to accurately measure HA of this size. We demonstrated that IL-1β-stimulated HA secretion is at least 2-fold greater than previously reported, and activation of the TSH receptor by an activating antibody M22 from a patient with Graves' disease led to more than 3-fold increase in HA production in both fibroblasts/preadipocytes and adipocytes. These effects were not consistently detected with the commercial ELISA using rooster comb HA as standard and suggest that fibroblasts/preadipocytes may play a more prominent role in HA remodeling in Graves' ophthalmopathy than previously appreciated. PMID:24302624

  14. Structural and biochemical characterization of the protease domain of the mosaic botulinum neurotoxin type HA.

    PubMed

    Lam, Kwok-Ho; Sikorra, Stefan; Weisemann, Jasmin; Maatsch, Hannah; Perry, Kay; Rummel, Andreas; Binz, Thomas; Jin, Rongsheng

    2018-04-23

    The extreme toxicity of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) relies on their specific cleavage of SNARE proteins, which eventually leads to muscle paralysis. One newly identified mosaic toxin, BoNT/HA (aka H or FA), cleaves VAMP-2 at a unique position between residues L54 and E55, but the molecular basis underlying VAMP-2-recognition of BoNT/HA remains poorly characterized. Here, we report a ∼2.09 Å resolution crystal structure of the light chain protease domain of BoNT/HA (LC/HA). Structural comparison between LC/HA and LC of BoNT/F1 (LC/F1) reveals distinctive hydrophobic and electrostatic features near the active sites, which may explain their different VAMP-2 cleavage sites. When compared to BoNT/F5 that cleaves VAMP-2 at the same site as BoNT/HA, LC/HA displays higher affinity for VAMP-2, which could be caused by their different surface charge properties surrounding a VAMP-2 exosite-binding cleft. Furthermore, systematic mutagenesis studies on VAMP-2 and structural modeling demonstrate that residues R47 to K59 spanning the cleavage site in VAMP-2 may adopt a novel extended conformation when interacting with LC/HA and LC/F5. Taken together, our structure provides new insights into substrate-recognition of BoNT/HA and paves the way for rational design of small molecule or peptide inhibitors against LC/HA.

  15. Antibodies induced by the HA2 glycopolypeptide of influenza virus haemagglutinin improve recovery from influenza A virus infection.

    PubMed

    Gocník, M; Fislová, T; Mucha, V; Sládková, T; Russ, G; Kostolansky, F; Varecková, E

    2008-04-01

    The haemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A virus consists of two glycopolypeptides designated HA1 and HA2. Antibodies recognizing HA1 inhibit virus haemagglutination, neutralize virus infectivity and provide good protection against infection, but do not cross-react with the HA of other subtypes. Little is known regarding the biological activities of antibodies against HA2. To study the role of antibodies directed against HA2 during influenza virus infection, two vaccinia virus recombinants (rVVs) were used expressing chimeric molecules of HA, in which HA1 and HA2 were derived from different HA subtypes. The KG-11 recombinant expressed HA1 from A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus and HA2 from A/NT/60 (H3N2) virus, whilst KG-12 recombinant expressed HA1 from A/NT/60 virus and HA2 from A/PR/8/34 virus. Immunization of BALB/c mice with rVV expressing HA2 of the HA subtype homologous to the challenge virus [A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) or A/Mississippi/1/85 (H3N2)] did not prevent virus infection, but nevertheless resulted in an increase in mice survival and faster elimination of virus from the lungs. Passive immunization with antibodies purified from mice immunized with rVVs confirmed that antibodies against HA2 were responsible for the described effect on virus infection. Based on the facts that HA2 is a rather conserved part of the HA and that antibodies against HA2, as shown here, may moderate virus infection, future vaccine design should deal with the problem of how to increase the HA2 antibody response.

  16. Changes in redox properties of Humic Acid (HA) upon sorption to alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsetti, Silvia; Haderlein, Stefan B.; Visser, Anna-Neva

    2014-05-01

    The interaction between humic substances and soil minerals may change important properties and reactivity of the organic matter. In particular, we are interested whether changes in the redox properties of a HA (namely total electron exchange capacity and redox state) occur upon sorption to redox inactive minerals. Sorption of Pahokee Peat humic acid to Al2O3 was studied at pH value of 7.0 in batch experiments, at several HA/oxide ratio. All experiments were conducted in anoxic environment. The required equilibration time was determined by taking aliquots of the suspension at several time intervals and registering the UV-vis spectra of the supernatant; apparent sorption equilibrium (no decrease in UV-vis signal) was achieved after 5 days approximately. Both the suspension (mineral+sorbed HA, plus supernatant) and the supernatant after centrifugation were analyzed using mediated electrochemical techniques, and the electron donating and accepting capacities (EDC and EAC, respectively) were determined. In addition, SUVA was calculated for each batch. These preliminary results show a slight increase in the SUVA of the supernatant upon sorption, which would indicate a preferential sorption of more aliphatic fractions. Interestingly, the total electron exchange capacities (EEC) of the supernatants showed no significant differences to that of the stock HA, whereas the EEC of the whole suspension showed values up to twice the one from the stock HA. The EDC/EAC (which can be interpreted as a measure of the redox state of the sample) also showed same values for stock and supernatants, being the values of the whole suspensions towards the reduced side. Therefore, such preliminary results would indicate not a change in the redox properties of the dissolved HA, but only for the sorbed one. The sorbed fraction seems to present higher redox activity (higher EEC) and a more reduced state than the stock HA. Given the absence of redox transfer between the HA and the oxide, it could

  17. Dewetting induced Au-Ge composite nanodot evolution in SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, D. P.; Chettah, A.; Siva, V.; Kanjilal, D.; Sahoo, P. K.

    2018-01-01

    A composite nanostructure comprising of Au and Ge gradually evolves on SiO2 surface when a bilayer of Au and Ge is irradiated by medium keV Xe-ion beam. The morphology progresses through different stages from nucleating patches to extended islands and finally a Au-Ge composite nanodot array develops on the insulator surface. While ion energy and fluence are found to determine dimensions of the nanostructures, existence of a characteristic lateral length scale is also detected at every stage of evolution. Through morphological and compositional analysis, the observed evolution is understood as an effect of ion beam induced dewetting of Au top layer. Numerical estimation based on the unified thermal spike model using the present experimental condition demonstrates formation of molten zones around the ion track due to nuclear and electronic energy deposition in the target. Dewetting results from mass flow onto the surface driven by local melting along the ion track and combines with sputter erosion of the bilayer film to lead to composite nanodot evolution. The generality of the ion induced processes provides possible route towards metal-semiconductor hybrid nanostructure synthesis on insulator surface.

  18. The Characteristics of Marine Environment around the Ieodo in Aug. 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, E.; KIM, S. H.; KIM, E.; KIM, B. N.; CHOI, B. K.

    2017-12-01

    The sea area around Ieodo is analyzed from the CTD data and the S-ADCP data observed in 23 Aug. 2016. Ieodo, an underwater reef, is located 149 km southwest of Marado in Republic of Korea. It has 4 peaks and is about 4.6 meter below sea level. It stretches about 600m north to south and 750m east to west from its top. It has the same geographical characteristics as the seamount. In the sea area around Ieodo, the northward flow appeared during the ebb tide, the southward flow appeared during the flood tide. The strong stratification formed in summer seems to change the depth depending on the sea water current. The thermocline depth becomes deeper at the north of the Ieodo when the northward current flows and the upwelling flow occurs. And the thermocline depth becomes shallower at the south when the southward current flows and the downwelling flow occurs. In this way, the upwelling and downwelling seems to be according to the tide's direction. Acknowledgements This research was a part of the projects entitled "Construction of Ocean Research Stations and their application Studies, Phase 2", funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Korea.

  19. Re-establishment of the IMS Hydroacoustic Station HA04, Crozet Islands, France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haralabus, Georgios; Stanley, Jerry; Zampolli, Mario; Grenard, Patrick; Nielsen, Peter; Le Bras, Ronan; Brown, David; Bittner, Paulina; Wang, Haijun; Gore, Jane; Amir, Menachem; Bereza, Slava

    2017-04-01

    The incorporation of the hydroacoustic station HA04, Crozet Islands, France, into the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) is a 17 year saga that had a happy ending on 29 December 2016. On that day, following a major engineering and logistical undertaking, the station was successfully installed. While still in its initial testing phase, HA04 sends continuously quality data at the International Data Centre (IDC), pending official certification and promotion to mainstream operational status. Similarly to most other cabled hydroacoustic stations in the IMS, HA04 is comprised of two triplets of moored hydrophones deployed on both sides of Possession Island (Crozet Islands) sending uninterrupted data to a shore facility via submarine fiber optic cables. The designed frequency pass-band is 1 - 100 Hz. Data are relayed to Vienna via a shore based satellite link in real time. According to CTBTO's standard requirements, the design life of HA04 is at least 20 years, maintenance-free for the underwater system. An outline of the main phases of this project, highlights from the installation operations and examples of received hydroacoustic signals associated with recent underwater seismic activity in the Indian Ocean as well as vocalizations from marine mammals acquired by the new HA04 are presented here. HA04 is scheduled to be fully integrated into the operational platform of IDC in the next six months, which will enable registered researchers to access archived monitoring data and processing software, or via the National Data Centres (NDCs).

  20. Fractal analysis of polyferric chloride-humic acid (PFC-HA) flocs in different topological spaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yili; Lu, Jia; Baiyu, Du; Shi, Baoyou; Wang, Dongsheng

    2009-01-01

    The fractal dimensions in different topological spaces of polyferric chloride-humic acid (PFC-HA) flocs, formed in flocculating different kinds of humic acids (HA) water at different initial pH (9.0, 7.0, 5.0) and PFC dosages, were calculated by effective density-maximum diameter, image analysis, and N2 absorption-desorption methods, respectively. The mass fractal dimensions (Df) of PFC-HA flocs were calculated by bi-logarithm relation of effective density with maximum diameter and Logan empirical equation. The Df value was more than 2.0 at initial pH of 7.0, which was 11% and 13% higher than those at pH 9.0 and 5.0, respectively, indicating the most compact flocs formed in flocculated HA water at initial pH of 7.0. The image analysis for those flocs indicates that after flocculating the HA water at initial pH greater than 7.0 with PFC flocculant, the fractal dimensions of D2 (logA vs. logdL) and D3 (logVsphere VS. logdL) of PFC-HA flocs decreased with the increase of PFC dosages, and PFC-HA flocs showed a gradually looser structure. At the optimum dosage of PFC, the D2 (logA vs. logdL) values of the flocs show 14%-43% difference with their corresponding Df, and they even had different tendency with the change of initial pH values. However, the D2 values of the flocs formed at three different initial pH in HA solution had a same tendency with the corresponding Dr. Based on fractal Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption and desorption equations, the pore surface fractal dimensions (Ds) for dried powders of PFC-HA flocs formed in HA water with initial pH 9.0 and 7.0 were all close to 2.9421, and the Ds values of flocs formed at initial pH 5.0 were less than 2.3746. It indicated that the pore surface fractal dimensions of PFC-HA flocs dried powder mainly show the irregularity from the mesopore-size distribution and marcopore-size distribution.

  1. Impacts of Vegetation and Urban planning on micro climate in Hashtgerd new Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodoudi, Sahar; langer, Ines; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    One of the objectives of climatological part of project Young Cities 'Developing Energy-Efficient Urban Fabric in the Tehran-Karaj Region' is to simulate the micro climate (with 1m resolution) in 35ha of new town Hashtgerd, which is located 65 km far from mega city Tehran. The Project aims are developing, implementing and evaluating building and planning schemes and technologies which allow to plan and build sustainable, energy-efficient and climate sensible form mass housing settlements in arid and semi-arid regions ("energy-efficient fabric"). Climate sensitive form also means designing and planning for climate change and its related effects for Hashtgerd New Town. By configuration of buildings and open spaces according to solar radiation, wind and vegetation, climate sensitive urban form can create outdoor thermal comfort. To simulate the climate on small spatial scales, the micro climate model Envi-met has been used to simulate the micro climate in 35 ha. The Eulerian model ENVI-met is a micro-scale climate model which gives information about the influence of architecture and buildings as well as vegetation and green area on the micro climate up to 1 m resolution. Envi-met has been run with information from topography, downscaled climate data with neuro-fuzzy method, meteorological measurements, building height and different vegetation variants (low and high number of trees) Through the optimal Urban Design and Planning for the 35ha area the microclimate results shows, that with vegetation the microclimate in street canopies will be change: • 2 m temperature is decreased by about 2 K • relative humidity increase by about 10 % • soil temperature is decreased by about 3 K • wind speed is decreased by about 60% The style of buildings allows free movement of air, which is of high importance for fresh air supply. The increase of inbuilt areas in 35 ha reduces the heat island effect through cooling caused by vegetation and increase of air humidity which

  2. Hazardous-waste-characterization survey of unknown drums at the 21st Tactical Fighter Wing, Elmendorf and Shemya Air Force Bases, and Galena and King Salmon Airports, Alaska. Final report 2-13 Aug 91

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bishop, M.S.

    1991-12-01

    At the request of the USAF Regional Hospital Elmendorf/SGPB (PACAF), the Armstrong Laboratory, Occupational and Environmental Health Directorate, conducted a hazardous waste characterization survey of unknown drums at Elmendorf AFB from 2 Aug - 13 Aug 91. The scope of the survey was to sample and characterize drums of unknown material stored at Elmendorf AFB, Shemya AFB, and Galena and King Salmon Airports. Several waste streams were sampled at Elmendorf AFB to revalidate sample results from a previous survey.

  3. 75 FR 55323 - Ha-Best, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12492-001] Ha-Best, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment August 31, 2010. In accordance with the National... Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Ha-Best's application for license for the Miner Shoal Waterpower...

  4. Elastin-like protein-hyaluronic acid (ELP-HA) hydrogels with decoupled mechanical and biochemical cues for cartilage regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Danqing; Wang, Huiyuan; Trinh, Pavin; Heilshorn, Sarah C; Yang, Fan

    2017-05-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major component of cartilage extracellular matrix and is an attractive material for use as 3D injectable matrices for cartilage regeneration. While previous studies have shown the promise of HA-based hydrogels to support cell-based cartilage formation, varying HA concentration generally led to simultaneous changes in both biochemical cues and stiffness. How cells respond to the change of biochemical content of HA remains largely unknown. Here we report an adaptable elastin-like protein-hyaluronic acid (ELP-HA) hydrogel platform using dynamic covalent chemistry, which allows variation of HA concentration without affecting matrix stiffness. ELP-HA hydrogels were created through dynamic hydrazone bonds via the reaction between hydrazine-modified ELP (ELP-HYD) and aldehyde-modified HA (HA-ALD). By tuning the stoichiometric ratio of aldehyde groups to hydrazine groups while maintaining ELP-HYD concentration constant, hydrogels with variable HA concentration (1.5%, 3%, or 5%) (w/v) were fabricated with comparable stiffness. To evaluate the effects of HA concentration on cell-based cartilage regeneration, chondrocytes were encapsulated within ELP-HA hydrogels with varying HA concentration. Increasing HA concentration led to a dose-dependent increase in cartilage-marker gene expression and enhanced sGAG deposition while minimizing undesirable fibrocartilage phenotype. The use of adaptable protein hydrogels formed via dynamic covalent chemistry may be broadly applicable as 3D scaffolds with decoupled niche properties to guide other desirable cell fates and tissue repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Elastin-like Protein-Hyaluronic acid (ELP-HA) Hydrogels with Decoupled Mechanical and Biochemical cues for Cartilage Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Danqing; Wang, Huiyuan; Trinh, Pavin; Heilshorn, Sarah C.; Yang, Fan

    2018-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major component of cartilage extracellular matrix and is an attractive material for use as 3D injectable matrices for cartilage regeneration. While previous studies have shown the promise of HA-based hydrogels to support cell-based cartilage formation, varying HA concentration generally led to simultaneous changes in both biochemical cues and stiffness. How cells respond to the change of biochemical content of HA remains largely unknown. Here we report an adaptable elastin-like protein-hyaluronic acid (ELP-HA) hydrogel platform using dynamic covalent chemistry, which allows varyiation of HA concentration without affecting matrix stiffness. ELP-HA hydrogels were created through dynamic hydrazone bonds via the reaction between hydrazine-modified ELP (ELP-HYD) and aldehyde-modified HA (HA-ALD). By tuning the stoichiometric ratio of aldehyde groups to hydrazine groups while maintaining ELP-HYD concentration constant, hydrogels with variable HA concentration (1.5%, 3%, or 5%) (w/v) were fabricated with comparable stiffness. To evaluate the effects of HA concentration on cell-based cartilage regeneration, chondrocytes were encapsulated within ELP-HA hydrogels with varying HA concentration. Increasing HA concentration led to a dose-dependent increase in cartilage-marker gene expression and enhanced sGAG deposition while minimizing undesirable fibrocartilage phenotype. The use of adaptable protein hydrogels formed via dynamic covalent chemistry may be broadly applicable as 3D scaffolds with decoupled niche properties to guide other desirable cell fates and tissue repair. PMID:28268018

  6. Influence of the concentrations of hyaluronic acid on the properties and biocompatibility of Cs-Gel-HA membranes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haifeng; Yin, Yuji; Yao, Kangde; Ma, Dongrui; Cui, Lei; Cao, Yilin

    2004-08-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the relationship between the concentrations of HA solutions and the physicochemical properties and the biocompatibility of Cs-Gel-HA membranes. The addition of different concentrations of HA not only improved the wettability significantly and extended the degradation time of Cs-Gel-HA membranes, but also changed their mechanical properties. The concentration of HA had a significant influence on the biocompatibility of Cs-Gel-HA membranes. Results demonstrated that it was only the concentrations of HA in a certain range (0.01-0.1%), that could promote the cell adhesion, migration and proliferation, while the concentration of HA was above 0.1% it would either reduce or even inhibit these behaviors.

  7. The duration of hyaluronidase and optimal timing of hyaluronic acid (HA) filler reinjection after hyaluronidase injection.

    PubMed

    Kim, H J; Kwon, S B; Whang, K U; Lee, J S; Park, Y L; Lee, S Y

    2018-02-01

    Hyaluronidase injection is a commonly performed treatment for overcorrection or misplacement of hyaluronic acid (HA) filler. Many patients often wants the HA filler reinjection after the use of hyaluronidase, though the optimal timing of reinjection of HA filler still remains unknown. To provide the optimal time interval between hyaluronidase injections and HA filler reinjections. 6 Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with single monophasic HA filler. 1 week after injection, the injected sites were treated with hyaluronidase. Then, HA fillers were reinjected sequentially with differing time intervals from 30 minutes to 14 days. 1 hour after the reinjection of the last HA filler, all injection sites were excised for histologic evaluation. 3 hours after reinjection of HA filler, the appearance of filler material became evident again, retaining its shape and volume. 6 hours after reinjection, the filler materials restored almost its original volume and there were no significant differences from the positive control. Our data suggest that the hyaluronidase loses its effect in dermis and subcutaneous tissue within 3-6 hours after the injection and successful engraftment of reinjected HA filler can be accomplished 6 hours after the injection.

  8. The influence of silanisation on the mechanical and degradation behaviour of PLGA/HA composites.

    PubMed

    Naik, Ashutosh; Best, Serena M; Cameron, Ruth E

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the influence of silanisation on the mechanical and degradation behaviour of PLGA/HA composites. Three different silanes (mercaptopropyl trimethoxy silane (MPTMS), aminopropyl trimethoxy silane (APTMS) and aminopropyltriethoxy silane (APTES)) were applied to HA substrates in order to study the effect of head group (which binds to the polymer) and tail group (which binds to the surface hydroxyl groups in HA). A composite of hydroxyapatite (HA) and poly(d,l lactide-co-glycolide (50:50)) (PLGA) was investigated. The influence of concentration, the reaction time, drying temperature and substrate surface on silanisation was examined. TGA was used to detect the degree of silanisation. HA with MPTMS (1wt.% MPTMS with reaction time of 1h) was used as filler in PLGA-30wt.% HA composites for an in-vitro degradation study carried out in PBS. In addition, the mechanical properties of the composites were studied. Silanisation affects the properties of the composite by improving the bonding at the interface and hence it was found to influence the plastic mechanical properties rather than the elastic mechanical properties or the degradation profile of the composite. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The enhanced anti-tissue adhesive effect of injectable pluronic-HA hydrogel by poly(γ-glutamic acid).

    PubMed

    Kim, Manse; Hwang, Youngmin; Tae, Giyoong

    2016-12-01

    The stability of tissue barrier in physiological condition is a key factor to isolate the damaged site from adjacent tissue for anti-tissue adhesion. Although pluronic or pluronic-hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel as an injectable formulation can prevent tissue adhesion at the injection site, the anti-tissue adhesion effect is limited due to its poor stability. Herein, we prepared tissue barrier formulations composed of pluronic F127 (F127) and HA mixture (F127-HA) and the effect of the addition of poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) was characterized. All of F127, HA, and F127-HA mixture showed the poor in vitro residence stability less than 3 days. However, by adding PGA into F127-HA mixture, their stability was significantly enhanced by the control of the molecular weight and concentration of PGA. Thus, F127-HA with 10wt% PGA (2000kDa) showed the long-term stability over 10 days. Similarly, the enhanced stability of F127-HA with PGA resulted in the enhanced and excellent in vivo anti-tissue adhesion effect, evidenced by histological analysis and grading of tissue adhesion. Therefore, F127-HA containing PGA could be applied as an efficient injectable tissue barrier for anti-tissue adhesion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Green synthesis of nanosilver particles by Aspergillus terreus HA1N and Penicillium expansum HA2N and its antifungal activity against mycotoxigenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Ammar, H A M; El-Desouky, T A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by an eco-friendly and low-cost method using the fungi Aspergillus terreus HA1N and Penicillium expansum HA2N as an alternative to chemical procedures mostly requiring drastic experimental conditions emitting toxic chemical byproducts. Also, this study has been extended to evaluate the effect of AgNPs on the growth of some mycotoxigenic fungi and ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by Aspergillus ochraceus. The AgNPs have been characterized by UV-Visible Spectrophotometer, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The TEM analysis has revealed that the size of AgNPs ranged between 14 and 25 nm in the case of P. expansum and 10-18 nm in the case of A. terreus. The antifungal activity of AgNP colloids has indicated that the highest inhibition zone was detected with AgNPs synthesized by A. terreus HA1N against all tested fungi. The highest inhibition zone was detected with Aspergillus niger at concentrations 3 and 6 μg of AgNP solution (7·56 ± 0·38 and 11·3 ± 1·8 mm, respectively) while, A. ochraceus showed the maximum inhibition zone (16·33 ± 0·96 mm) at the concentration 9 μg of AgNPs synthesized by A. terreus. The results have also indicated that the AgNPs synthesized by A. terreus and P. expansum at the concentration 220 μg/100 ml media gave the highest reduction of OTA, where the percentages of reduction were 58·87 and 52·18% respectively. The smallest size AgNPs synthesized by A. terreus HA1N are better in their antifungal activity against all tested mycotoxigenic fungi than the largest one synthesized by P. expansum HA2N. This is the first study focused on using AgNPs in control of OTA production. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. A Modified Delphi Study to Define "Ah Ha" Moments in Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilcher, Jobeth

    2015-01-01

    Ah ha moments are often mentioned in education literature. These moments are suggested to be a powerful aspect of learning, yet limited research is present regarding this topic. Ah ha learning moments have also not been defined in the education literature, resulting in the likelihood that each educator and learner may have differing definitions.…

  12. Secondary anchor polymorphism in the HA-1 minor histocompatibility antigen critically affects MHC stability and TCR recognition

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Sarah; Piper, Karen P.; Mohammed, Fiyaz; Dafforn, Timothy R.; Tenzer, Stefan; Salim, Mahboob; Mahendra, Premini; Craddock, Charles; van Endert, Peter; Schild, Hansjörg; Cobbold, Mark; Engelhard, Victor H.; Moss, Paul A. H.; Willcox, Benjamin E.

    2009-01-01

    T cell recognition of minor histocompatibility antigens (mHags) underlies allogeneic immune responses that mediate graft-versus-host disease and the graft-versus-leukemia effect following stem cell transplantation. Many mHags derive from single amino acid polymorphisms in MHC-restricted epitopes, but our understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing mHag immunogenicity and recognition is incomplete. Here we examined antigenic presentation and T-cell recognition of HA-1, a prototypic autosomal mHag derived from single nucleotide dimorphism (HA-1H versus HA-1R) in the HMHA1 gene. The HA-1H peptide is restricted by HLA-A2 and is immunogenic in HA-1R/R into HA-1H transplants, while HA-1R has been suggested to be a “null allele” in terms of T cell reactivity. We found that proteasomal cleavage and TAP transport of the 2 peptides is similar and that both variants can bind to MHC. However, the His>Arg change substantially decreases the stability and affinity of HLA-A2 association, consistent with the reduced immunogenicity of the HA-1R variant. To understand these findings, we determined the structure of an HLA-A2-HA-1H complex to 1.3Å resolution. Whereas His-3 is accommodated comfortably in the D pocket, incorporation of the lengthy Arg-3 is predicted to require local conformational changes. Moreover, a soluble TCR generated from HA-1H-specific T-cells bound HA-1H peptide with moderate affinity but failed to bind HA-1R, indicating complete discrimination of HA-1 variants at the level of TCR/MHC interaction. Our results define the molecular mechanisms governing immunogenicity of HA-1, and highlight how single amino acid polymorphisms in mHags can critically affect both MHC association and TCR recognition. PMID:19234124

  13. In vitro modulation of the interaction between HA95 and LAP2beta by cAMP signaling.

    PubMed

    Martins, Sandra B; Marstad, Anne; Collas, Philippe

    2003-09-09

    The nuclear envelope mediates key functions by interacting with chromatin. We recently reported an interaction between the chromatin- and nuclear matrix-associated protein HA95 and the inner nuclear membrane integral protein LAP2beta, implicated in initiation of DNA replication (Martins et al. (2003) J. Cell Biol. 160, 177-188). Here, we show that in vitro, interaction between HA95 and LAP2beta is modulated by cAMP signaling via PKA. Exposure of an anti-HA95 immune precipitate from interphase HeLa cells to a mitotic extract promotes ATP-dependent release of LAP2beta from the HA95 complex. This coincides with Ser and Thr phosphorylation of HA95 and LAP2beta. Inhibition of PKA with PKI abolishes phosphorylation of HA95 and dissociation of LAP2beta from HA95, although LAPbeta remains phosphorylated. Antagonizing cAMP signaling in mitotic extract also abolishes the release of LAP2beta from HA95; however, disrupting PKA anchoring to A-kinase anchoring proteins has no effect. Inhibition of CDK activity in the extract greatly reduces LAP2beta phosphorylation but does not prevent LAP2beta release from HA95. Inhibition of PKC, MAP kinase, or CaM kinase II does not affect mitotic extract-induced dissociation of LAP2beta from HA95. PKA phosphorylates HA95 but not LAP2beta in vitro and elicits a release of LAP2beta from HA95. CDK1 or PKC phosphorylates LAP2beta within the HA95 complex, but neither kinase induces LAP2beta release. Our results indicate that in vitro, the interaction between HA95 and LAP2beta is influenced by a PKA-mediated phosphorylation of HA95 rather than by CDK1- or PKC-mediated phosphorylation of LAP2beta. This suggests an additional level of regulation of a chromatin-nuclear envelope interaction in dividing cells.

  14. Magneto-optical and catalytic properties of Fe3O4@HA@Ag magnetic nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Md.; Güner, S.; Yıldız, A.; Baykal, A.

    2017-01-01

    Fe3O4@HA@Ag magnetic nanocomposites (MNCs) were successfully synthesized by the simple reflux method for the removal of azo dyes from the industrial aqueous media. Fe3O4@HA@AgMNCs exhibited high catalytic activity to reduce MB within 20 min from the waste water. The obtained materials were characterized by the means of different techniques. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the single-phase of Fe3O4 spinel structure. SEM and TEM analysis indicated that Fe3O4@HA@AgMNCs were nanoparticles like structure with small agglomeration. TG result showed that the products contained 9% of HA. The characteristic peaks of HA at 1601 cm-1 and 1703 cm-1 was observed by the means of FT-IR spectra of Fe3O4@HA@AgMNCs. The hysteresis (σ-H) curves revealed Fe3O4@HA@Ag MNCs exhibit a typical superparamagnetic characteristic with a saturation magnetization of 59.11 emu/g and measured magnetic moment is 2.45 μB. The average magnetic particle dimension (Dmag) is 13.25 nm. In accordance, the average crystallite and particle dimensions were obtained as 11.50 nm and 13.10 nm from XRD and TEM measurements, respectively. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy was offered as uniaxial and calculated effective anisotropy constant (Keff) is 2.96×105 Erg/g. The blocking temperature was estimated as 522 K. The size-dependent saturation magnetization suggests the existence of a magnetically dead layer as 0.793 nm for Fe3O4@HA@Ag MNCs. The UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and Kubelka-Munk theory were applied to determine the optical properties of powder samples. The direct optical energy band gap (Eg) values were estimated from Tauc plots between 1.62 eV and 2.12 eV.

  15. Evaluation of nanohydroxyapaptite (nano-HA) coated epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chenyu; Deng, Jia; Man, Yi; Qu, Yili

    2017-09-01

    Collagen is the main component of extracellular matrix (ECM) with desirable biological activities and low antigenicity. Collagen materials have been widely utilized in guided bone regeneration (GBR) surgery due to its abilities to maintain space for hard tissue growth. However, pure collagen lacks optimal mechanical properties. In our previous study, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes, with better biological activities and enhanced mechanical properties, may promote osteoblast proliferation, but their effect on osteoblast differentiation is not very significant. Nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA) is the main component of mineral bone, which possesses exceptional bioactivity properties including good biocompatibility, high osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity, non-immunogenicity and non-inflammatory behavior. Herein, by analyzing the physical and chemical properties as well as the effects on promoting bone regeneration, we have attempted to present a novel EGCG-modified collagen membrane with nano-HA coating, and have found evidence that the novel collagen membrane may promote bone regeneration with a better surface morphology, without destroying collagen backbone. To evaluate the surface morphologies, chemical and mechanical properties of pure collagen membranes, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes, nano-HA coated collagen membranes, nano-HA coated EGCG-collagen membranes, (ii) to evaluate the bone regeneration promoted by theses membranes. In the present study, collagen membranes were divided into 4 groups: (1) untreated collagen membranes (2) EGCG cross-linked collagen membranes (3) nano-HA modified collagen membranes (4) nano-HA modified EGCG-collagen membranes. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to evaluate surface morphologies and chemical properties, respectively. Mechanical properties were determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC

  16. Photoluminescent Au-Ge composite nanodots formation on SiO2 surface by ion induced dewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, D. P.; Siva, V.; Singh, A.; Kanjilal, D.; Sahoo, P. K.

    2017-09-01

    Medium energy ion irradiation on a bilayer of Au and Ge on SiO2 is observed to result in gradual morphological evolution from an interconnected network to a nanodot array on the insulator surface. Structural and compositional analyses reveal composite nature of the nanodots, comprising of both Au and Ge. The growing nanostructures are found to be photoluminescent at room temperature where the emission intensity and wavelengths vary with morphology. The growth of such nanostructures can be understood in terms of dewetting of the metal layer under ion irradiation due to ion-induced melting along the ion tracks. The visible PL emission is found to be related with evolution of the Au-Ge nanodots. The study indicates a route towards single step synthesis of metal-semiconductor nanodots on insulator surface.

  17. Effect of bioactive extruded PLA/HA composite films on focal adhesion formation of preosteoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Persson, Maria; Lorite, Gabriela S; Kokkonen, Hanna E; Cho, Sung-Woo; Lehenkari, Petri P; Skrifvars, Mikael; Tuukkanen, Juha

    2014-09-01

    The quality of the initial cell attachment to a biomaterial will influence any further cell function, including spreading, proliferation, differentiation and viability. Cell attachment is influenced by the material's ability to adsorb proteins, which is related to the surface chemistry and topography of the material. In this study, we incorporated hydroxyapatite (HA) particles into a poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composite and evaluated the surface structure and the effects of HA density on the initial cell attachment in vitro of murine calvarial preosteoblasts (MC3T3-EI). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the HA particles were successfully incorporated into the PLA matrix and located at the surface which is of importance in order to maintain the bioactive effect of the HA particles. SEM and AFM investigation revealed that the HA density (particles/area) as well as surface roughness increased with HA loading concentration (i.e. 5, 10, 15 and 20wt%), which promoted protein adsorption. Furthermore, the presence of HA on the surface enhanced cell spreading, increased the formation of actin stress fibers and significantly improved the expression of vinculin in MC3T3-E1 cells which is a key player in the regulation of cell adhesion. These results suggest the potential utility of PLA/HA composites as biomaterials for use as a bone substitute material and in tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Trypanosoma cruzi H+-ATPase 1 (TcHA1) and 2 (TcHA2) genes complement yeast mutants defective in H+ pumps and encode plasma membrane P-type H+-ATPases with different enzymatic properties.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shuhong; Scott, David A; Docampo, Roberto

    2002-11-15

    Previous studies in Trypanosoma cruzi have shown that intracellular pH homeostasis requires ATP and is affected by H(+)-ATPase inhibitors, indicating a major role for ATP-driven proton pumps in intracellular pH control. In the present study, we report the cloning and sequencing of a pair of genes linked in tandem (TcHA1 and TcHA2) in T. cruzi which encode proteins with homology to fungal and plant P-type proton-pumping ATPases. The genes are expressed at the mRNA level in different developmental stages of T. cruzi: TcHA1 is expressed maximally in epimastigotes, whereas TcHA2 is expressed predominantly in trypomastigotes. The proteins predicted from the nucleotide sequence of the genes have 875 and 917 amino acids and molecular masses of 96.3 and 101.2 kDa, respectively. Full-length TcHA1 and an N-terminal truncated version of TcHA2 complemented a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain deficient in P-type H(+)-ATPase activity, the proteins localized to the yeast plasma membrane, and ATP-driven proton pumping could be detected in proteoliposomes reconstituted from plasma membrane purified from transfected yeast. The reconstituted proton transport activity was reduced by inhibitors of P-type H(+)-ATPases. C-terminal truncation did not affect complementation of mutant yeast, suggesting the lack of C-terminal autoinhibitory domains in these proteins. ATPase activity in plasma membrane from TcHA1- and (N-terminal truncated) TcHA2-transfected yeast was inhibited to different extents by vanadate, whereas the latter yeast strain was more resistant to extremes of pH, suggesting that the native proteins may serve different functions at different stages in the T. cruzi life cycle.

  19. The use of acetone to enhance the infiltration of HA nanoparticles into a demineralized dentin collagen matrix.

    PubMed

    Besinis, Alexandros; van Noort, Richard; Martin, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the role of acetone, as a carrier for nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) in solution, to enhance the infiltration of fully demineralized dentin with HA nanoparticles (NPs). Dentin specimens were fully demineralized and subsequently infiltrated with two types of water-based nano-HA solutions (one containing acetone and one without). Characterization of the dentin surfaces and nano-HA particles was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface wettability and infiltration capacity of the nano-HA solutions were quantified by means of contact angle measurements and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. Contact angle measurements were taken at baseline and repeated at regular intervals to assess the effect of acetone. The P and Ca levels of infiltrated dentin specimens were measured and compared to sound dentin and non-infiltrated controls. The presence of acetone resulted in an eight-fold decrease in the contact angles of the nano-HA solutions recorded on the surface of demineralized dentin compared to nano-HA solutions without acetone (one-way ANOVA, p<0.05). Perfect wetting of the demineralized dentin surface was achieved 5min after the application of the nano-HA solution containing acetone. Infiltration of demineralized dentin with the nano-HA solution containing acetone restored the lost mineral content by 50%, whereas the mean mineralization values for P and Ca in dentin treated with the acetone-free nano-HA solution were less than 6%. Acetone was shown to act as a vehicle to enhance the capacity to infiltrate demineralized dentin with HA NPs. The successful infiltration of dentin collagen with HA NPs provides a suitable scaffold, whereby the infiltrated HA NPs have the potential to act as seeds that may initiate heterogenous mineral growth when exposed to an appropriate mineral-rich environment. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier

  20. PCL-HA microscaffolds for in vitro modular bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Totaro, Alessandra; Salerno, Aurelio; Imparato, Giorgia; Domingo, Concepción; Urciuolo, Francesco; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of microscaffolds and bone-bioactive surfaces is a pivotal point in modular bone tissue engineering. In this study, the design and fabrication of porous polycaprolactone (PCL) microscaffolds functionalized with hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles by means of a bio-safe and versatile thermally-induced phase separation process is reported. The ability of the as-prepared nanocomposite microscaffolds to support the adhesion, growth and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in standard and osteogenic media and using dynamic seeding/culture conditions was investigated. The obtained results demonstrated that the PCL-HA nanocomposite microparticles had an enhanced interaction with hMSCs and induced their osteogenic differentiation, even without the exogenous addition of osteogenic factors. In particular, calcium deposition, alizarin red assay, histological analysis, osteogenic gene expression and collagen I secretion were assessed. The results of these tests demonstrated the formation of bone microtissue precursors after 28 days of dynamic culture. These findings suggest that PCL-HA nanocomposite microparticles represent an excellent platform for in vitro modular bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Impact of spatial plan on the conversion of Subak rice fields and food security, in Badung and Gianyar Regencies, Bali Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanya, Indayati; Netera Subadiyasa, N.; Ratna Adi, Gst. P.

    2018-05-01

    Regional Spatial Plan of Bali Province 2009-2029, allocating rice fields can be converted 10% (± 10.800 ha). Over the next 20 years, the conversion of rice field is permitted 540 ha year-1, the real condition in Bali is 800 ha year-1.Research location in Badung and Gianyar Regencies. Visual satellite image interpretation methods, digitization of on-screen, delineation of subak rice field, field survey, superimpose analysis of Spatial Plan (SP) map with rice field map, trough toolbox-analysis tools–overlay-intersect using QGIS, Harvest Index (HI) of cropping pattern in one year. SP has a negative impact on agricultural land resources and food security. Local Regulation (SP), subak rice fields outside the agricultural area licensed to be converted, and food deficits. Regency of Badung, potential land conversion of 3,324.97 ha (34.44%) from 119 subak with paddy field area of 24,184.85 ha. There are 10 subak 100% and 8 subak > 95% can be converted; projected food deficit -115.343 tons of rice by 2020 for HI 2. In Gianyar Regency, potential land conversion 13,021.41 ha (53.51%) of 66 subak with an area of 24184.85 ha; 8 subak 100% and 8 subak with area < 5 ha can be converted; projected food deficit is about -194438 tons of rice in 2040 for HI 2.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the HA3 component of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nakamura, Toshio; Tonozuka, Takashi; Kotani, Mao

    2007-12-01

    HA3, a 70 kDa haemagglutinating protein, is a precursor form of HA3a and HA3b, the subcomponents of Clostridium botulinum type C 16S progenitor toxin. In this report, recombinant HA3 protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. HA3, a 70 kDa haemagglutinating protein, is a precursor form of HA3a and HA3b, the subcomponents of Clostridium botulinum type C 16S progenitor toxin. In this report, recombinant HA3 protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.6 Å resolution and the crystal belonged to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}. Matthews coefficient and self-rotation functionmore » calculations indicate that there is probably one molecule of HA3 in the asymmetric unit. A search for heavy-atom derivatives has been undertaken.« less

  3. Northrop Grumman Corporation's modified U.S. Navy F-5E Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration (SSBD) aircraft flies over Lake Isabella, Calif., on Aug. 4, 2003

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-04

    Northrop Grumman Corporation's modified U.S. Navy F-5E Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration (SSBD) aircraft flies over Lake Isabella, California on Aug. 4, 2003. NASA Dryden provided range, air and ground data-gathering support for the SSBD project, which is part of DARPA's Quiet Supersonic Platform (QSP) program.

  4. ALP gene expression in cDNA samples from bone tissue engineering using a HA/TCP/Chitosan scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephanie, N.; Katarina, H.; Amir, L. R.; Gunawan, H. A.

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the potential use of hydroxyapatite (HA)/tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/Chitosan as a bone tissue engineering scaffold. The potential for using HA/TCP/chitosan as a scaffold was analyzed by measuring expression of the ALP osteogenic gene in cDNA from bone biopsies from four Macaque nemestrina. Experimental conditions included control (untreated), treatment with HA/TCP 70:30, HA/TCP 50:50, and HA/TCP/chitosan. cDNA samples were measured quantitively with Real-Time PCR (qPCR) and semi-quantitively by gel electrophoresis. There were no significant differences in ALP gene expression between treatment subjects after two weeks, but the HA/TCP/chitosan treatment gave the highest level of expression after four weeks. The scaffold using the HA/TCP/chitosan combination induced a higher level of expression of the osteogenic gene ALP than did scaffold without chitosan.

  5. 24 CFR 882.805 - HA application process, ACC execution, and pre-rehabilitation activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false HA application process, ACC... § 882.805 HA application process, ACC execution, and pre-rehabilitation activities. (a) Review. When... applications in accordance with the guidelines, rating criteria, and procedures published in the NOFA. (b) ACC...

  6. Precision Extruding Deposition for Freeform Fabrication of PCL and PCL-HA Tissue Scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shor, L.; Yildirim, E. D.; Güçeri, S.; Sun, W.

    Computer-aided tissue engineering approach was used to develop a novel Precision Extrusion Deposition (PED) process to directly fabricate Polycaprolactone (PCL) and composite PCL/Hydroxyapatite (PCL-HA) tissue scaffolds. The process optimization was carried out to fabricate both PCL and PCL-HA (25% concentration by weight of HA) with a controlled pore size and internal pore structure of the 0°/90° pattern. Two groups of scaffolds having 60 and 70% porosity and with pore sizes of 450 and 750 microns, respectively, were evaluated for their morphology and compressive properties using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and mechanical testing. The surface modification with plasma was conducted on PCL scaffold to increase the cellular attachment and proliferation. Our results suggested that inclusion of HA significantly increased the compressive modulus from 59 to 84 MPa for 60% porous scaffolds and from 30 to 76 MPa for 70% porous scaffolds. In vitro cell-scaffolds interaction study was carried out using primary fetal bovine osteoblasts to assess the feasibility of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering application. In addition, the results in surface hydrophilicity and roughness show that plasma surface modification can increase the hydrophilicity while introducing the nano-scale surface roughness on PCL surface. The cell proliferation and differentiation were calculated by Alamar Blue assay and by determining alkaline phosphatase activity. The osteoblasts were able to migrate and proliferate over the cultured time for both PCL as well as PCL-HA scaffolds. Our study demonstrated the viability of the PED process to the fabricate PCL and PCL-HA composite scaffolds having necessary mechanical property, structural integrity, controlled pore size and pore interconnectivity desired for bone tissue engineering.

  7. Influence of temperature and aging time on HA synthesized by the hydrothermal method.

    PubMed

    Kothapalli, C R; Wei, M; Legeros, R Z; Shaw, M T

    2005-05-01

    The influence of temperature and aging time on the morphology and mechanical properties of nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA) synthesized by a hydrothermal method is reported here. The pre-mixed reactants were poured into a stirred autoclave and reacted at temperatures between 25-250 degrees C for 2-10 h. HA powders thus obtained were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and a particle size analyzer. It was found that the aspect ratio of the particles increased with the reaction temperature. The length of the HA particles increased with the reaction temperature below 170 degrees C, but it decreased when the temperature was raised above 170 degrees C. The agglomerates of HA particles were formed during synthesis, and their sizes were strongly dependent on reaction temperatures. As the reaction temperature increased, the agglomerate size decreased (p = 0.008). The density of the discs pressed from these samples reached 85-90% of the theoretical density after sintering at 1200 degrees C for 1 h. No decomposition to other calcium phosphates was detected at this sintering temperature. A correlation existed (p = 0.05) between the agglomerate sizes of HA particles synthesized at various conditions and their sintered densities. With the increase of the agglomerate size, the sintered density of the HA compact decreased. It was found that both the sintered density and flexural strength increased with increasing aging time and reaction temperature. A maximum flexural strength of 78 MPa was observed for the samples synthesized at 170 degrees C for 5 h with the predicted average at these conditions being 65 MPa. These samples attained an average sintered density of 88%.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of plasma sprayed HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Khor, K A; Gu, Y W; Pan, D; Cheang, P

    2004-08-01

    Plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on titanium alloy substrate have been used extensively due to their excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. However, the erratic bond strength between HA and Ti alloy has raised concern over the long-term reliability of the implant. In this paper, HA/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings that possess superior mechanical properties to conventional plasma sprayed HA coatings were developed. Ti-6Al-4V powders coated with fine YSZ and HA particles were prepared through a unique ceramic slurry mixing method. The so-formed composite powder was employed as feedstock for plasma spraying of the HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V coatings. The influence of net plasma energy, plasma spray standoff distance, and post-spray heat treatment on microstructure, phase composition and mechanical properties were investigated. Results showed that coatings prepared with the optimum plasma sprayed condition showed a well-defined splat structure. HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V solid solution was formed during plasma spraying which was beneficial for the improvement of mechanical properties. There was no evidence of Ti oxidation from the successful processing of YSZ and HA coated Ti-6Al-4V composite powders. Small amount of CaO apart from HA, ZrO(2) and Ti was present in the composite coatings. The microhardness, Young's modulus, fracture toughness, and bond strength increased significantly with the addition of YSZ. Post-spray heat treatment at 600 degrees C and 700 degrees C for up to 12h was found to further improve the mechanical properties of coatings. After the post-spray heat treatment, 17.6% increment in Young's modulus (E) and 16.3% increment in Vicker's hardness were achieved. The strengthening mechanisms of HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings were related to the dispersion strengthening by homogeneous distribution of YSZ particles in the matrix, the good mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V and the formation of solid solution among HA

  9. Sequence diversity within the HA-1 gene as detected by melting temperature assay without oligonucleotide probes

    PubMed Central

    Graziano, Claudio; Giorgi, Massimo; Malentacchi, Cecilia; Mattiuz, Pier Luigi; Porfirio, Berardino

    2005-01-01

    Background The minor histocompatibility antigens (mHags) are self-peptides derived from common cellular proteins and presented by MHC class I and II molecules. Disparities in mHags are a potential risk for the development of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in the recipients of bone marrow from HLA-identical donors. Two alleles have been identified in the mHag HA-1. The correlation between mismatches of the mHag HA-1 and GvHD has been suggested and methods to facilitate large-scale testing were afterwards developed. Methods We used sequence specific primer (SSP) PCR and direct sequencing to detect HA-1 gene polymorphisms in a sample of 131 unrelated Italian subjects. We then set up a novel melting temperature (Tm) assay that may help identification of HA-1 alleles without oligonucleotide probes. Results We report the frequencies of HA-1 alleles in the Italian population and the presence of an intronic 5 base-pair deletion associated with the immunogeneic allele HA-1H. We also detected novel variable sites with respect to the consensus sequence of HA-1 locus. Even though recombination/gene conversion events are documented, there is considerable linkage disequilibrium in the data. The gametic associations between HA-1R/H alleles and the intronic 5-bp ins/del polymorphism prompted us to try the Tm analysis with SYBR® Green I. We show that the addition of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) during the assay yields distinct patterns when amplicons from HA-1H homozygotes, HA-1R homozygotes, and heterozygotes are analysed. Conclusion The possibility to use SYBR® Green I to detect Tm differences between allelic variants is attractive but requires great caution. We succeeded in allele discrimination of the HA-1 locus using a relatively short (101 bp) amplicon, only in the presence of DMSO. We believe that, at least in certain assets, Tm assays may benefit by the addition of DMSO or other agents affecting DNA strand conformation and stability. PMID:16202172

  10. Combining stable insect cell lines with baculovirus-mediated expression for multi-HA influenza VLP production.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Daniela P; Correia, Ricardo; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Roldão, António; Teixeira, Ana P; Alves, Paula M

    2018-05-24

    Safer and broadly protective vaccines are needed to cope with the continuous evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and promising approaches based on the expression of multiple hemagglutinins (HA) in a virus-like particle (VLP) have been proposed. However, expression of multiple genes in the same vector can lead to its instability due to tandem repetition of similar sequences. By combining stable with transient expression systems we can rationally distribute the number of genes to be expressed per platform and thus mitigate this risk. In this work, we developed a modular system comprising stable and baculovirus-mediated expression in insect cells for production of multi-HA influenza enveloped VLPs. First, a stable insect High Five cell population expressing two different HA proteins from subtype H3 was established. Infection of this cell population with a baculovirus vector encoding three other HA proteins from H3 subtype proved to be as competitive as traditional co-infection approaches in producing a pentavalent H3 VLP. Aiming at increasing HA expression, the stable insect cell population was infected at increasingly higher cell concentrations (CCI). However, cultures infected at CCI of 3×10 6 cells/mL showed lower HA titers per cell in comparison to standard CCI of 2×10 6 cells/mL, a phenomenon named "cell density effect". To lessen the negative impact of this phenomenon, a tailor-made refeed strategy was designed based on the exhaustion of key nutrients during cell growth. Noteworthy, cultures supplemented and infected at a CCI of 4×10 6 cells/mL showed comparable HA titers per cell to those of CCI of 2×10 6 cells/mL, thus leading to an increase of up to 4-fold in HA titers per mL. Scalability of the modular strategy herein proposed was successfully demonstrated in 2L stirred tank bioreactors with comparable HA protein levels observed between bioreactor and shake flasks cultures. Overall, this work demonstrates the suitability of combining stable

  11. Report of Evaluation of Decompression Sickness, Beale AFB, 10-14 Aug 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    MICHAELSON, Col, USAF, MC, SFS Chief, Hyperbaric Medicine Branch //SIGNED// JAMES W. WEISSMANN, Col, USAF, BSC Chief, Aerospace Medicine...Robert S Michaelson (Chief of Hyperbaric Medicine at USAFSAM), Dr. Andy Pilmanis (Consultant), and Dr. Tom Morgan (711 HPW/HPS). BACKGROUND The...without consent of originator’s office. MP = Mission Pilot HBOT = Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment CNS = Central Nervous System HA = headache BAFB = Beale

  12. Stimulation of TLRs by LMW-HA induces self-defense mechanisms in vaginal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Dusio, Giuseppina F; Cardani, Diego; Zanobbio, Laura; Mantovani, Martina; Luchini, Patrizia; Battini, Lorenzo; Galli, Valentina; Diana, Angela; Balsari, Andrea; Rumio, Cristiano

    2011-07-01

    The innate immune system is present throughout the female reproductive tract and functions in synchrony with the adaptive immune system to provide protection in a way that enhances the chances for fetal survival, while protecting against potential pathogens. Recent data show that activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and 4 by low-molecular weight hyaluronic acid (LMW-HA) in the epidermis induces secretion of the antimicrobial peptide β-defensin 2. In the present work, we show that LMW-HA induces vaginal epithelial cells to release different antimicrobial peptides, via activation of TLR2 and TLR4. Further, we found that LMW-HA favors repair of vaginal epithelial injury, involving TLR2 and TLR4, and independently from its classical receptor CD44. This wound-healing activity of LMW-HA is dependent from an Akt/phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase pathway. Therefore, these findings suggest that the vaginal epithelium is more than a simple physical barrier to protect against invading pathogens: on the contrary, this surface acts as efficient player of innate host defense, which may modulate its antimicrobial properties and injury restitution activity, following LMW-HA stimulation; this activity may furnish an additional protective activity to this body compartment, highly and constantly exposed to microbiota, ameliorating the self-defense of the vaginal epithelium in both basal and pathological conditions.

  13. Trypsin pre-treatment corrects SRID over-estimation of immunologically active, pre-fusion HA caused by mixed immunoprecipitin rings.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yingxia; Palladino, Giuseppe; Xie, Yuhong; Ferrari, Annette; Ma, Xiuwen; Han, Liqun; Dormitzer, Philip R; Settembre, Ethan C

    2016-06-17

    Influenza vaccines are the primary intervention to prevent the substantial health burden of seasonal and pandemic influenza. Subunit and split influenza vaccines are formulated, released for clinical use, and tested for stability based on their content of immunologically active (capable of eliciting functional antibodies) hemagglutinin (HA). Single-radial immunodiffusion (SRID), the standard in vitro potency assay in the field, is believed to specifically detect immunologically active HA. We confirmed that, with conformationally homogeneous HA preparations, SRID specifically detected native, pre-fusion HA, which elicited influenza neutralizing and hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies in mice, and it did not detect low-pH stressed, post-fusion HA, which was selectively removed from the SRID gel during a blotting step and was significantly less immunologically active. This selective detection was due to the SRID format, not a conformational specificity of the sheep antiserum used in the SRID, as the same antiserum detected non-stressed and low-pH stressed HA similarly when used in an ELISA format. However, when low-pH stressed HA was mixed with non-stressed HA, SRID detected both forms in mixed immunoprecipitin rings, leading to over-quantification of pre-fusion HA. We previously reported that trypsin digestion of antigen samples selectively degrade stressed HA, so that an otherwise conformationally insensitive biophysical quantification technique, reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), can specifically quantify trypsin-resistant, immunologically active, pre-fusion HA. Here, we report that trypsin digestion can also improve the specificity of SRID so that it can quantify immunologically active, pre-fusion HA when it is mixed with less immunologically active, post-fusion HA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimally designed collagen/polycaprolactone biocomposites supplemented with controlled release of HA/TCP/rhBMP-2 and HA/TCP/PRP for hard tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kim, WonJin; Jang, Chul Ho; Kim, GeunHyung

    2017-09-01

    Collagen has been widely used as a very promising material to regenerate various tissues. It is a chief component of the extracellular matrix, and encourages various biological effects conducive to tissue regeneration. However, poor mechanical stability, low processability, and high level of water absorption can lead to impaired control of growth factor release and have impeded the use of collagen as a functional biomedical scaffold. Here, to overcome the shortcomings of collagen scaffolds, we have additively manufactured collagen/polycaprolactone (PCL) biocomposites supplemented with a bioceramic (hydroxyapatite (HA)/β-tricalcium-phosphate (TCP)) and two growth factors (recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 [rhBMP-2] and platelet-rich plasma [PRP]). Various weight fractions of PCL in the collagen/PCL composites were manipulated to select optimal growth factor release and highly active cellular responses. After the optimal concentration of PCL in the collagen/PCL scaffold was determined, biocomposites supplemented with bioceramic/growth-factors were fabricated. Continuously released growth factors were assumed to increase the in vitro cellular activities of the osteoblast-like cells (MG63) cultured on the biocomposites. In vitro cellular responses, including osteogenic activities, were examined, and results showed that compared to the HA/TCP/rhBMP-2 supplemented scaffold the HA/TCP/PRP biocomposites provide significantly high cellular activities (cell proliferation: >1.3-fold) and mineralization (calcium deposition: >1.4-fold, osteocalcin: >2.6-fold) sufficient for regenerating bone tissue. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Vaccine-induced anti-HA2 antibodies promote virus fusion and enhance influenza virus respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Surender; Loving, Crystal L; Manischewitz, Jody; King, Lisa R; Gauger, Phillip C; Henningson, Jamie; Vincent, Amy L; Golding, Hana

    2013-08-28

    Vaccine-induced disease enhancement has been described in connection with several viral vaccines in animal models and in humans. We investigated a swine model to evaluate mismatched influenza vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) after pH1N1 infection. Vaccinating pigs with whole inactivated H1N2 (human-like) virus vaccine (WIV-H1N2) resulted in enhanced pneumonia and disease after pH1N1 infection. WIV-H1N2 immune sera contained high titers of cross-reactive anti-pH1N1 hemagglutinin (HA) antibodies that bound exclusively to the HA2 domain but not to the HA1 globular head. No hemagglutination inhibition titers against pH1N1 (challenge virus) were measured. Epitope mapping using phage display library identified the immunodominant epitope recognized by WIV-H1N2 immune sera as amino acids 32 to 77 of pH1N1-HA2 domain, close to the fusion peptide. These cross-reactive anti-HA2 antibodies enhanced pH1N1 infection of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells by promoting virus membrane fusion activity. The enhanced fusion activity correlated with lung pathology in pigs. This study suggests a role for fusion-enhancing anti-HA2 antibodies in VAERD, in the absence of receptor-blocking virus-neutralizing antibodies. These findings should be considered during the evaluation of universal influenza vaccines designed to elicit HA2 stem-targeting antibodies.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of nanoengineered biocompatible n-HA/chitosan-tamarind seed polysaccharide: Bio-inspired nanocomposites for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Shakir, Mohammad; Zia, Iram; Rehman, Abdur; Ullah, Rizwan

    2018-05-01

    In this communication we describe the fabrication of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan-tamarind seed polysaccharide (n-HA/CS-TSP) nanocomposite with a weight ratio of 70/20/10, 70/15/15 and 70/10/20, respectively through a co-precipitation method. A comparative assessment of the properties of n-HA/CS-TSP and n-HA/CS nanocomposites was done by FT-IR, SEM-EDX, TEM, TGA/DTA, XRD and mechanical testing. The results suggested strong chemical interactions between the three components, decreased particle size and homogeneous dispersion of n-HA particles in n-HA/CS-TSP as compared to n-HA/CS. The n-HA/CS-TSP (70/10/20) showed the most porous and rough surface, enhanced thermal stability and highest compressive strength (4.0 MPa) and modulus (81 MPa). In addition, n-HA/CS-TSP (70/10/20) exhibited greater swelling character, acceptable degradation and increased biomineralization in simulated body fluid (SBF) as compared to n-HA/CS-TSP (70/20/10, 70/15/15) and n-HA/CS nanocomposites. The superior non-toxic response with MG-63 cells and better haemocompatibility was observed with n-HA/CS-TSP (70/15/15). Thereby, n-HA/CS-TSP nanocomposites could be promising alternative biomaterials in the field of bone tissue engineering compared to the n-HA/CS nanocomposite. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Does PEEK/HA Enhance Bone Formation Compared With PEEK in a Sheep Cervical Fusion Model?

    PubMed

    Walsh, William R; Pelletier, Matthew H; Bertollo, Nicky; Christou, Chris; Tan, Chris

    2016-11-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has a wide range of clinical applications but does not directly bond to bone. Bulk incorporation of osteoconductive materials including hydroxyapatite (HA) into the PEEK matrix is a potential solution to address the formation of a fibrous tissue layer between PEEK and bone and has not been tested. Using in vivo ovine animal models, we asked: (1) Does PEEK-HA improve cortical and cancellous bone ongrowth compared with PEEK? (2) Does PEEK-HA improve bone ongrowth and fusion outcome in a more challenging functional ovine cervical fusion model? The in vivo responses of PEEK-HA Enhanced and PEEK-OPTIMA ® Natural were evaluated for bone ongrowth in the form of dowels implanted in the cancellous and cortical bone of adult sheep and examined at 4 and 12 weeks as well as interbody cervical fusion at 6, 12, and 26 weeks. The bone-implant interface was evaluated with radiographic and histologic endpoints for a qualitative assessment of direct bone contact of an intervening fibrous tissue later. Gamma-irradiated cortical allograft cages were evaluated as well. Incorporating HA into the PEEK matrix resulted in more direct bone apposition as opposed to the fibrous tissue interface with PEEK alone in the bone ongrowth as well as interbody cervical fusions. No adverse reactions were found at the implant-bone interface for either material. Radiography and histology revealed resorption and fracture of the allograft devices in vivo. Incorporating HA into PEEK provides a more favorable environment than PEEK alone for bone ongrowth. Cervical fusion was improved with PEEK-HA compared with PEEK alone as well as allograft bone interbody devices. Improving the bone-implant interface with a PEEK device by incorporating HA may improve interbody fusion results and requires further clinical studies.

  18. High Altitude Affects Nocturnal Non-linear Heart Rate Variability: PATCH-HA Study

    PubMed Central

    Boos, Christopher J.; Bye, Kyo; Sevier, Luke; Bakker-Dyos, Josh; Woods, David R.; Sullivan, Mark; Quinlan, Tom; Mellor, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    Background: High altitude (HA) exposure can lead to changes in resting heart rate variability (HRV), which may be linked to acute mountain sickness (AMS) development. Compared with traditional HRV measures, non-linear HRV appears to offer incremental and prognostic data, yet its utility and relationship to AMS have been barely examined at HA. This study sought to examine this relationship at terrestrial HA. Methods: Sixteen healthy British military servicemen were studied at baseline (800 m, first night) and over eight consecutive nights, at a sleeping altitude of up to 3600 m. A disposable cardiac patch monitor was used, to record the nocturnal cardiac inter-beat interval data, over 1 h (0200–0300 h), for offline HRV assessment. Non-linear HRV measures included Sample entropy (SampEn), the short (α1, 4–12 beats) and long-term (α2, 13–64 beats) detrend fluctuation analysis slope and the correlation dimension (D2). The maximal rating of perceived exertion (RPE), during daily exercise, was assessed using the Borg 6–20 RPE scale. Results: All subjects completed the HA exposure. The average age of included subjects was 31.4 ± 8.1 years. HA led to a significant fall in SpO2 and increase in heart rate, LLS and RPE. There were no significant changes in the ECG-derived respiratory rate or in any of the time domain measures of HRV during sleep. The only notable changes in frequency domain measures of HRV were an increase in LF and fall in HFnu power at the highest altitude. Conversely, SampEn, SD1/SD2 and D2 all fell, whereas α1 and α2 increased (p < 0.05). RPE inversely correlated with SD1/SD2 (r = -0.31; p = 0.002), SampEn (r = -0.22; p = 0.03), HFnu (r = -0.27; p = 0.007) and positively correlated with LF (r = 0.24; p = 0.02), LF/HF (r = 0.24; p = 0.02), α1 (r = 0.32; p = 0.002) and α2 (r = 0.21; p = 0.04). AMS occurred in 7/16 subjects (43.8%) and was very mild in 85.7% of cases. HRV failed to predict AMS. Conclusion: Non-linear HRV is more sensitive to

  19. High Altitude Affects Nocturnal Non-linear Heart Rate Variability: PATCH-HA Study.

    PubMed

    Boos, Christopher J; Bye, Kyo; Sevier, Luke; Bakker-Dyos, Josh; Woods, David R; Sullivan, Mark; Quinlan, Tom; Mellor, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    Background: High altitude (HA) exposure can lead to changes in resting heart rate variability (HRV), which may be linked to acute mountain sickness (AMS) development. Compared with traditional HRV measures, non-linear HRV appears to offer incremental and prognostic data, yet its utility and relationship to AMS have been barely examined at HA. This study sought to examine this relationship at terrestrial HA. Methods: Sixteen healthy British military servicemen were studied at baseline (800 m, first night) and over eight consecutive nights, at a sleeping altitude of up to 3600 m. A disposable cardiac patch monitor was used, to record the nocturnal cardiac inter-beat interval data, over 1 h (0200-0300 h), for offline HRV assessment. Non-linear HRV measures included Sample entropy (SampEn), the short (α1, 4-12 beats) and long-term (α2, 13-64 beats) detrend fluctuation analysis slope and the correlation dimension (D2). The maximal rating of perceived exertion (RPE), during daily exercise, was assessed using the Borg 6-20 RPE scale. Results: All subjects completed the HA exposure. The average age of included subjects was 31.4 ± 8.1 years. HA led to a significant fall in SpO 2 and increase in heart rate, LLS and RPE. There were no significant changes in the ECG-derived respiratory rate or in any of the time domain measures of HRV during sleep. The only notable changes in frequency domain measures of HRV were an increase in LF and fall in HFnu power at the highest altitude. Conversely, SampEn, SD1/SD2 and D2 all fell, whereas α1 and α2 increased ( p < 0.05). RPE inversely correlated with SD1/SD2 ( r = -0.31; p = 0.002), SampEn ( r = -0.22; p = 0.03), HFnu ( r = -0.27; p = 0.007) and positively correlated with LF ( r = 0.24; p = 0.02), LF/HF ( r = 0.24; p = 0.02), α1 ( r = 0.32; p = 0.002) and α2 ( r = 0.21; p = 0.04). AMS occurred in 7/16 subjects (43.8%) and was very mild in 85.7% of cases. HRV failed to predict AMS. Conclusion: Non-linear HRV is more sensitive to

  20. Illumina MiSeq sequencing reveals microbial community in HA process for dyeing wastewater treatment fed with different co-substrates.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xuehui; Liu, Na; Ping, Jing; Zhang, Qingyun; Zheng, Xiulin; Liu, Jianshe

    2018-06-01

    In present study, a hydrolysis acidification (HA) reactor was used for simulated dyeing wastewater treatment. Co-substrates included starch, glucose, sucrose, yeast extract (YE) and peptone were fed sequentially into the HA reactor to enhance the HA process effects. The performance of the HA reactor and the microbial community structure in HA process were investigated under different co-substrates conditions. Results showed that different co-substrates had different influences on the performance of HA reactor. The highest decolorization (50.64%) and COD removal rate (60.73%) of the HA reactor were obtained when sucrose was as the co-substrate. And it found that carbon co-substrates starch, glucose and sucrose exhibited better decolorization and higher COD removal efficiency of the HA reactor than the nitrogen co-substrates YE and peptone. Microbial community structure in the HA process was analyzed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Results revealed different co-substrates had different influences on the community structure and microbial diversity in HA process. It was considered that sucrose could enrich the species such as Raoultella, Desulfovibrio, Tolumonas, Clostridium, which might be capable of degrading the dyes. Sucrose was considered to be the best co-substrate of enhancing the HA reactor's performance in this study. This work would provide deep insight into the influence of many different co-substrates on HA reactor performance and microbial communities in HA process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding the undelaying mechanism of HA-subtyping in the level of physic-chemical characteristics of protein.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Mansour; Aghagolzadeh, Parisa; Shamabadi, Narges; Tahmasebi, Ahmad; Alsharifi, Mohammed; Adelson, David L; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the influenza A virus to increase its host range is a major concern worldwide. Molecular mechanisms of increasing host range are largely unknown. Influenza surface proteins play determining roles in reorganization of host-sialic acid receptors and host range. In an attempt to uncover the physic-chemical attributes which govern HA subtyping, we performed a large scale functional analysis of over 7000 sequences of 16 different HA subtypes. Large number (896) of physic-chemical protein characteristics were calculated for each HA sequence. Then, 10 different attribute weighting algorithms were used to find the key characteristics distinguishing HA subtypes. Furthermore, to discover machine leaning models which can predict HA subtypes, various Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine, Naïve Bayes, and Neural Network models were trained on calculated protein characteristics dataset as well as 10 trimmed datasets generated by attribute weighting algorithms. The prediction accuracies of the machine learning methods were evaluated by 10-fold cross validation. The results highlighted the frequency of Gln (selected by 80% of attribute weighting algorithms), percentage/frequency of Tyr, percentage of Cys, and frequencies of Try and Glu (selected by 70% of attribute weighting algorithms) as the key features that are associated with HA subtyping. Random Forest tree induction algorithm and RBF kernel function of SVM (scaled by grid search) showed high accuracy of 98% in clustering and predicting HA subtypes based on protein attributes. Decision tree models were successful in monitoring the short mutation/reassortment paths by which influenza virus can gain the key protein structure of another HA subtype and increase its host range in a short period of time with less energy consumption. Extracting and mining a large number of amino acid attributes of HA subtypes of influenza A virus through supervised algorithms represent a new avenue for understanding and

  2. Understanding the Underlying Mechanism of HA-Subtyping in the Level of Physic-Chemical Characteristics of Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Mansour; Aghagolzadeh, Parisa; Shamabadi, Narges; Tahmasebi, Ahmad; Alsharifi, Mohammed; Adelson, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the influenza A virus to increase its host range is a major concern worldwide. Molecular mechanisms of increasing host range are largely unknown. Influenza surface proteins play determining roles in reorganization of host-sialic acid receptors and host range. In an attempt to uncover the physic-chemical attributes which govern HA subtyping, we performed a large scale functional analysis of over 7000 sequences of 16 different HA subtypes. Large number (896) of physic-chemical protein characteristics were calculated for each HA sequence. Then, 10 different attribute weighting algorithms were used to find the key characteristics distinguishing HA subtypes. Furthermore, to discover machine leaning models which can predict HA subtypes, various Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine, Naïve Bayes, and Neural Network models were trained on calculated protein characteristics dataset as well as 10 trimmed datasets generated by attribute weighting algorithms. The prediction accuracies of the machine learning methods were evaluated by 10-fold cross validation. The results highlighted the frequency of Gln (selected by 80% of attribute weighting algorithms), percentage/frequency of Tyr, percentage of Cys, and frequencies of Try and Glu (selected by 70% of attribute weighting algorithms) as the key features that are associated with HA subtyping. Random Forest tree induction algorithm and RBF kernel function of SVM (scaled by grid search) showed high accuracy of 98% in clustering and predicting HA subtypes based on protein attributes. Decision tree models were successful in monitoring the short mutation/reassortment paths by which influenza virus can gain the key protein structure of another HA subtype and increase its host range in a short period of time with less energy consumption. Extracting and mining a large number of amino acid attributes of HA subtypes of influenza A virus through supervised algorithms represent a new avenue for understanding and

  3. Mechanical properties of titanium-hydroxyapatite (Ti-HA) composite coating on stainless steel prepared by thermal spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosmamuhamadani, R.; Azhar, N. H.; Talari, M. K.; Yahaya, Sabrina M.; Sulaiman, S.; Ismail, M. I. S.

    2017-09-01

    Addition of hydroxyapatite (HA) can enhance the bioactivity of the common metallic implant due to its similarity with natural bones and teeth. In this investigation, high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOFT) technique was used to deposit titanium-hydroxyapatite (Ti-HA) composite on stainless steel substrate plate with different percentage of HA for biomedical applications. The aim of this research is to investigate the mechanical properties of Ti-HA coating such as hardness, adhesion strength and wear behaviour. The hardness and strength was determined by using SHIMADZU-microhardness Vickers tester and PosiTest AT portable adhesion tester respectively. The wear test was performed by using pin-on-disk equipment and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) used to determine the extent of surface damage. From the results obtained, mechanical properties such as hardness and adhesion strength of titanium (Ti) coating decreased with the increased of HA contents. Meanwhile, the coefficient of friction of Ti-10% HA coating shows the highest value compare to others as three-body abrasion had occurred during the test.

  4. A hierarchical spatial framework for forest landscape planning.

    Treesearch

    Pete Bettinger; Marie Lennette; K. Norman Johnson; Thomas A. Spies

    2005-01-01

    A hierarchical spatial framework for large-scale, long-term forest landscape planning is presented along with example policy analyses for a 560,000 ha area of the Oregon Coast Range. The modeling framework suggests utilizing the detail provided by satellite imagery to track forest vegetation condition and for representation of fine-scale features, such as riparian...

  5. Structural-based designed modular capsomere comprising HA1 for low-cost poultry influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Waneesorn, Jarurin; Wibowo, Nani; Bingham, John; Middelberg, Anton P J; Lua, Linda H L

    2018-05-24

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses cause a severe and lethal infection in domestic birds. The increasing number of HPAI outbreaks has demonstrated the lack of capabilities to control the rapid spread of avian influenza. Poultry vaccination has been shown to not only reduce the virus spread in animals but also reduce the virus transmission to humans, preventing potential pandemic development. However, existing vaccine technologies cannot respond to a new virus outbreak rapidly and at a cost and scale that is commercially viable for poultry vaccination. Here, we developed modular capsomere, subunits of virus-like particle, as a low-cost poultry influenza vaccine. Modified murine polyomavirus (MuPyV) VP1 capsomere was used to present structural-based influenza Hemagglutinin (HA1) antigen. Six constructs of modular capsomeres presenting three truncated versions of HA1 and two constructs of modular capsomeres presenting non-modified HA1 have been generated. These modular capsomeres were successfully produced in stable forms using Escherichia coli, without the need for protein refolding. Based on ELISA, this adjuvanted modular capsomere (CaptHA1-3C) induced strong antibody response (almost 10 5 endpoint titre) when administered into chickens, similar to titres obtained in the group administered with insect cell-based HA1 proteins. Chickens that received adjuvanted CaptHA1-3C followed by challenge with HPAI virus were fully protected. The results presented here indicate that this platform for bacterially-produced modular capsomere could potentially translate into a rapid-response and low-cost vaccine manufacturing technology suitable for poultry vaccination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antibiotic-containing hyaluronic acid gel as an antibacterial carrier: Usefulness of sponge and film-formed HA gel in deep infection.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Hiroaki; Yudoh, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Masamichi; Himeda, Yasukazu; Miyoshi, Teruzo; Yoshida, Kaoru; Kano, Syogo

    2006-03-01

    We have developed a novel bioabsorbable antibacterial carrier using hyaluronic acid (HA) gel for prevention and treatment of orthopedic infections. In this study, we investigated the in vivo antibacterial effects of two forms of this new material, an HA gel sponge and an HA gel film. A titanium cylinder was inserted into the intramedullary cavity of each rabbit femur, along with an HA gel sponge or HA gel film containing antibiotics. The HA gel sponge contained gentamycin, vancomycin, tobramycin, or minomycin. The HA gel film contained gentamycin or vancomycin. After 0, 7, and 14 days, the rabbit bone marrow was collected, and the antibacterial activity of the HA gel was determined by agar diffusion test. As a control, we used Septocoll, a commercially available antibacterial carrier. Both the HA gel sponge and HA gel film exhibited antibacterial activity. The present results indicate that HA gel containing antibiotics is a clinically useful bioabsorbable antibacterial carrier. Copyright 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  7. Integrating socio-economic and biophysical data to enhance watershed management and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirani, Farshad Jalili; Mousavi, Seyed Alireza

    2016-09-01

    Sustainability has always been considered as one of the main aspects of watershed management plans. In many developing countries, watershed management practices and planning are usually performed by integrating biophysical layers, and other existing layers which cannot be identified as geographic layers are ignored. We introduce an approach to consider some socioeconomic parameters which are important for watershed management decisions. Ganj basin in Chaharmahal-Bakhtiari Province was selected as the case study area, which includes three traditional sanctums: Ganj, Shiremard and Gerdabe Olya. Socioeconomic data including net agricultural income, net ranching income, population and household number, literacy rate, unemployment rate, population growth rate and active population were mapped within traditional sanctums and then were integrated into other biophysical layers. After overlaying and processing these data to determine management units, different quantitative and qualitative approaches were adopted to achieve a practical framework for watershed management planning and relevant plans for homogeneous units were afterwards proposed. Comparing the results with current plans, the area of allocated lands to different proposed operations considering both qualitative and quantitative approaches were the same in many cases and there was a meaningful difference with current plans; e.g., 3820 ha of lands are currently managed under an enclosure plan, while qualitative and quantitative approaches in this study suggest 1388 and 1428 ha to be allocated to this operation type, respectively. Findings show that despite the ambiguities and complexities, different techniques could be adopted to incorporate socioeconomic conditions in watershed management plans. This introductory approach will help to enhance watershed management decisions with more attention to societal background and economic conditions, which will presumably motivate local communities to participate in

  8. Sugar-binding sites of the HA1 subcomponent of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toshio; Tonozuka, Takashi; Ide, Azusa; Yuzawa, Takayuki; Oguma, Keiji; Nishikawa, Atsushi

    2008-02-22

    Clostridium botulinum type C 16S progenitor toxin contains a hemagglutinin (HA) subcomponent, designated HA1, which appears to play an important role in the effective internalization of the toxin in gastrointestinal epithelial cells and in creating a broad specificity for the oligosaccharide structure that corresponds to various targets. In this study, using the recombinant protein fused to glutathione S-transferase, we investigated the binding specificity of the HA1 subcomponent to sugars and estimated the binding sites of HA1 based on X-ray crystallography and soaking experiments using various sugars. N-Acetylneuraminic acid, N-acetylgalactosamine, and galactose effectively inhibited the binding that occurs between glutathione S-transferase-HA1 and mucins, whereas N-acetylglucosamine and glucose did not inhibit it. The crystal structures of HA1 complex with N-acetylneuraminic acid, N-acetylgalactosamine, and galactose were also determined. There are two sugar-binding sites, sites I and II. Site I corresponds to the electron densities noted for all sugars and is located at the C-terminal beta-trefoil domain, while site II corresponds to the electron densities noted only for galactose. An aromatic amino acid residue, Trp176, at site I has a stacking interaction with the hexose ring of the sugars. On the other hand, there is no aromatic residue at site II; thus, the interaction with galactose seems to be poor. The double mutant W176A at site I and D271F at site II has no avidity for N-acetylneuraminic acid but has avidity for galactose. In this report, the binding specificity of botulinum C16S toxin HA1 to various sugars is demonstrated based on its structural features.

  9. Gaming Sea-based Multinational HA/DR Operations at PACOM Amphibious Leaders Symposium 2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Gaming Sea-based Multinational HA/DR Operations...Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Wesley Timm. Approved by: November 2016 Dr. E.D. McGrady Director, Integration and Gaming Advanced Technology and...TYPE Final2 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Gaming Seabased Multinational HA/DR Operations at PACOM 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N00014-16

  10. 3D-printed scaffolds based on PLA/HA nanocomposites for trabecular bone reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaza, K. V.; Senatov, F. S.; Kaloshkin, S. D.; Maksimkin, A. V.; Chukov, D. I.

    2016-08-01

    In the present work porous PLA scaffolds filled with micro- and nano- HA were studied. Both composites with micro- and nano-HA were obtained by extrusion in the same conditions. Scaffolds were obtained by 3D-printing by fused filament fabrication method. Structure of porous scaffolds was pre-modeled by computer software. Compression and three - point flexural tests were used to study mechanical properties of the scaffolds.

  11. Role of induced glutathione-S-transferase from Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) HaGST-8 in detoxification of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Labade, Chaitali P; Jadhav, Abhilash R; Ahire, Mehul; Zinjarde, Smita S; Tamhane, Vaijayanti A

    2018-01-01

    The present study deals with glutathione-S-transferase (GST) based detoxification of pesticides in Helicoverpa armigera and its potential application in eliminating pesticides from the environment. Dietary exposure of a pesticide mixture (organophosphates - chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos, pyrethroid - cypermethrin; 2-15ppm each) to H. armigera larvae resulted in a dose dependant up-regulation of GST activity and gene expression. A variant GST from H. armigera (HaGST-8) was isolated from larvae fed with 10ppm pesticide mixture and it was recombinantly expressed in yeast (Pichia pastoris HaGST-8). HaGST-8 had a molecular mass of 29kDa and was most active at pH 9 at 30°C. GC-MS and LC-HRMS analysis validated that HaGST-8 was effective in eliminating organophosphate type of pesticides and partially reduced the cypermethrin content (53%) from aqueous solutions. Unlike the untransformed yeast, P. pastoris HaGST-8 grew efficiently in media supplemented with pesticide mixtures (200 and 400ppm each pesticide) signifying the detoxification ability of HaGST-8. The amino acid sequence of HaGST-8 and the already reported sequence of HaGST-7 had just 2 mismatches. The studies on molecular interaction strengths revealed that HaGST-8 had stronger binding affinities with organophosphate, pyrethroid, organochloride, carbamate and neonicotinoid type of pesticides. The abilities of recombinant HaGST-8 to eliminate pesticides and P. pastoris HaGST-8 to grow profusely in the presence of high level of pesticide content can be applied for removal of such residues from food, water resources and bioremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Advanced ECCD based NTM control in closed-loop operation at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Matthias; Barrera-Orte, Laura; Behler, Karl; Bock, Alexander; Giannone, Louis; Maraschek, Marc; Poli, Emanuele; Rapson, Chris; Stober, Jörg; Treutterer, Wolfgang

    2012-10-01

    In high performance plasmas, Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTMs) are regularly observed at reactor-grade beta-values. They limit the achievable normalized beta, which is undesirable because fusion performance scales as beta squared. The method of choice for controlling and avoiding NTMs at AUG is the deposition of ECCD inside the magnetic island for stabilization in real-time (rt). Our approach to tackling such complex control problems using real-time diagnostics allows rigorous optimization of all subsystems. Recent progress in rt-equilibrium reconstruction (< 3.5 ms), rt-localization of NTMs (< 8 ms) and rt beam tracing (< 25 ms) allows closed-loop feedback operation using multiple movable mirrors as the ECCD deposition actuator. The rt-equilibrium uses function parametrization or a fast Grad-Shafranov solver with an option to include rt-MSE measurements. The island localization is based on a correlation of ECE and filtered Mirnov signals. The rt beam-tracing module provides deposition locations and their derivative versus actuator position of multiple gyrotrons. The ``MHD controller'' finally drives the actuators. Results utilizing closed-loop operation with multiple gyrotrons and their effect on NTMs are shown.

  13. [Study on biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite/high density polyethylene (HA/HDPE) nano-composites artificial ossicle].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guohui; Zhu, Shaihong; Tan, Guolin; Zhou, Kechao; Huang, Suping; Zhao, Yanzhong; Li, Zhiyou; Huang, Boyun

    2008-06-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility of Hydroxyapatite/High density polyethylene (HA/ HDPE) nano-composites artificial ossicle. The percentage of S-period cells were detected by flow cytometry after L929 cells being incubated with extraction of the HA/HDPE nano-composites; the titanium materials for clinical application served as the contrast. In addition, both materials were implanted in animals and the histopathological evaluations were conducted. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups (P >0.05). The results demonstrated that the HA/HDPE nano-composite artificial ossicle made by our laboratory is of a good biocompatibility and clinical application outlook.

  14. Structure of novel rat major histocompatibility complex class II genes RT1.Ha and Hb

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Arimura, Yutaka; Tang, Wei Ran; Koda, Toshiaki

    1995-03-01

    We have cloned the novel rat MHC class II genes, RT1.Ha and Hb, which are homologous to human HLA-DPA and DPB. RT1.Hb is a pseudogene, whereas RT1.Ha is apparently intact and may have transcriptional potential. In addition, with an RT1.Ha probe, we detecteda single Southern hybridization band in the genome of the mouse. This finding may aford an opportunity to analyze the HLA-DPA homologue in the mouse genome. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in the conductive PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold for neural tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuping; Guan, Shui; Xu, Jianqiang; Li, Wenfang; Ge, Dan; Sun, Changkai; Liu, Tianqing; Ma, Xuehu

    2017-09-26

    Engineering scaffolds with excellent electro-activity is increasingly important in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Herein, conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with hyaluronic acid (PEDOT-HA) nanoparticles were firstly synthesized via chemical oxidant polymerization. A three-dimensional (3D) PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold was then developed by introducing PEDOT-HA nanoparticles into a chitosan/gelatin (Cs/Gel) matrix. HA, as a bridge, not only was used as a dopant, but also combined PEDOT into the Cs/Gel via chemical crosslinking. The PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold was used as a conductive substrate for neural stem cell (NSC) culture in vitro. The results demonstrated that the PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold had excellent biocompatibility for NSC proliferation and differentiation. 3D confocal fluorescence images showed cells attached on the channel surface of Cs/Gel and PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffolds with a normal neuronal morphology. Compared to the Cs/Gel scaffold, the PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold not only promoted NSC proliferation with up-regulated expression of Ki67, but also enhanced NSC differentiation into neurons and astrocytes with up-regulated expression of β tubulin-III and GFAP, respectively. It is expected that this electro-active and bio-active PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold will be used as a conductive platform to regulate NSC behavior for neural tissue engineering.

  16. Registration of an oilseed sunflower germplasm HA-DM1 resistant to sunflower downy mildew

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    HA-DM1 (Reg. No.xxx, PI 674793) sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm was developed and released cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit and the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in 2015. HA-DM1 is a BC2F4 derived oilseed maintainer line from the cros...

  17. PLGA/nHA hybrid nanofiber scaffold as a nanocargo carrier of insulin for accelerating bone tissue regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Adnan; Gupta, Kailash Chandra; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2014-06-01

    The development of tissue engineering in the field of orthopedic surgery is booming. Two fields of research in particular have emerged: approaches for tailoring the surface properties of implantable materials with osteoinductive factors as well as evaluation of the response of osteogenic cells to these fabricated implanted materials (hybrid material). In the present study, we chemically grafted insulin onto the surface of hydroxyapatite nanorods (nHA). The insulin-grafted nHAs (nHA-I) were dispersed into poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer solution, which was electrospun to prepare PLGA/nHA-I composite nanofiber scaffolds. The morphology of the electrospun nanofiber scaffolds was assessed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). After extensive characterization of the PLGA/nHA-I and PLGA/nHA composite nanofiber scaffolds by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the PLGA/nHA-I and PLGA/nHA (used as control) composite nanofiber scaffolds were subjected to cell studies. The results obtained from cell adhesion, alizarin red staining, and Von Kossa assay suggested that the PLGA/nHA-I composite nanofiber scaffold has enhanced osteoblastic cell growth, as more cells were proliferated and differentiated. The fact that insulin enhanced osteoblastic cell proliferation will open new possibilities for the development of artificial scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration.

  18. Cultivation, LD(50) determination and experimental model of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strain HA9801.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhanzhong; Wang, Jian; Liu, Peihong; Zhang, Suhua; Gong, Jianpei; Huang, Xiqin; Li, Bin; Xue, Feiqun

    2009-04-01

    The effects of nutritional components and submerged culture conditions on colony-forming unit (CFU) counts by Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strain HA9801 in flask culture was investigated, and the optimal medium and cultivation conditions was confirmed by using a 50l bioreactor. The LD(50) values of HA9801 in pigs before and after fermentation were 1.8 x 10(7)CFU, which indicated that the virulence of HA9801 was very stable in the fermentation process. In addition, an experimental model that closely mimics naturally occurring disease in conventional pigs was established.

  19. Synopsis of Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance (PL&HA) Capabilities for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Edward A.

    2017-01-01

    Until recently, robotic exploration missions to the Moon, Mars, and other solar system bodies relied upon controlled blind landings. Because terrestrial techniques for terrain relative navigation (TRN) had not yet been evolved to support space exploration, landing dispersions were driven by the capabilities of inertial navigation systems combined with surface relative altimetry and velocimetry. Lacking tight control over the actual landing location, mission success depended on the statistical vetting of candidate landing areas within the predicted landing dispersion ellipse based on orbital reconnaissance data, combined with the ability of the spacecraft to execute a controlled landing in terms of touchdown attitude, attitude rates, and velocity. In addition, the sensors, algorithms, and processing technologies required to perform autonomous hazard detection and avoidance in real time during the landing sequence were not yet available. Over the past decade, NASA has invested substantial resources on the development, integration, and testing of autonomous precision landing and hazard avoidance (PL&HA) capabilities. In addition to substantially improving landing accuracy and safety, these autonomous PL&HA functions also offer access to targets of interest located within more rugged and hazardous terrain. Optical TRN systems are baselined on upcoming robotic landing missions to the Moon and Mars, and NASA JPL is investigating the development of a comprehensive PL&HA system for a Europa lander. These robotic missions will demonstrate and mature PL&HA technologies that are considered essential for future human exploration missions. PL&HA technologies also have applications to rendezvous and docking/berthing with other spacecraft, as well as proximity navigation, contact, and retrieval missions to smaller bodies with microgravity environments, such as asteroids.

  20. Fabrication of nano-structured HA/CNT coatings on Ti6Al4V by electrophoretic deposition for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bokai; Kwok, Chi Tat; Cheng, Fai Tsun; Man, Hau Chung

    2011-12-01

    In order to improve the bone bioactivity and osteointegration of metallic implants, hydroxyapatite (HA) is often coated on their surface so that a real bond with the surrounding bone tissue can be formed. In the present study, cathodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD) has been attempted for depositing nanostructured HA coatings on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V followed by sintering at 800 degrees C. Nano-sized HA powder was used in the EPD process to produce dense coatings. Moreover, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were also used to reinforce the HA coating for enhancing its mechanical strength. The surface morphology, compositions and microstructure of the monolithic coating of HA and nanocomposite coatings of HA with different CNT contents (4 to 25%) on Ti6Al4V were investigated by scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Xray diffractometry, respectively. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of the various coatings in Hanks' solution at 37 degrees C was investigated by means of open-circuit potential measurement and cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests. Surface hardness, adhesion strength and bone bioactivity of the coatings were also studied. The HA and HA/CNT coatings had a thickness of about 10 microm, with corrosion resistance higher than that of the substrate and adhesion strength higher than that of plasma sprayed HA coating. The properties of the composite coatings were optimized by varying the CNT contents. The enhanced properties could be attributed to the use of nano-sized HA particles and CNTs. Compared with the monolithic HA coating, the CNT-reinforced HA coating markedly increased the coating hardness without deteriorating the corrosion resistance or adhesion strength.

  1. Retention of Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (hiPS) With Injectable HA Hydrogels for Vocal Fold Engineering.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Li-Jessen, Nicole Y K; Sato, Yuka; Yang, David T; Thibeault, Susan L

    2017-04-01

    One prospective treatment option for vocal fold scarring is regeneration with an engineered scaffold containing induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of utilizing an injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) scaffold encapsulated with human-iPS cell (hiPS) for regeneration of vocal folds. Thirty athymic nude rats underwent unilateral vocal fold injury. Contralateral vocal folds served as uninjured controls. Hyaluronic acid hydrogel scaffold, HA hydrogel scaffold containing hiPS, and HA hydrogel scaffold containing hiPS with epidermal growth factor (EGF) were injected in both vocal folds immediately after surgery. One and 2 weeks after injection, larynges were excised for histology, immunohistochemistry, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Presence of HA hydrogel was confirmed in vocal folds 1 and 2 weeks post injection. The FISH analysis confirmed the presence and viability of hiPS in the injected vocal folds. Histological results demonstrated that vocal folds injected with HA hydrogel scaffold containing EGF demonstrated less fibrosis than those with HA hydrogel only. Human-iPS survived in injured rat vocal folds. The HA hydrogel with hiPS and EGF ameliorated the fibrotic response. Additional work is necessary to optimize hiPS differentiation and further confirm the safety of hiPS for clinical applications.

  2. Twins in spirit - episode I: comparative preclinical evaluation of [(68)Ga]DOTATATE and [(68)Ga]HA-DOTATATE.

    PubMed

    Schottelius, Margret; Šimeček, Jakub; Hoffmann, Frauke; Willibald, Marina; Schwaiger, Markus; Wester, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Recently, an intra-patient comparison demonstrated that the somatostatin (sst) ligand [(68)Ga]HA-DOTATATE ([(68)Ga]DOTA-3-iodo-Tyr(3)-octreotate) provides PET images comparable to or superior to those obtained with [(68)Ga]DOTATATE. To provide a comprehensive basis for nevertheless observed slight differences in tracer biodistribution and dosimetry, the characteristics of [(68)Ga]HA-DOTATATE were investigated in a detailed preclinical study. Affinities of (nat)Ga-HA-DOTATATE and (nat)Ga-DOTATATE to sst1-5 were determined using membrane preparations and [(125)I]SST-28 as radioligand. Internalization into AR42J cells was studied in dual-tracer studies with [(125)I]TOC as internal reference. Biodistribution was investigated using AR42J tumor-bearing CD1 mice, and specificity of tracer uptake was confirmed in competition studies by coinjection of 0.8 mg TOC/kg. Sst2 affinities (IC50) of [(nat)Ga]HA-DOTATATE (1.4 ± 0.8 nM, logP: -3.16) and [(nat)Ga]DOTATATE (1.2 ± 0.6 nM, logP: -3.69) were nearly identical. Both compounds displayed IC50 > 1 μM for sst1,3,4, while sst5 affinity was markedly increased for (nat)Ga-HA-DOTATATE (102 ± 65 nM vs >1 μM for (nat)Ga-DOTATATE). [(nat)Lu]HA-DOTATATE and [(nat)Lu]DOTATATE showed slightly lower, identical sst2 affinities (2.0 ± 1.6 and 2.0 ± 0.8 nM, respectively) and sst3 affinities of 93 ± 1 and 162 ± 16 nM. Internalization of [(68)Ga]HA-DOTATATE was tenfold higher than that of [(125)I]TOC but only sixfold higher for [(68)Ga]DOTATATE and [(177)Lu]HA-DOTATATE. While [(68)Ga]HA-DOTATATE and [(68)Ga]DOTATATE had shown similar target- and non-target uptake in patients, biodistribution studies in mice at 1 h post injection (n = 5) revealed slightly increased non-specific uptake of [(68)Ga]HA-DOTATATE in the blood, liver, and intestines (0.7 ± 0.3, 1.0 ± 0.2, and 4.0 ± 0.7 %iD/g vs 0.3 ± 0.1, 0.5 ± 0.1, and 2.7 ± 0.8 %iD/g for [(68)Ga]DOTATATE). However, sst

  3. HDPE/HA composites obtained in solution: Effect of the gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmen, Albano; Arquímedes, Karam; Rosestela, Perera; Gema, González; Nohemy, Domínguez; Jeanette, González; Yanixia, Sánchez

    2006-06-01

    Radiation is employed to sterilize composite materials used in the biomedical field. Due to the changes induced by radiation onto polymeric materials, it is important to study variations in their melt flow index (MFI), as well as in their mechanical and thermal properties. In this work, those previous parameters were determined in composites obtained via solution of a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in decalin, with different amounts of hydroxyapatite (HA), varying from 10 to 30 parts per hundred, after being exposed to gamma radiation at absorbed doses between 25 and 100 kGy. After the irradiation, the MFI of HDPE dissolved in decalin and precipitated afterwards and without filler increased from 6 to 24 g/10 min at the highest absorbed doses. This behavior was also observed in composites with 10 pph of HA, being the increase less pronounced, specifically in the range between 50 and 100 kGy. Composites with 20 and 30 pph of HA showed a maximum MFI value at 50 kGy, which decreased at higher doses. This implies that the filler begin to exert an influence because it does not melt at the test temperature and consequently, it does not flow. It was observed that Young's modulus increased with HA addition due to rigidity of the ceramic filler. Radiation did not significantly affect this tensile property. On the other hand, the tensile strength did not show significant variations at the different doses but the filler content did affect this property improving it. Finally, elongation at break showed a drastic decrease with filler addition. When the thermal behavior was studied it was noticed that crystallization and melting temperatures remained unchanged. Instead, crystallinity degree slightly increased in the composites, and a little decrease was obtained when they were irradiated.

  4. Research on torsional friction behavior and fluid load support of PVA/HA composite hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Zhang, Dekun; Yang, Xuehui; Cui, Xiaotong; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Qingliang

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogels have been extensively studied for use as synthetic articular cartilage. This study aimed to investigate (1) the torsional friction contact state and the transformation mechanism of PVA/HA composite hydrogel against CoCrMo femoral head and (2) effects of load and torsional angle on torsional friction behavior. The finite element method was used to study fluid load support of PVA/HA composite hydrogel. Results show fluid loss increases gradually of PVA/HA composite hydrogel with torsional friction time, leading to fluid load support decreases. The contact state changes from full slip state to stick-slip mixed state. As the load increases, friction coefficient and adhesion zone increase gradually. As the torsional angle increases, friction coefficient and slip trend of the contact interface increase, resulting in the increase of the slip zone and the reduction of the adhesion zone. Fluid loss increases of PVA/HA composite hydrogel as the load and the torsional angle increase, which causes the decrease of fluid load support and the increase of friction coefficient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of sol-gel processing parameters on the phases and microstructures of HA films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Diangang; Chen, Chuanzhong; Liu, Xiuna; Lei, Tingquan

    2007-06-15

    Bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) films were fabricated by a sol-gel method and triethylphosphate and calcium nitrate were used as the phosphorus and calcium precursors, respectively. The effects of the heat treatment temperature, pH level and substrate materials on the phases and microstructures of HA films were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and electronic probe microanalysis (EPMA) and so on. The results show that all the sol-gel films are composed of the phases of HA, CaO, TiO(2) and CaTiO(3). With increasing the calcining temperature, the crystallinity of the films increases, the structure becomes more compact and changes from granular and lamellar to cellular structure, and the Ca/P ratio increases slightly because of the loss of P in the films. The addition of ammonia (adjusting the pH level to be about 7.5) can increase the HA content in the films, and the difference of substrate materials only has a little influence on the microstructure of the sol-gel films.

  6. Northrop Grumman Corporation's modified U.S. Navy F-5E Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration (SSBD) aircraft flies over the company's Palmdale, Calif. facilities on Aug. 2, 2003

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-02

    Northrop Grumman Corporation's modified U.S. Navy F-5E Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration (SSBD) aircraft flies over the company's Palmdale, California facilities on Aug. 2, 2003. NASA Dryden provided range, air and ground data-gathering support for the SSBD project, which is part of DARPA's Quiet Supersonic Platform (QSP) program.

  7. A Pilot Investigation regarding Speech-Recognition Performance in Noise for Adults with Hearing Loss in the FM+HA Listening Condition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, M. Samantha; Gallun, Frederick J.; Gordon, Jane; Lilly, David J.; Crandell, Carl

    2010-01-01

    While the concurrent use of the hearing aid (HA) microphone with frequency modulation (FM) technology can decrease speech-recognition performance, the FM+HA condition is still an important setting for users of both HA and FM technology. The primary goal of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of attenuating HA gain in the FM+HA listening…

  8. Human Space Flight Plans Committee

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-11

    Norman Augustine, chair, listens to a speaker's presentation during the final meeting of the Human Space Flight Review Committee, Wednesday, Aug. 12, 2009, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  9. Chimeric Peptide Tat-HA-NR2B9c Improves Regenerative Repair after Transient Global Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hai-Hui; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Hai-Xia; Zhang, Jin-Ping; Ge, Wei-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Transient global ischemia (TGI) is a major public health problem, and it heightens the need of effective treatments. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether recombinant polypeptide Tat-HA-NR2B9c improves spatial learning and memory deficits in rats after TGI. Rats were subjected to 20-min ischemia induced by four-vessel occlusion (4-VO) method and daily injected with Tat-HA-NR2B9c (1.12 mg/kg) for 1 week. Tat-HA-NR2B9c increased CREB activity, upregulated B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression after treated for 24 h. There was a significant increase in dendrite spine density in hippocampal CA1 region and BrdU-positive cells and BrdU/NeuN-positive cells in the dentate gyrus after Tat-HA-NR2B9c treatment, compared with ischemia group at postischemic day 28. Inhibition of the CREB activation by recombinant lentivirus, LV-CREB133-GFP, abolished the upregulation effects of Tat-HA-NR2B9c on Bcl-2 expression. Moreover, Tat-HA-NR2B9c improved the impaired spatial learning and memory ability in Morris water maze. These results suggest that Tat-HA-NR2B9c substantially ameliorated the TGI-induced loss of dendrite spine in hippocampal CA1, increased neurogenesis in dentate gyrus, and significantly improved cognitive abilities by the CREB pathway in rats after transient global cerebral ischemia. It may be served as a treatment for TGI.

  10. Formation of porous HPCL/LPCL/HA scaffolds with supercritical CO2 gas foaming method.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, M Zahedi; Hassanajili, Sh; Esmaeilzadeh, F; Ayatollahi, M; Ahmadi, M

    2017-05-01

    Scaffold is a 3D porous structure that is made of different materials, such as synthetic and natural polymers. It plays the role of a synthetic extracellular matrix and permits adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of the cells. Porosity and pore size are the important factors for any 3D scaffold used in bone tissue engineering. In this study, porous scaffolds were prepared by adding hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles as filler to the polymeric matrix of polycaprolactone (PCL) blends with two different molecular weight by using supercritical CO 2 (ScCO 2 ) foaming method. The effect of different parameters such as CO 2 pressure, ratios of the polymers and amount of the filler on the scaffold properties was investigated. The results showed that porosity increased with increment of pressure and decreased with increasing the ratio of the high molecular weight PCL to the low molecular weight PCL in the scaffolds and also HA content. Optimum condition for obtaining adequate porous scaffold of HPCL/LPCL/HA occurred at 140bar and 45°C. The physical and mechanical properties of the prepared scaffolds were characterized using DSC, XRD, FTIR, SEM, contact angle and compression test. By analyzing the results of these tests, optimum sample for cell culture was selected. The biocompatibility of the selected HPCL/LPCL/HA scaffold (HPCL/LPCL 60/40 containing 2.5% HA) was assessed in vitro by using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Novel Strategy for Preparation of Si-HA Coatings on C/C Composites by Chemical Liquid Vaporization Deposition/Hydrothermal Treatments.

    PubMed

    Xin-Bo, Xiong; Xin-Ye, Ni; Ya-Yun, Li; Cen-Cen, Chu; Ji-Zhao, Zou; Xie-Rong, Zeng

    2016-08-05

    A novel strategy for the preparation of Si-doped hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) coatings on H2O2-treated carbon/carbon composites (C/C) was developed. HA coating was prepared on C/C through chemical liquid vaporization deposition (CLVD)/hydrothermal treatment. HA coating was immersed in an H2SiO3 solution at an autoclave at 413 K for transformation into Si-HA coating. The effects of H2SiO3 mass contents on the phase, morphology, and composition of the Si-HA coatings were studied through SEM, EDS,XRD, and FTIR. Their bonding performance to C/C was measured through a scratch test. Under the optimal content condition, the in vitro skull osteoblast response behaviors of the Si-HA coating were evaluated. Results showed that SiO3(2-) could enter into the HA lattice and occupy the PO4(3-) sites. Doped SiO3(2-) significantly improved the bonding performance of the HA coating to C/C in comparison with the untreated HA. The adhesive strength of the coatings initially increased and then decreased with increasing H2SiO3 content. Meanwhile, the cohesive strength of the Si-HA coatings was almost nearly identical. The Si-HA coating achieved at a content of 90% H2SiO3 exhibited the best bonding performance, and its osteoblast compatibility in vitro was superior to that of the untreated HA coating on C/C through CLVD/hydrothermal treatment.

  12. A Novel Strategy for Preparation of Si-HA Coatings on C/C Composites by Chemical Liquid Vaporization Deposition/Hydrothermal Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Xin-bo, Xiong; Xin-ye, Ni; Ya-yun, Li; Cen-cen, Chu; Ji-zhao, Zou; Xie-rong, Zeng

    2016-01-01

    A novel strategy for the preparation of Si-doped hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) coatings on H2O2-treated carbon/carbon composites (C/C) was developed. HA coating was prepared on C/C through chemical liquid vaporization deposition (CLVD)/hydrothermal treatment. HA coating was immersed in an H2SiO3 solution at an autoclave at 413 K for transformation into Si-HA coating. The effects of H2SiO3 mass contents on the phase, morphology, and composition of the Si-HA coatings were studied through SEM, EDS,XRD, and FTIR. Their bonding performance to C/C was measured through a scratch test. Under the optimal content condition, the in vitro skull osteoblast response behaviors of the Si-HA coating were evaluated. Results showed that SiO32− could enter into the HA lattice and occupy the PO43− sites. Doped SiO32− significantly improved the bonding performance of the HA coating to C/C in comparison with the untreated HA. The adhesive strength of the coatings initially increased and then decreased with increasing H2SiO3 content. Meanwhile, the cohesive strength of the Si-HA coatings was almost nearly identical. The Si-HA coating achieved at a content of 90% H2SiO3 exhibited the best bonding performance, and its osteoblast compatibility in vitro was superior to that of the untreated HA coating on C/C through CLVD/hydrothermal treatment. PMID:27492664

  13. 7 CFR 1948.88 - Direct land acquisition by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Direct land acquisition by FmHA or its successor... by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354. (a) FmHA or its successor agency under... Governor of the State in which the real property is located. FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...

  14. 7 CFR 1945.27 - Relationship between FCIC and FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Relationship between FCIC and FmHA or its successor...) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.27 Relationship between FCIC and FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354. (a) General. Exhibit A of FmHA Instruction 2000-N (available in any FmHA or...

  15. 7 CFR 1948.88 - Direct land acquisition by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Direct land acquisition by FmHA or its successor... by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354. (a) FmHA or its successor agency under... Governor of the State in which the real property is located. FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...

  16. Hierarchical Structure and Mechanical Improvement of an n-HA/GCO-PU Composite Scaffold for Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Li, Limei; Zuo, Yi; Zou, Qin; Yang, Boyuan; Lin, Lili; Li, Jidong; Li, Yubao

    2015-10-14

    To improve the mechanical properties of bone tissue and achieve the desired bone tissue regeneration for orthopedic surgery, newly designed hydroxyapatite/polyurethane (HA/PU) porous scaffolds were developed via in situ polymerization. The results showed that the molecular modification of PU soft segments by glyceride of castor oil (GCO) can increase the scaffold compressive strength by 48% and the elastic modulus by 96%. When nano-HA (n-HA) particles were incorporated into the GCO-PU matrix, the compressive strength and elastic modulus further increased by 49 and 74%, from 2.91 to 4.34 MPa and from 95 to 165.36 MPa, respectively. The n-HA particles with fine dispersity not only improved the interface bonding with the GCO-PU matrix but also provided effective bioactivity for bonding with bone tissue. The hierarchical structure and mechanical quality of the n-HA/GCO-PU composite scaffold were determined to be appropriate for the growth of cells and the regeneration of bony tissues, demonstrating promising prospects for bone repair and regeneration.

  17. Characterization and corrosion property of nano-rod-like HA on fluoride coating supported on Mg-Zn-Ca alloy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yashan; Zhu, Shijie; Wang, Liguo; Chang, Lei; Yan, Bingbing; Song, Xiaozhe; Guan, Shaokang

    2017-06-01

    The poor corrosion resistance of biodegradable magnesium alloys is the dominant factor that limits their clinical application. In this study, to deal with this challenge, fluoride coating was prepared on Mg-Zn-Ca alloy as the inner coating and then hydroxyapatite (HA) coating as the outer coating was deposited on fluoride coating by pulse reverse current electrodeposition (PRC-HA/MgF 2 ). As a comparative study, the microstructure and corrosion properties of the composite coating with the outer coating fabricated by traditional constant current electrodeposition (TED-HA/MgF 2 ) were also investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the coatings show that the morphology of PRC-HA/MgF 2 coating is dense and uniform, and presents nano-rod-like structure. Compared with that of TED-HA/MgF 2 , the corrosion current density of Mg alloy coated with PRC-HA/MgF 2 coatings decreases from 5.72 × 10 -5 A/cm 2 to 4.32 × 10 -7 A/cm 2 , and the corrosion resistance increases by almost two orders of magnitude. In immersion tests, samples coated with PRC-HA/MgF 2 coating always show the lowest hydrogen evolution amount, and could induce deposition of the hexagonal structure-apatite on the surface rapidly. The results show that the corrosion resistance and the bioactivity of the coatings have been improved by adopting double-pulse current mode in the process of preparing HA on fluoride coating, and the PRC-HA/MgF 2 coating is worth of further investigation.

  18. Silicon-hydroxyapatite bioactive coatings (Si-HA) from diatomaceous earth and silica. Study of adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    López-Alvarez, M; Solla, E L; González, P; Serra, J; León, B; Marques, A P; Reis, R L

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study consisted on investigating the influence of silicon substituted hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) coatings over the human osteoblast-like cell line (SaOS-2) behaviour. Diatomaceous earth and silica, together with commercial hydroxyapatite were respectively the silicon and HA sources used to produce the Si-HA coatings. HA coatings with 0 wt% of silicon were used as control of the experiment. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was the selected technique to deposit the coatings. The Si-HA thin films were characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) demonstrating the efficient transfer of Si to the HA structure. The in vitro cell culture was established to assess the cell attachment, proliferation and osteoblastic activity respectively by, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), DNA and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) quantification. The SEM analysis demonstrated a similar adhesion behaviour of the cells on the tested materials and the maintenance of the typical osteoblastic morphology along the time of culture. The Si-HA coatings did not evidence any type of cytotoxic behaviour when compared with HA coatings. Moreover, both the proliferation rate and osteoblastic activity results showed a slightly better performance on the Si-HA coatings from diatoms than on the Si-HA from silica.

  19. Removal of Uranium in Drinking Water: Brimac Environmental Services, Inc. Brimac HA 216 Adsorptive Media

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Brimac HA 216 Adsorptive Media was tested for uranium (U) removal from a drinking water source (well water) at Grappone Toyota located in Bow, New Hampshire. The HA 216 media is a hydroxyapatite-based material. A pilot unit, consisting of a TIGG Corporation Cansorb® C-5 ste...

  20. Association between endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ENOS) G894T polymorphism and high altitude (HA) adaptation: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong-xiang; Wang, Yu-xiao; Chen, Yu; Luo, Yong-jun

    2015-11-01

    Highland natives adapt well to the hypoxic environment at high altitude (HA). Several genes have been reported to be linked to HA adaptation. Previous studies showed that the endothelial ni- tric oxide synthase (ENOS) G894T polymorphism contributed to the physiology and pathophysiology of hu- mans at HA by regulating the production of NO. In this meta-analysis, we evaluate the association between the ENOS G894T polymorphism and HA adaptation through analyzing the published data. We searched all relevant literature about the ENOS G894T polymorphism and HA adaptation in PubMed, Med- line, and Embase before Step 2015. A random-effects model was applied (Revman 5.0), and study quality was assessed in duplicate. Six studies with 634 HA native cases and 621 low-altitude controls were included in this meta-analysis. From the results, we observed that the wild-type allele G was significantly overrepresented in the HA groups (OR = 1.85; 95% Cl, 1.47-2.33; P < 0.0001). In addition, the GG genotype was significantly associated with HA adaptation (OR = 1.99; 95% Cl, 1.54-2.57; P < 0.0001). Our results showed that in 894 G allele carriers, the GG genotype might be a beneficial factor for HA adaptation through enhancing the level of NO. However, more studies were needed to confirm our findings due to the limited sample size.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Austin Lays Plans for Carbon-Neutral City

    Science.gov Websites

    Biodiesel Aug. 26, 2017 Photo of a car Idaho Surges Ahead with Electric Vehicle Charging Aug. 4, 2017 Photo of a truck Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Rhode Island July 14, 2017 Photo of a truck Idaho Largest Home Runs on Biodiesel in North Carolina June 9, 2017 Photo of a bus New Hampshire Cleans up with

  2. 24 CFR 964.135 - Resident involvement in HA management operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... management operations. 964.135 Section 964.135 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Tenant Participation § 964.135 Resident involvement in HA management operations. Residents shall be... responsibility for management operations, it shall ensure strong resident participation in all issues and facets...

  3. Combination of plasma HA and circulating M2-like monocytes may serve as a diagnostic marker for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Boke; Cao, Manlin; He, Yiqing; Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Guoliang; Yang, Cuixia; Du, Yan; Xu, Jing; Hu, Jiajie; Gao, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer (BC)-derived hyaluronan (HA) can induce the formation of M2-like tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in tumor context. However, little is known about the correlation between circulating M2-like monocytes and plasma HA in BC patients. This study focused on evaluating the relationship between circulating M2-like monocytes and plasma HA, and further appraised the diagnostic value of them in BC. Methods: The expression of M2-like TAMs and HA was determined in pathological tissues by immunohistochemistry. Flow cytometry was used to detect the levels of circulating CD14 + CD204 + M2-like monocytes in 81 BC patients, 45 patients with breast benign diseases, and 46 healthy subjects. The levels of HA, CEA, and CA15-3 were measured in plasma samples using chemiluminescence method. Results: M2-like TAMs and HA expressions were elevated in BC tissues compared with benign tissues. In correspondence, the frequency of circulating CD14 + CD204 + M2-like monocytes and the plasma HA levels were significantly higher in patients with BC than those in control groups. Importantly, there was a positive correlation between circulating M2-like monocytes and the plasma HA (Spearman r = 0.404, p < 0.001). Area under receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) for the combination of circulating M2-like monocytes and HA was 0.899 (95% CI: 0.853-0.946), which was higher than the panel of CEA and CA15-3. Conclusions: The frequency of circulating CD14 + CD204 + M2-like monocytes was positively correlated to plasma HA levels. The combination of circulating CD14 + CD204 + M2-like monocytes and plasma HA could provide considerable diagnostic value in BC.

  4. The minor histocompatibility antigen HA-3 arises from differential proteasome-mediated cleavage of the lymphoid blast crisis (Lbc) oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Spierings, Eric; Brickner, Anthony G; Caldwell, Jennifer A; Zegveld, Suzanne; Tatsis, Nia; Blokland, Els; Pool, Jos; Pierce, Richard A; Mollah, Sahana; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Eisenlohr, Laurence C; van Veelen, Peter; Ossendorp, Ferry; Hunt, Donald F; Goulmy, Els; Engelhard, Victor H

    2003-07-15

    Minor histocompatibility (H) antigens crucially affect the outcome of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). To understand the basis of alloimmune responses against minor H antigens, identification of minor H peptides and their antigenicity-determining mechanisms is essential. Here we report the identification of HA-3 and its encoding gene. The HA-3 peptide, VTEPGTAQY (HA-3T), is encoded by the lymphoid blast crisis (Lbc) oncogene. We thus show for the first time that a leukemia-associated oncogene can give rise to immunogenic T-cell epitopes that may have participated in antihost and antileukemic alloimmune responses. Genotypic analysis of HA-3- individuals revealed the allelic counterpart VMEPGTAQY (HA-3M). Despite the lack of T-cell recognition of HA-3- cells, the Thr-->Met substitution had only a modest effect on peptide binding to HLA-A1 and a minimal impact on recognition by T cells when added exogenously to target cells. This substitution did not influence transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) transport, but, in contrast to the HA-3T peptide, HA-3M is destroyed by proteasome-mediated digestion. Thus, the immunogenicity of minor H antigens can result from proteasome-mediated destruction of the negative allelic peptide.

  5. Performance evaluation of the Arkray Adams HA-8160 HbA1c analyser.

    PubMed

    Thevarajah, T Malathi; Nani, Nordin; Chew, Y Y

    2008-12-01

    HbA1c measurement is currently routinely used to predict long term outcome of diabetes, thus playing a fundamental role in the management of diabetes. The relationship between HbA1c value and long term diabetic complications has been established by a randomised control Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) which used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a reference method for HbA1c assay. To ensure that HbA1c results from a variety HbA1c assay methods are similar to the DCCT values, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommended that all laboratories should use methods certified by the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Programme (NGSP) with interassay coefficient variation (CV) of < 5% (ideally < 3%). The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) working group on HbA1c standardisation has set a CV < 2.5% as a criteria for its reference laboratories. To evaluate the performance of Arkray Adams HA-8160 HbA1c analyser which uses a cation exchange HPLC method and its correlation to HbA1c assay on Cobas Integra 800 which is an immunoturbidimetric method. For the imprecision study, patient samples and control material of two levels were analysed on HA-8160 analyser 20 times in a single run (within-run imprecision) and twice a day on five consecutive days (between-run imprecision). For the recovery study, two samples each with high and low values were selected and mixed in ratios of 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1, and were analysed by HA-8160. Sixty samples were analysed by both Cobas Integra 800 and HA-8160 for method comparison study. Ten uraemic samples and ten thalassaemic samples were assayed on Cobas Integra 800 and HA 8160 for interference study. Within-run CVs were 0.6% and 0.7% for medium and high value samples respectively, 0.6% and 0.7% for low and high level controls respectively. Between-run CVs were 0.5% and 0.4% for medium and high value samples respectively, 0.5% and 0.6% for low and high level controls respectively. The

  6. 7 CFR 1948.89 - Land condemnation by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Land condemnation by FmHA or its successor agency... DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted Area Development Assistance Program § 1948.89 Land condemnation by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354. (a) If FmHA or its successor agency under Public...

  7. 7 CFR 1948.89 - Land condemnation by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Land condemnation by FmHA or its successor agency... DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted Area Development Assistance Program § 1948.89 Land condemnation by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354. (a) If FmHA or its successor agency under Public...

  8. Test of bioengineering structures in large eroded marly gullies (1 to 3 ha) in a mountainous and Mediterranean climate: resistance of the structures and survival of willow cuttings (Southern Alps, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Freddy; Labonne, Sophie; Dangla, Laure; Lavandier, Géraud

    2014-05-01

    In the Southern French Alps under a mountainous and Mediterranean climate, bioengineering structures installed in gully bottoms of highly weathered marly catchments aim at trapping a part of the eroded materials in order to reduce suspended sediment in the water system. They are made of brush layers and brush mats of cuttings on deadwood microdams. Purple and white Willows (Salix purpurea and S. incana) are used as they proved their efficiency to survive in such environment and efficiently trap marly sediment, but only in gullies with surface area less than 1 ha. Extrapolating their use to larger gullies could allow increasing the impact of such operations for reduction of sediment yield at the scale of large catchments. To this view, bioengineering structures have been built in spring and autumn 2010 in large eroded marly gullies with surface areas between 1 and 3 ha, in the Roubines and Fontaugier catchments (Southern Alps, France). 165 bioengineering structures (150 in spring and 15 in autumn) were built in 10 experimental gullies. After 3 observation years for each modality (2010 to 2012, and 2011 to 2013, respectively), the results revealed that 2/3 of the structures well resisted to damages due to concentrated flows. However, they were generally filled of sediment very rapidly, thus killing a large number of cuttings, particularly in the brush mats in gullies with surface area comprised between 2 and 3 ha. Therefore it has been proved that cuttings survival is possible in gullies with surface area less than 3 ha. In the French Southern Alps, bioengineering strategies have been improved by adding gullies of 1 to 3 ha in restoration plans. For gullies with surface area superior to 2 ha, it is recommended to first install the brush layers, and 1 to 2 years later the brush mats.

  9. Nanophase diagram of binary eutectic Au-Ge nanoalloys for vapor-liquid-solid semiconductor nanowires growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haiming; Meng, Xiangkang

    2015-06-01

    Although the vapor-liquid-solid growth of semiconductor nanowire is a non-equilibrium process, the equilibrium phase diagram of binary alloy provides important guidance on the growth conditions, such as the temperature and the equilibrium composition of the alloy. Given the small dimensions of the alloy seeds and the nanowires, the known phase diagram of bulk binary alloy cannot be expected to accurately predict the behavior of the nanowire growth. Here, we developed a unified model to describe the size- and dimensionality-dependent equilibrium phase diagram of Au-Ge binary eutectic nanoalloys based on the size-dependent cohesive energy model. It is found that the liquidus curves reduce and shift leftward with decreasing size and dimensionality. Moreover, the effects of size and dimensionality on the eutectic composition are small and negligible when both components in binary eutectic alloys have the same dimensionality. However, when two components have different dimensionality (e.g. Au nanoparticle-Ge nanowire usually used in the semiconductor nanowires growth), the eutectic composition reduces with decreasing size.

  10. Electrochemical Characteristics of Cell Cultured Ti-Nb-Zr Alloys After Nano-Crystallized Si-HA Coating.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of nano crystallized Si-HA coating on Ti-Nb-Zr alloy after human osteoblast like (HOB) cell attachment. The Ti-Nb-Zr alloy was manufactured with 35 wt.% of Nb and 10 wt.% of Zr by arc melting furnace to appropriate physical properties as biomaterials. The HA and Si-substituted coatings were prepared by electron-beam physical vapor deposition method with 0.5, 0.8 and 1.2 wt.% of Si contents, and nano aging treatment was performed 500 degrees C for 1 h. The characteristics of coating surface were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, respectively. To evaluate of cell attachment on cell cultured surface, the potentiodynamic test was performed on the surface using HOB cells. The results showed that the Si-HA coating surface showed higher tendency of cell attachment than that of single HA coating, corrosion resistance value was increased by dense of cell attachment.

  11. An in vivo evaluation of PLLA/PLLA-gHA nano-composite for internal fixation of mandibular bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Peng, Weihai; Zheng, Wei; Shi, Kai; Wang, Wangshu; Shao, Ying; Zhang, Duo

    2015-11-09

    Internal fixation of bone fractures using biodegradable poly(L-lactic-acid) (PLLA)-based materials has attracted the attention of many researchers. In the present study, 36 male beagle dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: PLLA/PLLA-gHA (PLLA-grafted hydroxyapatite) group and PLLA group. PLLA/PLLA-gHA and PLLA plates were embedded in the muscular bags of the erector spinae and also implanted to fix mandibular bone fractures in respective groups. At 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively, the PLLA/PLLA-gHA and PLLA plates were evaluated by adsorption and degradation tests, and the mandibles were examined through radiographic analysis, biomechanical testing, and histological analysis. The PLLA/PLLA-gHA plates were non-transparent and showed a creamy white color, and the PLLA plates were transparent and faint yellow in color. At all time points following surgery, adsorption and degradation of the PLLA/PLLA-gHA plates were significantly less than those of the PLLA plates, and the lateral and longitudinal bending strengths of the surgically treated mandibles of the beagle dogs in the PLLA/PLLA-gHA group were significantly greater than those of the PLLA group and reached almost the value of intact mandibles at 12 months postoperatively. Additionally, relatively rapid bone healing was observed in the PLLA/PLLA-gHA group with the formation of new lamellar bone tissues at 12 months after the surgery. The PLLA/PLLA-gHA nano-composite can be employed as a biodegradable material for internal fixation of mandibular bone fractures.

  12. Mitigation and Monitoring Plan for impacted wetlands at the Gunnison UMTRA Project site, Gunnison, Colorado. Revision 1

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The Gunnison, Colorado, abandoned uranium mill site is one site being cleaned up by the DOE under UMTRCA authority. This site`s contaminated material is being transported to a disposal site on US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land east of Gunnison. Remedial action activities have temporarily disturbed 0.8 acre (ac) (0.3 hectares [ha]) of wetlands and permanently eliminated 4.3 ac (1.7 ha). As required by the Clean Water Act, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) prepared a Section 404 Permit that addresses the loss of wetlands as a result of remedial action at the Gunnison UMTRA Project site. Themore » 404 permit includes this report as an attachment and it describes the wetland mitigation and monitoring plan. The DOE formulated this plan in consultation with the BLM and the USACE. This report represents a revised version of the mitigation and monitoring plan (DOE, 1992b).« less

  13. Development and implementation of a scrub habitat compensation plan for Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Breininger, David R.; Adrian, Frederic W.; Schaub, Ron; Duncan, Brean W.

    1994-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC), located on Merritt Island on the east coast of central Florida, is one of three remaining major populations of the Florida Scrub Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens coerulescens), listed as threatened by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) since 1987. Construction of new facilities by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on KSC over the next five years has the potential to impact up to 193 ac (78.1 ha) of Scrub Jay habitat. Under an early consultation process with the Endangered Species Office of the USFWS, NASA agreed to a compensation plan for loss of Scrub Jay habitat. The compensation plan required NASA to restore or create scrub on KSC at a 2:1 ratio for that lost. The compensation plan emphasized restoration of scrub habitat that is of marginal or declining suitability to Scrub Jays because it has remained unburned. Although prescribed burning has been conducted by the USFWS Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR) for more than ten years, significant areas of scrub remain unburned because they have been excluded from fire management units or because landscape fragmentation and a period of fire suppression allowed scrub to reach heights and diameters that are fire resistant. For such areas, mechanical cutting followed by prescribed burning was recommended for restoration. A second part of the restoration plan is an experimental study of scrub reestablishment (i.e., creation) on abandoned, well drained agricultural sites by planting scrub oaks and other scrub plants. The compensation plan identified 260 ac (105 ha) of scrub restoration in four areas and a 40 ac (16 ha) scrub creation site. Monitoring of restoration sites required under the plan included: establishing permanent vegetation sample transects before treatment and resampling annually for ten years after treatment, and color banding Scrub Jays to determine territories prior to treatment followed by monitoring reproductive success and survival for

  14. Human Space Flight Plans Committee

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-12

    Former astronaut Dr. Sally Ride, left, confers with Norman Augustine, chair, prior to the start of the final meeting of the Human Space Flight Review Committee, Wednesday, Aug. 12, 2009, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  15. Human Space Flight Plans Committee

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-07

    Former astronaut Dr. Sally Ride, left, confers with Norman Augustine, chair, prior to the start of the final meeting of the Human Space Flight Review Committee, Wednesday, Aug. 12, 2009, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  16. Re-establishment of the IMS Hydroacoustic Station HA03, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haralabus, Georgios; Stanley, Jerry; Zampolli, Mario; Pautet, Lucie

    2015-04-01

    Water column hydrophone stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) International Monitoring System (IMS) comprise typically two triplets of moored hydrophones deployed on both sides of an island. Triplet distances vary approximately between 50 - 200 km from the island, with each triplet connected to the receiving shore equipment by fibre-optic submarine data cables. Once deployed, the systems relay underwater acoustic waveforms in the band 1 - 100 Hz in real time to Vienna via a shore based satellite link. The design life of hydroacoustic (HA) stations is at least 20 years, without need for any maintenance of the underwater system (UWS). The re-establishment of hydrophone station HA03 at Robinson Crusoe Island (670 km West of the Chilean mainland) is presented here. The station was destroyed in February 2010 by a Tsunami induced by an 8.8 magnitude earthquake. After a major engineering and logistical undertaking HA03 is now back in operation since April 2014. The main phases of the project are presented: (i) the installation of a shore facility for the reception of the hydrophone data from the UWS, which also relays the data back to the CTBTO International Data Center (IDC) in Vienna via a real-time satellite connection, (ii) the manufacturing and testing of the system to meet the stringent requirements of the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, and (iii) the installation of the UWS with a state-of-the-art cable ship. Examples of data acquired by HA03 are also presented. These include hydroacoustic signals from the 1 April 2014 magnitude 8.2 earthquake in Northern Chile, bursting underwater bubbles from a submarine volcano near the Mariana Islands (15,000 Km away from the station), and vocalizations from the numerous marine mammals which transit in the vicinity of HA03. The use of CTBTO data for scientific purposes is possible via the virtual Data Exploitation Centre (vDEC), which is a platform that enables registered researchers to access

  17. Nanocomposite Porous Microcarriers Based on Strontium-Substituted HA- g-Poly(γ-benzyl-l-glutamate) for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shifeng; Xia, Pengfei; Xu, Shenghua; Zhang, Kunxi; Li, Guifei; Cui, Lei; Yin, Jingbo

    2018-05-04

    Porous microcarriers have aroused increasing attention recently, which can create a protected environment for sufficient cell seeding density, facilitate oxygen and nutrient transfer, and well support the cell attachment and growth. In this study, porous microcarriers fabricated from the strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite- graft-poly(γ-benzyl-l-glutamate) (Sr10-HA- g-PBLG) hybrid nanocomposite were developed. The surface grating of PBLG, the micromorphology and element distribution, mechanical strength, in vitro degradation, and Sr 2+ ion release of the obtained Sr10-HA- g-PBLG porous microcarriers were investigated, respectively. The grafting ratio and the molecular weight of the grafted PBLG of Sr10-HA- g-PBLG could be effectively controlled by varying the initial ratio of BLG-NCA to Sr10-HA-NH 2 . The microcarriers exhibited a highly porous and interconnected microstructure with the porosity of about 90% and overall density of 1.03-1.06 g/cm 3 . Also, the degradation rate of Sr10-HA-PBLG microcarriers could be effectively controlled and long-term Sr 2+ release was obtained. The Sr10-HA-PBLG microcarriers allowed cells adhesion, infiltration, and proliferation and promoted the osteogenic differentiation of rabbit adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Successful healing of femoral bone defect was proved by injection of the ADSCs-seeded Sr10-HA-PBLG microcarriers in a rabbit model.

  18. Hyaluronic acid doped-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/chitosan/gelatin (PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel) porous conductive scaffold for nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuping; Guan, Shui; Zhu, Zhibo; Li, Wenfang; Liu, Tianqing; Ma, Xuehu

    2017-02-01

    Conducting polymer, as a "smart" biomaterial, has been increasingly used to construct tissue engineered scaffold for nerve tissue regeneration. In this study, a novel porous conductive scaffold was prepared by incorporating conductive hyaluronic acid (HA) doped-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT-HA) nanoparticles into a chitosan/gelatin (Cs/Gel) matrix. The physicochemical characteristics of Cs/Gel scaffold with 0-10wt% PEDOT-HA were analyzed and the results indicated that the incorporation of PEDOT-HA into scaffold increased the electrical and mechanical properties while decreasing the porosity and water absorption. Moreover, in vitro biodegradation of scaffold displayed a declining trend with the PEDOT-HA content increased. About the biocompatibility of conductive scaffold, neuron-like rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells were cultured in scaffold to evaluate cell adhesion and growth. 8% PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold had a higher cell adhesive efficiency and cell viability than the other conductive scaffolds. Furthermore, cells in the scaffold with 8wt% PEDOT-HA expressed higher synapse growth gene of GAP43 and SYP compared with Cs/Gel control group. These results suggest that 8%PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold is an attractive cell culture conductive substrate which could support cell adhesion, survival, proliferation, and synapse growth for the application in nerve tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. AHEAD. Advate in HaEmophilia A outcome Database.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, J; Kurnik, K; Huth-Kühne, A; Zimmermann, R; Abraham, I; Klamroth, R

    2010-11-01

    The clinical picture of haemophilia A patients is often characterised by recurrent bleedings, in particular joint bleeds. Thus far, long-term data on the outcome of haemophilia A patients are scarce as regards the development of target joints, joint replacement, lost days from school or work due to bleedings, and the quality of life, as most previous studies were limited to the aspects of safety and efficacy. The Baxter-initiated AHEAD (Advate in HaEmophilia A outcome Database) study is a multi-centre, prospective, non-interventional observational study of haemophilia A patients. All patients with a residual FVIII activity of £5% who are being treated with ADVATE are eligible. There are no limitations in terms of patient age or treatment regimen. AHEAD is scientifically supported by a renowned interdisciplinary steering board and is intended to yield data on 500 patients in up to 30 haemophilia centres, collected during a period of four years. The large patient population has been chosen in order to ensure a valid database. The objective of the study is to record haemophilia-related arthropathies, which will be defined based on imaging techniques (e. g. MRI, X-ray, ultrasound) and the judgment of the attending physician. In addition, extensive data will be collected on joint replacement surgeries, pseudotumour development, bleeding-related pain, quality of life (age-related questionnaires: Haem-A-QoL, Haemo-QoL, SF10, SF12v2), risk factors (diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, nicotine abuse), blood group, gene mutation, physical activity, and on the efficacy and safety of Advate. The patient data will be entered into an electronic CRF system at the centres. Plausibility checks during data entry, regular monitoring visits, and the option of auditing all serve to ensure a high data quality for AHEAD. The first patient was enrolled in the study in early June 2010; recruitment is planned to continue until the end of 2011. The Ethics Committee of the University

  20. Construction of surface HA/TiO2 coating on porous titanium scaffolds and its preliminary biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongjie; Wang, Chunli; Yang, Xiao; Xiao, Zhanwen; Zhu, Xiangdong; Zhang, Kai; Fan, Yujiang; Zhang, Xingdong

    2017-01-01

    A simple approach to fabricating hydroxyxapatite/titanium dioxide (HA/TiO 2 ) coating on porous titanium (Ti) scaffolds was developed in the present study. Surface TiO 2 layer was firstly formed on porous Ti scaffolds with multi-scale pores by acid-alkali (AA) treatment. The outer HA layer was then formed on the TiO 2 layer by subsequent pulse electrochemical deposition (ED) technique. All the three main process parameters, i.e. deposition times, current density and mass transfer mode affected the properties of the HA coating notably. Under the conditions of 90 deposition cycles, -10mA/cm 2 of pulse current density and stirring, a thin layer of homogeneous and nanorod-like HA sediments was formed on the substrate surface of porous Ti scaffolds. The results of protein adsorption and cellular experiments showed that compared to the single TiO 2 surface, the HA/TiO 2 surface allowed more adsorption of serum proteins and further enhanced the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. RGO/AuNR/HA-5FU nanocomposite with multi-stage release behavior and efficient antitumor activity for synergistic therapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Wang, Yunlong; Zhu, Manzhou; Chen, Yan; Xiao, Yazhong; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian

    2017-05-02

    A reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/gold nanorod (AuNR)/hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocomposite was designed and successfully synthesized for the first time. An anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil (5FU), was chosen as a model drug to be loaded in RGO/AuNR/HA. The fabricated RGO/AuNR/HA-5FU showed robust, selective targeting and penetrating efficiency against HeLa cells due to the good compatibility and nontoxicity of HA, and showed excellent synergetic antitumor effects through combined chemotherapy (CT) by 5FU and photothermal therapy (PTT) by both RGO and AuNRs under near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. More importantly, this synergistic dual therapy based on RGO/AuNR/HA can also minimize side effects in normal cells and exhibits greater antitumor activity because of a multi-stage drug release ability triggered by the pH sensitivity of HA in the first stage and the combined photothermal conversion capabilities of RGO and AuNRs by means of the NIR laser irradiation in the second stage. This study suggests that the novel RGO/AuNR/HA multi-stage drug delivery system may represent a promising potential application of multifunctional composite materials in the biomedical field.

  2. The use of sodium hyaluronate-carboxymethylcellulose (HA-CMC) barrier in gynecologic malignancies: a retrospective review of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Annie; Argenta, Peter; Ramirez, Rose; Bliss, Robin; Geller, Melissa

    2009-02-01

    Concerns exist regarding the safety of sodium hyaluronate-carboxymethylcellulose (HA-CMC, Seprafilm) adhesion barrier in regard to cancer survival as a result of in vitro data demonstrating that hyaluronan, a component of HA-CMC, may promote tumor growth. We sought to determine whether use of HA-CMC is associated with duration of disease-free or overall survival and rates of immediate complication in patients with gynecologic malignancies. We identified 202 consecutive patients with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer who underwent initial surgical staging or interval debulking at the University of Minnesota between January 2001 and December 2004. Information on patients' demographics, medical history, surgical procedures, postoperative complications, disease stage, histology, adjuvant therapy, and disease-free and overall survival was collected from medical records. Survival curves were compared between patients receiving or not receiving HA-CMC by stratified Cox regression models, log rank, and Wilcoxon tests. The level of significance was set to alpha = .05 for each test. Eighty patients received intraoperative placement of HA-CMC and 122 did not. Immediate postoperative complication rates were equivalent in both groups. Median follow-up was 2.1 years. There was no difference in disease-free survival (5-year estimate 23.6% vs. 33.3%, P = .80) or overall survival (5-year estimate 29.7% vs. 40.3%, P = .75) between those who received HA-CMC and those who did not. Our retrospective analysis suggests that HA-CMC adhesion barrier does not affect disease-free survival or overall survival; nor does it increase the immediate postoperative complication rates in patients undergoing abdominal surgery for ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal carcinomas.

  3. Construction and cellular immune response induction of HA-based alphavirus replicon vaccines against human-avian influenza (H5N1).

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-gui; Wo, Jian-er; Li, Min-wei; Mi, Fen-fang; Yu, Cheng-bo; Lv, Guo-liang; Cao, Hong-Cui; Lu, Hai-feng; Wang, Bao-hong; Zhu, Hanping; Li, Lan-Juan

    2009-12-09

    Several approaches are being taken worldwide to develop vaccines against H5N1 viruses; most of them, however, pose both practical and immunological challenges. One potential strategy for improving the immunogenicity of vaccines involves the use of alphavirus replicons and VP22, a herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) protein. In this study, we analysed the antigenic peptides and homogeneity of the HA sequences (human isolates of the H5N1 subtype, from 1997 to 2003) and explored a novel alphavirus replicon system of VP22 fused with HA, to assess whether the immunogenicity of an HA-based replicon vaccine could be induced and augmented via fusion with VP22. Further, replicon particles expressing VP22, and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were individually used as controls. Cellular immune responses in mice immunised with replicons were evaluated by identifying specific intracellular cytokine production with flow cytometry (FCM). Animal-based experimentation indicated that both the IL-4 expression of CD4(+) T cells and the IFN-gamma expression of CD8(+) T cells were significantly increased in mice immunised with VPR-HA and VPR-VP22/HA. A dose titration effect vis-à-vis both IL-4 expression and IFN-gamma expression were observed in VPR-HA- and VPR-VP22/HA-vaccinated mice. Our results revealed that both VPR-VP22/HA and VPR-HA replicon particles presented a promising approach for developing vaccines against human-avian influenza, and VP22 could enhance the immunogenicity of the HA antigens to which it is fused.

  4. An interpenetrating HA/G/CS biomimic hydrogel via Diels-Alder click chemistry for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yu, Feng; Cao, Xiaodong; Zeng, Lei; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Xiaofeng

    2013-08-14

    In order to mimic the natural cartilage extracellular matrix, a novel biological degradable interpenetrating network hydrogel was synthesized from the gelatin (G), hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) by Diels-Alder "click" chemistry. HA was modified with furylamine and G was modified with furancarboxylic acid respectively. (1)H NMR spectra and elemental analysis showed that the substitution degrees of HA-furan and G-furan were 71.5% and 44.5%. Then the hydrogels were finally synthesized by cross-linking furan-modified HA and G derivatives with dimaleimide poly(ethylene glycol) (MAL-PEG-MAL). The mechanical and degradation properties of the hydrogels could be tuned simply through varying the molar ratio between furan and maleimide. Rheological, mechanical and degradation studies demonstrated that the Diels-Alder "click" chemistry is an efficient method for preparing high performance biological interpenetrating hydrogels. This biomimic hydrogel with improved mechanical properties could have great potential applications in cartilage tissue engineering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Employing the cyclophosphate to accelerate the degradation of nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(amino acid) (n-HA/PAA) composite materials.

    PubMed

    Jing, Linjing; Chen, Li; Peng, Haitao; Ji, Mizhi; Xiong, Yi; Lv, Guoyu

    2017-12-01

    Owing to the good degradability and biocompatibility of polyphosphoesters (PPEs), the aim of the current study was to investigate a novel degradable composite of nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(amino acid) (n-HA/PAA) with cyclophosphate (CPE) via in situ melting polymerization to improve the degradation of n-HA/PAA. The structure of each composite was characterized via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The degradation properties were studied in terms of the weight loss and pH in a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution, while the surface morphology was examined using a scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) after soaking the surface in simulated body fluid (SBF). The cell proliferation, cell adhesion, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were used for the analysis of cytocompatibility. The weight loss results showed that the n-HA/PAA composite was 9.98 wt%, weighed after soaking in the PBS solution for 12 weeks, whereas the nano-hydroxyapatite/polyphosphoester-amino acid (n-HA/PPE-AA) composite was 46.94 wt%. The pH of the composites was in a suitable range between 6.64 to 7.06 and finally stabilized at 7.39. The SEM and EDS results revealed the formation of an apatite-like layer on the surface of the n-HA/PPE-AA composites after soaking in SBF for one week. The cell counting Kit 8 (CCK-8) assay of the cell culture in the leaching liquid of the n-HA/PPE-AA composites exhibited non-cytotoxicity and high-proliferation, and the cell adhesion showed the well spreading and normal phenotype extension of the cells on the n-HA/PPE-AA composites surface. Concurrently, the co-culture results of the composites and cells confirmed that the n-HA/PPE-AA composites exhibited a higher ALP activity. In summary, the results demonstrated that the n-HA/PPE-AA composites had a controllable degradation property, good bioactivity, and cytocompatibility.

  6. Laminated electrospun nHA/PHB-composite scaffolds mimicking bone extracellular matrix for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuoyue; Song, Yue; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Wei; Cui, Jihong; Li, Hongmin; Chen, Fulin

    2017-03-01

    Electrospinning is an effective means to generate nano- to micro-scale polymer fibers resembling native extracellular matrix for tissue engineering. However, a major problem of electrospun materials is that limited pore size and porosity may prevent adequate cellular infiltration and tissue ingrowth. In this study, we first prepared thin layers of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHA)/poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) via electrospinning. We then laminated the nHA/PHB thin layers to obtain a scaffold for cell seeding and bone tissue engineering. The results demonstrated that the laminated scaffold possessed optimized cell-loading capacity. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibited better adherence, proliferation and osteogenic phenotypes on nHA/PHB scaffolds than on PHB scaffolds. Thereafter, we seeded MSCs onto nHA/PHB scaffolds to fabricate bone grafts. Histological observation showed osteoid tissue formation throughout the scaffold, with most of the scaffold absorbed in the specimens 2months after implantation, and blood vessels ingrowth into the graft could be observed in the graft. We concluded that electrospun and laminated nanoscaled biocomposite scaffolds hold great therapeutic potential for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Biopolymers for Medical Applications: Polyglycerol Sebacate (PGS) doped Hydroxyapatite (HA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teruel, Maria; Kuthirummal, Narayanan; Levi, Nicole; Wake College Team

    2011-04-01

    In the investigation to engineer the ideal scaffolding device for cleft palate repair, polyglycerol sebacate (PGS) doped with hydroxyapatite (HA) were chosen for their elastomeric and biodegradable properties, as well as their cost-effective synthesis. Hydroxyapatite was integrated into the PGS to form a composite with high porosity and improved mechanical properties yielding a good substrate for cell attachment during the repair process. FT-IR scans were performed to characterize the composite polymer. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was utilized to identify an acceptable glass transition temperature (Tg), between -18 and - 21°C. At this Tg, it was determined that the material was sufficiently polymerized to a point where it was durable yet pliable enough to use for cleft palate devices. In the synthesis of PGS 3% and 5% HA, a Tg of - 20.10°C and - 21.72°C, respectively, was achieved and further analytical tests were then performed on the polymers. Methods of analysis included X-Ray Diffraction and Tensile Strength Testing. Acknowledgements to the Research Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Wake Forest University and College of Charleston.

  8. 40 CFR 62.8105 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Gases, Organic Compounds, Particulates and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Existing Hospital/medical..., 1999. [64 FR 43094, Aug. 9, 1999] Air Emissions From Existing Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste...

  9. Human Space Flight Plans Committee

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-11

    Dr. Edward Crawley, Ford Professor of Engineering at MIT and co-chair, NASA Exploration Technology Development Program Review Committee speaks during the final meeting of the Human Space Flight Review Committee, Wednesday, Aug. 12, 2009, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  10. Structure, mechanical property and corrosion behaviors of (HA+β-TCP)/Mg-5Sn composite with interpenetrating networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Li, J T; Xie, M Y; Qu, L J; Zhang, P; Li, X L

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a novel (Hydroxyapatite+β-tricalcium phosphate)/Mg-5Sn ((HA+β-TCP)/Mg-5Sn) composite with interpenetrating networks was fabricated by infiltrating Mg-5Sn alloy into porous HA+β-TCP using suction casting technique. The structure, mechanical property and corrosion behaviors of the composite have been evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), mechanical testing, electrochemical and immersion test. It is shown that the molten Mg-5Sn alloy has infiltrated not only into the pores but also into the struts of the HA+β-TCP scaffold to forming a compact composite. The microstructure observation also shows that the Mg alloy contacts to the HA+β-TCP closely, and no reaction layer can be found between Mg-5Sn alloy and scaffold. The ultimate compressive strength of the composite is as high as 176MPa, which is about four fifths of the strength of the Mg-5Sn bulk alloy. The electrochemical and immersion tests indicate that the corrosion resistance of the composite is better than that of the Mg-5Sn bulk alloy. The corrosion products on the composite surface are mainly Mg(OH)2, Ca3(PO4)2 and HA. Appropriate mechanical and corrosion properties of the (HA+β-TCP)/Mg-5Sn composite indicate its possibility for new bone tissue implant materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioactive and biocompatible pieces of HA/sol-gel glass mixtures obtained by the gel-casting method.

    PubMed

    Padilla, S; Sánchez-Salcedo, S; Vallet-Regí, M

    2005-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)/glass mixtures have shown a faster bioactive behaviour than HA itself. On the other hand, the gel-casting method is a simple and reproducible colloidal method to produce ceramic pieces with complex shapes. In this work, pieces of HA/glass mixtures were prepared by the gel-casting method. A study for obtaining concentrated slurries of these mixtures is reported; the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the obtained pieces have been studied also. The influence of pH, dispersant concentration, the content and milling of glass, and the way to prepare the suspensions were investigated. The lowest viscosity and better rheological properties were achieved with the lowest glass content, when the glass was added after the dispersion of the HA powder and when the glass was not milled after calcination. Fluid suspensions with a high solid content (50 vol.%) could be prepared and well-shaped pieces were obtained from these slurries. These pieces showed in vitro bioactive behavior in simulated body fluid; additionally, the proliferation and spreading assays with osteoblastic cells (HOS) showed that the pieces are biocompatible. The results obtained indicate that the gel-casting of HA/glass mixtures produces bioactive and biocompatible pieces with the required shapes. Therefore, these materials could be good candidates for clinical applications and scaffolds for tissue engineering. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. 7 CFR 1945.28 - Relationship between ASCS and FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... intended to assist in maintaining and improving the working relationship between the ASCS and the FmHA or... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Relationship between ASCS and FmHA or its successor...) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.28 Relationship between ASCS and FmHA or its successor agency...

  13. 7 CFR 1945.25 - Relationship between FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 and FEMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Relationship between FmHA or its successor agency...) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.25 Relationship between FmHA or its successor agency under... FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 on losses and damages caused by an unusual and...

  14. 7 CFR 1956.145 - Disposition of essential FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Disposition of essential FmHA or its successor agency... SETTLEMENT Debt Settlement-Community and Business Programs § 1956.145 Disposition of essential FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 records. FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...

  15. 7 CFR 1956.145 - Disposition of essential FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposition of essential FmHA or its successor agency... SETTLEMENT Debt Settlement-Community and Business Programs § 1956.145 Disposition of essential FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 records. FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...

  16. 7 CFR 1945.26 - Relationship between FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 and SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Relationship between FmHA or its successor agency...) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.26 Relationship between FmHA or its successor agency under... a farm or nonfarm tract. It is the policy of USDA and FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...

  17. 7 CFR 1945.26 - Relationship between FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 and SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Relationship between FmHA or its successor agency...) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.26 Relationship between FmHA or its successor agency under... a farm or nonfarm tract. It is the policy of USDA and FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...

  18. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing the HaHR3 Gene Conferred Enhanced Resistance to Helicoverpa armigera and Improved Cotton Yield

    PubMed Central

    Han, Qiang; Wang, Zhenzhen; He, Yunxin; Xiong, Yehui; Lv, Shun; Li, Shupeng; Zhang, Zhigang; Qiu, Dewen; Zeng, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been developed as an efficient technology. RNAi insect-resistant transgenic plants expressing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that is ingested into insects to silence target genes can affect the viability of these pests or even lead to their death. HaHR3, a molt-regulating transcription factor gene, was previously selected as a target expressed in bacteria and tobacco plants to control Helicoverpa armigera by RNAi technology. In this work, we selected the dsRNA-HaHR3 fragment to silence HaHR3 in cotton bollworm for plant mediated-RNAi research. A total of 19 transgenic cotton lines expressing HaHR3 were successfully cultivated, and seven generated lines were used to perform feeding bioassays. Transgenic cotton plants expressing dsHaHR3 were shown to induce high larval mortality and deformities of pupation and adult eclosion when used to feed the newly hatched larvae, and 3rd and 5th instar larvae of H. armigera. Moreover, HaHR3 transgenic cotton also demonstrated an improved cotton yield when compared with controls. PMID:28867769

  19. Uncovering the dual role of RHAMM as an HA receptor and a regulator of CD44 expression in RHAMM-expressing mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Veiseh, Mandana; Leith, Sean J; Tolg, Cornelia; Elhayek, Sallie S; Bahrami, S Bahram; Collis, Lisa; Hamilton, Sara; McCarthy, James B; Bissell, Mina J; Turley, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of hyaluronan (HA) with mesenchymal progenitor cells impacts trafficking and fate after tissue colonization during wound repair and these events contribute to diseases such as cancer. How this interaction occurs is poorly understood. Using 10T½ cells as a mesenchymal progenitor model and fluorescent (F-HA) or gold-labeled HA (G-HA) polymers, we studied the role of two HA receptors, RHAMM and CD44, in HA binding and uptake in non-adherent and adherent mesenchymal progenitor (10T½) cells to mimic aspects of cell trafficking and tissue colonization. We show that fluorescent labeled HA (F-HA) binding/uptake was high in non-adherent cells but dropped over time as cells became increasingly adherent. Non-adherent cells displayed both CD44 and RHAMM but only function-blocking anti-RHAMM and not anti-CD44 antibodies significantly reduced F-HA binding/uptake. Adherent cells, which also expressed CD44 and RHAMM, primarily utilized CD44 to bind to F-HA since anti-CD44 but not anti-RHAMM antibodies blocked F-HA uptake. RHAMM overexpression in adherent 10T½ cells led to increased F-HA uptake but this increased binding remained CD44 dependent. Further studies showed that RHAMM-transfection increased CD44 mRNA and protein expression while blocking RHAMM function reduced expression. Collectively, these results suggest that cellular microenvironments in which these receptors function as HA binding proteins differ significantly, and that RHAMM plays at least two roles in F-HA binding by acting as an HA receptor in non-attached cells and by regulating CD44 expression and display in attached cells. Our findings demonstrate adhesion-dependent mechanisms governing HA binding/ uptake that may impact development of new mesenchymal cell-based therapies.

  20. Uncovering the dual role of RHAMM as an HA receptor and a regulator of CD44 expression in RHAMM-expressing mesenchymal progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Veiseh, Mandana; Leith, Sean J.; Tolg, Cornelia; Elhayek, Sallie S.; Bahrami, S. Bahram; Collis, Lisa; Hamilton, Sara; McCarthy, James B.; Bissell, Mina J.; Turley, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of hyaluronan (HA) with mesenchymal progenitor cells impacts trafficking and fate after tissue colonization during wound repair and these events contribute to diseases such as cancer. How this interaction occurs is poorly understood. Using 10T½ cells as a mesenchymal progenitor model and fluorescent (F-HA) or gold-labeled HA (G-HA) polymers, we studied the role of two HA receptors, RHAMM and CD44, in HA binding and uptake in non-adherent and adherent mesenchymal progenitor (10T½) cells to mimic aspects of cell trafficking and tissue colonization. We show that fluorescent labeled HA (F-HA) binding/uptake was high in non-adherent cells but dropped over time as cells became increasingly adherent. Non-adherent cells displayed both CD44 and RHAMM but only function-blocking anti-RHAMM and not anti-CD44 antibodies significantly reduced F-HA binding/uptake. Adherent cells, which also expressed CD44 and RHAMM, primarily utilized CD44 to bind to F-HA since anti-CD44 but not anti-RHAMM antibodies blocked F-HA uptake. RHAMM overexpression in adherent 10T½ cells led to increased F-HA uptake but this increased binding remained CD44 dependent. Further studies showed that RHAMM-transfection increased CD44 mRNA and protein expression while blocking RHAMM function reduced expression. Collectively, these results suggest that cellular microenvironments in which these receptors function as HA binding proteins differ significantly, and that RHAMM plays at least two roles in F-HA binding by acting as an HA receptor in non-attached cells and by regulating CD44 expression and display in attached cells. Our findings demonstrate adhesion-dependent mechanisms governing HA binding/ uptake that may impact development of new mesenchymal cell-based therapies. PMID:26528478

  1. 7 CFR 1945.28 - Relationship between ASCS and FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Relationship between ASCS and FmHA or its successor...) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.28 Relationship between ASCS and FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354. Exhibit A of FmHA Instruction 2000-JJ (a copy of which is available in any Fm...

  2. Silencing of HaAce1 gene by host-delivered artificial microRNA disrupts growth and development of Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Saini, Ravi Prakash; Raman, Venkat; Dhandapani, Gurusamy; Malhotra, Era Vaidya; Sreevathsa, Rohini; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Sharma, Tilak R; Pattanayak, Debasis

    2018-01-01

    The polyphagous insect-pest, Helicoverpa armigera, is a serious threat to a number of economically important crops. Chemical application and/or cultivation of Bt transgenic crops are the two strategies available now for insect-pest management. However, environmental pollution and long-term sustainability are major concerns against these two options. RNAi is now considered as a promising technology to complement Bt to tackle insect-pests menace. In this study, we report host-delivered silencing of HaAce1 gene, encoding the predominant isoform of H. armigera acetylcholinesterase, by an artificial microRNA, HaAce1-amiR1. Arabidopsis pre-miRNA164b was modified by replacing miR164b/miR164b* sequences with HaAce1-amiR1/HaAce1-amiR1* sequences. The recombinant HaAce1-preamiRNA1 was put under the control of CaMV 35S promoter and NOS terminator of plant binary vector pBI121, and the resultant vector cassette was used for tobacco transformation. Two transgenic tobacco lines expressing HaAce1-amiR1 was used for detached leaf insect feeding bioassays. Larval mortality of 25% and adult deformity of 20% were observed in transgenic treated insect group over that control tobacco treated insect group. The reduction in the steady-state level of HaAce1 mRNA was 70-80% in the defective adults compared to control. Our results demonstrate promise for host-delivered amiRNA-mediated silencing of HaAce1 gene for H. armigera management.

  3. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-10

    Budapest POLITIKAI FOISKOLA KOZLEMENYEI in Hungarian No 4, 1983, pp 17-18 [Article by Gabor Fodor: "Consensus and Youth"] [Excerpt] The confusion is...Planning Employee Numbers Budapest FIGYELO in Hungarian 9 Aug 84 p 7 [Article by tes: "Hopeless Hopes"] [Text] I wonder what kind of work force planning...to last year’s is counted on everywhere. Filling High-Skill Jobs Budapest NEPSZABADSAG in Hungarian 15 Aug 84 p 5 [Article by Laszlo Bakos

  4. What have we learned from HaChi (HAZE IN CHINA) project?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunsheng; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    hygroscopic growth factors and particle number size distributions measured. Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) closure study is conducted with bulk CCN number concentration and calculated CCN number concentration based on the aerosol number size distribution and size-resolved activation properties. An evaluation of various methods for CCN parameterization is presented based on in situ measurements of aerosol activation properties within HaChi project. Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles can significantly affect their single-scattering albedo, and consequently alters the aerosol effect on tropospheric photochemistry. At last, I will introduce the results on the relationship between aerosol hygroscopic properties and aerosol radiation including impacts of aerosol hygroscopic growth on the NO2 photolysis rate coefficient and the estimation of direct aerosol radiative effect in the North China Plan.

  5. pH-Amplified multilayer films based on hyaluronan: influence of HA molecular weight and concentration on film growth and stability.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liyan; Chaudouet, Patrick; Ji, Jian; Picart, Catherine

    2011-04-11

    In this study, we investigate the growth and internal properties of polyelectrolyte multilayer films made of poly(l-lysine) and hyaluronan (PLL/HA) under pH-amplified conditions, that is, by alternate deposition of PLL at high pH and HA at low pH. We focus especially on the influence of the molecular weight of HA in this process as well as on its concentration in solution. Film growth was followed by quartz crystal microbalance and by infrared spectroscopy to quantify the deposited mass and to characterize the internal properties of the films, including the presence of hydrogen bonds and the ionization degree of HA in the films. Film growth was significantly faster for HA of high molecular weight (1300 kDa) as compared with 400 and 200 kDa. PLL was found to exhibit a random structure once deposited in the films. Furthermore, we found that PLL-ending films are more stable when they are placed in PBS than their HA counterparts. This was explained on the basis of more cohesive interactions in the films for PLL-ending films. Finally, we quantified PLL(FITC) diffusion into the films and observed that PLL diffusion is enhanced when PLL is paired with the HA of high MW. All together, these results suggest that besides purely physicochemical parameters such as variation in pH, the molecular weight of HA, its concentration in solution, and the possibility to form intermolecular HA association play important roles in film growth, internal cohesion, and stability.

  6. Human Space Flight Plans Committee

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-11

    Dr. Wanda Austin, president and CEO of the Aerospace Corp., left, asks a question during the final meeting of the Human Space Flight Review Committee, Wednesday, Aug. 12, 2009, in Washington as committee member Bohdan Bejmuk reviews his notes. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  7. Silencing the HaHR3 Gene by Transgenic Plant-mediated RNAi to Disrupt Helicoverpa armigera Development

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yehui; Zeng, Hongmei; Zhang, Yuliang; Xu, Dawei; Qiu, Dewen

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) caused by exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has developed into a powerful technique in functional genomics, and to date it is widely used to down-regulate crucial physiology-related genes to control pest insects. A molt-regulating transcription factor gene, HaHR3, of cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) was selected as the target gene. Four different fragments covering the coding sequence (CDS) of HaHR3 were cloned into vector L4440 to express dsRNAs in Escherichia coli. The most effective silencing fragment was then cloned into a plant over-expression vector to express a hairpin RNA (hpRNA) in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). When H. armigera larvae were fed the E. coli or transgenic plants, the HaHR3 mRNA and protein levels dramatically decreased, resulting developmental deformity and larval lethality. The results demonstrate that both recombinant bacteria and transgenic plants could induce HaHR3 silence to disrupt H. armigera development, transgenic plant-mediated RNAi is emerging as a powerful approach for controlling insect pests. PMID:23630449

  8. Antigenicity of the 2015-2016 seasonal H1N1 human influenza virus HA and NA proteins.

    PubMed

    Clark, Amelia M; DeDiego, Marta L; Anderson, Christopher S; Wang, Jiong; Yang, Hongmei; Nogales, Aitor; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Zand, Martin S; Sangster, Mark Y; Topham, David J

    2017-01-01

    Antigenic drift of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) influenza virus proteins contributes to reduced vaccine efficacy. To analyze antigenic drift in human seasonal H1N1 viruses derived from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (pH1N1-like viruses) accounts for the limited effectiveness (around 40%) of vaccination against pH1N1-like viruses during the 2015-2016 season, nasal washes/swabs collected from adult subjects in the Rochester, NY area, were used to sequence and isolate the circulating viruses. The HA and NA proteins from viruses circulating during the 2015-2016 season encoded eighteen and fourteen amino acid differences, respectively, when compared to A/California/04/2009, a strain circulating at the origin of the 2009 pandemic. The circulating strains belonged to subclade 6B.1, defined by HA amino acid substitutions S101N, S179N, and I233T. Hemagglutination-inhibiting (HAI) and HA-specific neutralizing serum antibody (Ab) titers from around 50% of pH1N1-like virus-infected subjects and immune ferrets were 2-4 fold lower for the 2015-2016 circulating strains compared to the vaccine strain. In addition, using a luminex-based mPlex HA assay, the binding of human sera from subjects infected with pH1N1-like viruses to the HA proteins from circulating and vaccine strains was not identical, strongly suggesting antigenic differences in the HA protein. Additionally, NA inhibition (NAI) Ab titers in human sera from pH1N1-like virus-infected subjects increased after the infection and there were measurable antigenic differences between the NA protein of circulating strains and the vaccine strain using both ferret and human antisera. Despite having been vaccinated, infected subjects exhibited low HAI Ab titers against the vaccine and circulating strains. This suggests that poor responses to the H1N1 component of the vaccine as well as antigenic differences in the HA and NA proteins of currently circulating pH1N1-like viruses could be contributing to risk of

  9. Effects of DCPD Cement Chemistry on Degradation Properties and Cytocompatibility: Comparison of MCPM/β-TCP and MCPM/HA Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Alge, Daniel L.; Goebel, W. Scott; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) cements are attractive biomaterials for bone repair, and a number of different DCPD cement formulations have been proposed in the literature. In this study we have specifically compared monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM)/hydroxyapatite (HA) and MCPM/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) formulations to test the hypothesis that DCPD cement chemistry affects the degradation properties and cytocompatibility of the cement. Using simple in vitro models we found that MCPM/β-TCP formulations degraded primarily by DCPD dissolution, which was associated with a slight pH drop and relatively low mass loss. Cytocompatibility testing of cement conditioned culture media revealed no significant change in cell viability relative to the negative control for all of the MCPM/β-TCP formulations. In contrast, the MCPM/HA formulations were prone to undergo rapid conversion of DCPD to HA, resulting in a sharp pH drop and extensive mass loss. A stoichiometric excess of HA in the cement was found to accelerate the conversion process, and significant cytotoxicity was observed for the MCPM/HA formulations containing excess HA. Collectively, these results show that, although the product of the setting reaction is the same, DCPD cements produced with MCPM/HA and MCPM/β-TCP formulations differ significantly in their degradation properties and cytocompatibility. These differences may have important implications for the selection of a DCPD cement formulation for clinical application. PMID:23428798

  10. Preparing for the Great American Eclipse of Aug. 21: for Yourself, and for Holding an Event for the Public and Students.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    On Aug. 21, 2017 a Total Eclipse of the Sun will cross the US. For the first time in 40 years every state will have at least 80% of the sun covered by the moon, and lucky people from Oregon to South Carolina will see the beauty of the total eclipse and remember it all their lives. It is as difficult to convey the impression of a total eclilpse as it is to convey what the Grand Canyon is like. Words cannot do it justice. It looks like the end of the world as the flames of solar prominances rise from the edge of the "black hole" of the eclipsed sun, and silver streamers of the sun's corona stretch across the sky. People scream, applaud, or cry. Animals do strange things. At a total eclipse in the Galapagos dozens of whales and dolphins surfaced at the time of the total elcipse, surrounded our boat, and after the eclipse swam away. At a partial eclipse, even a 99% eclipse, those spectacular aspects are not seen, so it is a good idea to make plans to go to where the eclipse is total. This session will use examples from 10 total eclipses the author has viewed and made available to the public, since March 7, 1970, to suggest practical preparations for the evnt. Advice will be given on how and where to see the eclipse yourself, and how to help the public, teachers, and students where you live enjoy the spectacle and raise their interest in science. It is hoped that by the time of the AGU meeting "Kits" of educational materials and safe eclipse-watching glasses will be available to AGU members. This will be discussed. A Public Service Announcement suitable for use on television, the Internet, or in schools should also be available.

  11. Conformation study of HA(306-318) antigenic peptide of the haemagglutinin influenza virus protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, A.; Brito, R. M.; Alix, A. J. P.; Lancelin, J. M.; Carvalho, R. A.; Geraldes, C. F. G. C.; Lakhdar-Ghazal, F.

    2006-11-01

    Several HLA-DR alleles present the immunodominant HA(306-318) peptide of haemagglutinin of the influenza virus to T cells. NMR data of the peptide in various water solutions exclude any α-helix or turn conformations. Circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies indicate an estimated β-extended structure in water of 31% and 28%, respectively, with spectra shape similar to the ones observed for β-sheet containing proteins. The H/D amide exchange suggests a stable length-dependent interchain hydrogen-bonding. The partially β-extended conformation of HA(306-318) in solution might be close to the one found in HA(306-318)-HLA-DR1 complex. These results suggest different interconverting extended conformations of HA(306-318), depending on the microenvironment of the solution medium. This flexibility emphasizes the ability of some peptides to fit more easily the binding site of several HLA-DR molecules. Similar results were obtained on the HIV P25(263-277) peptide which has been previously shown to be a good DR1 binder. From a vibrational point of view, infrared Amide I frequencies of secondary structures in peptides were ascertained. As previously demonstrated for proteins in solution, Fourier transform infrared and circular dichroism spectroscopies appear to be valuable tools for conformational properties of peptides. Their use may contribute to the detection of peptide conformation-binding relationship which has to be further tested by biochemical and biological studies.

  12. Shikonin induces apoptosis of HaCaT cells via the mitochondrial, Erk and Akt pathways

    PubMed Central

    JING, HUILING; SUN, WENYAN; FAN, JINGHUA; ZHANG, YANMIN; YANG, JIAO; JIA, JINJING; LI, JICHANG; GUO, JIAQI; LUO, SUJU; ZHENG, YAN

    2016-01-01

    Shikonin, which is a major ingredient of the traditional Chinese herb Lithospermum erythrorhizon, possesses various biological functions, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. The present study aimed to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of shikonin on HaCaT cell apoptosis. Treatment with shikonin significantly inhibited the viability of HaCaT cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and promoted cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. In addition, shikonin treatment reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential and induced reactive oxygen species generation. The results of a western blot analysis demonstrated that shikonin significantly activated caspase 3 expression, downregulated B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression, and upregulated Bcl-2-associated X protein and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer expression in a dose-dependent manner in HaCaT cells. Furthermore, shikonin decreased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and Akt phosphorylation. These results indicated that shikonin may exert its anti-proliferative effects by inducing apoptosis via activation of the mitochondrial signaling pathway and inactivation of the Akt and Erk pathways in HaCaT cells. Therefore, the present study suggested that shikonin may have potential as a component of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of skin diseases. PMID:26935874

  13. 7 CFR 1940.325 - FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 as a cooperating Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354... Environmental Program § 1940.325 FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 as a cooperating Agency. (a) FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 will serve as a cooperating Agency when...

  14. 7 CFR 1940.326 - FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 as a lead Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354... Environmental Program § 1940.326 FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 as a lead Agency. (a) When other Federal agencies are involved in an FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...

  15. 7 CFR 1940.326 - FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 as a lead Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354... Environmental Program § 1940.326 FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 as a lead Agency. (a) When other Federal agencies are involved in an FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...

  16. Hybrid Macro-Porous Titanium Ornamented by Degradable 3D Gel/nHA Micro-Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Bo; Ma, Pei; Chen, Jun; Wang, Hai; Wu, Gui; Li, Bo; Li, Qiang; Huang, Zhifeng; Qiu, Guixing; Wu, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    Porous titanium is a kind of promising material for bone substitution, while its bio-inert property results in demand of modifications to improve the osteointegration capacity. In this study, gelatin (Gel) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) were used to construct 3D micro-scaffolds in the pores of porous titanium in the ratios of Gel:nHA = 1:0, Gel:nHA = 1:1, and Gel:nHA = 1:3, respectively. Cell attachment and proliferation, and gene and protein expression levels of osteogenic markers were evaluated in MC3T3-E1 cells, followed by bone regeneration assessment in a rabbit radius defect model. All hybrid scaffolds with different composition ratio were found to have significant promotional effects in cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation, in which the group with Gel:nHA = 1:1 showed the best performance in vitro, as well as the most bone regeneration volume in vivo. This 3D micro-scaffolds modification may be an innovative method for porous titanium ornamentation and shows potential application values in clinic. PMID:27092492

  17. Hybrid Macro-Porous Titanium Ornamented by Degradable 3D Gel/nHA Micro-Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yin, Bo; Ma, Pei; Chen, Jun; Wang, Hai; Wu, Gui; Li, Bo; Li, Qiang; Huang, Zhifeng; Qiu, Guixing; Wu, Zhihong

    2016-04-15

    Porous titanium is a kind of promising material for bone substitution, while its bio-inert property results in demand of modifications to improve the osteointegration capacity. In this study, gelatin (Gel) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) were used to construct 3D micro-scaffolds in the pores of porous titanium in the ratios of Gel:nHA = 1:0, Gel:nHA = 1:1, and Gel:nHA = 1:3, respectively. Cell attachment and proliferation, and gene and protein expression levels of osteogenic markers were evaluated in MC3T3-E1 cells, followed by bone regeneration assessment in a rabbit radius defect model. All hybrid scaffolds with different composition ratio were found to have significant promotional effects in cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation, in which the group with Gel:nHA = 1:1 showed the best performance in vitro, as well as the most bone regeneration volume in vivo. This 3D micro-scaffolds modification may be an innovative method for porous titanium ornamentation and shows potential application values in clinic.

  18. Trichomonas vaginalis Metalloproteinase Induces mTOR Cleavage of SiHa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Juan-Hua; Choi, In-Wook; Yang, Jung-Bo; Zhou, Wei; Cha, Guang-Ho; Zhou, Yu; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis secretes a number of proteases which are suspected to be the cause of pathogenesis; however, little is understood how they manipulate host cells. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates cell growth, cell proliferation, cell motility, cell survival, protein synthesis, and transcription. We detected various types of metalloproteinases including GP63 protein from T. vaginalis trophozoites, and T. vaginalis GP63 metalloproteinase was confirmed by sequencing and western blot. When SiHa cells were stimulated with live T. vaginalis, T. vaginalis excretory-secretory products (ESP) or T. vaginalis lysate, live T. vaginalis and T. vaginalis ESP induced the mTOR cleavage in both time- and parasite load-dependent manner, but T. vaginalis lysate did not. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with a metalloproteinase inhibitor, 1,10-phenanthroline, completely disappeared the mTOR cleavage in SiHa cells. Collectively, T. vaginalis metallopeptidase induces host cell mTOR cleavage, which may be related to survival of the parasite. PMID:25548410

  19. Trophoblast expression of the minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1 is regulated by oxygen and is increased in placentas from preeclamptic women.

    PubMed

    Linscheid, C; Heitmann, E; Singh, P; Wickstrom, E; Qiu, L; Hodes, H; Nauser, T; Petroff, M G

    2015-08-01

    Maternal T-cells reactive towards paternally inherited fetal minor histocompatibility antigens are expanded during pregnancy. Placental trophoblast cells express at least four fetal antigens, including human minor histocompatibility antigen 1 (HA-1). We investigated oxygen as a potential regulator of HA-1 and whether HA-1 expression is altered in preeclamptic placentas. Expression and regulation of HA-1 mRNA and protein were examined by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, using first, second, and third trimester placentas, first trimester placental explant cultures, and term purified cytotrophoblast cells. Low oxygen conditions were achieved by varying ambient oxygen, and were mimicked using cobalt chloride. HA-1 mRNA and protein expression levels were evaluated in preeclamptic and control placentas. HA-1 protein expression was higher in the syncytiotrophoblast of first trimester as compared to second trimester and term placentas (P<0.01). HA-1 mRNA was increased in cobalt chloride-treated placental explants and purified cytotrophoblast cells (P = 0.04 and P<0.01, respectively) and in purified cytotrophoblast cells cultured under 2% as compared to 8% and 21% oxygen (P<0.01). HA-1 mRNA expression in preeclamptic vs. control placentas was increased 3.3-fold (P = 0.015). HA-1 protein expression was increased in syncytial nuclear aggregates and the syncytiotrophoblast of preeclamptic vs. control placentas (P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). Placental HA-1 expression is regulated by oxygen and is increased in the syncytial nuclear aggregates and syncytiotrophoblast of preeclamptic as compared to control placentas. Increased HA-1 expression, combined with increased preeclamptic syncytiotrophoblast deportation, provides a novel potential mechanism for exposure of the maternal immune system to increased fetal antigenic load during preeclampsia. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Novel antigenic shift in HA sequences of H1N1 viruses detected by big data analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruiying; Xu, Chongfeng; Duan, Ziyuan

    2017-07-01

    The influenza virus H1N1 has been prevalent all over the world for nearly a century. Many studies on its evolutionary history, substitution rate and antigenicity-associated sites have been done with small datasets. To have a complete view, we analysed 3171 full-length HA sequences from human H1N1 viruses sampled from 1918 to 2016, and discovered a new clade has formed with sequences isolated in Iran. Based on genetic distance calculations, we revealed an uneven evolutionary rate among sequences isolated in different years. We also found that the HA1 fragment of the new clade is like that of viruses that existed in the 1930s, while the HA2 fragment is closely associated with strains isolated after the 2009 pandemic. This new, "mixed" HA sequence indicates a cryptic antigenic shift event occurred, and it should draw more attention to the new clade identified from sequences from Iran. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Tensile properties of HA 230 and HA 188 after 400 and 2500 hour exposures to LiF-22CaF2 and vacuum at 1093 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The solid-to-liquid phase transformation of the nominal LiF-20CaF2 eutectic at 1043 K is considered to be an ideal candidate thermal energy storage mechanism for a space based low temperature Brayton cycle solar dynamic system. Although Co, Fe, and Ni superalloys are thought to be suitable containment materials for LiF based salts, long term containment is of concern because molten fluorides are usually corrosive and Cr can be lost into space through evaporation. Two examples of commercially available superalloys in sheet form, the Ni-base material HA 230 and the Co-base material Ha 88, have been exposed to molten LiF-22CaF2, its vapor, and vacuum, at 1093 K, for 400 and 2500 hr. Triplicate tensile testing of specimens subjected to all three environments have been undertaken between 77 to 1200 K. Comparison of the weight gain data, microstructure, and tensile properties indicate that little, if any, difference in behavior can be ascribed to the exposure environment.

  2. 7 CFR 1940.335 - Environmental review of FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 proposals for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental review of FmHA or its successor agency... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.335 Environmental review of FmHA or its successor... subpart, all FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 proposals for legislation will receive...

  3. 7 CFR 1940.335 - Environmental review of FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 proposals for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental review of FmHA or its successor agency... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.335 Environmental review of FmHA or its successor... subpart, all FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 proposals for legislation will receive...

  4. Porphyra-334, a mycosporine-like amino acid, attenuates UV-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sung-Suk; Oh, Se Kyung; Lee, Sung Gu; Kim, Il-Chan; Kim, Sanghee

    2017-06-27

    The main aim of the current research was to study the effect of porphyra-334, one of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), well known as UV-absorbing compounds, on UVinduced apoptosis in human immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Due to their UV-screening capacity and ability to prevent UV-induced DNA damage, MAAs have recently attracted considerable attention in both industry and research in pharmacology. Herein, human HaCaT cells were used to determine the biological activities of porphyra- 334 by various in vitro assays, including proliferation, apoptosis and Western blot assays. The proliferation rate of UV-irradiated HaCaT cells was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Pretreatment with porphyra- 334 markedly attenuated the inhibitory effect of UV and induced a dramatic decrease in the apoptotic rate. Expression of active caspase-3 protein was increased in response to UV irradiation, while caspase-3 levels were similar between cells treated with porphyra-334 and the non-irradiated control group. Taken together, our data suggest that porphyra-334 inhibits UV-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells through attenuation of the caspase pathway.

  5. Abnormal MRI in a patient with 'headache with neurological deficits and CSF lymphocytosis (HaNDL)'.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, A; Kaleagasi, H; Dogu, O; Kara, E; Ozge, A

    2010-05-01

    A 27-year-old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department with right upper-extremity numbness and mild weakness followed by a bifrontal throbbing headache for 30 min, which was similar to a headache lasting for 12 h that had occurred 3 days ago. Laboratory tests were unremarkable except for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytic pleocytosis. On the following day, a headache episode with left hemiparesis and hemihypoaesthesia, left hemifield visio-spatial inattention, anosagnosia and confusion recurred. The headache was diagnosed as headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL) syndrome according to the criteria of the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Simultaneously performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed swelling of the grey matter, CSF enhancement in the sulci of the right temporal and occipital regions and hypoperfusion of the same brain regions. During the following 10 days two more similar episodes recurred and during the ensuing 12 months the patient remained headache free. Neuroimaging findings of the HaNDL syndrome are always thought as virtually normal. MRI abnormalities in our patient have not been reported in HaNDL syndrome previously, although they have been reported in hemiplegic migraine patients before. The findings in our case suggest that hemiplegic migraine and HaNDL syndrome may share a common pathophysiological pathway resulting in similar imaging findings and neurological symptoms.

  6. [Preparation of elastic porous cell scaffold fabricated with combined polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and hydroxyapatite (HA)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Lan, Ding; Huang, Yan; Li, Yanming; Wang, Yuren; Sun, Lianwen; Fan, Yubo

    2014-06-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were combined in our laboratory to fabricate an elastic porous cell scaffold with pore-forming agent, and then the scaffold was used as culture media for rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). Different porous materials (square and circular in shape) were prepared by different pore-forming agents (NaCl or paraffin spheres) with adjustable porosity (62%-76%). The HA crystals grew on the wall of hole when the material was exposed to SBF solutions, showing its biocompatibility and ability to support the cells to attach on the materials.

  7. 7 CFR 1901.506 - Book-entry procedure for FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 securities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Book-entry procedure for FmHA or its successor agency... and Insured Notes § 1901.506 Book-entry procedure for FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...) Issue book-entry FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 securities by means of entries on...

  8. Low-molecular-weight hyaluronan (LMW-HA) accelerates lymph node metastasis of melanoma cells by inducing disruption of lymphatic intercellular adhesion.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan; Cao, Manlin; Liu, Yiwen; He, Yiqing; Yang, Cuixia; Wu, Man; Zhang, Guoliang; Gao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial integrity defects initiate lymphatic metastasis of tumor cells. Low-molecular-weight hyaluronan (LMW-HA) derived from plasma and interstitial fluid was reported to be associated with tumor lymphatic metastasis. In addition, LMW-HA was proved to disrupt lymphatic vessel endothelium integrity, thus promoting lymphatic metastasis of tumor cells. Until now, there are few reports on how LMW-HA modulates lymphatic endothelial cells adhesion junctions and affects cancer cells metastasizing into lymph vessels. The aim of our study is to unravel the novel mechanism of LMW-HA in mediating tumor lymphatic metastasis. Here, we employed a melanoma metastasis model to investigate whether LMW-HA facilitates tumor cells transferring from foci to remote lymph nodes by disrupting the lymphatic endothelial integrity. Our data indicate that LMW-HA significantly induces metastasis of melanoma cells to lymph nodes and accelerates interstitial-lymphatic flow in vivo . Further experiments show that increased migration of melanoma cells across human dermal lymphatic endothelial cell (HDLEC) monolayers is accompanied by impaired lymphatic endothelial barrier function and increased permeability. The mechanism study reveals that VE-cadherin-β-catenin pathway and relevant signals are involved in modulating the interactions between endothelial cells and that a significant inhibition of lymphatic endothelium disruption is observed when antibodies to the LMW-HA receptor (LYVE-1) are present. Thus, our findings demonstrate a disruptive effect of LMW-HA on lymphatic endothelium continuity which leads to a promotion on melanoma lymphatic metastasis and also suggest a cellular signaling mechanism associated with VE-cadherin-mediated lymphatic intercellular junctions.

  9. Protective effect of fermented Cyclopia intermedia against UVB-induced damage in HaCaT human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Im, A-Rang; Yeon, Sung Hum; Lee, Jung Seung; Um, Key An; Ahn, Young-Joon; Chae, Sungwook

    2016-07-29

    The fermented leaves and stems of Cyclopia intermedia are used to brew honeybush tea, a herbal tea indigenous to South Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of fermented honeybush extracts (FH ex) and scale-up fermented honeybush extracts (SFH ex) against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced damage in HaCaT keratinocytes. To this end, we examined UVB-induced cell viability, antioxidant enzymes, and inflammatory mediators in HaCaT cells. UVB significantly decreased HaCaT cell viability, whereas FH ex and SFH ex did not exhibit cytotoxic effects and increased the viability of the HaCaT cells. To further investigate the protective effects of FH ex on UVB-induced oxidative stress in HaCaT cells, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), pro-inflammatory cytokines and skin barrier function in terms of involucrin, filaggrin, and loricrin were analyzed. UVB-induced treatment reduced the activity of antioxidant enzymes and skin barrier function, while FH ex or SFH ex increased their activity. These results suggest that FH ex exerted cytoprotective activity against UVB-induced oxidative stress in HaCaT cells through stimulation of antioxidant enzymes activities. Furthermore, FH ex and SFH ex suppressed the UVB-induced expression of inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, at mRNA level together with down regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs). In addition, FH ex and SFH ex reversed the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) induced by UVB-irradiation. Notably, FH ex and SFH ex markedly inhibited UVB-induced activation of ERK, p38, and JNK. Thus, this agent exhibits anti-oxidative and -inflammatory effects via lowering ROS production, suppressing p38, ERK, and JNK activation, and down-regulating expression of MMPs. These findings suggest that FH ex and SFH ex can be used as a skin anti-photoaging agent.

  10. 7 CFR 1955.11 - Conveyance of property to FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 by trustee in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conveyance of property to FmHA or its successor... Real and Chattel Property § 1955.11 Conveyance of property to FmHA or its successor agency under Public... substantial recovery on the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 debt; and (3) FmHA or its...

  11. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - Notice to FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Borrowers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice to FmHA or its successor agency under Public... Part 1951—Notice to FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Borrowers FmHA or its... statements through their local FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 office. [54 FR 10270...

  12. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - Notice to FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Borrowers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Notice to FmHA or its successor agency under Public... Part 1951—Notice to FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Borrowers FmHA or its... statements through their local FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 office. [54 FR 10270...

  13. 7 CFR 1955.11 - Conveyance of property to FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 by trustee in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Conveyance of property to FmHA or its successor agency... Real and Chattel Property § 1955.11 Conveyance of property to FmHA or its successor agency under Public... substantial recovery on the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 debt; and (3) FmHA or its...

  14. Quantitative genetics of circulating Hyaluronic Acid (HA) and its correlation with hand osteoarthritis and obesity-related phenotypes in a community-based sample.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jai; Gabdulina, Gulzhan; Trofimov, Svetlana; Livshits, Gregory

    2017-09-01

    One of the potential molecular biomarkers of osteoarthritis (OA) is hyaluronic acid (HA). HA levels may be related to the severity and progression of OA. However, little is known about the contribution of major risk factors for osteoarthritis, e.g. obesity-related phenotypes and genetics to HA variation. To clarify the quantitative effect of these factors on HA. An ethnically homogeneous sample of 911 apparently healthy European-derived individuals, assessed for radiographic hand osteoarthritis (RHOA), HA, leptin, adiponectin, and several anthropometrical measures of obesity-related phenotypes was studied. Model-based quantitative genetic analysis was used to reveal genetic and shared environmental factors affecting the variation of the study's phenotypes. The HA levels significantly correlated with the age, RHOA, adiponectin, obesity-related phenotypes, and the waist-to-hip ratio. The putative genetic effects contributed significantly to the variation of HA (66.2 ± 9.3%) and they were also significant factors in the variations of all the other studied phenotypes, with the heritability estimate ranging between 0.122 ± 4.4% (WHR) and 45.7 ± 2.2% (joint space narrowing). This is the first study to report heritability estimates of HA variation and its correlation with obesity-related phenotypes, ADP and RHOA. However, the nature of genetic effects on HA and its correlation with other study phenotypes require further clarification.

  15. The novel kinetics expression of Cadmium (II) removal using green adsorbent horse dung humic acid (Hd-Ha)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basuki, Rahmat; Santosa, Sri Juari; Rusdiarso, Bambang

    2017-03-01

    Humic acid from dry horse dung powder has been prepared and this horse dung humic acid (HD-HA) was then applied as a sorbent to adsorb Cadmium(II) from a solution. Characterization of HD-HA was conducted by detection of its functional group, UV-Vis spectra, ash level, and total acidity. Result of the work showed that HD-HA had similar character compared with peat soil humic acid (PS-HA) and previous researchers. The adsorption study of this work was investigated by batch experiment in pH 5. The thermodynamics parameters in this work were determined by the Langmuir isotherm model for monolayer sorption and Freundlich isotherm model multilayer sorption. Monolayer sorption capacity (b) for HD-HA was 1.329 × 10-3 mol g-1, equilibrium constant (K) was 5.651 (mol/L)-1, and multilayer sorption capacity was 2.646 × 10-2 mol g-1. The kinetics parameters investigated in this work were determined by the novel kinetics expression resulted from the mathematical derivation the availability of binding sites of sorbent. Adsorption rate constant (ka) from this novel expression was 43.178 min-1 (mol/L)-1 and desorption rate constant (kd) was 1.250 × 10-2 min-1. Application of the kinetics model on sorption Cd(II) onto HD-HA showed the nearly all of models gave a good linearity. However, only this proposed kinetics expression has good relation with Langmuir model. The novel kinetics expression proposed in this paper seems to be more realistic and reasonable and close to the experimental real condition because the value of ka/kd (3452 (mol/L)-1) was fairly close with K from Langmuir isotherm model (5651 (mol/L)-1). Comparison of this novel kinetics expression with well-known Lagergren pseudo-first order kinetics and Ho pseudo-second order kinetics was also critically discussed in this paper.

  16. In-Depth Analysis of HA and NS1 Genes in A(H1N1)pdm09 Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Caglioti, Claudia; Selleri, Marina; Rozera, Gabriella; Giombini, Emanuela; Zaccaro, Paola; Valli, Maria Beatrice; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    In March/April 2009, a new pandemic influenza A virus (A(H1N1)pdm09) emerged and spread rapidly via human-to-human transmission, giving rise to the first pandemic of the 21th century. Influenza virus may be present in the infected host as a mixture of variants, referred to as quasi-species, on which natural and immune-driven selection operates. Since hemagglutinin (HA) and non-structural 1 (NS1) proteins are relevant in respect of adaptive and innate immune responses, the present study was aimed at establishing the intra-host genetic heterogeneity of HA and NS1 genes, applying ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS) to nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) from patients with confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. The intra-patient nucleotide diversity of HA was significantly higher than that of NS1 (median (IQR): 37.9 (32.8-42.3) X 10-4 vs 30.6 (27.4-33.6) X 10-4 substitutions/site, p = 0.024); no significant correlation for nucleotide diversity of NS1 and HA was observed (r = 0.319, p = 0.29). Furthermore, a strong inverse correlation between nucleotide diversity of NS1 and viral load was observed (r = - 0.74, p = 0.004). For both HA and NS1, the variants appeared scattered along the genes, thus indicating no privileged mutation site. Known polymorphisms, S203T (HA) and I123V (NS1), were observed as dominant variants (>98%) in almost all patients; three HA and two NS1 further variants were observed at frequency >40%; a number of additional variants were detected at frequency <6% (minority variants), of which three HA and four NS1 variants were novel. In few patients multiple variants were observed at HA residues 203 and 222. According to the FLUSURVER tool, some of these variants may affect immune recognition and host range; however, these inferences are based on H5N1, and their extension to A(H1N1)pdm09 requires caution. More studies are necessary to address the significance of the composite nature of influenza virus quasi-species within infected patients.

  17. Antigenicity of the 2015–2016 seasonal H1N1 human influenza virus HA and NA proteins

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Christopher S.; Wang, Jiong; Yang, Hongmei; Nogales, Aitor; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Zand, Martin S.; Sangster, Mark Y.; Topham, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Antigenic drift of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) influenza virus proteins contributes to reduced vaccine efficacy. To analyze antigenic drift in human seasonal H1N1 viruses derived from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (pH1N1-like viruses) accounts for the limited effectiveness (around 40%) of vaccination against pH1N1-like viruses during the 2015–2016 season, nasal washes/swabs collected from adult subjects in the Rochester, NY area, were used to sequence and isolate the circulating viruses. The HA and NA proteins from viruses circulating during the 2015–2016 season encoded eighteen and fourteen amino acid differences, respectively, when compared to A/California/04/2009, a strain circulating at the origin of the 2009 pandemic. The circulating strains belonged to subclade 6B.1, defined by HA amino acid substitutions S101N, S179N, and I233T. Hemagglutination-inhibiting (HAI) and HA-specific neutralizing serum antibody (Ab) titers from around 50% of pH1N1-like virus-infected subjects and immune ferrets were 2–4 fold lower for the 2015–2016 circulating strains compared to the vaccine strain. In addition, using a luminex-based mPlex HA assay, the binding of human sera from subjects infected with pH1N1-like viruses to the HA proteins from circulating and vaccine strains was not identical, strongly suggesting antigenic differences in the HA protein. Additionally, NA inhibition (NAI) Ab titers in human sera from pH1N1-like virus-infected subjects increased after the infection and there were measurable antigenic differences between the NA protein of circulating strains and the vaccine strain using both ferret and human antisera. Despite having been vaccinated, infected subjects exhibited low HAI Ab titers against the vaccine and circulating strains. This suggests that poor responses to the H1N1 component of the vaccine as well as antigenic differences in the HA and NA proteins of currently circulating pH1N1-like viruses could be contributing to risk of

  18. SigmaPlot 2000, Version 6.00, SPSS Inc. Computer Software Test Plan

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    HURLBUT, S.T.

    2000-10-24

    SigmaPlot is a vendor software product used in conjunction with the supercritical fluid extraction Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (SFE-FTIR) system. This product converts the raw spectral data to useful area numbers. SigmaPlot will be used in conjunction with procedure ZA-565-301, ''Determination of Moisture by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Infrared Detection.'' This test plan will be performed in conjunction with or prior to HNF-6936, ''HA-53 Supercritical Fluid Extraction System Acceptance Test Plan'', to perform analyses for water. The test will ensure that the software can be installed properly and will manipulate the analytical data correctly.

  19. Effect of gamma radiation and accelerated aging on the mechanical and thermal behavior of HDPE/HA nano-composites for bone tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The replacement of hard tissues demands biocompatible and sometimes bioactive materials with properties similar to those of bone. Nano-composites made of biocompatible polymers and bioactive inorganic nano particles such as HDPE/HA have attracted attention as permanent bone substitutes due to their excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Method The HDPE/HA nano-composite is prepared using melt blending at different HA loading ratios. For evaluation of the degradation by radiation, gamma rays of 35 kGy, and 70 kGy were used to irradiate the samples at room temperature in vacuum. The effects of accelerated ageing after gamma irradiation on morphological, mechanical and thermal properties of HDPE/HA nano-composites were measured. Results In Vitro test results showed that the HDPE and all HDPE/HA nano-composites do not exhibit any cytotoxicity to WISH cell line. The results also indicated that the tensile properties of HDPE/HA nano-composite increased with increasing the HA content except fracture strain decreased. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results showed that the storage and loss moduli increased with increasing the HA ratio and the testing frequency. Finally, it is remarked that all properties of HDPE/HA is dependent on the irradiation dose and accelerated aging. Conclusion Based on the experimental results, it is found that the addition of 10%, 20% and 30% HA increases the HDPE stiffness by 23%, 44 and 59% respectively. At the same time, the G’ increased from 2.25E11 MPa for neat HDPE to 4.7E11 MPa when 30% HA was added to the polymer matrix. Also, significant improvements in these properties have been observed due to irradiation. Finally, the overall properties of HDPE and its nano-composite properties significantly decreased due to aging and should be taken into consideration in the design of bone substitutes. It is attributed that the developed HDPE/HA nano-composites could be a good alternative material for bone tissue

  20. Effect of gamma radiation and accelerated aging on the mechanical and thermal behavior of HDPE/HA nano-composites for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Alothman, Othman Y; Almajhdi, Fahad N; Fouad, H

    2013-09-24

    The replacement of hard tissues demands biocompatible and sometimes bioactive materials with properties similar to those of bone. Nano-composites made of biocompatible polymers and bioactive inorganic nano particles such as HDPE/HA have attracted attention as permanent bone substitutes due to their excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. The HDPE/HA nano-composite is prepared using melt blending at different HA loading ratios. For evaluation of the degradation by radiation, gamma rays of 35 kGy, and 70 kGy were used to irradiate the samples at room temperature in vacuum. The effects of accelerated ageing after gamma irradiation on morphological, mechanical and thermal properties of HDPE/HA nano-composites were measured. In Vitro test results showed that the HDPE and all HDPE/HA nano-composites do not exhibit any cytotoxicity to WISH cell line. The results also indicated that the tensile properties of HDPE/HA nano-composite increased with increasing the HA content except fracture strain decreased. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results showed that the storage and loss moduli increased with increasing the HA ratio and the testing frequency. Finally, it is remarked that all properties of HDPE/HA is dependent on the irradiation dose and accelerated aging. Based on the experimental results, it is found that the addition of 10%, 20% and 30% HA increases the HDPE stiffness by 23%, 44 and 59% respectively. At the same time, the G' increased from 2.25E11 MPa for neat HDPE to 4.7E11 MPa when 30% HA was added to the polymer matrix. Also, significant improvements in these properties have been observed due to irradiation. Finally, the overall properties of HDPE and its nano-composite properties significantly decreased due to aging and should be taken into consideration in the design of bone substitutes. It is attributed that the developed HDPE/HA nano-composites could be a good alternative material for bone tissue regeneration due to their acceptable

  1. Superconductivity in Pristine 2 Ha-MoS2 at Ultrahigh Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Zhenhua; Chen, Xuliang; Yen, Fei; Peng, Feng; Zhou, Yonghui; Zhu, Jinlong; Zhang, Yijin; Liu, Xiaodi; Lin, Chuanlong; Chu, Shengqi; Li, Yanchun; Zhao, Jinggeng; Kagayama, Tomoko; Ma, Yanming; Yang, Zhaorong

    2018-01-01

    As a follow-up of our previous work on pressure-induced metallization of the 2 Hc-MoS2 [Chi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 036802 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.036802], here we extend pressure beyond the megabar range to seek after superconductivity via electrical transport measurements. We found that superconductivity emerges in the 2 Ha-MoS2 with an onset critical temperature Tc of ca. 3 K at ca. 90 GPa. Upon further increasing the pressure, Tc is rapidly enhanced beyond 10 K and stabilized at ca. 12 K over a wide pressure range up to 220 GPa. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements evidenced no further structural phase transition, decomposition, and amorphization up to 155 GPa, implying an intrinsic superconductivity in the 2 Ha-MoS2 . DFT calculations suggest that the emergence of pressure-induced superconductivity is intimately linked to the emergence of a new flat Fermi pocket in the electronic structure. Our finding represents an alternative strategy for achieving superconductivity in 2 H -MoS2 in addition to chemical intercalation and electrostatic gating.

  2. Primer development to obtain complete coding sequence of HA and NA genes of influenza A/H3N2 virus.

    PubMed

    Agustiningsih, Agustiningsih; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; Setiawaty, Vivi; Artika, I Made; Muljono, David Handojo

    2016-08-30

    Influenza is an acute respiratory illness and has become a serious public health problem worldwide. The need to study the HA and NA genes in influenza A virus is essential since these genes frequently undergo mutations. This study describes the development of primer sets for RT-PCR to obtain complete coding sequence of Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA) genes of influenza A/H3N2 virus from Indonesia. The primers were developed based on influenza A/H3N2 sequence worldwide from Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) and further tested using Indonesian influenza A/H3N2 archived samples of influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance from 2008 to 2009. An optimum RT-PCR condition was acquired for all HA and NA fragments designed to cover complete coding sequence of HA and NA genes. A total of 71 samples were successfully sequenced for complete coding sequence both of HA and NA genes out of 145 samples of influenza A/H3N2 tested. The developed primer sets were suitable for obtaining complete coding sequences of HA and NA genes of Indonesian samples from 2008 to 2009.

  3. Enhanced humoural and cellular immune responses to influenza H7N9 antigen HA1-2 fused with flagellin in chickens.

    PubMed

    Song, Li; Xiong, Dan; Hu, Maozhi; Kang, Xilong; Pan, Zhiming; Jiao, Xinan

    2017-06-21

    Sudden increases in the number of human A (H7N9) cases reported during December and January have been observed in previous years. Most reported infection cases are due to prior exposure to live poultry or potentially contaminated environments. Low pathogenicity of influenza A (H7N9) virus in avian species complicates timely discovery of infected birds. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safe and effective anti-H7N9 vaccines for poultry to reduce the risk of human infection and prevent the emergence of novel mutated strains. In addition to a good antigen, an effective vaccine also requires an appropriate adjuvant to enhance its immunogenicity. Previously, we generated an H7N9 influenza recombinant subunit vaccine (HA1-2-fliC), in which haemagglutinin globular head domain (HA1-2) was fused with flagellin (fliC), a potent TLR5 ligand, and demonstrated that HA1-2-fliC elicited effective HA1-2-specific immune responses in mice. In this study, we determined flagellin-induced expression profiles of cytokines and chemokines in different types of avian immune cells in vitro and ex vivo. We found that flagellin significantly increased the expression levels of CXCL inflammatory chemokines (CXCLi1 and CXCLi2) and CCL chemokines (MIP-1β and MCP-3) in avian macrophage HD11 cells. In addition, HA1-2-fliC induced significant upregulation of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18 and IFN-γ) and chemokines (CXCLi1, CXCLi2 and MIP-1β) in ex vivo splenic lymphocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), suggesting that flagellin promoted immune responses of avian cells in vitro. We also evaluated specific humoural and cellular immune responses induced by HA1-2-fliC and found that chickens immunised intramuscularly with HA1-2-fliC showed significantly higher HA1-2-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G titers in serum. Furthermore, HA1-2-fliC potentiated cellular immune responses, as reflected by an increase in CD4 + and CD8 + T cells and proliferation of PBMCs. Significantly

  4. Comparison between PCL/hydroxyapatite (HA) and PCL/halloysite nanotube (HNT) composite scaffolds prepared by co-extrusion and gas foaming.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xin; Mi, Hao-Yang; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2017-03-01

    In this work, three-dimensional poly(caprolactone) (PCL) tissue engineering scaffolds were prepared by co-extrusion and gas foaming. Biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HA) and halloysite nanotubes (HNT) were added to the polymer matrix to enhance the mechanical properties and bioactivity of the composite scaffolds. The effects of HA and HNT on the rheological behavior, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds were systematically compared. It was found that the HNT improved viscosity more significantly than HA, and reduced the pore size of scaffolds, while the mechanical performance of PCL/HNT scaffolds was higher than PCL/HA scaffolds with the same filler content. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were used as the cell model to compare the biological properties of two composite scaffolds. The results demonstrated that cells could survive on all scaffolds, and showed a more flourishing living state on the composite scaffolds. The cell differentiation for 5% HA and 1% HNT scaffolds were significantly higher than other scaffolds, while the differentiation of 5% HNT scaffolds was lower than that of 1% HNT scaffolds mainly because of the reduced pore size and pore interconnectivity. Therefore, this study suggested that, with proper filler content and control of microstructure through processing, HNT could be a suitable substitute for HA for bone tissue engineering to reduce the cost and improve mechanical performance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Protective effects of Korean red ginseng against radiation-induced apoptosis in human HaCaT keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jae Won; Park, Keun Hyung; HWANG, Hye Sook; Shin, Yoo Seob; Oh, Young-Taek; Kim, Chul-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced oral mucositis is a dose-limiting toxic side effect for patients with head and neck cancer. Numerous attempts at improving radiation-induced oral mucositis have not produced a qualified treatment. Ginseng polysaccharide has multiple immunoprotective effects. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of Korean red ginseng (KRG) on radiation-induced damage in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT and in an in vivo zebrafish model. Radiation inhibited HaCaT cell proliferation and migration in a cell viability assay and wound healing assay, respectively. KRG protected against these effects. KRG attenuated the radiation-induced embryotoxicity in the zebrafish model. Irradiation of HaCaT cells caused apoptosis and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). KRG inhibited the radiation-induced apoptosis and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and stabilized the radiation-induced loss of MMP. Western blots revealed KRG-mediated reduced expression of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM), p53, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and cleaved caspase-3, compared with their significant increase after radiation treatment. The collective results suggest that KRG protects HaCaT cells by blocking ROS generation, inhibiting changes in MMP, and inhibiting the caspase, ATM, p38 and JNK pathways. PMID:24078877

  6. Protective effects of Korean red ginseng against radiation-induced apoptosis in human HaCaT keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jae Won; Park, Keun Hyung; Hwang, Hye Sook; Shin, Yoo Seob; Oh, Young-Taek; Kim, Chul-Ho

    2014-03-01

    Radiation-induced oral mucositis is a dose-limiting toxic side effect for patients with head and neck cancer. Numerous attempts at improving radiation-induced oral mucositis have not produced a qualified treatment. Ginseng polysaccharide has multiple immunoprotective effects. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of Korean red ginseng (KRG) on radiation-induced damage in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT and in an in vivo zebrafish model. Radiation inhibited HaCaT cell proliferation and migration in a cell viability assay and wound healing assay, respectively. KRG protected against these effects. KRG attenuated the radiation-induced embryotoxicity in the zebrafish model. Irradiation of HaCaT cells caused apoptosis and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). KRG inhibited the radiation-induced apoptosis and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and stabilized the radiation-induced loss of MMP. Western blots revealed KRG-mediated reduced expression of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM), p53, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and cleaved caspase-3, compared with their significant increase after radiation treatment. The collective results suggest that KRG protects HaCaT cells by blocking ROS generation, inhibiting changes in MMP, and inhibiting the caspase, ATM, p38 and JNK pathways.

  7. Crystal structure of the receptor-binding domain of botulinum neurotoxin type HA, also known as type FA or H

    DOE PAGES

    Yao, Guorui; Lam, Kwok-ho; Perry, Kay; ...

    2017-03-08

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which have been exploited as cosmetics and muscle-disorder treatment medicines for decades, are well known for their extreme neurotoxicity to humans. They pose a potential bioterrorism threat because they cause botulism, a flaccid muscular paralysis-associated disease that requires immediate antitoxin treatment and intensive care over a long period of time. In addition to the existing seven established BoNT serotypes (BoNT/A–G), a new mosaic toxin type termed BoNT/HA (aka type FA or H) was reported recently. Sequence analyses indicate that the receptor-binding domain (HC) of BoNT/HA is ~84% identical to that of BoNT/A1. However, BoNT/HA responds differently tomore » some potent BoNT/A-neutralizing antibodies (e.g., CR2) that target the HC. Therefore, it raises a serious concern as to whether BoNT/HA poses a new threat to our biosecurity. In this study, we report the first high-resolution crystal structure of BoNT/HA-HC at 1.8 Å. Sequence and structure analyses reveal that BoNT/HA and BoNT/A1 are different regarding their binding to cell-surface receptors including both polysialoganglioside (PSG) and synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2). Furthermore, the new structure also provides explanations for the ~540-fold decreased affinity of antibody CR2 towards BoNT/HA compared to BoNT/A1. Altogether, these new findings advance our understanding of the structure and function of this newly identified toxin at the molecular level, and pave the way for the future development of more effective countermeasures.« less

  8. Crystal Structure of the Receptor-Binding Domain of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type HA, Also Known as Type FA or H.

    PubMed

    Yao, Guorui; Lam, Kwok-Ho; Perry, Kay; Weisemann, Jasmin; Rummel, Andreas; Jin, Rongsheng

    2017-03-08

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which have been exploited as cosmetics and muscle-disorder treatment medicines for decades, are well known for their extreme neurotoxicity to humans. They pose a potential bioterrorism threat because they cause botulism, a flaccid muscular paralysis-associated disease that requires immediate antitoxin treatment and intensive care over a long period of time. In addition to the existing seven established BoNT serotypes (BoNT/A-G), a new mosaic toxin type termed BoNT/HA (aka type FA or H) was reported recently. Sequence analyses indicate that the receptor-binding domain (H C ) of BoNT/HA is ~84% identical to that of BoNT/A1. However, BoNT/HA responds differently to some potent BoNT/A-neutralizing antibodies (e.g., CR2) that target the H C . Therefore, it raises a serious concern as to whether BoNT/HA poses a new threat to our biosecurity. In this study, we report the first high-resolution crystal structure of BoNT/HA-H C at 1.8 Å. Sequence and structure analyses reveal that BoNT/HA and BoNT/A1 are different regarding their binding to cell-surface receptors including both polysialoganglioside (PSG) and synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2). Furthermore, the new structure also provides explanations for the ~540-fold decreased affinity of antibody CR2 towards BoNT/HA compared to BoNT/A1. Taken together, these new findings advance our understanding of the structure and function of this newly identified toxin at the molecular level, and pave the way for the future development of more effective countermeasures.

  9. Crystal structure of the receptor-binding domain of botulinum neurotoxin type HA, also known as type FA or H

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yao, Guorui; Lam, Kwok-ho; Perry, Kay

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which have been exploited as cosmetics and muscle-disorder treatment medicines for decades, are well known for their extreme neurotoxicity to humans. They pose a potential bioterrorism threat because they cause botulism, a flaccid muscular paralysis-associated disease that requires immediate antitoxin treatment and intensive care over a long period of time. In addition to the existing seven established BoNT serotypes (BoNT/A–G), a new mosaic toxin type termed BoNT/HA (aka type FA or H) was reported recently. Sequence analyses indicate that the receptor-binding domain (HC) of BoNT/HA is ~84% identical to that of BoNT/A1. However, BoNT/HA responds differently tomore » some potent BoNT/A-neutralizing antibodies (e.g., CR2) that target the HC. Therefore, it raises a serious concern as to whether BoNT/HA poses a new threat to our biosecurity. In this study, we report the first high-resolution crystal structure of BoNT/HA-HC at 1.8 Å. Sequence and structure analyses reveal that BoNT/HA and BoNT/A1 are different regarding their binding to cell-surface receptors including both polysialoganglioside (PSG) and synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2). Furthermore, the new structure also provides explanations for the ~540-fold decreased affinity of antibody CR2 towards BoNT/HA compared to BoNT/A1. Altogether, these new findings advance our understanding of the structure and function of this newly identified toxin at the molecular level, and pave the way for the future development of more effective countermeasures.« less

  10. Physico-Mechanical Properties of HA/TCP Pellets and Their Three-Dimensional Biological Evaluation In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Kamalaldin, Nurulain 'Atikah; Jaafar, Mariatti; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham

    2018-01-04

    The use of bioceramics, especially the combination of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), as a three-dimensional scaffold in bone engineering is essential because together these elements constitute 60% of the bone content. Different ratios of HA and β-TCP were previously tested for their ability to produce suitable bioceramic scaffolds, which must be able to withstand high mechanical load. In this study, two ratios of HA/TCP (20:80 and 70:30) were used to create pellets, which then were evaluated in vitro to identify any adverse effects of using the material in bone grafting. Diametral tensile strength (DTS) and density testing was conducted to assess the mechanical strength and porosity of the pellets. The pellets then were tested for their toxicity to normal human fibroblast cells. In the toxicity assay, cells were incubated with the pellets for 3 days. At the end of the experiment, cell morphological changes were assessed, and the absorbance was read using PrestoBlue Cell Viability Reagent™. An inversely proportional relationship between DTS and porosity percentage was detected. Fibroblasts showed normal cell morphology in both treatments, which suggests that the HA/TCP pellets were not toxic. In the osteoblast cell attachment assay, cells were able to attach to the surface of both ratios, but cells were also able to penetrate inside the scaffold of the 70:30 pellets. This finding suggests that the 70:30 ratio had better osteoconduction properties than the 20:80 ratio.

  11. Hyperactivation of Ha-ras oncogene, but not Ink4a/Arf deficiency, triggers bladder tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Lan; Zheng, Xiaoyong; Huang, Hong-Ying; Shapiro, Ellen; Lepor, Herbert; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Sun, Tung-Tien; Wu, Xue-Ru

    2007-01-01

    Although ras is a potent mitogenic oncogene, its tumorigenicity depends on cellular context and cooperative events. Here we show that low-level expression of a constitutively active Ha-ras in mouse urothelium induces simple urothelial hyperplasia that is resistant to progression to full-fledged bladder tumors even in the absence of Ink4a/Arf. In stark contrast, doubling of the gene dosage of the activated Ha-ras triggered early-onset, rapidly growing, and 100% penetrant tumors throughout the urinary tract. Tumor initiation required superseding a rate-limiting step between simple and nodular hyperplasia, the latter of which is marked by the emergence of mesenchymal components and the coactivation of AKT and STAT pathways as well as PTEN inactivation. These results indicate that overactivation of Ha-ras is both necessary and sufficient to induce bladder tumors along a low-grade, noninvasive papillary pathway, and they shed light on the recent findings that ras activation, via point mutation, overexpression, or intensified signaling from FGF receptor 3, occurs in 70%–90% of these tumors in humans. Our results highlight the critical importance of the dosage/strength of Ha-ras activation in dictating its tumorigenicity — a mechanism of oncogene activation not fully appreciated to date. Finally, our results have clinical implications, as inhibiting ras and/or its downstream effectors, such as AKT and STAT3/5, could provide alternative means to treat low-grade, superficial papillary bladder tumors, the most common tumor in the urinary system. PMID:17256055

  12. Cancer incidence patterns among Vietnamese in the United States and Ha Noi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Gem M; Gomez, Scarlett L; Clarke, Christina A; Glaser, Sally L; West, Dee W

    2002-12-01

    Nearly 600,000 persons have immigrated to the United States from Vietnam since the end of the Vietnam War. Despite the rapid growth of the U.S. Vietnamese population, little is known about cancer incidence in this migrant group. Using population-based data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program, California Cancer Registry and International Agency for Research on Cancer, we compared cancer incidence rates for Vietnamese in the United States (1988-1992) to rates for residents of Ha Noi, Vietnam (1991-1993); non-Hispanic whites were included to serve as the U.S. reference rates. Lung and breast cancers were the most common among Vietnamese males and females, respectively, regardless of geographic region. Rates of cancers more common to U.S. whites, such as breast, prostate and colon cancers, were elevated for U.S. Vietnamese compared to residents in Ha Noi but still lower than rates for U.S. whites. Rates of cancers more common to Asian countries, such as stomach, liver, lung and cervical cancers, were likewise elevated for U.S. Vietnamese compared to residents of Ha Noi and exceeded corresponding rates for whites. Incidence patterns for stomach, liver, lung and cervical cancers may reflect increased risk of exposures in this migrant population and should be further explored to uncover the relative contributions of environmental and genetic factors to cancer etiology. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Analysis of the kinetics of P+ HA- recombination in membrane-embedded wild-type and mutant Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction centers between 298 and 77 K indicates that the adjacent negatively charged QA ubiquinone modulates the free energy of P+ HA- and may influence the rate of the protein dielectric response.

    PubMed

    Gibasiewicz, Krzysztof; Pajzderska, Maria; Dobek, Andrzej; Brettel, Klaus; Jones, Michael R

    2013-09-26

    Time-resolved spectroscopic studies of recombination of the P(+)HA(-) radical pair in photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides give an opportunity to study protein dynamics triggered by light and occurring over the lifetime of P(+)HA(-). The state P(+)HA(-) is formed after the ultrafast light-induced electron transfer from the primary donor pair of bacteriochlorophylls (P) to the acceptor bacteriopheophytin (HA). In order to increase the lifetime of this state, and thus increase the temporal window for the examination of protein dynamics, it is possible to block forward electron transfer from HA(-) to the secondary electron acceptor QA. In this contribution, the dynamics of P(+)HA(-) recombination were compared at a range of temperatures from 77 K to room temperature, electron transfer from HA(-) to QA being blocked either by prereduction of QA or by genetic removal of QA. The observed P(+)HA(-) charge recombination was significantly slower in the QA-deficient RCs, and in both types of complexes, lowering the temperature from RT to 77 K led to a slowing of charge recombination. The effects are explained in the frame of a model in which charge recombination occurs via competing pathways, one of which is thermally activated and includes transient formation of a higher-energy state, P(+)BA(-). An internal electrostatic field supplied by the negative charge on QA increases the free energy levels of the state P(+)HA(-), thus decreasing its energetic distance to the state P(+)BA(-). In addition, the dielectric response of the protein environment to the appearance of the state P(+)HA(-) is accelerated from ∼50-100 ns in the QA-deficient mutant RCs to ∼1-16 ns in WT RCs with a negatively charged QA(-). In both cases, the temperature dependence of the protein dynamics is weak.

  14. The sunflower transcription factor HaHB11 confers tolerance to water deficit and salinity to transgenic Arabidopsis and alfalfa plants.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Julieta V; Giacomelli, Jorge I; Gómez, María C; Chan, Raquel L

    2017-09-10

    Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factors are unique to the plant kingdom; members of subfamily I are known to be involved in abiotic stress responses. HaHB11 belongs to this subfamily and it was previously shown that it is able to confer improved yield and tolerance to flooding via a quiescent strategy. Here we show that HaHB11 expression is induced by ABA, NaCl and water deficit in sunflower seedlings and leaves. Arabidopsis transgenic plants expressing HaHB11, controlled either by its own promoter or by the constitutive 35S CaMV, presented rolled leaves and longer roots than WT when grown under standard conditions. In addition, these plants showed wider stems and more vascular bundles. To deal with drought, HaHB11 transgenic plants closed their stomata faster and lost less water than controls, triggering an enhanced tolerance to such stress condition and also to salinity stress. Concomitantly, ABA-synthesis and sensing related genes were differentially regulated in HaHB11 transgenic plants. Either under long-term salinity stress or mild drought stress, HaHB11 transgenic plants did not exhibit yield penalties. Moreover, alfalfa transgenic plants were generated which also showed enhanced drought tolerance. Altogether, the results indicated that HaHB11 was able to confer drought and salinity tolerance via a complex mechanism which involves morphological, physiological and molecular changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Dentinogenic Efficacy of Human Dental Pulp-Derived Cells Induced by Demineralized Dentin Matrix and HA-TCP.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung-Jung; Lee, Min Suk; Moon, Chan-Woong; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Yang, Hee Seok; Jang, Young-Joo

    2017-01-01

    Human dental pulp cells have been known to have the stem cell features such as self-renewal and multipotency. These cells are differentiated into hard tissue by addition of proper cytokines and biomaterials. Hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphates (HA-TCPs) are essential components of hard tissue and generally used as a biocompatible material in tissue engineering of bone. Demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) has been reported to increase efficiency of bone induction. We compared the efficiencies of osteogenic differentiation and in vivo bone formation of HA-TCP and DDM on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). DDM contains inorganic components as with HA-TCP, and organic components such as collagen type-1. Due to these components, osteoinduction potential of DDM on hDPSCs was remarkably higher than that of HA-TCP. However, the efficiencies of in vivo bone formation are similar in HA-TCP and DDM. Although osteogenic gene expression and bone formation in immunocompromised nude mice were similar levels in both cases, dentinogenic gene expression level was slightly higher in DDM transplantation than in HA-TCP. All these results suggested that in vivo osteogenic potentials in hDPSCs are induced with both HA-TCP and DDM by osteoconduction and osteoinduction, respectively. In addition, transplantation of hDPSCs/DDM might be more effective for differentiation into dentin.

  16. Treatment Planning and Delivery of Whole Brain Irradiation with Hippocampal Avoidance in Rats.

    PubMed

    Cramer, C K; Yoon, S W; Reinsvold, M; Joo, K M; Norris, H; Hood, R C; Adamson, J D; Klein, R C; Kirsch, D G; Oldham, M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the clinical benefit of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), patients and physicians are concerned by the long-term impact on cognitive functioning. Many studies investigating the molecular and cellular impact of WBRT have used rodent models. However, there has not been a rodent protocol comparable to the recently reported Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol for WBRT with hippocampal avoidance (HA) which is intended to spare cognitive function. The aim of this study was to develop a hippocampal-sparing WBRT protocol in Wistar rats. The technical and clinical challenges encountered in hippocampal sparing during rat WBRT are substantial. Three key challenges were identified: hippocampal localization, treatment planning, and treatment localization. Hippocampal localization was achieved with sophisticated imaging techniques requiring deformable registration of a rat MRI atlas with a high resolution MRI followed by fusion via rigid registration to a CBCT. Treatment planning employed a Monte Carlo dose calculation in SmART-Plan and creation of 0.5 cm thick lead blocks custom-shaped to match DRR projections. Treatment localization necessitated the on-board image-guidance capability of the XRAD C225Cx micro-CT/micro-irradiator (Precision X-Ray). Treatment was accomplished with opposed lateral fields with 225 KVp X-rays at a current of 13 mA filtered through 0.3 mm of copper using a 40x40 mm square collimator and the lead blocks. A single fraction of 4 Gy was delivered (2 Gy per lateral field) with a 41 second beam on time per field at a dose rate of 304.5 cGy/min. Dosimetric verification of hippocampal sparing was performed using radiochromic film. In vivo verification of HA was performed after delivery of a single 4 Gy fraction either with or without HA using γ-H2Ax staining of tissue sections from the brain to quantify the amount of DNA damage in rats treated with HA, WBRT, or sham-irradiated (negative controls). The mean dose delivered to radiochromic

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite-Collagen-Chitosan (HA/Col/Chi) Composite Coated on Ti6Al4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlena; Bikharudin, Ahmad; Wahyudi, Setyanto Tri

    2018-01-01

    HA-collagen-chitosan (HA/col/chi) composite is developed to increase bioactivity adhesiveness between the metal and the material composite and to improve corrosion resistance. The Ti6Al4V alloy was coated by soaking in HA/col/chi composite at room temperature and then allowed to stand for 5, 6, and 7 days. Diffraction pattern analysis of the coated Ti6Al4V alloy showed that the dominant phase were HA and Ti6Al4V alloy. Corrosion resistance test in media by using 0.9% NaCl showed the corrosion rate at the level of 0.3567 mpy, which was better than that of the uncoated Ti6Al4V alloy (0.4152 mpy). In vitro cytocompatibility assay on endothelial cell of calf pulmonary artery endothelium (CPAE) (ATCC-CCL 209) showed there was no toxicity in the cell culture with the percent inhibition of 33.33% after 72 hours of incubation.

  18. Effect of mitomycin on normal dermal fibroblast and HaCat cell: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao-wen; Ren, Ji-hao; Xia, Kun; Wang, Shu-hui; Yin, Tuan-fang; Xie, Ding-hua; Li, Li-hua

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of mitomycin on the growth of human dermal fibroblast and immortalized human keratinocyte line (HaCat cell), particularly the effect of mitomycin on intracellular messenger RNA (mRNA) synthesis of collagen and growth factors of fibroblast. Methods: The normal dermal fibroblast and HaCat cell were cultured in vitro. Cell cultures were exposed to 0.4 and 0.04 mg/ml of mitomycin solution, and serum-free culture medium was used as control. The cellular morphology change, growth characteristics, cell proliferation, and apoptosis were observed at different intervals. For the fibroblasts, the mRNA expression changes of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), procollagen I, and III were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: The cultured normal human skin fibroblast and HaCat cell grew exponentially. A 5-min exposure to mitomycin at either 0.4 or 0.04 mg/ml caused marked dose-dependent cell proliferation inhibition on both fibroblasts and HaCat cells. Cell morphology changed, cell density decreased, and the growth curves were without an exponential phase. The fibroblast proliferated on the 5th day after the 5-min exposure of mitomycin at 0.04 mg/ml. Meanwhile, 5-min application of mitomycin at either 0.04 or 0.4 mg/ml induced fibroblast apoptosis but not necrosis. The apoptosis rate of the fibroblast increased with a higher concentration of mytomycin (p<0.05). A 5-min exposure to mitomycin at 0.4 mg/ml resulted in a marked decrease in the mRNA production of TGF-β1, procollagen I and III, and a marked increase in the mRNA production of bFGF. Conclusions: Mitomycin can inhibit fibroblast proliferation, induce fibroblast apoptosis, and regulate intracellular protein expression on mRNA levels. In additon, mitomycin can inhibit HaCat cell proliferation, so epithelial cell needs more protecting to avoid mitomycin’s side effect when it is applied clinically. PMID

  19. Influenza HA subtypes demonstrate divergent phenotypes for cleavage activation and pH of fusion: implications for host range and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Summer E; Reed, Mark L; Russell, Charles J; Steinhauer, David A

    2013-02-01

    The influenza A virus (IAV) HA protein must be activated by host cells proteases in order to prime the molecule for fusion. Consequently, the availability of activating proteases and the susceptibility of HA to protease activity represents key factors in facilitating virus infection. As such, understanding the intricacies of HA cleavage by various proteases is necessary to derive insights into the emergence of pandemic viruses. To examine these properties, we generated a panel of HAs that are representative of the 16 HA subtypes that circulate in aquatic birds, as well as HAs representative of the subtypes that have infected the human population over the last century. We examined the susceptibility of the panel of HA proteins to trypsin, as well as human airway trypsin-like protease (HAT) and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2). Additionally, we examined the pH at which these HAs mediated membrane fusion, as this property is related to the stability of the HA molecule and influences the capacity of influenza viruses to remain infectious in natural environments. Our results show that cleavage efficiency can vary significantly for individual HAs, depending on the protease, and that some HA subtypes display stringent selectivity for specific proteases as activators of fusion function. Additionally, we found that the pH of fusion varies by 0.7 pH units among the subtypes, and notably, we observed that the pH of fusion for most HAs from human isolates was lower than that observed from avian isolates of the same subtype. Overall, these data provide the first broad-spectrum analysis of cleavage-activation and membrane fusion characteristics for all of the IAV HA subtypes, and also show that there are substantial differences between the subtypes that may influence transmission among hosts and establishment in new species.

  20. Influenza HA Subtypes Demonstrate Divergent Phenotypes for Cleavage Activation and pH of Fusion: Implications for Host Range and Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Summer E.; Reed, Mark L.; Russell, Charles J.; Steinhauer, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The influenza A virus (IAV) HA protein must be activated by host cells proteases in order to prime the molecule for fusion. Consequently, the availability of activating proteases and the susceptibility of HA to protease activity represents key factors in facilitating virus infection. As such, understanding the intricacies of HA cleavage by various proteases is necessary to derive insights into the emergence of pandemic viruses. To examine these properties, we generated a panel of HAs that are representative of the 16 HA subtypes that circulate in aquatic birds, as well as HAs representative of the subtypes that have infected the human population over the last century. We examined the susceptibility of the panel of HA proteins to trypsin, as well as human airway trypsin-like protease (HAT) and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2). Additionally, we examined the pH at which these HAs mediated membrane fusion, as this property is related to the stability of the HA molecule and influences the capacity of influenza viruses to remain infectious in natural environments. Our results show that cleavage efficiency can vary significantly for individual HAs, depending on the protease, and that some HA subtypes display stringent selectivity for specific proteases as activators of fusion function. Additionally, we found that the pH of fusion varies by 0.7 pH units among the subtypes, and notably, we observed that the pH of fusion for most HAs from human isolates was lower than that observed from avian isolates of the same subtype. Overall, these data provide the first broad-spectrum analysis of cleavage-activation and membrane fusion characteristics for all of the IAV HA subtypes, and also show that there are substantial differences between the subtypes that may influence transmission among hosts and establishment in new species. PMID:23459660

  1. Wear Behavior of Plasma Spray Deposited and Post Heat-Treated Hydroxyapatite (HA)-Based Composite Coating on Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Renu; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

    2018-04-01

    The present study concerns a detailed evaluation of wear resistance property of plasma spray deposited composite hydroxyapatite (HA)-based (HA-50 wt pct TiO2 and HA-10 wt pct ZrO2) bioactive coatings developed on Ti-6Al-4V substrate and studying the effect of heat treatment on it. Heat treatment of plasma spray deposited samples has been carried out at 650 °C for 2 hours (for HA-50 wt pct TiO2 coating) and at 750 °C for 2 hours (for HA-10 wt pct ZrO2 coating). There is significant deterioration in wear resistance for HA-50 wt pctTiO2 coating and a marginal deterioration in wear resistance for HA-10 wt pct ZrO2 coating in as-sprayed state (as compared to as-received Ti-6Al-4V) which is, however, improved after heat treatment. The coefficient of friction is marginally increased for both HA-50 wt pct TiO2 and HA-10 wt pct ZrO2 coatings in as-sprayed condition as compared to Ti-6Al-4V substrate. However, coefficient of friction is decreased for both HA-50 wt pct TiO2 and HA-10 wt pct ZrO2 coatings after heat-treated condition as compared to Ti-6Al-4V substrate. The maximum improvement in wear resistance property is, however, observed for HA-10 wt pct ZrO2 sample after heat treatment. The mechanism of wear has been investigated.

  2. Increase in gap-junctional intercellular communications (GJIC) of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) on surfaces coated with high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HMW HA).

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Ung; Tsuchiya, Toshie

    2002-06-15

    Normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cells were used to detect differences in gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) by hyaluronic acid (HA), a linear polymer built from repeating disaccharide units that consist of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNa) and D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) linked by a beta 1-4 glycosidic bond. The NHDF cells were cultured with different molecular weights (MW) of HA for 4 days. The rates of cell attachment in dishes coated with high-molecular-weight (HMW; 310 kDa or 800 kDa) HA at 2 mg/dish were significantly reduced at an early time point compared with low-molecular-weight (LMW; 4.8 kDa or 48 kDa) HA with the same coating amounts. HA-coated surfaces were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) under air and showed that HA molecules ran parallel in the dish coated with LMW HA and had an aggregated island structure in the dish coated with HMW HA surfaces. The cell functions of GJIC were assayed by a scrape-loading dye transfer (SLDT) method using a dye solution of Lucifer yellow. Promotion of the dye transfer was clearly obtained in the cell monolayer grown on the surface coated with HMW HA. These results suggest that HMW HA promotes the function of GJIC in NHDF cells. In contrast, when HMW HA was added to the monolayer of NHDF cells, the functions of GJIC clearly were lowered in comparison with the cells grown in the control dish or with those grown on the surface of HMW HA. Therefore it is concluded that the MW size of HA and its application method are important factors for generating biocompatible tissue-engineered products because of the manner in which the GJIC participates in cell differentiation and cell growth rate. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 60: 541-547, 2002

  3. Postoperative intra-abdominal collections using a sodium hyaluronate-carboxymethylcellulose (HA-CMC) barrier at the time of laparotomy for uterine or cervical cancers.

    PubMed

    Leitao, Mario M; Byrum, Graham V; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Brown, Carol L; Chi, Dennis S; Sonoda, Yukio; Levine, Douglas A; Gardner, Ginger J; Barakat, Richard R

    2010-11-01

    A prior analysis of patients undergoing laparotomy for ovarian malignancies at our institution revealed an increased rate of intra-abdominal collections using HA-CMC film during debulking surgery. The primary objective of the current study was to determine whether the use of HA-CMC is associated with the development of postoperative intra-abdominal collections in patients undergoing laparotomy for uterine or cervical malignancies. We retrospectively identified all laparotomies performed for these malignancies from 3/1/05 to 12/31/07. We identified cases involving the use of HA-CMC via billing records and operative reports. Intra-abdominal collections were defined as localized intraperitoneal fluid accumulations in the absence of re-accumulating ascites. We noted incidences of intra-abdominal collections, as well as other complications. Appropriate statistical tests were applied using SPSS 15.0. We identified 169 laparotomies in which HA-CMC was used and 347 in which HA-CMC was not used. The following were statistically similar in both cohorts: age, body mass index (BMI), primary site, surgery for recurrent disease, prior intraperitoneal surgery, and extent of current surgery. Intra-abdominal collections were seen in 6 (3.6%) of 169 HA-CMC cases compared to 10 (2.9%) of 347 non-HA-CMC cases (p=0.7). The rate of infected collections was similar in both groups (1.2% vs. 1.4%). In the subgroup that underwent tumor debulking, intra-abdominal collections were seen in 3 (11.5%) of 26 HA-CMC cases compared to 2 (5.4%) of 37 non-HA-CMC cases (p=0.6). HA-CMC use does not appear to be associated with postoperative intra-abdominal collections in patients undergoing laparotomy for uterine or cervical cancer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Traverse Planning Process for the Drats 2010 Analog Field Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horz, Friedrich; Gruener, John; Lofgren, Gary; Skinner, James A., Jr.; Graf, Jodi; Seibert, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Traverse planning concentrates on optimizing the science return within the overall objectives of planetary surface missions or their analog field simulations. Such simulations were conducted in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, northern Arizona, from Aug. 26 to Sept 17, 2010 and involved some 200 individuals in the field, with some 40 geoscientists composing the science team. The purpose of these Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) is to exercise and evaluate developmental hardware, software and operational concepts in a mission-like, fully-integrated, setting under the direction of an onsite Mobile Mission Control Center(MMCC). DRATS 2010 focused on the simultaneous operation of 2 rovers, a historic first. Each vehicle was manned by an astronaut-commander and an experienced field geologist. Having 2 rovers and crews in the field mandated substantially more complex science and mission control operations compared to the single rover DRATS tests of 2008 and 2009, or the Apollo lunar missions. For instance, the science support function was distributed over 2 "back rooms", one for each rover, with both "tactical" teams operating independently and simultaneously during the actual traverses. Synthesis and integration of the daily findings and forward planning for the next day(s) was accomplished overnight by yet another "strategic" science team.

  5. 7 CFR 1955.12 - Acquisition of property which served as security for a loan guarantee by FmHA or its successor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... loan guarantee by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 or at sale by another... Chattel Property § 1955.12 Acquisition of property which served as security for a loan guarantee by FmHA..., or taxing authority. When the servicing regulations for the type of loan(s) involved permit FmHA or...

  6. 7 CFR 1901.505 - Certificates of beneficial ownership in FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certificates of beneficial ownership in FmHA or its... ownership in FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans. (a) Special trust of loans—(1) Establishment of special trusts. From time to time FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 will...

  7. 7 CFR 1955.12 - Acquisition of property which served as security for a loan guarantee by FmHA or its successor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a loan guarantee by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 or at sale by another... Chattel Property § 1955.12 Acquisition of property which served as security for a loan guarantee by FmHA..., or taxing authority. When the servicing regulations for the type of loan(s) involved permit FmHA or...

  8. Carboxylated Agarose (CA)-Silk Fibroin (SF) Dual Confluent Matrices Containing Oriented Hydroxyapatite (HA) Crystals: Biomimetic Organic/Inorganic Composites for Tibia Repair.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing-Xiao; Ran, Jia-Bing; Chen, Si; Jiang, Pei; Shen, Xin-Yu; Tong, Hua

    2016-07-11

    By in situ combining the dual cross-linking matrices of the carboxylated agarose (CA) and the silk fibroin (SF) with the hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals, the CA-SF/HA composites with optimal physicochemical and biological properties were obtained, which were designed to meet the clinical needs of load-bearing bone repair. With the synergistic modulation of the dual organic matrices, the HA nanoparticles presented sheet and rod morphologies due to the preferred orientation, which successfully simulated the biomineralization in nature. The chemical reactivity of the native agarose (NA) was significantly enhanced via carboxylation, and the CA exhibited higher thermal stability than the NA. In the presence of SF, the composites showed optimal mechanical properties that could meet the standard of bone repair. The degradation of the composites in the presence of CA and SF was significantly delayed such that the degradation rate of the implant could satisfy the growth rate of the newly formed bone tissue. The in vitro tests confirmed that the CA-SF/HA composite scaffolds enabled the MG63 cells to proliferate and differentiate well, and the CA/HA composite presented greater capability of promoting the cell behaviors than the NA/HA composite. After 24 days of implantation, newly formed bone was observed at the tibia defect site and around the implant. Extensive osteogenesis was presented in the rats treated with the CA-SF/HA composites. In general, the CA-SF/HA composites prepared in this work had the great potential to be applied for repairing large bone defects.

  9. Laser fabrication of Ag-HA nanocomposites on Ti6Al4V implant for enhancing bioactivity and antibacterial capability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangmei; Man, H C

    2017-01-01

    For titanium alloy implants, both surface bioactivity and antibacterial infection are the two critical factors in determining the success of clinical implantation of these metallic implants. In the present work, a novel nanocomposite layer of nano-silver-containing hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) was prepared on the surface of biomedical Ti6Al4V by laser processing. Analysis using SEM, EDS and XRD shows the formation of an Ag-HA layer of about 200μm fusion bonded to the substrate. Mineralization tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed that laser fabricated Ag-HA nanocomposite layer favors the deposition of apatite on the surface of the implants. Antibacterial tests confirmed that all Ag-HA nanocomposite layers can kill bacteria while a higher Ag content would lower the cytocompatibility of these coatings. Cell viability decreases when the Ag content reaches 5% in these coatings, due to the larger amount of Ag leached out, as confirmed by ion release evaluation. Our results reveal that laser fabricated Ag-HA nanocomposite coatings containing 2% Ag show both excellent cytocompatibility and antibacterial capability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Conformational heterogeneity of the bacteriopheophytin electron acceptor HA in reaction centers from Rhodopseudomonas viridis revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Breton, J; Bibikova, M; Oesterhelt, D; Nabedryk, E

    1999-08-31

    The light-induced Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectra corresponding to the photoreduction of either the HA bacteriopheophytin electron acceptor (HA-/HA spectrum) or the QA primary quinone (QA-/QA spectrum) in photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) of Rhodopseudomonas viridis are reported. These spectra have been compared for wild-type (WT) RCs and for two site-directed mutants in which the proposed interactions between the carbonyls on ring V of HA and the RC protein have been altered. In the mutant EQ(L104), the putative hydrogen bond between the protein and the 9-keto C=O of HA should be affected by changing Glu L104 to a Gln. In the mutant WF(M250), the van der Waals interactions between Trp M250 and the 10a-ester C=O of HA should be modified. The characteristic effects of both mutations on the FTIR spectra support the proposed interactions and allow the IR modes of the 9-keto and 10a-ester C=O of HA and HA- to be assigned. Comparison of the HA-/HA and QA-/QA spectra leads us to conclude that the QA-/QA IR signals in the spectral range above 1700 cm-1 are largely dominated by contributions from the electrostatic response of the 10a-ester C=O mode of HA upon QA photoreduction. A heterogeneity in the conformation of the 10a-ester C=O mode of HA in WT RCs, leading to three distinct populations of HA, appears to be related to differences in the hydrogen-bonding interactions between the carbonyls of ring V of HA and the RC protein. The possibility that this structural heterogeneity is related to the observed multiexponential kinetics of electron transfer and the implications for primary processes are discussed. The effect of 1H/2H exchange on the QA-/QA spectra of the WT and mutant RCs shows that neither Glu L104 nor any other exchangeable carboxylic residue changes appreciably its protonation state upon QA reduction.

  11. Correlations between the in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of the Ti/HA composites fabricated by a powder metallurgy method.

    PubMed

    Ning, Congqin; Zhou, Yu

    2008-11-01

    Ti/HA composites were successfully prepared by a powder metallurgy method and the effect of phase composition on the in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of the Ti/HA composites was investigated in the present study. The correlations between the in vitro and in vivo biological behaviors were highlighted. The results showed that the in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of the Ti/HA composites was dependent on their phase composition. The in vitro bioactivity of the Ti/HA composites was evaluated in simulated body fluid with ion concentrations similar to those of human plasma. After immersion in the simulated body fluid for a certain time, apatite precipitations formed on the surface of the composites with an initial titanium content of 50 and 70 wt.%, and no apatite was found on the surface of the composite with 30% titanium. Ti(2)O was responsible for the apatite formation on the surfaces of the composites. For in vivo analysis, Ti/HA cylinders were implanted in the metaphases of the rabbit femur. At the early stage of implantation, the new bone formed on the surface of the composite with 30% titanium was much less than that on the surfaces of the composites with 50% and 70% titanium. All the Ti/HA composites formed a chemical bone-bonding interface with the host bone by 6 months after implantation. The Ti/HA composites formed the bone-bonding interface with the surrounding bone through an apatite layer. The results in the present study suggested that the in vivo results agreed well with the in vitro results.

  12. Solid State Reaction Synthesis of Si-HA as Potential Biomedical Material: An Endeavor to Enhance the Added Value of Indonesian Mineral Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartatiek; Yudyanto; Ratnasari, S. D.; Windari, R. Y.; Hidayat, N.

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, one of the most prominently investigated materials is hydroxyapatite (HA). It is because of its excellent properties for medical applications, essentially related to orthopedic. Also, the introduction of other materials to HA becomes another research focus of many leading scientists. In this present study, silicon with various concentrations was introduced, by means of solid state reaction route, to HA forming Si-HA. The crystal structure properties of the as-prepared samples were evaluated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy data collection and analysis were done to investigate the functional groups within the samples. The microstructural characteristics as well as elemental mapping of the samples were captured by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Vickers hardness test was also conducted to investigate the hardness properties of the samples. Furthermore, in vitro characterization-based bio resorbability of the samples in a simulated body fluid were also described. This study revealed that Indonesian limestone can be utilized as the raw material for synthesizing HA. The silicon has been successfully incorporated into phosphate site of the HA crystal. Conclusively, the Si-HA reported in this study shows good bioresorbability characteristic.

  13. Response of human bone marrow-derived MSCs on triphasic Ca-P substrate with various HA/TCP ratio.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Indu; Kim, Duk Yeon; Kyong-Jin, Jung; Song, In-Hwan; Kim, Sukyoung

    2017-01-01

    Calcium phosphates (Ca-P) are used commonly as artificial bone substitutes to control the biodegradation rate of an implant in the body fluid. This study examined the in vitro proliferation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) on triphasic Ca-P samples. For this aspect, hydroxyapatite (HA), dicalcium phosphate dehydrate (DCPD), and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 ) were mixed at various ratios, cold compacted, and sintered at 1250°C in air. X-ray diffraction showed that the β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) to α-TCP phase transformation increased with increasing DCPD/HA ratio. The micro-hardness deceased with increasing TCP content, whereas the mean grain size and porosity increased with increasing TCP concentration. To evaluate the in vitro degree of adhesion and proliferation on the HA/TCP samples, human BMSCs were incubated on the HA/TCP samples and analyzed by a cells proliferation assay, expression of the extracellular matrix (ECM) genes, such as α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibronectin (FN), and FITC-phalloidin fluorescent staining. In terms of the interactions of human BMSCs with the triphasic Ca-P samples, H50T50 (Ca/P = 1.59) markedly enhanced cell spreading, proliferation, FN, and α-SMA compared with H100T0 (Ca/P = 1.67). Interestingly, these results show that among the five HA/TCP samples, H50T50 is the optimal Ca-P composition for in vitro cell proliferation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 72-80, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Response of Human Osteoblast to n-HA/PEEK—Quantitative Proteomic Study of Bio-effects of Nano-Hydroxyapatite Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Minzhi; Li, Haiyun; Liu, Xiaochen; Wei, Jie; Ji, Jianguo; Yang, Shu; Hu, Zhiyuan; Wei, Shicheng

    2016-03-01

    Nano-sized hydroxyapatite (n-HA) is considered as a bio-active material, which is often mixed into bone implant material, polyetheretherketone (PEEK). To reveal the global protein expression modulations of osteoblast in response to direct contact with the PEEK composite containing high level (40%) nano-sized hydroxyapatite (n-HA/PEEK) and explain its comprehensive bio-effects, quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on human osteoblast-like cells MG-63 cultured on n-HA/PEEK in comparison with pure PEEK. Results from quantitative proteomic analysis showed that the most enriched categories in the up-regulated proteins were related to calcium ion processes and associated functions while the most enriched categories in the down-regulated proteins were related to RNA process. This enhanced our understanding to the molecular mechanism of the promotion of the cell adhesion and differentiation with the inhibition of the cell proliferation on n-HA/PEEK composite. It also exhibited that although the calcium ion level of incubate environment hadn’t increased, merely the calcium fixed on the surface of material had influence to intracellular calcium related processes, which was also reflect by the higher intracellular Ca2+ concentration of n-HA/PEEK. This study could lead to more comprehensive cognition to the versatile biocompatibility of composite materials. It further proves that proteomics is useful in new bio-effect discovery.

  15. Fabrication of modified GIC: GIC-nanoSiO2-HA-ZrO2 using two different mixing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Nor Ainon Maziah; Bakar, Wan Zaripah Wan; Rahman, Ismail Ab; Masudi, Sam'an Malik

    2017-12-01

    Conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) is among the mostly used material in dentistry but some modifications were needed due to its deficiencies such as low mechanical strength and opacity. In this study, a new nanocomposite, GIC-nanoSiO2-HA-ZrO2 was fabricated whereby zirconia is added to improve the hardness. The nanocomposite of SiO2-HA-ZrO2 was synthesized using two different mixing methods which are one pot and spatulation methods. One pot method involved the addition of zirconia nanopowder during the one pot synthesis of nanoSiO2-HA and spatulation method involved the addition of zirconia nanopowder by controlled grinding process using mortar and pestle. Different weight percentage from 1-20 % of nanoSiO2-HA-ZrO2 was added to GIC and the hardness was analyzed using Vickers Tester. The one pot method recorded the highest and significant hardness value at 3 % addition which is ˜75.27 HV (± 2.48) compared to spatulation method ˜69.53 HV (± 7.78) at p < 0.05. Scanning Electron Microscope image from one pot method showed less agglomeration of the nanopowder and nanozirconia is uniformly distributed. Within the limitation of this study, one pot method produced better GIC-nanoSiO2-HA-ZrO2 composite.

  16. Response of Human Osteoblast to n-HA/PEEK--Quantitative Proteomic Study of Bio-effects of Nano-Hydroxyapatite Composite.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Minzhi; Li, Haiyun; Liu, Xiaochen; Wei, Jie; Ji, Jianguo; Yang, Shu; Hu, Zhiyuan; Wei, Shicheng

    2016-03-09

    Nano-sized hydroxyapatite (n-HA) is considered as a bio-active material, which is often mixed into bone implant material, polyetheretherketone (PEEK). To reveal the global protein expression modulations of osteoblast in response to direct contact with the PEEK composite containing high level (40%) nano-sized hydroxyapatite (n-HA/PEEK) and explain its comprehensive bio-effects, quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on human osteoblast-like cells MG-63 cultured on n-HA/PEEK in comparison with pure PEEK. Results from quantitative proteomic analysis showed that the most enriched categories in the up-regulated proteins were related to calcium ion processes and associated functions while the most enriched categories in the down-regulated proteins were related to RNA process. This enhanced our understanding to the molecular mechanism of the promotion of the cell adhesion and differentiation with the inhibition of the cell proliferation on n-HA/PEEK composite. It also exhibited that although the calcium ion level of incubate environment hadn't increased, merely the calcium fixed on the surface of material had influence to intracellular calcium related processes, which was also reflect by the higher intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of n-HA/PEEK. This study could lead to more comprehensive cognition to the versatile biocompatibility of composite materials. It further proves that proteomics is useful in new bio-effect discovery.

  17. In Vitro and In Vivo Dentinogenic Efficacy of Human Dental Pulp-Derived Cells Induced by Demineralized Dentin Matrix and HA-TCP

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyung-Jung; Lee, Min Suk; Moon, Chan-Woong; Lee, Jae-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Human dental pulp cells have been known to have the stem cell features such as self-renewal and multipotency. These cells are differentiated into hard tissue by addition of proper cytokines and biomaterials. Hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphates (HA-TCPs) are essential components of hard tissue and generally used as a biocompatible material in tissue engineering of bone. Demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) has been reported to increase efficiency of bone induction. We compared the efficiencies of osteogenic differentiation and in vivo bone formation of HA-TCP and DDM on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). DDM contains inorganic components as with HA-TCP, and organic components such as collagen type-1. Due to these components, osteoinduction potential of DDM on hDPSCs was remarkably higher than that of HA-TCP. However, the efficiencies of in vivo bone formation are similar in HA-TCP and DDM. Although osteogenic gene expression and bone formation in immunocompromised nude mice were similar levels in both cases, dentinogenic gene expression level was slightly higher in DDM transplantation than in HA-TCP. All these results suggested that in vivo osteogenic potentials in hDPSCs are induced with both HA-TCP and DDM by osteoconduction and osteoinduction, respectively. In addition, transplantation of hDPSCs/DDM might be more effective for differentiation into dentin. PMID:28761445

  18. Silencing the HaAK Gene by Transgenic Plant-Mediated RNAi Impairs Larval Growth of Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Yi-Ying; Li, Yan-Jun; Liu, Yong-Chang; Sun, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests have caused noticeable economic losses in agriculture, and the heavy use of insecticide to control pests not only brings the threats of insecticide resistance but also causes the great pollution to foods and the environment. Transgenic plants producing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) directed against insect genes have been is currently developed for protection against insect pests. In this study, we used this technology to silence the arginine kinase (AK) gene of Helicoverpa armigera (HaAK), encoding a phosphotransferase that plays a critical role in cellular energy metabolism in invertebrate. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants producing HaAK dsRNA were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The maximal mortality rate of 55% was reached when H. armigera first-instar larvae were fed with transgenic plant leaves for 3 days, which was dramatically higher than the 18% mortality recorded in the control group. Moreover, the ingestion of transgenic plants significantly retarded larval growth, and the transcript levels of HaAK were also knocked down by up to 52%. The feeding bioassays further indicated that the inhibition efficiency was correlated with the integrity and concentration of the produced HaAK dsRNA in transgenic plants. These results strongly show that the resistance to H. armigera was improved in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, suggesting that the RNAi targeting of AK has the potential for the control of insect pests. PMID:25552931

  19. Trichomonas vaginalis Induces SiHa Cell Apoptosis by NF-κB Inactivation via Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Juan-Hua; Kang, Byung-Hun; Yang, Jung-Bo; Rhee, Yun-Ee; Noh, Heung-Tae; Choi, In-Wook; Cha, Guang-Ho; Yuk, Jae-Min

    2017-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis induces apoptosis in host cells through various mechanisms; however, little is known about the relationship between apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and NF-κB signaling pathways in the cervical mucosal epithelium. Here, we evaluated apoptotic events, ROS production, and NF-κB activity in T. vaginalis-treated cervical mucosal epithelial SiHa cells, with or without specific inhibitors, using fluorescence microscopy, DNA fragmentation assays, subcellular fractionation, western blotting, and luciferase reporter assay. SiHa cells treated with live T. vaginalis at a multiplicity of infection of 5 (MOI 5) for 4 h produced intracellular and mitochondrial ROS in a parasite-load-dependent manner. Incubation with T. vaginalis caused DNA fragmentation, cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP, and release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. T. vaginalis-treated SiHa cells showed transient early NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, which dramatically dropped at 4 h after treatment. Suppression of NF-κB activity was dependent on parasite burden. However, treatment with the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-C-cysteine (NAC), reversed the effect of T. vaginalis on apoptosis and NF-κB inactivation in SiHa cells. Taken together, T. vaginalis induces apoptosis in human cervical mucosal epithelial cells by parasite-dose-dependent ROS production through an NF-κB-regulated, mitochondria-mediated pathway. PMID:29410962

  20. The effect of partially stabilized zirconia on the biological properties of HA/HDPE composites in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sadi, A Yari; Shokrgozar, M A; Homaeigohar, S Sh; Hosseinalipour, M; Khavandi, A; Javadpour, J

    2006-05-01

    The effect of partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) on the biological properties of the hyroxyapatite - high density polyethylene (HA/HDPE) composites was studied by investigating the simultaneous effect of hydroxyapatite and PSZ volume fractions on the in vitro response of human osteoblast cells. The biocompatibility of composite samples with different volume fraction of HA and PSZ powders was assessed by proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and cell attachment assays on the osteoblast cell line (G-292) in different time periods. The effect of composites on the behavior of G-292 cells was compared with those of HDPE and TPS (Tissue Culture Poly Styrene as negative control) samples. Results showed a higher proliferation rate of G-292 cells in the presence of composite samples as compared to the HDPE sample after 7 and 14 days of incubation period. ALP production rate in all composite samples was higher than HDPE and TPS samples. The number of adhered cells on the composite samples was higher than the number adhered on the HDPE and TPS samples after the above mentioned incubation periods. These findings indicates that the addition of PSZ does not have any adverse affect on the biocompatibility of HA/HDPE composites. In fact in some experiments PSZ added HA/HDPE composites performed better in proliferation, differentiation and attachment of osteoblastic cells.

  1. Effects of HA and NA glycosylation pattern changes on the transmission of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, Sehee; Lee, Ilseob; Kim, Jin Il; Bae, Joon-Yong; Yoo, Kirim; Kim, Juwon; Nam, Misun; Park, Miso; Yun, Soo-Hyeon; Cho, Woo In; Kim, Yeong-Su; Ko, Yun Young; Park, Man-Seong

    2016-10-14

    Avian influenza H7N9 virus has posed a concern of potential human-to-human transmission by resulting in seasonal virus-like human infection cases. To address the issue of sustained human infection with the H7N9 virus, here we investigated the effects of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) N-linked glycosylation (NLG) patterns on influenza virus transmission in a guinea pig model. Based on the NLG signatures identified in the HA and NA genetic sequences of H7N9 viruses, we generated NLG mutant viruses using either HA or NA gene of a H7N9 virus, A/Anhui/01/2013, by reverse genetics on the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus backbone. For the H7 HA NLG mutant viruses, NLG pattern changes appeared to reduce viral transmissibility in guinea pigs. Intriguingly, however, the NLG changes in the N9 NA protein, such as a removal from residue 42 or 66 or an addition at residue 266, increased transmissibility of the mutant viruses by more than 33%, 50%, and 16%, respectively, compared with a parental N9 virus. Given the effects of HA-NA NLG changes with regard to viral transmission, we then generated the HA-NA NLG mutant viruses harboring the H7 HA of double NLG addition and the N9 NA of various NLG patterns. As seen in the HA NLG mutants above, the double NLG-added H7 HA decreased viral transmissibility. However, when the NA NLG changes occurred by a removal of residue 66 and an addition at 266 were additionally accompanied, the HA-NA NLG mutant virus recovered the transmissibility of its parental virus. These demonstrate the effects of specific HA-NA NLG changes on the H7N9 virus transmission by highlighting the importance of a HA-NA functional balance. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Human Space Flight Plans Committee

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-11

    Members of the Human Space Flight Review Committee from left, Jeffrey Greason, Dr. Christopher Chyba, Dr. Leroy Chiao, Dr. Sally Ride, Norman Augustine (chair), Philip McAllister, Dr. Edward Crawley, Dr. Wanda Austin, and Bhodan Bejmuk review their notes prior to the start of a public meeting, Wednesday, Aug. 12, 2009, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  3. A Crosslinked HA-Based Hydrogel Ameliorates Dry Eye Symptoms in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David L.; Mann, Brenda K.

    2013-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, commonly referred to as dry eye or KCS, can affect both humans and dogs. The standard of care in treating KCS typically includes daily administration of eye drops to either stimulate tear production or to hydrate and lubricate the corneal surface. Lubricating eye drops are often applied four to six times daily for the life of the patient. In order to reduce this dosing regimen yet still provides sufficient hydration and lubrication, we have developed a crosslinked hydrogel based on a modified, thiolated hyaluronic acid (HA), xCMHA-S. This xCMHA-S gel was found to have different viscosity and rheologic behavior than solutions of noncrosslinked HA. The gel was also able to increase tear breakup time in rabbits, indicating a stabilization of the tear film. Further, in a preliminary clinical study of dogs with KCS, the gel significantly reduced the symptoms associated with KCS within two weeks while only being applied twice daily. The reduction of symptoms combined with the low dosing regimen indicates that this gel may lead to both improved patient health and owner compliance in applying the treatment. PMID:23840213

  4. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart E of... - FmHA or Its Successor Agency Under Public Law 103-354 Financed Contract

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false FmHA or Its Successor Agency Under Public Law 103-354... Civil Rights Compliance Requirements Pt. 1901, Subpt. E, Exh. C Exhibit C to Subpart E of Part 1901—FmHA..., from exhibit E, FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Instruction 1901-E) We submit the...

  5. The hormesis effect of plasma-elevated intracellular ROS on HaCaT cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szili, Endre J.; Harding, Frances J.; Hong, Sung-Ha; Herrmann, Franziska; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Short, Robert D.

    2015-12-01

    We have examined the link between ionized-gas plasma delivery of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and cell fate, defined in terms of cell viability versus death. Phospholipid vesicles were used as cell mimics to measure the possible intracellular ROS concentration, [ROSi], delivered by various plasma treatments. Cells were exposed to a helium cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) jet for different plasma exposure times (5-60 s) and gas flow rates (50-1000 ml min-1). Based upon the [ROSi] data we argue that plasma-generated ROS in the cell culture medium can readily diffuse into real cells. Plasma exposure that equated to an [ROSi] in the range of 3.81  ×  10-10-9.47  ×  10-8 M, measured at 1 h after the plasma exposure, resulted in increased cell viability at 72 h; whereas a higher [ROSi] at 1 h decreased cell viability after 72 h of culture. This may be because of the manner in which the ROS are delivered by the plasma: HaCaT cells better tolerate a low ROS flux over an extended plasma exposure period of 1 min, compared to a high flux delivered in a few seconds, although the final [ROSi] may be the same. Our results suggest that plasma stimulation of HaCaT cells follows the principle of hormesis.

  6. Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) biomimetic coating to improve osseointegration of a PMMA/HA/glass composite implant: in vivo mechanical and histomorphometric assessments.

    PubMed

    Giavaresi, G; Branda, F; Causa, F; Luciani, G; Fini, M; Nicoli Aldini, N; Rimondini, L; Ambrosio, L; Giardino, R

    2004-08-01

    Bone implants must simultaneously satisfy many requirements, even though the surface properties remain a crucial aspect in osseointegration success. Since a single material with a uniform structure cannot satisfy all of these requirements, composite materials specifically designed for orthopedic or dental implant application should be envisaged. Two poly(methylmethacrylate)/hydroxyapatite composites reinforced by E-glass fibres, uncoated (PMMA/HA/Glass) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PMMA/HA/Glass+pHEMA) coated by the biomimetic method, were mechanically (push-out test) and histomorphometrically (Affinity Index, AI) investigated in an in vivo rabbit model. Cylindrical implants (diameter 2 mm x 5 mm length) were inserted into rabbit femoral cortical (mid-diaphysis) and cancellous (distal epiphysis) bone, under general anesthesia. The highest values of push-out force and ultimate shear strength were observed for the PMMA/HA/Glass at 12 weeks, which significantly (p < 0.001) differed from those of PMMA/HA/Glass+pHEMA at the same experimental time and from those of PMMA/HA/Glass at 4 weeks. At both experimental times, significantly (p < 0.0005) lower values of AI were observed in the PMMA/HA/Glass+pHEMA versus PMMA/HA/Glass (distal femoral epiphysis: 4 weeks = 33%; 12 weeks = 19%; femoral diaphysis: 4 weeks = 15%; 12 weeks = 11%). The good mechanical and histomorphometric results obtained with PMMA/HA/Glass should be followed by further evaluation of bone remodeling processes and mechanical strength around loaded PMMA/HA/Glass implants at longer experimental times. Finally, the biomimetic method applied to pHEMA needs to be further investigated in order to improve the positive effect of SBF on pHEMA and to enhance the coating adhesion.

  7. Bone Regeneration Using a Mixture of Silicon-Substituted Coral HA and β-TCP in a Rat Calvarial Bone Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Jiyeon; Kim, Ji-Youn; Choi, Young-Muk; Ha, Seong-Min; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn

    2016-01-01

    The demand of bone graft materials has been increasing. Among various origins of bone graft materials, natural coral composed of up to 99% calcium carbonate was chosen and converted into hydroxyapatite (HA); silicon was then substituted into the HA. Then, the Si-HA was mixed with β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in the ratios 100:0 (S100T0), 70:30 (S70T30), 60:40 (S60T40), and 50:50 (S50T50). The materials were implanted for four and eight weeks in a rat calvarial bone defect model (8 mm). The MBCPTM (HA:β-TCP = 60:40, Biomatalante, Vigneux de Bretagne, France) was used as a control. After euthanasia, the bone tissue was analyzed by making histological slides. From the results, S60T40 showed the fastest bone regeneration in four weeks (p < 0.05). In addition, S60T40, S50T50, and MBCPTM showed significant new bone formation in eight weeks (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Si-HA/TCP showed potential as a bone graft material. PMID:28787903

  8. Bone Regeneration Using a Mixture of Silicon-Substituted Coral HA and β-TCP in a Rat Calvarial Bone Defect Model.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jiyeon; Kim, Ji-Youn; Choi, Young-Muk; Ha, Seong-Min; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn

    2016-02-06

    The demand of bone graft materials has been increasing. Among various origins of bone graft materials, natural coral composed of up to 99% calcium carbonate was chosen and converted into hydroxyapatite (HA); silicon was then substituted into the HA. Then, the Si-HA was mixed with β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in the ratios 100:0 (S100T0), 70:30 (S70T30), 60:40 (S60T40), and 50:50 (S50T50). The materials were implanted for four and eight weeks in a rat calvarial bone defect model (8 mm). The MBCPTM (HA:β-TCP = 60:40, Biomatalante, Vigneux de Bretagne, France) was used as a control. After euthanasia, the bone tissue was analyzed by making histological slides. From the results, S60T40 showed the fastest bone regeneration in four weeks (p < 0.05). In addition, S60T40, S50T50, and MBCPTM showed significant new bone formation in eight weeks (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Si-HA/TCP showed potential as a bone graft material.

  9. Evidence for a decay of the faint flaring rate of Sgr A* from 2013 Aug., 13 months before a rise of the before a rise of the bright one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossoux, E.; Grosso, N.

    2017-10-01

    Thanks to the overall 1999-2015 Chandra, XMM-Newton and Swift observations of the supermassive black hole at the center of our Galaxy, Sgr A*, we tested the significance and persistence of the increase of 'bright and very bright' X-ray flaring rate (FR) argued by Ponti et al. (2015). We detected the flares observed with Swift using the binned light curves whereas those observed by XMM-Newton and Chandra were detected using the two-steps Bayesian blocks (BB) algorithm with a prior number of change-points properly calibrated. We then applied this algorithm on the flare arrival times corrected from the detection efficiency computed for each observation thanks to the observed distribution of flare fluxes and durations. We confirmed a constant overall FR and a rise of the FR for the faintest flares from 2014 Aug. 31 and identified a decay of the FR for the brightest flares from 2013 Aug. and Nov. A mass transfer from the Dusty S-cluster Object/G2 to Sgr A* is not required to produce the rise of bright FR since the energy saved by the decay of the number of faint flares during a long time period may be later released by several bright flares during a shorter time period.

  10. The Effect of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Nanoparticles on Hydroxyapatite (HA)/TiO2 Composite Coating Fabricated by Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirnejad, M.; Afshar, A.; Salehi, S.

    2018-05-01

    Composite coatings of Hydroxyapatite (HA) with ceramics, polymers and metals are used to modify the surface structure of implants. In this research, HA/TiO2 composite coating was fabricated by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on 316 stainless steel substrate. HA/TiO2 composite coatings with 5, 10 and 20 wt.% of TiO2, deposited at 40 V and 90 s as an optimum condition. The samples coated at this condition led to an adherent, continuous and crack-free coating. The influence of TiO2 content was studied by performing different characterization methods such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid (SBF), coating's dissolution rate in physiological solution and bond strength to the substrate. The results showed that the higher amount of TiO2 in the composite coating led to increase in bond strength of coating to stainless steel substrate from 3 MPa for HA coating to 5.5 MPa for HA-20 wt.% TiO2 composite coating. In addition, it caused to reduction of corrosion current density of samples in the SBF solution from 18.92 μA/cm2 for HA coating to 6.35 μA/cm2 for HA-20 wt.% TiO2 composite coating.

  11. The Effect of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Nanoparticles on Hydroxyapatite (HA)/TiO2 Composite Coating Fabricated by Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirnejad, M.; Afshar, A.; Salehi, S.

    2018-04-01

    Composite coatings of Hydroxyapatite (HA) with ceramics, polymers and metals are used to modify the surface structure of implants. In this research, HA/TiO2 composite coating was fabricated by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on 316 stainless steel substrate. HA/TiO2 composite coatings with 5, 10 and 20 wt.% of TiO2, deposited at 40 V and 90 s as an optimum condition. The samples coated at this condition led to an adherent, continuous and crack-free coating. The influence of TiO2 content was studied by performing different characterization methods such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid (SBF), coating's dissolution rate in physiological solution and bond strength to the substrate. The results showed that the higher amount of TiO2 in the composite coating led to increase in bond strength of coating to stainless steel substrate from 3 MPa for HA coating to 5.5 MPa for HA-20 wt.% TiO2 composite coating. In addition, it caused to reduction of corrosion current density of samples in the SBF solution from 18.92 μA/cm2 for HA coating to 6.35 μA/cm2 for HA-20 wt.% TiO2 composite coating.

  12. A Human Clinical, Histological, Histomorphometrical, and Radiographical Study on Biphasic HA-Beta-TCP 30/70 in Maxillary Sinus Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Carlo; Sinjari, Bruna; Shibli, Jamil A; Mangano, Francesco; Hamisch, Sabine; Piattelli, Adriano; Perrotti, Vittoria; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2015-06-01

    By mixing hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP), biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics can be obtained, and by varying their ratio it is possible to tailor the characteristics of the biomaterial. The aim of the present human study was to evaluate the histological and radiographical aspects of bone formation in maxillary sinus augmentation using a 30/70 HA-beta-TCP with a reticular structure. A total of 12 patients, undergoing two-stage sinus augmentation procedure using HA-beta-TCP at a ratio of 30/70, were included in the present study. After a 6-month healing period, during implant insertion, radiographical analysis was performed, and then the bone core biopsies were harvested and processed for histology. At radiographic evaluation, the bone gain was on average 6.85 ± 0.60 mm. HA-beta-TCP 30/70 appeared to be lined by newly formed bone, with no gaps at the interface. The histomorphometric analysis revealed 26 ± 2% of residual grafted biomaterial, 29 ± 3% of newly formed bone, and 45 ± 2% of marrow spaces. The present results indicate histologically the high biocompatibility and osteoconductivity of HA-beta-TCP 30/70, and clinically its successful use for sinus augmentation procedures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. In vitro study of RRS HA injectable mesotherapy/biorevitalization product on human skin fibroblasts and its clinical utilization

    PubMed Central

    Deglesne, Pierre-Antoine; Arroyo, Rodrigo; Ranneva, Evgeniya; Deprez, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Mesotherapy/biorevitalization with hyaluronic acid (HA) is a treatment approach currently used for skin rejuvenation. Various products with a wide range of polycomponent formulations are available on the market. Most of these formulations contain noncross-linked HA in combination with a biorevitalization cocktail, formed by various amounts of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, nucleotides, coenzymes, and antioxidants. Although ingredients are very similar among the different products, in vitro and clinical effects may vary substantially. There is a real need for better characterization of these products in terms of their action on human skin or in vitro skin models. In this study, we analyzed the effect of the RRS® (Repairs, Refills, Stimulates) HA injectable medical device on human skin fibroblasts in vitro. Skin fibroblast viability and its capacity to induce the production of key extracellular matrix were evaluated in the presence of different concentrations of RRS HA injectable. Viability was evaluated through colorimetric MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay, and key extracellular matrix genes, type I collagen and elastin, were quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results demonstrated that RRS HA injectable could promote human skin fibroblast viability (+15%) and increase fibroblast gene expression of type I collagen and elastin by 9.7-fold and 14-fold in vitro, respectively. These results demonstrate that mesotherapy/biorevitalization products can, at least in vitro, effectively modulate human skin fibroblasts. PMID:26966384

  14. Technology transfer and scale-up of the Flublok recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) influenza vaccine manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Buckland, Barry; Boulanger, Robert; Fino, Mireli; Srivastava, Indresh; Holtz, Kathy; Khramtsov, Nikolai; McPherson, Clifton; Meghrous, Jamal; Kubera, Paul; Cox, Manon M J

    2014-09-22

    Multiple different hemagglutinin (HA) protein antigens have been reproducibly manufactured at the 650L scale by Protein Sciences Corporation (PSC) based on an insect cell culture with baculovirus infection. Significantly, these HA protein antigens were produced by the same Universal Manufacturing process as described in the biological license application (BLA) for the first recombinant influenza vaccine approved by the FDA (Flublok). The technology is uniquely designed so that a change in vaccine composition can be readily accommodated from one HA protein antigen to another one. Here we present a vaccine candidate to combat the recently emerged H7N9 virus as an example starting with the genetic sequence for the required HA, creation of the baculovirus and ending with purified protein antigen (or vaccine component) at the 10L scale accomplished within 38 days under GMP conditions. The same process performance is being achieved at the 2L, 10L, 100L, 650L and 2500L scale. An illustration is given of how the technology was transferred from the benchmark 650L scale facility to a retrofitted microbial facility at the 2500L scale within 100 days which includes the time for facility engineering changes. The successful development, technology transfer and scale-up of the Flublok process has major implications for being ready to make vaccine rapidly on a worldwide scale as a defense against pandemic influenza. The technology described does not have the same vulnerability to mutations in the egg adapted strain, and resulting loss in vaccine efficacy, faced by egg based manufacture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The hot deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of HA/Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr composites for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Liu, Debao; Liu, Yichi; Zhao, Yue; Huang, Y; Chen, Minfang

    2017-08-01

    The hot deformation behavior of nano-sized hydroxylapatite (HA) reinforced Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr composites were performed by means of Gleeble-1500D thermal simulation machine in a temperature range of 523-673K and a strain rate range of 0.001-1s -1 , and the microstructure evolution during hot compression deformation were also investigated. The results show that the flow stress increases increasing strain rates at a constant temperature, and decreases with increasing deforming temperatures at a constant strain rate. Under the same processing conditions, the flow stresses of the 1HA/Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr specimens are higher than those of the Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr alloy specimens, and the difference is getting closer with increasing deformation temperature. The hot deformation behaviors of Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr and 1HA/Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr can be described by constitutive equation of hyperbolic sine function with the hot deformation activation energy being 124.6kJ/mol and 125.3kJ/mol, respectively. Comparing with Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr alloy, the instability region in the process map of 1HA/Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr expanded to a bigger extent at the same conditions. The optimum process conditions of 1HA/Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr composite is concluded as between the temperature window of 573-623K with a strain rate range of 0.001-0.1s -1 . A higher volume fraction and smaller grain size of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) grains was observed in 1HA/Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr specimens after the hot compression deformation compared with Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr alloy, which was ascribed to the presence of the HA particles that play an important role in particle-stimulated nucleation (PSN) mechanism and can effectively hinder the migration of interfaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Human Space Flight Plans Committee

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-11

    Members of the Human Space Flight Review Committee from left, Jeffrey Greason, Dr. Christopher Chyba, Dr. Leroy Chiao, Dr. Sally Ride, Norman Augustine (chair), Philip McAllister, Dr. Edward Crawley, Dr. Wanda Austin (not seen), and Bhodan Bejmuk review their notes prior to the start of a public meeting, Wednesday, Aug. 12, 2009, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  17. Human Space Flight Plans Committee

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-11

    Bohdan Bejmuk, chair, Constellation program Standing Review Board, and former manager of the Boeing Space Shuttle and Sea Launch programs, right, asks a question during the final meeting of the Human Space Flight Review Committee as Dr. Wanda Austin, president and CEO, The Aerospace Corp., looks on at left, Wednesday, Aug. 12, 2009, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  18. Campaign Sii Ha Sin: Shaping the Future of Tribal Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian College Fund, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The impact of the American Indian College Fund's Campaign Sii Ha Sin has been immediate and profound. The capital campaign, appropriately named for the Navajo concept of hope, has helped establish the tribal colleges as a positive and central force in American Indian higher education, the communities served by the tribal colleges and ultimately,…

  19. 7 CFR 1950.103 - Borrower owing FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans which are secured by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Borrower owing FmHA or its successor agency under... owing FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans which are secured by chattels. (a... actions to take in connection with the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loan...

  20. 7 CFR 1950.103 - Borrower owing FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans which are secured by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Borrower owing FmHA or its successor agency under... owing FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans which are secured by chattels. (a... actions to take in connection with the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loan...

  1. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Is It Time to Rename PCOS to HA-PODS?

    PubMed

    Khadilkar, Suvarna Satish

    2016-04-01

    The term polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) came into existence 80 years ago. Pathophysiology of PCOS remains ill understood despite extensive research in this field. It is now accepted that the manifestations of PCOS are not confined to the reproductive dysfunction, and there are endocrine-metabolic implications to PCOS with several consequences to female health. PCOS is a misnomer as ovaries do not contain epithelial cysts, but they are actually antral follicles. Moreover, the name PCOS neither reflects the hyperandrogenism which is essential for diagnosis nor the metabolic derangements. While various authors have expressed the need for change of the name, a suitable new option has not yet been established. This review aims to analyse the current understanding of pathophysiology of PCOS and addresses to the controversies associated with its diagnosis and nomenclature. The name "Hyperandrogenic Persistent Ovulatory Dysfunction Syndrome or HA-PODS" is proposed here to overcome diagnostic pitfalls of previous nomenclature. This new name will help formulate appropriate treatment and promote consistency in research as well. Further categorizations of HA-PODS are also discussed in the article.

  2. Thrombomodulin exerts cytoprotective effect on low-dose UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Iwata, Masahiro; Laboratory of Vascular Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders Advanced Therapeutics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520; Kawahara, Ko-ichi

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an endothelial cell surface anticoagulant glycoprotein that performs antimetastatic, angiogenic, adhesive, and anti-inflammatory functions in various tissues. It is also expressed in epidermal keratinocytes. We found that a physiological dose (10 mJ/cm{sup 2}) of mid-wavelength ultraviolet irradiation (UVB) significantly induced TM expression via the p38mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/cyclic AMP response element (CRE) signaling pathway in the epidermal keratinocyte cell line HaCaT; this shows that TM regulates the survival of HaCaT cells. SB203580, a p38MAPK inhibitor, significantly decreased TM expression and the viability of cells exposed to UVB. Furthermore, overexpression of TM markedly increased cell viability, and itmore » was abrogated by TM small interfering RNA (siRNA), suggesting that TM may play an important role in exerting cytoprotective effect on epidermal keratinocytes against low-dose UVB.« less

  3. Measuring pKa of activation and pKi of inactivation for influenza hemagglutinin from kinetics of membrane fusion of virions and of HA expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Aditya; Shangguan, Tong; Bentz, Joe

    2002-11-01

    The data for the pH dependence of lipid mixing between influenza virus (A/PR/8/34 strain) and fluorescently labeled liposomes containing gangliosides has been analyzed using a comprehensive mass action kinetic model for hemaglutinin (HA)-mediated fusion. Quantitative results obtained about the architecture of HA-mediated membrane fusion site from this analysis are in agreement with the previously reported results from analyses of data for HA-expressing cells fusing with various target membranes. Of the eight or more HAs forming a fusogenic aggregate, only two have to undergo the "essential" conformational change needed to initiate fusion. The mass action kinetic model has been extended to allow the analysis of the pKa for HA activation and pKi for HA inactivation. Inactivation and activation of HA following protonation were investigated for various experimental systems involving different strains of HA (A/PR/8/34, X:31, A/Japan). We find that the pKa for the final protonation site on each monomer of the trimer molecule is 5.6 to 5.7, irrespective of the strain. We also find that the pKi for the PR/8 strain is 4.8 to 4.9. The inactivation rate constants for HA, measured from experiments done with PR/8 virions fusing with liposomes and X:31 HA-expressing cells fusing with red blood cells, were both found to be of the order of 10(-4) s(-1). This number appears to be the minimal rate for HA's essential conformational change at low HA surface density. At high HA surface densities, we find evidence for cooperativity in the conformational change, as suggested by other studies.

  4. Measuring pKa of activation and pKi of inactivation for influenza hemagglutinin from kinetics of membrane fusion of virions and of HA expressing cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Aditya; Shangguan, Tong; Bentz, Joe

    2002-01-01

    The data for the pH dependence of lipid mixing between influenza virus (A/PR/8/34 strain) and fluorescently labeled liposomes containing gangliosides has been analyzed using a comprehensive mass action kinetic model for hemaglutinin (HA)-mediated fusion. Quantitative results obtained about the architecture of HA-mediated membrane fusion site from this analysis are in agreement with the previously reported results from analyses of data for HA-expressing cells fusing with various target membranes. Of the eight or more HAs forming a fusogenic aggregate, only two have to undergo the "essential" conformational change needed to initiate fusion. The mass action kinetic model has been extended to allow the analysis of the pKa for HA activation and pKi for HA inactivation. Inactivation and activation of HA following protonation were investigated for various experimental systems involving different strains of HA (A/PR/8/34, X:31, A/Japan). We find that the pKa for the final protonation site on each monomer of the trimer molecule is 5.6 to 5.7, irrespective of the strain. We also find that the pKi for the PR/8 strain is 4.8 to 4.9. The inactivation rate constants for HA, measured from experiments done with PR/8 virions fusing with liposomes and X:31 HA-expressing cells fusing with red blood cells, were both found to be of the order of 10(-4) s(-1). This number appears to be the minimal rate for HA's essential conformational change at low HA surface density. At high HA surface densities, we find evidence for cooperativity in the conformational change, as suggested by other studies. PMID:12414698

  5. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - Form FmHA 49-1, Application for Loan and Guarantee

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Form FmHA 49-1, Application for Loan and Guarantee A Appendix A to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Industrial Loan Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, App. A Appendix A to Subpart E of Part 1980—Form FmHA 49-1...

  6. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - Form FmHA 49-1, Application for Loan and Guarantee

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Form FmHA 49-1, Application for Loan and Guarantee A Appendix A to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Industrial Loan Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, App. A Appendix A to Subpart E of Part 1980—Form FmHA 49-1...

  7. Structure and transcription of the Helicoverpa armigera densovirus (HaDV2) genome and its expression strategy in LD652 cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengjun; Graham, Robert I; Wilson, Kenneth; Wu, Kongming

    2017-02-07

    Densoviruses (DVs) are highly pathogenic to their hosts. However, we previously reported a mutualistic DV (HaDV2). Very little was known about the characteristics of this virus, so herein we undertook a series of experiments to explore the molecular biology of HaDV2 further. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HaDV2 was similar to members of the genus Iteradensovirus. However, compared to current members of the genus Iteradensovirus, the sequence identity of HaDV2 is less than 44% at the nucleotide-level, and lower than 36, 28 and 19% at the amino-acid-level of VP, NS1 and NS2 proteins, respectively. Moreover, NS1 and NS2 proteins from HaDV2 were smaller than those from other iteradensoviruses due to their shorter N-terminal sequences. Two transcripts of about 2.2 kb coding for the NS proteins and the VP proteins were identified by Northern Blot and RACE analysis. Using specific anti-NS1 and anti-NS2 antibodies, Western Blot analysis revealed a 78 kDa and a 48 kDa protein, respectively. Finally, the localization of both NS1 and NS2 proteins within the cell nucleus was determined by using Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labelling. The genome organization, terminal hairpin structure, transcription and expression strategies as well as the mutualistic relationship with its host, suggested that HaDV2 was a novel member of the genus Iteradensovirus within the subfamily Densovirinae.

  8. Postoperative intra-abdominal collections using a sodium hyaluronate-carboxymethylcellulose (HA-CMC) barrier at the time of laparotomy for ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancers.

    PubMed

    Leitao, Mario M; Natenzon, Anna; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Chi, Dennis S; Sonoda, Yukio; Levine, Douglas A; Gardner, Ginger J; Barakat, Richard R

    2009-11-01

    To determine whether HA-CMC was associated with the development of postoperative intra-abdominal collections in patients undergoing laparotomy for ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal malignancies. We retrospectively identified all laparotomies performed for these malignancies from March 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007. The use of HA-CMC was identified. Laparotomies for malignant bowel obstruction or repair of fistulae were excluded. Intra-abdominal collections, non-infected and infected, were defined as localized intraperitoneal fluid accumulations in the absence of re-accumulating ascites. All other complications were also captured. Appropriate statistical tests were applied using SPSS 15.0. We identified 219 laparotomies with HA-CMC and 204 without HA-CMC. Upper abdominal resections were performed in 65/219 (30%) HA-CMC cases compared to 39/204 (19%) cases without HA-CMC (P=0.01). The rates of large bowel and/or rectal resections were similar in both cohorts. Intra-abdominal collections were seen in 18/219 (8.2%) HA-CMC cases compared to 5/204 (2.5%) cases without HA-CMC (P=0.009). HA-CMC was independently associated with the diagnosis of a postoperative intra-abdominal collection (P=0.01). All but 2 collections developed in patients undergoing debulking procedures. HA-CMC appears to be associated with a higher rate of postoperative intra-abdominal collections. This seems to be greatest in patients who are undergoing a debulking procedure.

  9. Lithospermic acid derivatives from Lithospermum erythrorhizon increased expression of serine palmitoyltransferase in human HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Thuong, Phuong Thien; Kang, Keon Wook; Kim, Jeong Kee; Seo, Dae Bang; Lee, Sang Jun; Kim, Sung Han; Oh, Won Keun

    2009-03-15

    A MeOH extract of the dry root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon showed strong increasing effect on serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) in normal human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT cells). Bioassay-guided separation on this extract using repeated chromatography resulted in the isolation of lithospermic acid (1) and two derivative esters, 9''-methyl lithospermate (2) and 9'-methyl lithospermate (3). Compounds 1-3 significantly increased SPT expressions in the relative quantity (%) of SPT1 mRNA as well as SPT2 mRNA. These constituents also raised the level of SPT protein in HaCaT cells in a dose-dependent manner, with the increased level of SPT protein in HaCaT cells of 55%, 23%, and 81% at the concentration of 100 microg/ml, respectively. This finding suggests that lithospermic acid and its derivatives from L. erythrorhizon might improve the permeability barrier by stimulating the protein level of SPT.

  10. Specific inhibition of protein synthesis in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate by two types of oligoribonucleotides

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wagner, T.; Gross, M.; Sigler, P.B.

    1986-05-01

    The oligonucleotides AUG, AUGG and AUGA, i.e. homologues of the initiation codon, are recognized as initiation sites by the protein synthetic machinery of the reticulocyte lysate. They induce the accumulation of inactive initiation complexes (80S x AUG x Met-tRNA/sub 1//sup Met/) and thereby deprive the system of active ribosomes. The only dinucleotide that inhibits protein synthesis is CA. CA and all trinucleotides of the form XCA and CAX (where X=U, C,A or G) block chain elongation at a level of 10/sup -5/M. Interestingly, inhibition by XCA is transient, while that by CAX becomes progressively greater with time. This phenomenon canmore » be explained by a 3'exonucleolytic activity in the lysate. Upon 3'terminal cleavage the XCA trinucleotides will lose the inhibitory CA, whereas CAX trinucleotides will simply be converted to CA, the specific inhibitor. This has been confirmed experimentally, since CC(/sup 3/H)A is completely hydrolyzed to CpC and p(/sup 3/H)A after 15 minutes of incubation. The mode of action of CA, while unclear, may be mediated by its similarity to the 3'-terminus of tRNA.« less

  11. 7 CFR 1945.27 - Relationship between FCIC and FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... intended to assist in maintaining and improving the working relationship between the FCIC and the FmHA or... provide instructions for actions to be taken by County Supervisors in maintaining a good relationship with... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Relationship between FCIC and FmHA or its successor...

  12. Androgen regulation of the human hair follicle: the type I hair keratin hHa7 is a direct target gene in trichocytes.

    PubMed

    Jave-Suarez, Luis F; Langbein, Lutz; Winter, Hermelita; Praetzel, Silke; Rogers, Michael A; Schweizer, Juergen

    2004-03-01

    Previous work had shown that most members of the complex human hair keratin family were expressed in terminal scalp hairs. An exception to this rule was the type I hair keratin hHa7, which was only detected in some but not all vellus hairs of the human scalp (Langbein et al, 1999). Here we show that hHa7 exhibits constitutive expression in medullary cells of all types of male and female sexual hairs. Medullated beard, axillary, and pubic hairs arise during puberty from small, unmedullated vellus hairs under the influence of circulating androgens. This suggested an androgen-controlled expression of the hHa7 gene. Further evidence for this assumption was provided by the demonstration of androgen receptor (AR) expression in the nuclei of medullary cells of beard hairs. Moreover, homology search for the semipalindromic androgen receptor-binding element (ARE) consensus sequence GG(A)/(T)ACAnnnTGTTCT in the proximal hHa7 promoter revealed three putative ARE motifs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated the specific binding of AR to all three hHa7 AREs. Their function as AR-responsive elements, either individually or in concert within the hHa7 promoter, could be further confirmed by transfection studies with or without an AR expression vector in PtK2 and prostate PC3-Arwt cells, respectively in the presence or absence of a synthetic androgen. Our study detected hHa7 as the first gene in hair follicle trichocytes whose expression appears to be directly regulated by androgens. As such, hHa7 represents a marker for androgen action on hair follicles and might be a suitable tool for investigations of androgen-dependent hair disorders.

  13. Effect of spark plasma sintering on the microstructure and in vitro behavior of plasma sprayed HA coatings.

    PubMed

    Yu, L-G; Khor, K A; Li, H; Cheang, P

    2003-07-01

    The crystalline phases and degree of crystallinity in plasma sprayed calcium phosphate coatings on Ti substrates are crucial factors that influence the biological interactions of the materials in vivo. In this study, plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings underwent post-spray treatment by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique at 500 degrees C, 600 degrees C, and 700 degrees C for duration of 5 and 30 min. The activity of the HA coatings before and after SPS are evaluated in vitro in a simulated body fluid. The surface microstructure, crystallinity, and phase composition of each coating is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry before, and after in vitro incubation. Results show that the plasma sprayed coatings treated for 5 min in SPS demonstrated increased proportion of beta-TCP phase with a preferred-orientation in the (214) plane, and the content of beta-TCP phase corresponded to SPS temperature, up to 700 degrees C. SPS treatment at 700 degrees C for 30 min enhanced the HA content in the plasma spray coating as well. The HA coatings treated in SPS for 5 min revealed rapid surface morphological changes during in vitro incubation (up to 12 days), indicating that the surface activity is enhanced by the SPS treatment. The thickest apatite layer was found in the coating treated by SPS at 700 degrees C for 5 min.

  14. Extraction of hyaluronic acid (HA) from rooster comb and characterization using flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF) coupled with multiangle light scattering (MALS).

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong Young; Kim, Won-Suk; Heo, In Sook; Park, Young Hun; Lee, Seungho

    2010-11-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) was extracted in a relatively large scale from rooster comb using a method similar to that reported previously. The extraction method was modified to simplify and to reduce time and cost in order to accommodate a large-scale extraction. Five hundred grams of frozen rooster combs yielded about 500 mg of dried HA. Extracted HA was characterized using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) coupled online to a multiangle light scattering detector and a refractive index detector to determine the molecular size, molecular weight (MW) distribution, and molecular conformation of HA. For characterization of HA, AsFlFFF was operated by a simplified two-step procedure, instead of the conventional three-step procedure, where the first two steps (sample loading and focusing) were combined into one to avoid the adsorption of viscous HA onto the channel membrane. The simplified two-step AsFlFFF yielded reasonably good separations of HA molecules based on their MWs. The weight average MW (M(w) ) and the average root-mean-square (RMS) radius of HA extracted from rooster comb were 1.20×10(6) and 94.7 nm, respectively. When the sample solution was filtered through a 0.45 μm disposable syringe filter, they were reduced down to 3.8×10(5) and 50.1 nm, respectively. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Protective Effect of Garlic on Cellular Senescence in UVB-Exposed HaCaT Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-07-29

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells, which induces the cellular senescence and photoaging. The present study investigated the protective effects of garlic on photo-damage and cellular senescence in UVB-exposed human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells. An in vitro cell free system was used to examine the scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and nitric oxide (NO). The effect of garlic extract on ROS formation, MMP-1 protein and mRNA expressions, cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, senescence associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, and silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) activity were determined in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Garlic exhibited strong DPPH radical and NO scavenging activity in cell free system exhibiting IC50 values of 2.50 mg/mL and 4.38 mg/mL, respectively. Garlic pretreatment attenuated the production of UVB-induced intracellular ROS. MMP-1 level, which has been known to be induced by ROS, was dramatically elevated by UVB irradiation, and UVB-induced MMP-1 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly reduced by garlic treatment (50 µg/mL) comparable to those of UV-unexposed control cells. UV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine productions (IL-6 and IL-1β) were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with garlic in a dose-dependent manner. SA-β-gal activity, a classical biomarker of cellular senescence, and SIRT1 activity, which has attracted attention as an anti-aging factor in recent years, were ameliorated by garlic treatment in UV-irradiated HaCaT cells. The present study provides the first evidence of garlic inhibiting UVB-induced photoaging as a result of augmentation of cellular senescence in HaCaT human keratinocytes.

  16. Protective Effect of Garlic on Cellular Senescence in UVB-Exposed HaCaT Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells, which induces the cellular senescence and photoaging. The present study investigated the protective effects of garlic on photo-damage and cellular senescence in UVB-exposed human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells. An in vitro cell free system was used to examine the scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and nitric oxide (NO). The effect of garlic extract on ROS formation, MMP-1 protein and mRNA expressions, cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, senescence associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, and silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) activity were determined in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Garlic exhibited strong DPPH radical and NO scavenging activity in cell free system exhibiting IC50 values of 2.50 mg/mL and 4.38 mg/mL, respectively. Garlic pretreatment attenuated the production of UVB-induced intracellular ROS. MMP-1 level, which has been known to be induced by ROS, was dramatically elevated by UVB irradiation, and UVB-induced MMP-1 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly reduced by garlic treatment (50 µg/mL) comparable to those of UV-unexposed control cells. UV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine productions (IL-6 and IL-1β) were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with garlic in a dose-dependent manner. SA-β-gal activity, a classical biomarker of cellular senescence, and SIRT1 activity, which has attracted attention as an anti-aging factor in recent years, were ameliorated by garlic treatment in UV-irradiated HaCaT cells. The present study provides the first evidence of garlic inhibiting UVB-induced photoaging as a result of augmentation of cellular senescence in HaCaT human keratinocytes. PMID:27483310

  17. HC-HA/PTX3 Purified From Amniotic Membrane as Novel Regenerative Matrix: Insight Into Relationship Between Inflammation and Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2016-04-01

    Human limbal palisade of Vogt is an ideal model for studying and practicing regenerative medicine due to their accessibility. Nonresolving inflammation is a common manifestation of limbal stem cell deficiency, which is the major cause of corneal blindness, and presents as a threat to the success of transplanted limbal epithelial stem cells. Clinical studies have shown that the efficacy of transplantation of limbal epithelial stem cells can be augmented by transplantation of cryopreserved human amniotic membrane (AM), which exerts anti-inflammatory, antiscarring, and antiangiogenic action to promote wound healing. Review of published data to determine the molecular action mechanism explaining how AM exerts the aforementioned therapeutic actions. From the water-soluble extract of cryopreserved AM, we have biochemically purified one novel matrix component termed heavy chain (HC)-hyaluronan (HA)/pentraxin 3 (PTX3) as the key relevant tissue characteristic responsible for the aforementioned AM's efficacy. Heavy chain-HA is a complex formed by a covalent linkage between HA and HC1 of inter-α-trypsin inhibitor (IαI) by tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6). This complex may then be tightly associated with PTX3 to form HC-HA/PTX3 complex. Besides exerting an anti-inflammatory, antiscarring, and antiangiogenic effects, HC-HA/PTX3 complex also uniquely maintains limbal niche cells to support the quiescence of limbal epithelial stem cells. We envision that HC-HA/PTX3 purified from AM can be used as a unique substrate to refine ex vivo expansion of limbal epithelial stem cells by maintaining stem cell quiescence, self-renewal and fate decision. Furthermore, it can also be deployed as a platform to launch new therapeutics in regenerative medicine by mitigating nonresolving inflammation and reinforcing the well-being of stem cell niche.

  18. Supporting Timely Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR) Decisions Through Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    attempted to respond to the advances in technology and the growing power of geographical information system (GIS) tools. However, the doctrine...Geospatial intelligence (GEOINT), Geographical information systems (GIS) tools, Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR), 2010 Haiti Earthquake...Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR) Decisions Through Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Tools

  19. Mismatch for the minor histocompatibility antigen HA-2 and GVHD occurrence in HLA-A*0201-positive Tunisian recipients of HSCs.

    PubMed

    Sellami, Mohamed Hichem; Torjemane, Lamia; Espadas de Arias, Alejandro; Kaabi, Houda; Ladeb, Saloua; Ben Othman, Tarek; Poli, Francesca; Hmida, Slama

    2010-01-01

    Graft-versus-Host disease (GVHD) has been widely linked to immunogenetic causes such as disparity between the recipient and its HLA geno-identical donor for some Non-HLA antigens called minor histocompatibility antigens (MiHAgs). HA-2 is one of potential human MiHAgs but its effect on the GVHD occurrence remains not clear. In order to examine such association in the Tunisian cohort of HSCs recipients, we performed a retrospective study on patients who received an HLA-identical HSCT between 2000 and 2009. The study was performed on 60 HLA-A2-positive patients who had received a haematopoietic stem cell transplant from an HLA-identical sibling. All patients received cyclosporine A and/or methotrexate for GVHD prophylaxis. HA-2 genotyping assay was performed with SSP-PCR method and HLA-A*0201 positive samples were identified mainly with Luminex HLA-Typing method. Luminex HLA-Typing assay showed that only 53 cases were positives for the HLA-A*0201 allele. Among these cases, only 3 pairs were mismatched for the MiHAg HA-2. Acute GVHD occurred in 01 HA-2-mismatched pair while chronic GVHD was detected in 02 disparate couples. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that MiHAg HA-2 disparity does not have any significant effect on the occurrence of either acute or chronic GVHD. This last one appeared to be correlated only with the age of patient (adulthood) (p: 0.011, OR: 22.092). Our findings support the previously reported data denying the influence of the HA-2 disparity on the GVHD occurrence after HSCT.

  20. pHEMA-nHA encapsulation and delivery of vancomycin and rhBMP-2 enhances its role as a bone graft substitute.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinning; Xu, Jianwen; Filion, Tera M; Ayers, David C; Song, Jie

    2013-08-01

    Bone grafts are widely used in orthopaedic procedures. Autografts are limited by donor site morbidity while allografts are known for considerable infection and failure rates. A synthetic composite bone graft substitute poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (pHEMA-nHA) was previously developed to stably press-fit in and functionally repair critical-sized rat femoral segmental defects when it was preabsorbed with a single low dose of 300 ng recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2/7 (rhBMP-2/7). To facilitate clinical translation of pHEMA-nHA as a synthetic structural bone graft substitute, we examined its ability to encapsulate and release rhBMP-2 and the antibiotic vancomycin. We analyzed the compressive behavior and microstructure of pHEMA-nHA as a function of vancomycin incorporation doses using a dynamic mechanical analyzer and a scanning electron microscope. In vitro release of vancomycin was monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Release of rhBMP-2 from pHEMA-nHA-vancomycin was determined by ELISA. Bioactivity of the released vancomycin and rhBMP-2 was examined by bacterial inhibition and osteogenic transdifferentiation capabilities in cell culture, respectively. Up to 4.8 wt% of vancomycin was incorporated into pHEMA-nHA without compromising its structural integrity and compressive modulus. Encapsulated vancomycin was released in a dose-dependent and sustained manner in phosphate-buffered saline over 2 weeks, and the released vancomycin inhibited Escherichia coli culture. The pHEMA-nHA-vancomycin composite released preabsorbed rhBMP-2 in a sustained manner over 8 days and locally induced osteogenic transdifferentiation of C2C12 cells in culture. pHEMA-nHA can encapsulate and deliver vancomycin and rhBMP-2 in a sustained and localized manner with reduced loading doses. The elasticity, osteoconductivity, and rhBMP-2/vancomycin delivery characteristics of pHEMA-nHA may benefit orthopaedic reconstructions or fusions with

  1. Effect of high pressure on growth and bacteriocin production of Pediococcus acidilactici HA-6111-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, S. M.; Kolomeytseva, M.; Casquete, R.; Silva, J.; Saraiva, J. A.; Teixeira, P.

    2015-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of high pressure processing (HPP, 200-600 MPa) on the (i) survival of Listeria innocua and Pediococcus acidilactici HA-6111-2; (ii) production of bacteriocin bacHA-6111-2 and (iii) activity of bacteriocin against untreated and pressure-treated L. innocua cells. Inactivation of P. acidilactici was observed for pressures of >300 MPa. However, at this pressure level, L. innocua was more sensitive. Bacteriocin crude extract was pressure stable, with a decrease for pressures of ≥400 MPa. Pressures of ≤200 MPa did not affect bacteriocin production when compared with non-pressure-treated cells, whereas higher pressures caused a 2- to 4-fold decrease on the maximum level of bacteriocin production. Growth curves of P. acidilactici were fitted with the modified Gompertz model. The lag phase period depended on the magnitude of the pressure applied: there was a delay in the exponential phase as pressure increased and, as a consequence, in the beginning of bacteriocin production. Since P. acidilactici HA-6111-2 and its bacteriocin have shown resistance to pressures up to 300-400 MPa, they could be used in combination with HPP in order to improve food safety.

  2. [Biological activity evaluation of porous HA ceramics using NH4 HCO3/PVA as pore-creating agents].

    PubMed

    Wang, Songquan; Zhang, Dekun

    2010-12-01

    Porous HA ceramics were prepared by using NH4 HCO3/PVA as pore-formed material along with biological glass as intensifier, and these ceramics were immersed in Locke's Physiological Saline and Simulate Body Fluid (SBF). The changes of phase composition, grain size and crystallinity of porous HA ceramics before and after immersion were investigated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The biological activity was evaluated. The porous HA ceramics showed various degrees of decomposition after immersion in the two solution systems, but there was no evident change in respect to crystallinity. Besides, the impact of different degrees of solution systems on the change of grain size and planar preferred orientation was observed. The TCP phase of the ceramics immersed in Locke's Physiological Saline decomposed and there was no crystal growth on the surface of ceramics; however, the grain size of ceramics immersed in SBF became refined in certain degree and the surface of ceramics took on the new crystal growth.

  3. A phase IIa study of HA-irinotecan, formulation of hyaluronic acid and irinotecan targeting CD44 in extensive-stage small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Alamgeer, Muhammad; Neil Watkins, D; Banakh, Ilia; Kumar, Beena; Gough, Daniel J; Markman, Ben; Ganju, Vinod

    2018-04-01

    Preclinical studies in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) have shown that hyaluronic acid (HA) can be effectively used to deliver chemotherapy and selectively decrease CD44 expressing (stem cell-like) tumour cells. The current study aimed to replicate these findings and obtain data on safety and activity of HA-irinotecan (HA-IR). Eligible patients with extensive stage SCLC were consented. A safety cohort (n = 5) was treated with HA-IR and Carboplatin (C). Subsequently, the patients were randomised 1:1 to receive experimental (HA-IR + C) or standard (IR + C) treatment, to a maximum of 6 cycles. The second line patients were added to the study and treated with open label HA-IR + C. Tumour response was measured after every 2 cycles. Baseline tumour specimens were stained for CD44s and CD44v6 expression. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) were enumerated before each treatment cycle. Out of 39 patients screened, 34 were evaluable for the study. The median age was 66 (range 39-83). The overall response rates were 69% and 75% for experimental and standard arms respectively. Median progression free survival was 42 and 28 weeks, respectively (p = 0.892). The treatments were well tolerated. The incidence of grade III/IV diarrhea was more common in the standard arm, while anaemia was more common in the experimental arm. IHC analysis suggested that the patients with CD44s positive tumours may gain survival benefit from HA-IR. HA-IR is well tolerated and active in ES-SCLC. The effect of HA-IR on CD44s + cancer stem-like cells provide an early hint towards a potential novel target.

  4. Evaluation of rhBMP-2/collagen/TCP-HA bone graft with and without bone marrow cells in the canine femoral multi defect model.

    PubMed

    Luangphakdy, V; Shinohara, K; Pan, H; Boehm, C; Samaranska, A; Muschler, G F

    2015-01-12

    Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2, when applied to an absorbable type 1 bovine collagen sponge (rhBMP-2/ACS) is an effective therapy in many bone grafting settings. Bone marrow aspirate (BMA) has also been used as a source of transplantable osteogenic connective tissue progenitors. This study was designed to characterize the performance of a scaffold comprising rhBMP-2/ACS in which the sponge wraps around tri-calcium phosphate hydroxyapatite granules (rhBMP-2/ACS/TCP-HA) and to test the hypothesis that addition of BMA will improve the performance of this construct in the Canine Femoral Multi Defect Model. In each subject, two sites were grafted with rhBMP-2/ACS/TCP-HA scaffold loaded with BMA clot and two other sites with rhBMP-2/ACS/TCP-HA scaffold loaded with wound blood (WB). After correction for unresorbed TCP-HA granules, sites grafted with rhBMP-2/ACS/TCP-HA+BMA and rhBMP-2/ACS/TCP-HA+WB were similar, with mean percent bone volumes of 10.9 %±1.2 and 11.2 %±1.2, respectively. No differences were seen in quantitative histomorphometry. While bone formation using both constructs was robust, this study did not support the hypothesis that the addition of unprocessed bone marrow aspirate clot improved bone regeneration in a site engrafted with rhBMP-2/ACS/TCP-HA+BMA. In contrast to prior studies using this model, new bone formation was greater at the center of the defect where TCP-HA was distributed. This finding suggests a potential synergy between rhBMP-2 and the centrally placed ceramic and cellular components of the graft construct. Further optimization may also require more uniform distribution of TCP-HA, alternative cell delivery strategies, and a more rigorous large animal segmental defect model.

  5. 7 CFR 1940.325 - FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 as a cooperating Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Environmental Program § 1940.325 FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 as a cooperating Agency. (a) FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 will serve as a cooperating Agency when... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 action. An example of the latter would be a request from EPA to...

  6. Planning for and implementing an emerald ash borer-induced forest restoration program in municipal woodlands in Oakville, Ontario

    Treesearch

    Peter A. Williams; Candace. Karandiuk

    2017-01-01

    Oakville is an urban municipality with 846 ha of woodland. Management priorities are to maintain forest health, environmental health, and safety; wood production is a minor objective. The town developed a comprehensive strategy to plan for emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis) induced ash mortality and forest restoration. Oakville has begun...

  7. Vanadium-induced apoptosis of HaCaT cells is mediated by c-fos and involves nuclear accumulation of clusterin

    PubMed Central

    Markopoulou, Soultana; Kontargiris, Evangelos; Batsi, Christina; Tzavaras, Theodore; Trougakos, Ioannis; Boothman, David A.; Gonos, Efstathios S.; Kolettas, Evangelos

    2016-01-01

    Vanadium exerts a variety of biological effects, including antiproliferative responses through activation of the respective signaling pathways and the generation of reactive oxygen species. As epidermal cells are exposed to environmental insults, human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were used to investigate the mechanism of the antiproliferative effects of vanadyl(IV) sulfate (VOSO4). Treatment of HaCaT cells with VOSO4 inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of proliferation was associated with downregulation of cyclins D1 and E, E2F1, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21Cip1/Waf1 and p27Kip1. Induction of apoptosis correlated with upregulation of the c-fos oncoprotein, changes in the expression of clusterin (CLU), an altered ratio of antiapoptotic to proapoptotic Bcl-2 protein family members, and poly(ADP-ribose) poly-merase-1 cleavage. Forced overexpression of c-fos induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells that correlated with secretory CLU downregulation and upregulation of nuclear CLU (nCLU), a pro-death protein. Overexpression of Bcl-2 protected HaCaT cells from vanadium-induced apoptosis, whereas secretory CLU overexpression offered no cytoprotection. In contrast, nCLU sensitized HaCaT cells to apoptosis. Our data suggest that vanadium-mediated apoptosis was promoted by c-fos, leading to alterations in CLU isoform processing and induction of the pro-death nCLU protein. PMID:19531052

  8. Caveolin-1 down-regulation is required for Wnt5a-Frizzled 2 signalling in Ha-RasV12 -induced cell transformation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Kuan; Lin, Hsi-Hui; Chiou, Yu-Wei; Wu, Ching-Lung; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Tang, Ming-Jer

    2018-05-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav1) is down-regulated during MK4 (MDCK cells harbouring inducible Ha-Ras V12 gene) transformation by Ha-Ras V12 . Cav1 overexpression abrogates the Ha-Ras V12 -driven transformation of MK4 cells; however, the targeted down-regulation of Cav1 is not sufficient to mimic this transformation. Cav1-silenced cells, including MK4/shCav1 cells and MDCK/shCav1 cells, showed an increased cell area and discontinuous junction-related proteins staining. Cellular and mechanical transformations were completed when MDCK/shCav1 cells were treated with medium conditioned by MK4 cells treated with IPTG (MK4+I-CM) but not with medium conditioned by MK4 cells. Nanoparticle tracking analysis showed that Ha-Ras V12 -inducing MK4 cells increased exosome-like microvesicles release compared with their normal counterparts. The cellular and mechanical transformation activities of MK4+I-CM were abolished after heat treatment and exosome depletion and were copied by exosomes derived from MK4+I-CM (MK4+I-EXs). Wnt5a, a downstream product of Ha-Ras V12 , was markedly secreted by MK4+I-CM and MK4+I-EXs. Suppression of Wnt5a expression and secretion using the porcupine inhibitor C59 or Wnt5a siRNA inhibited the Ha-Ras V12 - and MK4+I-CM-induced transformation of MK4 cells and MDCK/shCav1 cells, respectively. Cav1 down-regulation, either by Ha-Ras V12 or targeted shRNA, increased frizzled-2 (Fzd2) protein levels without affecting its mRNA levels, suggesting a novel role of Cav1 in negatively regulating Fzd2 expression. Additionally, silencing Cav1 facilitated the internalization of MK4+I-EXs in MDCK cells. These data suggest that Cav1-dependent repression of Fzd2 and exosome uptake is potentially relevant to its antitransformation activity, which hinders the activation of Ha-Ras V12 -Wnt5a-Stat3 pathway. Altogether, these results suggest that both decreasing Cav1 and increasing exosomal Wnt5a must be implemented during Ha-Ras V12 -driven cell transformation. © 2018 The Authors

  9. Topical stabilized retinol treatment induces the expression of HAS genes and HA production in human skin in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Hwa; Wong, Heng-Kuan; Serrano, José; Randhawa, Manpreet; Kaur, Simarna; Southall, Michael D; Parsa, Ramine

    2017-05-01

    Skin Aging manifests primarily with wrinkles, dyspigmentations, texture changes, and loss of elasticity. During the skin aging process, there is a loss of moisture and elasticity in skin resulting in loss of firmness finally leading to skin sagging. The key molecule involved in skin moisture is hyaluronic acid (HA), which has a significant water-binding capacity. HA levels in skin decline with age resulting in decrease in skin moisture, which may contribute to loss of firmness. Clinical trials have shown that topically applied ROL effectively reduces wrinkles and helps retain youthful appearance. In the current study, ROL was shown to induce HA production and stimulates the gene expression of all three forms of hyaluronic acid synthases (HAS) in normal human epidermal keratinocytes monolayer cultures. Moreover, in human skin equivalent tissues and in human skin explants, topical treatment of tissues with a stabilized-ROL formulation significantly induced the gene expression of HAS mRNA concomitant with an increased HA production. Finally, in a vehicle-controlled human clinical study, histochemical analysis confirmed increased HA accumulation in the epidermis in ROL-treated human skin as compared to vehicle. These results show that ROL increases skin expression of HA, a significant contributing factor responsible for wrinkle formation and skin moisture, which decrease during aging. Taken together with the activity to increase collagen, elastin, and cell proliferation, these studies establish that retinol provides multi-functional activity for photodamaged skin.

  10. A multi-scaled hybrid orthopedic implant: bone ECM-shaped Sr-HA nanofibers on the microporous walls of a macroporous titanium scaffold.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong; Zhou, Jianhong; Zhang, Lan; Xu, Kewei

    2011-07-08

    We report here, for the first time, a novel multi-scaled hybrid orthopedic implant material consisting of a macroporous Ti scaffold, whose macropores' walls have a microporous titania layer which is fully covered with nanofibers of Sr-doped hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA). The microporous titania layer is formed on and within the Ti scaffold by micro-arc oxidation, which firmly binds to the Ti substrate and contains Ca2+, Sr2+ and PO4(3-) ions. It is then hydrothermally treated to form Sr-HA nanofibers. During the hydrothermal treatment, Sr-HA nanoprisms nucleate from Ca0.5Sr0.5TiO3 pre-formed on the TiO2 and grow in length to nanofibers at the expense of Ca2+, Sr2+ and PO4(3-) ions that migrate from the TiO2. These Sr-HA nanofibers construct a network structure similar to the hierarchical organization of bone extracellular matrix (ECM), and the resulting nanofibrous surface displays a firm adhesion to substrate, superhydrophilicity and apatite-inducing ability. The induced apatite prefers to nucleate on the basal-faceted surfaces of Sr-HA nanofibers. The nanofiber-walled scaffold has a great potential for load-bearing orthotopic use.

  11. A multi-scaled hybrid orthopedic implant: bone ECM-shaped Sr-HA nanofibers on the microporous walls of a macroporous titanium scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yong; Zhou, Jianhong; Zhang, Lan; Xu, Kewei

    2011-07-01

    We report here, for the first time, a novel multi-scaled hybrid orthopedic implant material consisting of a macroporous Ti scaffold, whose macropores' walls have a microporous titania layer which is fully covered with nanofibers of Sr-doped hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA). The microporous titania layer is formed on and within the Ti scaffold by micro-arc oxidation, which firmly binds to the Ti substrate and contains Ca2 + , Sr2 + and PO43 - ions. It is then hydrothermally treated to form Sr-HA nanofibers. During the hydrothermal treatment, Sr-HA nanoprisms nucleate from Ca0.5Sr0.5TiO3 pre-formed on the TiO2 and grow in length to nanofibers at the expense of Ca2 + , Sr2 + and PO43 - ions that migrate from the TiO2. These Sr-HA nanofibers construct a network structure similar to the hierarchical organization of bone extracellular matrix (ECM), and the resulting nanofibrous surface displays a firm adhesion to substrate, superhydrophilicity and apatite-inducing ability. The induced apatite prefers to nucleate on the basal-faceted surfaces of Sr-HA nanofibers. The nanofiber-walled scaffold has a great potential for load-bearing orthotopic use.

  12. MiR-30e suppresses proliferation of hepatoma cells via targeting prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 (P4HA1) mRNA

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Feng, Guoxing; Shi, Hui; Li, Jiong

    Aberrant microRNA expression has been shown to be characteristic of many cancers. It has been reported that the expression levels of miR-30e are decreased in liver cancer tissues. However, the role of miR-30e in hepatocellular carcinoma remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the significance of miR-30e in hepatocarcinogenesis. Bioinformatics analysis reveals a putative target site of miR-30e in the 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) of prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 (P4HA1) mRNA. Moreover, luciferase reporter gene assays verified that miR-30e directly targeted 3′UTR of P4HA1 mRNA. Then, we demonstrated that miR-30e was able to reduce the expression of P4HA1 atmore » the levels of mRNA and protein using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Enforced expression of miR-30e suppressed proliferation of HepG2 cells by 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay and reduced colony formation of these cells by colony formation analysis. Conversely, anti-miR-30e enhanced the proliferation of hepatoma cells in vitro. Interestingly, the ectopic expression of P4HA1 could efficiently rescue the inhibition of cell proliferation mediated by miR-30e in HepG2 cells. Meanwhile, silencing of P4HA1 abolished the anti-miR-30e-induced proliferation of cells. Clinically, quantitative real-time PCR showed that miR-30e was down-regulated in liver tumor tissues relative to their peritumor tissues. The expression levels of miR-30e were negatively correlated to those of P4HA1 mRNA in clinical liver tumor tissues. Thus, we conclude that miR-30e suppresses proliferation of hepatoma cells through targeting P4HA1 mRNA. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis. - Highlights: • P4HA1 is a novel target gene of miR-30e. • P4HA1 is increased in clinical HCC tissues. • MiR-30e is negatively correlated with P4HA1 in clinical HCC tissues. • MiR-30e suppresses the proliferation of HCC cells

  13. Contribution of Vaccine-Induced Immunity toward either the HA or the NA Component of Influenza Viruses Limits Secondary Bacterial Complications▿

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Victor C.; Peltola, Ville; Iverson, Amy R.; McCullers, Jonathan A.

    2010-01-01

    Secondary bacterial infections contribute to morbidity and mortality from influenza. Vaccine effectiveness is typically assessed using prevention of influenza, not secondary infections, as an endpoint. We vaccinated mice with formalin-inactivated influenza virus vaccine preparations containing disparate HA and NA proteins and demonstrated an ability to induce the appropriate anti-HA and anti-NA immune profiles. Protection from both primary viral and secondary bacterial infection was demonstrated with vaccine-induced immunity directed toward either the HA or the NA. This finding suggests that immunity toward the NA component of the virion is desirable and should be considered in generation of influenza vaccines. PMID:20130054

  14. Posttranslational modification of Ha-ras p21 by farnesyl versus geranylgeranyl isoprenoids is determined by the COOH-terminal amino acid.

    PubMed Central

    Kinsella, B T; Erdman, R A; Maltese, W A

    1991-01-01

    ras proteins undergo posttranslational modification by a 15-carbon farnesyl isoprenoid at a cysteine within a defined COOH-terminal amino acid motif; i.e., Cys-Ali-Ali-Ser/Met (where Ali represents an aliphatic residue). In other low molecular mass GTP-binding proteins, cysteines are modified by 20-carbon geranylgeranyl groups within a Cys-Ali-Ali-Leu motif. We changed the terminal Ser-189 of Ha-ras p21 to Leu-189 by site-directed mutagenesis and found that the protein was modified by [3H]geranylgeranyl instead of [3H]farnesyl in an in vitro assay. Gel-permeation chromatography of [3H]mevalonate-labeled hydrocarbons released from immunoprecipitated ras proteins overexpressed in COS cells indicated that Ha-ras p21(Leu-189) was also a substrate for 20-carbon isoprenyl modification in vivo. Additional steps in Ha-ras p21 processing, normally initiated by farnesylation, appear to be supported by geranylgeranylation, based on metabolic labeling of Ha-ras p21(Leu-189) with [3H]palmitate and its subcellular localization in a particulate fraction from COS cells. These observations indicate that the amino acid occupying the terminal position (Xaa) in the Cys-Ali-Ali-Xaa motif constitutes a key structural feature by which Ha-ras p21 and other proteins with ras-like COOH-terminal isoprenylation sites are distinguished as substrates for farnesyl- or geranylgeranyltransferases. Images PMID:1924354

  15. (+)-Nootkatone inhibits tumor necrosis factor α/interferon γ-induced production of chemokines in HaCaT cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Choi, Hyeon-Jae; Lee, Jin-Hwee; Jung, Yi-Sook, E-mail: yisjung@ajou.ac.kr

    Highlights: • (+)-Nootkatone inhibits TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC and MDC expression in HaCaT cells. • PKCζ, p38 MAPK, or NF-κB mediate TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC and MDC expression. • (+)-Nootkatone inhibits TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced activation of PKCζ, p38 MAPK, or NF-κB. • (+)-Nootkatone suppresses chemokine expression by inhibiting of PKCζ and p38 pathways. - Abstract: Chemokines are important mediators of cell migration, and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) are well-known typical inflammatory chemokines involved in atopic dermatitis (AD). (+)-Nootkatone is the major component of Cyperus rotundus. (+)-Nootkatone has antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and antiplatelet activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate themore » effect of (+)-nootkatone on tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)/interferon γ (IFN-γ)-induced expression of Th2 chemokines in HaCaT cells. We found that (+)-nootkatone inhibited the TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced expression of TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 mRNA in HaCaT cells. It also significantly inhibited TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ). Furthermore, we showed that PKCζ and p38 MAPK contributed to the inhibition of TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 expression by blocking IκBα degradation in HaCaT cells. Taken together, these results suggest that (+)-nootkatone may suppress TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 expression in HaCaT cells by inhibiting of PKCζ and p38 MAPK signaling pathways that lead to activation of NF-κB. We propose that (+)-nootkatone may be a useful therapeutic candidate for inflammatory skin diseases such as AD.« less

  16. Spatial and temporal patterns of forest disturbance and regrowth within the area of the Northwest Forest Plan

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Kennedy; Zhiqiang Yang; Warren B. Cohen; Eric Pfaff; Justin Braaten; Peder Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Understanding fine-grain patterns of forest disturbance and regrowth at the landscape scale is critical for effective management, particularly in forests in western Washington, Oregon, and California, U.S., where the policy known as the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) was imposed in 1994 over > 8 million ha of forest in an effort to balance environmental and economic...

  17. 7 CFR 1901.507 - Certificates of beneficial ownership issued by the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...HA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Finance Office. 1901.507 Section 1901.507... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Finance Office. No assignments or evidence in support of them will... Certificates of beneficial ownership issued by the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...

  18. 7 CFR 1901.507 - Certificates of beneficial ownership issued by the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...HA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Finance Office. 1901.507 Section 1901.507... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Finance Office. No assignments or evidence in support of them will... Certificates of beneficial ownership issued by the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...

  19. 7 CFR 1901.507 - Certificates of beneficial ownership issued by the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...HA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Finance Office. 1901.507 Section 1901.507... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Finance Office. No assignments or evidence in support of them will... Certificates of beneficial ownership issued by the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...

  20. Possible role of PAPR-1 in protecting human HaCaT cells against cytotoxicity of SiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chunmei; Yang, Linqing; Zhou, Jichang; Guo, Xiang; Zhuang, Zhixiong

    2017-10-05

    Nano-SiO 2 materials play a significant role in the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) field. The ease of their production as well as their relatively low cost has promoted the wide use of these products in many fields. Nano-SiO 2 exposure is known to cause severe DNA damage; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In a previous study, we found that nano-SiO 2 exposure regulate the expression of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases-1 (PARP-1), a pivotal DNA repair gene, in human HaCaT cells. Here, we employed lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down PAPR-1 expression in HaCaT cells and explored the potential role of PARP-1 in nano-SiO 2 induced cytotoxicity. We found that nano-SiO 2 treatment of HaCaT cells causes decreased cell viability, increased apoptosis and DNA damage. Nano-SiO 2 -treated HaCaT cells were also found to have slightly changed cell cycle distribution. Lentivirus-mediated PAPR-1 knockdown partially aggravated cytotoxicity and increased apoptosis induced by nano-SiO 2 treatment. Nano-SiO 2 had significant toxicity to human HaCaT cells and causes DNA damage. PAPR-1 knock-down cell line appears more sensitive to nano-SiO 2 than the control cells in DNA damage. The results suggest that PAPR-1 is involved in protecting cells from damage caused by nano-SiO 2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Generation of Oxtr cDNA(HA)-Ires-Cre Mice for Gene Expression in an Oxytocin Receptor Specific Manner.

    PubMed

    Hidema, Shizu; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Hiraoka, Yuichi; Mizukami, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Ryotaro; Otsuka, Ayano; Suzuki, Shingo; Miyazaki, Shinji; Nishimori, Katsuhiko

    2016-05-01

    The neurohypophysial hormone oxytocin (OXT) and its receptor (OXTR) have critical roles in the regulation of pro-social behaviors, including social recognition, pair bonding, parental behavior, and stress-related responses. Supporting this hypothesis, a portion of patients suffering from autism spectrum disorder have mutations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, or epigenetic modifications in their OXTR gene. We previously reported that OXTR-deficient mice exhibit pervasive social deficits, indicating the critical role of OXTR in social behaviors. In the present study, we generated Oxtr cDNA(HA)-Ires-Cre knock-in mice, expressing both OXTR and Cre recombinase under the control of the endogenous Oxtr promoter. Knock-in cassette of Oxtr cDNA(HA)-Ires-Cre consisted of Oxtr cDNA tagged with the hemagglutinin epitope at the 3' end (Oxtr cDNA(HA)), internal ribosomal entry site (Ires), and Cre. Cre was expressed in the uterus, mammary gland, kidney, and brain of Oxtr cDNA(HA)-Ires-Cre knock-in mice. Furthermore, the distribution of Cre in the brain was similar to that observed in Oxtr-Venus fluorescent protein expressing mice (Oxtr-Venus), another animal model previously generated by our group. Social behavior of Oxtr cDNA(HA)-Ires-Cre knock-in mice was similar to that of wild-type animals. We demonstrated that this construct is expressed in OXTR-expressing neurons specifically after an infection with the recombinant adeno-associated virus carrying the flip-excision switch vector. Using this system, we showed the transport of the wheat-germ agglutinin tracing molecule from the OXTR-expressing neurons to the innervated neurons in knock-in mice. This study might contribute to the monosynaptic analysis of neuronal circuits and to the optogenetic analysis of neurons expressing OXTR. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Virtual Cloud Computing: Effects and Application of Hastily Formed Networks (HFN) for Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR) Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    COMPUTING: EFFECTS AND APPLICATION OF HASTILY FORMED NETWORKS (HFN) FOR HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE/DISASTER RELIEF (HA/DR) MISSIONS by Mark K. Morris...i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour...SUBTITLE Virtual Cloud Computing: Effects and Application of Hastily Formed Networks (HFN) for Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR) Missions

  3. 7 CFR 1944.660 - Authorized representative of the HPG applicant and FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Authorized representative of the HPG applicant and Fm... of the HPG applicant and FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 point of contact. (a) FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 will deal only with authorized representatives...

  4. 7 CFR 1944.660 - Authorized representative of the HPG applicant and FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Authorized representative of the HPG applicant and Fm... of the HPG applicant and FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 point of contact. (a) FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 will deal only with authorized representatives...

  5. An Influenza HA and M2e Based Vaccine Delivered by a Novel Attenuated Salmonella Mutant Protects Mice against Homologous H1N1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Hajam, Irshad A; Lee, John H

    2017-01-01

    Attenuated Salmonella strains constitute a promising technology for the development of a more efficient multivalent protein based vaccines. In this study, we constructed a novel attenuated strain of Salmonella for the delivery and expression of the H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA) and the conserved extracellular domain of the matrix protein 2 (M2e). We demonstrated that the constructed Salmonella strain exhibited efficient HA and M2e protein expressions and little cytotoxicity and pathogenicity in mice. Using BALB/c mice as the model, we showed that the mice vaccinated with a Salmonella strain expressing HA and M2e protein antigens, respectively, induced significant production of HA and M2e-specific serum IgG1 and IgG2a responses, and of anti-HA interferon-γ producing T cells. Furthermore, immunization with Salmonella-HA-M2e-based vaccine via different routes provided protection in 66.66% orally, 100% intramuscularly, and 100% intraperitoneally immunized mice against the homologous H1N1 virus while none of the animals survived treated with either the PBS or the Salmonella carrying empty expression vector. Ex vivo stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) with heat killed Salmonella expressing HA demonstrated that DCs play an important role in the elicitation of HA-specific humoral immune responses in mice. In summary, Salmonella -HA-M2e-based vaccine elicits efficient antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses, and provides significant immune protection against a highly pathogenic H1N1 influenza virus.

  6. Satellite observations of a surtseyan eruption: Hunga Ha'apai, Tonga

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaughan, R.G.; Webley, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    On March 17, 2009, a surtseyan eruption occurred around Hunga Ha'apai Island, Tonga. A series of observations from the high-spatial resolution Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and the high-temporal resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), was used to estimate the magnitude, location, start time, and duration of the eruption, and measure the evolving characteristics of the new Hunga Ha'apai Island. The eruption start time was estimated to be between 01:50 and 11:10 local time, on March 17, 2009 (i.e., between 12:50 and 22:10UTC, March 16). The initial explosive phase lasted 3-5days and consisted of multiple steam and tephra explosions from two distinct vent sources, one on the northwest side, and another about 100m off the south shore of the pre-existing island. The eruption plume reached 4.0 to 7.6km altitude above sea level, and tephra added new land around each of the vents, initially tripling the area of the pre-existing island. The next phase of steaming from newly formed crater lakes around the vents lasted a few days. Three warm crater lakes formed initially, but disappeared with time as the shoreline eroded. After ~2months, vegetation that was initially buried by tephra was recovering; after ~10months, the size of the island had eroded down to ~twice that of the pre-existing island, and the one remaining crater lake had a temperature of ~68??17??C. The volume of erupted material was estimated to be ~0.0176km3 and the volcanic explosivity index (VEI) was estimated to be VEI=2. ?? 2010.

  7. ADCC employing an NK cell line (haNK) expressing the high affinity CD16 allele with avelumab, an anti-PD-L1 antibody.

    PubMed

    Jochems, Caroline; Hodge, James W; Fantini, Massimo; Tsang, Kwong Y; Vandeveer, Amanda J; Gulley, James L; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2017-08-01

    NK-92 cells, and their derivative, designated aNK, were obtained from a patient with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Prior clinical studies employing adoptively transferred irradiated aNK cells have provided evidence of clinical benefit and an acceptable safety profile. aNK cells have now been engineered to express IL-2 and the high affinity (ha) CD16 allele (designated haNK). Avelumab is a human IgG1 anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody, which has shown evidence of clinical activity in a range of human tumors. Prior in vitro studies have shown that avelumab has the ability to mediate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) of human tumor cells when combined with NK cells. In the studies reported here, the ability of avelumab to enhance the lysis of a range of human carcinoma cells by irradiated haNK cells via the ADCC mechanism is demonstrated; this ADCC is shown to be inhibited by anti-CD16 blocking antibody and by concanamycin A, indicating the use of the granzyme/perforin pathway in tumor cell lysis. Studies also show that while NK cells have the ability to lyse aNK or haNK cells, the addition of NK cells to irradiated haNK cells does not inhibit haNK-mediated lysis of human tumor cells, with or without the addition of avelumab. Avelumab-mediated lysis of tumor cells by irradiated haNK cells is also shown to be similar to that of NK cells bearing the V/V Fc receptor high affinity allele. These studies thus provide the rationale for the clinical evaluation of the combined use of avelumab with that of irradiated adoptively transferred haNK cells. © 2017 UICC.

  8. Effectiveness of Losartan-Loaded Hyaluronic Acid (HA) Micelles for the Reduction of Advanced Hepatic Fibrosis in C3H/HeN Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Reju George; Moon, Myeong Ju; Kim, Jo Heon; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Jeong, Yong Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Advanced hepatic fibrosis therapy using drug-delivering nanoparticles is a relatively unexplored area. Angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers such as losartan can be delivered to hepatic stellate cells (HSC), blocking their activation and thereby reducing fibrosis progression in the liver. In our study, we analyzed the possibility of utilizing drug-loaded vehicles such as hyaluronic acid (HA) micelles carrying losartan to attenuate HSC activation. Losartan, which exhibits inherent lipophilicity, was loaded into the hydrophobic core of HA micelles with a 19.5% drug loading efficiency. An advanced liver fibrosis model was developed using C3H/HeN mice subjected to 20 weeks of prolonged TAA/ethanol weight-adapted treatment. The cytocompatibility and cell uptake profile of losartan-HA micelles were studied in murine fibroblast cells (NIH3T3), human hepatic stellate cells (hHSC) and FL83B cells (hepatocyte cell line). The ability of these nanoparticles to attenuate HSC activation was studied in activated HSC cells based on alpha smooth muscle actin (α-sma) expression. Mice treated with oral losartan or losartan-HA micelles were analyzed for serum enzyme levels (ALT/AST, CK and LDH) and collagen deposition (hydroxyproline levels) in the liver. The accumulation of HA micelles was observed in fibrotic livers, which suggests increased delivery of losartan compared to normal livers and specific uptake by HSC. Active reduction of α-sma was observed in hHSC and the liver sections of losartan-HA micelle-treated mice. The serum enzyme levels and collagen deposition of losartan-HA micelle-treated mice was reduced significantly compared to the oral losartan group. Losartan-HA micelles demonstrated significant attenuation of hepatic fibrosis via an HSC-targeting mechanism in our in vitro and in vivo studies. These nanoparticles can be considered as an alternative therapy for liver fibrosis. PMID:26714035

  9. Effectiveness of Losartan-Loaded Hyaluronic Acid (HA) Micelles for the Reduction of Advanced Hepatic Fibrosis in C3H/HeN Mice Model.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Reju George; Moon, Myeong Ju; Kim, Jo Heon; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Jeong, Yong Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Advanced hepatic fibrosis therapy using drug-delivering nanoparticles is a relatively unexplored area. Angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers such as losartan can be delivered to hepatic stellate cells (HSC), blocking their activation and thereby reducing fibrosis progression in the liver. In our study, we analyzed the possibility of utilizing drug-loaded vehicles such as hyaluronic acid (HA) micelles carrying losartan to attenuate HSC activation. Losartan, which exhibits inherent lipophilicity, was loaded into the hydrophobic core of HA micelles with a 19.5% drug loading efficiency. An advanced liver fibrosis model was developed using C3H/HeN mice subjected to 20 weeks of prolonged TAA/ethanol weight-adapted treatment. The cytocompatibility and cell uptake profile of losartan-HA micelles were studied in murine fibroblast cells (NIH3T3), human hepatic stellate cells (hHSC) and FL83B cells (hepatocyte cell line). The ability of these nanoparticles to attenuate HSC activation was studied in activated HSC cells based on alpha smooth muscle actin (α-sma) expression. Mice treated with oral losartan or losartan-HA micelles were analyzed for serum enzyme levels (ALT/AST, CK and LDH) and collagen deposition (hydroxyproline levels) in the liver. The accumulation of HA micelles was observed in fibrotic livers, which suggests increased delivery of losartan compared to normal livers and specific uptake by HSC. Active reduction of α-sma was observed in hHSC and the liver sections of losartan-HA micelle-treated mice. The serum enzyme levels and collagen deposition of losartan-HA micelle-treated mice was reduced significantly compared to the oral losartan group. Losartan-HA micelles demonstrated significant attenuation of hepatic fibrosis via an HSC-targeting mechanism in our in vitro and in vivo studies. These nanoparticles can be considered as an alternative therapy for liver fibrosis.

  10. Human relevance of an in vitro gene signature in HaCaT for skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, Jochem W; Hodemaekers, Henny; Reus, Astrid A; Maas, Wilfred J M; van Loveren, Henk; Ezendam, Janine

    2015-02-01

    The skin sensitizing potential of chemicals is mainly assessed using animal methods, such as the murine local lymph node assay. Recently, an in vitro assay based on a gene expression signature in the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line was proposed as an alternative to these animal methods. Here, the human relevance of this gene signature is assessed through exposure of freshly isolated human skin to the chemical allergens dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and diphenylcyclopropenone (DCP). In human skin, the gene signature shows similar direction of regulation as was previously observed in vitro, suggesting that the molecular processes that drive expression of these genes are similar between the HaCaT cell line and freshly isolated skin, providing evidence for the human relevance of the gene signature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Formulation Changes Affect Material Properties and Cell Behavior in HA-Based Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Lawyer, Thomas; McIntosh, Kristen; Clavijo, Cristian; Potekhina, Lydia; Mann, Brenda K

    2012-01-01

    To develop and optimize new scaffold materials for tissue engineering applications, it is important to understand how changes to the scaffold affect the cells that will interact with that scaffold. In this study, we used a hyaluronic acid- (HA-) based hydrogel as a synthetic extracellular matrix, containing modified HA (CMHA-S), modified gelatin (Gtn-S), and a crosslinker (PEGda). By varying the concentrations of these components, we were able to change the gelation time, enzymatic degradation, and compressive modulus of the hydrogel. These changes also affected fibroblast spreading within the hydrogels and differentially affected the proliferation and metabolic activity of fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In particular, PEGda concentration had the greatest influence on gelation time, compressive modulus, and cell spreading. MSCs appeared to require a longer period of adjustment to the new microenvironment of the hydrogels than fibroblasts. Fibroblasts were able to proliferate in all formulations over the course of two weeks, but MSCs did not. Metabolic activity changed for each cell type during the two weeks depending on the formulation. These results highlight the importance of determining the effect of matrix composition changes on a particular cell type of interest in order to optimize the formulation for a given application.

  12. [Preliminary study on HA-coated titanium implants used as anchorage for protraction of dog molar teeth].

    PubMed

    Liang, X; Tang, S; Wang, H

    1998-05-01

    HA-coated titanium implants were placed surgically into dog mandible to protract the mandibular second molars with an orthodontic force of 150 g. During the force application period of 3 months, the movement of the molars was tested periodically and relevant reasons of movement were analysed. The results showed that the mesial moving distances of the second molar were respectively 1.04 mm, 1.68 mm and 1.76 mm at the first, second and third month, and the main reason of tooth mobility was ascribed to the implant anchorage. It can be concluded tiat HA-coated titanium implant can be used as anchorage for moving and fixing posterior teeth in the orthodontic treatment.

  13. Army Pacific Pathways: Comprehensive Assessment and Planning Needed to Capture Benefits Relative to Costs and Enhance Value for Participating Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    Force and Number of Personnela Exercises 14 Aug. – Nov. 2014 2-2 Stryker Brigade Combat Team (BCT) ~820 personnel Keris Strike ( Malaysia ... Malaysia ) 15-3 June-July, Aug. – Nov. 2015 1-25 Stryker BCT ~420 personnel Khan Quest (Mongolia) Orient Shield (Japan) Hoguk (South Korea...Sept. 2016 2-2 Stryker BCT ~700 personnel Hanuman Guardian (Thailand) Salaknib (Philippines) Garuda Shield (Indonesia) Keris Strike ( Malaysia

  14. Posttranslational modification of Ha-ras p21 by farnesyl versus geranylgeranyl isoprenoids is determined by the COOH-terminal amino acid

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kinsella, B.T.; Erdman, R.A.; Maltese, W.A.

    ras proteins undergo posttranslational modification by a 15-carbon farnesyl isoprenoid at a cysteine within a defined COOH-terminal amino acid motif; i.e., Cys-Ali-Ali-Ser/Met (where Ali represents an aliphatic residue). In other low molecular mass GTP-binding proteins, cysteines are modified by 20-carbon geranylgeranyl groups within a Cys-Ali-Ali-Leu motif. The authors changed the terminal Ser-189 of Ha-ras p21 to Leu-189 by site-directed mutagenesis and found that the protein was modified by ({sup 3}H)geranylgeranyl instead of ({sup 3}H)farnesyl in an in vitro assay. Gel-permeation chromatography of ({sup 3}H)mevalonate-labeled hydrocarbons released from immunoprecipitated ras proteins overexpressed in COS cells indicated that Ha-ras p21 (Leu-189) wasmore » also a substrate for 20-carbon isoprenyl modification in vivo. Additional steps in Ha-ras p21 processing, normally initiated by farnesylation, appear to be supported by geranylgeranylation, based on metabolic labeling of Ha-ras p21 (Leu-189) with ({sup 3}H) palmitate and its subcellular localization in a particulate fraction from COS cells. These observations indicate that the amino acid occupying the terminal position (Xaa) in the Cys-Ali-Ali-Xaa motif constitutes a key structural feature by which Ha-ras p21 and other proteins with ras-like COOH-terminal isoprenylation sites are distinguished as substrates for farnesyl- or geranylgeranyltransferases.« less

  15. Wild carrot pentane-based fractions suppress proliferation of human HaCaT keratinocytes and protect against chemically-induced skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Shebaby, Wassim N; Mroueh, Mohamad A; Boukamp, Petra; Taleb, Robin I; Bodman-Smith, Kikki; El-Sibai, Mirvat; Daher, Costantine F

    2017-01-10

    Previous studies in our laboratory showed that the Lebanese Daucus carota ssp. carota (wild carrot) oil extract possesses in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities. The present study aims to examine the cytotoxic effect of Daucus carota oil fractions on human epidermal keratinocytes and evaluate the chemopreventive activity of the pentane diethyl ether fraction on DMBA/TPA induced skin carcinogenesis in mice. Wild carrot oil extract was chromatographed to yield four fractions (F1, 100% pentane; F2, 50:50 pentane:diethyl ether; F3, 100% diethyl ether; F4 93:7 chloroform:methanol). The cytotoxic effect of fractions (10, 25, 50 and 100 μg/mL) was tested on human epidermal keratinocytes (non-tumorigenic HaCaT cells and tumorigenic HaCaT-ras variants) using WST a ssay. Cell cycle phase distribution of tumorigenic HaCaT-ras variants was determined by flow cytometry post-treatment with F2 fraction. Apoptosis related proteins were also assessed using western blot. The antitumor activity of F2 fraction was also evaluated using a DMBA/TPA induced skin carcinoma in Balb/c mice. All fractions exhibited significant cytotoxicity, with HaCaT cells being 2.4-3 times less sensitive than HaCaT-ras A5 (benign tumorigenic), and HaCaT-ras II4 (malignant) cells. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of a major compound (around 60%) in the pentane/diethylether fraction (F2), identified as 2-himachalen-6-ol. Treatment of HaCaT-ras A5 and HaCaT-ras II4 cells with F2 fraction resulted in the accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 apoptotic phase and decreased the population of cells in the S and G2/M phases. Additionally, F2 fraction treatment caused an up-regulation of the expression of pro-apoptotic (Bax) and down-regulation of the expression of anti-apoptotic (Bcl2) proteins. A decrease in the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK was also observed. Intraperitoneal treatment with F2 fraction (50 or 200 mg/kg) in the DMBA/TPA skin carcinogenesis mouse model showed a significant inhibition of

  16. The sunflower transcription factor HaWRKY76 confers drought and flood tolerance to Arabidopsis thaliana plants without yield penalty.

    PubMed

    Raineri, Jesica; Ribichich, Karina F; Chan, Raquel L

    2015-12-01

    Arabidopsis transgenic plants expressing the sunflower transcription factor HaWRKY76 exhibit increased yield and tolerance to drought and flood stresses. The genetic construct containing HaWRKY76 is proposed as a potential biotechnological tool to improve crops. Water deficit and water excess are abiotic stress factors that seriously affect crops worldwide. To increase the tolerance to such stresses without causing yield penalty constitutes a major goal for biotechnologists. In this survey, we report that HaWRKY76, a divergent sunflower WRKY transcription factor, is able to confer both dehydration and submergence tolerance to Arabidopsis transgenic plants without yield penalty. The expression pattern of HaWRKY76 was analyzed in plants grown in standard conditions and under different watering regimes indicating a regulation by water availability. The corresponding cDNA was isolated and cloned under the control of a constitutive promoter and Arabidopsis plants were transformed with this construct. These transgenic plants presented higher biomass, seed production and sucrose content than controls in standard growth conditions. Moreover, they exhibited tolerance to mild drought or flood (complete submergence/waterlogging) stresses as well as the same or increased yield, depending on the stress severity and plant developmental stage, compared with controls. Drought tolerance occurred via an ABA-independent mechanism and induction of stomatal closure. Submergence tolerance can be explained by the carbohydrate (sucrose and starch) preservation achieved through the repression of fermentation pathways. Higher cell membrane stability and chlorenchyma maintenance could be the nexus between tolerance responses in front of both stresses. Altogether, the obtained results indicated that HaWRKY76 can be a potential biotechnological tool to improve crops yield as well as drought and flood tolerances.

  17. Evaluation of a setting reaction pathway in the novel composite TiHA-CSD bone cement by FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paluszkiewicz, Czesława; Czechowska, Joanna; Ślósarczyk, Anna; Paszkiewicz, Zofia

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine a setting reaction pathway in a novel, surgically handy implant material, based on calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) and titanium doped hydroxyapatite (TiHA). The previous studies confirmed superior biological properties of TiHA in comparison to the undoped hydroxyapatite (HA) what makes it highly attractive for future medical applications. In this study the three types of titanium modified HA powders: untreated, calcined at 800 °C, sintered at 1250 °C and CSH were used to produce bone cements. The Fourier Transform-InfraRed (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were applied to evaluate processes taking place during the setting of the studied materials. Our results undoubtedly confirmed that the reaction pathways and the phase compositions differed significantly for set cements and were dependent on the initial heat treatment of TiHA powder. Final materials were multiphase composites consisting of calcium sulfate dihydrate, bassanite, tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite and calcium titanate (perovskite). The FT-IR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) measurements performed after the incubation of the cement samples in the simulated body fluid (SBF), indicate on high bioactive potential of the obtained bone cements.

  18. Monitoring bound HA1(H1N1) and HA1(H5N1) on freely suspended graphene over plasmonic platforms with infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Amrita; Chakraborty, Sumit; Altan-Bonnet, Nihal; Grebel, Haim

    2013-09-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy provides fingerprinting of the energy and orientation of molecular bonds. The IR signals are generally weak and require amplification. Here we present a new plasmonic platform, made of freely suspended graphene, which was coating periodic metal structures. Only monolayer thick films were needed for a fast signal recording. We demonstrated unique IR absorption signals of bound proteins: these were the hemagglutinin area (HA1) of swine influenza (H1N1) and the avian influenza (H5N1) viruses bound to their respective tri-saccharides ligand receptors. The simplicity and sensitivity of such approach may find applications in fast monitoring of binding events.

  19. Protecting rare, old-growth, forest-associated species under the Survey and Manage program guidelines of the northwest forest plan.

    Treesearch

    Randy Molina; Bruce G. Marcot; Robin Lesher

    2006-01-01

    The Survey and Manage Program of the Northwest Forest Plan (MFP) represents an unparalleled attempt to protect rare, little-known species associated with late-successional and old-growth forests on more than 7.7 million ha of federal lands. Approximately 400 species of amphibians, bryophytes, fungi, lichens, mollusks, vascular plants, arthropod functional groups, and...

  20. Mapping HA-tagged protein at the surface of living cells by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Formosa, C; Lachaize, V; Galés, C; Rols, M P; Martin-Yken, H; François, J M; Duval, R E; Dague, E

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy using atomic force microscopy (AFM) is more and more used to detect and map receptors, enzymes, adhesins, or any other molecules at the surface of living cells. To be specific, this technique requires antibodies or ligands covalently attached to the AFM tip that can specifically interact with the protein of interest. Unfortunately, specific antibodies are usually lacking (low affinity and specificity) or are expensive to produce (monoclonal antibodies). An alternative strategy is to tag the protein of interest with a peptide that can be recognized with high specificity and affinity with commercially available antibodies. In this context, we chose to work with the human influenza hemagglutinin (HA) tag (YPYDVPDYA) and labeled two proteins: covalently linked cell wall protein 12 (Ccw12) involved in cell wall remodeling in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) in higher eukaryotes. We first described the interaction between HA antibodies, immobilized on AFM tips, and HA epitopes, immobilized on epoxy glass slides. Using our system, we then investigated the distribution of Ccw12 proteins over the cell surface of the yeast S. cerevisiae. We were able to find the tagged protein on the surface of mating yeasts, at the tip of the mating projections. Finally, we could unfold multimers of β2-AR from the membrane of living transfected chinese hamster ovary cells. This result is in agreement with GPCR oligomerization in living cell membranes and opens the door to the study of the influence of GPCR ligands on the oligomerization process. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Penetration into the Skin and Effects on HaCaT Cells

    PubMed Central

    Crosera, Matteo; Prodi, Andrea; Mauro, Marcella; Pelin, Marco; Florio, Chiara; Bellomo, Francesca; Adami, Gianpiero; Apostoli, Pietro; De Palma, Giuseppe; Bovenzi, Massimo; Campanini, Marco; Larese Filon, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) suspensions (concentration 1.0 g/L) in synthetic sweat solution were applied on Franz cells for 24 h using intact and needle-abraded human skin. Titanium content into skin and receiving phases was determined. Cytotoxicity (MTT, AlamarBlue® and propidium iodide, PI, uptake assays) was evaluated on HaCat keratinocytes after 24 h, 48 h, and seven days of exposure. After 24 h of exposure, no titanium was detectable in receiving solutions for both intact and damaged skin. Titanium was found in the epidermal layer after 24 h of exposure (0.47 ± 0.33 μg/cm2) while in the dermal layer, the concentration was below the limit of detection. Damaged skin, in its whole, has shown a similar concentration (0.53 ± 0.26 μg/cm2). Cytotoxicity studies on HaCaT cells demonstrated that TiO2NPs induced cytotoxic effects only at very high concentrations, reducing cell viability after seven days of exposure with EC50s of 8.8 × 10−4 M (MTT assay), 3.8 × 10−5 M (AlamarBlue® assay), and 7.6 × 10−4 M (PI uptake, index of a necrotic cell death). Our study demonstrated that TiO2NPs cannot permeate intact and damaged skin and can be found only in the stratum corneum and epidermis. Moreover, the low cytotoxic effect observed on human HaCaT keratinocytes suggests that these nano-compounds have a potential toxic effect at the skin level only after long-term exposure. PMID:26262634

  2. The use of regional advance mitigation planning (RAMP) to integrate transportation infrastructure impacts with sustainability; a perspective from the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, James H.; Huber, Patrick R.; O'Donoghue, Elizabeth; Santos, Maria J.

    2014-05-01

    Globally, urban areas are expanding, and their regional, spatially cumulative, environmental impacts from transportation projects are not typically assessed. However, incorporation of a Regional Advance Mitigation Planning (RAMP) framework can promote more effective, ecologically sound, and less expensive environmental mitigation. As a demonstration of the first phase of the RAMP framework, we assessed environmental impacts from 181 planned transportation projects in the 19 368 km2 San Francisco Bay Area. We found that 107 road and railroad projects will impact 2411-3490 ha of habitat supporting 30-43 threatened or endangered species. In addition, 1175 ha of impacts to agriculture and native vegetation are expected, as well as 125 crossings of waterways supporting anadromous fish species. The extent of these spatially cumulative impacts shows the need for a regional approach to associated environmental offsets. Many of the impacts were comprised of numerous small projects, where project-by-project mitigation would result in increased transaction costs, land costs, and lost project time. Ecological gains can be made if a regional approach is taken through the avoidance of small-sized reserves and the ability to target parcels for acquisition that fit within conservation planning designs. The methods are straightforward, and can be used in other metropolitan areas.

  3. Low-concentration vemurafenib induces the proliferation and invasion of human HaCaT keratinocytes through mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Roh, Mi Ryung; Kim, Jung Min; Lee, Sang Hee; Jang, Hong Sun; Park, Kyu Hyun; Chung, Kee Yang; Rha, Sun Young

    2015-09-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas and keratoacanthomas commonly occur in patients treated with BRAF inhibitors. We investigated the effect of the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib on normal immortalized human HaCaT keratinocytes to explore the mechanism of hyperproliferative cutaneous neoplasia associated with the use of BRAF inhibitors. Vemurafenib induced an increase in viable cell number in BRAF wild-type cell lines (SK-MEL-2 and HaCaT) but not in BRAF mutant cell lines (SK-MEL-24 and G361). In HaCaT keratinocytes, a low concentration (2 μmol/L) of vemurafenib increased cell proliferation and activated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase in a CRAF-dependent manner. Invasiveness of HaCaT cells in a Matrigel assay significantly increased upon cultivation of cells with 2 μmol/L vemurafenib for 24 h. Gelatin zymography, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot results revealed that 2 μmol/L vemurafenib treatment increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expressions and activities in HaCaT cells. These results offer additional insight into the complex mechanism of paradoxical mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling involved in hyperproliferative cutaneous neoplasias that arise after BRAF inhibition and suggest a possible role for MMP in tumor progression and invasion. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  4. Induction of HIV Neutralizing Antibodies against the MPER of the HIV Envelope Protein by HA/gp41 Chimeric Protein-Based DNA and VLP Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ling; Wen, Zhiyuan; Dong, Ke; Wang, Xi; Bu, Zhigao; Zhang, Huizhong; Compans, Richard W.; Yang, Chinglai

    2011-01-01

    Several conserved neutralizing epitopes have been identified in the HIV Env protein and among these, the MPER of gp41 has received great attention and is widely recognized as a promising target. However, little success has been achieved in eliciting MPER-specific HIV neutralizing antibodies by a number of different vaccine strategies. We investigated the ability of HA/gp41 chimeric protein-based vaccines, which were designed to enhance the exposure of the MPER in its native conformation, to induce MPER-specific HIV neutralizing antibodies. In characterization of the HA/gp41 chimeric protein, we found that by mutating an unpaired Cys residue (Cys-14) in its HA1 subunit to a Ser residue, the modified chimeric protein HA-C14S/gp41 showed increased reactivity to a conformation-sensitive monoclonal antibody against HA and formed more stable trimers in VLPs. On the other hand, HA-C14S/gp41 and HA/gp41 chimeric proteins expressed on the cell surfaces exhibited similar reactivity to monoclonal antibodies 2F5 and 4E10. Immunization of guinea pigs using the HA-C14S/gp41 DNA or VLP vaccines induced antibodies against the HIV gp41 as well as to a peptide corresponding to a segment of MPER at higher levels than immunization by standard HIV VLPs. Further, sera from vaccinated guinea pigs were found to exhibit HIV neutralizing activities. Moreover, sera from guinea pigs vaccinated by HA-C14S/gp41 DNA and VLP vaccines but not the standard HIV VLPs, were found to neutralize HIV pseudovirions containing a SIV-4E10 chimeric Env protein. The virus neutralization could be blocked by a MPER-specific peptide, thus demonstrating induction of MPER-specific HIV neutralizing antibodies by this novel vaccine strategy. These results show that induction of MPER-specific HIV neutralizing antibodies can be achieved through a rationally designed vaccine strategy. PMID:21625584

  5. Reassortment between Influenza B Lineages and the Emergence of a Coadapted PB1–PB2–HA Gene Complex

    PubMed Central

    Dudas, Gytis; Bedford, Trevor; Lycett, Samantha; Rambaut, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Influenza B viruses make a considerable contribution to morbidity attributed to seasonal influenza. Currently circulating influenza B isolates are known to belong to two antigenically distinct lineages referred to as B/Victoria and B/Yamagata. Frequent exchange of genomic segments of these two lineages has been noted in the past, but the observed patterns of reassortment have not been formalized in detail. We investigate interlineage reassortments by comparing phylogenetic trees across genomic segments. Our analyses indicate that of the eight segments of influenza B viruses only segments coding for polymerase basic 1 and 2 (PB1 and PB2) and hemagglutinin (HA) proteins have maintained separate Victoria and Yamagata lineages and that currently circulating strains possess PB1, PB2, and HA segments derived entirely from one or the other lineage; other segments have repeatedly reassorted between lineages thereby reducing genetic diversity. We argue that this difference between segments is due to selection against reassortant viruses with mixed-lineage PB1, PB2, and HA segments. Given sufficient time and continued recruitment to the reassortment-isolated PB1–PB2–HA gene complex, we expect influenza B viruses to eventually undergo sympatric speciation. PMID:25323575

  6. Oral immunization with a novel attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium encoding influenza HA, M2e and NA antigens protects chickens against H7N9 infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Je Hyoung; Hajam, Irshad Ahmed; Lee, John Hwa

    2018-02-01

    Attenuated Salmonella strains constitute a promising technology for the development of efficient protein-based influenza vaccines. H7N9, a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus, is a major public health concern and currently there are no effective vaccines against this subtype. Herein, we constructed a novel attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium strain for the delivery and expression of H7N9 hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) or the conserved extracellular domain of the matrix protein 2 (M2e). We demonstrated that the constructed Salmonella strains exhibited efficient HA, NA and M2e expressions, respectively, and the constructs were safe and immunogenic in chickens. Our results showed that chickens immunized once orally with Salmonella (Sal) mutants encoding HA (Sal-HA), M2e (Sal-M2e) or NA (Sal-NA), administered either alone or in combination, induced both antigen-specific humoral and cell mediated immune (CMI) responses, and protected chickens against the lethal H7N9 challenge. However, chickens immunized with Sal-HA+Sal-M2e+Sal-NA vaccine constructs exhibited efficient mucosal and CMI responses compared to the chickens that received only Sal-HA, Sal-M2e or Sal-M2e+Sal-NA vaccine. Further, chickens immunized with Sal-HA+Sal-M2e+Sal-NA constructs cleared H7N9 infection at a faster rate compared to the chickens that were vaccinated with Sal-HA, Sal-M2e or Sal-M2e+Sal-NA, as indicated by the reduced viral shedding in cloacal swabs of the immunized chickens. We conclude that this vaccination strategy, based on HA, M2e and NA, stimulated efficient induction of immune protection against the lethal H7N9 LPAI virus and, therefore, further studies are warranted to develop this approach as a potential prophylaxis against LPAI viruses affecting poultry birds.

  7. Annual monitoring report for the Gunnison, Colorado, wetlands mitigation plan

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project to clean up uranium mill tailings and other surface contamination at 24 abandoned uranium mill sites in 10 states. One of these abandoned mill sites is near the town of Gunnison, Colorado; surface remediation and the environmental impacts of remedial action are described in the Gunnison environmental assessment (EA) (DOE, 1992). Remedial action resulted in the elimination of 4.3 acres (ac) 1.7 hectares (ha) of wetlands and mitigation of this loss of wetlands is being accomplished through the enhance of 18.4 ac (7.5 ha) ofmore » riparian plant communities in six spring feed areas on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land. The description of the impacted and mitigation wetlands is provided in the Mitigation and Monitoring Plan for Impacted Wetlands at the Gunnison UMTRA Project Site, Gunnison, Colorado (DOE, 1994), which is attached to the US Army corps of Engineers (USACE) Section 404 Permit. As part of the wetlands mitigation plan, the six mitigation wetlands were fenced in the fall of 1993 to exclude livestock grazing. Baseline of grazed conditions of the wetlands vegetation was determined during the summer of 1993 (DOE, 1994). A 5-year monitoring program of these six sites has been implemented to document the response of vegetation and wildlife to the exclusion of livestock. This annual monitoring report provides the results of the first year of the 5-year monitoring period.« less

  8. The importance of serum serotonin levels in the measurement of radiation-induced bystander cell death in HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Lyng, Fiona M; Desplanques, Maxime; Jella, Kishore Kumar; Garcia, Amaya; McClean, Brendan

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of serum serotonin levels in the measurement of bystander cell death. The study was undertaken as part of an intercomparison exercise involving seven European laboratories funded under the European Union Sixth Framework Programme (FP6) Non-Targeted Effects (NOTE) integrated project. Three batches of foetal bovine serum were tested; serum with high and low serotonin content from the intercomparison exercise as well as serum from the home laboratory. Three sets of human keratinocytes (HaCaT cell line) were cultured in DMEM:F12 medium supplemented with serum with high or low serotonin content or serum from the home laboratory and both donor and recipient HaCaT cells were plated. The donor HaCaT cells were irradiated (0.5 Gy) using a cobalt 60 teletherapy unit, the medium was harvested 1 hour post irradiation and transferred to the recipient HaCaT cells. Bystander induced cell death was measured by the clonogenic survival assay and the Alamar blue viability assay. A significant reduction in cell survival, as measured by the clonogenic assay, and in cell viability, as measured by the Alamar blue assay, was observed in the recipient HaCaT cells treated with medium from irradiated cells compared to the cells treated with medium from unirradiated cells. No significant difference was found between the three batches of serum. The data suggest that in our cell system and with our endpoints (clonogenic assay and Alamar blue assay), serum serotonin levels do not play a role in bystander-induced cell death.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of the HA and NA genes between vaccine and seasonal influenza A(H3N2) strains in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sehee; Bae, Joon-Yong; Yoo, Kirim; Cheong, Hee Jin; Noh, Ji Yun; Hong, Kyung Wook; Lemey, Philippe; Vrancken, Bram; Kim, Juwon; Nam, Misun; Yun, Soo-Hyeon; Cho, Woo In; Song, Joon Young; Kim, Woo Joo; Park, Mee Sook; Song, Jin-Won; Kee, Sun-Ho; Song, Ki-Joon; Park, Man-Seong

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is caused by two influenza A subtype (H1N1 and H3N2) and two influenza B lineage (Victoria and Yamagata) viruses. Of these antigenically distinct viruses, the H3N2 virus was consistently detected in substantial proportions in Korea during the 2010/11-2013/14 seasons when compared to the other viruses and appeared responsible for the influenza-like illness rate peak during the first half of the 2011/12 season. To further scrutinize possible causes for this, we investigated the evolutionary and serological relationships between the vaccine and Korean H3N2 strains during the 2011/12 season for the main antigenic determinants of influenza viruses, the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes. In the 2011/12 season, when the number of H3N2 cases peaked, the majority of the Korean strains did not belong to the HA clade of A/Perth/16/2009 vaccine, and no Korean strains were of this lineage in the NA segment. In a serological assay, post-vaccinated human sera exhibited much reduced hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers against the non-vaccine clade Korean H3N2 strains. Moreover, Korean strains harbored several amino acid differences in the HA antigenic sites and in the NA with respect to vaccine lineages during this season. Of these, the HA antigenic site C residues 45 and 261 and the NA residue 81 appeared to be the signatures of positive selection. In subsequent seasons, when H3N2 cases were lower, the HA and NA genes of vaccine and Korean strains were more phylogenetically related to each other. Combined, our results provide indirect support for using phylogenetic clustering patterns of the HA and possibly also the NA genes in the selection of vaccine viruses and the assessment of vaccine effectiveness. PMID:28257427

  10. AmeriFlux US-Ha2 Harvard Forest Hemlock Site

    DOE Data Explorer

    Munger, William [Harvard University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ha2 Harvard Forest Hemlock Site. Site Description - The forest surrounding the Hemlock site has remained pristine with two exceptions. In the early to mid-1700s, European settlers cleared the majority of the forest for agricultural purposes. Selective harvesting of hemlock and chestnut trees occurred up until the early 1900s, when the chestnut blight killed all of the chestnut trees. In the current forest, about 83% of the total basal area of trees is hemlock. The remainder is equally divided between eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and deciduous species, including red maple (Acer rubrum), red oak (Quercus rubra) and black birch (Betula lenta). A very thick organic layer (10-20 cm or more) covers the soil surface, and highly decayed coarse woody debris is abundant.

  11. Planned Parenthood of Central New Jersey v. Farmer.

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    Court Decision: 762 Atlantic Reporter, 2d Series 620; 2000 Aug 15 (date of decision). The Supreme Court of New Jersey held that the state's Parental Notification for Abortion Act (Act) was unconstitutional because it violated the right to equal protection. Planned Parenthood of Central New Jersey brought an action to prohibit the enforcement of the Act. The New Jersey Supreme Court held that women, both minors and adults, have a fundamental right to decide whether to terminate their pregnancies. Although the state may impose restrictions on a minor's rights in an effort to protect the minor from her own immaturity, the Court found that the Act imposed restrictions on minors seeking abortions that it did not impose on minors seeking medical and surgical care relating to their pregnancies. The Act required parental notification for a minor seeking an abortion but did not require parental notification for a cesarean section, a considerably more difficult and complicated procedure. The court found there to be no substantial need for the Act and its distinction between the two classes of minors since "the state has recognized a minor's maturity in matters relating to her sexuality, reproductive decisions, substance-abuse treatment, and placing her children for adoption."

  12. Incoming human papillomavirus 16 genome is lost in PML protein-deficient HaCaT keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Bienkowska-Haba, Malgorzata; Luszczek, Wioleta; Keiffer, Timothy R; Guion, Lucile G M; DiGiuseppe, Stephen; Scott, Rona S; Sapp, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) target promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) during infectious entry and PML protein is important for efficient transcription of incoming viral genome. However, the transcriptional down regulation was shown to be promoter-independent in that heterologous promoters delivered by papillomavirus particles were also affected. To further investigate the role of PML protein in HPV entry, we used small hairpin RNA to knockdown PML protein in HaCaT keratinocytes. Confirming previous findings, PML knockdown in HaCaT cells reduced HPV16 transcript levels significantly following infectious entry without impairing binding and trafficking. However, when we quantified steady-state levels of pseudogenomes in interphase cells, we found strongly reduced genome levels compared with parental HaCaT cells. Because nuclear delivery was comparable in both cell lines, we conclude that viral pseudogenome must be removed after successful nuclear delivery. Transcriptome analysis by gene array revealed that PML knockdown in clonal HaCaT cells was associated with a constitutive interferon response. Abrogation of JAK1/2 signaling prevented genome loss, however, did not restore viral transcription. In contrast, knockdown of PML protein in HeLa cells did not affect HPV genome delivery and transcription. HeLa cells are transformed by HPV18 oncogenes E6 and E7, which have been shown to interfere with the JAK/Stat signaling pathway. Our data imply that PML NBs protect incoming HPV genomes. Furthermore, they provide evidence that PML NBs are key regulators of the innate immune response in keratinocytes. Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs) are important for antiviral defense. Many DNA viruses target these subnuclear structures and reorganize them. Reorganization of PML NBs by viral proteins is important for establishment of infection. In contrast, HPVs require the presence of PML protein for efficient transcription of incoming viral genome. Our

  13. In vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo osseointergration properties of compression-molded HDPE-HA-Al2O3 hybrid biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Garima; Gough, Julie E; Dinda, Amit; Basu, Bikramjit

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo biocompatibility in terms of healing of long segmental bone defect in rabbit model as well as in vitro cytotoxicity of eluates of compression-molded High density polyethylene (HDPE)-hydroxyapatite (HA)-aluminum oxide (Al2O3) composite-based implant material. Based on the physical property in terms of modulus and strength properties, as reported in our recent publication, HDPE-40 wt % HA and HDPE-20 wt % HA-20 wt % Al2O3 hybrid composites were used for biocompatibility assessment. Osteoblasts cells were cultured in conditioned media, which contains varying amount of composite eluate (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 wt %). In vitro, the eluates did not exhibit any significant negative impact on proliferation, mineralization or on morphology of human osteoblast cells. In vivo, the histological assessment revealed neobone formation at the bone/implant interface, characterized by the presence of osteoid and osteoblasts. The observation of osteoclastic activity indicates the process of bone remodeling. No inflammation to any noticeable extent was observed at the implantation site. Overall, the combination of in vitro and in vivo results are suggestive of potential biomedical application of compression-molded HDPE- 20 wt % HA- 20 wt % Al2O3 composites to heal long segmental bone defects without causing any toxicity of bone cells. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Neuroprotection and lifespan extension in Ppt1−/− mice by NtBuHA: therapeutic implications for INCL

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Chandra, Goutam; Peng, Shyiong; Zhang, Zhongjian; Liu, Aiyi; Mukherjee, Anil B.

    2013-01-01

    Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL) is a devastating childhood neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease (LSD) that has no effective treatment. It is caused by inactivating mutations in the palmitoyl-protein thioesterase-1 (PPT1) gene. PPT1-deficiency impairs the cleavage of thioester linkage in palmitoylated proteins (constituents of ceroid), preventing degradation by lysosomal hydrolases. Consequently, accumulation of lysosomal ceroid leads to INCL. Thioester linkage is cleaved by nucleophilic attack. Hydroxylamine, a potent nucleophilic cellular metabolite, may have therapeutic potential for INCL but its toxicity precludes clinical application. Here we report that a hydroxylamine-derivative, N-(tert-Butyl) hydroxylamine (NtBuHA), is non-toxic, cleaves thioester linkage in palmitoylated proteins and mediates lysosomal ceroid depletion in cultured cells from INCL patients. Importantly, in Ppt1−/− mice, which mimic INCL, NtBuHA crossed the blood-brain-barrier, depleted lysosomal ceroid, suppressed neuronal apoptosis, slowed neurological deterioration and extended lifespan. Our findings provide the proof of concept that thioesterase-mimetic and antioxidant small molecules like NtBuHA are potential drug-targets for thioesterase deficiency diseases like INCL. PMID:24056696

  15. Ridge Preservation After Maxillary Third Molar Extraction Using 30% Porosity PLGA/HA/β-TCP Scaffolds With and Without Simvastatin: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Noronha Oliveira, Miguel; Rau, Levy Hermes; Marodin, Aline; Corrêa, Márcio; Corrêa, Letícia Ruhland; Aragones, Aguedo; Magini, Ricardo de Souza

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate clinically and radiographically, in humans, the healing of maxillary third molars postextraction sockets after application of different ridge preservation techniques 3 months after tooth extraction. Twenty-six sockets (13 patients) were randomly assigned to 4 treatment modalities: deproteinized bovine bone mineral with 10% collagen (DBBM-C), poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) with hydroxyapatite/β-TCP scaffold (PLGA/HA), PLGA/HA/β-TCP with 2.0% simvastatin scaffold (PLGA/HA/S), and spontaneous healing (control). Clinical complications were assessed, and cone-beam computed tomographies were taken in 5 patients 3 months after surgeries. For statistical purposes, the Fisher exact test was used (P < 0.05). After 3 months, 6 of 9 grafts from the PLGA/HA group were lost (P < 0.05). PLGA/HA/S' loss was only 2 of 8 (P > 0.05), but no loss was observed in the DBBM-C group. Pain was present in 3 of 8 sites that lost the graft (37.5%) (P > 0.05) and infection in 1 of 8 (12.5%) (P > 0.05), with these only occurring in the PLGA/HA group. Poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) with hydroxyapatite/β-TCP (PLGA/HA/β-TCP) scaffolds, with and without simvastatin, failed to obtain the initial expected results and presented more complications. Scaffolds with simvastatin showed to be superior, with less clinical complications than scaffolds without simvastatin.

  16. 7 CFR 1901.505 - Certificates of beneficial ownership in FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Establishment of special trusts. From time to time FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 will... the unpaid amount is at least equal to the face value of the outstanding unmature certificates... an interest in the special trust to the extent of the face value of such certificates. FmHA or its...

  17. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart E of... - FmHA or Its Successor Agency Under Public Law 103-354 Financed Contract

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false FmHA or Its Successor Agency Under Public Law 103-354 Financed Contract C Exhibit C to Subpart E of Part 1901 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Civil Rights Compliance Requirements Pt. 1901, Subpt. E, Exh. C Exhibit C to Subpart E of Part 1901—FmHA...

  18. Spectroscopic analyses on sonocatalytic damage to bovine serum albumin (BSA) induced by ZnO/hydroxylapatite (ZnO/HA) composite under ultrasonic irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqiu; Li, Ying; Wang, Jun; Zou, Mingming; Gao, Jingqun; Kong, Yumei; Li, Kai; Han, Guangxi

    ZnO/hydroxylapatite (ZnO/HA) composite with HA molar content of 6.0% was prepared by the method of precipitation and heat-treated at 500 °C for 40 min and was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The sonocatalytic activities of ZnO/HA composite was carried out through the damage of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solution. Furthermore, the effects of several factors on the damage of BSA molecules were evaluated by means of UV-vis and fluorescence spectra. Experimental results indicated that the damage degree of BSA aggravated with the increase of ultrasonic irradiation time, irradiation power and ZnO/HA addition amount, but weakened with the increase of solution acidity and ionic strength. In addition, the damage site to BSA was also studied by synchronous fluorescence technology and the damage site was mainly at tryptophan (Trp) residue. This paper provides a valuable reference for driving sonocatalytic method to treat tumor in clinic application.

  19. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-18

    Nubariyah, The president of the Egyptian Reconstruction Bank said and New Burj al -’ Arab , bringing the total number of new that before the end of this...Scenarios for Outcome of Arab -Israeli Conference [London AL -MAJALLAH 14 Aug] .......... 1 Jaffee Center Report on Gulf War Reviewed [Tel Aviv HA ’ARETZ 5...Preparing for War [MISR AL -FATAH 8 Jul] ........................................... 19 Parliament Warns of Israeli Designs on Arab Water [London AL -SHARQ AL

  20. Repair of rabbit cartilage defect based on the fusion of rabbit bone marrow stromal cells and Nano-HA/PLLA composite material.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weimin; Guo, Daiqi; Peng, Liangquan; Chen, Yun Fang; Cui, Jiaming; Xiong, Jianyi; Lu, Wei; Duan, Li; Chen, Kang; Zeng, Yanjun; Wang, Daping

    2017-02-01

    Objective To assess the effect of the fusion of rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) and Nano-hydroxyapatite/poly (l-lactic acid) (Nano-HA/PLLA) in repairing the rabbit knee joint with full-thickness cartilage defect. Method The rBMSCs were isolated and cultured in vitro, and the third generation of rBMSCs was co-cultured with the Nano-HA/PLLA to construct the tissue-engineered cartilage (TEC). Eighteen New Zealand white rabbits were selected and randomly divided into three groups, namely, TEC group, Nano-HA/PLLA group, and control group. A cartilage defect model with the diameter of 4.5 mm and depth of 5 mm was constructed on the articular surface of medial malleolus of rabbit femur. General observation, histological observation, and Wakitani's histological scoring were conducted in the 12th and 24th week postoperatively. Results The results of TEC group indicated that new cartilage tissue was formed on the defect site and subchondral bone achieved physiological integration basically. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses indicated the generation of massive extracellular matrix. In contrast, limited regeneration and reconstruction of cartilage was achieved in the Nano-HA/PLLA group and control group, with a significant difference from the TEC group (p < 0.05). Moreover, the effect of cartilage repair was positively correlated with time. Conclusion The porous Nano-HA/PLLA combined with BMSCs promoted the repair of weight-bearing bone of adult rabbit's knee joint with cartilage defect.