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Sample records for plana diptera stratiomyidae

  1. A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...

  2. Influence of resources on Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larval development.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2013-07-01

    Arthropod development can be used to determine the time of colonization of human remains to infer a minimum postmortem interval. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera. Stratiomyidae) is native to North America and is unique in that its larvae can consume a wide range of decomposing organic material, including carrion. Larvae development was observed on six resources: control poultry feed, liver, manure, kitchen waste, fruits and vegetables, and fish rendering. Larvae fed manure were shorter, weighed less, and took longer to develop. Kitchen waste produced longer and heavier larvae, whereas larvae fed fish had almost 100% mortality. Black soldier flies can colonize human remains, which in many instances can coincide with food and organic wastes. Therefore, it is necessary to understand black soldier fly development on different food resources other than carrion tissue to properly estimate their age when recovered from human remains. PMID:23926790

  3. Influence of resources on Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larval development.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2013-07-01

    Arthropod development can be used to determine the time of colonization of human remains to infer a minimum postmortem interval. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera. Stratiomyidae) is native to North America and is unique in that its larvae can consume a wide range of decomposing organic material, including carrion. Larvae development was observed on six resources: control poultry feed, liver, manure, kitchen waste, fruits and vegetables, and fish rendering. Larvae fed manure were shorter, weighed less, and took longer to develop. Kitchen waste produced longer and heavier larvae, whereas larvae fed fish had almost 100% mortality. Black soldier flies can colonize human remains, which in many instances can coincide with food and organic wastes. Therefore, it is necessary to understand black soldier fly development on different food resources other than carrion tissue to properly estimate their age when recovered from human remains.

  4. Updated Italian checklist of Soldier Flies (Diptera, Stratiomyidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An updated checklist for Stratiomyidae of Italy is presented. Previous knowledge and information are put together in a comprehensive way, integrated also with results obtained by sampling with Malaise traps in some of the test areas of the LIFE+ project ManFor C.BD. At the time of writing, with 91 known species, the Italian fauna of Stratiomyidae is the richest in Europe. Neopachygaster meromelas (Dufour, 1841) and Zabrachia minutissima (Zetterstedt, 1838) are new to the Italian fauna. A comprehensive key to the European species of Chorisops Rondani, 1856 is given. PMID:24146573

  5. Vitilevumyia, an enigmatic new genus of Stratiomyidae from Fiji (Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus of Stratiomyidae, Vitilevumyia gen. nov. (type species, V. bobwoodleyi, sp. nov.) is described from the island of Viti Levu, Fiji. It exhibits an unusual combination of character states, but is tentatively placed in the tribe Prosopochrysini of the subfamily Stratiomyinae. ...

  6. An illustrated catalogue of the types of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Couri, Márcia Souto; De Mello-Patiu, Cátia Antunes

    2016-01-01

    A catalogue of the type specimens of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) held in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MNRJ) is presented. A total number of 50 type specimens of 18 valid Neotropical species were recognized and are listed in alphabetical order of subfamily, genus and specific epithet. Photos of 12 primary types of the species and bibliographical data of the original descriptions, labels and condition of all type specimens are also provided.

  7. An illustrated catalogue of the types of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Couri, Márcia Souto; De Mello-Patiu, Cátia Antunes

    2016-01-01

    A catalogue of the type specimens of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) held in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MNRJ) is presented. A total number of 50 type specimens of 18 valid Neotropical species were recognized and are listed in alphabetical order of subfamily, genus and specific epithet. Photos of 12 primary types of the species and bibliographical data of the original descriptions, labels and condition of all type specimens are also provided. PMID:27394269

  8. A catalogue of the types of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker

    2015-02-12

    Following a recommendation of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, a catalogue of the type specimens of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) held in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP) is provided, with information on 30 type specimens (including 14 primary types) of 17 Neotropical species.

  9. Substrate effects on pupation and adult emergence of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Holmes, L A; Vanlaerhoven, S L; Tomberlin, J K

    2013-04-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are of particular interest for their applications in waste management. Feeding on decaying organic waste, black soldier flies successfully reduce manure in confined animal feeding operations of poultry, swine, and cattle. To optimize waste conversion in confined animal feeding operations and landfill facilities, it is imperative to optimize black soldier fly development. Unfortunately, black soldier flies only convert waste during their larval feeding stages and therefore it is of interest to optimize the nonfeeding stages of development, specifically, the postfeeding and pupal stages. The time spent in these stages is thought to be determined by the pupation substrate encountered by the postfeeding larvae. The objective of this study was to determine the effect different pupation substrates have on postfeeding development time, pupation time, and adult emergence success. Five pupation substrates were compared: wood shavings, potting soil, topsoil, sand, and nothing. Postfeeding larvae took longer to reach pupation in the absence of a pupation substrate, although reaching pupation in the shortest time in potting soil and wood shavings. The time spent in the pupal stage was shortest in the absence of a pupation substrate. However, fewer adults emerged when a pupation substrate was not provided. PMID:23575028

  10. Ability of Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae to Recycle Food Waste.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2015-04-01

    Accumulation of organic wastes, especially in livestock facilities, can be a potential pollution issue. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), can consume a wide range of organic material and has the potential to be used in waste management. In addition, the prepupae stage of this insect can be harvested and used as a valuable nutritious feed for animal livestock. Five waste types with a wide range of organic source matter were specifically chosen to evaluate the consumption and reduction ability of black soldier fly larvae. H. illucens was able to reduce all waste types examined: 1) control poultry feed, 2) pig liver, 3) pig manure, 4) kitchen waste, 5) fruits and vegetables, and 6) rendered fish. Kitchen waste had the greatest mean rate of reduction (consumption by black soldier fly) per day and produced the longest and heaviest black soldier flies. Larvae reared on liver, manure, fruits and vegetables, and fish were approximately the same length and weight as larvae fed the control feed, although some diets produced larvae with a higher nutritional content. The black soldier fly has the ability to consume and reduce organic waste and be utilized as valuable animal feed. Exploration of the potential use of black soldier flies as an agent for waste management on a large-scale system should continue. PMID:26313195

  11. Substrate effects on pupation and adult emergence of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Holmes, L A; Vanlaerhoven, S L; Tomberlin, J K

    2013-04-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are of particular interest for their applications in waste management. Feeding on decaying organic waste, black soldier flies successfully reduce manure in confined animal feeding operations of poultry, swine, and cattle. To optimize waste conversion in confined animal feeding operations and landfill facilities, it is imperative to optimize black soldier fly development. Unfortunately, black soldier flies only convert waste during their larval feeding stages and therefore it is of interest to optimize the nonfeeding stages of development, specifically, the postfeeding and pupal stages. The time spent in these stages is thought to be determined by the pupation substrate encountered by the postfeeding larvae. The objective of this study was to determine the effect different pupation substrates have on postfeeding development time, pupation time, and adult emergence success. Five pupation substrates were compared: wood shavings, potting soil, topsoil, sand, and nothing. Postfeeding larvae took longer to reach pupation in the absence of a pupation substrate, although reaching pupation in the shortest time in potting soil and wood shavings. The time spent in the pupal stage was shortest in the absence of a pupation substrate. However, fewer adults emerged when a pupation substrate was not provided.

  12. Ability of Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae to Recycle Food Waste.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2015-04-01

    Accumulation of organic wastes, especially in livestock facilities, can be a potential pollution issue. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), can consume a wide range of organic material and has the potential to be used in waste management. In addition, the prepupae stage of this insect can be harvested and used as a valuable nutritious feed for animal livestock. Five waste types with a wide range of organic source matter were specifically chosen to evaluate the consumption and reduction ability of black soldier fly larvae. H. illucens was able to reduce all waste types examined: 1) control poultry feed, 2) pig liver, 3) pig manure, 4) kitchen waste, 5) fruits and vegetables, and 6) rendered fish. Kitchen waste had the greatest mean rate of reduction (consumption by black soldier fly) per day and produced the longest and heaviest black soldier flies. Larvae reared on liver, manure, fruits and vegetables, and fish were approximately the same length and weight as larvae fed the control feed, although some diets produced larvae with a higher nutritional content. The black soldier fly has the ability to consume and reduce organic waste and be utilized as valuable animal feed. Exploration of the potential use of black soldier flies as an agent for waste management on a large-scale system should continue.

  13. Grazing trails formed by soldier fly larvae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and their paleoenvironmental and paleoecological implications for the fossil record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.; Claps, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Recent trails formed by soldier fly larvae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) were examined in a shallow pond in the floodplain of a braided river in Jujuy Province, northwestern Argentina. Collected specimens were identified as Stratiomys convexa van der Wulp. Simple, irregularly meandering trails were produced across the surface of a muddy-silty substrate. Since soldier fly larvae extend their caudal respiratory tube to the water-air interface, they are restricted to extremely shallow water. The presence of benthic algal remains within the mouthparts of the larvae suggests a feeding habit of algal grazing. If preserved, these trails would be included in the ichnogenus Helminthopsis, a common element in ancient freshwater ichnofaunas. Helminthopsis preserved in pond and lacustrine margin deposits younger than Late Jurassic is regarded as one possible trace fossil analogue of the trails documented herein. Additionally, it is suggested that larvae of many aquatic Diptera with similar ecologic restrictions are potential tracemakers of Helminthopsis and other simple trails in these environments, particularly in post-Paleozoic deposits. Studies of modern shallow aquatic habitats and reexamination of the ichnologic record stress the importance of fly larvae as tracemakers in lake margin and pond ecosystems. Ecologic requirements of soldier fly larvae make them inappropriate analogues of Helminthopsis tracemakers in deeper water, lacustrine settings. ?? 1996 OPA (Overseas Publishers Association) Amsterdam B.V. Published in The Netherlands by Harwood Academic Publishers GmbH.

  14. The colonization of carrion by soldier fly, Ptecticus melanurus (Walker) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in a tropical forest in Malaysia: a new potential species for minimum PMI estimation.

    PubMed

    Azwandi, A; Omar, B

    2012-12-01

    This paper discusses the colonization of the stratiomyid species Ptecticus melanurus (Walker) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in monkey carrion and its potential for the determination of the minimum time since death (PMI). A study was conducted in a tropical forest at Bangi, Malaysia from 13 November 2009 to 8 June 2011. Twelve monkey carcasses (Macaca fascicularis Raffles) were used and divided in equal number into three different field trials. Adults of P. melanurus were first observed on monkey carrions on the second day the carcasses were placed in the field while their penultimate instar larvae were found in the wet soil under and beside carcass from day 8 to 31 days postmortem. PMID:23202610

  15. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia. PMID:15831010

  16. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia.

  17. The black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) as a potential measure of human postmortem interval: observations and case histories.

    PubMed

    Lord, W D; Goff, M L; Adkins, T R; Haskell, N H

    1994-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), has been shown to be a ubiquitous inhabitant of both surface and buried human remains throughout the southern, central and western United States and Hawaii. Unlike most other species of forensically important Diptera, this species frequently dominates bodies in the dry/post decay stage of decomposition. Adults of the black soldier fly appear to initiate oviposition (egg laying) 20 to 30 days postmortem. Even at warm temperatures (27.8 degrees C), subsequent completion of the life cycle can require an additional 55 days. Life history data for H. illucens, when used in combination with data for other cohabiting arthropod species and viewed in the context of local environmental conditions, can provide medicolegal investigators with valuable parameters for estimating the postmortem intervals for badly decomposed remains. PMID:8113702

  18. The black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) as a potential measure of human postmortem interval: observations and case histories.

    PubMed

    Lord, W D; Goff, M L; Adkins, T R; Haskell, N H

    1994-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), has been shown to be a ubiquitous inhabitant of both surface and buried human remains throughout the southern, central and western United States and Hawaii. Unlike most other species of forensically important Diptera, this species frequently dominates bodies in the dry/post decay stage of decomposition. Adults of the black soldier fly appear to initiate oviposition (egg laying) 20 to 30 days postmortem. Even at warm temperatures (27.8 degrees C), subsequent completion of the life cycle can require an additional 55 days. Life history data for H. illucens, when used in combination with data for other cohabiting arthropod species and viewed in the context of local environmental conditions, can provide medicolegal investigators with valuable parameters for estimating the postmortem intervals for badly decomposed remains.

  19. Checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland: Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere; Winqvist, Kaj; Zeegers, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae, Asilidae, Athericidae, Bombyliidae, Mythicomyiidae, Rhagionidae, Scenopinidae, Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae. PMID:25337015

  20. [Homage to Pedro Planas].

    PubMed

    Canalda, K

    1990-12-01

    It has been known since the time of Claude Bernard that the "function makes the organ" and ensures its development. However, it took Planas to discover that the masticatory function is the principal factor related to the development of the jaw! Nonetheless, this function only attains its objective if it is physiologically normal, grinding of food taking place by alternative laterality, which can only occur according to Gysi with a balanced occlusion, in conformity with Hanau's rules: opening-closing type mastication as a result of another type of occlusion leads to maxillo-alveolar sub-development and lack of sufficient space. Neuro-Occlusal Rehabilitation (N.O.R.) attempts to detect the type of mastication and occlusion at an early age, to correct it as from the age of 3 years by selective grinding in order to establish alternative laterality: true prophylaxis. If the grinding function is not adequate because it has been corrected too late, Planas appliances are used. Post-orthodontic stability is remarkable as the treatment uses natural and normal means of development.

  1. Rearing methods for the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Sheppard, D Craig; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Joyce, John A; Kiser, Barbara C; Sumner, Sonya M

    2002-07-01

    The black soldier fly, Heretia illucens (L.), is a nonpest tropical and warm-temperate region insect that is useful for managing large concentrations of animal manure and other biosolids. Manure management relying on wild fly oviposition has been successful in several studies. However, confidence in this robust natural system was low and biological studies were hampered by the lack of a dependable source of eggs and larvae. Larvae had been reared easily by earlier investigators, but achieving mating had been problematic. We achieved mating reliably in a 2 by 2 by 4-m screen cage in a 7 by 9 by 5-m greenhouse where sunlight and adequate space for aerial mating were available. Mating occurred during the shortest days of winter if the sun was not obscured by clouds. Adults were provided with water, but no food was required. Techniques for egg collection and larval rearing are given. Larvae were fed a moist mixture of wheat bran, corn meal, and alfalfa meal. This culture has been maintained for 3 yr. Maintainance of a black soldier fly laboratory colony will allow for development of manure management systems in fully enclosed animal housing and in colder regions.

  2. Rearing methods for the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Sheppard, D Craig; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Joyce, John A; Kiser, Barbara C; Sumner, Sonya M

    2002-07-01

    The black soldier fly, Heretia illucens (L.), is a nonpest tropical and warm-temperate region insect that is useful for managing large concentrations of animal manure and other biosolids. Manure management relying on wild fly oviposition has been successful in several studies. However, confidence in this robust natural system was low and biological studies were hampered by the lack of a dependable source of eggs and larvae. Larvae had been reared easily by earlier investigators, but achieving mating had been problematic. We achieved mating reliably in a 2 by 2 by 4-m screen cage in a 7 by 9 by 5-m greenhouse where sunlight and adequate space for aerial mating were available. Mating occurred during the shortest days of winter if the sun was not obscured by clouds. Adults were provided with water, but no food was required. Techniques for egg collection and larval rearing are given. Larvae were fed a moist mixture of wheat bran, corn meal, and alfalfa meal. This culture has been maintained for 3 yr. Maintainance of a black soldier fly laboratory colony will allow for development of manure management systems in fully enclosed animal housing and in colder regions. PMID:12144307

  3. Human furuncular myiasis caused by Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Adler, A I; Brancato, F P

    1995-09-01

    Cutaneous myiasis caused by Hermetia illucens (L.) has not been reported previously. We present a case of facultative furuncular myiasis characterized by infestation with a single larva in a woman from Seattle, WA, who had traveled to East Africa.

  4. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Fovea Plana.

    PubMed

    Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Phasukkijwatana, Nopasak; Sarraf, David; Freund, K Bailey

    2016-07-01

    Fovea plana is characterized by the anatomical absence of the foveal pit in eyes with normal visual function. The authors have analyzed three cases of idiopathic fovea plana with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). As previously reported, the authors found the absence of a foveal avascular zone in all cases with OCTA; however, a preserved fusion of both the superficial and the deep capillary plexuses was found around the foveal center. This novel observation cannot be detected with conventional dye-based angiography, in which the deep capillary plexus is not visualized. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:670-673.].

  5. Combined DSEK and Transconjunctival Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sane, Mona; Shaikh, Naazli

    2016-01-01

    We report here three patients who underwent combined Descemet's stripping with endothelial keratoplasty and transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy for bullous keratopathy and posterior segment pathology. A surgical technique and case histories are described. Anatomic and visual outcomes of combined Descemet's stripping with endothelial keratoplasty and vitrectomy were excellent. Our experience provides technical guidelines and limitations. The combined minimally invasive techniques allow for rapid anatomical recovery and return of function and visual acuity in a single sitting. PMID:27413563

  6. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of the Neotropical genus Acrochaeta Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Sarginae).

    PubMed

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Amorim, Dalton De Souza

    2015-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Acrochaeta Wiedemann is revised and a cladistics analysis of the genus based on morphological characters is presented. This paper raises the total number of extant Acrochaeta species from 10 to 14 with the description of nine new species, the synonymy of one species, the transfer of five species to other genera and the transfer of one species of Merosargus to Acrochaeta. The new species described (of which eight are from Brazil and one from Bolivia and Peru) are Acrochaeta asapha nov. sp., A. balbii nov. sp., A. dichrostyla nov. sp., A. polychaeta nov. sp., A. pseudofasciata nov. sp., A. pseudopolychaeta nov. sp., A. rhombostyla nov. sp. A. ruschii nov. sp. and A. stigmata nov. sp. The primary types of all Acrochaeta species were studied at least from photos, when possible with the study of dissected male or female terminalia. A. mexicana Lindner is proposed as a junior synonym of A. flaveola Bigot. M. chalconota (Brauer) comb. nov., M. degenerata (Lindner) comb. nov., M. longiventris (Enderlein) comb. nov. and M. picta (Brauer) comb. nov. are herein transferred from Acrochaeta to Merosargus Loew, and Chrysochlorina elegans (Perty) comb. nov. is transferred from Acrochaeta to Chrysochlorina James. A. convexifrons (McFadden) comb. nov. is transferred from Merosargus to Acrochaeta. The limits of the genus and its insertion in the Sarginae are considered, and an updated generic diagnosis is provided. All species of the genus are redescribed and diagnosed, and illustrated with photos of the habitus, thorax, wing, and drawings of the antenna and male and female terminalia. Distribution maps are provided for the species, along with an identification key for adults of all species. Parsimony analyses were carried out under equal and implied weight. Our matrix includes 43 terminal taxa--of which 26 are outgroup species from four different sargine genera--and 59 adult morphological characters. The phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of Acrochaeta based on features of the head, thorax and abdomen. An inner clade (Acrochaeta flaveola species group) within the genus was clearly recovered based on characters of male and female terminalia. There is good evidence for the paraphyly of Merosargus with Acrochaeta as a subclade, demanding a wider study of the subfamily for a sound solution for the genus Merosargus. PMID:26624773

  7. A new species of Paraberismyia Woodley (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Beridinae) from Chiapas, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Paraberismyia Woodley, P. imitator, n. sp., is described from Chiapas, Mexico. The new species is compared to previously described species and diagnostic notes are presented regarding separation of Paraberismyia from Berismyia Giglio-Tos. ...

  8. Bacteria Mediate Oviposition by the Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Longyu; Crippen, Tawni L.; Holmes, Leslie; Singh, Baneshwar; Pimsler, Meaghan L.; Benbow, M. Eric; Tarone, Aaron M.; Dowd, Scot; Yu, Ziniu; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah L.; Wood, Thomas K.; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

    2013-01-01

    There can be substantial negative consequences for insects colonizing a resource in the presence of competitors. We hypothesized that bacteria, associated with an oviposition resource and the insect eggs deposited on that resource, serve as a mechanism regulating subsequent insect attraction, colonization, and potentially succession of insect species. We isolated and identified bacterial species associated with insects associated with vertebrate carrion and used these bacteria to measure their influence on the oviposition preference of adult black soldier flies which utilizes animal carcasses and is an important species in waste management and forensics. We also ascertained that utilizing a mixture of bacteria, rather than a single species, differentially influenced behavioral responses of the flies, as did bacterial concentration and the species of fly from which the bacteria originated. These studies provide insight into interkingdom interactions commonly occurring during decomposition, but not commonly studied. PMID:23995019

  9. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae reduce Escherichia coli in dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaolin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Brady, Jeff A; Sanford, Michelle R; Yu, Ziniu

    2008-12-01

    Escherichia coli labeled with a green fluorescent protein was inoculated into sterile dairy manure at 7.0 log cfu/g. Approximately 125 black soldier fly larvae were placed in manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli. Manure inoculated with E. coli but without black soldier fly larvae served as the control. For the first experiment, larvae were introduced into 50, 75, 100, or 125 g sterilized dairy manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli and stored 72 h at 27 degrees C. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in all treatments. However, varying the amount of manure provided the black soldier fly larvae significantly affected their weight gain and their ability to reduce E. coli populations present. For the second experiment, larvae were introduced into 50 g manure inoculated with E. coli and stored for 72 h at 23, 27, 31, or 35 degrees C. Minimal bacterial growth was recorded in the control held at 35 degrees C and was excluded from the analysis. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in manure held at remaining temperatures. Accordingly, temperature significantly influenced the ability of black soldier fly larvae to develop and reduce E. coli counts with greatest suppression occurring at 27 degrees C.

  10. Development of the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in relation to temperature.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Adler, Peter H; Myers, Heidi M

    2009-06-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L., was reared on a grain-based diet at 27, 30, and 36 degrees C. Survival of 4- to 6-d-old larvae to adults averaged 74-97% at 27 and 30 degrees C but was only 0.1% at 36 degrees C. Flies required a mean of approximately 4 d (11%) longer to complete larval and pupal development at 27 degrees C than at 30 degrees C. At 27 and 30 degrees C, females weighed an average of 17-19% more than males but required an average of 0.6-0.8 d (3.0-4.3%) longer to complete larval development. At both temperatures, adult females lived an average of approximately 3.5 d less than adult males. The duration of larval development was a significant predictor of adult longevity. Temperature differences of even 3 degrees C produce significant fitness tradeoffs for males and females, influencing life history attributes and having practical applications for forensic entomology. PMID:19508804

  11. Wohlfahrtiimonas larvae sp. nov., isolated from the larval gut of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Kook; Lee, Youn Yeop; Park, Kwan Ho; Sim, Jeonggu; Choi, Youngcheol; Lee, Sung-Jae

    2014-01-01

    A novel, Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, motile and short rod-shaped bacterium, strain KBL006(T) was isolated from the larval gut of Hermetia illucens, Black soldier fly. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain KBL006(T) showed 96.4 % similarity to that of Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica S5(T). Strain KBL006(T) grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 8.0 and in the presence of 1-2 % (w/v) NaCl. Oxidase activity and catalase activity were positive. The major fatty acids were C18:1 ω7c, C14:0, and C16:0. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and diphosphatidylglycerol, and two phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 45.2 mol%. Based on these polyphasic data, strain KBL006(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Wohlfahrtiimonas, for which the name Wohlfahrtiimonas larvae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KBL006(T) (= KACC 16839(T) = JCM 18424(T)). PMID:24126466

  12. Effects of temperature and diet on black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), development.

    PubMed

    Harnden, Laura M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2016-09-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, is recognised for its use in a forensic context as a means for estimating the time of colonisation and potentially postmortem interval of decomposing remains. However, little data exist on this species outside of its use in waste management. This study offers a preliminary assessment of the development, and subsequent validation, of H. illucens. Larvae of H. illucens were reared at three temperatures (24.9°C, 27.6°C and 32.2°C) at 55% RH on beef loin muscle, pork loin muscle and a grain-based diet (control). Each of the temperatures and diets were found to significantly (P<0.05) affect all stages of immature growth except for pupation time. Overall, those reared on the pork diet required on average ≈23.1% and ≈139.7% more degree hours to complete larval development than those reared on the beef and grain-based diets, respectively. Larvae reared at 27.6°C and 32.2°C required on average ≈8.7% more degree hours to complete development and had a final larval weight ≈30% greater than larvae reared at 24.9°C. The validity of the laboratory larval length and weight data sets was assessed via estimating the age of field-reared larvae. Grain-diet data lacked accuracy when used to estimate larval age in comparison to estimates made with beef and pork-diet data, which were able to predict larval age for ≈55.6% and ≈88.9% of sampling points, respectively, when length and weight data were used in conjunction. Field-reared larval sizes exceeded the maximum observed under laboratory conditions in almost half of the samples, which reduced estimate accuracy. Future research should develop additional criteria for identifying development of each specific instar, which may aid in improving the accuracy and precision of larval age estimates for this species. PMID:27236368

  13. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae reduce Escherichia coli in dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaolin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Brady, Jeff A; Sanford, Michelle R; Yu, Ziniu

    2008-12-01

    Escherichia coli labeled with a green fluorescent protein was inoculated into sterile dairy manure at 7.0 log cfu/g. Approximately 125 black soldier fly larvae were placed in manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli. Manure inoculated with E. coli but without black soldier fly larvae served as the control. For the first experiment, larvae were introduced into 50, 75, 100, or 125 g sterilized dairy manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli and stored 72 h at 27 degrees C. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in all treatments. However, varying the amount of manure provided the black soldier fly larvae significantly affected their weight gain and their ability to reduce E. coli populations present. For the second experiment, larvae were introduced into 50 g manure inoculated with E. coli and stored for 72 h at 23, 27, 31, or 35 degrees C. Minimal bacterial growth was recorded in the control held at 35 degrees C and was excluded from the analysis. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in manure held at remaining temperatures. Accordingly, temperature significantly influenced the ability of black soldier fly larvae to develop and reduce E. coli counts with greatest suppression occurring at 27 degrees C. PMID:19161696

  14. Bacteria mediate oviposition by the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Longyu; Crippen, Tawni L; Holmes, Leslie; Singh, Baneshwar; Pimsler, Meaghan L; Benbow, M Eric; Tarone, Aaron M; Dowd, Scot; Yu, Ziniu; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah L; Wood, Thomas K; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2013-01-01

    There can be substantial negative consequences for insects colonizing a resource in the presence of competitors. We hypothesized that bacteria, associated with an oviposition resource and the insect eggs deposited on that resource, serve as a mechanism regulating subsequent insect attraction, colonization, and potentially succession of insect species. We isolated and identified bacterial species associated with insects associated with vertebrate carrion and used these bacteria to measure their influence on the oviposition preference of adult black soldier flies which utilizes animal carcasses and is an important species in waste management and forensics. We also ascertained that utilizing a mixture of bacteria, rather than a single species, differentially influenced behavioral responses of the flies, as did bacterial concentration and the species of fly from which the bacteria originated. These studies provide insight into interkingdom interactions commonly occurring during decomposition, but not commonly studied. PMID:23995019

  15. Bioconversion of dairy manure by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for biodiesel and sugar production.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Qiu, Ning; Cai, Hao; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-06-01

    Modern dairies cause the accumulation of considerable quantity of dairy manure which is a potential hazard to the environment. Dairy manure can also act as a principal larval resource for many insects such as the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens. The black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are considered as a new biotechnology to convert dairy manure into biodiesel and sugar. BSFL are a common colonizer of large variety of decomposing organic material in temperate and tropical areas. Adults do not need to be fed, except to take water, and acquired enough nutrition during larval development for reproduction. Dairy manure treated by BSFL is an economical way in animal facilities. Grease could be extracted from BSFL by petroleum ether, and then be treated with a two-step method to produce biodiesel. The digested dairy manure was hydrolyzed into sugar. In this study, approximately 1248.6g fresh dairy manure was converted into 273.4 g dry residue by 1200 BSFL in 21 days. Approximately 15.8 g of biodiesel was gained from 70.8 g dry BSFL, and 96.2g sugar was obtained from the digested dairy manure. The residual dry BSFL after grease extraction can be used as protein feedstuff. PMID:21367596

  16. Development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae fed dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Heidi M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Lambert, Barry D; Kattes, David

    2008-02-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are a common colonizer of animal wastes. However, all published development data for this species are from studies using artificial diets. This study represents the first examining black soldier fly development on animal wastes. Additionally, this study examined the ability of black soldier fly larvae to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in manure. Black soldier fly larvae were fed four rates of dairy manure to determine their effects on larval and adult life history traits. Feed rate affected larval and adult development. Those fed less ration daily weighed less than those fed a greater ration. Additionally, larvae provided the least amount of dairy manure took longer to develop to the prepupal stage; however, they needed less time to reach the adult stage. Adults resulting from larvae provided 27 g dairy manure/d lived 3-4 d less than those fed 70 g dairy manure. Percentage survivorship to the prepupal or adult stages did not differ across treatments. Larvae fed 27 g dairy manure daily reduced manure dry matter mass by 58%, whereas those fed 70 g daily reduced dry matter 33%. Black soldier fly larvae were able to reduce available P by 61-70% and N by 30-50% across treatments. Based on results from this study, the black soldier fly could be used to reduce wastes and associated nutrients in confined bovine facilities. PMID:18348791

  17. Susceptibility of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae and adults to four insecticides.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2002-06-01

    Dosage-mortality regressions were determined for black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae fed cyromazine or pyriproxifen treated media. Cyromazine LC50 for larvae dying before becoming prepupae ranged from 0.25 to 0.28 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 5.79 and 12.04. Cyromazine LC50s for larvae dying before emergence ranged from 0.13 to 0.19 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 3.94 and 7.69. Pyriproxifen dosage-mortality regressions were not generated for larvae failing to become prepupae since <32% mortality was recorded at the highest concentration of 1,857 ppm. LC50s for larvae failing to become adults ranged from 0.10 to 0.12 ppm with dosage mortality-regression slopes between 1.67 and 2.32. Lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin dosage-mortality regressions were determined for wild adult black soldier flies and house flies, Musca domestica L., and for susceptible house flies. Our results indicate that the wild house fly, unlike the black soldier fly, population was highly resistant to each of these pyrethroids. Regression slopes for black soldier flies exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin were twice as steep as those determined for the wild house fly strain. Accordingly, LC50s for the black soldier fly and susceptible house fly were 10- to 30-fold lower than those determined for wild house flies. The differential sensitivity between wild black soldier flies and house flies might be due to behavioral differences. Adult house flies usually remain in animal facilities with the possibility of every adult receiving pesticide exposure, while black soldier fly adults are typically present only during emergence and oviposition thereby limiting their exposure. PMID:12076006

  18. Effect of feeding by larvae of Inopus rubriceps (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) on development and growth of sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Samson, R I

    2001-10-01

    Pot experiments were used to investigate the effect of root-feeding larvae of the soldier fly Inopus rubriceps (Macquart) on shoot production from sugarcane planting pieces (setts) and on growth and ratooning of sugarcane plants. Shoot elongation was inhibited while setts were exposed to larvae, and it resumed when larvae were removed. Infested setts produced a greater weight of roots than uninfested setts. Similar symptoms were induced by mechanical root pruning, suggesting that the effect of soldier fly larvae on setts may be a redirection of growth from the shoot to roots due to root damage. Larvae had a greater effect on shoot production at lower temperature, particularly in cultivar 'Q151', which had a higher temperature threshold than 'CP44-101'. Temperature and cultivar may influence the harmful effect of soldier fly larvae on sett germination by changing the differential rates of plant growth and larval feeding. When growing plants were exposed to larvae, the infested plants were slightly smaller at harvest and subsequently produced many fewer ratoon shoots from underground buds than uninfested plants. Shoot elongation from buds was also inhibited in setts cut from the above-ground stalks of infested plants. Analysis of nutrient levels in plants did not indicate the mechanism for ratooning inhibition, because levels of time 10 elements analyzed were at least as high or higher in infested plants. Infestation was associated with an increased level of sucrose and a reduced level of fructose in stalks. The inhibitory effect of larval feeding on ratooning was not reversed when larvae were removed from pots 10 wk before harvest. However, new stubble produced from infested plants then ratooned normally after a second harvest, provided the new roots were not attacked. The symptoms of larval feeding in growing plants are unexplained, but may be caused by the prolonged withdrawal of sap from roots or the injection of some inhibitory substance by larvae. PMID:11681671

  19. Susceptibility of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae and adults to four insecticides.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2002-06-01

    Dosage-mortality regressions were determined for black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae fed cyromazine or pyriproxifen treated media. Cyromazine LC50 for larvae dying before becoming prepupae ranged from 0.25 to 0.28 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 5.79 and 12.04. Cyromazine LC50s for larvae dying before emergence ranged from 0.13 to 0.19 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 3.94 and 7.69. Pyriproxifen dosage-mortality regressions were not generated for larvae failing to become prepupae since <32% mortality was recorded at the highest concentration of 1,857 ppm. LC50s for larvae failing to become adults ranged from 0.10 to 0.12 ppm with dosage mortality-regression slopes between 1.67 and 2.32. Lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin dosage-mortality regressions were determined for wild adult black soldier flies and house flies, Musca domestica L., and for susceptible house flies. Our results indicate that the wild house fly, unlike the black soldier fly, population was highly resistant to each of these pyrethroids. Regression slopes for black soldier flies exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin were twice as steep as those determined for the wild house fly strain. Accordingly, LC50s for the black soldier fly and susceptible house fly were 10- to 30-fold lower than those determined for wild house flies. The differential sensitivity between wild black soldier flies and house flies might be due to behavioral differences. Adult house flies usually remain in animal facilities with the possibility of every adult receiving pesticide exposure, while black soldier fly adults are typically present only during emergence and oviposition thereby limiting their exposure.

  20. Bacteria mediate oviposition by the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Longyu; Crippen, Tawni L; Holmes, Leslie; Singh, Baneshwar; Pimsler, Meaghan L; Benbow, M Eric; Tarone, Aaron M; Dowd, Scot; Yu, Ziniu; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah L; Wood, Thomas K; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2013-01-01

    There can be substantial negative consequences for insects colonizing a resource in the presence of competitors. We hypothesized that bacteria, associated with an oviposition resource and the insect eggs deposited on that resource, serve as a mechanism regulating subsequent insect attraction, colonization, and potentially succession of insect species. We isolated and identified bacterial species associated with insects associated with vertebrate carrion and used these bacteria to measure their influence on the oviposition preference of adult black soldier flies which utilizes animal carcasses and is an important species in waste management and forensics. We also ascertained that utilizing a mixture of bacteria, rather than a single species, differentially influenced behavioral responses of the flies, as did bacterial concentration and the species of fly from which the bacteria originated. These studies provide insight into interkingdom interactions commonly occurring during decomposition, but not commonly studied.

  1. Bioconversion of dairy manure by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for biodiesel and sugar production.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Qiu, Ning; Cai, Hao; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-06-01

    Modern dairies cause the accumulation of considerable quantity of dairy manure which is a potential hazard to the environment. Dairy manure can also act as a principal larval resource for many insects such as the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens. The black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are considered as a new biotechnology to convert dairy manure into biodiesel and sugar. BSFL are a common colonizer of large variety of decomposing organic material in temperate and tropical areas. Adults do not need to be fed, except to take water, and acquired enough nutrition during larval development for reproduction. Dairy manure treated by BSFL is an economical way in animal facilities. Grease could be extracted from BSFL by petroleum ether, and then be treated with a two-step method to produce biodiesel. The digested dairy manure was hydrolyzed into sugar. In this study, approximately 1248.6g fresh dairy manure was converted into 273.4 g dry residue by 1200 BSFL in 21 days. Approximately 15.8 g of biodiesel was gained from 70.8 g dry BSFL, and 96.2g sugar was obtained from the digested dairy manure. The residual dry BSFL after grease extraction can be used as protein feedstuff.

  2. Development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae fed dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Heidi M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Lambert, Barry D; Kattes, David

    2008-02-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are a common colonizer of animal wastes. However, all published development data for this species are from studies using artificial diets. This study represents the first examining black soldier fly development on animal wastes. Additionally, this study examined the ability of black soldier fly larvae to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in manure. Black soldier fly larvae were fed four rates of dairy manure to determine their effects on larval and adult life history traits. Feed rate affected larval and adult development. Those fed less ration daily weighed less than those fed a greater ration. Additionally, larvae provided the least amount of dairy manure took longer to develop to the prepupal stage; however, they needed less time to reach the adult stage. Adults resulting from larvae provided 27 g dairy manure/d lived 3-4 d less than those fed 70 g dairy manure. Percentage survivorship to the prepupal or adult stages did not differ across treatments. Larvae fed 27 g dairy manure daily reduced manure dry matter mass by 58%, whereas those fed 70 g daily reduced dry matter 33%. Black soldier fly larvae were able to reduce available P by 61-70% and N by 30-50% across treatments. Based on results from this study, the black soldier fly could be used to reduce wastes and associated nutrients in confined bovine facilities.

  3. Wohlfahrtiimonas larvae sp. nov., isolated from the larval gut of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Kook; Lee, Youn Yeop; Park, Kwan Ho; Sim, Jeonggu; Choi, Youngcheol; Lee, Sung-Jae

    2014-01-01

    A novel, Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, motile and short rod-shaped bacterium, strain KBL006(T) was isolated from the larval gut of Hermetia illucens, Black soldier fly. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain KBL006(T) showed 96.4 % similarity to that of Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica S5(T). Strain KBL006(T) grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 8.0 and in the presence of 1-2 % (w/v) NaCl. Oxidase activity and catalase activity were positive. The major fatty acids were C18:1 ω7c, C14:0, and C16:0. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and diphosphatidylglycerol, and two phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 45.2 mol%. Based on these polyphasic data, strain KBL006(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Wohlfahrtiimonas, for which the name Wohlfahrtiimonas larvae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KBL006(T) (= KACC 16839(T) = JCM 18424(T)).

  4. Development of the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in relation to temperature.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Adler, Peter H; Myers, Heidi M

    2009-06-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L., was reared on a grain-based diet at 27, 30, and 36 degrees C. Survival of 4- to 6-d-old larvae to adults averaged 74-97% at 27 and 30 degrees C but was only 0.1% at 36 degrees C. Flies required a mean of approximately 4 d (11%) longer to complete larval and pupal development at 27 degrees C than at 30 degrees C. At 27 and 30 degrees C, females weighed an average of 17-19% more than males but required an average of 0.6-0.8 d (3.0-4.3%) longer to complete larval development. At both temperatures, adult females lived an average of approximately 3.5 d less than adult males. The duration of larval development was a significant predictor of adult longevity. Temperature differences of even 3 degrees C produce significant fitness tradeoffs for males and females, influencing life history attributes and having practical applications for forensic entomology.

  5. Bacteria mediate oviposition by the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There can be substantial negative consequences for insects colonizing a resource in the presence of competitors. We hypothesized that microbes associated with an oviposition resource and resulting eggs deposited by insects serve as a mechanism regulating subsequent insect attraction, colonization, ...

  6. First record of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) on human corpses in Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, Anabel; Magaña, Concepción; Saloña, Marta; Rojo, Santos

    2011-03-20

    This article presents the first record of Hermetia illucens larvae on a human corpse in Spain (the second case report in Europe). Prepupae of H. illucens, and other insects, were recovered from the dead body of a 72-year-old man in an advanced stage of decomposition. The body was located in Reus (NE Spain), in October 1998. This article provides additional biological data on experimental studies and an update on the geographic distribution of this species in the Iberian Peninsula.

  7. Effects of temperature and diet on black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), development.

    PubMed

    Harnden, Laura M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2016-09-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, is recognised for its use in a forensic context as a means for estimating the time of colonisation and potentially postmortem interval of decomposing remains. However, little data exist on this species outside of its use in waste management. This study offers a preliminary assessment of the development, and subsequent validation, of H. illucens. Larvae of H. illucens were reared at three temperatures (24.9°C, 27.6°C and 32.2°C) at 55% RH on beef loin muscle, pork loin muscle and a grain-based diet (control). Each of the temperatures and diets were found to significantly (P<0.05) affect all stages of immature growth except for pupation time. Overall, those reared on the pork diet required on average ≈23.1% and ≈139.7% more degree hours to complete larval development than those reared on the beef and grain-based diets, respectively. Larvae reared at 27.6°C and 32.2°C required on average ≈8.7% more degree hours to complete development and had a final larval weight ≈30% greater than larvae reared at 24.9°C. The validity of the laboratory larval length and weight data sets was assessed via estimating the age of field-reared larvae. Grain-diet data lacked accuracy when used to estimate larval age in comparison to estimates made with beef and pork-diet data, which were able to predict larval age for ≈55.6% and ≈88.9% of sampling points, respectively, when length and weight data were used in conjunction. Field-reared larval sizes exceeded the maximum observed under laboratory conditions in almost half of the samples, which reduced estimate accuracy. Future research should develop additional criteria for identifying development of each specific instar, which may aid in improving the accuracy and precision of larval age estimates for this species.

  8. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of the Neotropical genus Acrochaeta Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Sarginae).

    PubMed

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Amorim, Dalton De Souza

    2015-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Acrochaeta Wiedemann is revised and a cladistics analysis of the genus based on morphological characters is presented. This paper raises the total number of extant Acrochaeta species from 10 to 14 with the description of nine new species, the synonymy of one species, the transfer of five species to other genera and the transfer of one species of Merosargus to Acrochaeta. The new species described (of which eight are from Brazil and one from Bolivia and Peru) are Acrochaeta asapha nov. sp., A. balbii nov. sp., A. dichrostyla nov. sp., A. polychaeta nov. sp., A. pseudofasciata nov. sp., A. pseudopolychaeta nov. sp., A. rhombostyla nov. sp. A. ruschii nov. sp. and A. stigmata nov. sp. The primary types of all Acrochaeta species were studied at least from photos, when possible with the study of dissected male or female terminalia. A. mexicana Lindner is proposed as a junior synonym of A. flaveola Bigot. M. chalconota (Brauer) comb. nov., M. degenerata (Lindner) comb. nov., M. longiventris (Enderlein) comb. nov. and M. picta (Brauer) comb. nov. are herein transferred from Acrochaeta to Merosargus Loew, and Chrysochlorina elegans (Perty) comb. nov. is transferred from Acrochaeta to Chrysochlorina James. A. convexifrons (McFadden) comb. nov. is transferred from Merosargus to Acrochaeta. The limits of the genus and its insertion in the Sarginae are considered, and an updated generic diagnosis is provided. All species of the genus are redescribed and diagnosed, and illustrated with photos of the habitus, thorax, wing, and drawings of the antenna and male and female terminalia. Distribution maps are provided for the species, along with an identification key for adults of all species. Parsimony analyses were carried out under equal and implied weight. Our matrix includes 43 terminal taxa--of which 26 are outgroup species from four different sargine genera--and 59 adult morphological characters. The phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of Acrochaeta based on features of the head, thorax and abdomen. An inner clade (Acrochaeta flaveola species group) within the genus was clearly recovered based on characters of male and female terminalia. There is good evidence for the paraphyly of Merosargus with Acrochaeta as a subclade, demanding a wider study of the subfamily for a sound solution for the genus Merosargus.

  9. A Drosophila heat shock response represents an exception rather than a rule amongst Diptera species.

    PubMed

    Zatsepina, O G; Przhiboro, A A; Yushenova, I A; Shilova, V; Zelentsova, E S; Shostak, N G; Evgen'ev, M B; Garbuz, D G

    2016-08-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is the major player that underlies adaptive response to hyperthermia in all organisms studied to date. We investigated patterns of Hsp70 expression in larvae of dipteran species collected from natural populations of species belonging to four families from different evolutionary lineages of the order Diptera: Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Chironomidae and Ceratopogonidae. All investigated species showed a Hsp70 expression pattern that was different from the pattern in Drosophila. In contrast to Drosophila, all of the species in the families studied were characterized by high constitutive levels of Hsp70, which was more stable than that in Drosophila. When Stratiomyidae Hsp70 proteins were expressed in Drosophila cells, they became as short-lived as the endogenous Hsp70. Interestingly, three species of Ceratopogonidae and a cold-water species of Chironomidae exhibited high constitutive levels of Hsp70 mRNA and high basal levels of Hsp70. Furthermore, two species of Tabanidae were characterized by significant constitutive levels of Hsp70 and highly stable Hsp70 mRNA. In most cases, heat-resistant species were characterized by a higher basal level of Hsp70 than more thermosensitive species. These data suggest that different trends were realized during the evolution of the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the responses of Hsp70 genes to temperature fluctuations in the studied families. PMID:27089053

  10. Early Correction of Malocclusion Using Planas Direct Tracks

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Renata Reis; Isper Garbin, Artênio José; Saliba Garbin, Cléa Adas

    2013-01-01

    The correction of functional posterior crossbite through Planas Direct Tracks has many characteristics that can become advantages. The aim of this study was to present a clinical case showing how to use this procedure for early correction with resources available through public health services. The patient, a 4-year-old girl, arrived to receive treatment due to a functional unilateral crossbite. When the mandible was moved to the centric position, it was observed that the teeth had occlusal trauma. An occlusal adjustment was performed. The adjustment was not sufficient to promote functional equilibrium; thus, Planas Direct Tracks were made, resulting in functional equilibrium and correction of the malocclusion. As shown in the case report, the Planas Direct Tracks were effective for the correction of the posterior crossbite. If malocclusion is considered a public health problem, implementation of low-cost and easy-to-execute techniques is needed. PMID:24083033

  11. Terrestrial arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. IV. Asilidae and other Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Jeffrey K.; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P. G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This is the fourth in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months in 2013 using twelve trap types, including Malaise and canopy traps, Lindgren multifunnel traps, and pan traps. New information We provide collection records for 38 species of Asilidae and other Diptera, 7 of which are new state records for Arkansas: (Asilidae) Lasiopogon opaculus Loew, 1874; (Lygistorrhinidae) Lygistorrhina sancthecatharinae Thompson, 1975; (Stratiomyidae) Cephalochrysa nigricornis (Loew, 1866), Gowdeyana punctifera (Malloch, 1915), Sargus decorus Say, 1824; (Ulidiidae) Callopistromyia annulipes Macquart, 1855; and (Xylophagidae) Rachicerus obscuripennis Loew, 1863.

  12. Terrestrial arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. IV. Asilidae and other Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Jeffrey K.; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P. G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This is the fourth in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months in 2013 using twelve trap types, including Malaise and canopy traps, Lindgren multifunnel traps, and pan traps. New information We provide collection records for 38 species of Asilidae and other Diptera, 7 of which are new state records for Arkansas: (Asilidae) Lasiopogon opaculus Loew, 1874; (Lygistorrhinidae) Lygistorrhina sancthecatharinae Thompson, 1975; (Stratiomyidae) Cephalochrysa nigricornis (Loew, 1866), Gowdeyana punctifera (Malloch, 1915), Sargus decorus Say, 1824; (Ulidiidae) Callopistromyia annulipes Macquart, 1855; and (Xylophagidae) Rachicerus obscuripennis Loew, 1863. PMID:27660536

  13. Plana Student Astronomical Observatory: First results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovcharov, E. P.; Kurtenkov, A.; Metodieva, Y.; Dimitrov, A.; Enikova, P.; Bozhilov, V.; Stanev, I.; Nikolov, P.; Nikolov, Y.; Markishki, P.; Gantchev, G.; Trifonov, T.; Nedialkov, P.; Stanchev, O.

    We present a new Bulgarian professional optical observatory initiated by the Department of Astronomy at the University of Sofia. The observatory is located in the Plana mountain at an altitude of 1240 m and about 30 km to the southeast of Sofia. It is situated on the premises of the Plana Geodetic Observatory operated by the National Institute of Geophysics, Geodesy and Geography of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Plana Student Astronomical Observatory (SAO) is equipped with a 0.35 m f/4.6 Newtonian telescope and an SBIG STL-11000M CCD camera with Bessel UBVRI filters. The photometric accuracy reached with a single five-minute exposure is 0.2 mag at B=20.0 mag. In this article we present some of the first observational results obtained at Plana SAO -- photometric measurements of novae in M31 and AGNs. The list of observed novae includes M31N 2013-10a, M31N 2013-10d, M31N 2013-10g, M31N 2013-10h, M31N 2013-12a and M31N 2013-12b. Broadband BVRI photometry of BL Lac near its historical maximum in the autumn of 2013 is presented as well.

  14. Aqueous misdirection following pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection

    PubMed Central

    Ghoraba, Hammouda H; Ghali, Ali Ahmed; Mansour, Hosam Othman

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report a retrospective series of seven phakic eyes of seven patients suffering from a malignant glaucoma-like syndrome following pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil (SO) injection. Materials and methods Seven eyes with retinal detachment treated with pars plana vitrectomy with or without scleral buckling with SO tamponade. This was followed by cataract extraction to manage the elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Results This was a retrospective review of seven cases that received pars plana vitrectomy and SO with or without scleral buckling for different causes of retinal detachment (three were rhegmatogenous and four were tractional). After a period ranging from 1 week to 1 month, they presented with malignant glaucoma-like manifestations; high IOP, shallow axial anterior chamber, and remarkable decrease of visual acuity. Atropine eye drops and anti-glaucoma medical treatment (topical and systemic) had been tried but failed to improve the condition. Dramatic decrease of IOP and deepening of the axial anterior chamber was observed in all cases in the first postoperative day after phacoemulsification and posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation with posterior capsulotomy. Conclusion Aqueous misdirection syndrome may be observed following pars plana vitrectomy and SO tamponade. This must be differentiated from other causes of post vitrectomy glaucoma. Cataract extraction with posterior capsulotomy controls the condition. PMID:26056429

  15. Inflammation and Macular Oedema after Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Vito; Angi, Martina; del Grosso, Renata; Romano, Davide; Vinciguerra, Paolo; Romano, Mario R.

    2013-01-01

    Cystoid macular oedema (CMO) is a major cause of reduced vision following intraocular surgery. Although the aetiology of CMO is not completely clarified, intraocular inflammation is known to play a major role in its development. The macula may develop cytotoxic oedema when the primary lesion and fluid accumulation occur in the parenchymatous cells (intracellular oedema) or vasogenic oedema when the primary defect occurs in the blood-retinal barrier and leads to extracellular fluid accumulation (extracellular oedema). We report on the mechanisms of CMO formation after pars plana vitrectomy and associated surgical procedures and discuss possible therapeutic approaches. PMID:24288446

  16. David Kasner, MD, and the Road to Pars Plana Vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Blodi, Christopher F

    2016-01-01

    David Kasner, MD (1927-2001), used his extensive dissections of eye bank eyes and experiences in teaching cataract surgery to resident physicians to realize that excision of vitreous when present in the anterior chamber of eyes undergoing cataract surgery was preferable to prior intraoperative procedures. Noting that eyes tolerated his maneuvers, he then performed planned subtotal open-sky vitrectomies; first on a traumatized eye in 1961, then on two eyes of patients with amyloidosis (1966-1967). The success of these operations was noted by others, most particularly Robert Machemer, MD. Kasner's work directly led to further surgical developments, including closed pars plana vitrectomy. PMID:27660504

  17. David Kasner, MD, and the Road to Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Blodi, Christopher F.

    2016-01-01

    David Kasner, MD (1927–2001), used his extensive dissections of eye bank eyes and experiences in teaching cataract surgery to resident physicians to realize that excision of vitreous when present in the anterior chamber of eyes undergoing cataract surgery was preferable to prior intraoperative procedures. Noting that eyes tolerated his maneuvers, he then performed planned subtotal open-sky vitrectomies; first on a traumatized eye in 1961, then on two eyes of patients with amyloidosis (1966–1967). The success of these operations was noted by others, most particularly Robert Machemer, MD. Kasner’s work directly led to further surgical developments, including closed pars plana vitrectomy. PMID:27660504

  18. David Kasner, MD, and the Road to Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Blodi, Christopher F.

    2016-01-01

    David Kasner, MD (1927–2001), used his extensive dissections of eye bank eyes and experiences in teaching cataract surgery to resident physicians to realize that excision of vitreous when present in the anterior chamber of eyes undergoing cataract surgery was preferable to prior intraoperative procedures. Noting that eyes tolerated his maneuvers, he then performed planned subtotal open-sky vitrectomies; first on a traumatized eye in 1961, then on two eyes of patients with amyloidosis (1966–1967). The success of these operations was noted by others, most particularly Robert Machemer, MD. Kasner’s work directly led to further surgical developments, including closed pars plana vitrectomy.

  19. Pars plana cicatrization of sewn-in posterior chamber intraocular lens haptics.

    PubMed

    McDermott, M L; Puklin, J E

    1997-03-01

    The authors describe the unexpected finding of cicatrization of posterior chamber lens haptics to the pars plana. This was found during removal of a secondary, transscleral sewn-in pseudophakos during a retinal reattachment procedure. Ophthalmic history and intraoperative photography revealed pars plana cicatrization of haptics. Despite removal of trans-scleral prolene fixation sutures and application of gentle traction, the posterior chamber lens haptics remained firmly adherent to pars plana retina. The haptics were amputated to prevent significant chorioretinal damage. The conventional belief that all sewn-in posterior chamber intraocular lenses cause little or no scarring response around the haptics may be unfounded.

  20. Pars plana vitrectomy through the Boston Keratoprosthesis type 1

    PubMed Central

    Harissi-Dagher, M; Durr, G M; Biernacki, K; Sebag, M; Rhéaume, M-A

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To ascertain the feasibility of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) through a permanent Boston Keratoprosthesis type 1 (KPro) without the use of a temporary KPro. Methods A retrospective interventional case series. Eyes implanted with Boston KPro type 1 between 2008 and 2011 requiring PPV for vitreoretinal complications were included. Feasibility of PPV through the KPro, its anatomical and functional success were studied. Results Five out of 70 patients required PPV for vitreoretinal complications post-KPro surgery resulting in an incidence of 7%. PPV was feasible through the Boston KPro with no deleterious effects on the corneal carrier or the KPro itself. Repeat PPV was necessary in some cases. Although anatomical repair of the vitreoretinal complications was achieved in most cases, post PPV visual acuity remained poor in the majority. Conclusion Our study suggests that although PPV through the Boston KPro is a viable approach for vitreoretinal disease repair, visual rehabilitation remains poor. PMID:23579405

  1. Caloparyphus palaearcticus sp. n. (Diptera, Stratiomyidae), the first record for the soldier fly genus in the Palaearctic

    PubMed Central

    Rozkošný, Rudolf; Hauser, Martin; Gelhaus, Jon K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Caloparyphus palaearcticus sp. n. is described from Russia and two localities in Mongolia and is the first representative of this genus in the Palaearctic and the only species found outside the New World. The morphological characters of the species are described and illustrated, and relationships to related species of Caloparyphus are discussed. PMID:27408561

  2. Revision of the southeast Asian soldier-fly genus Parastratiosphecomyia Brunetti, 1923 (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Pachygastrinae)

    PubMed Central

    Woodley, Norman E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The genus Parastratiosphecomyia Brunetti is revised with the description of two new species: Parastratiosphecomyia freidbergi sp. n. from India and Parastratiosphecomyia rozkosnyi sp. n. from Laos and Thailand. All four species in the genus are illustrated and a key to species is provided. Type localities of previously described taxa are briefly discussed. PMID:23226704

  3. Caloparyphus palaearcticus sp. n. (Diptera, Stratiomyidae), the first record for the soldier fly genus in the Palaearctic.

    PubMed

    Rozkošný, Rudolf; Hauser, Martin; Gelhaus, Jon K

    2016-01-01

    Caloparyphus palaearcticus sp. n. is described from Russia and two localities in Mongolia and is the first representative of this genus in the Palaearctic and the only species found outside the New World. The morphological characters of the species are described and illustrated, and relationships to related species of Caloparyphus are discussed. PMID:27408561

  4. Inoculating poultry manure with companion bacteria influences growth and development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guohui; Cheng, Ping; Chen, Yanhong; Li, Yongjian; Yang, Zihong; Chen, Yuanfeng; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-02-01

    The growth and development of black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae fed chicken manure inoculated with bacteria isolated from black soldier fly larvae and associated larval feed was evaluated. Four strains of Bacillus subtilis were evaluated. B. subtilis strains S15, S16, S19, were isolated from the gut of black soldier fly larvae. B. natto strain D1 was isolated from the diet fed to black soldier fly larvae. These bacteria were added individually into nonsterile 200 g fresh hen manure at 10(6) cfu/g and homogenized. Treated manure was then inoculated with 4-d old black soldier fly larvae. Prepupal weight ranged from 0.0606 g in the control to 0.0946 g in manure treated with the S15 strain. Larval survivorship to the prepupal stage in all treatments ranged from 98.00 ± 2.65% to 99.33 ± 1.15%. Prepupal survivorship to the pupal stage ranged from 91.92 ± 1.87% to 97.95 ± 1.03%. Adult emergence from the pupal stage did not significantly (P < 0.05) differ across treatments and ranged from 98.95 ± 1.82% to 100.00 ± 0.00%. Adult body length resulting from the larvae in each of the treatments was significantly greater than those from the control. Longevity of adults did not differ significantly between treatments. Time from hatching to the development of the first pupa did not differ significantly across treatments; however, development time from hatching to 90% reaching the prepupual stage was significantly different between treatments and ranged from 29.00 ± 1.00 d to 34.33 ± 3.51 d. Development time from hatching to 90% reaching the adult stages was significantly different between treatments. Our results demonstrate that inoculating poultry manure with bacteria from black soldier fly larvae influences the growth and development of conspecific larvae feeding on the manure. PMID:22182608

  5. Revision of the southeast Asian soldier-fly genus Parastratiosphecomyia Brunetti, 1923 (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Pachygastrinae).

    PubMed

    Woodley, Norman E

    2012-01-01

    The genus Parastratiosphecomyia Brunetti is revised with the description of two new species: Parastratiosphecomyia freidbergisp. n. from India and Parastratiosphecomyia rozkosnyisp. n. from Laos and Thailand. All four species in the genus are illustrated and a key to species is provided. Type localities of previously described taxa are briefly discussed. PMID:23226704

  6. Developmental and waste reduction plasticity of three black soldier fly strains (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) raised on different livestock manures.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fen; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Zheng, Longyu; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Jibin

    2013-11-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are distributed throughout the temperate and tropic regions of the world and are known an established method for sustainably managing animal wastes. Colonies used to conduct research on the black soldier fly within the past 20 yr have predominately been established from eggs or larvae received from a colony originated from Bacon County, GA. Consequently, little is known about the phenotypic plasticity (i.e., development and waste conversion) across strains from different regions. This study compared the development of three strains of the black soldier fly (Texas; Guangzhou, China; and Wuhan, China) and their ability to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in swine, dairy, and chicken manure. The Wuhan strain appeared to be more fit. Larvae from Wuhan needed 17.7-29.9% less time to reach the prepupal stage than those from Guangzhou or Texas, respectively. Larvae from Wuhan weighed 14.4-37.0% more than those from Guanghzhou or Texas, respectively. Larvae from the Wuhan strain reduced dry matter 46.0% (swine), 40.1% (dairy), and 48.4% (chicken) more than the Guangzhou strain and 6.9, 7.2, and 7.9% more than the Texas strain. This study demonstrates that phenotypic plasticity (e.g., development and waste conversion) varies across populations of black soldier flies and should be taken into account when selecting and establishing a population as a waste management agent in a given region of the world. PMID:24843926

  7. Inoculating poultry manure with companion bacteria influences growth and development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guohui; Cheng, Ping; Chen, Yanhong; Li, Yongjian; Yang, Zihong; Chen, Yuanfeng; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-02-01

    The growth and development of black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae fed chicken manure inoculated with bacteria isolated from black soldier fly larvae and associated larval feed was evaluated. Four strains of Bacillus subtilis were evaluated. B. subtilis strains S15, S16, S19, were isolated from the gut of black soldier fly larvae. B. natto strain D1 was isolated from the diet fed to black soldier fly larvae. These bacteria were added individually into nonsterile 200 g fresh hen manure at 10(6) cfu/g and homogenized. Treated manure was then inoculated with 4-d old black soldier fly larvae. Prepupal weight ranged from 0.0606 g in the control to 0.0946 g in manure treated with the S15 strain. Larval survivorship to the prepupal stage in all treatments ranged from 98.00 ± 2.65% to 99.33 ± 1.15%. Prepupal survivorship to the pupal stage ranged from 91.92 ± 1.87% to 97.95 ± 1.03%. Adult emergence from the pupal stage did not significantly (P < 0.05) differ across treatments and ranged from 98.95 ± 1.82% to 100.00 ± 0.00%. Adult body length resulting from the larvae in each of the treatments was significantly greater than those from the control. Longevity of adults did not differ significantly between treatments. Time from hatching to the development of the first pupa did not differ significantly across treatments; however, development time from hatching to 90% reaching the prepupual stage was significantly different between treatments and ranged from 29.00 ± 1.00 d to 34.33 ± 3.51 d. Development time from hatching to 90% reaching the adult stages was significantly different between treatments. Our results demonstrate that inoculating poultry manure with bacteria from black soldier fly larvae influences the growth and development of conspecific larvae feeding on the manure.

  8. Characterization of the molecular features and expression patterns of two serine proteases in Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wontae; Bae, Sungwoo; Kim, Ayoung; Park, Kwanho; Lee, Sangbeom; Choi, Youngcheol; Han, Sangmi; Park, Younghan; Koh, Youngho

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the molecular scavenging capabilities of the larvae of Hermetia illucens, two serine proteases (SPs) were cloned and characterized. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic tree analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of Hi-SP1 and Hi-SP2 were suggested that Hi-SP1 may be a chymotrypsin- and Hi-SP2 may be a trypsin-like protease. Hi-SP1 and Hi-SP2 3-D homology models revealed that a catalytic triad, three disulfide bonds, and a substrate-binding pocket were highly conserved, as would be expected of a SP. E. coli expressed Hi-SP1 and Hi-SP2 showed chymotrypsin or trypsin activities, respectively. Hi-SP2 mRNAs were consistently expressed during larval development. In contrast, the expression of Hi-SP1 mRNA fluctuated between feeding and molting stages and disappeared at the pupal stages. These expression pattern differences suggest that Hi-SP1 may be a larval specific chymotrypsin-like protease involved with food digestion, while Hi-SP2 may be a trypsin-like protease with diverse functions at different stages.

  9. Developmental and waste reduction plasticity of three black soldier fly strains (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) raised on different livestock manures.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fen; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Zheng, Longyu; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Jibin

    2013-11-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are distributed throughout the temperate and tropic regions of the world and are known an established method for sustainably managing animal wastes. Colonies used to conduct research on the black soldier fly within the past 20 yr have predominately been established from eggs or larvae received from a colony originated from Bacon County, GA. Consequently, little is known about the phenotypic plasticity (i.e., development and waste conversion) across strains from different regions. This study compared the development of three strains of the black soldier fly (Texas; Guangzhou, China; and Wuhan, China) and their ability to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in swine, dairy, and chicken manure. The Wuhan strain appeared to be more fit. Larvae from Wuhan needed 17.7-29.9% less time to reach the prepupal stage than those from Guangzhou or Texas, respectively. Larvae from Wuhan weighed 14.4-37.0% more than those from Guanghzhou or Texas, respectively. Larvae from the Wuhan strain reduced dry matter 46.0% (swine), 40.1% (dairy), and 48.4% (chicken) more than the Guangzhou strain and 6.9, 7.2, and 7.9% more than the Texas strain. This study demonstrates that phenotypic plasticity (e.g., development and waste conversion) varies across populations of black soldier flies and should be taken into account when selecting and establishing a population as a waste management agent in a given region of the world.

  10. Injection of fluorosilicone oil and pars plana vitrectomy for complex retinal detachment.

    PubMed

    Peyman, G A; Smith, R T; Charles, H

    1987-08-01

    Pars plana vitrectomy can be combined with injection of fluorosilicone oil to treat complex retinal detachments. We describe three cases to illustrate the technique, which is adapted according to the type and location of the retinal breaks.

  11. Supplementation of an Artificial Medium for the Parasitoid Exorista larvarum (Diptera: Tachnidae) With Hemolymph of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) or Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Dindo, Maria Luisa; Vandicke, Jonas; Marchetti, Elisa; Spranghers, Thomas; Bonte, Jochem; De Clercq, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The effect of supplementing hemolymph of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), or the Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Guérin-Méneville), to a basic insect-free artificial medium for the tachinid Exorista larvarum (L.) was investigated. The supplementation (20% w/w) was based on the assumption that insect additives may optimize the media for this parasitoid. Egg hatch, pupal and adult yields, and sex ratio did not differ among the enriched and basic media. Preimaginal development was faster on both hemolymph-enriched media than on the basic medium. Despite the shorter development on the medium supplemented with H. illucens hemolymph than on the basic medium, on the two media puparium weights were comparable. The female flies reared on the medium enriched with H. illucens hemolymph did not lay more eggs, but the latter yielded significantly more puparia compared with the control females. Conversely, the medium enriched with A. pernyi hemolymph yielded lower female puparium weights than the basic medium and produced only one ovipositing female out of the five obtained female adults. These results indicate that the in vitro development of E. larvarum improved when the basic artificial medium was enriched with H. illucens hemolymph, whereas the supplementation with A. pernyi hemolymph negatively affected the quality of the in vitro-reared females. PMID:26921223

  12. Supplementation of an Artificial Medium for the Parasitoid Exorista larvarum (Diptera: Tachnidae) With Hemolymph of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) or Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Dindo, Maria Luisa; Vandicke, Jonas; Marchetti, Elisa; Spranghers, Thomas; Bonte, Jochem; De Clercq, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The effect of supplementing hemolymph of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), or the Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Guérin-Méneville), to a basic insect-free artificial medium for the tachinid Exorista larvarum (L.) was investigated. The supplementation (20% w/w) was based on the assumption that insect additives may optimize the media for this parasitoid. Egg hatch, pupal and adult yields, and sex ratio did not differ among the enriched and basic media. Preimaginal development was faster on both hemolymph-enriched media than on the basic medium. Despite the shorter development on the medium supplemented with H. illucens hemolymph than on the basic medium, on the two media puparium weights were comparable. The female flies reared on the medium enriched with H. illucens hemolymph did not lay more eggs, but the latter yielded significantly more puparia compared with the control females. Conversely, the medium enriched with A. pernyi hemolymph yielded lower female puparium weights than the basic medium and produced only one ovipositing female out of the five obtained female adults. These results indicate that the in vitro development of E. larvarum improved when the basic artificial medium was enriched with H. illucens hemolymph, whereas the supplementation with A. pernyi hemolymph negatively affected the quality of the in vitro-reared females.

  13. Aspergillus fumigatus Endophthalmitis with Necrotizing Scleritis following Pars Plana Vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Gruener, Anna M; Allen, Felicity; Stanford, Miles R; Graham, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of Aspergillus fumigatus endophthalmitis complicated by necrotizing scleritis in a 68-year-old man with diet-controlled diabetes, after retinal detachment repair. He was initially treated with systemic steroids for surgically induced necrotizing scleritis following routine pars plana vitrectomy. An additional diagnosis of endophthalmitis was made when the patient developed a hypopyon. Repeat vitreous culture isolated Aspergillus fumigatus. Symptoms improved following antifungal treatment leaving the patient with scleromalacia and an advanced postoperative cataract. Fungal scleritis and endophthalmitis are rare complications of intraocular surgery with sight-threatening consequences, and, as this case demonstrates, may even occur concomitantly. The overlapping features of both conditions can make differentiating one from the other difficult. A fungal aetiology should be considered in cases of postoperative scleritis and endophthalmitis that are protracted and refractory to standard therapy. Even in cases of early diagnosis and treatment, visual outcomes in Aspergillus endophthalmitis and scleritis are variable and often disappointing, not infrequently necessitating enucleation of a painful blind eye.

  14. Aspergillus fumigatus Endophthalmitis with Necrotizing Scleritis following Pars Plana Vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Gruener, Anna M; Allen, Felicity; Stanford, Miles R; Graham, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of Aspergillus fumigatus endophthalmitis complicated by necrotizing scleritis in a 68-year-old man with diet-controlled diabetes, after retinal detachment repair. He was initially treated with systemic steroids for surgically induced necrotizing scleritis following routine pars plana vitrectomy. An additional diagnosis of endophthalmitis was made when the patient developed a hypopyon. Repeat vitreous culture isolated Aspergillus fumigatus. Symptoms improved following antifungal treatment leaving the patient with scleromalacia and an advanced postoperative cataract. Fungal scleritis and endophthalmitis are rare complications of intraocular surgery with sight-threatening consequences, and, as this case demonstrates, may even occur concomitantly. The overlapping features of both conditions can make differentiating one from the other difficult. A fungal aetiology should be considered in cases of postoperative scleritis and endophthalmitis that are protracted and refractory to standard therapy. Even in cases of early diagnosis and treatment, visual outcomes in Aspergillus endophthalmitis and scleritis are variable and often disappointing, not infrequently necessitating enucleation of a painful blind eye. PMID:27379189

  15. Diptera of forensic importance in the Iberian Peninsula: larval identification key.

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Y; Magaña, C; Martínez-Sánchez, A; Rojo, S

    2010-09-01

    A revision of the species and families of sarcosaprophagous flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Drosophilidae, Phoridae, Piophilidae and Stratiomyidae) suitable for forensic purposes in the Iberian Peninsula is presented. Morphological characteristics that allow the accurate identification of third instars of the species present in the Iberian Peninsula are described and presented in the form of a diagnostic key. For larval Calliphoridae, characteristics such as the spines of the body segments were useful for the genus Calliphora whereas features of the anal segment and the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were useful for larvae of Lucilia. Identification of three Chrysominae species present in the Iberian Peninsula is included. For larval Sarcophagidae, characters such as the arrangement and shape of spiracular openings, structures of the anal segment and the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were used for the first time. A new record of Sarcophaga cultellata Pandellé, from a human corpse, is also included as well as recent incursions into the European cadaveric entomofauna such as Synthesiomyia nudiseta (van der Wulp) and Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus). This work provides useful new information that could be applied to forensic investigations in the Iberian Peninsula and in southern Europe.

  16. [Diabetics in population of patients treated by pars plana vitrectomy].

    PubMed

    Bezdésová-Bohunická, N; Skorkovská, S; Synek, S; Kanovský, R; Masková, Z; Synková, M

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate visual and anatomic outcomes following pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for complications of diabetic retinopathy (DR), and to assess risk factors that might influence the visual outcome after successful PPV. The medical records of 35 diabetic patients of both types 1 and 2 of diabetes, who underwent vitrectomy for complications of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) between 2004 and 2005, were analyzed retrospectively. Certain preoperative systemic and ophthalmic variables, intraoperative variables and postoperative complications with negative influence on visual outcome after PPV were recorded. The postoperative follow-up time was 6 months. The collected data as well as visual outcomes after PPV were statistically analyzed. Statistically significant visual improvement was achieved in 51.4 % of the patients; visual acuity (VA) deteriorated in 25.7% of the patients and remained unchanged in 22.9 % of the patients. Preoperative median of VA was 0.0167, changed to 0.1 postoperatively and remained stable on 0.1 level during the 6 months follow-up. VA > or = 0.1 was achieved in 60 % of the patients 6 months after PPV. Some of the followed variables associated with deteriorated or unchanged postoperative VA can be considered as risk factors of an unfavorable prognosis. Evaluated risk factors include preoperative VA worse than 0.1, presence of systemic complications of DM accompanying ocular complications, postoperative occurrence of iris neovascularization and neovascular glaucoma. In conclusion, anatomically successful PPV in diabetic patients is not always followed by an improvement of VA. The optimal timing of vitrectomy is very important not only in order to obtain good visual acuity but also to maintain good visual function for long time. We suppose that an adequate control of DM, sufficient screening for DR and timely laser intervention of DR might decrease the progression of DR and onset of sight threatening complications

  17. [Diabetics in population of patients treated by pars plana vitrectomy].

    PubMed

    Bezdésová-Bohunická, N; Skorkovská, S; Synek, S; Kanovský, R; Masková, Z; Synková, M

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate visual and anatomic outcomes following pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for complications of diabetic retinopathy (DR), and to assess risk factors that might influence the visual outcome after successful PPV. The medical records of 35 diabetic patients of both types 1 and 2 of diabetes, who underwent vitrectomy for complications of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) between 2004 and 2005, were analyzed retrospectively. Certain preoperative systemic and ophthalmic variables, intraoperative variables and postoperative complications with negative influence on visual outcome after PPV were recorded. The postoperative follow-up time was 6 months. The collected data as well as visual outcomes after PPV were statistically analyzed. Statistically significant visual improvement was achieved in 51.4 % of the patients; visual acuity (VA) deteriorated in 25.7% of the patients and remained unchanged in 22.9 % of the patients. Preoperative median of VA was 0.0167, changed to 0.1 postoperatively and remained stable on 0.1 level during the 6 months follow-up. VA > or = 0.1 was achieved in 60 % of the patients 6 months after PPV. Some of the followed variables associated with deteriorated or unchanged postoperative VA can be considered as risk factors of an unfavorable prognosis. Evaluated risk factors include preoperative VA worse than 0.1, presence of systemic complications of DM accompanying ocular complications, postoperative occurrence of iris neovascularization and neovascular glaucoma. In conclusion, anatomically successful PPV in diabetic patients is not always followed by an improvement of VA. The optimal timing of vitrectomy is very important not only in order to obtain good visual acuity but also to maintain good visual function for long time. We suppose that an adequate control of DM, sufficient screening for DR and timely laser intervention of DR might decrease the progression of DR and onset of sight threatening complications

  18. Intersex in the clam Scrobicularia plana: a sign of endocrine disruption in estuaries?

    PubMed

    Chesman, B S; Langston, W J

    2006-09-22

    The phenomenon of endocrine disruption is currently a source of growing concern. Feminization of male fish in UK rivers has been shown to occur extensively and has been linked with exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds present in the environment. Much less is known of the extent and scale of endocrine disruption in estuarine and marine ecosystems, particularly in invertebrates. We present evidence that intersex, in the form of ovotestis, is occurring in the common estuarine bivalve Scrobicularia plana, which is considered to be inherently gonochoristic. We report varying degrees in the severity of ovotestis in male S. plana, and have adopted and developed a grading method to assess the extent of this intersex condition. These findings indicate that S. plana offers potential for widespread screening and investigation of endocrine disruption, helping to focus remediatory strategy.

  19. Intersex in the clam Scrobicularia plana: a sign of endocrine disruption in estuaries?

    PubMed Central

    Chesman, B.S; Langston, W.J

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of endocrine disruption is currently a source of growing concern. Feminization of male fish in UK rivers has been shown to occur extensively and has been linked with exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds present in the environment. Much less is known of the extent and scale of endocrine disruption in estuarine and marine ecosystems, particularly in invertebrates. We present evidence that intersex, in the form of ovotestis, is occurring in the common estuarine bivalve Scrobicularia plana, which is considered to be inherently gonochoristic. We report varying degrees in the severity of ovotestis in male S. plana, and have adopted and developed a grading method to assess the extent of this intersex condition. These findings indicate that S. plana offers potential for widespread screening and investigation of endocrine disruption, helping to focus remediatory strategy. PMID:17148420

  20. Multi-purpose extraocular forceps for small-gauge pars plana vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Elias; Chun, Dal W; Gurley, Kiersten

    2012-01-01

    A multi-purpose titanium forceps has been developed for small-gauge pars plana vitrectomy surgery. These forceps were designed to provide the vitreoretinal surgeon with a single tool for the extraocular manipulations that are necessary for the placement and removal of 23- and 25-gauge trochars for small-incision, sutureless pars plana vitrectomy surgery. The forceps has been designed to allow for the atraumatic manipulation of the conjunctiva, measurement of distance from the limbus, and a strong purchase of the trochar for both its fixation and removal.

  1. Fauna europaea: Diptera - brachycera.

    PubMed

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I; Ozerov, Andrey L; Woźnica, Andrzej J; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C D; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L; Chandler, Peter J; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N; Mathis, Wayne N; Hubenov, Zdravko; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera-Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera-Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger number of small

  2. Fauna europaea: Diptera - brachycera.

    PubMed

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I; Ozerov, Andrey L; Woźnica, Andrzej J; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C D; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L; Chandler, Peter J; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N; Mathis, Wayne N; Hubenov, Zdravko; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera-Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera-Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger number of small

  3. 76 FR 14402 - Draft Action Plan-A Public Health Action Plan To Combat Antimicrobial Resistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Draft Action Plan--A Public Health Action Plan...), Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). ACTION: Notice of availability and request for public comment... Human Services (HHS) is publishing this notice requesting public comment on the draft A Public...

  4. The Dispute Between Carlini-Plana And Laplace On The Theory Of The Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliaferri, Guido; Tucci, Pasquale

    In 1820 a prize was awarded to Carlini-Plana and Damoiseau for their memoirs on the lunar tables based solely on the law of universal gravity, as the Académie des Sciences in Paris required. Laplace had proposed in 1818 the setting up of the prize and he was member of the committee who examined the memoirs. But Laplace, unexpectedly, strongly criticised Carlini-Plana's approach to the lunar theory. A dispute ensued: although he understood the importance of the criticisms of Carlini and Plana, addressing them punctiliously, Laplace had a precise objective in mind: to prove that his lunar theory, premised in the Mécanique Céleste on the theory of universal gravity, could, with the help of able calculating astronomers, give rise eventually to good Lunar tables. After the exchanges, public and private, Laplace recognised that Carlini and Plana had advanced the theory: the decisive step towards compiling lunar tables deduced solely from theory could thus be said to have been substantially accomplished.

  5. Incidence of intersex in male clams Scrobicularia plana in the Guadiana Estuary (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Gomes, T; Gonzalez-Rey, M; Bebianno, M J

    2009-11-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) known to be present in the marine environment, have great potential to influence reproductive status in aquatic organisms. A widespread incidence of intersex linked with EDCs exposure has been reported in molluscs and fish species. The species Scrobicularia plana is inherently gonochoristic; nonetheless, the feminisation of male clams was described in estuaries from the United Kingdom. Thus, this study reports the presence of oocytes in the testis of male clams of S. plana collected in the Guadiana River (Portugal). Samples were collected between June and September (2007), and gonad tissue analysed by light microscopy. Intersex with several degrees of intensity was detected during the first three months of sampling, in which the percentage of male clams affected varied between 5.9, 58.3 and 71.4%. Little is known about the causes of intersex in S. plana, being the urban, industrial and agricultural discharges possible major sources of induction. In the Guadiana River, the presence of several EDCs may be directly linked to the incidence of the intersex condition detected in Scrobicularia plana.

  6. Ultrasound biomicroscopy of the peripheral retina and the ciliary body in degenerative retinoschisis associated with pars plana cysts

    PubMed Central

    Mannino, G.; Malagola, R.; Abdolrahimzadeh, S.; Villani, G.; Recupero, S.

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To evaluate the ciliary body and peripheral retina in degenerative retinoschisis associated with pars plana cysts using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM).
METHODS—18 eyes of 12 patients with degenerative retinoschisis associated with pars plana cysts were selected through binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and Goldmann three mirror lens examination, both with scleral depression. These patients were studied in detail with UBM.
RESULTS—Study of the ciliary body with UBM showed pars plana cysts of different size and uneven shape. In cross sections the morphology of pars plana cysts in detail and the close relation of the cysts with the oral region and the peripheral retina, where areas of cystoid degeneration and retinoschisis were present, were observed. In transverse sections three main morphological aspects of pars plana cysts could be differentiated ("isolated," "confluent," and "clustered" cysts). Furthermore, ultrabiomicroscopy allowed differential diagnosis between retinoschisis and associated retinal detachment in six eyes.
CONCLUSIONS—The study of peripheral degenerative retinoschisis and pars plana cysts is possible in vivo by means of UBM, showing the detailed morphology of the lesions (not otherwise evident through ophthalmoscopic examination) and the close relation between pars plana cysts, cystoid degeneration, and peripheral retinoschisis.

 PMID:11466258

  7. Proprioceptive encoding of head position in the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Paulk, Angelique; Gilbert, Cole

    2006-10-01

    Because the eyes of insects cannot be moved independently of the head, information about head posture is essential for stabilizing the visual world or providing information about the direction of gaze. We examined the external anatomy and physiological capabilities of a head posture proprioceptor, the prosternal organ (PO), located at the base of the neck in the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Family: Stratiomyidae). The PO is sexually isomorphic and is composed of two fused plates of about 130 mechanosensory hairs set in asymmetrical sockets whose orientation varies across the organ. A multi-joint mechanical coupling between the head, neck membrane, and contact sclerites deflects the hairs more or less to increase or decrease their level of excitation. The PO sensory afferents project to the central nervous system (CNS) via a pair of bilateral prosternal nerves (PN) to the fused thoracic ganglia. Simultaneous recording of spiking activity in the PN and videotaping of wind-induced and voluntary head movements around all three axes of head rotation reveal that a few PN afferents are active at rest, but activity increases tonically in response to head deflections. Activity is significantly modulated by change in head angles around the pitch (+/-40 degrees ), yaw (+/-30 degrees ) and roll (more than +/-90 degrees ) axes, although the dynamic range of spiking activity differs for each axis of rotation. Prosternal nerve afferents are bilaterally excited (inhibited) by pitch down (up); excited (inhibited) by head yaw toward the ipsilateral (contralateral) side; excited by roll down toward the ipsilateral side, but little inhibited by roll toward the opposite side. Although bilateral comparison of activity in PN afferents reliably encodes head posture around a given rotational axis, from the point of view of the CNS, the problem of encoding head posture is ill-posed with three axes of rotation and only two streams of afferent information. Furthermore, when the

  8. Insects (Diptera) associated with cadavers at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Pernambuco, Brazil: implications for forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tatiana Costa; Vasconcelos, Simao Dias

    2010-05-20

    Increasing rates of unsolved homicides in Brazil prompt the need for applied entomological data to be used as a complementary tool by criminal investigators. In that context, we analyzed the occurrence of forensically important insect species (Order Diptera) on 14 cadavers taken into the Institute of Legal Medicine (ILM), in Pernambuco, Brazil, according to the conditions of the body and the pattern of colonisation by insects. Simultaneously, we surveyed the diversity of insects in the surrounding environment using bait traps. Five species were present on cadavers: Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Cochliomyia macellaria (Calliphoridae), Oxysarcodexia riograndensis and Ravinia belforti (Sarcophagidae). A total of 4689 adult insects belonging to 24 species of seven dipteran families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae and Stratiomyidae) was collected at the ILM premises. C. albiceps was the most frequent species on the corpses and the most abundant in the traps. Species referred to as of forensic importance, such as Lucilia eximia, Chrysomya putoria, Oxysarcodexia modesta and Ophyra chalcogaster were collected on traps, but not on cadavers. There seems to be a limited colonisation of cadavers at the scene of the death, despite the ubiquity of necrophagous species in the area. The results contribute to differentiate between species that are involved in decomposition and those found in and around the mortuary installations of the ILM, thus providing potential clues about the locality of death and the post-mortem interval.

  9. Intersex in Scrobicularia plana: transcriptomic analysis reveals novel genes involved in endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Ciocan, Corina M; Cubero-Leon, Elena; Peck, Mika R; Langston, William J; Pope, Nick; Minier, Christophe; Rotchell, Jeanette M

    2012-12-01

    Intersex, the appearance of female characteristics in male gonads, has been identified in a wide range of aquatic species worldwide, yet the underpinning molecular etiology remains uncharacterized. The presence of intersex has been shown to be a widespread phenomenon in bivalve, S. plana, populations from the southwest coast of the U.K., as well as inducible in an experimental exposure regime using endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). Herein, we use the suppressive subtractive hybridization approach to isolate differentially expressed transcripts in S. plana males exhibiting intersex. Transcripts involved in cell signaling, cell cycle control, energy production/metabolism, microtubule assembly, and sperm physiology are all highlighted as differentially expressed in intersex male clams. These provide both an insight into the molecular mechanisms of action involved in the development of intersex, as well as facilitating potential molecular-level "early warning" biomarkers of the condition.

  10. Cadmium sulfide quantum dots induce oxidative stress and behavioral impairments in the marine clam Scrobicularia plana.

    PubMed

    Buffet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Zalouk-Vergnoux, Aurore; Poirier, Laurence; Lopes, Christelle; Risso-de-Faverney, Christine; Guibbolini, Marielle; Gilliland, Douglas; Perrein-Ettajani, Hanane; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots have a number of current applications in electronics and solar cells and significant future potential in medicine. The aim of the present study was to examine the toxic effects of CdS quantum dots on the marine clam Scrobicularia plana exposed for 14 d to these nanomaterials (10 µg Cd L(-1) ) in natural seawater and to compare them with soluble Cd. Measurement of labile Cd released from CdS quantum dots showed that 52% of CdS quantum dots remained in the nanoparticulate form. Clams accumulated the same levels of Cd regardless of the form in which it was delivered (soluble Cd vs CdS quantum dots). However, significant changes in biochemical responses were observed in clams exposed to CdS quantum dots compared with soluble Cd. Increased activities of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were significantly higher in clams exposed in seawater to Cd as the nanoparticulate versus the soluble form, suggesting a specific nano effect. The behavior of S. plana in sediment showed impairments of foot movements only in the case of exposure to CdS quantum dots. The results show that oxidative stress and behavior biomarkers are sensitive predictors of CdS quantum dots toxicity in S. plana. Such responses, appearing well before changes might occur at the population level, demonstrate the usefulness of this model species and type of biomarker in the assessment of nanoparticle contamination in estuarine ecosystems. PMID:25772261

  11. Cadmium sulfide quantum dots induce oxidative stress and behavioral impairments in the marine clam Scrobicularia plana.

    PubMed

    Buffet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Zalouk-Vergnoux, Aurore; Poirier, Laurence; Lopes, Christelle; Risso-de-Faverney, Christine; Guibbolini, Marielle; Gilliland, Douglas; Perrein-Ettajani, Hanane; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots have a number of current applications in electronics and solar cells and significant future potential in medicine. The aim of the present study was to examine the toxic effects of CdS quantum dots on the marine clam Scrobicularia plana exposed for 14 d to these nanomaterials (10 µg Cd L(-1) ) in natural seawater and to compare them with soluble Cd. Measurement of labile Cd released from CdS quantum dots showed that 52% of CdS quantum dots remained in the nanoparticulate form. Clams accumulated the same levels of Cd regardless of the form in which it was delivered (soluble Cd vs CdS quantum dots). However, significant changes in biochemical responses were observed in clams exposed to CdS quantum dots compared with soluble Cd. Increased activities of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were significantly higher in clams exposed in seawater to Cd as the nanoparticulate versus the soluble form, suggesting a specific nano effect. The behavior of S. plana in sediment showed impairments of foot movements only in the case of exposure to CdS quantum dots. The results show that oxidative stress and behavior biomarkers are sensitive predictors of CdS quantum dots toxicity in S. plana. Such responses, appearing well before changes might occur at the population level, demonstrate the usefulness of this model species and type of biomarker in the assessment of nanoparticle contamination in estuarine ecosystems.

  12. Nomenclatural studies toward a world catalog of Diptera genus-group names. III. Christian Rudolph Wilhelm Wiedemann.

    PubMed

    Evenhuis, Neal L; Pont, Adrian C

    2013-01-01

    The Diptera genus-group names of Christian Rudolph Wilhelm Wiedemann are reviewed and annotated. A total of 50 available genus-group names in 25 families of Diptera are listed alphabetically for each name giving author, year and page of original publication, originally included species, type species and method of fixation, current status of the name, family placement, and a list of any emendations of it that have been found in the literature. Remarks are given to clarify nomenclatural or taxonomic information. A biography of Wiedemann is given with discussion of his works and his relationships with contemporaries. In addition, an index is given to all the species-group names of Diptera proposed by Wiedemann (1,775 of which 1,698 are available) with bibliographic reference to each original citation. An appendix gives a complete bibliography of all the known writings by Wiedemann, non-zoological as well as zoological.The following type species is designated herein: Eristalis chrysopygus Wiedemann, 1819 for Pachycephalus Wiedemann, 1830, by present designation [Syrphidae].Corrected or clarified type-species and methods of typification are given for: Colax Wiedemann, 1824 [Nemestrinidae]; Cyphomyia Wiedemann, 1819 [Stratiomyidae]; Philoliche Wiedemann, 1821 [Tabanidae]; Ropalomera Wiedemann, 1820 [Ropalomeridae]; Timia Wiedemann, 1824 [Ulidiidae].Acting as First Reviser, the following correct original spelling for multiple original spellings is selected: Maekistocera Wiedemann, 1820 [Tipulidae]. A previous First Reviser action for multiple original spellings missed by other workers is given for the following: Rhaphiorhynchus Wiedemann, 1821 [Pantophthalmidae].The following nominal genera enter into new synonymies: Ceratophyia Osten Sacken, 1858 of Ceratophya Wiedemann, 1824, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Epopter Wiedemann, 1830 of Sphecomyia Le Peletier & Serville, 1825, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Melophaga Wiedemann, 1830 of Melophagus Latreille, 1802, n. syn. [Hippoboscidae]; Midas

  13. Cellular Biochemical Changes in Selaginella tamariscina (Beauv.) Spring and Sellaginella plana (Desv. ex Poir.) Heiron. as Induced by Desiccation.

    PubMed

    Agduma, Angelo Rellama; Sese, Maribel Dionisio

    2016-08-01

    The biochemical changes in two Selaginella species namely, S. tamariscina (Beauv.) Spring and S. plana (Desv. ex Poir.) Heiron., as induced by desiccation and subsequent rehydration were explored. Plants were allowed to dehydrate naturally by withholding irrigation until shoot's relative water content (RWC) reached <10%. After which, dehydrated plants were watered until fully rehydrated states were obtained which was about 90% RWC or more. Desiccation-tolerance characteristics were observed in S. tamariscina while desiccation-sensitivity features were seen in S. plana. Membrane integrity was maintained in S. tamariscina but not in S. plana as evidenced in the relative electrolyte leakage measurements during desiccation phase and the subsequent rehydration stage. Pigment analyses revealed conservation of some chlorophylls and carotenoids during desiccation and reaching control levels following rehydration in S. tamariscina. Very low pigment contents were found in S. plana during desiccation phase and the pigments were not recovered during rehydration attempt. Meanwhile, compatible solute determination showed rise in total sugar and proline contents of desiccated S. tamariscina only, indicating presence of biochemical protection machineries in this species and absence of such in S. plana during dehydrating conditions. These data indicate that one key element for desiccation-tolerance in lower vascular plants is the ability to protect tissues from severe damages caused by intense desiccation. PMID:27688850

  14. Cellular Biochemical Changes in Selaginella tamariscina (Beauv.) Spring and Sellaginella plana (Desv. ex Poir.) Heiron. as Induced by Desiccation

    PubMed Central

    Agduma, Angelo Rellama; Sese, Maribel Dionisio

    2016-01-01

    The biochemical changes in two Selaginella species namely, S. tamariscina (Beauv.) Spring and S. plana (Desv. ex Poir.) Heiron., as induced by desiccation and subsequent rehydration were explored. Plants were allowed to dehydrate naturally by withholding irrigation until shoot’s relative water content (RWC) reached <10%. After which, dehydrated plants were watered until fully rehydrated states were obtained which was about 90% RWC or more. Desiccation-tolerance characteristics were observed in S. tamariscina while desiccation-sensitivity features were seen in S. plana. Membrane integrity was maintained in S. tamariscina but not in S. plana as evidenced in the relative electrolyte leakage measurements during desiccation phase and the subsequent rehydration stage. Pigment analyses revealed conservation of some chlorophylls and carotenoids during desiccation and reaching control levels following rehydration in S. tamariscina. Very low pigment contents were found in S. plana during desiccation phase and the pigments were not recovered during rehydration attempt. Meanwhile, compatible solute determination showed rise in total sugar and proline contents of desiccated S. tamariscina only, indicating presence of biochemical protection machineries in this species and absence of such in S. plana during dehydrating conditions. These data indicate that one key element for desiccation-tolerance in lower vascular plants is the ability to protect tissues from severe damages caused by intense desiccation.

  15. Cellular Biochemical Changes in Selaginella tamariscina (Beauv.) Spring and Sellaginella plana (Desv. ex Poir.) Heiron. as Induced by Desiccation

    PubMed Central

    Agduma, Angelo Rellama; Sese, Maribel Dionisio

    2016-01-01

    The biochemical changes in two Selaginella species namely, S. tamariscina (Beauv.) Spring and S. plana (Desv. ex Poir.) Heiron., as induced by desiccation and subsequent rehydration were explored. Plants were allowed to dehydrate naturally by withholding irrigation until shoot’s relative water content (RWC) reached <10%. After which, dehydrated plants were watered until fully rehydrated states were obtained which was about 90% RWC or more. Desiccation-tolerance characteristics were observed in S. tamariscina while desiccation-sensitivity features were seen in S. plana. Membrane integrity was maintained in S. tamariscina but not in S. plana as evidenced in the relative electrolyte leakage measurements during desiccation phase and the subsequent rehydration stage. Pigment analyses revealed conservation of some chlorophylls and carotenoids during desiccation and reaching control levels following rehydration in S. tamariscina. Very low pigment contents were found in S. plana during desiccation phase and the pigments were not recovered during rehydration attempt. Meanwhile, compatible solute determination showed rise in total sugar and proline contents of desiccated S. tamariscina only, indicating presence of biochemical protection machineries in this species and absence of such in S. plana during dehydrating conditions. These data indicate that one key element for desiccation-tolerance in lower vascular plants is the ability to protect tissues from severe damages caused by intense desiccation. PMID:27688850

  16. Comparison between Limbal and Pars Plana Approaches Using Microincision Vitrectomy for Removal of Congenital Cataracts with Primary Intraocular Lens Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Zheng, Tianyu; Zhou, Xingtao; Lu, Yi; Zhou, Peng; Fan, Fan; Luo, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the surgical outcomes of limbal versus pars plana vitrectomy using the 23-gauge microincision system for removal of congenital cataracts with primary intraocular lens implantation. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed all eyes that underwent cataract removal through limbal or pars plana incision. Main outcome measures included visual outcomes and complications. Results. We included 40 eyes (26 patients) in the limbal group and 41 eyes (30 patients) in the pars plana group. The mean age was 46 months. There was no significant difference in best-corrected visual acuity between the two groups (P = 0.64). Significantly, more eyes had at least one intraoperative complication in the limbal group than in the pars plana group (P = 0.03) that were mainly distributed at 1.5–3 years of age (P = 0.01). The most common intraoperative complications were iris aspiration, iris prolapse, and iris injury. More eyes in the limbal group had postoperative complications and required additional intraocular surgery, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.19). Conclusions. The visual results were encouraging in both approaches. We recommend the pars plana approach for lower incidence of complications. The limbal approach should be reserved for children older than 3 years of age and caution should be exercised to minimize iris disturbance. PMID:27313872

  17. Organochlorine accumulation on a highly consumed bivalve (Scrobicularia plana) and its main implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Grilo, T F; Cardoso, P G; Pato, P; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A

    2013-09-01

    Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was investigated along a spatial gradient in water, sediments and in commercially important bivalve species Scrobicularia plana, from Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). Organochlorines dissolved in water were below detection limit and concerning suspended particulate matter, only PCBs were quantified, ranging from 3.8 to 5.8 ng∙g(-1) DW (Σ13PCBs). There was a distinct spatial gradient regarding PCB accumulation in sediments. The highest concentrations were found in deeper layers and closest to the pollution source, decreasing gradually along a 3 km area. Contamination in sediments exceeded the Canadian and Norwegian sediment quality guidelines, inducing potential toxic effects in related biota. PCBs tended to bioaccumulate throughout S. plana lifespan but with different annual rates along the spatial gradient. The maximum values were found in older individuals up to 3+ years old, reaching 19.4 ng∙g(-1) DW. HCB concentrations were residual and no bioaccumulation pattern was evident. Congeners 138, 153 and 180 were the most accumulated due to their abundance and long-term persistence in the environment. In the inner area of the Laranjo Bay (0.6 km(2)), the species was able to remove up to 0.4 g of PCBs annually from sediments into their own tissues, which is consequently free for trophic transfer (biomagnification). Concerning human health, and despite the high concentrations found in sediments, PCB levels in bivalves do not exceed the limit established by the European Union for fishery products and are largely below tolerable daily intake. Although PCBs in Scrobicularia plana are present at low levels, their impact to human health after consumption over many years might be harmful and should be monitored in future studies.

  18. Spatial distribution patterns of the peppery furrow shell Scrobicularia plana (da Costa, 1778) along the European coast: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Sílvia; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C.; Campos, Joana; Heip, Carlo H. R.; van der Veer, Henk W.

    2011-10-01

    The bivalve Scrobicularia plana is an important species of shallow water benthic communities with a wide geographic distribution but also with a general patchy pattern, i.e. irregular in occurrence and in density. This review aims to determine the processes responsible for the species' spatial distribution pattern based on the available information on S. plana. Although several pre- and post-settlement processes are believed to influence spatial patterns of marine invertebrates, the general patchy distribution of S. plana seems to be determined by the existence of specific environmental conditions during settlement. Factors such as temperature, salinity, sediment type, hydrographic conditions and predation affect settlement and spat survival and not one but a combination of factors seems to explain the species distribution pattern. Future work should focus on determining the scale of patchiness, using hierarchical sampling, as well as the connectivity between populations by analysing the population genetic structure.

  19. Intersex in the clam Scrobicularia plana (Da Costa): Widespread occurrence in English Channel estuaries and surrounding areas.

    PubMed

    Pope, N D; Childs, K; Dang, C; Davey, M S; O'Hara, S C M; Langston, K; Minier, C; Pascoe, P L; Shortridge, E; Langston, W J

    2015-06-30

    Estuarine clams Scrobicularia plana were sampled from 108 intertidal locations around the English Channel and adjacent areas. Although S. plana is believed to be a strict gonochorist, 58% of the populations sampled included intersexed individuals (described as male clams exhibiting ovotestis). Over the entire region, on average, 8.6% of male clams exhibited intersex, although proportions of affected males ranged from 0% to 53% depending on location. The severity of intersex was assessed using a simple classification scale, with the majority of individuals showing low levels of impact. Sex ratios were significantly skewed at some sites. There were no significant relationships between incidence or severity of intersex; or with size or parasitism of individual clams. Intersex in S. plana is a useful tool to assess endocrine disruptive effects in estuaries, although mechanisms of impact and causative agents remain uncertain.

  20. [Pars plana vitrectomy in treatment of ocular toxocariasis complications--case report].

    PubMed

    Oficjalska-Młyńczak, J; Duda, A; Muzyka-Woźniak, M; Zajac-Pytrus, H; Marek, J

    2001-01-01

    Ocular toxocariasis in adults may cause serious diagnostic and therapeutic problems. We describe a case of a 54-year-old farmer who developed peripheral granuloma with dense connective tissue strands joined to the disc. The diagnosis was confirmed by high ELISA titers in the serum and vitreous body. We performed pars plana vitrectomy with epiretinal membrane removal and laser photocoagulation of the inferior retina, obtaining improvement of visual acuity. After a few weeks the patient returned with central retinal detachment and macular hole. After the second vitrectomy with use of silicon oil we obtained reattachment of the retina but without functional improvement.

  1. Two new species of Brachyodina Lindner from the Caribbean with a key to species of the genus from the region (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Pachygastrinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new species of Brachyodina Lindner, B. janestanleyae sp. n., is described from the Dominican Republic, and B. caymanensis sp. n. from Grand Cayman Island. A key to the species known from the Caribbean islands is provided....

  2. A new species of Cyphomyia Wiedemann from the Dominican Republic with a key to Caribbean species of the genus (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Clitellariinae)

    PubMed Central

    Woodley, Norman E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Cyphomyia Wiedemann, Cyphomyia baoruco sp. n., is described from the Dominican Republic. A key to the species of Cyphomyia known from the Caribbean islands is provided. PMID:25493061

  3. A new genus and two new species of soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Chiromyzinae) from Australia, one found infesting sugarcane in central Queensland.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Greg

    2016-03-17

    Metridius nov. gen. and types species M. robertsoni nov. sp. with winged males and apterous females is described from adults and larvae found infesting sugarcane stools from near Mackay, central Queensland. A second new species, M. mcalpinei nov. sp., based only on males from near Sydney, New South Wales is also described. Notes on the biology of both species and an identification key to the genera of the subfamily Chiromyzinae and to the species are also given.

  4. The black soldier-fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera, Stratiomyidae), used to estimate the postmortem interval in a case in Amapá State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pujol-Luz, José R; Francez, Pablo Abdon da Costa; Ururahy-Rodrigues, Alexandre; Constantino, Reginaldo

    2008-03-01

    The black soldier-fly (Hermetia illucens) is a generalist detritivore which is commonly present in corpses in later stages of decomposition and may be useful in forensic entomology. This paper describes the estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) based on the life cycle of the black soldier-fly in a case in northern Brazil. A male child was abducted from his home and 42 days later his corpse was found in an advanced stage of decay. Two black soldier-fly larvae were found associated with the body. The larvae emerged as adults after 25-26 days. Considering the development cycle of H. illucens, the date of oviposition was estimated as 24-25 days after abduction. Since H. illucens usually (but not always) colonizes corpses in more advanced stages of decay, this estimate is consistent with the hypothesis that the child was killed immediately after abduction. PMID:18366584

  5. A survey of bacterial diversity from successive life stages of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) by using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Longyu; Crippen, Tawni L; Singh, Baneshwar; Tarone, Aaron M; Dowd, Scot; Yu, Ziniu; Wood, Thomas K; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2013-05-01

    Sustainable methods for managing waste associated with people and animals have been proposed in the past. Black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae represent one of the more promising methods. Larvae reduce dry matter, bacteria, offensive odor, and house fly populations. Prepupae can be used as feedstuff for livestock. However, it is not known if such a method results in the proliferation of potential pathogens. Although some bacterial species have been cultured and identified from black soldier fly, a true appreciation of fly associated bacterial diversity is not known. Such information is needed to understand pathogen colonization on decomposing animal and plant waste in the presence of black soldier fly larvae as well as develop research strategies for maximizing the use of this fly to reduce waste without risking environmental harm. Using 454 sequencing, we surveyed bacterial diversity associated with successive life stages of the black soldier fly reared on plant material. Bacteria diversity classified (99.8%) across all life stages spanned six bacterial phyla with > or = 80% bootstrap support. Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were the most dominant phyla associated with the black soldier fly accounting for two-thirds of the fauna identified. Many of these bacteria would go undetected because of their inability to be cultured. PMID:23802462

  6. A survey of bacterial diversity from successive life stages of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) by using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae represent a sustainable method for reducing animal and plant wastes. Larvae reduce dry matter, bacteria, offensive odor, and house fly populations. The prepupae can be self-harvested and used as feedstuff for livestock and poultry. While som...

  7. The black soldier-fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera, Stratiomyidae), used to estimate the postmortem interval in a case in Amapá State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pujol-Luz, José R; Francez, Pablo Abdon da Costa; Ururahy-Rodrigues, Alexandre; Constantino, Reginaldo

    2008-03-01

    The black soldier-fly (Hermetia illucens) is a generalist detritivore which is commonly present in corpses in later stages of decomposition and may be useful in forensic entomology. This paper describes the estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) based on the life cycle of the black soldier-fly in a case in northern Brazil. A male child was abducted from his home and 42 days later his corpse was found in an advanced stage of decay. Two black soldier-fly larvae were found associated with the body. The larvae emerged as adults after 25-26 days. Considering the development cycle of H. illucens, the date of oviposition was estimated as 24-25 days after abduction. Since H. illucens usually (but not always) colonizes corpses in more advanced stages of decay, this estimate is consistent with the hypothesis that the child was killed immediately after abduction.

  8. Paenalcaligenes hermetiae sp. nov., isolated from the larval gut of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), and emended description of the genus Paenalcaligenes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youn Yeop; Lee, Jae Kook; Park, Kwan Ho; Kim, Seo-Yeon; Roh, Seong Woon; Lee, Sang-Beom; Choi, Youngcheol; Lee, Sung-Jae

    2013-11-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile and short rod-shaped bacterium, strain KBL009(T), was isolated from the larval gut of Hermetia illucens. Strain KBL009(T) grew optimally at 37 °C, at pH 6.0 and with 1-2 % (w/v) NaCl. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain KBL009(T) showed 97.6 % similarity to that of Paenalcaligenes hominis CCUG 53761A(T) indicating its classification with the genus Paenalcaligenes. The major fatty acids were cyclo-C17 : 0, C16 : 0 and summed feature 2 (comprising C14 : 0 3-OH/iso-C16 : 1). The respiratory quinones were ubiquinone-8 (Q-8), predominating, and a minor amount of Q-7. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, one unknown aminolipid and five unknown polar lipids. The polyamine pattern contained predominantly putrescine and relatively high amounts of spermidine. The betaproteobacterial-specific 2-hydroxyputrescine could only be detected in trace amounts. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 56.1 mol%. Results from DNA-DNA hybridization with P. hominis KCTC 23583(T) unambiguously demonstrated that strain KBL009(T) represents a novel species in the genus Paenalcaligenes. Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic characterization, the novel species Paenalcaligenes hermetiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KBL009(T) ( = KACC 16840(T) = JCM 18423(T)). An emended description of the genus Paenalcaligenes is also provided.

  9. A new genus and two new species of soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Chiromyzinae) from Australia, one found infesting sugarcane in central Queensland.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Metridius nov. gen. and types species M. robertsoni nov. sp. with winged males and apterous females is described from adults and larvae found infesting sugarcane stools from near Mackay, central Queensland. A second new species, M. mcalpinei nov. sp., based only on males from near Sydney, New South Wales is also described. Notes on the biology of both species and an identification key to the genera of the subfamily Chiromyzinae and to the species are also given. PMID:27394475

  10. A survey of bacterial diversity from successive life stages of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) by using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Longyu; Crippen, Tawni L; Singh, Baneshwar; Tarone, Aaron M; Dowd, Scot; Yu, Ziniu; Wood, Thomas K; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2013-05-01

    Sustainable methods for managing waste associated with people and animals have been proposed in the past. Black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae represent one of the more promising methods. Larvae reduce dry matter, bacteria, offensive odor, and house fly populations. Prepupae can be used as feedstuff for livestock. However, it is not known if such a method results in the proliferation of potential pathogens. Although some bacterial species have been cultured and identified from black soldier fly, a true appreciation of fly associated bacterial diversity is not known. Such information is needed to understand pathogen colonization on decomposing animal and plant waste in the presence of black soldier fly larvae as well as develop research strategies for maximizing the use of this fly to reduce waste without risking environmental harm. Using 454 sequencing, we surveyed bacterial diversity associated with successive life stages of the black soldier fly reared on plant material. Bacteria diversity classified (99.8%) across all life stages spanned six bacterial phyla with > or = 80% bootstrap support. Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were the most dominant phyla associated with the black soldier fly accounting for two-thirds of the fauna identified. Many of these bacteria would go undetected because of their inability to be cultured.

  11. Geometry and Kinematics of Wrinkle Ridges on Lunae and Solis Plana, Mars: Implications for Fault/Fold Growth History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tate, A.; Mueller, K. J.; Golombek, M. P.

    2002-01-01

    The three dimensional geometry of wrinkle ridges on Lunae and Solis Plana suggest they form by rapid lateral propagation and linkage of fault-propagation fold segments above reactivated blind thrust faults. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Morphology of Wrinkle Ridges on Lunae and Solis Plana, Mars from MOLA Topography: Implications for Their Kinematic Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tate, A.; Golombek, M. P.; Mueller, K. J.

    2001-01-01

    Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography is used to define the detailed morphology and kinematic development of martian wrinkle ridges on Lunae and Solis Plana. Changes in ridge morphology suggest they form as fault-propagation folds, often with significant backthrusts. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Traumatic Ghost Cell Glaucoma with Successful Resolution of Corneal Blood Staining Following Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Alamri, Amal; Alkatan, Hind; Aljadaan, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Ghost cell glaucoma (GCG) was first described in 1976. It is a type of a secondary open angle glaucoma, which occurs following long-standing vitreous hemorrhage. The ghost cells are rigid and less pliable than fresh red blood cells; therefore, they may cause direct obstruction of the trabecular meshwork and secondary increase in the intraocular pressure (IOP). This case report presents the diagnosis and management of a rare case of traumatic GCG after vitreous hemorrhage in a phakic child. Pars plana vitrectomy was done after unsuccessful medical therapy and the diagnosis was confirmed by cytopathology. Surprisingly, spontaneous resolution of the corneal blood staining occurred. The outcome in this case was favorable with controlled IOP in the affected eye. PMID:27555716

  14. Physiological status and intersex in the endobenthic bivalve Scrobicularia plana from thirteen estuaries in northwest France.

    PubMed

    Tankoua, O Fossi; Amiard-Triquet, C; Denis, F; Minier, C; Mouneyrac, C; Berthet, B

    2012-08-01

    The bivalve Scrobicularia plana, an important species for the structure and functioning of estuarine and coastal mudflats, was studied in thirteen sites from NW France differing by their degree of contamination to document the presence of reproduction impairments (intersex, sex ratio, gonadosomatic indices) in relation to the condition revealed by using hepatosomatic and condition indices. In agreement with recent studies in other European estuaries, intersex was revealed in all the studied estuaries, including sites the chemical and ecological status of which is considered "good" according to the criteria of the European Water Framework Directive. The presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) could result in such disturbances. Our results re-inforce the concern linked to the subtle effects of EDCs, which are active at very low doses, often in the absence of any major sign of toxicity. However at this stage, no clear link may be established between intersex and population effects.

  15. Intersex related gene expression profiles in clams Scrobicularia plana: Molecular markers and environmental application.

    PubMed

    Ciocan, Corina M; Cubero-Leon, Elena; Langston, William J; Pope, Nick; Cornelius, Keith; Hill, E M; Alvarez-Munoz, Diana; Indiveri, Paolo; Lerebours, Adelaide; Minier, Christophe; Rotchell, Jeanette M

    2015-06-30

    Intersex, the appearance of female characteristics in male gonads, has been identified in several aquatic species. It is a widespread phenomenon in populations of the bivalve, Scrobicularia plana, from the southwest coast of the U.K. Genes previously identified as differentially expressed (ferritin, testicular haploid expressed gene, THEG, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA; receptor activated protein kinase C, RACK; cytochrome B, CYB; and cytochrome c oxidase 1, COX1) in intersex clams relative to normal male clams, were selected for characterisation and an environmental survey of the Channel region. Transcripts were significantly differentially expressed at sites with varying intersex incidence and contaminant burdens. Significant correlations between specific gene expressions, key contaminants and sampling locations have been identified, though no single gene was associated with intersex incidence. The results highlight the difficulty in understanding the intersex phenomenon in molluscs where there is still a lack of knowledge on the control of normal reproduction.

  16. Management of inferior retinal breaks during pars plana vitrectomy for retinal detachment

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, V; Minihan, M; Williamson, T

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To determine whether it is necessary to support inferior retinal breaks with a scleral explant during pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD).
METHODS—A prospective study was carried out on nine eyes of nine consecutive patients undergoing PPV for primary RD with associated inferior retinal breaks and no significant proliferative vitreoretinopathy.
RESULTS—Eight eyes were successfully reattached with a single operation. No cases presented with redetachment because of failed closure of the original inferior breaks.
CONCLUSIONS—It is not necessary to support inferior retinal breaks with a scleral explant during PPV for primary RD repair in selected cases.

 PMID:11264142

  17. Traumatic Ghost Cell Glaucoma with Successful Resolution of Corneal Blood Staining Following Pars Plana Vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Alamri, Amal; Alkatan, Hind; Aljadaan, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Ghost cell glaucoma (GCG) was first described in 1976. It is a type of a secondary open angle glaucoma, which occurs following long-standing vitreous hemorrhage. The ghost cells are rigid and less pliable than fresh red blood cells; therefore, they may cause direct obstruction of the trabecular meshwork and secondary increase in the intraocular pressure (IOP). This case report presents the diagnosis and management of a rare case of traumatic GCG after vitreous hemorrhage in a phakic child. Pars plana vitrectomy was done after unsuccessful medical therapy and the diagnosis was confirmed by cytopathology. Surprisingly, spontaneous resolution of the corneal blood staining occurred. The outcome in this case was favorable with controlled IOP in the affected eye. PMID:27555716

  18. Diagnostic pars plana vitrectomy report of a 21-year retrospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Palexas, G N; Green, W R; Goldberg, M F; Ding, Y

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the experience of diagnostic pars plana vitrectomies (PPV). METHODS: The authors reviewed 405 consecutive diagnostic PPV's performed between November 1973 and October 1994. RESULTS: Diagnostic vitrectomy was performed in 215 (53%) of 405 eyes for suspected endophthalmitis. Of those 215 cases, acute inflammation was confirmed in 62 (28.8%), 60 (27.9%) had microbial organisms present and 36 (16.7%) were culture-positive. Microbial organisms were observed microscopically in 31 (20%) of 156 patients suspected of postoperative endophthalmitis. Of those 31 cases, 23 (74%) were gram-positive, eleven (37%) of 30 eyes had organisms associated with glaucoma filtering procedures and 20 (16%) of 126 eyes had organisms with non-filtering procedures. The pooled percentage of eyes that developed postoperative endophthalmitis as a complication during the period July 1990 thru June 1994 is 5 (0.046%) out of a heterogeneous group of 10,898 cases operated on at the Wilmer Eye Institute for cataract, glaucoma, corneal transplant, pars plana vitrectomy and retinal detachment. Bacteria were identified microscopically in 6 (18%) of 34 post-traumatic cases. Microbial organisms were identified in 23 (92%) of 25 cases with an endogenous infection. Patients with endogenous infections had the most fungal infections, and the majority were in males. Neoplasms were diagnosed in 58 (14%) of the 405 cases. The most common neoplasm was ocular lymphoma 42 (72%), 69% of which were in females. Only 42 (48.3%) of 87 patients clinically suspected of having ocular lymphoma, actually had ocular lymphoma. Those negative for lymphoma were significantly older (67.4 +/- 10 years) compared to those with lymphoma (60.4 +/- 14 years) (P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Diagnostic PPV has proved to be valuable in confirming and establishing various clinical diagnoses. PMID:8719683

  19. Efficacy of Insecticide and Bioinsecticide Ground Sprays to Control Metisa plana Walker (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) in Oil Palm Plantations, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Salim, Hasber; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo

    2015-12-01

    The effectiveness of the synthetic insecticides trichlorfon, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin emulsion concentrated (EC) and cypermethrin emulsion water based (EW) and a bio-insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk), was evaluated at 3, 7, 14 and 30 days after treatment (DAT) for the control of Metisa plana larvae in an oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation in Malaysia. Although all synthetic insecticides effectively reduced the larval population of M. plana, trichlorfon, lambda-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin EC were the fastest-acting. The larval population dropped below the economic threshold level (ETL) 30 days after a single application of the synthetic insecticides. Application of Btk, however, gave poor results, with the larval population remaining above the ETL post treatment. In terms of operational productivity, ground spraying using power spray equipment was time-consuming and resulted in poor coverage. Power spraying may not be appropriate for controlling M. plana infestations in large fields. Using a power sprayer, one man could cover 2-3 ha per day. Hence, power spraying is recommended during outbreaks of infestation in areas smaller than 50 ha.

  20. Comparison of the Changes in Corneal Endothelial Cells after Pars Plana and Anterior Chamber Ahmed Valve Implant

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji Won; Lee, Jong Yeon; Nam, Dong Heun; Lee, Dae Yeong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the changes in corneal endothelial cells after pars plana Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation with those after the anterior chamber AGV implantation for refractory glaucoma. Methods. The medical records of 18 eyes with pars plana implantation of AGV (ppAGV) were reviewed retrospectively and were compared with 18 eyes with the anterior chamber AGV (acAGV) implant. The preoperative and postoperative endothelial cells, intraocular pressure (IOP), and postoperative complications during the follow-up in both groups were compared. Results. The average follow-up was 18 months. The postoperative endothelial cells in the ppAGV and acAGV groups were 2044 ± 303 and 1904 ± 324, respectively (P = 0.25). The average percentage decrease in the endothelial cells in the ppAGV and acAGV groups at 18 months was 12.5% and 18.4%, respectively, and showed significant difference between the 2 groups (P = 0.01). No difference in IOP control and the number of postoperative glaucoma medications was observed between the 2 groups. Conclusions. Endothelial cell damage in the ppAGV group for refractory glaucoma appeared to be lower than that in the acAGV group. Therefore, pars plana implantation of AGV may be preferred as it may have lower level of endothelial cell damage while maintaining similar level of IOP control. PMID:25694824

  1. Comparison of the changes in corneal endothelial cells after pars plana and anterior chamber ahmed valve implant.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ji Won; Lee, Jong Yeon; Nam, Dong Heun; Lee, Dae Yeong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the changes in corneal endothelial cells after pars plana Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation with those after the anterior chamber AGV implantation for refractory glaucoma. Methods. The medical records of 18 eyes with pars plana implantation of AGV (ppAGV) were reviewed retrospectively and were compared with 18 eyes with the anterior chamber AGV (acAGV) implant. The preoperative and postoperative endothelial cells, intraocular pressure (IOP), and postoperative complications during the follow-up in both groups were compared. Results. The average follow-up was 18 months. The postoperative endothelial cells in the ppAGV and acAGV groups were 2044 ± 303 and 1904 ± 324, respectively (P = 0.25). The average percentage decrease in the endothelial cells in the ppAGV and acAGV groups at 18 months was 12.5% and 18.4%, respectively, and showed significant difference between the 2 groups (P = 0.01). No difference in IOP control and the number of postoperative glaucoma medications was observed between the 2 groups. Conclusions. Endothelial cell damage in the ppAGV group for refractory glaucoma appeared to be lower than that in the acAGV group. Therefore, pars plana implantation of AGV may be preferred as it may have lower level of endothelial cell damage while maintaining similar level of IOP control.

  2. Combined pars plana vitrectomy and Baerveldt glaucoma implant placement for refractory glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Campagnoli, Thalmon R.; Kim, Sung Soo; Smiddy, William E.; Gedde, Steve J.; Budenz, Donald L.; Parrish, Richard K.; Palmberg, Paul F.; Feuer, William; Shi, Wei

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate outcomes of combined pars plana vitrectomy and Baerveldt glaucoma implant (PPV-BGI) placement for refractory glaucoma. METHODS The medical records of 92 eyes (89 patients) that underwent PPV-BGI were retrospectively reviewed, including 43 eyes with neovascular glaucoma (NVG) and 49 eyes with other types of glaucoma (non-NVG). RESULTS Outcome measures were visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure (IOP), glaucoma medical therapy, complications, and success [VA>hand motions (HM), IOP≥6 mm Hg and ≤21 mm Hg, no subsequent glaucoma surgery]. Cumulative success rates for the non-NVG group and NVG group were 79% and 40% at 1y, respectively (P=0.038). No difference in the rates of surgical success were found between pars plana and anterior chamber tube placement. Preoperative IOP (mean±SD) was 30.3±11.7 mm Hg in the Non-NVG group and 40.0±10.6 mm Hg in the NVG group, and IOP was reduced to 15±9.5 mm Hg in the non-NVG group and 15±10.5 mm Hg in the NVG at 1y. Number of glaucoma medications (mean±SD) decreased from 2.7±1.3 in the non-NVG group and 2.8±1.3 in the NVG group preoperatively to 0.76±1.18 in the non-NVG group and 0.51±1.00 in the NVG group at 1y. Improvement in VA of ≥2 Snellen lines was observed in 25 (27%) eyes, although only 33% of non-NVG eyes and 2.3% of NVG eyes maintained VA better than 20/200 at 1y. Nonclearing vitreous hemorrhage was the most common postoperative complication occurring in 16 (17%) eyes, and postoperative suprachoroidal hemorrhages developed in 5 (5.4%) eyes. CONCLUSION PPV-BGI is a viable surgical option for eyes with refractory glaucoma, but visual outcomes are frequently poor because of ocular comorbidities, especially in eyes with NVG. The location of tube placement does not influence surgical outcome and should be left to the discretion of the surgeon. PMID:26558201

  3. Outcomes of Late-Onset Bleb-Related Endophthalmitis Treated with Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ohtomo, Kazuyoshi; Mayama, Chihiro; Ueta, Takashi; Nagahara, Miyuki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate clinical results on bleb-related endophthalmitis (BRE) after trabeculectomy treated with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and to evaluate influence factors for visual prognosis. Methods. Investigating medical records retrospectively, BRE was defined as an endophthalmitis induced by bleb infection. A total of 2018 eyes of 1225 patients who had trabeculectomy between December 2000 and July 2013 were included in this study. Eleven eyes of 11 patients with BRE were performed with PPV. Results. The mean age was 56.6 years. The mean period between trabeculectomy and BRE onset was 7.4 years. The mean period from starting symptom to initiation of treatment for endophthalmitis (PSITE) was 2.3 days. Bleb leakages were observed in 7 eyes (64%). On culture examinations, highly pathogenic bacteria (HPB) were identified in 6 cases (55%). HPB infection was influence factors on visual disturbance (P = .0337). Number of HPB infections is significantly higher in poor visual outcome than without poor visual outcome (P = .0310). Conclusion. Visual prognosis of BRE treated by PPV is significantly better when the pathogenic bacteria are not HPB. Severe visual loss occurred with HPB infection even though patients had appropriate treatments. Physicians need to have careful consideration to prevent bleb infection after trabeculectomy with MMC. PMID:26495137

  4. Late Closure of a Stage III Idiopathic Macular Hole after Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Afrashi, Filiz; Öztaş, Zafer; Nalçacı, Serhad

    2015-01-01

    A 57-year-old female presented to our hospital with decreased vision in her right eye. Detailed ocular examination was performed, and a macular hole was detected in the right eye. The presence of a full-thickness stage III macular hole was confirmed with optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Pars plana vitrectomy followed by long-acting gas tamponade (C3F8) was performed as treatment. One month after surgery, clinical examination revealed a persistent macular hole, confirmed by an OCT scan. Although the patient was scheduled for reoperation, the surgery was postponed due to personal reasons of the patient. Surprisingly, after five months, a closure pattern with accompanying epiretinal membrane was observed in the macular hole area. The closure of the macular hole was completed without any further intervention 8 months post-surgery. In cases of unclosed macular hole after the first surgery, if a second surgery cannot be performed, follow-up with OCT recommended due to the possibility of spontaneous closure. However, spontaneous closure of a persistent macular hole following PPV is rare, so early diagnosis and surgical repair of unclosed macular holes must remain the primary goal. PMID:27800248

  5. New metallothionein assay in Scrobicularia plana: heating effect and correlation with other biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; Alhama, José; Blasco, Julián; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis; López-Barea, Juan

    2008-12-01

    Metallothionein (MT) and other biomarker levels were measured in Scrobicularia plana clams to assess pollution of the Guadalquivir Estuary possibly affected by metals released from Aznalcóllar pyrite mine in 1998. After optimizing reagent concentrations for monobromobimane derivatization, MT levels were quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to fluorescence detection (RP-HPLC-FD) in heated or unheated digestive gland extracts and compared to those obtained by differential pulse polarography (DPP). MT content assayed by RP-HPLC-FD in unheated samples was higher than that obtained by DPP and correlated better with metals and anti-oxidant activities. MT assay by RP-HPLC-FD in unheated extracts would be preferable for assessing metal pollution, due to its greater sensitivity and specificity. In addition to MT induction, glyoxalase II inhibition was well correlated with metal contents. Our results suggest that metals at the estuary do not originate from Aznalcóllar spill, but from those carried along by the river and deposited at its concave bank. PMID:18403075

  6. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of the cornea plana congenita gene CNA2

    SciTech Connect

    Tahvanainen, E.; Karila, E.; Kolehmainen, J.

    1995-12-10

    We recently assigned a gene for autosomal recessive cornea plana congenita (CNA2; MIM No. 217300) by linkage analysis to the approximately 3-cM interval between markers D12S82 and D12S327. Here, we extended these studies by exploiting the haplotype and linkage disequilibrium information that can be derived from the genetically isolated Finnish population and its subpopulations. By testing 32 independent families with 10 polymorphic markers in the CNA2 interval, strong allelic association between CNA2 and a set of markers with a peak at marker D12S351 was detected. Based on linkage disequilibrium analysis, the critical region for CNA2 could be narrowed to only 0.04-0.3 cM from marker D12S351, thus defining a critical interval 0.08-0.60 cM in length. These results provide a basis for highly focused positional cloning of CNA2. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Fauna Europaea: Diptera – Brachycera

    PubMed Central

    Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I.; Ozerov, Andrey L.; Woźnica, Andrzej J.; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K.; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T.; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C. D.; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L.; Chandler, Peter J.; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A.; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N.; Mathis, Wayne N.; Hubenov, Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera–Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera–Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger

  8. Timing of Pars Plana Vitrectomy in Management of Gunshot Perforating Eye Injury: Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghoraba, Hammouda Hamdy; Mansour, Hosam Osman; Abdelfattah, Haithem Mamon; Elgemai, Emad Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report the difference in either anatomical or functional outcome of vitreoretinal intervention in cases of gunshot perforating eye injury if done 2–4 weeks or after the 4th week after the original trauma. Patients were treated with pars plana vitrectomy and silicon oil. Surgeries were performed in the period from February 2011 until the end of December 2014. 253 eyes of 237 patients were reviewed. 46 eyes were excluded. 207 eyes of 197 patients were analyzed. The included eyes were classified based on the timing of vitrectomy in relation to the initial trauma into two groups: 149 eyes (the first group) operated on between the 3rd and the 4th week and 58 eyes (the second group) operated on after the 4th week after the trauma. Following one surgical intervention, in the first group, attached retina was achieved in 93.28% of patients. In the second group, attached retina was achieved in 96.55% of patients. All RD cases could be attached by a second surgery. Visual acuity improved in 81.21% of patients, did not change in 15.43% of patients, and declined in 3.35% of patients. In the second group, visual acuity improved in 81.03% of patients, did not change in 12.06% of patients, and worsened in 6.89% of patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in either anatomical or functional results. We recommend interfering before the 5th week after the trauma as retinal detachment is encountered more in cases operated on after the 4th week. The visual outcome depends on the site of entry and exit (the route of gunshot). PMID:27781127

  9. Surgical outcomes of 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy for diabetic tractional retinal detachment

    PubMed Central

    Dikopf, M S; Patel, K H; Setlur, V J; Lim, J I

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the outcomes and complications of 25-gauge (G) pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for repair of diabetic tractional retinal detachment (TRD). Methods Retrospective review of consecutive, single-surgeon 25-G PPV cases between July 2007 and July 2014. Seventy eyes from 55 patients were operated on for diabetic TRD; all eyes were tamponaded with sulfur hexafluoride, octofluoropropane, silicone oil, or balanced salt solution. Mean age at surgery was 47.7 years (range 23–76 years), and mean length of follow-up was 713 days (range 90–2368 days; median 671 days). Primary outcomes included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), anatomic success, redetachment, and endophthalmitis. Results Preoperatively, 49 eyes (70%) had a concurrent rhegmatogenous component (8 of which also had proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR)). Mean BCVA improved from logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution 1.59 (20/800, SD 0.88) to 0.68 postoperatively (20/100, 0.77), P-value<0.001. Mean IOP increased from 15.9 to 20 mm Hg 1 day after surgery. Elevated postoperative IOP (≥22 mm Hg) occurred in 25 eyes, and low IOP (≤5 mm Hg) occurred in 2 eyes. Primary reattachment was achieved in 63 eyes (90%), and final anatomical success occurred in 69 eyes (99%). There were no cases of endophthalmitis. Conclusions Twenty-five-G PPV repair was safe and effective in the repair of diabetic TRD, including eyes with a combined rhegmatogenous detachment or PVR. Gas, silicone oil, and balanced salt solution tamponading agents all proved to be efficacious in this surgical population. PMID:26183284

  10. Pattern and annual rates of Scrobicularia plana mercury bioaccumulation in a human induced mercury gradient (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, J. P.; Rosa, M.; Pereira, E.; Duarte, A.; Pardal, M. A.

    2006-09-01

    Due to the lack of knowledge regarding annual bioaccumulation rates in estuarine and marine fauna, the main aim of this work was to study the annual mercury bioaccumulation in the well-documented bivalve species Scrobicularia plana along a human induced mercury gradient in the Ria de Aveiro coastal lagoon (Portugal) and in a nearby, non-polluted system (Mondego estuary), parallel to the risks associated with its consumption by humans. Minimum total mercury concentration was as low as 0.019 mg kg -1 (wwt) in 4+ year old organisms in the reference site, where a significant negative correlation ( p < 0.05) was found between total mercury concentrations and size, resulting in negative bioaccumulation rates (detoxification). On the other hand, values reached 1.8 mg kg -1 (wwt) in 3+ year old bivalves from the most contaminated area, where a strong positive correlation with size was found ( p < 0.01) and annual bioaccumulation rates were as high as 0.25 mg kg -1 yr -1. Annual bioaccumulation rates were highly correlated with suspended particulate matter mercury concentrations. Even though the levels of organic mercury contents increased parallel to the contamination gradient, at each sampling station, no increment was found with age, which corresponded to a decrease in organic mercury percentage with age. In terms of ecological management and public health, the ratio of 0.01 consistently found between Scrobicularia plana annual mercury accumulation rates and SPM mercury levels for most sites may permit to roughly estimate S. plana contamination of commercial sized individuals (>2.5 cm) and, if verified and confirmed in other systems, be used as a simple management tool.

  11. Cataract surgery in the setting of severe pathologic myopia with high axial length: use of pars plana lensectomy and vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gologorsky, Daniel; Flynn, Harry W

    2016-01-01

    Cataract surgery in patients with pathologic myopia and high axial length can be challenging for a variety of reasons, including imprecise intraocular lens calculations in eyes with posterior staphylomas and intraoperative complications such as suprachoroidal hemorrhage, posterior capsular rupture, and retinal tears. Although most surgeons recommend standard phacoemulsification and preservation of the posterior capsule in these cases, an alternative approach presented in this series entails the removal of the lens through the pars plana and removal of formed vitreous during the concurrent procedure. PMID:27313443

  12. Metal partitioning and availability in estuarine surface sediments: Changes promoted by feeding activity of Scrobicularia plana and Liza ramada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, Sílvia; Duarte, Bernardo; Reis, Givaldo; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C.; Costa, José Lino; Caçador, Isabel; Almeida, Pedro Raposo de

    2015-12-01

    Several works have evidenced in the past the importance and influence of plants and terrestrial invertebrates in metal availability in soils and sediments through changes in metal speciation. In contrast, the impact of estuarine invertebrates and fishes in this process has been poorly explored. The partition of metals in estuarine surface sediments was studied in a controlled environment according to four operationally defined fractions. Sediments were analyzed before and after the passage through the gut of two detritivorous species. Scrobicularia plana feeds on the bottom and suspended sediment particles through the inhalant siphon. Liza ramada is an interface feeder, filtering the superficial layer of the sediment and suspended particles in the water column. Cd, Cu and Ni bound to carbonates increased in the pellets of S. plana, compared with the ingested sediment, as did exchangeable Zn. Similarly, Cd and Zn bound to carbonates have also increased in the pellets of L. ramada; on the contrary, a decrease of Ni was observable in the pellets of this fish. The outcome of the controlled experiments pointed to a potential increase in some metals' availability in the estuarine environment, as a result of the more mobile metal forms in the excreted fecal pellets. This draws the attention to a relevant impact of the trophic activity of both species, alongside with the potential enhancement brought to it by the bioturbation promoted by them, in the role that the estuary itself has as a contaminants' buffer.

  13. Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    62nd Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America 16-19 November 2014; Portland, OR Title: Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Nancy D. Epsky, Micah A. Gill, C. Teri Allen, Dong H. Cha, and Peter J. Landolt Nancy D. Epsky USDA-ARS, Subtropical Horticulture...

  14. Biochemical, physiological and behavioural markers in the endobenthic bivalve Scrobicularia plana as tools for the assessment of estuarine sediment quality.

    PubMed

    Boldina-Cosqueric, Inna; Amiard, Jean-Claude; Amiard-Triquet, Claude; Dedourge-Geffard, Odile; Métais, Isabelle; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Moutel, Benjamin; Berthet, Brigitte

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to link the responses at different levels of biological organisation of the endobenthic bivalve Scrobicularia plana differentially exposed to anthropogenic pressure. Clams were collected in April 2008 from three estuaries along a pollution gradient (Goyen < Loire < Seine). Biomarkers of defence (metallothionein concentration and glutathione-S-transferase activity) were activated in the Loire and the Seine. Biomarkers of damage revealed neurotoxicity (decreased AChE activity) and impairment of digestive enzyme activities (cellulase or amylase) in these estuaries. The highest lactate dehydrogenase activity was registered in the Loire estuary, in parallel with enhanced levels of vanadium (a metal present in petroleum), likely as a consequence of a small oil spill that occurred one month before the sampling collection. Physiological biomarkers (energy reserves as glycogen, lipids and proteins, condition and gonado-somatic indices) showed a few intersite differences. However, the median size was significantly lower in clams exposed to direct (chemicals) or indirect (available food) effects in the most contaminated site. Burrowing behaviour was disturbed in clams from both of the Loire and Seine estuaries, a response probably due to physiological impairment rather than to avoidance of contaminated sediment. The activation of defence mechanisms towards metals (metallothionein) and other classes of contaminants (the biotransformation enzyme glutathione-S-transferase) do not ensure a total protection since a number of impairments were observed at the infra-organismal (AChE and digestive enzyme activities) and individual (burrowing behaviour) levels in relation to the degree of anthropogenic pressure. However, even in the most contaminated estuary (Seine), historical records do not show a consistent decrease of S. plana populations. PMID:20797788

  15. Role of non-enzymatic antioxidants on the bivalves' adaptation to environmental mercury: Organ-specificities and age effect in Scrobicularia plana inhabiting a contaminated lagoon.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, I; Mohmood, I; Coelho, J P; Pacheco, M; Santos, M A; Duarte, A C; Pereira, E

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of non-enzymatic antioxidants on adaptive skills over time in the bivalve Scrobicularia plana environmentally exposed to mercury. Inter-age (2(+), 3(+), 4(+), 5(+) year old) and organ-specific (gills, digestive gland) approaches were applied in bivalves collected from moderately and highly contaminated sites at Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). S. plana's adaptive skills were dependent on the contamination extent; under moderate contamination scenario, the intervention of the different antioxidants took place harmoniously, evidencing an adjustment capacity increasing with the age. Under higher contamination degree, S. plana failed to cope with mercury threat, showing an age-dependent deterioration of the defense abilities. In organ-specific approach, the differences were particularly evident for thiol-compounds, since only gills displayed the potential to respond to moderate levels by increasing non-protein thiols and total glutathione. Under high contamination degree, both organs were unable to increase thiol-compounds, which were compensated by the ascorbic acid elevation.

  16. A marine mesocosm study on the environmental fate of silver nanoparticles and toxicity effects on two endobenthic species: the ragworm Hediste diversicolor and the bivalve mollusc Scrobicularia plana.

    PubMed

    Buffet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Zalouk-Vergnoux, Aurore; Châtel, Amélie; Berthet, Brigitte; Métais, Isabelle; Perrein-Ettajani, Hanane; Poirier, Laurence; Luna-Acosta, Andrea; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Risso-de Faverney, Christine; Guibbolini, Marielle; Gilliland, Douglas; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2014-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles are widely used in a range of products and processes for their antibacterial properties, electrical and thermal conductivity. The fate and effects of Ag nanoparticles were examined in two endobenthic species (Scrobicularia plana, Hediste diversicolor), under environmentally realistic conditions in outdoor mesocosms exposed to Ag at 10 μg L(-1) in nanoparticulate (Ag NPs) or soluble salt (AgNO3) forms for 21 days. Labile Ag was determined in water and sediment by using diffusive gradient in thin films. Ag levels were equivalent in contaminated Ag NPs mesocosms to those contaminated with the soluble form. Bioaccumulation of Ag was observed for both species exposed to either Ag in the nanoparticulate or ionic forms. Concerning biomarker responses, both soluble and nanoparticulate Ag forms, induced defenses against oxidative stress, detoxification, apoptosis, genotoxicity and immunomodulation. Nevertheless, DNA damages measured by the comet assay in the digestive gland of S. plana, and Phenoloxidase and lysozyme activities in S. plana and H. diversicolor, respectively, were higher in the presence of Ag NPs compared to soluble Ag suggesting a specific nano effect.

  17. The impacts of pharmaceutical drugs under ocean acidification: New data on single and combined long-term effects of carbamazepine on Scrobicularia plana.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Rosa; Almeida, Ângela; Calisto, Vânia; Velez, Cátia; Moreira, Anthony; Schneider, Rudolf J; Esteves, Valdemar I; Wrona, Frederick J; Figueira, Etelvina; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2016-01-15

    Ocean acidification and increasing discharges of pharmaceutical contaminants into aquatic systems are among key and/or emerging drivers of environmental change affecting marine ecosystems. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that ocean acidification can have direct and indirect impacts on marine organisms although combined effects with other stressors, namely with pharmaceuticals, have received very little attention to date. The present study aimed to evaluate the impacts of the pharmaceutical drug Carbamazepine and pH 7.1, acting alone and in combination, on the clam Scrobicularia plana. For this, a long-term exposure (28 days)was conducted and a set of oxidative stress markers was investigated. The results obtained showed that S. plana was able to develop mechanisms to prevent oxidative damage when under low pH for a long period, presenting higher survival when exposed to this stressor compared to CBZ or the combination of CBZ with pH 7.1. Furthermore, the toxicity of CBZ on S. plana was synergistically increased under ocean acidification conditions (CBZ + pH 7.1): specimens survival was reduced and oxidative stress was enhanced when compared to single exposures. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that ocean acidification will act to increase the toxicity of CBZ to marine organisms,which has clear implications for coastal benthic ecosystems suffering chronic pollution from pharmaceutical drugs.

  18. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography in patients after successful management of postoperative endophthalmitis following cataract surgery by pars plana vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute severe postoperative endophthalmitis may lead to severe vision loss. The aim of this study was the analysis of macular microstructure imaged by spectral domain optical coherence tomography in patients after pars plana vitrectomy due to postcataract endophthalmitis. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out in 17 patients who had cataract surgery in both eyes and underwent unilateral pars plana vitrectomy due to postcataract endophthalmitis. Postoperative best corrected visual acuity was determined in both eyes. Evaluation of macular thickness, macular volume, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and choroidal thickness using enhanced depth imaging technique was performed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The measurements obtained in the operated eye were compared to the fellow eye by Wilcoxon matched pair test. Correlation test was performed by Spearman rank order. Results A mean postoperative best corrected visual acuity of 63 ± 30 ETDRS letters versus 75 ± 21 letters was achieved in the study and fellow eyes, respectively, after a mean of 5.3 ± 4.5 months (p = 0.1). The mean macular thickness was 320.6 ± 28.8 μm SD in the study eyes compared to 318.4 ± 18.8 μm in the fellow eyes (p = 0.767). No differences were noted in macular volume (p = 0.97) and in peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (p = 0.31). Choroidal thickness was significantly lower in the study eyes compared to the fellow eyes (p = 0.018). Epiretinal membrane was found in 7 eyes after endophthalmitis, while in the fellow eyes only in 3 cases (p = 0.13, Fisher’s exact test). Conclusion Choroidal thickness decreased significantly after endophthalmitis, but there was no functional correlation with the changes in choroidal microstructure. The development of epiretinal membranes may be associated with either vitrectomy or endophthalmitis in the history. Absence of other significant

  19. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species. PMID:27395675

  20. Numerous transitions of sex chromosomes in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-04-01

    Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa.

  1. Numerous Transitions of Sex Chromosomes in Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa. PMID:25879221

  2. Metabolic effects of parasitization by the barnacle Polyascus plana (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala: Sacculinidae) on a grapsid host, Metopograpsus thukuhar.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chia-Jen; Wu, Yen-I; Tung, Tzu-An; Wang, Guan-Yi; Toullec, Jean-Yves; Liu, Shih-Ting; Huang, Wen-San; Lee, Chi-Ying

    2016-05-26

    Pathophysiological studies of rhizocephalan infections are rare. We describe differences in the levels of tissue and hemolymph metabolites between Polyascus plana-parasitized and unparasitized individuals of Metopograpsus thukuhar. Crabs were assigned to either a parasitized (carrying at least 1 externa, i.e. a protruding reproductive body) or an unparasitized (not carrying externae and determined to be rootlet-free by a barnacle 18S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction) group. Quantification of metabolites showed that muscle glycogen levels were significantly lower and hepatopancreas levels were significantly higher in parasitized crabs compared to unparasitized crabs; hepatopancreas triacylglycerol levels were significantly higher and hemolymph levels significantly lower in parasitized hosts, and there was no significant difference in muscle triacylglycerol levels between unparasitized and parasitized animals. Glucose levels in the hepatopancreas, muscle, and hemolymph were all significantly higher in parasitized hosts. Significant levels of glucose, triacylglycerol, and glycogen were present in the barnacle externae. In addition, levels of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the sinus glands were not significantly different between unparasitized and parasitized animals. Glucose mobilized from the muscle is likely converted to glycogen and triacylglycerol in the rootlet-infiltrated hepatopancreas of parasitized hosts, and the eyestalk neuroendocrine system appears not to be significantly impaired, in terms of hormone production and storage, by parasitization. PMID:27225203

  3. A mesocosm study of fate and effects of CuO nanoparticles on endobenthic species (Scrobicularia plana, Hediste diversicolor).

    PubMed

    Buffet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Richard, Marion; Caupos, Fanny; Vergnoux, Aurore; Perrein-Ettajani, Hanane; Luna-Acosta, Andrea; Akcha, Farida; Amiard, Jean-Claude; Amiard-Triquet, Claude; Guibbolini, Marielle; Risso-De Faverney, Christine; Thomas-Guyon, Helene; Reip, Paul; Dybowska, Agnieska; Berhanu, Deborah; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    The fate and effects of CuO nanoparticles (CuO NPs) were examined in endobenthic species (Scrobicularia plana , Hediste diversicolor), under environmentally realistic conditions in outdoor mesocosms (exposure to Cu at 10 μg L(-1) in particulate (CuO NPs) or soluble salt (CuNO(3)) forms) for 21 days. Labile Cu was determined in water and sediment by using diffusive gradient in thin films. No labile Cu being detected from CuO NPs; the observed effects in invertebrates exposed to CuO NPs were mainly attributed to the toxicity of nanoparticulate rather than dissolved Cu toxicity. Bioaccumulation of CuO NPs was observed in both species. Biomarkers were examined at different levels of biological organization: biochemical markers of defense and damage, biomarkers of genotoxicity (comet assay), and behavioral biomarkers (feeding and burrowing). Behavioral biomarkers, antioxidant defenses (catalase, glutathion S-transferase, metallothionein), and genotoxicity are the most sensitive tools to highlight the effect of soluble or nanoparticulate metal forms. Concerning other biomarkers of defense (superoxide dismutase, lactate dehydrogenase, laccase) and damage (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, acetylcholinesterase, acid phosphatase), no significant effects were detected. This experiment shows the suitability of mesocosms for studying the environmental effects of nanoparticles.

  4. Biochemical and behavioural responses of the endobenthic bivalve Scrobicularia plana to silver nanoparticles in seawater and microalgal food.

    PubMed

    Buffet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Pan, Jin-Fen; Poirier, Laurence; Amiard-Triquet, Claude; Amiard, Jean-Claude; Gaudin, Pierre; Risso-de Faverney, Christine; Guibbolini, Marielle; Gilliland, Douglas; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2013-03-01

    Because of their bactericidal effects, Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have promising industrial development but could lead to potential ecological risks. The aim of this study was to examine the uptake and effect of silver (soluble or as lactate Ag NPs of 40 nm) at low concentrations (10 μg L(-1)) in the endobenthic bivalve Scrobicularia plana exposed, for 14 days, directly (water) or via the diet (microalgae). The stability of Ag NPs in seawater was examined using dynamic light scattering. Release of soluble Ag from Ag NPs in the experimental media was quantified by using diffusive gradient in thin film. Bioaccumulation of Ag in bivalves was measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Behavioural and biochemical biomarkers were determined in bivalves. Aggregation of Ag NPs and the release of soluble Ag from Ag NPs were observed in the experimental media. For both forms of Ag, bioaccumulation was much more important for waterborne than for dietary exposure. The response of oxidative stress biomarkers (catalase, glutathion S-transferase, superoxide dismutase) was more important after dietary than waterborne exposure to Ag (soluble and NPs). These defences were relatively efficient since they led to a lack of response of damage biomarkers. Burrowing was not affected for bivalves exposed directly or through the diet to both Ag forms but feeding behaviour was impaired after 10 days of dietary exposure. Since no differences of responses to Ag either soluble or nanoparticulate were observed, it seems that labile Ag released from Ag NPs was mainly responsible for toxicity.

  5. Sutureless 25-Gauge Pars Plana Vitrectomy Combined with Retropupillary Fixation of an Iris-Claw Intraocular Lens

    PubMed Central

    Chalkiadakis, Spyridon E.; Parikakis, Efstratios A.; Taylor, Simon R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The surgical case of a dropped intraocular lens inside the vitreous cavity constitutes a real challenge for the operating surgeon. Herein, we describe a case series where an alternative optical rehabilitation technique for late intraocular lens-bag complex dislocation has been used. Methods A modern vitrectomy device was used to remove the capsule with the dropped intraocular lens using sutureless 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy. To ensure a better aesthetic result, with faster patient recovery and a reduced number of operations, the whole procedure was performed during the same operating session; an iris-claw intraocular lens for aphakia was selected for implantation. The implant was passed behind the constricted iris with the concave surface facing it. The lens was grasped with the manufacturer's holding forceps and fixed onto the posterior surface of the iris using the special enclavation needles. Results We have operated 12 eyes in two different clinical centres successfully, with minimal intra- and/or postoperative complications. Conclusion We believe that this is a viable solution for the visual rehabilitation of patients, who would otherwise need more than one operation for a lens exchange.

  6. New records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) from Romania

    PubMed Central

    Dvořák, Libor; Beuk, Paul LT

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Anisopodidae (window gnats or wood gnats) is a small family of nematocerous Diptera. Until now only Sylvicola (Anisopus) punctatus (Fabricius, 1787) and Sylvicola (Sylvicola) fenestralis (Scopoli, 1763)​ were reported from Romania. New information New faunistic records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) are presented. Sylvicola (Sylvicola) cinctus (Fabricius, 1787) and S. (Anisopus) fuscatus (Fabricius, 1775) are recorded from Romania for the first time. An identification key and illustrations of Romanian Sylvicola species are presented. PMID:26929721

  7. Valved versus nonvalved cannula small-gauge pars plana vitrectomy for repair of retinal detachments with Grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Oellers, Patrick; Stinnett, Sandra; Hahn, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Valved cannulas are a recent addition to small-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and provide stable intraocular fluidics. The goal of this study was to compare outcomes and postoperative complication rates of valved vs nonvalved cannula small-gauge PPV for repair of retinal detachments (RDs) complicated by Grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Methods A retrospective chart review of 364 consecutive eyes with either valved or nonvalved cannula PPV for RD repair was performed. The primary outcomes were single surgery and final anatomic success and change in best-corrected visual acuity for repair of RDs complicated by Grade C PVR. Results We identified 36 eyes in the valved group and 31 eyes in the nonvalved group with Grade C PVR RD. The single surgery success was 83% vs 77% (P=0.555) and the final anatomic success was 94% vs 87% (P=0.404) in the valved vs nonvalved eyes, respectively. The mean final visual acuity gain was −0.36 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR; approximate Early Treatment Diabetes Retinopathy Study [ETDRS] score =17 letters) in valved eyes vs −0.33 logMAR (approximate ETDRS score =16 letters) in nonvalved eyes (P=0.81). Postoperative complication rates including postoperative day 1 hypotony, hypertony, and anterior chamber fibrin formation; postoperative retention of intraocular or subretinal perfluorocarbon liquid; and subsequent epiretinal membrane peel were not statistically different between groups. Conclusion Valved cannula PPV yields equivalent visual acuity and anatomic outcomes without increased postoperative complication rates compared to traditional nonvalved cannula PPV for Grade C PVR-associated RD repair. PMID:27313445

  8. Comparison of retinal detachment surgery outcome among patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy with and without relaxing retinotomy.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Tal; Moisseiev, Elad; Neudorfer, Meira; Loewenstein, Anat; Barak, Adiel

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this four year retrospective study was to compare the anatomical and functional outcomes of complicated retinal detachment (RD) surgery by pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with and without retinotomy. The main outcome measures were primary anatomical success (defined as retinal re-attachment at the final follow-up after a single operation, with or without silicone in situ), final anatomical success, final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and postoperative complications. Baseline characteristics did not differ between the groups, although there was a borderline significant trend for the retinotomy group to be associated with worse pre-surgical ocular pathology. With a mean follow-up of 18 (± 7.8) months, primary anatomical success was achieved in 76.7% (33 of 43) of the retinotomy group eyes vs. 67.8% (40 of 59) of the eyes in the group without retinotomy. Final anatomical success rates for the retinotomy group and no retinotomy group were 100 and 93.2% respectively. The final BCVA was 1.57 LogMAR with retinotomy and 1.38 without retinotomy, an improvement in both groups. The incidence of postoperative complications was similar in the two groups, while the frequency of macular holes was higher in the retinotomy group. A similar degree of improvement in BCVA following both surgeries indicates their similar efficacy and justifies their performance even in complicated eyes in order to improve the patients' quality of life. With neither approach superior to the other, the choice of method should be left to the surgeon. PMID:25142375

  9. New species of Afrotropical Muscidae (Diptera: Muscoidea).

    PubMed

    Couri, Márcia; Pont, Adrian C

    2014-01-01

    The study of recently collected Afrotropical Muscidae (Diptera) from Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya and South Africa has revealed ten new species which are described herein: Coenosia duomaculata sp. nov., C. nigromaculata sp. nov., C. fragilis sp. nov., Helina harrisorum sp. nov., H. ferfriniorum sp. nov., Hydrotaea tantula sp. nov., Limnophora diminuta sp. nov., L. antennalis sp. nov., Spilogona brunnea sp. nov. and S. bella sp. nov. Coenosia, Helina and Limnophora are speciose muscid genera, found throughout the Afrotropical Region, while Hydrotaea and Spilogona have a more restricted geographic distribution and include some 20 species each. 

  10. Rhipidia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Rhipidia Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Rhipidia (Rhipidia) serena, new species, is described and figured. Rhipidia (R.) longa Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014, R. (R.) maculata Meigen, 1818 and R. (R.) sejuga Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014 are recorded for the first time in Korea. Previously known species, Rhipidia (R.) septentrionis Alexander, 1913 is redescribed and illustrated. Identification key for all Korean Rhipidia species is given. Most antennae, wings, male and female terminalia of all species are illustrated for the first time. PMID:27395731

  11. Recombination rate predicts inversion size in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, M; Barbadilla, A; Ruiz, A

    1999-09-01

    Most species of the Drosophila genus and other Diptera are polymorphic for paracentric inversions. A common observation is that successful inversions are of intermediate size. We test here the hypothesis that the selected property is the recombination length of inversions, not their physical length. If so, physical length of successful inversions should be negatively correlated with recombination rate across species. This prediction was tested by a comprehensive statistical analysis of inversion size and recombination map length in 12 Diptera species for which appropriate data are available. We found that (1) there is a wide variation in recombination map length among species; (2) physical length of successful inversions varies greatly among species and is inversely correlated with the species recombination map length; and (3) neither the among-species variation in inversion length nor the correlation are observed in unsuccessful inversions. The clear differences between successful and unsuccessful inversions point to natural selection as the most likely explanation for our results. Presumably the selective advantage of an inversion increases with its length, but so does its detrimental effect on fertility due to double crossovers. Our analysis provides the strongest and most extensive evidence in favor of the notion that the adaptive value of inversions stems from their effect on recombination.

  12. Recombination rate predicts inversion size in Diptera.

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, M; Barbadilla, A; Ruiz, A

    1999-01-01

    Most species of the Drosophila genus and other Diptera are polymorphic for paracentric inversions. A common observation is that successful inversions are of intermediate size. We test here the hypothesis that the selected property is the recombination length of inversions, not their physical length. If so, physical length of successful inversions should be negatively correlated with recombination rate across species. This prediction was tested by a comprehensive statistical analysis of inversion size and recombination map length in 12 Diptera species for which appropriate data are available. We found that (1) there is a wide variation in recombination map length among species; (2) physical length of successful inversions varies greatly among species and is inversely correlated with the species recombination map length; and (3) neither the among-species variation in inversion length nor the correlation are observed in unsuccessful inversions. The clear differences between successful and unsuccessful inversions point to natural selection as the most likely explanation for our results. Presumably the selective advantage of an inversion increases with its length, but so does its detrimental effect on fertility due to double crossovers. Our analysis provides the strongest and most extensive evidence in favor of the notion that the adaptive value of inversions stems from their effect on recombination. PMID:10471710

  13. Mosquito repellent attracts Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Braverman, Y; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Mullens, B A

    1999-01-01

    A plant-derived mosquito repellent, based on the oil of Eucalyptus maculata var. citriodora Hook, was evaluated against the biting midge Culicoides imicola Kieffer. Suction black light-traps covered with repellent-impregnated polyester mesh and deployed near horses attracted large numbers of C. imicola, which were seen near the treated net within a few minutes of the start of the experiment. Initial collections in the traps were approximately 3 times as large as those in control traps with untreated mesh. Numbers collected in treated traps were similar to untreated control traps after 4 h. Traps with mesh treated with DEET or another plant-derived (Meliaceae) proprietary product, AG1000, acted as repellents relative to the control. The differential activity of repellents against blood-feeding Diptera is discussed. PMID:10071502

  14. History of tachinid classification (Diptera, Tachinidae).

    PubMed

    O'Hara, James E

    2013-01-01

    The history of the classification of the Tachinidae (Diptera) is traced from Meigen to the present. The contributions of Robineau-Desvoidy, Townsend, Villeneuve, Mesnil, Herting, Wood and many others are discussed within a chronological, taxonomic, and geographic context. The gradual development of the Tachinidae into its modern concept as a family of the Oestroidea and the emergence of the classificatory scheme of tribes and subfamilies in use today are reviewed. Certain taxa that have in the past been difficult to place, or continue to be of uncertain affinity, are considered and some are given in a table to show their varied historical treatments. The more significant systematic works published on the Tachinidae in recent decades are enumerated chronologically. PMID:23878512

  15. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  16. Development and application of a QuEChERS-based extraction method for the analysis of 55 pesticides in the bivalve Scrobicularia plana by GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Cruzeiro, Catarina; Rodrigues-Oliveira, Nádia; Velhote, Susana; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Rocha, Eduardo; Rocha, Maria João

    2016-05-01

    A method for quantitative determination of 55 pesticides in a bivalve matrix was established, based on QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) extraction and using gas chromatography (GC)-ion trap (IT) mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Accomplishing the European SANCO guidelines, this method was validated using 5 g of homogenized soft tissue, allowing the quantification of pesticides at ng/g of wet weight (ww). Quantification limits and recovery rates ranged from 0.33 to 10.3 μg/L and from 78 to 119 %, respectively. As an important mollusc, not only from an ecological perspective but also for food consumption, the peppery furrow shell (Scrobicularia plana) was sampled at three strategical sites (Ria Formosa Lagoon, in the south of Portugal) during 2012-2013, over six campaigns. A total of 2160 animals were pooled by place and sex. No statistical differences were found among sites or between sexes. Forty percent of the sampled pools were above quantification limits, reaching total annual average concentrations of ∑800 ng/g ww. Additionally, 83 % of the selected compounds showed concentrations above the legal limits set by the European Directive 2013/39/EU. In conclusion, the applied method was successful and proved that bivalves were contaminated by the selected pesticides. In future work, this methodology can be used to monitor body burdens and obtain data for predicting impacts in shellfish consumers. Graphical Abstract Resume of pesticides extraction and analyses process from S. plana. PMID:27032408

  17. Susceptibility of cranberries to Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii Mastsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), commonly referred to as the spotted-wing drosophila, is an exotic species that has proven a troublesome pest of fruit production in the U.S. The fly targets small fruit and thus represents a concern for the U.S. cranberry industry. Two studies ...

  18. Crowdsourcing for large-scale mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...

  19. Cryopreservation of embryos of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Embryos of Lucilia (Phaenicia) sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), the green blowfly, were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification in liquid nitrogen and stored for 8 yr. Embryos incubated at 19 deg. C for 17 h after oviposition were found to be the most appropriate stage to cryopreserve...

  20. Development of Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera:Tephritidae) in crabapple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens, Curran, 1932 (Diptera: Tephritidae), was reared from naturally-infested Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Ait.) Borkh. (Rosaceae), in Washington state, U.S.A. Pupae from Chinese crabapple were smaller than those from sweet cherry, Prunus avium (...

  1. Descriptions of two new species of Afrotropical Psychodidae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Ježek, Jan; Oboňa, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Psychodinae) are described and illustrated on the basis of male morphological characters. Neoarisemus nyahururuensis sp. nov. was collected in the vicinity of Thomson's Falls (Nyahururu) in Kenya and Tonnoiriella veronikae sp. nov. in Toamasina province, Madagascar, Analamazaotra 1.4 km SSW Andasibe vill. (Périnet). PMID:27470871

  2. Heterangaeus Alexander, 1925 crane flies (Diptera: Pediciidae) of Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Podeniene, Virginija; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The Korean crane fly species of the genus Heterangaeus Alexander, 1925 (Diptera: Pediciidae) is taxonomically revised. H. gloriosus gloriosus (Alexander, 1924) is redescribed. A new species Heterangaeus koreanus n. sp., which is the first species of Pediciidae from South Korea, is described and illustrated.

  3. Frass semiochemicals important to corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several similarly appearing species of silk fly (Diptera: Ulidiidae) are extremely destructive pests of sweet corn in southern Florida. Currently, silk flies are managed solely with multiple broad spectrum insecticide applications, and there is concern that some species are developing resistance to ...

  4. World catalog of extant and fossil Corethrellidae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Borkent, Art

    2014-01-01

    A world catalog of extant and fossil frog-biting midges (Diptera: Corethrellidae) provides full type information, known life stages, and distribution of each species. There are 105 extant and seven fossil species of Corethrellidae but unnamed species are known from Costa Rica, Colombia and Madagascar. New information on types and other important specimens are provided.

  5. Checklist of the family Syrphidae (Diptera) of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Haarto, Antti; Kerppola, Sakari

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the Syrphidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland. Three species of Syrphidae, Platycheirus modestus Ide, 1926, Cheilosia barovskii (Stackelberg, 1930) and Mallota tricolor Loew, 1871, are published as new to the Finnish fauna. Platycheirus modestus is also new to the Palaearctic. PMID:25337020

  6. The forgotten flies: the importance of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Orford, Katherine A.; Vaughan, Ian P.; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Bees, hoverflies and butterflies are taxa frequently studied as pollinators in agricultural and conservation contexts. Although there are many records of non-syrphid Diptera visiting flowers, they are generally not regarded as important pollinators. We use data from 30 pollen-transport networks and 71 pollinator-visitation networks to compare the importance of various flower-visiting taxa as pollen-vectors. We specifically compare non-syrphid Diptera and Syrphidae to determine whether neglect of the former in the literature is justified. We found no significant difference in pollen-loads between the syrphid and non-syrphid Diptera. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the level of specialization between the two groups in the pollen-transport networks, though the Syrphidae had significantly greater visitation evenness. Flower visitation data from 33 farms showed that non-syrphid Diptera made up the majority of the flower-visiting Diptera in the agricultural studies (on average 82% abundance and 73% species richness), and we estimate that non-syrphid Diptera carry 84% of total pollen carried by farmland Diptera. As important pollinators, such as bees, have suffered serious declines, it would be prudent to improve our understanding of the role of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators. PMID:25808886

  7. The forgotten flies: the importance of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators.

    PubMed

    Orford, Katherine A; Vaughan, Ian P; Memmott, Jane

    2015-04-22

    Bees, hoverflies and butterflies are taxa frequently studied as pollinators in agricultural and conservation contexts. Although there are many records of non-syrphid Diptera visiting flowers, they are generally not regarded as important pollinators. We use data from 30 pollen-transport networks and 71 pollinator-visitation networks to compare the importance of various flower-visiting taxa as pollen-vectors. We specifically compare non-syrphid Diptera and Syrphidae to determine whether neglect of the former in the literature is justified. We found no significant difference in pollen-loads between the syrphid and non-syrphid Diptera. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the level of specialization between the two groups in the pollen-transport networks, though the Syrphidae had significantly greater visitation evenness. Flower visitation data from 33 farms showed that non-syrphid Diptera made up the majority of the flower-visiting Diptera in the agricultural studies (on average 82% abundance and 73% species richness), and we estimate that non-syrphid Diptera carry 84% of total pollen carried by farmland Diptera. As important pollinators, such as bees, have suffered serious declines, it would be prudent to improve our understanding of the role of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators.

  8. Brain plasticity in Diptera and Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Groh, Claudia; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    To mediate different types of behaviour, nervous systems must coordinate the proper operation of their neural circuits as well as short- and long-term alterations that occur within those circuits. The latter ultimately devolve upon specific changes in neuronal structures, membrane properties and synaptic connections that are all examples of plasticity. This reorganization of the adult nervous system is shaped by internal and external influences both during development and adult maturation. In adults, behavioural experience is a major driving force of neuronal plasticity studied particularly in sensory systems. The range of adaptation depends on features that are important to a particular species, so that learning is essential for foraging in honeybees, while regenerative capacities are important in hemimetabolous insects with long appendages. Experience is usually effective during a critical period in early adult life, when neural function becomes tuned to future conditions in an insect's life. Changes occur at all levels, in synaptic circuits, neuropile volumes, and behaviour. There are many examples, and this review incorporates only a select few, mainly those from Diptera and Hymenoptera. PMID:20036946

  9. [Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae) in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Del Ventura, Fabiola; Zorrilla, Adriana; Liria, Jonathan

    2010-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants) and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9,607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3,133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles--subgenera Kerteszia--with the upper limit of 2,680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis and Culex daumastocampa at 2,550 m were the highest records in the Central-Coastal cordillera, while the highest record in Pantepui was Wyeomyia zinzala at 2,252 m. The species associated with phytothelmata (Bromeliaceae and Sarraceniaceae) represent 60% of the records. The upper limits of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles (Kerteszia) species could represent the theoretical limit for transmission of filariasis or arboviruses, by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles (Kerteszia) in Venezuela. Similarly, a vector of Dengue, Aedes aegypti, has not been not recorded above 2,000 m.

  10. Comments on the association of immatures of Hemerodromia (Diptera, Empididae) and Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae), and first record of this association in the Atlantic Forest (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Sánchez Molina, Óscar; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Larvae of Empididae (Diptera) prey on black fly immatures and its pupae can be collected from pupal cases of Simuliidae (Diptera). The aim of our work was to report the second record of association between immatures of Empididae and Simuliidae in the Neotropical Region and the first for the Atlantic Forest (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). We collected 4982 pupae and exuviae of Simulium Latreille, (Diptera, Simuliidae) and found three with a pupa of Hemerodromia Meigen (Diptera, Empididae) inside. This shows that the use of black flies cocoons by dance flies occurs at extremely low frequencies, which might explain why this association is so rarely recorded. Our results are relevant for a better comprehension of the predator-prey relationship between these families.

  11. Comments on the association of immatures of Hemerodromia (Diptera, Empididae) and Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae), and first record of this association in the Atlantic Forest (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Sánchez Molina, Óscar; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Larvae of Empididae (Diptera) prey on black fly immatures and its pupae can be collected from pupal cases of Simuliidae (Diptera). The aim of our work was to report the second record of association between immatures of Empididae and Simuliidae in the Neotropical Region and the first for the Atlantic Forest (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). We collected 4982 pupae and exuviae of Simulium Latreille, (Diptera, Simuliidae) and found three with a pupa of Hemerodromia Meigen (Diptera, Empididae) inside. This shows that the use of black flies cocoons by dance flies occurs at extremely low frequencies, which might explain why this association is so rarely recorded. Our results are relevant for a better comprehension of the predator-prey relationship between these families. PMID:27456938

  12. Lekking behavior of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Segura, D.; Petit-Marty, N.; Cladera, J.; Sciurano, R.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Vera, T.; Allinghi, A.

    2007-03-15

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) displays a lek mating system. Males form groups in which they simultaneously display signals (acoustical, visual, or chemical) to attract females with the purpose of mating. Females visit the lek and choose among signaling and courting males to mate. Scarce information is available in A. fraterculus about the main factors involved in female choice and the behavior of displaying males. This information could be important within the context of pest control programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, because departures from normal sexual behavior caused by artificial rearing could affect males' performance in the field. In this study we assessed A. fraterculus male behavior within the leks and analyzed the importance of behavioral and morphological traits on their copulatory success. The existence of preferred places for lek formation was evaluated in field cages with trees inside and analyzed by dividing the trees in sectors according to a 3-dimensional system. Males were individually weighed, marked, and observed every 15 min. Morphometric and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful males were compared. Most successful males grouped in a region of the tree characterized by the highest light intensity in the first 2 h of the morning. Results showed that pheromone calling activity is positively associated with copulatory success. Copulations were more frequent for males calling inside the lek, indicating that pheromone calling activity and presence in the lek are key factors for copulatory success. A positive association between copulatory success and eye length was found; some characteristics of the face were also associated with copula duration and latency. (author) [Spanish] Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) presenta un sistema de apareamiento tipo lek. Los machos forman grupos y, en forma conjunta, emiten senales (acusticas, visuales, o quimicas) para

  13. Change of name for the Oriental robber fly Nyssomyia Hull, 1962 (Diptera: Asilidae, Asilinae), nec Nyssomyia Barretto, 1962 (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Fisher, Eric

    2015-08-14

    A new name for the Oriental genus Nyssomyia Hull, 1962 (Diptera: Asilidae) is proposed. Homonymy exists between this Oriental robber fly genus and the more senior Neotropical phlebotomine sand fly genus Nyssomyia Barretto, 1962 (sensu Galati 2003) (Diptera: Psychodidae), and the following replacement name is proposed: Ekkentronomyia nom. nov. for Nyssomyia Hull (nec Barretto 1962). Accordingly, a new combination is herein proposed for the only species currently included in this genus: Ekkentronomyia ochracea (Hull, 1962) comb. nov.

  14. Microsporidium Infecting Anopheles supepictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Omrani, Seyed-Mohammad; Moosavi, Seyedeh-Fatemeh; Manouchehri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Microsporidia are known to infect a wide variety of animals including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). In a recent study on the mosquito fauna of Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari Province, at the central western part of Iran, a few larvae of Anopheles superpictus were infected with a microsporidium-resembled microorganism. Current investigation deals with the identification of the responsible microorganism at the genus level. Methods: Fresh infected larvae were collected from the field. After determining the species identity they were dissected to extract their infective contents. Wet preparations were checked for general appearance and the size of the pathogenic microorganism. Fixed preparations were stained with Geimsa and Ryan-Blue modified Trichrome techniques to visualize further morphological characters. The obtained light microscopy data were used in the identification process. Results: The infected larvae were bulged by a whitish material filling the involved segments corresponding to a microsporidium infection. Bottle-shaped semioval spores ranged 4.33±0.19×2.67±0.12 and 4.18±0.43×2.45±0.33 micron in wet and fixed preparations, respectively. They were mostly arranged in globular structures comprised of 8 spores. These data was in favor of a species from the genus Parathelohania in the family Ambliosporidae. Conclusion: This is the first report of a microsporidium infection in An. superpictus. The causative agent is diagnosed as a member of the genus Parathelohania. Further identification down to the species level needs to determine its ultrastructural characteristics and the comparative analysis of ss rRNA sequence data. It is also necessary to understand the detail of the components of the transmission cycle. PMID:27308299

  15. Toxicity and the fractional distribution of trace metals accumulated from contaminated sediments by the clam Scrobicularia plana exposed in the laboratory and the field.

    PubMed

    Kalman, J; Bonnail-Miguel, E; Smith, B D; Bury, N R; Rainbow, P S

    2015-02-15

    The relationship between the subcellular distribution of accumulated toxic metals into five operational fractions (subsequently combined into presumed detoxified and non-detoxified components) and toxicity in the clam Scrobicularia plana was investigated under different laboratory exposures. Clams were exposed to metal contaminated media (water and diet) and analysed for the partitioning of accumulated As, Cu and Zn into subcellular fractions. In general, metallothionein-like proteins, metal-rich granules and cellular debris in different proportions acted as main storage sites of accumulated metals in the clam soft tissues for these three metals. No significant differences were noted in the accumulation rates of As, Cu and Zn of groups of individuals with or without apparent signs of toxicity after up to 30 days of exposure to naturally contaminated sediment mixtures. There was, however, an increased proportional accumulation of Cu in the non-detoxified fraction with increased Cu accumulation rate in the clams, suggesting that the Cu uptake rate from contaminated sediments exceeded the combined rates of elimination and detoxification of Cu, with the subsequent likelihood for toxic effects in the clams.

  16. Sarcosaprophagous Diptera assemblages in natural habitats in central Spain: spatial and seasonal changes in composition.

    PubMed

    Martín-Vega, D; Baz, A

    2013-03-01

    The composition and spatial distribution of sarcosaprophagous Diptera assemblages were studied using carrion-baited traps along a bioclimatic gradient of natural habitats in central Spain throughout the different seasons during 1 year. Calliphoridae and Muscidae were the most abundant families, accounting for, respectively, 41.9% and 35.1% of all Diptera specimens collected. Other abundant families were Heleomyzidae (8.4%), Sarcophagidae (6.9%) and Piophilidae (5.1%). Fly assemblage compositions differed among bioclimatic levels, with Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) being the dominant species in mesomediterranean habitats, Muscina levida (Harris) (Diptera: Muscidae) the dominant species in supramediterranean habitats, and Prochyliza nigrimana (Meigen) (Diptera: Piophilidae) the dominant species in oromediterranean habitats. Differences in assemblage composition were also found among seasons. Thermophobic species such as Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and some species of Heleomyzidae were well represented during autumn, winter and spring in the three bioclimatic levels sampled. By contrast, thermophilic species such as Ch. albiceps and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and most Muscidae and Sarcophagidae species were more abundant during summer and in mesomediterranean habitats located at lower elevations. Knowledge of the preferences of some species for certain habitats may be of ecological and forensic value and may establish a starting point for further research.

  17. The mitochondrial genome of the blowfly Chrysomya chloropyga (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Ana Carolina M; Lessinger, Ana Cláudia; Torres, Tatiana Teixeira; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Vettore, André Luiz; Arruda, Paulo; Azeredo Espin, Ana Maria L

    2004-09-15

    In view of the medical, sanitary and forensic importance of Chrysomya species, a knowledge of their nucleotide sequences would be useful for the molecular characterization of this genus, and would help in designing primers and in improving the molecular identification of Calliphoridae species. In this work, the mitochondrial genome of the blowfly Chrysomya chloropyga (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was completely sequenced. The entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule was 15,837 bp long and was sequenced using the shotgun approach. The overall nucleotide composition was heavily biased towards As and Ts, which accounted for 76.7% of the whole genome. The cox1 gene had a serine as the start codon, while incomplete termination codons mediated by tRNA signals were found for cox2, nd4 and nd5. The C. chloropyga genes were in the same order and orientation as the mitochondrial genome of other dipteran species, except for the occurrence of a 123 bp region that included a complete duplication of tRNA(Ile) and a partial duplication of tRNA(Gln) genes. C. chloropyga is the first species of Diptera with 23 tRNA genes instead of the usual 22 already described. A phylogenetic analysis showed a split of Brachycera into Calyptratae and Acalyptratae subdivisions. The complete sequence of C. chloropyga mtDNA described here will be a useful source of sequence information for general molecular and evolutionary studies in Diptera.

  18. Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), a new parasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae) from the Azores

    PubMed Central

    van Achterberg, Kees; Teixeira, Tânia; Oliveira, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new gregarious larval-pupal endoparasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is described and illustrated: Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini). PMID:23129984

  19. Cardiocladius oliffi (Diptera: Chironomidae) as a potential biological control agent against Simulium squamosum (Diptera: Simuliidae)

    PubMed Central

    Boakye, Daniel A; Fokam, Eric; Ghansah, Anita; Amakye, Josef; Wilson, Michael D; Brown, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Background The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn) in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae). Methods Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments). Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum. PMID:19393069

  20. New neotropical species of Trupanea (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of Trupanea (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns are described from the Neotropical Region: T. dimorphica (Argentina), T. fasciata (Argentina), T. polita (Argentina and Bolivia), and T. trivittata (Argentina). Celidosphenella Hendel, 1914 and Melanotrypana Hering, 1944 are ...

  1. Revision of the key characters for the Thricops nigrifrons species-group (Diptera, Muscidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vikhrev, Nikita

    2010-01-01

    Abstract An analysis of key characters for the separation of Thricops nigrifrons and Thricops longipes (Diptera, Muscidae) is given. A revised key for Thricops nigrifrons and related species, including two species recently described from the Caucasus, is proposed. PMID:21594046

  2. Checklist of the leaf-mining flies (Diptera, Agromyzidae) of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the Agromyzidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. 279 (or 280) species are currently known from the country. Phytomyza linguae Lundqvist, 1947 is recorded as new to Finland. PMID:25337025

  3. Fluctuation of diptera larvae in phytotelmata and relation with climate variation in West Sumatra Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Emantis; Dahelmi; Salmah, Siti; Syamsuardi

    2014-07-01

    Research of fluctuations in Diptera's larvae in Phytotelmata had been conducted at three locations in West Sumatra, Indonesia; Padang, Bukittinggi and Payakumbuh; which aimed to determine the number and fluctuations Diptera larvae in Phytotelmata. The results obtained; the highest number of individual larvae Diptera in Phytotelmata was 7109 Aedes albopictus larvae (49.56%), followed by larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus with 2409 individuals (16.80%). Larvae fluctuated every month and tent to increase in November and December. There was no difference in the number of Diptera larvae individuals inhabiting pandan, taro, and pineapple, but there were significant differences between the three types of Phytotelmata (pandanus, taro and pineapple) with bamboo (p < 0.05). Number of individual larvae in Phytotelmata negatively correlated with temperature and rainfall, but positively correlated with humidity (r = 0.44: p < 0.05). PMID:26035947

  4. Assessment of Anterior Segment Changes in Pseudophakic Eyes, Using Ultrasonic Biomicroscopic Imaging, after Pars Plana Vitrectomy with Silicone Oil or Gas Tamponade

    PubMed Central

    Kızılay, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the morphological changes of the anterior segment using ultrasonic biomicroscopy (UBM) imaging in pseudophakic patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with silicone oil or gas (C3F8) internal tamponade agent injection. Method. This prospective study included pseudophakic patients with planned PPV, divided into two groups according to internal tamponade agent: those in which silicone oil was used (n = 27, Group 1) and those in which gas (C3F8) was used (n = 24, Group 2). UBM measurements were performed in the supine position before and one week after surgery. Results. In patients of Group 1, postoperative trabecular meshwork-ciliary process distance (T-CPD) and iris-ciliary process distance (I-CPD), according to preoperative values, were found to be statistically significantly reduced, and postoperative mean value of scleral thickness (ST) and intraocular pressure (IOP), according to preoperative value, was found to be statistically significantly increased. In patients of Group 2, postoperative mean values of anterior chamber depth (ACD), ciliary body thickness (CBT), T-CPD, I-CPD, and IOP, according to preoperative values, were found to be statistically significantly reduced. Preoperatively, in Group 2 patients, according to Group 1 patients, TIA and IOP were found to be statistically significantly increased. Preoperative and postoperative IOP between the measured parameters with UBM showed no statistically significant correlation. Conclusions. Gases cause more morphological changes in the anterior segment structures. It is thought that complications such as increased intraocular pressure can be seen more frequently for this reason. PMID:27298733

  5. New African species of Helina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Couri, Márcia; Pont, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The study of Afrotropical Muscidae deposited in the Natural History Museum (BMNH), London, United Kingdom, revealed four new species of Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, herein described and illustrated. Helina duocolorata sp. nov. is described from Kenya, Helina longicerca sp. nov. and Helina sexnotata sp. nov. from Nigeria, and Helina mediomaculata sp. nov. from Angola. All types are deposited in the collection of the BMNH. Some corrections are made to the entries under Helina in the Catalogue of the Diptera of the Afrotropical Region (Pont 1980).

  6. New African species of Helina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Couri, Márcia; Pont, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The study of Afrotropical Muscidae deposited in the Natural History Museum (BMNH), London, United Kingdom, revealed four new species of Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, herein described and illustrated. Helina duocolorata sp. nov. is described from Kenya, Helina longicerca sp. nov. and Helina sexnotata sp. nov. from Nigeria, and Helina mediomaculata sp. nov. from Angola. All types are deposited in the collection of the BMNH. Some corrections are made to the entries under Helina in the Catalogue of the Diptera of the Afrotropical Region (Pont 1980). PMID:27394742

  7. [Hematophagous diptera arbovirus vectors in Africa (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rickenbach, A; Mouchet, J

    1981-01-01

    The authors, in a first part, show the general arthropods-viruses-vertebrates relationships and specially the different conditions of virus maintenance in the selvatic foci. Then they succinctly give the main characteristics of the vectors bioecology useful for understanding the epidemiology of arbovirus diseases of man and domestic animals. Thus diptera vectors of o'nyong-nyong and chikungunya fevers, yellow fever, dengue fever, Wesselsbron, Sindbis, and West Nile viruses, Rift Valley fever, sandfly fevers, bluetongue and african horsesickness are recorded. Lastly some attention is given to the range of virus-vector specificity and to the virulence variability of virus according to the vector.

  8. Traumatic Myiasis Caused by an Association of Sarcophaga tibialis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Domestic Cat in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Margherita; Leis, Marilena

    2015-01-01

    We describe here a rare case of traumatic myiasis occurred in August 2014, caused by an association of 2 Diptera species, Sarcophaga tibialis Macquart (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in a domestic cat in northern Italy. Species identification was based on adult male morphology. The present case is the first report of S. tibialis as an agent of myiasis in Italy, and also the first ever report of myiasis caused by an association of S. tibialis and L. sericata. The cat developed an extensive traumatic myiasis in a large wound on the rump, which was treated pharmacologically and surgically. The biology, ecology, and distribution of S. tibialis and L. sericata are also discussed. A literature review is provided on cases of myiasis caused by S. tibialis, and cases of myiasis by L. sericata involving cats worldwide and humans and animals in Italy. PMID:26323846

  9. Traumatic Myiasis Caused by an Association of Sarcophaga tibialis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Domestic Cat in Italy.

    PubMed

    Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Margherita; Leis, Marilena

    2015-08-01

    We describe here a rare case of traumatic myiasis occurred in August 2014, caused by an association of 2 Diptera species, Sarcophaga tibialis Macquart (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in a domestic cat in northern Italy. Species identification was based on adult male morphology. The present case is the first report of S. tibialis as an agent of myiasis in Italy, and also the first ever report of myiasis caused by an association of S. tibialis and L. sericata. The cat developed an extensive traumatic myiasis in a large wound on the rump, which was treated pharmacologically and surgically. The biology, ecology, and distribution of S. tibialis and L. sericata are also discussed. A literature review is provided on cases of myiasis caused by S. tibialis, and cases of myiasis by L. sericata involving cats worldwide and humans and animals in Italy.

  10. Phylogenetic inference of calyptrates, with the first mitogenomes for Gasterophilinae (Diptera: Oestridae) and Paramacronychiinae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Ming; Chu, Hongjun; Cao, Jie; Li, Kai; Hu, Defu; Pape, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the horse stomach bot fly Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) and a near-complete mitogenome of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) were sequenced. The mitogenomes contain the typical 37 mitogenes found in metazoans, organized in the same order and orientation as in other cyclorrhaphan Diptera. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomes from 38 calyptrate taxa with and without two non-calyptrate outgroups were performed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood. Three sub-analyses were performed on the concatenated data: (1) not partitioned; (2) partitioned by gene; (3) 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes omitted. We estimated the contribution of each of the mitochondrial genes for phylogenetic analysis, as well as the effect of some popular methodologies on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction. In the favoured trees, the Oestroidea are nested within the muscoid grade. Relationships at the family level within Oestroidea are (remaining Calliphoridae (Sarcophagidae (Oestridae, Pollenia + Tachinidae))). Our mito-phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calyptratae presents the most extensive taxon coverage so far, and the risk of long-branch attraction is reduced by an appropriate selection of outgroups. We find that in the Calyptratae the ND2, ND5, ND1, COIII, and COI genes are more phylogenetically informative compared with other mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Our study provides evidence that data partitioning and the inclusion of conserved tRNA genes have little influence on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction, and that the 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes are not saturated and therefore should be included. PMID:27019632

  11. Ammonium carbonate loss rates from lures differentially affect trap captures of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) and non-target flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of cherry (Prunus spp.) in western North America that can be monitored using traps baited with ammonia. However, ammonia-based attractants also attract non-target Diptera that clutter traps. Here, the hypothe...

  12. Fate of isotopically labeled zinc oxide nanoparticles in sediment and effects on two endobenthic species, the clam Scrobicularia plana and the ragworm Hediste diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Buffet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Amiard-Triquet, Claude; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Risso-de Faverney, Christine; Guibbolini, Marielle; Valsami-Jones, Eugénia; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Although it is reported that metal and metal oxide nanoparticles, which are among the most rapidly commercialized materials, can cause toxicity to organisms, their fate in the environment and toxicity to marine organisms are not well understood. In this study, we used a stable isotope labelling approach to trace the fate of nanoparticles (NPs) in sediments and also investigated bio-uptake in two estuarine intra-sedimentary invertebrates Scrobicularia plana and Nereis diversicolor. We selected exposure to 3 mg kg(-1) sediment ZnO NPs since this level is a realistic prediction of the environmental concentration in sediments. 67ZnO NPs (DLS: 21-34 nm, positively charged: 31.3 mV) suspensions were synthesised in diethylene glycol (DEG). We explored the fate of 67ZnO NPs in sediment, 67Zn bioaccumulation and the biochemical (biomarkers of defence and damage) and behavioural (burrowing kinetics and feeding rates) biomarkers in both species to 67ZnO NPs and DEG on its own during a 16 d laboratory exposure. After exposure, 67Zn concentrations in sediment showed higher levels in the upper section (1cm: 2.59 mg kg(-1)) decreasing progressively (2 cm: 1.63 mg kg(-1), 3 cm: 0.90 mg kg(-1), 4 cm: 0.67 mg kg(-1)) to a minimum value at the bottom (5 cm: 0.31 mg kg(-1)). 67Zn bioaccumulation was observed in both organisms exposed to 67ZnO NPs in DEG but no major inter-species differences were found. At the biochemical level, 67ZnO NPs exposure significantly induced increased glutathione-S-transferase activity in worms and catalase activity in clams whereas superoxide dismutase activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels were not affected in any species. Exposure to DEG on its own leads to a significant increase of metallothionein-like protein levels in clams compared with those exposed to 67ZnO NPs or controls. Burrowing behaviour as well as feeding rate were significantly impaired in both species exposed to 67ZnO NPs. Concerning exposure to DEG on its own

  13. Acetylcholinesterase genes within the Diptera: takeover and loss in true flies

    PubMed Central

    Huchard, Elise; Martinez, Michel; Alout, Haoues; Douzery, Emmanuel J.P; Lutfalla, Georges; Berthomieu, Arnaud; Berticat, Claire; Raymond, Michel; Weill, Mylène

    2006-01-01

    It has recently been reported that the synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in mosquitoes is encoded by the ace-1 gene, distinct and divergent from the ace-2 gene, which performs this function in Drosophila. This is an unprecedented situation within the Diptera order because both ace genes derive from an old duplication and are present in most insects and arthropods. Nevertheless, Drosophila possesses only the ace-2 gene. Thus, a secondary loss occurred during the evolution of Diptera, implying a vital function switch from one gene (ace-1) to the other (ace-2). We sampled 78 species, representing 50 families (27% of the Dipteran families) spread over all major subdivisions of the Diptera, and looked for ace-1 and ace-2 by systematic PCR screening to determine which taxonomic groups within the Diptera have this gene change. We show that this loss probably extends to all true flies (or Cyclorrhapha), a large monophyletic group of the Diptera. We also show that ace-2 plays a non-detectable role in the synaptic AChE in a lower Diptera species, suggesting that it has non-synaptic functions. A relative molecular evolution rate test showed that the intensity of purifying selection on ace-2 sequences is constant across the Diptera, irrespective of the presence or absence of ace-1, confirming the evolutionary importance of non-synaptic functions for this gene. We discuss the evolutionary scenarios for the takeover of ace-2 and the loss of ace-1, taking into account our limited knowledge of non-synaptic functions of ace genes and some specific adaptations of true flies. PMID:17002944

  14. Fumigant Toxicity of Phenylpropanoids Identified in Asarum sieboldii Aerial Parts to Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae) and Coboldia fuscipes (Diptera: Scatopsidae).

    PubMed

    Yi, Jee Hwan; Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Sankarapandian, Karuppasamy; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2015-06-01

    Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) and Coboldia fuscipes (Meigen) (Diptera: Scatopsidae) are two of the most economically important insect pests of cultivated mushrooms. The toxicities to the fly larvae of the three phenylpropanoids (methyleugenol, myristicin, and safrole) from aerial parts of Asarum sieboldii Miquel (Aristolochiaceae) were compared with those of the currently available carbamate insecticide benfuracarb. In a contact+fumigant mortality bioassay with L. ingenua and C. fuscipes larvae, methyleugenol (1.46 and 2.33 µg/cm2) was the most toxic compound, followed by safrole (2.03 and 2.59 µg/cm2) and myristicin (3.59 and 4.96 µg/cm2), based on 24-h LC50 values. The phenylpropanoids were less toxic than benfuracarb (LC50, 0.75 and 0.55 µg/cm2). In vapor-phase mortality tests with the larvae, the phenylpropanoids were consistently more toxic in closed versus open containers, indicating that the effect of the compounds was largely a result of vapor action. Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on A. sieboldii plant-derived products as potential fumigants for the control of mushroom fly populations in mushroom houses and mushroom compost.

  15. Species composition of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) through space and time.

    PubMed

    Fremdt, Heike; Amendt, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Weekly monitoring of forensically important flight-active blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was performed using small baited traps. Sampling took place in two rural, one suburban and two urban habitats in and around Frankfurt (Main), Germany, lasting two years and eight months. Highest values for species richness and Chao-Shen entropy estimator for Shannon's index in both families were found at the urban sites, peaking during summer. Space-time interaction was tested and found to be significant, demonstrating the value of a statistical approach recently developed for community surveys in ecology. K-means partitioning and analysis of indicator species gave significant temporal and habitat associations of particular taxa. Calliphora vicina was an indicator species for lower temperatures without being associated with a particular habitat. Lucilia sericata was an indicator for urban sites, whereas Lucilia ampullacea and Lucilia caesar were indicators for rural sites, supplemented by the less frequent species Calliphora vomitoria. Sarcophagidae were observed during a clearly shorter period of year. Sarcophaga subvicina+Sarcophaga variegata was found to be an indicator for urban habitats during summer as well as Sarcophaga albiceps for rural habitats. A significant association of Sarcophaga caerulescens to rural habitats as well as one of Sarcophaga similis to urban habitats was observed.

  16. Checklist of the Diptera (Insecta) of Finland: an introduction and a summary of results

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nearly thirty-five years have passed since Hackman published his “Check list of the Finnish Diptera” (1980). The number of true flies (Diptera) known from Finland has increased by more than two thousand species since then. At the same time, hundreds of erroneous records have been recognized and purged from the checklist. ZooKeys issue 441 provides a new checklist of the Diptera species of the Republic of Finland. This introductory paper presents the rationale behind the project, provides technical documentation on the checklist format and sources used, and summarizes the results. The remaining papers in this issue cover one or more Diptera families in detail. Two electronic appendices are provided: supporting data (additional references to first published records and the previous checklist) and a complete list of Finnish Diptera taxa in Darwin Core compliant format for easy computer access and processing. The new checklist records 6920 fly species from Finland, 2932 belonging to the nematoceran or lower flies and 3989 to the suborder Brachycera. The changes since 1980 are most prominent in the Lower Diptera. For example, more than 400 non-biting midges (Chironomidae) have been added since 1980, and the number of moth flies (Psychodidae) known from Finland has more than tripled. Among the larger families, large increases in known Finnish species are also seen in Cecidomyiidae (161% increase), Pipunculidae (98%), and Chironomidae (90%). PMID:25337004

  17. Effects of tree and herb biodiversity on Diptera, a hyperdiverse insect order.

    PubMed

    Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-04-01

    Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity.

  18. Evolution of cis-regulatory sequence and function in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Wittkopp, P J

    2006-09-01

    Cis-regulatory sequences direct patterns of gene expression essential for development and physiology. Evolutionary changes in these sequences contribute to phenotypic divergence. Despite their importance, cis-regulatory regions remain one of the most enigmatic features of the genome. Patterns of sequence evolution can be used to identify cis-regulatory elements, but the power of this approach depends upon the relationship between sequence and function. Comparative studies of gene regulation among Diptera reveal that divergent sequences can underlie conserved expression, and that expression differences can evolve despite largely similar sequences. This complex structure-function relationship is the primary impediment for computational identification and interpretation of cis-regulatory sequences. Biochemical characterization and in vivo assays of cis-regulatory sequences on a genomic-scale will relieve this barrier.

  19. Intraguild predation influences oviposition behavior of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Galindo, Luciane A; Moral, Rafael A; Moretti, Thiago C; Godoy, Wesley A C; Demétrio, Clarice G B

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are able to identify larvae of an intraguild predator species in the substrate and avoid laying eggs there. Blow flies oviposited in traps with different treatments: substrate only and substrate with larvae of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), or Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830). Ch. megacephala, Ch. putoria, and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819) avoided laying eggs in the trap containing Ch. albiceps larvae. Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) did not oviposit differently in each substrate but had overall low abundance. The prevalence of species on corpses may be influenced by the ability of the species to detect the presence of other species, mainly predators. In this sense, intraguild predation may result in misinterpretations of a crime scene and should be considered when assessing the minimum postmortem interval. PMID:26888288

  20. Volatile Components Emitted from the Liverwort Marchantia paleacea subsp. diptera.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kazutoshi; Tomiyama, Kenichi; Kawakami, Yukihiko; Ochiai, Nozomi; Yabe, Shigeki; Nakagawa, Tomomi; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2016-02-01

    The volatile components from the thalloid liverwort, Marchantia paleacea subsp. diptera were investigated by HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis. The monocyclic monoterpene aldehyde, perillaldehyde was identified for the first time as the major component and its content was about 50% of the volatiles, along with β-pinene, limonene, β-caryophyllene, α-selinene and β-selinene as minor volatiles. Using MD (Multi-dimensional) GC-MS analysis equipped with a chiral column as the second column, the chirality was determined of both perillaldehyde and limonene, which was considered as the precursor of perillaldehyde. Both compounds were (S)-(-)-enantiomers (over 99.0 %) and (R)-enantiomers (less than 0.5 %). This is the first report of the existence of perillaldehyde in liverworts. PMID:27032216

  1. New data on Philornis seguyi Garcia (1952) (Diptera, Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Couri, M S; Rabuffetti, F L; Reboreda, J C

    2005-11-01

    Philornis Meinert is a very interesting Muscidae (Diptera) genus whose larvae are associated with a wide range of bird species. The existing description of Philornis seguyi Garcia (1952), which was reported in Argentina, so far involves only the female. During the 2000-2002 breeding seasons, we collected Philornis flies from six bird species in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. All the flies were identified as P. seguyi. Based on this material, we describe the larva, puparium, adult male, and male and female terminalia. All the host associations presented here--Mimus saturninus (Mimidae), Troglodytes aedon (Troglodytidae), Pitangus sulfuratus (Tyrannidae), Pyrocephalus rubinus (Tyrannidae), Satrapa icterophrys (Tyrannidae) and Molothrus bonariensis (Icteridae) in nests of M. saturninus and Troglodytes aedon--are new for P. seguyi. We also present some data on the biology of the species.

  2. Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520

  3. Intraguild predation influences oviposition behavior of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Galindo, Luciane A; Moral, Rafael A; Moretti, Thiago C; Godoy, Wesley A C; Demétrio, Clarice G B

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are able to identify larvae of an intraguild predator species in the substrate and avoid laying eggs there. Blow flies oviposited in traps with different treatments: substrate only and substrate with larvae of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), or Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830). Ch. megacephala, Ch. putoria, and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819) avoided laying eggs in the trap containing Ch. albiceps larvae. Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) did not oviposit differently in each substrate but had overall low abundance. The prevalence of species on corpses may be influenced by the ability of the species to detect the presence of other species, mainly predators. In this sense, intraguild predation may result in misinterpretations of a crime scene and should be considered when assessing the minimum postmortem interval.

  4. Volatile Components Emitted from the Liverwort Marchantia paleacea subsp. diptera.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kazutoshi; Tomiyama, Kenichi; Kawakami, Yukihiko; Ochiai, Nozomi; Yabe, Shigeki; Nakagawa, Tomomi; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2016-02-01

    The volatile components from the thalloid liverwort, Marchantia paleacea subsp. diptera were investigated by HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis. The monocyclic monoterpene aldehyde, perillaldehyde was identified for the first time as the major component and its content was about 50% of the volatiles, along with β-pinene, limonene, β-caryophyllene, α-selinene and β-selinene as minor volatiles. Using MD (Multi-dimensional) GC-MS analysis equipped with a chiral column as the second column, the chirality was determined of both perillaldehyde and limonene, which was considered as the precursor of perillaldehyde. Both compounds were (S)-(-)-enantiomers (over 99.0 %) and (R)-enantiomers (less than 0.5 %). This is the first report of the existence of perillaldehyde in liverworts.

  5. Effectiveness of wound cleansing treatments on maggot (Diptera, Calliphoridae) mortality.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Mollie D; Merritt, Richard W; Kolar, Rebecca E; Kimbirauskas, Ryan K

    2011-07-15

    Myiasis is defined as an infestation of the organs and/or tissues of human and other animals by fly maggots. Fly species that normally breed in meat or carrion (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae) may become involved in cutaneous myiasis by colonizing preexisting wounds. Reports of human wound myiasis contracted in hospitals and nursing homes, especially when patients are chronically ill or bed-ridden, are not uncommon across North America and often result in cases of neglect and civil litigation. Based on a case history dealing with this latter situation and circumstances surrounding the treatment of maggot infestation, we designed an experiment to assess the effectiveness of wound cleansing solutions on maggot mortality. Treatments, consisting of four commonly used cleaning solutions (isopropyl alcohol, Dakin's solution, iodine, and hydrogen peroxide) and a control (deionized water), were applied to experimental units (n=5), with each unit consisting of groups of actively feeding Lucilia sericata maggots (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Every 24h, treatments were applied and mortality was assessed for the duration of the study (14 days). Total mean mortality increased over the duration of the experiment, with an initial large increase (10-25%) after the first treatment application, followed by a gradual increase over the remainder of the study. General differences among treatments indicated greatest mean total mortality for Dakin's solution (sodium hypochlorite) (46%), followed by isopropyl alcohol (42%), Betadine (37%), hydrogen peroxide (33%) and lowest mortality for the control (25%); however, no statistically significant differences were observed among treatments and no treatment resulted in 100% maggot mortality. Traditional wound cleansing solutions may not be sufficient for maggot infestations of pre-existing wounds and supplemental treatments may be necessary to effectively treat cases of wound myiasis.

  6. Congruence and controversy: toward a higher-level phylogeny of Diptera.

    PubMed

    Yeates, D K; Wiegmann, B M

    1999-01-01

    The order Diptera (true flies) is one of the most species-rich and ecologically diverse clades of insects. The order probably arose in the Permian, and the main lineages of flies were present in the Triassic. A novel recent proposal suggests that Strepsiptera are the sister-order to Diptera. Within Diptera, evidence is convincing for the monophyly of Culicomorpha, Blephariceromorpha, and Tipulomorpha but weak for the monophyly of the other basal infraorders and for the relationships among them. The lower Diptera (Nematocera) is paraphyletic with respect to Brachycera, and morphological evidence suggests the sister-group of Brachycera lies in the Psychodomorpha. Recent analyses suggest Tipulomorpha are closer to the base of Brachycera than to the base of Diptera. Brachycera are undoubtedly monophyletic, but relationships between the basal lineages of this group are poorly understood. The monophyly of Stratiomyomorpha, Xylophagomorpha, Tabanomorpha, and Muscomorpha is well supported. Eremoneura, and its constituent clades Empidoidea and Cyclorrhapha, are monophyletic. The sister-group of Eremoneura is likely to be part or all of Asiloidea. Several viewpoints on the homology of the male genitalia of eremoneuran flies are discussed. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that lower Cyclorrhapha (Aschiza) are paraphyletic; however, schizophoran monophyly is well supported. The monophyly of Acalyptratae is not well-founded and the relationships between acalyptrate superfamilies remain obscure. Recent advances document the monophyly of the families of Calyptratae and the relationships among them. Areas critical to future advances in understanding dipteran phylogeny include the relationships among the basal infraorders of Diptera and Brachycera and the relationships between the superfamilies of acalyptrates. Progress in dipteran phylogenetics will accelerate with the exploration of novel data sources and the formulation of hypotheses in an explicitly quantitative framework. PMID

  7. Strongygaster triangulifera (Diptera: Tachinidae) as a parasitoid of adults of the invasive Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) in Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strongygaster triangulifera (Loew) (Diptera:Tachinidae) is reported for the first time as a parasitoid of Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Plataspidae), the kudzu bug, an introduced pest of soybeans and other legume crops in the southeastern U.S....

  8. An emerging example of tritrophic coevolution between flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) on Myrtaceae host plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique obligate mutualism occurs between species of Fergusonina Malloch flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes of the genus Fergusobia Currie (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). These mutualists together form different types of galls on Myrtaceae, mainly in Australia. The galling association appear...

  9. Gene discovery and differential expression analysis of humoral immune response elements in female Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Female Culicoides sonorensis midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of pathogens that impact livestock and wildlife in the United States. Little is known about their molecular functioning, including components of their immune system. Because the insect immune response is involved ...

  10. Tripius gyraloura n. sp. (Aphelenchoidea: Sphaerulariidae) parasitic in the gall midge Lasioptera donacis Coutin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new nematode, Tripius gyraloura sp. n., is described from the arundo gall midge, Lasioptera donacis Coutin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). This gall midge is being considered as a biological control agent for use in North America against the introduced giant reed, Arundo donax (L.) (Poaceae: Cyperales)....

  11. Laboratory effects of two organically-certified insecticides on Trichopoda pennipes (Diptera:Tachinidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this laboratory study was to determine the effects of two organically-certified insecticides, azadirachtin and spinosad, on the stink bug parasitoid Trichopoda pennipes (Fab.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) in residual, topical, and oral toxicity tests. The insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin was...

  12. New species and redescriptions of the New Zealand genus Exsul Hutton (Diptera: Muscidae: Coenosiinae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Leandro Silva; Couri, Márcia Souto

    2013-01-01

    Exsul Hutton (Diptera, Muscidae) is revised and the genus diagnosis is enlarged. The female of Exsul singularis Hutton is described for the first time. The male and female terminalia of all species are described and illustrated. Exsul alfredoi sp. n. is described and illustrated and compared with the other known species. A key to separate the species is given.

  13. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Euphorbia tehuacana (Euphorbiaceae) in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed....

  14. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Euphorbia tehuacana (Euphorbiaceae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Norrbom, Allen L; Castillo-Meza, Ana Lucía; García-Chávez, Juan Héctor; Aluja, Martín; Rull, Juan

    2014-03-24

    Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed.

  15. Annotated world bibliography of host fruits of Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infests many solanaceous plant species, some of which are important horticultural crop species. It has also been found to infest a number of cucurbitaceous plant species as well as a few plant species in other plant families. B. latifrons is of ...

  16. Pollinating flies (Diptera): A major contribution to plant diversity and agricultural production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diptera are one of the three largest and most diverse animal groups of the world. As an often neglected, but important group of pollinators, they play a significant role in agrobiodiversity and biodiversity of plants everywhere. Flies are present in almost all habitats and biomes and for many food p...

  17. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity.

  18. Trapping African fig fly (Diptera: Drosophilidae) with combinations of vinegar and wine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States. Tests were conducted in southern Florida that recorded the response of Z. indianus to baits that included Merlot wine, rice vinegar, et...

  19. A four-component synthetic attractant for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) isolated from fermented bait headspace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: A mixture of wine and vinegar is highly attractive to spotted wing drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and ethanol and acetic acid are considered key to SWD attraction to such materials. In addition to ethanol and acetic acid, thirteen other wine an...

  20. Wine and vinegar-based attractants for the African fig fly (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The African fig fly (AFF), Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States after first being detected in Florida in 2005. This drosophilid is a primary pest of figs in Brazil, so there were initial concern...

  1. Effects of new dietary ingredients used in artificial diet for screwworm larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray-dried whole bovine blood, dry poultry egg, and a dry milk substitute are the constituents of the standard artificial diet currently used for mass rearing screwworm larvae, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Due to high cost and uncertainty of the commercial supply of ...

  2. A metagenomic assessment of the bacteria associated with Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a blow fly genus of forensic, medical, veterinary, and agricultural importance. Both species of this genus causes myiasis and are vectors of disease causing bacteria. This genus is also famous because of its beneficial uses in maggot therapy. ...

  3. Detection/monitoring of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae): assessing the potential of prospective new lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera latifrons is a tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) which has a host list of 59 plant species from 14 plant families, with over 70% of the host plant species coming from the plant families Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Bactrocera latifrons is of primarily Asian distribution, but it...

  4. Effects of Melezitose and Stachyose on Adult Longevity and Virus Persistence in Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wide variety of blood feeding Diptera feed on extrafloral sugar sources such as homopteran honeydew. he significance of these sugar sources to insect survival and disease transmission are poorly known. Culicoides sonorensis can survive on plant sugars but might feed on homopteran honeydew. The su...

  5. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult Horn Flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.); Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing ca...

  6. Effectiveness of genes for Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) resistance in the southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is the most important insect pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum) in the southeastern United States, and the deployment of genetically resistant wheat is the most effective control. However, the use of resistant w...

  7. A remarkable new species of Eutrichopoda Townsend, 1908 (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae).

    PubMed

    Dios, Rodrigo De Vilhena Perez; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo

    2016-01-01

    A new Tachinidae species, Eutrichopoda flavipenna sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae), from Brazil and Paraguay is described and illustrated by photographs and line drawings. The remarkable yellow, feather-like setae on the hind tibia distinguishes the new species from all other species in the tribe Trichopodini. PMID:27395220

  8. Dewatered sewage biosolids provide a productive larval habitat for stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species diversity and seasonal abundance of muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in biosolid cake (dewatered biosolids) stored at a wastewater treatment facility in northeastern Kansas was evaluated. Emergence traps were deployed 19 May-20 Oct 2009 (22 wk) and 27 May-18 Nov 2010 (25 wk). A t...

  9. The oldest accurate record of Scenopinidae in the Lowermost Eocene amber of France (Diptera: Brachycera).

    PubMed

    Garrouste, Romain; Azar, Dany; Nel, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Eocenotrichia magnifica gen. et sp. nov. (Diptera: Scenopinidae: Metatrichini) is described and illustrated from the Lowermost Eocene amber of Oise (France) and represents the oldest definitive window fly fossil. The present discovery in the Earliest Eocene supports the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene age currently proposed for the emergence of Metatrichini. PMID:27394507

  10. Effect of surround WP on behavior and mortality of the apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a key pest in apple production areas located in the northeastern and midwestern United States and the eastern provinces of Canada. The development of Surround WP has offered a new approach for controlling apple maggot fly...

  11. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity. PMID:24472199

  12. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD) and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinica...

  13. Picture-winged fly (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp.; Diptera: Ulidiidae) semiochemical investigations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Picture-winged flies (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp., Diptera: Ulidiidae) are severe primary pests of sweet corn in southern Florida. Females oviposit in silks and larvae consume the silks and kernels, rendering the ear unmarketable. Growers treat their fields with numerous broad spectrum insecticide ap...

  14. New genera, species and host plant records of Nearctic and Neotropical Tephritidae (Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new genera and 5 new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) are described from the Nearctic and Neotropical Regions. The new genera are: Agallamyia Norrbom (type species: A. pendula Norrbom, n. sp.), Neosphaeniscus Norrbom (type species: Euribia m-nigrum Hendel), and Phacelochaeta Norrbom (type spec...

  15. Molecular species identification of cryptic apple and snowberry maggots (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Western and Central Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Washington state, identification of the quarantine apple pest Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is complicated by the presence of the cryptic species R. zephyria Snow (Diptera: Tephritidae). Distinguishing the two flies is important because there is a zero tolerance policy for R. pomonella in apple p...

  16. First North American record of the Palaearctic rhinophorid Stevenia deceptoria (Loew) (Diptera: Rhinophoridae).

    PubMed

    O'hara, James E; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Dahlem, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    The Rhinophoridae (Diptera) have a cosmopolitan distribution and a known fauna of about 150 species (Cerretti & Pape 2007). So far as known, all species are parasitoids of terrestrial woodlice (sow bugs) of the order Isopoda (Oniscoidea) (Pape 2010). Female rhinophorids lay eggs in the vicinity of potential hosts and the planidial first instars parasitize sow bugs as they pass by (Pape 1998). PMID:26701527

  17. Transcriptome analyses of blood and sugar digestive processes in female Culicoides sonorensis midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) midges vector numerous diseases impacting livestock and humans. The molecular physiology of this midge has been under-studied, so our approach was to gain an understanding of basic processes of blood and sucrose digestion using tra...

  18. New combinations and changes in the classification of Ceratopogonidae (Diptera, biting midges).

    PubMed

    Borkent, Art

    2015-01-01

    This short article contains some necessary taxonomic changes prior to the publication of a chapter on the Ceratopogonidae by the author for the upcoming Manual of Afrotropical Diptera and spearheaded by Ashley Kirk-Spriggs. Some additional placements of three genera to a recently redefined tribe are also included. PMID:26249516

  19. Effects of tree and herb biodiversity on Diptera, a hyperdiverse insect order.

    PubMed

    Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-04-01

    Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity. PMID:24394862

  20. Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) taxonomy: Current challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Harrup, L.E.; Bellis, G.A.; Balenghien, T.; Garros, C.

    2015-01-01

    Culicoides Latreille biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) cause a significant biting nuisance to humans, livestock and equines, and are the biological vectors of a range of internationally important pathogens of both veterinary and medical importance. Despite their economic significance, the delimitation and identification of species and evolutionary relationships between species within this genus remains at best problematic. To date no phylogenetic study has attempted to validate the subgeneric classification of the genus and the monophyly of many of the subgenera remains doubtful. Many informal species groupings are also known to exist but few are adequately described, further complicating accurate identification. Recent contributions to Culicoides taxonomy at the species level have revealed a high correlation between morphological and molecular analyses although molecular analyses are revealing the existence of cryptic species. This review considers the methods for studying the systematics of Culicoides using both morphological and genetic techniques, with a view to understanding the factors limiting our current understanding of Culicoides biology and hence arbovirus epidemiology. In addition, we examine the global status of Culicoides identification, highlighting areas that are poorly addressed, including the potential implementation of emerging technologies. PMID:25535946

  1. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."

  2. Mushroom host influence on Lycoriella mali (Diptera: Sciaridae) life cycle.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, L; Keil, C B

    2005-04-01

    Lycoriella mali Fitch (Diptera: Sciaridae) infests mushroom crops early in the crop cycle. Recent observations in mushroom houses indicated a difference in emergence time and size of adult L. mali developing on various strains of commercial mushrooms. Samples of adult flies from isolated mushroom houses growing Portabella mushrooms were significantly heavier then those from oyster mushroom houses, whereas flies from shiitake mushroom houses were lightest in weight. Flies collected from isolated Portabella mushroom houses were reared on four strains and species of Agaricus and Pleurotus mushrooms. After the adults emerged, females were weighed, mated, and allowed to oviposit. The number of eggs laid increased as the weight of the female increased. Flies collected from isolated Portabella mushroom houses were reared on eight strains and species of mushrooms. Flies were reared for four generations on each host mushroom mycelium then switched to different host mushrooms. Overall, the hybrid strain of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricomycetideae) was the most favorable host for L. mali, whereas the wild strain of A. bisporus was the least favorable host. Mushroom hosts influence developmental time, survivorship, weight, and reproduction of L. mali. PMID:15889722

  3. Marking Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) With Rubidium or 15N.

    PubMed

    Klick, J; Yang, W Q; Bruck, D J

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has caused significant economic damage to berry and stone fruit production regions. Markers that are systemic in plants and easily transferred to target organisms are needed to track D. suzukii exploitation of host resources and trophic interactions. High and low concentrations of the trace element, rubidium (Rb), and the stable isotope, 15N, were tested to mark D. suzukii larvae feeding on fruits of enriched strawberry plants grown in containers under greenhouse conditions. Fly marker content and proportion of flies marked 1, 7, and 14 d after emergence from enriched fruits and fly dry mass were analyzed. Nearly 100% of the flies analyzed 14 d after emerging from 15N-enriched plants were marked, whereas only 30-75% and 0-3% were marked 14 d after emerging from high and low Rb concentration plants, respectively. Rapid Rb decay, strong 15N persistence, and the economics of using these markers in the field to elucidate D. suzukii pest ecology are discussed. PMID:26470275

  4. Updated list of the mosquitoes of Colombia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 records of culicid species previously overlooked by mosquito catalogs for Colombia: Anopheles costai da Fonseca & da Silva Ramos, 1939, An. fluminensis Root, 1927, An. malefactor Dyar & Knab, 1907, An. shannoni Davis, 1931, An. vargasi Galbadón, Cova García & Lopez, 1941, Culex mesodenticulatus Galindo & Mendez, 1961, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, 1904, Isostomyia espini (Martini, 1914), Johnbelkinia leucopus (Dyar & Knab, 1906), Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon, 1925, Psorophora saeva Dyar & Knab, 1906, Sabethes glaucodaemon (Dyar & Shannon, 1925), and Wyeomyia intonca Dyar & Knab, 1909. Moreover, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) luteoventralis Theobald, 1901 is recorded for Colombia for the first time. This work provides important insights into mosquito diversity in Colombia, using the current nomenclature and phylogenetic rankings. PMID:25829860

  5. Sampling strategies for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Alten, B; Ozbel, Y; Ergunay, K; Kasap, O E; Cull, B; Antoniou, M; Velo, E; Prudhomme, J; Molina, R; Bañuls, A-L; Schaffner, F; Hendrickx, G; Van Bortel, W; Medlock, J M

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of phlebotomine sand flies is widely reported to be changing in Europe. This can be attributed to either the discovery of sand flies in areas where they were previously overlooked (generally following an outbreak of leishmaniasis or other sand fly-related disease) or to true expansion of their range as a result of climatic or environmental changes. Routine surveillance for phlebotomines in Europe is localized, and often one of the challenges for entomologists working in non-leishmaniasis endemic countries is the lack of knowledge on how to conduct, plan and execute sampling for phlebotomines, or how to adapt on-going sampling strategies for other haematophagous diptera. This review brings together published and unpublished expert knowledge on sampling strategies for European phlebotomines of public health concern in order to provide practical advice on: how to conduct surveys; the collection and interpretation of field data; suitable techniques for the preservation of specimens obtained by different sampling methods; molecular techniques used for species identification; and the pathogens associated with sand flies and their detection methods.

  6. Identification of Belgian mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Versteirt, V; Nagy, Z T; Roelants, P; Denis, L; Breman, F C; Damiens, D; Dekoninck, W; Backeljau, T; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2015-03-01

    Since its introduction in 2003, DNA barcoding has proven to be a promising method for the identification of many taxa, including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Many mosquito species are potential vectors of pathogens, and correct identification in all life stages is essential for effective mosquito monitoring and control. To use DNA barcoding for species identification, a reliable and comprehensive reference database of verified DNA sequences is required. Hence, DNA sequence diversity of mosquitoes in Belgium was assessed using a 658 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, and a reference data set was established. Most species appeared as well-supported clusters. Intraspecific Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distances averaged 0.7%, and the maximum observed K2P distance was 6.2% for Aedes koreicus. A small overlap between intra- and interspecific K2P distances for congeneric sequences was observed. Overall, the identification success using best match and the best close match criteria were high, that is above 98%. No clear genetic division was found between the closely related species Aedes annulipes and Aedes cantans, which can be confused using morphological identification only. The members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex, that is Anopheles maculipennis s.s. and An. messeae, were weakly supported as monophyletic taxa. This study showed that DNA barcoding offers a reliable framework for mosquito species identification in Belgium except for some closely related species.

  7. The larval head of Exechia (Mycetophilidae) and Bibio (Bibionidae) (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Bauernfeind, René; Schneeberg, Katharina; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2015-07-01

    Exechia and Bibio have retained several plesiomorphic groundplan features of Diptera and Bibionomorpha, including a fully exposed and sclerotized head capsule, the transverse undivided labrum, the absence of movable premandibles, and undivided mandibles without combs. The fusion of the hypostomal bridge with the head capsule and largely reduced antennae are derived features shared by both taxa. The absence of teeth at the anterior hypostomal margin is a potential autapomorphy of Bibionomorpha. A basal position of Anisopodidae is suggested by a number of plesiomorphies retained in this family. Apomorphies of Bibionomorpha excluding Anisopodidae are the reduction of tentorial elements, the partial fusion of the labrum and clypeus, one-segmented antennae, the absence of a separate submental sclerite, the loss of the labial palpus, and the reduction of the pharyngeal filter apparatus. Head structures of Bibio are largely unmodified. The subprognathous orientation is one of few autapomorphic features. In contrast, the mouthparts of Exechia are highly modified in correlation with the specialized food uptake. The rasping counterrotating movements of maxillae and mandibles with teeth oriented in opposite directions are carried out by strongly developed extensors and flexors of the paired mouthparts. The modified labium mechanically supports the "drill head" formed by the mandibles und maxillae. The necessary stability of the head capsule is provided by the hypostomal bridge which also compensates the far-reaching reduction of the tentorium.

  8. A New Visual Trap for Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Daniel, Claudia; Mathis, Samuel; Feichtinger, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important pest of sweet cherries in Europe. The aim of our experiments was to develop a new, cost-efficient, lead chromate-free and more eco-friendly trap for monitoring and mass trapping of R. cerasi. Five different-colored yellow panels and three different trap shapes were compared to a standard Rebell(®) amarillo trap in three experimental orchards in 2012. Trap color F, with a strong increase in reflectance at 500-550 nm and a secondary peak in the UV-region at 300-400 nm, captured significantly more flies than the standard Rebell(®) amarillo trap. Yellow traps with increased reflectance in the blue region (400-500 nm) were least attractive. Trap shape was of minor importance, as long as the object was three-dimensional and visible from all directions. Based on economic and practical considerations, a cylinder-shaped trap "UFA-Samen Kirschenfliegenfalle" was developed for commercial use and is currently under on-farm evaluation. PMID:26462825

  9. A New Visual Trap for Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Claudia; Mathis, Samuel; Feichtinger, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important pest of sweet cherries in Europe. The aim of our experiments was to develop a new, cost-efficient, lead chromate-free and more eco-friendly trap for monitoring and mass trapping of R. cerasi. Five different-colored yellow panels and three different trap shapes were compared to a standard Rebell® amarillo trap in three experimental orchards in 2012. Trap color F, with a strong increase in reflectance at 500–550 nm and a secondary peak in the UV-region at 300–400 nm, captured significantly more flies than the standard Rebell® amarillo trap. Yellow traps with increased reflectance in the blue region (400–500 nm) were least attractive. Trap shape was of minor importance, as long as the object was three-dimensional and visible from all directions. Based on economic and practical considerations, a cylinder-shaped trap “UFA-Samen Kirschenfliegenfalle” was developed for commercial use and is currently under on-farm evaluation. PMID:26462825

  10. Sampling strategies for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Alten, B; Ozbel, Y; Ergunay, K; Kasap, O E; Cull, B; Antoniou, M; Velo, E; Prudhomme, J; Molina, R; Bañuls, A-L; Schaffner, F; Hendrickx, G; Van Bortel, W; Medlock, J M

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of phlebotomine sand flies is widely reported to be changing in Europe. This can be attributed to either the discovery of sand flies in areas where they were previously overlooked (generally following an outbreak of leishmaniasis or other sand fly-related disease) or to true expansion of their range as a result of climatic or environmental changes. Routine surveillance for phlebotomines in Europe is localized, and often one of the challenges for entomologists working in non-leishmaniasis endemic countries is the lack of knowledge on how to conduct, plan and execute sampling for phlebotomines, or how to adapt on-going sampling strategies for other haematophagous diptera. This review brings together published and unpublished expert knowledge on sampling strategies for European phlebotomines of public health concern in order to provide practical advice on: how to conduct surveys; the collection and interpretation of field data; suitable techniques for the preservation of specimens obtained by different sampling methods; molecular techniques used for species identification; and the pathogens associated with sand flies and their detection methods. PMID:26271257

  11. Response of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to Screwworm Oviposition Attractant.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Zhu, J J; Skoda, S R

    2015-07-01

    The sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causes sheep myiasis in various parts of the world. Female flies are attracted to sheep following various olfactory cues emanating from the sheep's body, and oviposit on suitable substrates on sheep ultimately causing myiasis. Earlier workers attempted to reduce fly population in the field, with some success, using traps baited with various attractants. This research was conducted to determine if L. sericata would respond to a recently developed synthetic attractant that has attracted gravid screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, and stimulated them to oviposit. Results of the laboratory bioassays demonstrated that gravid females L. sericata were attracted to substrates treated with the synthetic screwworm attractant composed of five compounds--dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, p-cresol, and indole. Tests with various combinations of these compounds suggest that the sulfur compounds and indole are the most important compounds to elicit attraction and stimulate oviposition, while phenol and p-cresol may have minor roles. Semiochemical baits based on these compounds may be useful in the field to trap gravid L. sericata.

  12. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Robert Liu, Fu-Guo; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events. PMID:26078303

  13. Host plant susceptibility to the swede midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Hallett, Rebecca H

    2007-08-01

    The relative resistance and susceptibility of various cruciferous plants to swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), damage was investigated to provide growers with planting recommendations and to identify potential sources of resistance to the swede midge. Broccoli cultivars experienced more severe damage than cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts. The broccoli 'Paragon', 'Eureka', and 'Packman' are highly susceptible to the swede midge, whereas 'Triathlon' and 'Regal' showed reduced susceptibility to damage and slower development of damage symptoms. No differences were found between normal and red cultivars of cabbage and cauliflower in damage severity and progression of damage symptoms. Four new plant species (Brassica juncea Integlifolia group, Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O. E. Shulz., Lepidium campestre (L.) R.Br., and Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic.) are reported as hosts of the swede midge. The weed species Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb, Camelina microcarpa Andrz. ex Dc., and Erysimum cheiranthoides L. exhibited no damage symptoms, and they seem to be nonhost crucifers for the swede midge. PMID:17849887

  14. Susceptibility of cranberries to Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Steffan, Shawn A; Lee, Jana C; Singleton, Merritt E; Vilaire, Auriel; Walsh, Doug B; Lavine, Laura S; Patten, Kim

    2013-12-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), commonly referred to as the spotted wing drosophila, is an exotic species that has proven a troublesome pest of fruit production in the United States. The fly targets small fruit and thus represents a concern for the U.S. cranberry industry. Two studies were conducted to assess whether cranberries may serve as hosts for D. suzukii. In the first study, the suitability of ripe, unripe, and over-ripe cranberries were assayed by examining adult oviposition and larval development in no-choice trials. In the second study, wounded and unwounded fruit were examined as potential hosts in choice and no-choice trials. Our first study showed that ripe, unripe, and over-ripe cranberries were unsuitable hosts (few eggs were laid, with no surviving puparia). In the wounded and unwounded berry study, no larvae survived to adulthood among unwounded berries. Within wounded fruit, D. suzukii readily fed and developed into adults. Together, these results suggest that unwounded cranberries--whether ripe, unripe, or over-ripe--are unsuitable as hosts for D. suzukii. Wounded rotting cranberries, however, can serve as hosts. Across the landscape, cranberry marshes with rotting fruit may contribute to D. suzukii source-sink dynamics.

  15. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." PMID:26470226

  16. Blood meal analysis of culicoides (Diptera: ceratopogonidae) in central Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females' midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia.

  17. Blood Meal Analysis of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females’ midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia. PMID:25793285

  18. Small-Gauge Pars Plana Vitrectomy for the Management of Symptomatic Posterior Vitreous Detachment after Phacoemulsification and Multifocal Intraocular Lens Implantation: A Pilot Study from the Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Rodrigo M.; Machado, Leonardo M.; Maia, Ossires; Wu, Lihteh; Farah, Michel E.; Magalhaes, Octaviano; Arevalo, J. Fernando; Maia, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the efficacy of 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for symptomatic posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) on visual acuity (VA) and quality after multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs). Methods. In this prospective case series, patients who developed symptomatic PVD and were not satisfied with visual quality due to floaters and halos after multifocal IOL implantation underwent PPV. Examinations included LogMAR uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), intraocular pressure, biomicroscopy, and indirect ophthalmoscopy at baseline and 1, 7, 30, and 180 days postoperatively. Ultrasonography and aberrometry were performed. The Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25 (VFQ-25) was administered preoperatively and at 30 days postoperatively. Both the postoperative UCVA and questionnaire results were compared to preoperative findings using the Wilcoxon test. Results. Sixteen eyes of 8 patients were included. VA significantly improved from 0.17 to 0.09 postoperatively (P = 0.017). All patients reported improvement of halos, glare, and floaters. VFQ-25 scores significantly improved in general vision (P = 0.023), near activities (P = 0.043), distance activities (P = 0.041), mental health (P = 0.011), role difficulties (P = 0.042), and driving (P = 0.016). Conclusion. PPV may increase UCVA and quality of vision in patients with bilateral multifocal IOLs and symptomatic PVD. Larger studies are advised. PMID:26504590

  19. Small-Gauge Pars Plana Vitrectomy for the Management of Symptomatic Posterior Vitreous Detachment after Phacoemulsification and Multifocal Intraocular Lens Implantation: A Pilot Study from the Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Rodrigo M; Machado, Leonardo M; Maia, Ossires; Wu, Lihteh; Farah, Michel E; Magalhaes, Octaviano; Arevalo, J Fernando; Maia, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the efficacy of 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for symptomatic posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) on visual acuity (VA) and quality after multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs). Methods. In this prospective case series, patients who developed symptomatic PVD and were not satisfied with visual quality due to floaters and halos after multifocal IOL implantation underwent PPV. Examinations included LogMAR uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), intraocular pressure, biomicroscopy, and indirect ophthalmoscopy at baseline and 1, 7, 30, and 180 days postoperatively. Ultrasonography and aberrometry were performed. The Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25 (VFQ-25) was administered preoperatively and at 30 days postoperatively. Both the postoperative UCVA and questionnaire results were compared to preoperative findings using the Wilcoxon test. Results. Sixteen eyes of 8 patients were included. VA significantly improved from 0.17 to 0.09 postoperatively (P = 0.017). All patients reported improvement of halos, glare, and floaters. VFQ-25 scores significantly improved in general vision (P = 0.023), near activities (P = 0.043), distance activities (P = 0.041), mental health (P = 0.011), role difficulties (P = 0.042), and driving (P = 0.016). Conclusion. PPV may increase UCVA and quality of vision in patients with bilateral multifocal IOLs and symptomatic PVD. Larger studies are advised. PMID:26504590

  20. Pars Plana Vitrectomy Combined with Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling to Treat Persistent Macular Edema after Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Treatment in Cases of Ischemic Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Shirakata, Yukari; Fujita, Tomoyoshi; Nakano, Yuki; Shiraga, Fumio; Tsujikawa, Akitaka

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) combined with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in cases of ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) where macular edema (ME) persisted after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment. Methods Fifteen eyes with ischemic CRVO-related ME were included in the study. Nine were treated with panretinal photocoagulation after initial examination. Anti-VEGF agents were injected intravitreally. Persistent ME was treated with PPV combined with ILM peeling. During surgery, laser photocoagulation was further applied to the non-perfused area. Results Mean retinal thickness gradually decreased after surgery (p = 0.024 at 6 months), although visual acuity did not improve significantly during the follow-up period (14.7 ± 11.6 months). Neovascular glaucoma subsequently developed in three cases and a trabeculectomy was performed in one case. Conclusion In eyes with ischemic CRVO, PPV combined with ILM peeling contributed to a reduction in persistent ME. However, there was no significant improvement in visual acuity. PMID:26889152

  1. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    PubMed

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.

  2. The decomposition of rabbit carcasses and associated necrophagous Diptera in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Mesbah, Hanadi; Moffatt, Colin; El-Azazy, Osama M E; Majeed, Qais A H

    2012-04-10

    Rabbit carcasses were used to compare rates of decomposition and associated assemblages of Diptera at four discernable habitat types in Kuwait; a country of a region with a paucity of such reference data. Carcasses in an urban habitat showed faster decomposition (as measured by percentage weight loss) than in agricultural, coastal or desert habitats, even with accumulated degree days (ADD) as the explanatory variable (t=2.73, df=34, p=0.010) to compensate for temperature differences. Taxa of Diptera at the four habitats became more similar as decomposition progressed, suggesting such differences between habitats were not marked. The occurrence of Chrysomyia megacephala and Lucilia sericata had not previously been recorded in Kuwait. PMID:22018747

  3. First Report of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Commercial Fruits and Vegetables in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Biddinger, David J.; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed. PMID:25434039

  4. First report of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in commercial fruits and vegetables in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Biddinger, David J; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed. PMID:25434039

  5. The Effect of Clothing on the Rate of Decomposition and Diptera Colonization on Sus scrofa Carcasses.

    PubMed

    Card, Allison; Cross, Peter; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal

    2015-07-01

    Twenty Sus scrofa carcasses were used to study the effect the presence of clothing had on decomposition rate and colonization locations of Diptera species; 10 unclothed control carcasses were compared to 10 clothed experimental carcasses over 58 days. Data collection occurred at regular accumulated degree day intervals; the level of decomposition as Total Body Score (TBSsurf ), pattern of decomposition, and Diptera present was documented. Results indicated a statistically significant difference in the rate of decomposition, (t427  = 2.59, p = 0.010), with unclothed carcasses decomposing faster than clothed carcasses. However, the overall decomposition rates from each carcass group are too similar to separate when applying a 95% CI, which means that, although statistically significant, from a practical forensic point of view they are not sufficiently dissimilar as to warrant the application of different formulae to estimate the postmortem interval. Further results demonstrated clothing provided blow flies with additional colonization locations.

  6. Simulium (Inaequalium) marins, a new species of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) from inselbergs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pepinelli, Mateus; Hamada, Neusa; Currie, Douglas C

    2009-08-01

    A new species of black fly, Simulium (Inaequalium) marins (Diptera: Simuliidae), is described based on the male, female, pupa and larva. This new species was collected from two localities: a small stream on the Pico dos Marins, a high mountain with granite outcrops in Piquete County, state of São Paulo, and in a small stream in the Serra dos Orgãos National Park, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  7. Camptotarsopoda annulitarsis Stein: redescription, description of terminalia and new record to South Africa (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Couri, Márcia Souto

    2014-01-01

    Camptotarsopoda Strand (Diptera, Muscidae) comprises five species restricted to the Afrotropical region. The genus belongs to the subfamily Coenosiinae and tribe Limnophorini. The type-species, C. annulitarsis (Stein), is redescribed and the male and female terminalia are described and illustrated for the first time. The species is newly recorded from South Africa. The systematic placement of the genus is confirmed among the basal Limnophorini.

  8. Psorophora (Grabhamia) varinervis (Diptera: Culicidae) morphological description including pupa and fourth-stage larva previously unknown.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gustavo C; Stein, Marina; Almirón, Walter R

    2008-05-01

    Psorophora (Grabhamia) varinervis Edwards (Diptera: Culicidae) is redescribed in the adult stage. Pupa and fourth-stage larva are described and illustrated for the first time. Information about distribution, bionomics, and taxonomy also is included. Adults of Ps. varinervis can be separated from the closely related species Ps. (Gra.) discolor (Coquillett) on the basis of the wing characters, and the larva by the siphon and antenna characters.

  9. Human external ophthalmomyiasis caused by Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae)--a green bottle fly.

    PubMed

    Kalezić, Tanja; Stojković, Milenko; Vuković, Ivana; Spasić, Radoslava; Andjelkovic, Marko; Stanojlović, Svetlana; Božić, Marija; Džamić, Aleksandar

    2014-07-01

    Ophthalmomyiasis externa is the result of infestation of the conjunctiva by the larval form or maggots of flies from the order Diptera. If not recognized and managed appropriately, it can be complicated by the potentially fatal condition ophthalmomyiasis interna. Ophthalmomyiasis externa is mainly caused by the sheep bot fly (Oestrus ovis). We present the first case, to our knowledge, of ophthalmomyiasis externa in an elderly woman from Belgrade caused by Lucilia sericata Meigen--a green bottle fly.

  10. Four cases of pediculosis caused by Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) from peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Pakeer, O; Jeffery, J; Mohamed, A M; Ahmad, F; Baharudin, O

    2007-12-01

    Four cases of pediculosis, two in adults and two in children, caused by the crab-louse, Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) is reported from peninsular Malaysia. This is the second report of the problem to be documented from the country. Although P. pubis is closely associated with genital hairs, it is, however, also found to occur on the eyelashes, eyebrows, hairs of the body, head and axilla. The few reported cases of pthiriasis probably do not reflect the true situation.

  11. Morphological description of the fourth instar larva: Culicoides cataneii and Culicoides sahariensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Slama, Darine; Khedher, Asma; Bdira, Sassi; Khayech, Fethi; Delecolle, Jean-claude; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Emna, Chaker

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out of the region of Monastir in Central Tunisia, between July and August 2010. Larvae were collected using a floatation technique with magnesium sulfate in mud samples. The fourth instar larva of Culicoides cataneii Clastrier, 1957 and Culicoides sahariensis Callot, Kremer, Bailly-Choumara, 1970 are described, illustrated and drawn. Measurements of instars IV are also presented. This is the first record of Culicoides cataneii and Culicoides sahariensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to Tunisia.

  12. Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Turkish Thrace, with a new record for Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Çalışkan, Hakan; Şahin, Yalçın

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper includes 2742 specimens of 18 species of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) collected from 132 lotic sites in Turkish Thrace, the European part of Turkey, in the early summer of 2002 and 2003 and the spring of 2005 and 2006. New information All species are recorded from this region for the first time, and Metacnephia nigra (Rubtsov, 1940) is a new record for Turkey. Distributional and taxonomical remarks are given for each species. PMID:25941452

  13. First crane fly from the Upper Jurassic of Australia (Diptera: Limoniidae).

    PubMed

    Oberprieler, Stefanie K; Krzemiński, Wiesław; Hinde, Jack; Yeates, David K

    2015-01-01

    The first crane fly (Diptera: Tipuloidea) fossil discovered in the Upper Jurassic Talbragar Fish Bed in Australia is described and illustrated. Eotipula grangeri sp. nov., described from a single specimen, is assigned to the family Limoniidae based primarily on the conformation of wing veins. It is the second and oldest record of Limoniidae from Australia, and the first of Jurassic age from the southern hemisphere. PMID:26624125

  14. Brachyceran Diptera (Insecta) in Cretaceous ambers, Part IV, Significant New Orthorrhaphous Taxa.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, David A; Arillo, Antonio; Cumming, Jeffrey M; Hauser, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Thirteen species of basal Brachycera (11 described as new) are reported, belonging to nine families and three infraorders. They are preserved in amber from the Early Cretaceous (Neocomian) of Lebanon, Albian of northern Spain, upper Albian to lower Cenomanian of northern Myanmar, and Late Cretaceous of New Jersey USA (Turonian) and Alberta, Canada (Campanian). Taxa are as follows, with significance as noted: In Stratiomyomorpha: Stratiomyidae (Cretaceogaster pygmaeus Teskey [2 new specimens in Canadian amber], Lysistrata emerita Grimaldi & Arillo, gen. et sp. n. [stem-group species of the family in Spanish amber]), and Xylomyidae (Cretoxyla azari Grimaldi & Cumming, gen. et sp. n. [in Lebanese amber], and an undescribed species from Spain). In Tabanomorpha: Tabanidae (Cratotabanus newjerseyensis Grimaldi, sp. n., in New Jersey amber). In Muscomorpha: Acroceridae (Schlingeromyia minuta Grimaldi & Hauser, gen. et sp. n. and Burmacyrtus rusmithi Grimaldi & Hauser gen. etsp. n., in Burmese amber, the only definitive species of the family from the Cretaceous); Mythicomyiidae (Microburmyia analvena Grimaldi & Cumming gen. et sp. n. and Microburmyia veanalvena Grimaldi & Cumming, sp. n., stem-group species of the family, both in Burmese amber); Apsilocephalidae or near (therevoid family-group) (Kumaromyia burmitica Grimaldi & Hauser, gen. et sp. n. [in Burmese amber]); Apystomyiidae (Hilarimorphites burmanica Grimaldi & Cumming, sp. n. [in Burmese amber], whose closest relatives are from the Late Jurassic of Kazachstan, the Late Cretaceous of New Jersey, and Recent of California). Lastly, two species belonging to families incertae sedis, both in Burmese amber: Tethepomyiidae (Tethepomyia zigrasi Grimaldi & Arillo sp. n., the aculeate oviscapt of which indicates this family was probably parasitoidal and related to Eremochaetidae); and unplaced to family is Myanmyia asteiformia Grimaldi, gen. et sp. n., a minute fly with highly reduced venation. These new taxa significantly

  15. Brachyceran Diptera (Insecta) in Cretaceous ambers, Part IV, Significant New Orthorrhaphous Taxa

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, David A.; Arillo, Antonio; Cumming, Jeffrey M.; Hauser, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Thirteen species of basal Brachycera (11 described as new) are reported, belonging to nine families and three infraorders. They are preserved in amber from the Early Cretaceous (Neocomian) of Lebanon, Albian of northern Spain, upper Albian to lower Cenomanian of northern Myanmar, and Late Cretaceous of New Jersey USA (Turonian) and Alberta, Canada (Campanian). Taxa are as follows, with significance as noted: In Stratiomyomorpha: Stratiomyidae (Cretaceogaster pygmaeus Teskey [2 new specimens in Canadian amber], Lysistrata emerita Grimaldi & Arillo, gen. et sp. n. [stem-group species of the family in Spanish amber]), and Xylomyidae (Cretoxyla azari Grimaldi & Cumming, gen. et sp. n. [in Lebanese amber], and an undescribed species from Spain). In Tabanomorpha: Tabanidae (Cratotabanus newjerseyensis Grimaldi, sp. n., in New Jersey amber). In Muscomorpha: Acroceridae (Schlingeromyia minuta Grimaldi & Hauser, gen. et sp. n. and Burmacyrtus rusmithi Grimaldi & Hauser gen. et sp. n., in Burmese amber, the only definitive species of the family from the Cretaceous); Mythicomyiidae (Microburmyia analvena Grimaldi & Cumming gen. et sp. n. and Microburmyia veanalvena Grimaldi & Cumming, sp. n., stem-group species of the family, both in Burmese amber); Apsilocephalidae or near (therevoid family-group) (Kumaromyia burmitica Grimaldi & Hauser, gen. et sp. n. [in Burmese amber]); Apystomyiidae (Hilarimorphites burmanica Grimaldi & Cumming, sp. n. [in Burmese amber], whose closest relatives are from the Late Jurassic of Kazachstan, the Late Cretaceous of New Jersey, and Recent of California). Lastly, two species belonging to families incertae sedis, both in Burmese amber: Tethepomyiidae (Tethepomyia zigrasi Grimaldi & Arillo sp. n., the aculeate oviscapt of which indicates this family was probably parasitoidal and related to Eremochaetidae); and unplaced to family is Myanmyia asteiformia Grimaldi, gen. et sp. n., a minute fly with highly reduced venation. These new taxa

  16. The Community of Hymenoptera Parasitizing Necrophagous Diptera in an Urban Biotope

    PubMed Central

    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François J.; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Most reports published in the field of forensic entomology are focused on Diptera and neglect the Hymenoptera community. However, Hymenoptera are part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. The use of Hymenoptera parasitoids in forensic entomology can be relevant to evaluate the time of death. Hymenoptera parasitoids of the larvae and pupae of flies may play an important role in the estimation of the post-mortem period because their time of attack is often restricted to a small, well-defined window of time in the development of the host insect. However, these parasitoids can interfere with the developmental times of colonizing Diptera, and therefore a better understanding of their ecology is needed. The work reported here monitored the presence of adult Hymenoptera parasitoids on decaying pig carcasses in an urban biotope during the summer season (from May to September). Six families and six species of parasitoids were recorded in the field: Aspilota fuscicornis Haliday (Braconidae), Alysia manducator Panzer, Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae), Trichopria sp. (Diapriidae), and Figites sp. (Figitidae). In the laboratory, five species emerged from pupae collected in the field: Trichopria sp., Figites sp., A. manducator, N. vitripennis, and T. zealandicus. These five species colonize a broad spectrum of Diptera hosts, including those species associated with decomposing carcasses, namely those from the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, and Sarcophagidae. PMID:23895458

  17. Structure and evolution of the mitochondrial genome of Exorista sorbillans: the Tachinidae (Diptera: Calyptratae) perspective.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yuan-jun; Hu, Xian-qiong; Peng, Guang-da; Wang, Rui-xian; Gao, Rui-na; Lin, Chao; Shen, Wei-de; Li, Rui; Li, Bing

    2012-12-01

    The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Tachinidae Exorista sorbillans (Diptera) is sequenced by PCR-based approach. The circular mitogenome is 14,960 bp long and has the representative mitochondrial gene (mt gene) organization and order of Diptera. All protein-coding sequences are initiated with ATN codon; however, the only exception is Cox I gene, which has a 4-bp ATCG putative start codon. Ten of the thirteen protein-coding genes have a complete termination codon (TAA), but the rest are seated on the H strand with incomplete codons. The mitogenome of E. sorbillans is biased toward A+T content at 78.4 %, and the strand-specific bias is in reflection of the third codon positions of mt genes, and their T/C ratios as strand indictor are higher on the H strand more than those on the L strand pointing at any strain of seven Diptera flies. The length of the A+T-rich region of E. sorbillans is 106 bp, including a tandem triple copies of a13-bp fragment. Compared to Haematobia irritans, E. sorbillans holds distant relationship with Drosophila. Phylogenetic topologies based on the amino acid sequences, supporting that E. sorbillans (Tachinidae) is clustered with strains of Calliphoridae and Oestridae, and superfamily Oestroidea are polyphyletic groups with Muscidae in a clade.

  18. The structure of the USP/RXR of Xenos pecki indicates that Strepsiptera are not closely related to Diptera.

    PubMed

    Hayward, D C; Trueman, J W H; Bastiani, M J; Ball, E E

    2005-04-01

    The receptor for the insect molting hormone, ecdysone, is a heterodimer consisting of the Ecdysone Receptor and Ultraspiracle (USP) proteins. The ligand binding domain sequences of arthropod USPs divide into two distinct groups. One group consists of sequences from members of the holometabolous Lepidoptera and Diptera, while the other arthropod sequences group with vertebrate retinoid-X-receptors (RXRs). We therefore wondered whether USP/RXR structure could be used to clarify the contentious phylogenetic position of the order Strepsiptera, which has proposed affinities with either Diptera or Coleoptera. We have cloned and sequenced the USP/RXR from the strepsipteran Xenos pecki. Phylogenetic analyses are not consistent with a close affinity between Strepsiptera and Diptera. PMID:15660250

  19. Intron insertion as a phylogenetic character: the engrailed homeobox of Strepsiptera does not indicate affinity with Diptera.

    PubMed

    Rokas, A; Kathirithamby, J; Holland, P W

    1999-11-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the order Strepsiptera are unclear. Affiliation to Coleoptera has been proposed, however this implies that dipteran halteres and strep-sipteran haltere-like organs evolved convergently. An alternative is a sister group relationship with Diptera. In this case, halteres could be homologous but a radical homeotic mutation may have switched their position to the Strepsipteran mesothorax. Ribosomal DNA sequence analysis has been used to support Dipteran affiliation, although this is controversial. Here we investigate the potential of an intron insertion site as a phylogenetic character. We find that the en homeobox gene of the strepsipteran Stichotrema dallatorreanum lacks a derived intron insertion shared by representatives of Diptera and Lepidoptera. We argue against a close affiliation between Strepsiptera and Diptera. PMID:10620047

  20. Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25-26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color gradient

  1. Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25–26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color

  2. Implications of Rhagoletis zephyria, 1894 (Diptera: Tephritidae), captures for apple maggot surveys and fly ecology in Washington state, U.S.A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an introduced quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) (Rosaceae) in Washington state, U.S.A. A morphologically similar native fly, Rhagoletis zephyria Snow, 1894, infests snowberries (Symphoricarpos spp.) ...

  3. Behavioral responses of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to visual stimuli under laboratory, semi-field, and field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest in the United States that attacks soft-skinned ripening fruit such as raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. Little is known regarding specific cues D. suzukii utilizes to locate and select host fruit, and inconsistenc...

  4. Sucrose mixed with spinosad enhances kill and reduces oviposition of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) under low-food conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whether sugar mixed with insecticides enhances kill of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), may depend on insecticide rate and food availability. Here, the hypothesis that sucrose mixed with the insecticide spinosad (in the Entrust® SC formulation) enhance...

  5. Effect of fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) feeding on subsequent Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...

  6. Three new genera and three new species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on Rubiaceae from Guadeloupe, French West Indies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new genera of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Faramitella Gagné, Anapeza Gagné and Pellacara Gagné, each with one new species, are described. The new species are from leaf galls on Rubiaceae collected in Guadeloupe, F.W.I.: Faramitella planicauda Gagné, new species, was reared from Fara...

  7. House fly (Musca domestica) (Diptera: Muscidae) mortality after exposure to commercial fungal formulations in a sugar bait

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several strains are commercially available. Three str...

  8. Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current artificial diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae is a semi-solid medium consisting of dry whole bovine blood, poultry egg powder and a milk substitute mixed with a bulking and solidifying agent and water. To reduce the mass r...

  9. An annotated checklist of the horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon with remarks on ecology and zoogeography: Pangoniinae and Chrysopsinae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon is fragmentary while in most neighboring countries it has been fairly well researched. Therefore USDA-CMAVE scientists and Israeli scientists worked cooperatively to survey the species of horse flies in the Lebanon. Chrysops flavipes ...

  10. A new genus and species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) from leaf blister galls on Ribes (Grosulariaceae)in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ribesia sarae Gagné, new genus, new species(Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described from simple leaf blister galls on Ribes aureum(Grossulariaceae) from Montana. The female abdomen is superficially similar to that of CystiphoraKieffer and SackenomyiaFelt. The three genera are compared. Because of stro...

  11. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT- Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...

  12. Assessment of Navel oranges, Clementine tangerines and Rutaceous fruits as hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Export of Citrus spp., widely cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics, may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. Two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have...

  13. Temperature-mediated kill and oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the presence of Spinosad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the...

  14. Activity patterns and parasitism rates of fire ant decapitating flies (Diptera:Phoridae:Pseudacteon spp.) in their native Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: This work describes the annual and daily activity patterns of two parasitoid fly communities of the fire ant S. invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in their native Argentina. Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae) flies were censused monthly for one year at two sites in northwestern Corr...

  15. The geographic distribution of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera:Tephritidae) in the western United States: Introduced species or native population?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of commercially grown domesticated apple (Malus domestica) in North America. The shift of the fly from its native host hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple in the eastern U.S. is often cited as an example of inc...

  16. New records of Rhagoletis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their host plants in western Montana, U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information exists concerning the distribution of Rhagoletis fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the state of Montana in the western U.S.A. In this study, the presence of and host plant use by Rhagoletis species are documented in northwestern Montana. The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagolet...

  17. Phytomyza omlandi spec. nov. – the first species of Agromyzidae (Diptera: Schizophora) reared from the family Gelsemiaceae (Asteridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of leafmining fly in the genus Phytomyza Fallén (Diptera: Agromyzidae) is described from Gelsemium Juss, representing the first known instance of an agromyzid feeding on Gelsemiaceae (Asteridae). The host plant, G. sempervirens (L.) (the “evening trumpetflower”), and possibly also G. r...

  18. How Much Can Diptera-Borne Viruses Persist over Unfavourable Seasons?

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Maud V. P.; Balenghien, Thomas; Seegers, Henri; Langlais, Michel; Ezanno, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Diptera are vectors of major human and animal pathogens worldwide, such as dengue, West-Nile or bluetongue viruses. In seasonal environments, vector-borne disease occurrence varies with the seasonal variations of vector abundance. We aimed at understanding how diptera-borne viruses can persist for years under seasonal climates while vectors overwinter, which should stop pathogen transmission during winter. Modeling is a relevant integrative approach for investigating the large panel of persistence mechanisms evidenced through experimental and observational studies on specific biological systems. Inter-seasonal persistence of virus may occur in hosts due to viremia duration, chronic infection, or vertical transmission, in vector resistance stages, and due to a low continuous transmission in winter. Using a generic stochastic modeling framework, we determine the parameter ranges under which virus persistence could occur via these different mechanisms. The parameter ranges vary according to the host demographic regime: for a high host population turnover, persistence increases with the mechanism parameter, whereas for a low turnover, persistence is maximal for an optimal range of parameter. Persistence in hosts due to long viremia duration in a few hosts or due to vertical transmission is an effective strategy for the virus to overwinter. Unexpectedly, a low continuous transmission during winter does not give rise to certain persistence, persistence barely occurring for a low turnover of the susceptible population. We propose a generic framework adaptable to most diptera-borne diseases. This framework allows ones to assess the plausibility of each persistence mechanism in real epidemiological situations and to compare the range of parameter values theoretically allowing persistence with the range of values determined experimentally. PMID:24023929

  19. Warble infestations by Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae) recorded for the first time in West Greenland muskoxen.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Fredrik; Nejsum, Peter; Raundrup, Katrine; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-12-01

    In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from samples of larvae was amplified targeting 579 bp of the COI gene, and subsequently sequenced, to be confirmed as H. tarandi. Infestation by oestrid flies has not previously been reported in muskoxen in West Greenland.

  20. Warble infestations by Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae) recorded for the first time in West Greenland muskoxen☆

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsson, Fredrik; Nejsum, Peter; Raundrup, Katrine; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-01-01

    In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from samples of larvae was amplified targeting 579 bp of the COI gene, and subsequently sequenced, to be confirmed as H. tarandi. Infestation by oestrid flies has not previously been reported in muskoxen in West Greenland. PMID:24533338

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic midge Parochlus steinenii (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghee; Kim, Hanna; Shin, Seung Chul

    2016-09-01

    Parochlus steinenii is a winged midge found in the Antarctic Peninsula and its offshore islands. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. steinenii, which is comprised of 16 803 nucleotides and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and the large (rrnL) and small (rrnS) rRNA genes. Its total A + T content is 72.5%. The PCG arrangement of P. steinenii is identical to that of the ancestral Diptera ground pattern. This is the first report on the mitogenome sequence of an Antarctic midge, and provides insights into the evolution of dipterans in Antarctica. PMID:26642812

  2. A Sex Pheromone Receptor in the Hessian Fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Martin N.; Corcoran, Jacob A.; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Hillbur, Ylva; Newcomb, Richard D.; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1–2 days) and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR) family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E)-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1) are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogs, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogs together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the Cecidomyiidae

  3. A Case of Oral Myiasis Caused by Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Mun; Ryu, Seung-Min; Kwon, Sang-Chang; Ha, Jun-Ouk; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Soon-Myung; Lee, Soon-Il; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Cha, Hee-Jae

    2013-01-01

    We report here a case of oral myiasis in the Republic of Korea. The patient was a 37-year-old man with a 30-year history of Becker's muscular dystrophy. He was intubated due to dyspnea 8 days prior to admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). A few hours after the ICU admission, 43 fly larvae were found during suction of the oral cavity. All maggots were identified as the third instars of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by morphology. We discussed on the characteristics of myiasis acquired in Korea, including the infection risk and predisposing factors. PMID:23467858

  4. New locality record of Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo.

    PubMed

    Heo, C C; Aisha, S; Kurahashi, H; Omar, B

    2013-03-01

    Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini) was recorded for the first time in Malaysia. We collected one male and two females during a field trip conducted at Genting Highland, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia in May 2011. A 3-day old cow liver was offered as attractant and dipterans collected were transferred to the laboratory for specimens processing and identification. The adults of I. paurogonita were attracted to the odour and then captured by using a sweep net. Isomyia paurogonita was also recorded from two other localities in Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo, namely Gombak Utara, Selangor and Sibu, Sarawak.

  5. Preservation of iridescent colours in Phorinia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Diptera: Tachinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Downes, Stephen; Simonis, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Iridescent blue-green colours are exhibited by various organisms including several taxa in the Tachinidae (Diptera) with notable examples within the Afrotropical members of the genus Phorinia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. The vivid colouration observed in life quickly fades to a dull golden-yellow when a specimen is dried. Although well known, no published explanation has been given for this phenomenon. New information We illustrate the mechanism associated with this colour change. We also test and propose technical alternatives to retain the living colours in dried specimens. PMID:26929707

  6. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae) from an ocean beach in south east Victoria

    PubMed Central

    Yeates, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera) that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchus oceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic Anabarhynchus kampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001), but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113. PMID:25349526

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic midge Parochlus steinenii (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghee; Kim, Hanna; Shin, Seung Chul

    2016-09-01

    Parochlus steinenii is a winged midge found in the Antarctic Peninsula and its offshore islands. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. steinenii, which is comprised of 16 803 nucleotides and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and the large (rrnL) and small (rrnS) rRNA genes. Its total A + T content is 72.5%. The PCG arrangement of P. steinenii is identical to that of the ancestral Diptera ground pattern. This is the first report on the mitogenome sequence of an Antarctic midge, and provides insights into the evolution of dipterans in Antarctica.

  8. New neotropical species of Trupanea (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns.

    PubMed

    Norrbom, Allen L; Neder, Lilia Estela

    2014-06-24

    Four species of Trupanea Shrank (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns are described from the Neotropical Region: T. dimorphica (Argentina), T. fasciata (Argentina), T. polita (Argentina and Bolivia), and T. trivittata (Argentina). Celidosphenella Hendel, 1914 and Melanotrypana Hering, 1944 are considered new synonyms of Trupanea, and the following species are transferred from Celidosphenella to Trupanea: Acinia bella Blanchard, 1852; Acanthiophilus benoisti Séguy, 1933; Tephritis diespasmena Schiner, 1868; Celidosphenella maculata Hendel, 1914; Sphenella poecila Schiner, 1868; Trypanea simulata Malloch, 1933; Trupanea stonei Stuardo, 1946; and Trypanea vidua Hering, 1942. Aphyllocladus spartioides Wedd. (Asteraceae: Mutisieae) is reported as a probable host plant for Trupanea dimorphica.

  9. A Sex Pheromone Receptor in the Hessian Fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Martin N.; Corcoran, Jacob A.; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Hillbur, Ylva; Newcomb, Richard D.; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1–2 days) and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR) family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E)-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1) are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogs, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogs together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the Cecidomyiidae

  10. Host Plant Record for the Fruit Flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S.; Lima, Rita C. A.; Zucchi, Roberto A.

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the “Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce”. This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha species and their hosts are discussed. The occurrence of these fruit fly species in relation to the distribution range of their host plants is also discussed. PMID:20302458

  11. Warble infestations by Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae) recorded for the first time in West Greenland muskoxen.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Fredrik; Nejsum, Peter; Raundrup, Katrine; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-12-01

    In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from samples of larvae was amplified targeting 579 bp of the COI gene, and subsequently sequenced, to be confirmed as H. tarandi. Infestation by oestrid flies has not previously been reported in muskoxen in West Greenland. PMID:24533338

  12. A new record of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera:Fanniidae) from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Omar, B; Kurahashi, H; Jeffery, J; Yasohdha, N; Lau, S Y; John, M C; Marwi, M A; Zuha, R M; Ahmad, M S

    2007-12-01

    Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Fanniidae) is newly recorded from Malaysia. This record is based on 1male symbol 1female symbol from Sarawak, east Malaysia and 1male symbol 2female symbol from Selangor, peninsular Malaysia. It is included in the pusio group of Fannia wherein are included Fannia femoralis (Stein), Fannia howardi Malloch, Fannia trimaculata (Stein), Fannia leucosticta (Meigen) and Fannia punctiventris Malloch. The male of Fannia pusio is differentiated from other members of the group by the following features: hind femur with a swelling bearing a number of setae that are usually curled at tip; squamae creamy; tergite 1+2 broadly grey dusted at sides.

  13. [Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of Smir marshes (northwest of Morocco): inventory and biotypology].

    PubMed

    El Joubari, M; Louah, A; Himmi, O

    2014-02-01

    The Smir marshes are a favorable environment for the growth of many mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae). The inventory of Culicidae species reveals 14 species, is 33% of the species of Morocco, distributed in four genera: Culex, Culiseta, Ochlerotatus and Anopheles (with 5, 2, 5 and 2 species respectively) which Anopheles labranchiae, vector of the agent of the malaria in Morocco until 2004. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal mesological affinities and we tried to explain the biotypology of mosquito populations of the site. These analyzes revealed several groups of stations and species according to various parameters, especially salinity.

  14. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene): the genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken, 1860.

    PubMed

    Kania, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    A revision of the genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Four species--E. baltica Alexander, E. brevipalpa Loew, E. longirostris Loew, and E. pulchella Loew--are redescribed and documented with photographs and drawings. In addition, two new species of the genus are described: Elephantomyia bozenae sp. nov., and Elephantomyia irinae sp. nov. All these fossil species are placed within the subgenus Elephantomyia. A key to the extinct species of Elephantomyia is provided, and the genus' ecological pattern and evolutionary aspects are discussed. PMID:25706127

  15. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic Amber (Eocene): The Genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken, 1860

    PubMed Central

    Kania, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    A revision of the genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Four species—E. baltica Alexander, E. brevipalpa Loew, E. longirostris Loew, and E. pulchella Loew—are redescribed and documented with photographs and drawings. In addition, two new species of the genus are described: Elephantomyia bozenae sp. nov., and Elephantomyia irinae sp. nov. All these fossil species are placed within the subgenus Elephantomyia. A key to the extinct species of Elephantomyia is provided, and the genus’ ecological pattern and evolutionary aspects are discussed. PMID:25706127

  16. A Sex Pheromone Receptor in the Hessian Fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Andersson, Martin N; Corcoran, Jacob A; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Hillbur, Ylva; Newcomb, Richard D; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1-2 days) and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR) family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E)-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1) are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogs, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogs together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the Cecidomyiidae

  17. Comparison of emergence traps of different shape and translucency in the trapping of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Steinke, S; Lühken, R; Kroischke, F; Timmermann, E; Kiel, E

    2016-06-15

    Various types of emergence traps are available for investigations of the breeding habitats of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). In order to assess the potential impact of the trap design on the trapping success, we compared the efficiency of opaque and white (more translucent) emergence traps and two trap shapes (cone-shaped and quadratic), to sample Culicoides emerging from cowpats. Significantly higher numbers of Culicoides chiopterus and Culicoides dewulfi were trapped with opaque traps, while there was no obvious effect of the trap shape. There were no distinct differences in the microclimate among different trap types. PMID:27198792

  18. Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, T.; Abraham, S.; Oviedo, A.; Willink, E.

    2007-03-15

    The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author) [Spanish] La integracion de la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE) en el combate integrado de la mosca Sudamericana de la fruta, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), es una alternativa interesante para reemplazar al control quimico en aquellas zonas donde esta especie es simpatrica con Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) u otros tefritidos para los que ya se utiliza la TIE. La implementacion de la TIE requiere del desarrollo de un protocolo de cria masiva que sea costo-efectivo. En este trabajo presentamos parametros demograficos y de control de calidad de la cepa criada en la Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considerando a la jaula de cria como unidad reproductiva, se observo

  19. The mitochondrial genome of the garden pea leafminer Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau, 1851) (Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, You-Zhu; Jin, Gui-Hua; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Here we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the garden pea leafminer Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau, 1851) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) (GenBank accession no. KR047789). This is the first species with sequenced mitochondrial genome from the genus Chromatomyia. The current length with partial A  +  T-rich region of this mitochondrial genome is 15,320 bp with an A  +  T content of 77.54%. All the 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes were sequenced, except for the A  +  T-rich region. As in most other sequenced mitochondrial genomes of Diptera, there is no rearrangement compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects. All protein-coding genes start with the ATN start codon except for the gene cox1, which uses abnormal TTG. The A  +  T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnI with a sequenced length of 503 bp. Phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian method based on the first and second codon positions of the 13 protein-coding genes recovered the monophyly of Agromyzidae with one species of Chromatomyia and four species of Liriomyza in our study. The superfamily Oestroidea (with Agromyzidae in analysis) is sister to the Opomyzoidea.

  20. Proteolytic activity regarding Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larval excretions and secretions.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, Yudi T; Moreno-Pérez, Darwin A; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Bello, Felio J

    2013-12-01

    Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a medically important necrophagous fly which is used for establishing the post-mortem interval. Diptera maggots release proteolytic enzymes contained in larval excretion and secretion (ES) products playing a key role in digestion. Special interest in proteolytic enzymes has also been aroused regarding understanding their role in wound healing since they degrade necrotic tissue during larval therapy. This study was thus aimed at identifying and characterising S. magellanica proteolytic enzyme ES products for the first time. These products were obtained from first-, second- and third-instar larvae taken from a previously-established colony. ES proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and their proteolytic activity was characterised by zymograms and inhibition assays involving BAPNA (Nα-benzoyl-dl-Arg-p-nitroanilide) and SAPNA substrates, using synthetic inhibitors. The protein profile ranged from ∼69kDa to ∼23kDa; several of them coincided with the Lucilia sericata ES protein profile. Serine-protease hydrolysis activity (measured by zymogram) was confirmed when a ∼25kDa band disappeared upon ES incubation with PMSF inhibitor at pH 7.8. Analysis of larval ES proteolytic activity on BAPNA and SAPNA substrates (determined by using TLCK and TPCK specific inhibitors) suggested a greater amount of trypsin-like protease. These results support the need for further experiments aimed at validating S. magellanica use in larval therapy.

  1. Identification through DNA barcoding of Tabanidae (Diptera) vectors of surra disease in India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Dhriti; Kumar, Vikas; Maity, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Biswatosh; Tyagi, Kaomud; Singha, Devkant; Kundu, Shantanu; Laskar, Boni Amin; Naskar, Atanu; Rath, Shibananda

    2015-10-01

    Horse flies and deer flies are common names applied to members of the family Tabanidae (Diptera). Tabanid flies are pestiferous and of veterinary and medical importance, with about 244 species in India. They are major vectors of Trypanosoma evansi that causes trypanosomiasis (surra disease). Lack of stable morphological characters, and scarcity of taxonomic expertise, is major impediments for accurate species identification of these important pest and disease vectors. Molecular data, especially DNA barcode data, has been widely used in the identification of Diptera of economic importance. We evaluated the utility of DNA barcode data to discriminate the vectors of surra disease (trypanosomiasis) from India. We used barcode gap and reciprocal monophyly (neighbor-joining and Bayesian tree) criteria to analyze barcode data. A total of 46 specimens belonging to 7 species under four genera in two subfamilies were used for this study. DNA barcode data was not available previously for these species. Analysis revealed that all morphologically identifiable species can be discriminated using DNA barcoding data. Further, our study clearly demonstrated the presence of cryptic species in Chrysops dispar. Moreover, we revealed that closely related species without stable taxonomic distinguishing characters in the "Tabanus striatus species complex" can be discriminated using DNA barcode data. PMID:26126785

  2. Octenol as attractant to Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera:Psychodidae:Phlebotominae) in the field.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M C; Barbieri, K; Silva, M C E; Graminha, M A S; Casanova, C; Andrade, A J; Eiras, A E

    2011-01-01

    The kairomone octenol is known as attractive to hematophagous Diptera such as mosquitoes, tsetse flies, and midges. There is little evidence that traps baited with octenol are also effective in attracting phlebotomine sand flies. The present report evaluated octenol in modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps in two experiments: 1) modified CDC trap without light and 2) modified CDC trap with light. The traps were baited with octenol at concentrations of 0.5, 27, and 43 mg/h in Rincão locality, São Paulo, Brazil. Traps without octenol were used as controls. The sand fly Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto) (= Lutzomyia neivai) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) was the prevalent species (99.9%) in both experiments. The results of the experiments showed that traps baited with octenol at 27 and 43 mg/h caught significantly more N. neivai than control and octenol at 0.5 mg/h with and without light. This is the first report that shows that octenol itself is attractive to N. neivai and associated with light traps significantly increases the catches.

  3. Genomic and bioinformatic analysis of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Suwanchaichinda, C; Brattsten, L B

    2014-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) enzyme system is a major mechanism of xenobiotic biotransformation. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is required for transfer of electrons from NADPH to P450. One CPR gene was identified in the genome of the malaria-transmitting mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). The gene encodes a polypeptide containing highly conserved flavin mononucleotide-, flavin adenine dinucleotide-, and NADPH-binding domains, a unique characteristic of the reductase. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. stephensi and other known mosquito CPRs belong to a monophyletic group distinctly separated from other insects in the same order, Diptera. Amino acid residues of CPRs involved in binding of P450 and cytochrome c are conserved between A. stephensi and the Norway rat Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout (Rodentia: Muridae). However, gene structure particularly within the coding region is evidently different between the two organisms. Such difference might arise during the evolution process as also seen in the difference of P450 families and isoforms found in these organisms. CPR in the mosquito A. stephensi is expected to be active and serve as an essential component of the P450 system.

  4. The skeletomuscular system of the larva of Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophilidae, Diptera): a contribution to the morphology of a model organism.

    PubMed

    Wipfler, Benjamin; Schneeberg, Katharina; Löffler, Andreas; Hünefeld, Frank; Meier, Rudolf; Beutel, Rolf G

    2013-01-01

    The morphological features of the third instar larva of the most important insect model, Drosophila melanogaster, are documented for the first time using a broad spectrum of modern morphological techniques. External structures of the body wall, the cephaloskeleton, and the musculature are described and illustrated. Additional information about other internal organs is provided. The systematic implications of the findings are discussed briefly. Internal apomorphic features of Brachycera and Cyclorrhapha are confirmed for Drosophila. Despite the intensive investigations of the phylogeny of the megadiverse Diptera, evolutionary reconstructions are still impeded by the scarcity of anatomical data for brachyceran larvae. The available morphological information for the life stages of three insect model organisms -D. melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae), Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) - is addressed briefly. The usefulness of a combination of traditional and innovative techniques for an optimized acquisition of anatomical data for different life stages is highlighted. PMID:23010508

  5. Mitochondrial Genome Sequences of Nematocera (Lower Diptera): Evidence of Rearrangement following a Complete Genome Duplication in a Winter Crane Fly

    PubMed Central

    Beckenbach, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of eight representatives of lower Diptera, suborder Nematocera, along with nearly complete sequences from two other species, are presented. These taxa represent eight families not previously represented by complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Most of the sequences retain the ancestral dipteran mitochondrial gene arrangement, while one sequence, that of the midge Arachnocampa flava (family Keroplatidae), has an inversion of the trnE gene. The most unusual result is the extensive rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome of a winter crane fly, Paracladura trichoptera (family Trichocera). The pattern of rearrangement indicates that the mechanism of rearrangement involved a tandem duplication of the entire mitochondrial genome, followed by random and nonrandom loss of one copy of each gene. Another winter crane fly retains the ancestral diperan gene arrangement. A preliminary mitochondrial phylogeny of the Diptera is also presented. PMID:22155689

  6. Taxonomic revision of the Carpathian endemic Pedicia (Crunobia) staryi species–group (Diptera, Pediciidae) based on morphology and molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Dénes, Avar-Lehel; Kolcsár, Levente-Péter; Török, Edina; Keresztes, Lujza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of the genus Pedicia, subgenus Crunobia (Diptera: Pediciidae) belonging to the staryi group are described on the basis of a combination of molecular and morphology datasets, and a key to discriminate between species of the subgenus Crunobia is added. Geographic projection of the identified taxa suggests insular-like distribution and shows the importance of the Carpathians as a genetic center which is home to an exceptionally high aquatic diversity in Europe. PMID:27110152

  7. Description of a new species and new country distribution records of Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Luc; San Jose, Michael; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2015-09-04

    Bactrocera (Bactrocera) kohkongiae Leblanc (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae), from the Koh Kong Province of Cambodia, is described as new. This species belongs to the Oriental fruit fly (B. dorsalis) complex. Genetic sequences (mitochondrial COI and nuclear EF1α and Period) are deposited in GenBank. A haplotype network, based on the COI sequences for 21 specimens, shows high genetic diversity. New country records from Cambodia are included for 22 species.

  8. Fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from some localities of Paraguay: new records, checklist, and illustrated key.

    PubMed

    Arias, Osmar René; Fariña, Nelson Librado; Lopes, Gleidyane Novaes; Uramoto, Keiko; Zucchi, Roberto Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) collected in McPhail traps in the municipalities of Concepción, Belén, Horqueta, Loreto (state of Concepción) and Santa Rosa (state of Misiones), Paraguay. In total, 17 species were captured, 9 of which are new records for Paraguay. All morphological characters used for species identification are illustrated.

  9. Fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from some localities of Paraguay: new records, checklist, and illustrated key.

    PubMed

    Arias, Osmar René; Fariña, Nelson Librado; Lopes, Gleidyane Novaes; Uramoto, Keiko; Zucchi, Roberto Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) collected in McPhail traps in the municipalities of Concepción, Belén, Horqueta, Loreto (state of Concepción) and Santa Rosa (state of Misiones), Paraguay. In total, 17 species were captured, 9 of which are new records for Paraguay. All morphological characters used for species identification are illustrated. PMID:25525098

  10. Culicoides hildebrandoi, a new species of the reticulatus species group from the Brazilian Amazon Region (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Farias, Emanuelle de Sousa; Pereira Júnior, Antonio Marques; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Santarém, Maria Clara Alves

    2016-01-01

    A new species of biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), Culicoides hildebrandoi sp. n., is described and illustrated based on female and male specimens from the states of Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil. This new species belongs to the reticulatus species group and differs from the 24 other species of this group by the elongate slightly swollen 3(rd) palpal segment with scattered capitate sensilla but lacking a sensory pit. PMID:27110160

  11. Culicoides hildebrandoi, a new species of the reticulatus species group from the Brazilian Amazon Region (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Emanuelle de Sousa; Pereira Júnior, Antonio Marques; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Santarém, Maria Clara Alves

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), Culicoides hildebrandoi sp. n., is described and illustrated based on female and male specimens from the states of Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil. This new species belongs to the reticulatus species group and differs from the 24 other species of this group by the elongate slightly swollen 3rd palpal segment with scattered capitate sensilla but lacking a sensory pit. PMID:27110160

  12. Patterns of evolutionary conservation of microsatellites (SSRs) suggest a faster rate of genome evolution in Hymenoptera than in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Stolle, Eckart; Kidner, Jonathan H; Moritz, Robin F A

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are common and widespread DNA elements in genomes of many organisms. However, their dynamics in genome evolution is unclear, whereby they are thought to evolve neutrally. More available genome sequences along with dated phylogenies allowed for studying the evolution of these repetitive DNA elements along evolutionary time scales. This could be used to compare rates of genome evolution. We show that SSRs in insects can be retained for several hundred million years. Different types of microsatellites seem to be retained longer than others. By comparing Dipteran with Hymenopteran species, we found very similar patterns of SSR loss during their evolution, but both taxa differ profoundly in the rate. Relative to divergence time, Diptera lost SSRs twice as fast as Hymenoptera. The loss of SSRs on the Drosophila melanogaster X-chromosome was higher than on the other chromosomes. However, accounting for generation time, the Diptera show an 8.5-fold slower rate of SSR loss than the Hymenoptera, which, in contrast to previous studies, suggests a faster genome evolution in the latter. This shows that generation time differences can have a profound effect. A faster genome evolution in these insects could be facilitated by several factors very different to Diptera, which is discussed in light of our results on the haplodiploid D. melanogaster X-chromosome. Furthermore, large numbers of SSRs can be found to be in synteny and thus could be exploited as a tool to investigate genome structure and evolution.

  13. Patterns of Evolutionary Conservation of Microsatellites (SSRs) Suggest a Faster Rate of Genome Evolution in Hymenoptera Than in Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Stolle, Eckart; Kidner, Jonathan H.; Moritz, Robin F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are common and widespread DNA elements in genomes of many organisms. However, their dynamics in genome evolution is unclear, whereby they are thought to evolve neutrally. More available genome sequences along with dated phylogenies allowed for studying the evolution of these repetitive DNA elements along evolutionary time scales. This could be used to compare rates of genome evolution. We show that SSRs in insects can be retained for several hundred million years. Different types of microsatellites seem to be retained longer than others. By comparing Dipteran with Hymenopteran species, we found very similar patterns of SSR loss during their evolution, but both taxa differ profoundly in the rate. Relative to divergence time, Diptera lost SSRs twice as fast as Hymenoptera. The loss of SSRs on the Drosophila melanogaster X-chromosome was higher than on the other chromosomes. However, accounting for generation time, the Diptera show an 8.5-fold slower rate of SSR loss than the Hymenoptera, which, in contrast to previous studies, suggests a faster genome evolution in the latter. This shows that generation time differences can have a profound effect. A faster genome evolution in these insects could be facilitated by several factors very different to Diptera, which is discussed in light of our results on the haplodiploid D. melanogaster X-chromosome. Furthermore, large numbers of SSRs can be found to be in synteny and thus could be exploited as a tool to investigate genome structure and evolution. PMID:23292136

  14. Fourier analysis of wing beat signals: assessing the effects of genetic alterations of flight muscle structure in Diptera.

    PubMed Central

    Hyatt, C J; Maughan, D W

    1994-01-01

    A method for determining and analyzing the wing beat frequency in Diptera is presented. This method uses an optical tachometer to measure Diptera wing movement during flight. The resulting signal from the optical measurement is analyzed using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique, and the dominant frequency peak in the Fourier spectrum is selected as the wing beat frequency. Also described is a method for determining quantitatively the degree of variability of the wing beat frequency about the dominant frequency. This method is based on determination of a quantity called the Hindex, which is derived using data from the FFT analysis. Calculation of the H index allows computer-based selection of the most suitable segment of recorded data for determination of the representative wing beat frequency. Experimental data suggest that the H index can also prove useful in examining wing beat frequency variability in Diptera whose flight muscle structure has been genetically altered. Examples from Drosophila indirect flight muscle studies as well as examples of artificial data are presented to illustrate the method. This method fulfills a need for a standardized method for determining wing beat frequencies and examining wing beat frequency variability in insects whose flight muscles have been altered by protein engineering methods. PMID:7811927

  15. Nematocera flies recorded in Serra do Courel, northwest Spain, May 2012 (Diptera: Anisopodidae, Blepharoceridae, Cylindrotomidae, Limoniidae, Pediciidae, Tipulidae and Trichoceridae) including descriptions of two new species of Limoniidae.

    PubMed

    Hancock, E Geoffrey; Hewitt, Stephen M; Horsfield, David; Lyszkowsi, Richard M; Macgowan, Iain; Ricarte, Antonio; Rotheray, Graham E; Watt, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    During May 2012 Diptera were sampled in the Serro do Courel area of Lugo Province, Galicia, northwest Spain. The authors of this paper, members of the Malloch Society (see website) are active in attempting to understand the detailed ecology of flies. Much of this work is through targeting larval stages often with an emphasis on saproxylic situations. By rearing adults from larvae direct relationships between them and their detailed habitat requirements are established. The list of nematocerous Diptera that were sampled includes 36 species two of them new to science and records of six others new to the Iberian peninsula are provided. We describe Lipsothrix galiciensis Hancock & Hewitt sp. nov., and Prionolabis pjotri Hancock sp. nov. of the family Limoniidae and provide a key to adults of European Lipsothrix species. Such results from this brief opportunity indicate the potential of the area for further field work in these and other families of Diptera

  16. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration.

    PubMed

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment. PMID:27256514

  17. Reproductive Organ of Blow Fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Ultrastructural of Testis

    PubMed Central

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L.; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Chaisri, Urai; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sanford, Michelle; Sukontason, Kom

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the ultrastructure of testis of the medically important blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) using light microscopy and electron microscopy. Reproductive organ of males was dissected to determine the testis in the pupal stage, 3-day-old flies and 7-day-old flies and observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SEM displayed a smooth surface which is occasionally penetrated by tracheoles. TEM of the testis in the pupal stage presents the thick testis wall covering underdeveloped cells containing a variable size of an electron-dense globule. For the 3-day-old males, the testicular wall is formed by an external layer, a peritoneal sheath, a muscular layer, a basement membrane, and a follicular epithelium. Follicular epithelium presented developing spermatozoa. Regarding the 7-day-old males, development of spermatozoa is apparent, displaying nucleus, centriolar adjunct, axoneme, and mitochondrial derivatives, with the 9 + 9 + 2 microtubule pattern of axoneme. PMID:21845212

  18. Morphology and Developmental Rate of the Blow Fly, Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Forensic Entomology Applications

    PubMed Central

    Bunchu, Nophawan; Thaipakdee, Chinnapat; Vitta, Apichat; Sanit, Sangob; Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.

    2012-01-01

    Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a forensically important blow fly species presented in many countries. In this study, we determined the morphology of all stages and the developmental rate of H. ligurriens reared under natural ambient conditions in Phitsanulok province, northern Thailand. Morphological features of all stages based on observing under a light microscope were described and demonstrated in order to use for identification purpose. Moreover, development time in each stage was given. The developmental time of H. ligurriens to complete metamorphosis; from egg, larva, pupa to adult, took 270.71 h for 1 cycle of development. The results from this study may be useful not only for application in forensic investigation, but also for study in its biology in the future. PMID:22792441

  19. Human Cutaneous Myiasis by the Australian Sheep Blowfly, Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Ahadizadeh, Emily N; Ketchum, Heather R; Wheeler, Russell

    2015-07-01

    This case report describes an incident of myiasis in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Paramedics treated a 53-year-old man in the field when he suffered cardiac arrest. He was intubated by the paramedics and transported to an emergency room, where he received two stents and a balloon pump. He was found to have a GCS of three and remained in the hospital for 7 days before passing away. After his death, the breathing tube was removed, revealing the presence of several maggots. On closer inspection, the dipteran larvae were found in both the oral and nasal cavities. Four of these larvae were reared to adulthood and identified as Lucilia cuprina (Weidemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), commonly known as the Australian sheep blowfly, by the Biology Department of the University of Oklahoma. Based on the fly's life cycle and rate of development, the infestation is suspected to be hospital acquired.

  20. Three new species of Oxysarcodexia Townsend (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)
    from the Colombian Andes.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carina Mara De; Buenaventura, Eliana

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Oxysarcodexia Townsend (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) from the Colombian Andes are described based on male specimens collected using decaying animal matter as bait: Oxysarcodexia catica sp. n., O. laclaricola sp. n., and O. liliarum sp. n. The straight and narrow cercal prong with an acute apex, and the juxta enlarged distally and folded backwards of O. catica sp. n. resemble these structures in O. fraterna Lopes, O. peruviana (Lopes) and O. vittata (Walker). The shape of the cercus of O. laclaricola sp. n. is similar to that of O. floricola Lopes, whereas its vesica is similar in shape to that of O. cyaniforceps (Hall). Oxysarcodexia liliarum sp. n. resembles O. favorabilis (Lopes) in the inflorescence-like phallus and enlarged juxta. The postero-distal phallic enlargement of O. catica sp. n. and O. liliarum sp. n. support the inclusion of these species in the so-called "Xarcophaga group" (sensu Lopes). PMID:27394253

  1. Ectoparasitic insects (Diptera: Streblidae and Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae) of bats from Iquitos and surrounding areas (Loreto, Peru).

    PubMed

    Autino, Analía Gladys; Claps, Guillermo Luis; Barquez, Rubén Marcos; Díaz, María Mónica

    2011-12-01

    Based on specimens collected from bats of different families, we add new species and extend the known ecological distribution and host associations of insect ectoparasites of bats in Peru. New information is provided for the distribution of 26 species of parasites (25 Diptera and 1 Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae). Four species (Neotrichobius ectophyllae, Strebla galindoi, Strebla paramirabilis and Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni) are new for Peru and 16 represent new records for the department of Loreto. Also, we found 17 new host-ectoparasite relationships. Of note, we found remarkable new association between Neotrichobius delicatus and bat species from the families Molossidae and Noctilionidae and a novel association between Paradyschiria parvula and a species of Vespertilionidae. Host-ectoparasite specificity was recorded with 14 species as monoxenous, three oligoxenous, seven pleioxenous and two polyxenous.

  2. Sex chromosomes in mitotic and polytene tissues of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Argentina: a review.

    PubMed

    Giardini, María Cecilia; Milla, Fabián H; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Nieves, Mariela; Cladera, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    Cytogenetics, which is considered a fundamental tool to understand basic genetic and genomic issues of species, has greatly contributed to the description of polymorphisms both at inter- and intra-specific level. In fact, cytogenetics was one of the first approaches used to propose Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a complex of cryptic species. Different morphological variants of sex chromosomes have been reported among Argentinean populations of Anastrepha fraterculus. However, since this high structural variability in sex chromosomes does not pose a reproductive barrier, their role in speciation is yet to be unveiled. This review provides an update on general aspects of cytogenetics in Argentinean Anastrepha fraterculus populations, focused on the prevalence of X-Y arrangements.

  3. Initial distribution assessment of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Barcelona, Spain, area.

    PubMed

    Roiz, D; Eritja, R; Molina, R; Melero-Alcibar, R; Lucientes, J

    2008-05-01

    The invasive species Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse 1894) (Diptera: Culicidae) has reached several European countries, including Albania, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland, The Netherlands, and recently Spain (Med. Vet. Entomol. 20: 150-152, 2006). Here, we present the initial characterization of the distribution of Ae. albopictus in the municipality of Sant Cugat del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain, where it was found for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula. An ovitrap sampling campaign was developed from September to December 2004 to assess the spatial distribution and abundance of Ae. albopictus to evaluate the potential of an eradication attempt. The population of Ae. albopictus in the whole area was shown to be widespread within the municipality, and it included at least another one neighboring town, so authorities were advised to develop large-scale control measures. Some indirect evidence was collected on the introduction means and date. PMID:18533426

  4. The type specimens of Calyptratae (Diptera) housed in non-traditional institutions in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Domínguez, M Cecilia; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The type material of species of Calyptratae Diptera belonging to Anthomyiidae, Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, and Tachinidae, housed in the collections of non-traditional institutions in Argentina were examined. These collections were included in the recently created "Sistema Nacional de Datos Biológicos" (National Biological Data System). We examined four collections: "Administración Nacional de Laboratorios e Institutos de Salud 'Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán'" (ANLIS), "Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Castelar, Buenos Aires" (INTA), "Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas" (IADIZA); and "Fundación Félix de Azara" (CFA). Comparison of the original descriptions of these species with the label information revealed the existence of 24 holotypes, 5 lectotypes, 11 syntypes, and 441 paratypes/paralectotypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition.  PMID:25661231

  5. The relationship between morphological and behavioral mimicry in hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    PubMed

    Penney, Heather D; Hassall, Christopher; Skevington, Jeffrey H; Lamborn, Brent; Sherratt, Thomas N

    2014-02-01

    Palatable (Batesian) mimics of unprofitable models could use behavioral mimicry to compensate for the ease with which they can be visually discriminated or to augment an already close morphological resemblance. We evaluated these contrasting predictions by assaying the behavior of 57 field-caught species of mimetic hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and quantifying their morphological similarity to a range of potential hymenopteran models. A purpose-built phylogeny for the hover flies was used to control for potential lack of independence due to shared evolutionary history. Those hover fly species that engage in behavioral mimicry (mock stinging, leg waving, wing wagging) were all large wasp mimics within the genera Spilomyia and Temnostoma. While the behavioral mimics assayed were good morphological mimics, not all good mimics were behavioral mimics. Therefore, while the behaviors may have evolved to augment good morphological mimicry, they do not advantage all good mimics.

  6. Molecular phylogeny of the megadiverse insect infraorder Bibionomorpha sensu lato (Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kaspřák, David; Mantič, Michal; Fitzgerald, Scott; Ševčíková, Tereza; Tóthová, Andrea; Jaschhof, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    The phylogeny of the insect infraorder Bibionomorpha (Diptera) is reconstructed based on the combined analysis of three nuclear (18S, 28S, CAD) and three mitochondrial (12S, 16S, COI) gene markers. All the analyses strongly support the monophyly of Bibionomorpha in both the narrow (sensu stricto) and the broader (sensu lato) concepts. The major lineages of Bibionomorpha sensu lato (Sciaroidea, Bibionoidea, Anisopodoidea, and Scatopsoidea) and most of the included families are supported as monophyletic groups. Axymyiidae was not found to be part of Bibionomorpha nor was it found to be its sister group. Bibionidae was paraphyletic with respect to Hesperinidae and Keroplatidae was paraphyletic with respect to Lygistorrhinidae. The included Sciaroidea incertae sedis (except Ohakunea Edwards) were found to belong to one clade, but the relationships within this group and its position within Sciaroidea require further study. PMID:27781163

  7. Sex-Biased Captures of Sarcosaprophagous Diptera in Carrion-Baited Traps

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Vega, Daniel; Baz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The use of carrion-baited traps is a common and widely extended practice in the study of sarcosaprophagous Diptera. However, it implies different areas of bias, one of them being the different responses of males and females to carrion bait, which results in possible biased sex ratios in the captures. In the present study, the use of carrion-baited traps revealed significant female-biased captures in the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Sarcophagidae, whereas the collected species of the families Piophilidae, Heleomyzidae, and Ulidiidae showed different patterns in the observed sex ratios. Possible explanations according to existing literature and the types of mating behaviors of the different families are discussed. PMID:23885859

  8. Giant spiral shaped spermatozoa of Diasemopsis comoroensis (Diptera, Diopsidae) with a unique ultrastructural component.

    PubMed

    Kotrba, M; Heß, M

    2013-12-01

    In this study we describe a new kind of sperm gigantism in the stalk-eyed fly, Diasemopsis comoroensis (Diptera, Diopsidae). The sperm cells have a length of up to 1.7 mm and can be coiled into a compact 'slinky' spiral. Their ultrastructure involves a prominent electron dense central band, which runs the entire length of the sperm tail and in some regions constitutes its largest element in cross section. We propose that this organelle is either a giant centriole adjunct or a kind of accessory body derived from it, and that it takes part in coiling the sperm tail. To our knowledge, no comparable structure has been described before. PMID:24054968

  9. Nocturnal activity of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in Chichaoua, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Guernaoui, S; Boussaa, S; Pesson, B; Boumezzough, A

    2006-02-01

    The nocturnal activity of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) was studied "at an epidemic focus" on human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania tropica Wright in Chichaoua province, in Morocco. Sandflies were collected using light and sticky-paper traps changed at 2-h intervals, inside and around houses, in August and October 2004. Overall, 633 sandflies, belonging to six species of Phlebotomus and three of Sergentomyia, were collected. Sandfly activity was nocturnal and higher at twilight. Several activity patterns were observed according to the species. Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti Parrot, 1917, the suspected vector of L. tropica in this focus, was caught during each collection performed from 1900 to 0500 hours, the numbers of species caught peaked at 1900-2100 hours. There were seasonal variations of the nocturnal activity, which could be related to the variations in temperature and relative humidity.

  10. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration

    PubMed Central

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment. PMID:27256514

  11. Catalogue of the type material of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) deposited in the Instituto Evandro Chagas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Pinheiro, Maria Sueli Barros; de Andrade, Andrey José

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The available type material of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) deposited in the “Coleção de Flebotomíneos” of the Instituto Evandro Chagas (ColFleb IEC) is now presented in an annotated catalogue comprising a total of 121 type specimens belonging to 12 species as follow: Nyssomyia richardwardi (2 female paratypes), Nyssomyia shawi (9 male and 25 female paratypes), Nyssomyia umbratilis (female holotype and 1 female paratype), Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli (1 male and 1 female paratypes), Pintomyia gruta (1 male and 2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus lainsoni (2 male syntypes), Psychodopygus leonidasdeanei (male holotype, female “allotype” and 45 female paratypes), Psychodopygus llanosmartinsi (2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus wellcomei (1 male and 4 female “syntypes”), Trichophoromyia readyi (male holotype, female “allotype” and 1 male paratype), Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai (male holotype, 13 male 5 female paratypes), and Trichophoromyia brachipyga (1 male paratype). PMID:24715786

  12. Molecular identification of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in eastern North America by using PCR-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Minter, Logan M; Yu, Tian; Florin, David A; Nukmal, Nismah; Brown, Grayson C; Zhou, Xuguo

    2013-07-01

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are small blood-feeding dipterans that are primary vectors of numerous human and livestock pathogens. Effective surveillance programs with accurate identification tools are critical in development and implementation of modern integrated pest management programs. Although morphological keys are available for North American species, identification can still be challenging owing to the nature of sample preparation and incompatibility with molecular or biochemical-based pathology assays. Further, the potential for introduction of Old World or other exotic species is not accounted for by current keys. Herein, we present the development and validation of a restriction fragment-length polymorphism-based molecular identification method. Specifically, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, a mitochondrial DNA marker, was used to distinguish two species of adult sand flies indigenous to eastern North America with two exotic species not yet known to occur in the United States.

  13. [Urogenital Myiasis Caused by Psychoda albipennis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Woman in Siirt].

    PubMed

    Beyhan, Yunus Emre; Yılmaz, Hasan; Baran, Ali İrfan; Taş Cengiz, Zeynep; Yakan, Ümit; Ekici, Abdurrahman

    2015-12-01

    Urogenital myiasis cases occurring with the settlement of larvae of flies belonging to the order Diptera are facultative and are rarely encountered in humans. In this study, urogenital myiasis caused by Psychoda albipennis in a 20-year-old female patient was presented. The patient was admitted to our hospital with complaints of nausea, vomiting, and dysuria and claimed that she saw motile larvae in her urine. Five larvae collected from the patient's urine were microscopically examined, and they were identified as fourth-stage larvae of Psychoda albipennis. Complaints of the patient ceased after the application of an antibiotic and urinary antiseptic. It was concluded that myiasis should be considered in patients with urogenital complaints.

  14. National Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Survey in The Netherlands 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Ibañez-Justicia, A; Stroo, A; Dik, M; Beeuwkes, J; Scholte, E J

    2015-03-01

    From 2010 onwards, a nationwide mosquito monitoring scheme has been conducted in The Netherlands with the aim of gaining crucial information about mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition, geographical distributions, biodiversity, and habitat preferences. The results of this study are based on 778 randomly sampled mosquito locations. These are divided into three main habitat types: urban, rural-agricultural, and natural areas. Twenty-seven mosquito species were found: 26 indigenous and 1 exotic, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The preliminary results are presented here, with details of their species distribution and seasonality. Monitoring the temporal and spatial distribution of mosquitoes is an essential step in the risk analysis of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  15. An integrative approach to unravel the Ceratitis FAR (Diptera, Tephritidae) cryptic species complex: a review

    PubMed Central

    De Meyer, Marc; Delatte, Hélène; Ekesi, Sunday; Jordaens, Kurt; Kalinová, Blanka; Manrakhan, Aruna; Mwatawala, Maulid; Steck, Gary; Van Cann, Joannes; Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Virgilio, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper reviews all information gathered from different disciplines and studies to resolve the species status within the Ceratitis FAR (Ceratitis fasciventris, Ceratitis anonae, Ceratitis rosa) complex, a group of polyphagous fruit fly pest species (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Africa. It includes information on larval and adult morphology, wing morphometrics, cuticular hydrocarbons, pheromones, microsatellites, developmental physiology and geographic distribution. The general consensus is that the FAR complex comprises Ceratitis anonae, two species within Ceratitis rosa (so-called R1 and R2) and two putatitve species under Ceratitis fasciventris. The information regarding the latter is, however, too limited to draw final conclusions on specific status. Evidence for this recognition is discussed with reference to publications providing further details. PMID:26798270

  16. A fossil biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from early Eocene Indian amber with a complex pheromone evaporator

    PubMed Central

    Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Rühr, Peter T.; Singh, Hukam; Hammel, Jörg U.; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Rust, Jes

    2016-01-01

    The life-like fidelity of organisms captured in amber is unique among all kinds of fossilization and represents an invaluable source for different fields of palaeontological and biological research. One of the most challenging aspects in amber research is the study of traits related to behaviour. Here, indirect evidence for pheromone-mediated mating behaviour is recorded from a biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) in 54 million-year-old Indian amber. Camptopterohelea odora n. sp. exhibits a complex, pocket shaped structure on the wings, which resembles the wing folds of certain moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and scent organs that are only known from butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) so far. Our studies suggests that pheromone releasing structures on the wings have evolved independently in biting midges and might be much more widespread in fossil as well as modern insects than known so far. PMID:27698490

  17. Spatial stratification of host-seeking Diptera in boreal forests of northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Swanson, D A; Adler, P H; Malmqvist, B

    2012-03-01

    The stratification of haematophagous Diptera was assessed in two boreal forests in northern Sweden by placing traps baited with carbon dioxide at 1.5 m, 5.0 m and 10.0 m above the ground. More than 40 000 specimens were captured, including 617 biting midges (Ceratopogonidae), 4029 mosquitoes (Culicidae) and 36 092 black flies (Simuliidae). Catches at the various trap heights reflected the general vertical distribution of the preferred hosts, with mammalophilic flies predominating (68.6%) in catches at 1.5 m and ornithophilic flies (42.4%) in catches at 10.0 m; however, most flies that use host birds at ground level were caught in the lowest traps (e.g. 85.1% of Simulium annulus were collected at 1.5 m). Within-species variation in vertical patterns between forests suggests plasticity in responses to environmental factors such as vegetative structure.

  18. Analysis of somatic and salivary gland antigens of third stage larvae of Rhinoestrus spp. (Diptera, Oestridae).

    PubMed

    Milillo, Piermarino; Traversa, Donato; Elia, Gabriella; Otranto, Domenico

    2010-04-01

    Larvae of Rhinoestrus spp. (Diptera, Oestridae) infect nasal and sinus cavities of horses, causing a nasal myiasis characterized by severe respiratory distress. Presently, the diagnosis of horse nasal botfly relies on the observation of clinical signs, on the post mortem retrieval of larvae or on molecular assays performed using pharyngeal swabs. The present study was carried out to characterize larval somatic proteins and salivary glands of Rhinoestrus spp. in a preliminary assessment towards the immunodiagnosis of equine rhinoestrosis. Out of the 212 necropsied horses 13 were positive for the presence of Rhinoestrus spp. larvae. The analysis of the sera from the infected animals by Western blotting assay showed the presence of a specific host humoral immune response against Rhinoestrus spp. larvae and proved that the salivary glands are the major immunogens in horse nasal botflies.

  19. National Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Survey in The Netherlands 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Ibañez-Justicia, A; Stroo, A; Dik, M; Beeuwkes, J; Scholte, E J

    2015-03-01

    From 2010 onwards, a nationwide mosquito monitoring scheme has been conducted in The Netherlands with the aim of gaining crucial information about mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition, geographical distributions, biodiversity, and habitat preferences. The results of this study are based on 778 randomly sampled mosquito locations. These are divided into three main habitat types: urban, rural-agricultural, and natural areas. Twenty-seven mosquito species were found: 26 indigenous and 1 exotic, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The preliminary results are presented here, with details of their species distribution and seasonality. Monitoring the temporal and spatial distribution of mosquitoes is an essential step in the risk analysis of emerging mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:26336303

  20. New records and new species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) developing on Chenopodiaceae in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Ayman Khamis; Skuhravá, Marcela; Karam, Hedaya Hamza; Elminshawy, Abdelaziz; Al-Eryan, Mohamed Awad

    2015-01-05

    The Cecidomyiidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha) fauna of Egypt is poorly known. Investigations in northern Egypt in 2013 revealed the presence of seven species of gall midges on three host plant species: Atriplex halimus L., Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric.) and Suaeda pruniosa Lange (all Chenopodiaceae). Among the gall midges, Baldratia salicorniae  Kieffer and Stefaniella trinacriae De Stefani are reconfirmed records in Egypt; Houardiella gracilis Dorchin & Freidberg and Asphondylia punica Marchal are new records; and Baldratia karamae Elsayed & Skuhraván. sp. , Primofavilla aegyptiaca Elsayed n. sp. and Stefaniella skuhravae Elsayed n. sp. are new to science. Adult morphology of the latter three new species is described and illustrated, and their biology and geographic distribution are given. 

  1. Unusual Occurrence of Cocoons in Population of Haplodiplosis marginata (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Censier, F.; Chavalle, S.; Knor, S.; De Proft, M.; Bodson, B.; Skuhravá, M.

    2014-01-01

    The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a phytophagous species that develops in saddle-shaped galls on stems of wheat Triticum vulgare, barley Hordeum sativum, rye Secale cereale, and some other species of Poaceae. Only one generation develops per year. Full-grown larvae leave galls and drop onto the soil where they remain up to the springtime of the following year. Larvae do not usually spin cocoons. However, formation of cocoons by larvae was observed in populations developing in western Europe: in England in 1954, in the Netherlands in the 1960s, and in Belgium in 2011. On the basis of our analysis, a part of the larval population forms cocoons as protection against unfavorable weather conditions, especially drought. PMID:25525104

  2. Sex chromosomes in mitotic and polytene tissues of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Argentina: a review

    PubMed Central

    Giardini, María Cecilia; Milla, Fabián H.; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Nieves, Mariela; Cladera, Jorge L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cytogenetics, which is considered a fundamental tool to understand basic genetic and genomic issues of species, has greatly contributed to the description of polymorphisms both at inter- and intra-specific level. In fact, cytogenetics was one of the first approaches used to propose Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a complex of cryptic species. Different morphological variants of sex chromosomes have been reported among Argentinean populations of Anastrepha fraterculus. However, since this high structural variability in sex chromosomes does not pose a reproductive barrier, their role in speciation is yet to be unveiled. This review provides an update on general aspects of cytogenetics in Argentinean Anastrepha fraterculus populations, focused on the prevalence of X-Y arrangements. PMID:26798255

  3. Selection of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Specific Recombinant Monoclonal Phage Display Antibodies for Prey Detection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Monzó, César; Urbaneja, Alberto; Ximénez-Embún, Miguel; García-Fernández, Julia; García, José Luis; Castañera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Several recombinant antibodies against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most important pests in agriculture worldwide, were selected for the first time from a commercial phage display library of human scFv antibodies. The specificity and sensitivity of the selected recombinant antibodies were compared with that of a rabbit polyclonal serum raised in parallel using a wide range of arthropod species as controls. The selected recombinant monoclonal antibodies had a similar or greater specificity when compared with classical monoclonal antibodies. The selected recombinant antibodies were successfully used to detect the target antigen in the gut of predators and the scFv antibodies were sequenced and compared. These results demonstrate the potential for recombinant scFv antibodies to be used as an alternative to the classical monoclonal antibodies or even molecular probes in the post-mortem analysis studies of generalist predators. PMID:23272105

  4. Effects of neem limonoids on the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Nathan, Sengottayan Senthil; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2005-10-01

    The effects of the neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) limonoids azadirachtin, salannin, deacetylgedunin, gedunin, 17-hydroxyazadiradione and deacetylnimbin on Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae) were investigated. In exploring advantages of pure neem limonoids, we studied the larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal and antiovipositional activity of neem limonoids. Azadirachtin, salannin and deacetylgedunin showed high bioactivity at all doses, while the rest of the neem limonoids were less active, and were only biologically active at high doses. Azadirachtin was the most potent in all experiments and produced almost 100% larval mortality at 1 ppm concentration. In general, first to third larval instars were more susceptible to the neem limonoids. Neem products may have benefits in mosquito control programs. PMID:16112073

  5. The type specimens of Calyptratae (Diptera) housed in non-traditional institutions in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Domínguez, M Cecilia; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-14

    The type material of species of Calyptratae Diptera belonging to Anthomyiidae, Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, and Tachinidae, housed in the collections of non-traditional institutions in Argentina were examined. These collections were included in the recently created "Sistema Nacional de Datos Biológicos" (National Biological Data System). We examined four collections: "Administración Nacional de Laboratorios e Institutos de Salud 'Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán'" (ANLIS), "Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Castelar, Buenos Aires" (INTA), "Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas" (IADIZA); and "Fundación Félix de Azara" (CFA). Comparison of the original descriptions of these species with the label information revealed the existence of 24 holotypes, 5 lectotypes, 11 syntypes, and 441 paratypes/paralectotypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition. 

  6. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

    PubMed Central

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S.; Dhafer, Hathal M. Al

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopa linearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylum candidum and Bombomyia discoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone. PMID:25878533

  7. Checklist and pictorial key to fourth-instar larvae of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Ahmad, Azzam M; Sallam, Mohamed F; Khuriji, Mohamed A; Kheir, Salah M; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad

    2011-07-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia includes fauna from three zoogeographic regions: the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Palaearctic regions. To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of these regions in Saudi Arabia, larval collections were made at 15 sites during 2005-2006. Thirty-three species representing nine genera were found. Six species, Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l., Culex arbieeni Salem, Culex simpsoni Theobald, Culex univittatus Theobald, and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday are reported for the first time for Saudi Arabia. An annotated checklist and an illustrated key to the fourth-instar larvae of the 33 species are presented, along with some remarks about problematic species. Eleven species of genus Anopheles Meigen, five species of tribe Aedini, 13 species of genus Culex L., two species of genus Culiseta Felt, one species of genus Lutzia Theobald, and one species of genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribátlzaga were recorded during the study.

  8. Differential emergence of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from on-farm breeding substrates in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Geoffrey M; Jess, Stephen; Murchie, Archie K

    2013-05-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of a number of viral diseases worldwide. Following the unforeseen outbreak of bluetongue in northern Europe (2006–2009) there was a need to clarify on-farm breeding substrates utilized by temperate Culicoides spp. Six substrates (cow dung, cow slurry, horse dung, sheep dung, maize silage and soil) were investigated for Culicoides spp. emergence over a 31-week period. Overall, most Obsoletus group Culicoides emerged from the cow dung and the most Pulicaris group Culicoides emerged from the sheep dung. Furthermore, Culicoides of the Obsoletus group were found to be abundant in cow slurry and sheep dung. Temperature played a significant role in the emergence times of adult Culicoides. The Obsoletus group appear to have undergone 3 generations during the experimental period. The sex ratio of emergent Obsoletus group Culicoides was affected by substrate type, with a greater proportion of males emerging from cow dung and slurry compared with the other substrates.

  9. Sex chromosomes in mitotic and polytene tissues of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Argentina: a review.

    PubMed

    Giardini, María Cecilia; Milla, Fabián H; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Nieves, Mariela; Cladera, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    Cytogenetics, which is considered a fundamental tool to understand basic genetic and genomic issues of species, has greatly contributed to the description of polymorphisms both at inter- and intra-specific level. In fact, cytogenetics was one of the first approaches used to propose Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a complex of cryptic species. Different morphological variants of sex chromosomes have been reported among Argentinean populations of Anastrepha fraterculus. However, since this high structural variability in sex chromosomes does not pose a reproductive barrier, their role in speciation is yet to be unveiled. This review provides an update on general aspects of cytogenetics in Argentinean Anastrepha fraterculus populations, focused on the prevalence of X-Y arrangements. PMID:26798255

  10. Blow fly maggots (Diptera: Calliphoridae)from a human corpse in a vehicle.

    PubMed

    Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Monum, Tawachai; Wannasan, Anchalee; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2014-09-01

    Correct species identification and development data of insects associated with a cadaver can help estimate the time of colonization which could be used to infer a minimal post-mortem interval (minPMI) for forensic investigations. Human remains are found in a variety of locations ranging from open fields to inside automobiles. We report the investigation of blow fly larvae collected from a decomposing body located in the trunk of a car. There were two blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species: Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Blow flies can enter the vehicle and colonize human remains. Based on age estimations of third stage larvae of A. rufifacies, the minPMI was estimated to be 4-5 days, which was within the range of 3-5 days estimated by other forensically relevant information.

  11. Lucifensin II, a defensin of medicinal maggots of the blowfly Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    El Shazely, Baydaa; Veverka, V; Fucík, V; Voburka, Z; Zdárek, J; Cerovský, V

    2013-05-01

    A novel homolog of insect defensin, designated lucifensin II (Lucilia cuprina Wiedemann [Diptera: Calliphoridae] defensin), was purified from hemolymph extract from larvae of the blowfly L. cuprina. The full-length primary sequence of this peptide of 40 amino acid residues and three intramolecular disulfide bridges was determined by electrospray ionization-orbitrap mass spectrometry and Edman degradation and is almost identical to the previously identified sequence of lucifensin (Lucilia sericata Meigen defensin). Lucifensin II sequence differs from that of lucifensin by only one amino acid residue, that is, by isoleucine instead of valine at position 11. The presence of lucifensin II also was detected in the extracts of other larval tissues, such as gut, salivary glands, fat body, and whole body extract.

  12. New spider flies from the Neotropical Region (Diptera, Acroceridae) with a key to New World genera

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Evert I.; Gillung, Jessica P.; Borkent, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new genera and five new species of spider flies (Diptera: Acroceridae) are described from the Neotropical Region. A new genus of Philopotinae (Neophilopota brevirostris Schlinger gen. et sp. n.) is described from Mexico, while an unusual new species of Sphaerops Philippi, 1865 (Acrocerinae: Sphaerops micella Schlinger sp. n.) is described from Chile. A new Panopinae genus near Lasia Wiedemann, 1824 (Coquena stangei Schlinger gen. et sp. n.), is described from Argentina and two new species of Pialea Erichson, 1840 (Pialea brunea Schlinger sp. n. and Pialea corbiculata Schlinger sp. n.)are described from Venezuela. Each genus is diagnosed and figured, and a key to species provided. The Neotropical fauna presently includes 19 genera, containing approximately 100 species. A key to New World genera is also included. PMID:23730188

  13. Optimizing Trap Design and Trapping Protocols for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Renkema, Justin M; Buitenhuis, Rosemarije; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2014-12-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a recent invasive pest of fruit crops in North America and Europe. Carpophagous larvae render fruit unmarketable and may promote secondary rot-causing organisms. To monitor spread and develop programs to time application of controls, further work is needed to optimize trap design and trapping protocols for adult D. suzukii. We compared commercial traps and developed a new, easy-to-use plastic jar trap that performed well compared with other designs. For some trap types, increasing the entry area led to increased D. suzukii captures and improved selectivity for D. suzukii when populations were low. However, progressive entry area enlargement had diminishing returns, particularly for commercial traps. Unlike previous studies, we found putting holes in trap lids under a close-fitting cover improved captures compared with holes on sides of traps. Also, red and black traps outperformed yellow and clear traps when traps of all colors were positioned 10-15 cm apart above crop foliage. In smaller traps, attractant surface area and entry area, but not other trap features (e.g., headspace volume), appeared to affect D. suzukii captures. In the new, plastic jar trap, tripling attractant volume (360 vs 120 ml) and weekly attractant replacement resulted in the highest D. suzukii captures, but in the larger commercial trap these measures only increased by-catch of large-bodied Diptera. Overall, the plastic jar trap with large entry area is affordable, durable, and can hold high attractant volumes to maximize D. suzukii capture and selectivity. PMID:26470076

  14. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.

  15. A transcriptional and proteomic survey of Arachnocampa luminosa (Diptera: Keroplatidae) lanterns gives insights into the origin of bioluminescence from the Malpighian tubules in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Silva, J R; Amaral, D T; Hastings, J W; Wilson, T; Viviani, V R

    2015-11-01

    Fungus-gnats of the genus Arachnocampa are unique among bioluminescent insects for displaying blue-green bioluminescence, and are responsible for one of the most beautiful bioluminescence spectacles on the roofs of the Waitomo Caves. Despite morphological studies showing that Arachnocampa larval lanterns involve specialization of the Malpighian tubules, the biochemical origin of their bioluminescence remains enigmatic. Using a cDNA library previously constructed from lanterns of the New Zealand glowworm A. luminosa, we carried out the first transcriptional analysis of ~ 500 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to identify putative candidate proteins for light production, and to better understand the molecular physiology of the lanterns and their relationship with Malpighian tubule physiology. The analysis showed an abundance of hexamerin-like proteins, as well as luciferase-like enzymes, indicating a possible critical role for these proteins in bioluminescence. These findings were corroborated by proteomic analysis of lantern extracts, which showed the presence of hexamerins and luciferase-like enzymes. Other gene products typical of Malpighian tubules, such as detoxifying enzymes, were also found. The results support the existence of an evolutionary link between Malpighian tubule detoxification and the origin of bioluminescence in these Diptera.

  16. A transcriptional and proteomic survey of Arachnocampa luminosa (Diptera: Keroplatidae) lanterns gives insights into the origin of bioluminescence from the Malpighian tubules in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Silva, J R; Amaral, D T; Hastings, J W; Wilson, T; Viviani, V R

    2015-11-01

    Fungus-gnats of the genus Arachnocampa are unique among bioluminescent insects for displaying blue-green bioluminescence, and are responsible for one of the most beautiful bioluminescence spectacles on the roofs of the Waitomo Caves. Despite morphological studies showing that Arachnocampa larval lanterns involve specialization of the Malpighian tubules, the biochemical origin of their bioluminescence remains enigmatic. Using a cDNA library previously constructed from lanterns of the New Zealand glowworm A. luminosa, we carried out the first transcriptional analysis of ~ 500 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to identify putative candidate proteins for light production, and to better understand the molecular physiology of the lanterns and their relationship with Malpighian tubule physiology. The analysis showed an abundance of hexamerin-like proteins, as well as luciferase-like enzymes, indicating a possible critical role for these proteins in bioluminescence. These findings were corroborated by proteomic analysis of lantern extracts, which showed the presence of hexamerins and luciferase-like enzymes. Other gene products typical of Malpighian tubules, such as detoxifying enzymes, were also found. The results support the existence of an evolutionary link between Malpighian tubule detoxification and the origin of bioluminescence in these Diptera. PMID:25676901

  17. [The results of a trial in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam of clothing providing mechanical protection against the bites of blood-sucking Diptera].

    PubMed

    Gornostaeva, R M; Zhukova, L I

    1993-01-01

    The tested overalls for protection in hot climate may be recommended only for the protection of people engaged in work involving little movement (fishermen, watchmen, etc.). For wider use of such overalls in hot regions the design should be changed, the alterations are described in the paper. Further trials of the overalls should be carried out with its modified design; this costume provides adequate mechanical protection from the bites of mosquitoes and other blood-sucking Diptera and it will be widely used in the tropics, where blood-sucking Diptera contribute much to infection transmission.

  18. Ammonium acetate enhances the attractiveness of a variety of protein-based baits to female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia and its derivatives are used largely by female fruit 32 flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally-based control strategies such a food-based lures a...

  19. Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae) biological control agents of Solenopsis spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Louisiana: statewide distribution and Kneallhazia solenopsae (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae) prevalence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phorid flies, Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae), have been released in the United States since 1996 as biological control agents for imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, Solenopsis richteri Forel, and their hybrid (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), management. A statewide survey was conducted in ...

  20. A new species of Neolasioptera (Diptera: Cecidomyiiidae) from Parkinsonia aculeata (Leguninosae) in Argentina for possible use in biological control in Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neolasioptera parkinsoniae Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is described as a new species from stem swellings on Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Leguminosae) in NW Argentina. The new species appears to be a good candidate for the biological control of its host in Australia, where the plant was accidentally i...

  1. A Guide to Basic Taxonomic Literature for the Genera of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) - Adults, Pupae, and Larvae. Bulletin No. 447.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Karl W.

    A generic list of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) is presented to help aquatic biologists quickly locate important taxonomic references for the adults, larvae, and pupae of each genus. The list (in chart format) includes literature published through 1981. When recent literature is available, older references are omitted, since the purpose of…

  2. Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause millions of human deaths each year. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans in tropical and subtropical areas by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The use of synthetic insecticides to control this mosquito is accompanied by high operational costs and adverse...

  3. A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, a parasitoid of Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, Lixophaga puscolulo Carrejo & Woodley, sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a parasitoid of the tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Solanum quitoense Lam....

  4. Chilling and host plant/site associated eclosion times of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) and a host-specific parasitoid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ~100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of ad...

  5. An overview of tropical pest species of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the integration of biopesticides with other biological approaches for their management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication prog...

  6. Classical biological control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera olea (Diptera: Tephritidae), using the exotic parasitoie, Psyttalia lounsburyi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in France.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an important pest of olives which is worldwide distributed and responsible for economic losses of approximately US$800 million per year. Since the 2000s both economical and environmental concerns have raised interested in clas...

  7. Population structure of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) assessed on a global scale using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is a major pest of livestock in the United States and worldwide. To assess the genetic variability in geographically distant stable flies, samples were obtained from four biogeographical regions: Nearctic, Neotropical, Palearctic, and Aus...

  8. Insects found on a human cadaver in central Italy including the blowfly Calliphora loewi (Diptera, Calliphoridae), a new species of forensic interest.

    PubMed

    Vanin, S; Gherardi, M; Bugelli, V; Di Paolo, M

    2011-04-15

    In the case of unidentified bodies the estimation of the period since death or of the season of death plays an important role to focus the attention on a reduced number of people among the ones reported missing. Forensic entomology can be one of the most important methods for these estimations, as occurred in this case. Flies are typically the first insects to colonize a dead body. The case reported here concerns the colonisation by insects of a male body in advanced decay found during the winter in Central Italy. This case is of particular interest as few data are available on the entomological evidence in the cold season. In particular, in this case we recovered Calliphora loewi (Calliphoridae), a species never collected before on dead bodies in Southern Europe. Larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (Stratiomyidae), pupae and larvae belonging to genus Hydrothea (Muscidae), and Necrobia rufipes (Cleridae) specimens were also collected. The estimated PMI enabled identification of the cadaver, confirmed by DNA analysis. PMID:21282022

  9. Insects found on a human cadaver in central Italy including the blowfly Calliphora loewi (Diptera, Calliphoridae), a new species of forensic interest.

    PubMed

    Vanin, S; Gherardi, M; Bugelli, V; Di Paolo, M

    2011-04-15

    In the case of unidentified bodies the estimation of the period since death or of the season of death plays an important role to focus the attention on a reduced number of people among the ones reported missing. Forensic entomology can be one of the most important methods for these estimations, as occurred in this case. Flies are typically the first insects to colonize a dead body. The case reported here concerns the colonisation by insects of a male body in advanced decay found during the winter in Central Italy. This case is of particular interest as few data are available on the entomological evidence in the cold season. In particular, in this case we recovered Calliphora loewi (Calliphoridae), a species never collected before on dead bodies in Southern Europe. Larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (Stratiomyidae), pupae and larvae belonging to genus Hydrothea (Muscidae), and Necrobia rufipes (Cleridae) specimens were also collected. The estimated PMI enabled identification of the cadaver, confirmed by DNA analysis.

  10. Sexual selection on multivariate phenotypes in Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Sciurano, R.; Rodriguero, M.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.L.; Allinghi, Armando

    2007-03-15

    Despite the interest in applying environmentally friendly control methods such as sterile insect technique (SIT) against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), information about its biology, taxonomy, and behavior is still insufficient. To increase this information, the present study aims to evaluate the performance of wild flies under field cage conditions through the study of sexual competitiveness among males (sexual selection). A wild population from Horco Molle, Tucuman, Argentina was sampled. Mature virgin males and females were released into outdoor field cages to compete for mating. Morphometric analyses were applied to determine the relationship between the multivariate phenotype and copulatory success. Successful and unsuccessful males were measured for 8 traits: head width (HW), face width (FW), eye length (EL), thorax length (THL), wing length (WL), wing width (WW), femur length (FL), and tibia length (TIL). Combinations of different multivariate statistical methods and graphical analyses were used to evaluate sexual selection on male phenotype. The results indicated that wing width and thorax length would be the most probable targets of sexual selection. They describe a non-linear association between expected fitness and each of these 2 traits. This non-linear relation suggests that observed selection could maintain the diversity related to body size. (author) [Spanish] A pesar del interes por la aplicacion de metodos de control de bajo impacto ambiental sobre Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae), como la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE), no existe aun informacion suficiente sobre su biologia, taxonomia y comportamiento. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar el desempeno de moscas en jaulas de campo a traves del estudio de la competitividad sexual entre machos salvajes (seleccion sexual). Para ello, se muestreo una poblacion de Horco Molle, Tucuman (Argentina). En jaulas de campo se liberaron machos y hembras adultos

  11. The type specimens of Tachinidae (Diptera) housed in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Bachmann, Axel Oscar; O'Hara, James E

    2013-01-01

    The type material of species of Tachinidae (Diptera) housed in the collection of the Entomology Division of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" were examined and are herein documented. The collection contains 202 type specimens consisting of 54 species described by E.E. Blanchard and 12 described by J. Brèthes. Comparison of their original descriptions with the label information reveals the existence of 24 holotypes, 1 lectotype, 141 syntypes and 36 paratypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition.

  12. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    PubMed

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city. PMID:26335483

  13. The first report of Telomerina flavipes (Meigen, 1830) (Diptera, Sphaeroceridae) in a forensic case, with redescription of its pupa.

    PubMed

    Arnaldos, María-Isabel; Ubero-Pascal, Nicolás; García, Rafael; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Presa, Juan-José; García, María-Dolores

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a forensic investigation that took place in the city of Murcia (SE Spain) and shows how the entomological specimens collected at the scene were extremely helpful for estimating the minimum post-mortem interval (PMImin). The occurrence of Telomerina flavipes (Meigen, 1830) (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) is reported here for the first time in a forensic case. Additionally, the importance of other entomological evidence in this case is discussed. The first known images of the puparium are provided, as well as its redescription and that of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton recovered from the puparium.

  14. First record of genus Puliciphora Dahl (Diptera: Phoridae) associated with rabbit carcasses placed in concealed environments in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zuha, Raja Muhammad; See, Huong Wen; Disney, R Henry L; Omar, Baharudin

    2014-12-01

    Scuttle flies of genus Puliciphora Dahl (Diptera: Phoridae) are recorded for the first time in Malaysia from rabbit carcasses placed in concealed environments. They consist of Puliciphora borinquenensis Wheeler ♂♀, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Puliciphora beckeri Meijere ♀. All species were obtained from rabbit carcasses in used luggage and garbage bin placed at Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor. The specimens were collected from the carcasses using a modified Malaise trap, an entomological aspirator and preserved in 70% ethanol. This report expands the geographical distributions of these species and their microhabitat, suggests its possible important role in forensic entomology.

  15. New species and records of Pseudacteon Coquillett, 1907 (Diptera, Phoridae), parasitoids of the fire ant Solenopsis geminata group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Thalles Platiny Lavinscky; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; Bravo, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    The genus Pseudacteon Coquillett (Diptera, Phoridae) has a worldwide distribution and comprises parasitic myrmecophilous species that decapitate host ants. Seventy one species are known in the genus, 41 of them occur in the Neotropical Region and are 25 from Brazil. In northeastern Brazil, there are only records for two species, Pseudacteon dentiger Borgmeier and Pseudacteon antiguensis Malloch. In this paper, two new species of the genus are described from female specimens, Pseudacteon pesqueroi new spec. and Pseudacteon plowesi new spec., and also, new records of three Pseudacteon species for the Brazilian Northeast are given. PMID:26624156

  16. The impact of industrial anthropization on mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) communities in mangrove areas of Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

    PubMed

    de Souza, A S; Couri, M S; Florindo, L

    2012-02-01

    The effects of industrial anthropization on species composition and community diversity of Culicidae (Diptera) were studied in a mangrove area impacted by industrial activities as compared to a preserved area, both around Guanabara Bay in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Diversity, equitability, and species richness in Culicidae community differed between the studied areas. Indicator species analysis and correspondence analysis were carried out and indicated that the Sabethini, especially Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) theobaldi Lane, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) fuscipes (Edwards), and a non-identified species of Wyeomyia sp. were associated to the preserved area, whereas Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann and Aedes scapularis (Rondani) to the impacted area.

  17. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    PubMed

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city.

  18. First record of genus Puliciphora Dahl (Diptera: Phoridae) associated with rabbit carcasses placed in concealed environments in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zuha, Raja Muhammad; See, Huong Wen; Disney, R Henry L; Omar, Baharudin

    2014-12-01

    Scuttle flies of genus Puliciphora Dahl (Diptera: Phoridae) are recorded for the first time in Malaysia from rabbit carcasses placed in concealed environments. They consist of Puliciphora borinquenensis Wheeler ♂♀, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Puliciphora beckeri Meijere ♀. All species were obtained from rabbit carcasses in used luggage and garbage bin placed at Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor. The specimens were collected from the carcasses using a modified Malaise trap, an entomological aspirator and preserved in 70% ethanol. This report expands the geographical distributions of these species and their microhabitat, suggests its possible important role in forensic entomology. PMID:25466156

  19. Community dynamics of leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera) in a natural habitat from Central Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valladares, Graciela; Salvo, Adriana

    2001-12-01

    We examined the temporal community dynamics of leafminers (Agromyzidae: Diptera) and their mainly polyphagous parasitoids in a natural habitat from Central Argentina. Changes in community composition are shown by changes in dominant species and similarity coefficients. Abundance of leafminers was highest in winter, and was not related to their species richness. Abundance and species richness were correlated in the parasitoid community. Temporal variation in parasitoid diversity and abundance were positively correlated with species number and density in the host community. Apparent parasitism was greater when parasitoid species richness was high and parasitoid community dominance was low.

  20. Mechanical transmission of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus by Simulium vittatum (Diptera: Simuliidae) to domestic swine (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul F; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Carter, Deborah; Gray, Elmer W; Noblet, Raymond; Mead, Daniel G

    2009-11-01

    Biting flies have been suggested as mechanical vectors of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey Virus (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) in livestock populations during epidemic outbreaks in the western United States. We conducted a proof-of-concept study to determine whether biting flies could mechanically transmit VSNJV to livestock by using a black fly, Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt (Diptera: Simuliidae), domestic swine, Sus scrofa L., model. Black flies mechanically transmitted VSNJV to a naive host after interrupted feeding on a vesicular lesion on a previously infected host. Transmission resulted in clinical disease in the naïve host. This is the first demonstration of mechanical transmission of VSNJV to livestock by insects.

  1. Recent noteworthy findings of fungus gnats from Finland and northwestern Russia (Diptera: Ditomyiidae, Keroplatidae, Bolitophilidae and Mycetophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New faunistic data on fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaroidea excluding Sciaridae) from Finland and NW Russia (Karelia and Murmansk Region) are presented. A total of 64 and 34 species are reported for the first time form Finland and Russian Karelia, respectively. Nine of the species are also new for the European fauna: Mycomya shewelli Väisänen, 1984, Mycomya thula Väisänen, 1984, Acnemia trifida Zaitzev, 1982, Coelosia gracilis Johannsen, 1912, Orfelia krivosheinae Zaitzev, 1994, Mycetophila biformis Maximova, 2002, Mycetophila monstera Maximova, 2002, Mycetophila uschaica Subbotina & Maximova, 2011 and Trichonta palustris Maximova, 2002. PMID:24891825

  2. Morphology, Ultrastructure and Possible Functions of Antennal Sensilla of Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Li, Dan; Liu, Yang; Li, Xue-Jiao; Cheng, Wei-Ning; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical. Seven types of sensilla were identified in both sexes. Two types of s. chaetica have a lumen without dendrites and thick walls, suggesting that they are mechanoreceptors. S. trichodea and s. circumfila are typical chemoreceptors, possessing thin multiporous walls encircling a lumen with multiple dendrites. There are significantly more s. trichodea in female than in male, which may be related to host plant localization. In contrast, male s. circumfila are highly elongated compared to those of females, perhaps for pheromone detection. Peg-shaped s. coeloconica are innervated with unbranched dendrites extending from the base to the distal tip. Type 1 s. coeloconica, which have deep longitudinal grooves and finger-like projections on the surface, may serve as olfactory or humidity receptors, whereas type 2 s. coeloconica, smooth with a terminal pore, may be contact chemoreceptors. Also, this is the first report of Böhm' bristles at proximal scape on antennae of Cecidomyiid species potentially functioning as mechanoreceptors. PMID:27623751

  3. Unveiling of a cryptic Dicranomyia (Idiopyga) from northern Finland using integrative approach (Diptera, Limoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kaunisto, Kari M; Vahtera, Varpu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The subgenus Idiopyga Savchenko, 1987 is a northern hemisphere group of short-palped crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae). In the current article we describe a new species, Dicranomyia (I.) boreobaltica Salmela sp.n., and redescribe the male and female post-abdomen of a closely related species, D. (I.) intricata Alexander. A standard DNA barcoding fragment of 5′ region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene of the new species is presented, whilst the K2P minimum distances between the new species and 10 other species of the subgenus were found to range from 5.1 to 15.7 % (mean 11.2 %). Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony and maximum likelihood) based on COI sequences support the identity of the new species and its close relationship with D. (I.) intricata and D. (I.) esbeni (Nielsen). The new species is known from the northern Baltic area of Finland. The new species has been mostly collected from Baltic coastal meadows but an additional relict population is known from a calcareous rich fen that was estimated to have been at sea level circa 600-700 years ago. Dicranomyia (I.) intricata (syn. D. suecica Nielsen) is a Holarctic species, occurring in the north boreal and subarctic vegetation zones in Fennoscandia. PMID:25535487

  4. Near Infrared Imaging As a Method of Studying Tsetse Fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) Pupal Development.

    PubMed

    Moran, Zelda R; Parker, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) photography and video was investigated as a method for observing and recording intrapuparial development in the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis and other Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha) Diptera. We showed that NIR light passes through the puparium, permitting images of the true pupae and pharate adult to be captured. Various wavelengths of NIR light from 880 to 1060 nm were compared to study the development of tsetse fly pupae from larviposition to emergence, using time-lapse videos and photographs. This study was carried out to advance our understanding of tsetse pupal development, specifically with the goal of improving a sorting technique which could separate male from female tsetse flies several days before emergence. Separation of the sexes at this stage is highly desirable for operational tsetse sterile insect technique control programmes, as it would permit the easy retention of females for the colony while allowing the males to be handled, irradiated and shipped in the pupal stage when they are less sensitive to vibration. In addition, it presents a new methodology for studying the pupal stage of many coarctate insects for many applications. NIR imaging permits observation of living pupae, allowing the entire development process to be observed without disruption. PMID:27402791

  5. Age-dependent changes in cuticular hydrocarbons of larvae in Aldrichina grahami (Aldrich) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Ye, Gong-Yin; Xu, Ying; Hu, Cui; Zhu, Guang-Hui

    2014-09-01

    Necrophagous flies, comprising the first wave of insects present in a cadaver, provide a great potential for more accurate determination of the late postmortem interval (PMI) based on their age. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs) are a promising age indicator in some insect species, especially for the larvae of necrophagous flies. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to characterize the age-dependent, quantitative changes in CHs of larval Aldrichina grahami (Aldrich) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) at 24°C. The majority of low-molecular-weight alkanes (≤C25) and almost all of the alkenes decreased in abundance with larval development. By contrast, the abundance of high-molecular-weight alkanes of chain length greater than C25 gradually increased with age. For several peaks, including peak 28 (pentacosene a), peak 31 (n-C25), peak 43 (n-C27) and peak 68 (n-C31), a highly significant correlation was found between peak ratio (n-C29 divided by each chromatographic peak) and chronological age of the larvae. A mathematical model, derived from multivariate linear regression analysis, was developed for determining age of the larvae based on age-dependent changes in CHs. The estimated larval age based on the CHs had a good linear correlation with the chronological age (R(2)>0.9). These results indicate that CHs has a great potential for determining the age of fly larvae, and concomitantly for the PMI in forensic investigation.

  6. Descriptions of three new species of the genus Cheilosia Meigen from China (Diptera, Syrphidae).

    PubMed

    Barkalov, Anatolij V; Ståhls, Gunilla

    2015-01-01

    Three species of genus Cheilosia (Diptera, Syrphidae: Eristalinae) from China are described as new to science, Cheilosia bullabucca Barkalov & Ståhls sp. n., C. lamproptera Barkalov & Ståhls sp. n. and C. yunnanensis Barkalov & Ståhls sp. n. We provide species descriptions and keys for their identification. The phylogenetic placements of the taxa was estimated based on their morphological characteristics and by analysing the taxa under parsimony using a mtDNA COI sequence dataset including a comprehensive set of Palaearctic previously generated Cheilosia spp. sequences representing all major subgenera. Based on both their morphological affinities and the molecular data. The Chinese taxa were placed in the subgenera Eucartosyrphus (C. bullabucca), Cheilosia s. str. (C. oblonga), Floccocheila (C. versicolor) while C. yunnanensis was not resolved as member of Cheilosia s. str. based on DNA despite sharing morphological characteristics with the subgenus. As the name Cheilosia (Nephocheila) prima Barkalov & Cheng from China is a junior homonym of Cheilosia (Cartosyrphus) prima Hunter, 1896 from the Nearctic region, for the Chinese species the new name Cheilosia (Nephocheila) primaria Barkalov & Ståhls nomen nov. is proposed. PMID:26249493

  7. DNA barcoding distinguishes pest species of the black fly genus Cnephia (Diptera: Simuliidae).

    PubMed

    Conflitti, I M; Pruess, K P; Cywinska, A; Powers, T O; Currie, D C

    2013-11-01

    Accurate species identification is essential for cost-effective pest control strategies. We tested the utility of COI barcodes for identifying members of the black fly genus Cnephia Enderlein (Diptera: Simuliidae). Our efforts focus on four Nearctic Cnephia species-Cnephia dacotensis (Dyar & Shannon), Cnephia eremities Shewell, Cnephia ornithophilia (Davies, Peterson & Wood), and Cnephia pecuarum (Riley)--the latter two being current or potential targets of biological control programs. We also analyzed one Palearctic species, Cnephia pallipes (Fries). Although Cnephia adults can be identified anatomically to species, control programs target the larval stage, which is difficult or impossible to distinguish morphologically. By using neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian methods, we found that COI barcodes successfully identified three Nearctic Cnephia species, but not C. pecuarum. The Palearctic C. pallipes was also successfully identified. Despite nonmonophyly of C. pecuarum, we show that data from COI barcoding, in combination with geographical and ecological information, can be used to distinguish all four Nearctic species. Finally, we discussed 1) possible reasons for paraphyly in C. pecuarum, 2) topological concordance to previously reported chromosomal dendrograms, and 3) evolution of diverse feeding strategies within the genus Cnephia. PMID:24843929

  8. First overview of the Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) livestock associated species of Reunion Island, Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Desvars, A; Grimaud, Y; Guis, H; Esnault, O; Allène, X; Gardès, L; Balenghien, T; Baldet, T; Delécolle, J C; Garros, C

    2015-02-01

    This study establishes the first faunistic inventory of livestock associated Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species of Reunion Island (Indian Ocean), where bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease are regularly recorded. Single night-catches were performed at 41 sites using light suction traps at altitudes ranging from 0 to 1525 m, from March to April 2005. Five species were recorded: Culicoides imicola, Culicoides bolitinos, Culicoides enderleini, Culicoides grahamii, and Culicoides kibatiensis, among which at least the first three species are known to be involved in virus transmission to ruminants and equids. This is the first record of C. bolitinos, C. kibatiensis, and C. enderleini on the island. C. imicola was the most abundant species along the sea coast. C. bolitinos was more abundant inland and on two sites on the east coast. C. kibatiensis and C. grahamii were less abundant than the other three species and limited to two foci. Spatial distribution analysis of the different species showed that C. bolitinos, C. enderleini and C. imicola were collected at low altitudes, while the other two species were found at higher altitude. A morphological identification key for adult females and males is given, as well as cytochrome oxydase subunit I sequences. Phylogenetic reconstructions showed a clear divergence between C. bolitinos from Reunion Island and mainland Africa. This monograph will help to identify the Culicoides species in the poorly known entomological fauna of the south-western Indian Ocean region.

  9. Lignocellulolytic enzymes and bacteria associated with the digestive tracts of Stenochironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Koroiva, R; Souza, C W O; Toyama, D; Henrique-Silva, F; Fonseca-Gessner, A A

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the digestive activity of the enzymes that digest cellulose and hemicellulose and the bacterial community that is capable of hydrolyzing wood compounds in the digestive tracts of Stenochironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae, which are miners of decomposing submerged tree and bush branches. Based on quantification of reducing sugars, these larvae have a limited capacity for cellulose degradation but a good capacity for xylan hydrolysis. We isolated 31 types of colonies from two larval morphotypes, of which 19 tested positive for the capacity to hydrolyze at least one of the four substrates that were used as the main carbon source in the culture media. Their woody compound degradation capacity was assessed using colorimetric tests. The bacteria were identified by the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. None of the bacteria were capable of degrading lignin. The genus Pseudomonas had the greatest species richness; Bacillus spp exhibited the greatest capacity for degrading the different substrates, and Sphingobium was found in both morphotypes. Microorganisms participate in the degradation of wood consumed by Stenochironomus larvae. This is the first report of lignocellulolytic bacteria and enzymes in the digestive tracts of mining chironomids.

  10. Seasonal fluctuations of phlebotomine sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the urban area of Marrakech, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Boussaa, S; Guernaoui, S; Pesson, B; Boumezzough, A

    2005-08-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were collected continuously, using sticky traps, during 1 year from October 2002 to September 2003, in an urban area of Marrakech city (Morocco). A total of 3277 specimens were collected belonging to five species. Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) papatasi (54.6%) is the predominant species followed by Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia) minuta (20%), S. (S.) fallax (11.3%), P. (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti (10.3%) and P. (Larroussius) longicuspis (3.8%). Data analyses showed a mono-modal annual pattern for P. sergenti and a bi-modal one for the other species. P. papatasi, the proven vector of Leishmania major in Morocco, was active throughout the year. This species did not diapause in this region. P. papatasi population peaked in June and November, which relating to the periods of risk in this area. Its preferred temperature ranged between 32 and 36 degrees C but no significant correlation was found between its density and the temperature. Considering the high density and long activity period of P. papatasi, the area of Marrakech should be regarded as a potential focus for L. major. This suggests the need for a continuously surveillance to prevent risk of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:15985259

  11. Crop sequence effects on root maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae: Delia spp.) infestations in canola.

    PubMed

    Dosdall, L M; Harker, K N; O'Donovan, J T; Blackshaw, R E; Kutcher, H R; Gan, Y; Johnson, E N

    2012-08-01

    Strong market demand for canola, Brassica napus L., has prompted some western Canadian producers to increase the frequency of this crop in rotations with other crop species, but the impact of this practice on canola insect pests has not been determined. Here, we investigate 12 cropping sequences involving canola over a 3-yr period (2008-2010 inclusive) at five locations across western Canada. Cropping sequences varied from continuous production of two herbicide-tolerant canola varieties, to production in two of 3 yr, to canola production in one of the 3 yr. Treatments analyzed were the frequency and timing of canola within the rotational sequence. Damage by larvae of root maggots (Diptera: Anthomyiidae: Delia spp.) to canola taproots increased as the study progressed, particularly in 2010 after canola had been grown continuously for 3 yr. Yield declined with continuous canola production, and differences were greatest in 2010. At mean canola crop prices for 2010, the yield reduction from continuous production amounted to economic losses of approximately Can$282-$377/ha. Crop quality, in terms of oil and protein concentrations of harvested seed, was affected more by crop variety than cropping sequence. Crop sequence effects for root maggot damage, yield, and seed quality were relatively stable in the presence of environmental (location) variation. Results of our study suggest that continuous canola production could be unsustainable over the long-term even though market forces currently provide incentive for this practice.

  12. The effect of dietary fat levels on the size and development of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Li, Xuebo; Yang, Yongqiang; Li, Genping; Li, Hongwei; Wang, Qingshan; Wan, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Variation in the type of tissue that larvae feed on can produce marked differences in developmental rate and body size, which can compromise predictions of minimum postmortem interval. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of fat content in the diet on larval growth in Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an important forensic blowfly species in China. Bionomical parameters such as body size, development time, mortality, and sex ratio were observed. The results indicated that fat content in the diet has a dramatic effect on the body size and larval development. More dietary fat content was beneficial for development of larvae in first and early second instar. But it was adverse in the later third instar. Significantly, a high-fat diet resulted in increased development rates and the production of undersized larvae and adults. Overall mortality of larvae and pupa was higher when more fat was added to the diet, but sex ratio of adults was not negatively affected. This study highlights that the fat content in the diet should be considered in the entomological research and forensic application when estimating minimum postmortem interval on the basis of larval body size and developmental stage.

  13. The laying of live larvae by the blowfly Calliphora varifrons (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Cook, David F; Voss, Sasha C; Dadour, Ian R

    2012-11-30

    This study examined larviposition in Calliphora varifrons Malloch (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an ovoviviparous blowfly of forensic importance in Western Australia. Females took 1.5 min (mean 89±10.0s, n=42) to deposit their live, first instar larvae (average body length 2.5 mm) on fresh liver in the laboratory. Females laid an average of 30 live larvae (mean of 29.9±1.2, n=50) at a rate of 1 larva every 2 s (mean of 0.46±0.05 larvae/s, n=42). Most females (66%) laid live larvae only, but 18% laid fully developed eggs (half of the egg masses laid by individual females were viable) and 16% laid live larvae and some eggs at the same time. Females laying only eggs laid a mean of 24.1±3.0, n=10 eggs on each occasion. Field females carried between 20 and 44 live larvae (mean of 33.4±1.0, n=49) with a strong linear relationship between female size and number of live larvae. In the laboratory, females typically laid larvae in multiple locations. Very few females (<8%) retained some larvae in their ovisacs, retaining on average, half of their complement of developed larvae. Those larvae retained had begun to be resorbed by the female with necrosis evident on the posterior segments.

  14. Effects of the antibiotics Gentamicin on the postembryonic development of Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Adriana C P; Dallavecchia, Daniele L; Silva, Débora C; Figueiredo, Adriana L; Proença, Barbara; Silva-Filho, Renato G; Aguiar, Valéria M

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effects the antibiotic Gentamicin on the development of Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818). Third-generation, first-instar larvae were reared in a climatic chamber on 60 g of homogenate + agar 65% and were treated with three concentrations of Gentamicin: 4.44 mg/ml, 13.33 mg/ml, and 66.66 mg/ml. The control consisted of distilled water. The relationships between mean body mass of mature larvae (measured after diet abandonment, in batches of five individuals), duration of larval and pupal stages, and overall duration of development were analyzed. The actual sex ratio was compared against the expected using the chi square. None of the parameters measured differed significantly among the four treatments, with one exception: when Gentamicin concentration was 13.33 mg/ml, larval viability differed significantly from the control. All larvae from all treatments were considered normal. We conclude that the antibiotic did not significantly alter the development of C. putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

  15. Development of a GC-MS method for methamphetamine detection in Calliphora vomitoria L. (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Magni, Paola A; Pacini, Tommaso; Pazzi, Marco; Vincenti, Marco; Dadour, Ian R

    2014-08-01

    Entomotoxicology is the study of using insects for the detection of drugs and other chemical substances in decomposing tissues. One research aspect in particular is the effects of these substances on arthropod development and morphology, and their consequences on the post mortem interval estimation. Since methamphetamine (MA) is becoming commonplace as an illegal recreational drug, a GC-MS method for the detection of MA in Calliphora vomitoria L. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was developed and validated. Furthermore, the effect of MA on the development, growth rates and survival of the blowfly was investigated. Larvae were reared on liver substrates homogeneously spiked with measured amounts of MA (5 ng/g and 10 ng/g) based on typical concentrations found in human tissue in cases of death caused by MA overdose. The experimental results demonstrated that (i) MA produced a significant increase in the developmental time from egg to adult in C. vomitoria, (ii) approximately 60% of larvae exposed to either dose of MA died during the pupation period and (iii) the resultant lengths of larvae and pupae were on average significantly larger than the controls.

  16. Identification of forensically important blowfly species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by high-resolution melting PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Malewski, Tadeusz; Draber-Mońko, Agnieszka; Pomorski, Jan; Łoś, Marta; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław

    2010-07-01

    We describe here the successful coupling of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis to rapidly identify 15 forensically important species of blowfly from the family Calliphoridae (Diptera), which occur in Poland. Two short regions (119 and 70 base pairs, respectively) of cytochrome oxidase gene subunit I with sufficient sequence diversity were selected. In the case of lacking taxa (e.g., reference species) these amplicons can be synthesized using sequences deposited in gene banks. The technique utilizes low template DNA concentration and is highly reproducible. The melting profile was not altered up to a 10,000-fold difference in DNA template concentration (ranging from 5 pg to 50 ng). The several HRM runs performed on different specimens from Poland belonging to the same species and on different days resulted in only minor variations in the amplification curves and in melting temperatures of the peaks. Intraspecific variation in a larger scale was tested using synthesized oligonucleotides from cosmopolitan Lucilia illustris originating from Poland, France, Great Britain, India, and USA. As HRM PCR analysis is sensitive to even single base changes, all geographic variants of this species were identified. This technique is also cost-effective and simple, and it may even be used by non-geneticists. A working protocol was ultimately constructed for the purpose of rapid and accurate species identification in most countries in Europe regardless of which stage or which part of a blowfly was collected.

  17. Using the developmental gene bicoid to identify species of forensically important blowflies (Diptera: calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Hwan; Park, Chung Hyun; Zhang, Yong; Piao, Huguo; Chung, Ukhee; Kim, Seong Yoon; Ko, Kwang Soo; Yi, Cheong-Ho; Jo, Tae-Ho; Hwang, Juck-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI) is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd) genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera) were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae) and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science.

  18. Effects of the Antibiotics Gentamicin on the Postembryonic Development of Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz, Adriana C. P.; Dallavecchia, Daniele L.; Silva, Débora C.; Figueiredo, Adriana L.; Proença, Barbara; Silva-Filho, Renato G.; Aguiar, Valéria M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effects the antibiotic Gentamicin on the development of Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818). Third-generation, first-instar larvae were reared in a climatic chamber on 60 g of homogenate + agar 65% and were treated with three concentrations of Gentamicin: 4.44 mg/ml, 13.33 mg/ml, and 66.66 mg/ml. The control consisted of distilled water. The relationships between mean body mass of mature larvae (measured after diet abandonment, in batches of five individuals), duration of larval and pupal stages, and overall duration of development were analyzed. The actual sex ratio was compared against the expected using the chi square. None of the parameters measured differed significantly among the four treatments, with one exception: when Gentamicin concentration was 13.33 mg/ml, larval viability differed significantly from the control. All larvae from all treatments were considered normal. We conclude that the antibiotic did not significantly alter the development of C. putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). PMID:25527588

  19. Cold tolerance and disinfestation of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Hass' avocado.

    PubMed

    Ware, A B; Du Toit, C L N; Mohamed, S A; Nderitu, P W; Ekasi, S

    2012-12-01

    Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) has spread rapidly across Africa and currently poses a phytosanitary threat to the fruit industry of South Africa. In reaction a cold mitigating treatment to provide phytosanitary security to importing countries was developed in Nairobi, Kenya. Using laboratory reared fruit flies, the rate of development in 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller) was determined at 28 degrees C. Fruit ripeness or softness was found to be a factor improving larval fruit fly survival. Using this information the egg and larval developmental stages were subjected to 2 degrees C cold treatment and it was found that the third instars were the most cold tolerant life stage and that it was expected that between 16 and 17 d treatment would provide phytosanitary security. There were no survivors in the treatment of an estimated 153,001 individuals in four replicates at an average fruit pulp temperature of 2 degrees C satisfying the Probit 9 level of efficiency at a confidence of >95%. These data provide evidence that a continuous cold treatment of 1.5 degrees C or lower for 18 d would provide phytosanitary security in that any consignment entering an importing country poses no risk of accidental importation of B. invadens. PMID:23356059

  20. Ventral polarization vision in tabanids: horseflies and deerflies (Diptera: Tabanidae) are attracted to horizontally polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Gábor; Majer, József; Horváth, Loránd; Szivák, Ildikó; Kriska, György

    2008-11-01

    Adult tabanid flies (horseflies and deerflies) are terrestrial and lay their eggs onto marsh plants near bodies of fresh water because the larvae develop in water or mud. To know how tabanids locate their host animals, terrestrial rendezvous sites and egg-laying places would be very useful for control measures against them, because the hematophagous females are primary/secondary vectors of some severe animal/human diseases/parasites. Thus, in choice experiments performed in the field we studied the behavior of tabanids governed by linearly polarized light. We present here evidence for positive polarotaxis, i.e., attraction to horizontally polarized light stimulating the ventral eye region, in both males and females of 27 tabanid species. The novelty of our findings is that positive polarotaxis has been described earlier only in connection with the water detection of some aquatic insects ovipositing directly into water. A further particularity of our discovery is that in the order Diptera and among blood-sucking insects the studied tabanids are the first known species possessing ventral polarization vision and definite polarization-sensitive behavior with known functions. The polarotaxis in tabanid flies makes it possible to develop new optically luring traps being more efficient than the existing ones based on the attraction of tabanids by the intensity and/or color of reflected light.

  1. Distribution of tabanids (Diptera: Tabanidae) along a two-sided altitudinal transect.

    PubMed

    Hackenberger, Branimir K; Jarić, Davorka; Krcmar, Stjepan

    2009-12-01

    The pattern of horse fly (Diptera: Tabanidae) distribution and correlations among biodiversity, abundance, abiotic factors, and altitude were determined along a two-sided altitudinal transect. The sampling was carried out on five 3-d periods during tabanid seasonal activity. Linen canopy traps with 1-octen-3-ol as an attractant were used at 20 sampling sites along the transect. The results showed that the qualitative composition of tabanid species can be distinguished by altitude and, especially, between southeastern and northwestern mountain slopes. The peaks of horse fly species richness and abundance were indicated at middle elevations of both slopes, where horse fly distributional groups were overlapping and most rare and infrequent species were sampled. All expected species were sampled according to species accumulation curve. The canonical correlation analysis separated species and sampling sites into three clusters; two were positively correlated with the temperature and the wind but differed in sensitivity toward them, and the third cluster was correlated with the humidity. The horse fly distribution was nonhomogenous, and the distributional patterns were only partially determined by altitude and vegetation. The determining environmental variables were different for each slope: temperature and wind for the southern slope (Mediterranean climatic zone) and humidity for the northern slope (continental climatic zone).

  2. Association between Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) oviposition and structural features of belowground stormwater treatment devices.

    PubMed

    Harbison, Justin E; Metzger, Marco E; Hu, Renjie

    2010-01-01

    Belowground stormwater treatment devices referred to as Best Management Practices (BMPs) can be persistent sources of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes and in urban environments necessitate routine monitoring and insecticide treatment for control. The design of certain structural features of BMPs may discourage mosquito entry and oviposition, potentially reducing the need for control measures. From August 2007 to November 2008, 29 BMPs were intermittently monitored for the presence of mosquitoes and compared against selected structural features. A bucket ovitrap was developed to estimate entry of oviposition-site-seeking females into BMPs via egg raft counts. The number of egg rafts collected was positively associated with larger diameters and shorter lengths of conveyance pipe from the nearest inlet or outlet and with increasing number of pickholes in BMP manhole covers. In contrast, the number of days pickholes were sealed against adult mosquito entry was negatively associated with eggs rafts. Findings suggest that the design of belowground BMPs and their conveyance systems can influence mosquito oviposition inside these structures. Specific design criteria with the greatest potential to minimize mosquito production and provide safe access for monitoring and control activities are discussed. PMID:20180310

  3. Laboratory and field evaluation of an oviposition trap for Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Rosângela M R; Souto, Antonio; Eiras, Alvaro E; Regis, Lêda

    2007-06-01

    An ovitrap (BR-OVT) based on physical and chemical stimuli for attracting gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) females was developed and evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Attractants were assayed using alternative chamber bioassays prior to being used in the BR-OVT oviposition trap. A significant preference of gravid females for sites containing conspecific egg rafts was observed, as a response to the natural oviposition pheromone, as well as for sites treated with the synthetic pheromone erythro-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide. Five- to 20-day old grass infusion was strongly attractive to gravid females for laying eggs. On the other hand, entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus (Bs) did not influence the choice of an oviposition site when used in combination with grass infusion and can therefore be used as a larvicide in ovitraps. Results from field trials showed that the BR-OVT with grass infusion and with or without Bs works as a preferred oviposition site for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The BR-OVT was more effective for egg collection when placed indoors and comparison with the number of egg rafts laid in cesspits over 40 days indicates that this very simple ovitrap may be a useful tool for monitoring populations of the most important of the vectors of bancroftian filariasis. PMID:17612774

  4. Ultrastructure of antennal sensory organs of horse nasal-myiasis fly, Rhinoestrus purpureus (Diptera: Oestridae).

    PubMed

    Liu, X H; Li, X Y; Li, K; Zhang, D

    2015-07-01

    Rhinoestrus purpureus (Brauer, 1858) (Diptera: Oestridae) is an economically important parasite that can cause severe nasal myiasis in equids or even attacking humans. The antennae of R. purpureus were examined using stereoscopic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The general morphology was provided detailedly, together with distribution, type, size, and ultrastructure of antennal sensilla. All the three antennal segments, antennal scape, pedicel, and funiculus, are interspersed by microtrichiae. Only mechanoreceptors are detected on antennal scape and pedicel. On antennal funiculus, three types of sensilla were observed, including basiconic sensilla, coeloconic sensilla and clavate sensilla. Two features are characterized of this host-specific bot fly: (1) numerous sensory pits with branched basiconic sensilla on antennal funiculus and (2) the absence of trichoid sensilla. The function of these distinctive traits are discussed in association with the life history. We suggest that more sensory pits with branched sensilla could increase the sensitivity of olfactory system for host orientation, while the capability of pheromone identification might be reduced due to the absence of trichoid sensilla. Besides, we support both thermo- and chemo-functions of coeloconic sensilla. PMID:25859927

  5. New records of bat ectoparasites (Diptera, Hemiptera and Siphonaptera) from northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Autino, Analía G; Claps, Guillermo L; Sánchez, Mariano S; Barquez, Rubén M

    2009-01-01

    New species of bat-ectoparasite insects are added to the fauna of Argentina and distributional limits are extended for others, based on information obtained from 21 species of bats collected. New data is reported for the distribution of 23 species of bat ectoparasites, of which 17 belong to the Order Diptera [14 Streblidae: Anastrebla caudiferae Wenzel, Anatrichobius scorzai Wenzel, Aspidoptera phyllostomatis (Perty), Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett), M. proxima (Sèguy), Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, Noctiliostrebla aitkeni Wenzel, N. dubia (Rudow), Paradyschiria fusca Speiser, Paradyschiria sp., Strebla chrotopteri Wenzel, Strebla diaemi Wenzel, Trichobius parasiticus Gervais y Xenotrichobius noctilionis Wenzel, and three Nycteribiidae: Basilia carteri Scott, B. plaumanni Scott y B.neamericana Schuurmans Stekhoven (Jr)], three belong to the Order Siphonaptera [one Ischnopsyllidae: Myodopsylla isidori (Weyenbergh), one Tungidae: Rhynchopsyllus pulex Haller, and one Stephanocircidae: Craneopsylla m. minerva (Rothschild)] and three belong to Order Hemiptera [two Polyctenidae: Hesperoctenes fumarius (Westwood) and H. vicinus Jordan, and one Cimicidae: Latrocimex spectans Lent]. Some records are new for Argentina, while others are new for the provinces of Corrientes, Chaco, Entre Ríos, Jujuy, Misiones and Salta. Also new host-parasite relationships are reported. PMID:19488504

  6. Population and temperature effects on Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) body size and minimum development time.

    PubMed

    Tarone, A M; Picard, C J; Spiegelman, C; Foran, D R

    2011-09-01

    Understanding how ecological conditions influence physiological responses is fundamental to forensic entomology. When determining the minimum postmortem interval with blow fly evidence in forensic investigations, using a reliable and accurate model of development is integral. Many published studies vary in results, source populations, and experimental designs. Accordingly, disentangling genetic causes of developmental variation from environmental causes is difficult. This study determined the minimum time of development and pupal sizes of three populations of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae; from California, Michigan, and West Virginia) at two temperatures (20 degrees C and 33.5 degrees C). Development times differed significantly between strain and temperature. In addition, California pupae were the largest and fastest developing at 20 degrees C, but at 33.5 degrees C, though they still maintained their rank in size among the three populations, they were the slowest to develop. These results indicate a need to account for genetic differences in development, and genetic variation in environmental responses, when estimating a postmortem interval with entomological data.

  7. Rearing the scuttle fly Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) on industrial compounds: implications on size and lifespan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866) (Diptera, phoridae) is a cosmopolitan fly species used in forensic science, and has been developed as a laboratory model species. They feed on decaying corpses as well as a wide variety of organic matter, and previous studies have even found them feeding on liquid paint or shoe polish, suggesting the possibility that they could breakdown industrial compounds. To test this possibility, we fed M. scalaris on a variety of industrially obtained materials and found that it was unable to complete its life cycle, dying at the larval stage, with the majority of compounds tested. However, when fed on modeling clay, a substrate that contains starch and inedible compounds, it was able to complete its life cycle. On this diet we observed increased larval development time, decreased pupal development time and a shortened adult life span. Additionally, pupae and adult flies were smaller than control flies. Contrary to previous reports, we find no evidence that M. scalaris is able to survive on modern formulations of liquid paint. PMID:26207192

  8. Delaying onion planting to control onion maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae): efficacy and underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nault, Brian A; Werling, Benjamin P; Straub, Richard W; Nyrop, Jan P

    2011-10-01

    Onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), is an important pest of onion, Allium cepa L., in northern temperate areas, especially in the Great Lakes region of North America Management of D. antiqua relies on insecticide use at planting, but insecticide resistance can cause control failures that threaten the long-term viability of this strategy. Delaying the time onions are planted was investigated as an alternative management approach for D. antiqua and the ecological and behavioral mechanisms underlying host age and insect relationships were examined in laboratory and field experiments. Delaying onion planting by two to four weeks reduced damage to onions by 35 and 90%, respectively. Onions planted later emerged later and this reduced the period overwintered flies had to oviposit on the plants. Moreover, flies tended to lay few to no eggs on these young, late-planted onions. As anticipated, D. antiqua laid 4-8 times more eggs on older onions than on young onions, and older onions were more resilient to injury caused by D. antiqua neonates compared with younger onions. However, the resiliency to maggot attack lessened as the density of D. antiqua increased from 2 to 10 eggs per plant, which probably explains why greater levels of maggot damage are typically observed in early onion plantings compared with later plantings. Delaying onion planting until mid-May reduced D. antiqua damage without jeopardizing the period required to produce marketable yield, but this cultural tactic must be combined with other management strategies to prevent economic loss. PMID:22066192

  9. Delaying onion planting to control onion maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae): efficacy and underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nault, Brian A; Werling, Benjamin P; Straub, Richard W; Nyrop, Jan P

    2011-10-01

    Onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), is an important pest of onion, Allium cepa L., in northern temperate areas, especially in the Great Lakes region of North America Management of D. antiqua relies on insecticide use at planting, but insecticide resistance can cause control failures that threaten the long-term viability of this strategy. Delaying the time onions are planted was investigated as an alternative management approach for D. antiqua and the ecological and behavioral mechanisms underlying host age and insect relationships were examined in laboratory and field experiments. Delaying onion planting by two to four weeks reduced damage to onions by 35 and 90%, respectively. Onions planted later emerged later and this reduced the period overwintered flies had to oviposit on the plants. Moreover, flies tended to lay few to no eggs on these young, late-planted onions. As anticipated, D. antiqua laid 4-8 times more eggs on older onions than on young onions, and older onions were more resilient to injury caused by D. antiqua neonates compared with younger onions. However, the resiliency to maggot attack lessened as the density of D. antiqua increased from 2 to 10 eggs per plant, which probably explains why greater levels of maggot damage are typically observed in early onion plantings compared with later plantings. Delaying onion planting until mid-May reduced D. antiqua damage without jeopardizing the period required to produce marketable yield, but this cultural tactic must be combined with other management strategies to prevent economic loss.

  10. Effect of age on cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in adult Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Braga, Marina Vianna; Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho; Blomquist, Gary James

    2016-02-01

    A species-specific complex mixture of highly stable cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) covers the external surface of all insects. Components can be readily analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to obtain a cuticular hydrocarbon profile, which may be used as an additional tool for the taxonomic differentiation of insect species and also for the determination of the age and sex of adult and immature forms. We used GC-MS to identify and quantify the CHCs of female and male Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from one to five days old. CHCs ranged from C21 to C35 for females and from C21 to C37 in males. Major compounds were the same for both sexes and were 2-MeC28, C29:1, n-C29, 15-,13-MeC29, 2-MeC30, C31:1, n-C31 and 15-,13-MeC31. The relative abundance of each component, however, varied with age. Cluster Analysis using Bray-Curtis measure for abundance showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are a strong and useful tool for the determination of age in adult C. putoria. PMID:26775199

  11. A revised annotated checklist of the Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) of the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, Broughton A.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Lenat, David R.; Smith, David

    1997-01-01

    A revised annotated checklist for the chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the southeastern United States is presented that includes the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Much of the information concerns occurrence and habitat preference records based upon the authors' data, as well as published and unpublished data. Some information is also presented that includes aspects of biology, habitat preference, bibliographic sources, and nomenclatorial changes. Based upon the present work, the chironomid fauna of the southeastern states is comprised of 189 genera (172 described, 17 informally or unofficially described) and 754 species (505 described, 17 informally or unofficially described, 33 that are assumed for generic or subgeneric presence only, 197 estimated species, and 2 species groups). Several new species synonyms and generic placements are recognized. Thirty-eight genera known from the Nearctic region remain unknown from the southeastern states. Diversity of species was greatest in the subfamily Chironominae, considering named as well as unnamed and estimated species. There were no significant changes in overall regional distribution patterns of subfamilies or habitat preferences form that which has been previously reported. The greatest totals for regional records, habitat types, and state occurrences were the Coastal Plain (378), streams (271), and North Carolina (373), respectively.

  12. Telomeric transcriptome from Chironomus riparius (Diptera), a species with noncanonical telomeres.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Guitarte, J L; de la Fuente, M; Morcillo, G

    2014-06-01

    Although there are alternative telomere structures, most telomeres contain DNA arrays of short repeats (6-26 bp) maintained by telomerase. Like other diptera, Chironomus riparius has noncanonical telomeres and three subfamilies, TsA, TsB and TsC, of longer sequences (176 bp) are found at their chromosomal ends. Reverse transcription PCR was used to show that different RNAs are transcribed from these sequences. Only one strand from TsA sequences seems to render a noncoding RNA (named CriTER-A); transcripts from both TsB strands were found (CriTER-B and αCriTER-B) but no TsC transcripts were detected. Interestingly, these sequences showed a differential transcriptional response upon heat shock, and they were also differentially affected by inhibitors of RNA polymerase II and RNA polymerase III. A computer search for transcription factor binding sites revealed putative regulatory cis-elements within the transcribed sequence, reinforcing the experimental evidence which suggests that the telomeric repeat might function as a promoter. This work describes the telomeric transcriptome of an insect with non-telomerase telomeres, confirming the evolutionary conservation of telomere transcription. Our data reveal differences in the regulation of telomeric transcripts between control and stressful environmental conditions, supporting the idea that telomeric RNAs could have a relevant role in cellular metabolism in insect cells.

  13. Larvicidal efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, C; Abdul Rahman, A; Bagavan, A; Abduz Zahir, A; Elango, G; Kandan, P; Rajakumar, G; Marimuthu, S; Santhoshkumar, T

    2010-08-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Natural products of plant origin with insecticidal properties have been used in recent years for control of a variety of pest insects and vectors. The present study was based on assessments of the larvicidal activity to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of ten medicinal plants tested against fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston and lymphatic filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The larvicidal activity was assessed by the procedure of WHO with some modification. The highest larval mortality was found in leaf acetone of Adhatoda vasica, bark ethyl acetate of Annona squamosa, methanol leaf and flower of Cassia auriculata, leaf ethyl acetate of Hydrocotyle javanica, methanol leaf and seed of Solanum torvum and leaf hexane extracts of Vitex negundo against the fourth instar larvae of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The calculated LC90 for acetone, ethyl acetate, methanol and hexane extracts of dried leaf and bark of A. vasica, A. squamosa, S. torvum, and V. negundo were in the range of 70.38-210.68 ppm. Our results suggest that the leaf methanol extract of S.torvum and bark ethyl acetate extract of A. squamosa from Southern India have the potential for use to control mosquitoes. Therefore, this study provides the larvicidal activity against An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus of plant extracts. PMID:20962718

  14. Neotropical Copestylum Macquart (Diptera: Syrphidae) Breeding in Fruits and Flowers, Including 7 New Species

    PubMed Central

    Ricarte, Antonio; Marcos-García, M. Ángeles; Hancock, E. Geoffrey; Rotheray, Graham E.

    2015-01-01

    Ten species of Copestylum (Diptera: Syrphidae) were reared from fruits and flowers in Costa Rica, Ecuador and Trinidad. Seven were new and in this paper, we describe them, their development sites and the third stage larva and/or the puparium of all ten species. One new synonym is proposed, Copestylum pinkusi (Curran) [= Copestylum cinctiventre (Curran)]. Similarities and differences between these new and other Copestylum species, suggest they separate into two groups, referred to as the Vagum and Cinctiventre species groups. Features characterising these groups for both adult and early stages are assessed. Each species was also distinguished using adult and early stage characters. Within the Vagum group, adults were more disparate morphologically than the larval stage; this was reversed in the Cinctiventre group. Adult colour patterns are probably cryptic in function and for disguise. Vagum species have disruptive marks, while the Cinctiventre species have reflective colours. Biologically, the groups are almost distinguished by larval development sites. Vagum species use predominantly fruits and have a larval stage that is relatively generalised in form and habit. Cinctiventre species are confined to developing in flowers and the larva is more specialised. A key to both adult and early stages of all ten species is provided. PMID:26580811

  15. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Schetelig, Marc F; Caceres, Carlos; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Franz, Gerald; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2009-01-01

    Background The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dependent on newly isolated medfly promoter/enhancer elements of cellularization-specifically-expressed genes. These elements act differently in expression strength and their ability to drive lethal effector gene activation. Moreover, position effects strongly influence the efficiency of the system. Out of 60 combinations of driver and effector construct integrations, several lines resulted in larval and pupal lethality with one line showing complete embryonic lethality. This line was highly competitive to wildtype medfly in laboratory and field cage tests. Conclusion The high competitiveness of the transgenic lines and the achieved 100% embryonic lethality causing reproductive sterility without the need of irradiation can improve the efficacy of operational medfly SIT programs. PMID:19173707

  16. Effect of age on cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in adult Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Braga, Marina Vianna; Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho; Blomquist, Gary James

    2016-02-01

    A species-specific complex mixture of highly stable cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) covers the external surface of all insects. Components can be readily analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to obtain a cuticular hydrocarbon profile, which may be used as an additional tool for the taxonomic differentiation of insect species and also for the determination of the age and sex of adult and immature forms. We used GC-MS to identify and quantify the CHCs of female and male Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from one to five days old. CHCs ranged from C21 to C35 for females and from C21 to C37 in males. Major compounds were the same for both sexes and were 2-MeC28, C29:1, n-C29, 15-,13-MeC29, 2-MeC30, C31:1, n-C31 and 15-,13-MeC31. The relative abundance of each component, however, varied with age. Cluster Analysis using Bray-Curtis measure for abundance showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are a strong and useful tool for the determination of age in adult C. putoria.

  17. Ecological and epidemiological status of species of the Phlebotomus perniciosus complex (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Zarrouk, Asmae; Kahime, Kholoud; Boussaa, Samia; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2016-03-01

    Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) infection is transmitted by an infected female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) of the subgenus Larroussius: Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis in the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, the vectorial role of P. ariasi was demonstrated, while that of P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus is not elucidated. In addition, Moroccan P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus populations present a higher morphologic and genetic variability. It was classified as P. perniciosus complex, including typical (PN) and atypical (PNA) morphs of P. perniciosus, P. longicuspis sensu stricto (LCss), and a sibling species of P. longicuspis (LCx). With the aim to study the ecological and epidemiological status of P. perniciosus complex species in Morocco, entomological surveys were carried out during three entomological seasons (2012, 2013, and 2014). We collected a total of 6298 specimens from 81 localities of northern, central, and southern Morocco. After describing the geographical distribution of P. perniciosus complex trough Morocco according to many variables (altitude, latitude, and longitude), we discuss the resulting epidemiological implications of its species. Our results highlight the geographical distribution of the two morphs of P. perniciosus through Morocco: PN is limited to the north, while PNA is widespread in northern, central, and southern Morocco. In terms of vectorial role, we hypothesize the potential involvement of PN, LCss, and LCx, at least, with P. ariasi, in the epidemiological cycle of L. infantum in Morocco. PMID:26593735

  18. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT. PMID:24995839

  19. Haltere mediated flight stabilization in Diptera: Rate decoupling, sensory encoding, and control realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Rhoe A.

    Insects of the order Diptera have a single pair of wings. The rear wings of Dipteran insects have evolved into organs that allow stabilizing control responses through sensing and encoding of body angular rate feedback. This dissertation documents research on the physical and physiological mechanisms that enable a pair of halteres to distinguish and encode three orthogonal components of the body rate vector. While the knowledge that the halteres play a role in flight stability has been accepted for centuries, the understanding of how insect's very simple sensory structures are able to encode and decouple the orthogonal components of the rate vector has been lacking. The work described in this report furthers this understanding through modeling and simulation. First, a natural decoupling of the observable rate components has been identified that asserts proportionality of body rate components to averaged strain characteristics near the center of the haltere stroke. Second, a means of encoding and decoding the necessary rate information in a manner compatible with the insect's sensory structures and flight motor physiology has been identified and demonstrated. Finally, the ability of the proposed haltere model to stabilize flight in a 6DOF environment with competing behavioural objectives and randomly generated obstructions has been demonstrated.

  20. An adaptive kernel smoothing method for classifying Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) larval instars.

    PubMed

    Cen, Guanjun; Yu, Yonghao; Zeng, Xianru; Long, Xiuzhen; Wei, Dewei; Gao, Xuyuan; Zeng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the frequency distribution of the measurements of sclerotized body parts is generally used to classify larval instars and is characterized by a multimodal overlap between instar stages. Nonparametric methods with fixed bandwidths, such as histograms, have significant limitations when used to fit this type of distribution, making it difficult to identify divisions between instars. Fixed bandwidths have also been chosen somewhat subjectively in the past, which is another problem. In this study, we describe an adaptive kernel smoothing method to differentiate instars based on discontinuities in the growth rates of sclerotized insect body parts. From Brooks' rule, we derived a new standard for assessing the quality of instar classification and a bandwidth selector that more accurately reflects the distributed character of specific variables. We used this method to classify the larvae of Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) based on five different measurements. Based on head capsule width and head capsule length, the larvae were separated into nine instars. Based on head capsule postoccipital width and mandible length, the larvae were separated into 8 instars and 10 instars, respectively. No reasonable solution was found for antennal segment 3 length. Separation of the larvae into nine instars using head capsule width or head capsule length was most robust and agreed with Crosby's growth rule. By strengthening the distributed character of the separation variable through the use of variable bandwidths, the adaptive kernel smoothing method could identify divisions between instars more effectively and accurately than previous methods.

  1. Rearing the scuttle fly Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) on industrial compounds: implications on size and lifespan.

    PubMed

    Alcaine-Colet, Anna; Wotton, Karl R; Jimenez-Guri, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866) (Diptera, phoridae) is a cosmopolitan fly species used in forensic science, and has been developed as a laboratory model species. They feed on decaying corpses as well as a wide variety of organic matter, and previous studies have even found them feeding on liquid paint or shoe polish, suggesting the possibility that they could breakdown industrial compounds. To test this possibility, we fed M. scalaris on a variety of industrially obtained materials and found that it was unable to complete its life cycle, dying at the larval stage, with the majority of compounds tested. However, when fed on modeling clay, a substrate that contains starch and inedible compounds, it was able to complete its life cycle. On this diet we observed increased larval development time, decreased pupal development time and a shortened adult life span. Additionally, pupae and adult flies were smaller than control flies. Contrary to previous reports, we find no evidence that M. scalaris is able to survive on modern formulations of liquid paint. PMID:26207192

  2. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT.

  3. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of the forensically important family Piophilidae (Diptera) from different European locations.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Barbara Karolina; Martin-Vega, Daniel; Feddern, Nina; Fremdt, Heike; e Castro, Catharina Prado; Szpila, Krzysztof; Reckel, Frank; Schütt, Svenja; Verhoff, Marcel A; Amendt, Jens; Zehner, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Species identification plays an important role in forensic entomology and is mandatory for an accurate calculation of the minimum post-mortem interval. Many important Diptera and Coleoptera taxa of the cadaver community can already be identified by common barcoding approaches, i.e., by sequencing a 658bp region in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (coI) gene. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of reference barcodes for species, in particular, that can be found on cadavers at later decomposition stages. Flies of the family Piophilidae illustrate this gap of knowledge perfectly. Due to the fact that a reliable morphological identification key for the immature stages of this flies is still missing and the immature stages of many piophilids cannot be assigned to a certain species, there is need for additional tools to identify forensically relevant taxa. We collected adult piophilid specimens at 10 locations in five European countries: Spain (n=3 locations), Germany (n=3), Portugal (n=2), Poland (n=1) and Switzerland (n=1). Apart from the coI barcoding region, we additionally analyzed a 398bp long region of the nuclear elongation factor 1 alpha (ef1a) and subsequently established the molecular identifier for nine piophilid species. In addition, we present the molecular phylogeny of the examined taxa. PMID:26760908

  4. Alightment of Spotted Wing Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on Odorless Disks Varying in Color

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, D. M.; McGhee, P. S.; Hermann, S. L.; Gut, L. J.; Miller, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Methods for trapping spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsmura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), have not yet been optimized for detecting this devastating pest of soft-skinned fruits. Here, we report outcomes of choice and no-choice laboratory bioassays quantifying the rates of spotted wing drosophila alightment on 5-cm-diameter sticky disks of various colors, but no fruit odors. Red, purple, and black disks captured the most spotted wing drosophila when presented against a white background. Male and female spotted wing drosophila responded identically in these tests. Significantly more D. suzukii were captured on the red and yellow disks than those presenting the corresponding grayscale for that color, proving that D. suzukii perceives colors and not just the level of target brightness. Fluorescent red is the best candidate for trap color, while clear and white are the least desirable. However, when the background was switched to black, all nonfluorescent colors were equally acceptable to spotted wing drosophila, suggesting that background must be specified when reporting spotted wing drosophila color preference. Additional spotted wing drosophila research is justified on the effects of target color against natural backgrounds. PMID:26475826

  5. Flushing effect of rain on container-inhabiting mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Koenraadt, C J M; Harrington, L C

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role of heavy rain on container-inhabiting mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations, and how different species may have adapted to such conditions. Rains were created with a rain simulator calibrated to natural rain intensities in the habitats of two important vector species: Aedes aegypti (L.) from northern Thailand and Culex pipiens L. from New York state, USA. Immature stages of Ae. aegypti were able to resist the flushing effect of rain better than Cx. pipiens. This difference was most dramatic during the pupal stage. Fourth instars of Ae. aegypti were not affected by flushing when exposed for longer rain intervals (30 versus 60 min) or at a colder water temperature (24 versus 16 degrees C). In contrast, significantly more Cx. pipiens larvae flushed out with longer rain exposure. Warmer water temperatures also increased the proportion of Cx. pipiens flushed out, but mostly at the longest exposure time. Container position (tilted at a 7 degrees angle or level) did not affect proportions of fourth instars flushed out for both species. More accurate models of vector-borne diseases can be developed by incorporating the described effects of rain on container-breeding mosquito populations. Such models may provide more realistic assessments of disease risk and ensure optimal use of limited financial resources of mosquito control agencies.

  6. Molecular and Morphological Inference of Three Cryptic Species within the Merodon aureus Species Group (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ačanski, Jelena; Vujić, Ante; Ståhls, Gunilla; Radenković, Snežana; Milić, Dubravka; Obreht Vidaković, Dragana; Đan, Mihajla

    2016-01-01

    The Merodon aureus species group (Diptera: Syrphidae: Eristalinae) comprises a number of different sub-groups and species complexes. In this study we focus on resolving the taxonomic status of the entity previously identified as M. cinereus B, here identified as M. atratus species complex. We used an integrative approach based on morphological descriptions, combined with supporting characters that were obtained from molecular analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene as well as from geometric morphometry of wing and surstylus shapes and environmental niche comparisons. All applied data and methods distinguished and supported three morphologically cryptic species: M. atratus stat. nov., M. virgatus sp. nov. and M. balkanicus sp. nov., which constitute the M. atratus species complex. We present an identification key for the sub-groups and species complexes of the M. aureus species group occurring in Europe, describe the taxa and discuss the utility of the applied methods for species delimitation. The estimated divergence times for the species splits of these taxa coincide with the Pleistocene Günz-Mindel interglaciation and the Great interglaciation (between the Ris and Mindel glacial periods). PMID:27532618

  7. Assessing Insecticide Susceptibility of Laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Denlinger, David S; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Lawyer, Phillip G; Black, William C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-09-01

    Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose-response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the QCal software, LCs causing 50, 90, and 95% mortality were determined for each insecticide. The LCs and LTs from this study will be useful as baseline reference points for future studies using the CDC bottle bioassays to assess insecticide susceptibility of sand fly populations in the field. There is a need for a larger repository of sand fly insecticide susceptibility data from the CDC bottle bioassays, including a range of LCs and LTs for more sand fly species with more insecticides. Such a repository would be a valuable tool for vector management.

  8. Molecular and Morphological Inference of Three Cryptic Species within the Merodon aureus Species Group (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    PubMed

    Šašić, Ljiljana; Ačanski, Jelena; Vujić, Ante; Ståhls, Gunilla; Radenković, Snežana; Milić, Dubravka; Obreht Vidaković, Dragana; Đan, Mihajla

    2016-01-01

    The Merodon aureus species group (Diptera: Syrphidae: Eristalinae) comprises a number of different sub-groups and species complexes. In this study we focus on resolving the taxonomic status of the entity previously identified as M. cinereus B, here identified as M. atratus species complex. We used an integrative approach based on morphological descriptions, combined with supporting characters that were obtained from molecular analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene as well as from geometric morphometry of wing and surstylus shapes and environmental niche comparisons. All applied data and methods distinguished and supported three morphologically cryptic species: M. atratus stat. nov., M. virgatus sp. nov. and M. balkanicus sp. nov., which constitute the M. atratus species complex. We present an identification key for the sub-groups and species complexes of the M. aureus species group occurring in Europe, describe the taxa and discuss the utility of the applied methods for species delimitation. The estimated divergence times for the species splits of these taxa coincide with the Pleistocene Günz-Mindel interglaciation and the Great interglaciation (between the Ris and Mindel glacial periods). PMID:27532618

  9. Using the Developmental Gene Bicoid to Identify Species of Forensically Important Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong Hwan; Park, Chung Hyun; Zhang, Yong; Piao, Huguo; Chung, Ukhee; Kim, Seong Yoon; Ko, Kwang Soo; Yi, Cheong-Ho; Jo, Tae-Ho; Hwang, Juck-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI) is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd) genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera) were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae) and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science. PMID:23586044

  10. Infectivity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) to Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Alia; Soliman, Mustafa M; El-Shazly, Mohamed M

    2013-07-01

    Susceptibility of Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli (Diptera: Psychodidae) larvae to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff) Sorokin (Ma79) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) was evaluated at two different temperatures. The ability of the fungus to reinfect healthy sand flies was followed up for approximately 20 wk and the effect of in vivo repassage on the enhancement of its virulence was assessed. The fungus reduced the adult emergence at 26 +/- 1 degrees C when applied to larval diet. Six spore concentrations were used in the bioassays ranging from 1 x 10(6) to 5 x 10(8) spores/ml. Mortality decreased significantly when the temperature was raised to 31 +/- 1 degrees C at all tested concentrations. Fungus-treated vials were assayed against sand fly larvae at different time lapses without additional reapplication of the fungus in the media to determine whether the level of inocula persisting in the media was sufficient to reinfect healthy sand flies. Twenty weeks postapplication, there were still enough infectious propagules of Ma79 to infect 40% of P. papatasi larvae. A comparison between the infectivity of 10 subsequent in vitro cultures and the host-passed inocula of the fungus against sand fly larvae was conducted. Mortalities of P. papatasi larvae changed significantly when exposed to inocula passed through different insects. Presented data can provide vector control decision makers and end users with fundamental information for the introduction and application of M. anisopliae as an effective control agent against the main cutaneous leishmaniasis old-world vector P. papatasi.

  11. Distribution of tabanids (Diptera: Tabanidae) along a two-sided altitudinal transect.

    PubMed

    Hackenberger, Branimir K; Jarić, Davorka; Krcmar, Stjepan

    2009-12-01

    The pattern of horse fly (Diptera: Tabanidae) distribution and correlations among biodiversity, abundance, abiotic factors, and altitude were determined along a two-sided altitudinal transect. The sampling was carried out on five 3-d periods during tabanid seasonal activity. Linen canopy traps with 1-octen-3-ol as an attractant were used at 20 sampling sites along the transect. The results showed that the qualitative composition of tabanid species can be distinguished by altitude and, especially, between southeastern and northwestern mountain slopes. The peaks of horse fly species richness and abundance were indicated at middle elevations of both slopes, where horse fly distributional groups were overlapping and most rare and infrequent species were sampled. All expected species were sampled according to species accumulation curve. The canonical correlation analysis separated species and sampling sites into three clusters; two were positively correlated with the temperature and the wind but differed in sensitivity toward them, and the third cluster was correlated with the humidity. The horse fly distribution was nonhomogenous, and the distributional patterns were only partially determined by altitude and vegetation. The determining environmental variables were different for each slope: temperature and wind for the southern slope (Mediterranean climatic zone) and humidity for the northern slope (continental climatic zone). PMID:20021754

  12. Forensically important calliphoridae (diptera) associated with pig carrion in rural north-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    A study to determine the relative abundance and seasonality of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in rural north-central Florida was conducted using pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) as models for human bodies. Seven species of Calliphoridae were collected: Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phoenicia) (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and a few specimens of Calliphora livida Hall, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Species composition in aerial collections of adult flies, preserved larval collections, and samples of larvae reared to the adult stage were all highly correlated. Relative abundance of the species found was significantly different, with L. coeruleiviridis the most abundant species year-round. The relative abundance of the collected species varied significantly by day of decomposition and by season, with significant interactions between season and day, season and species, and day and species. L. coeruleiviridis, C. macellaria, C. rufifaces, and P. regina were found during the entire year, two C. vicina specimens and 11 C. livida specimens were collected from December to March, whereas C. megacephala was collected only from June through September. ?? 2007 Entomological Society of America.

  13. Olfactory response of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava and sweet orange volatiles.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Santiz, Edvin; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Hernández, Emilio; Malo, Edi A

    2016-10-01

    The behavioral responses of virgin and mated female Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava (Psidium guajava L.) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) were evaluated separately using multilure traps in two-choice tests in field cages. The results showed that flies were more attracted to guava and sweet orange volatiles than to control (unbaited trap). The physiological state (virgin or mated) of females did not affect their attraction to the fruit volatiles. Combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of volatile extracts of both fruits showed that 1 and 6 compounds from orange and guava, respectively elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females. The EAD active compounds in guava volatile extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as ethyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. Linalool was identified as the only antennal active compound in sweet orange extracts. In field cage tests, there were no significant differences between the number of mated flies captured by the traps baited with guava extracts and the number caught by traps baited with the 6-component blend that was formulated according to the relative proportions in the guava extracts. Similar results occurred when synthetic linalool was evaluated against orange extracts. From a practical point of view, the compounds identified in this study could be used for monitoring A. striata populations.

  14. Seasonal occurrence of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in a desert stream receiving trout farm effluent.

    PubMed

    Pachón, R Trudith; Walton, William E

    2011-06-01

    The distribution and abundance of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in a small desert stream were influenced by environmental changes caused by recharge of water supply storage basins and an aquaculture operation. Simulium virgatum was the most abundant benthic insect collected in Whitewater Canyon (Riverside County, CA) after April; however, it was never found in trout farm effluent where the ammonium-nitrogen concentration was > 0.25 mg/liter. S. virgatum densities downstream of the input of water from the Colorado River aqueduct were lower than at other sampling sites in the Whitewater River. Simulium tescorum, an especially anthropophilic black fly, was most abundant during February and March, was not collected from late spring through early autumn, and was found only in the highly enriched, less variable flow of trout farm effluent. The mean concentrations of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in the trout farm effluent nearly 1 km from the fish holding ponds were ten and two times, respectively, the ambient levels in the Whitewater River upstream of the effluent discharge point. A combination of factors probably contributed to the presence of S. tescorum in the trout farm effluent including homogenization of the flow regime, enrichment of larval resources, and the development of riparian vegetation that provided oviposition and attachment sites. PMID:21635657

  15. [Current status and eco-epidemiology of mosquito-borne arboviruses (Diptera: Culicidae) in Spain].

    PubMed

    Bueno Marí, Rubén; Jiménez Peydró, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    In this manuscript we analize the possible emergence and/or re-emergence in Spain of some of the mosquito-borne arboviruses (Diptera: Culicidae) with highest incidence in recent years. The faunistic, bioecological and distributional data of the culicids in our country allow to differentiate between species with ability to maintain the enzootic cycles of arboviruses from others that can act as bridge vectors to the human population. The results show the existence of several common and anthropophilic species as Aedes vexans, Culex modestus, Culex pipiens or Ochlerotatus caspius, with a high capacity to transmit flaviviruses such as West Nile virus or Usutu virus. Moreover the recent introduction, establishment and spread of the Asian Mosquito Tiger, Aedes albopictus, propitiate a new situation for the emergence of possible epidemic outbreaks of arboviruses usually imported to our country by immigrants and tourists such as Dengue or Chikungunya. Finally we discuss the epidemiological interest of other native species as Aedes vittatus or Ochlerotatus geniculatus, due to its capacity to transmit some of these typically tropical arboviruses.

  16. Determination of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) bloodmeal sources in Western Australia: implications for arbovirus transmission.

    PubMed

    Johansen, C A; Power, S L; Broom, A K

    2009-09-01

    A double-antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the bloodmeal sources of adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in encephalitis vector surveillance mosquito traps in Western Australia between May 1993 and August 2004. In total, 2,606 blood-fed mosquitoes, representing 29 mosquito species, were tested, and 81.7% reacted with one or more of the primary antibodies. Aedes camptorhynchus (Thomson) and Culex annulirostris Skuse were the most common species tested, making up 47.2% (1,234) and 35.6% (930), respectively. These species obtained bloodmeals from a variety of vertebrate hosts but particularly marsupials and cows. In contrast, Culex pullus Theobald (72.7%; 24/33), Culiseta atra (Lee) (70.0%; 7/10), Culex globocoxitus Dobrotworsky (54.5%; 12/22), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (39.3%; 22/56) often obtained bloodmeals from birds. Although Ae. camptorhynchus and Cx. annulirostris are well established vectors of arboviruses, other mosquitoes also may have a role in enzootic and/ or epizootic transmission.

  17. Diversity and synanthropy of Calliphoridae (Diptera) in the region of Rio Claro, SP, Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Souza, C R; Zuben, C J V

    2012-06-01

    Dipteran blowflies (Calliphoridae) are of great medical and hygienic importance as vectors of pathogens and as parasites of living and dead tissue, and their association with carrion allows their use in forensic entomology. The objective of this study was to determine the synanthropic index of adult Calliphoridae (Diptera) collected in Rio Claro, São Paulo. Sampling occurred between September 2009 and August 2010. Traps baited with sardines, beef liver, and minced meat were assessed for five consecutive days per month in three distinct ecological areas representing urban, rural, and forest environments. The most abundant species was Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann), followed by Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Lucilia eximia was the only species present in all seasons and the only species collected during the winter. The season with the lowest abundance was winter, with 69 (5.5%) specimens, and spring was the season with the greatest number of specimens collected (774-61.8%). The only species found outside inhabited areas (synanthropic) was Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), with a synanthropy index (SI) value of +5.7. The SI values for the other species were negative, showing a preference for uninhabited areas. The rural and urban areas were most similar in terms of species composition as were the beef and sardine baits. Among the baits used, liver attracted the greatest abundance of calliphorids, whereas minced meat attracted the greatest diversity.

  18. Species Composition and Distribution of Adult Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Panama

    PubMed Central

    LOAIZA, J. R.; BERMINGHAM, E.; SCOTT, M. E.; ROVIRA, J. R.; CONN, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition and distribution were studied using human landing catch data over a 35-yr period in Panama. Mosquitoes were collected from 77 sites during 228 field trips carried out by members of the National Malaria Eradication Service. Fourteen Anopheles species were identified. The highest average human biting rates were recorded from Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus (Wiedemann) (9.8 bites/person/night) and Anopheles (Anopheles) punctimacula (Dyar and Knab) (6.2 bites/person/night). These two species were also the most common, present in 99.1 and 74.9%, respectively, of the sites. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) aquasalis (Curry) was encountered mostly in the indigenous Kuna Yala Comarca along the eastern Atlantic coast, where malaria case history and average human biting rate (9.3 bites/person/night) suggest a local role in malaria transmission. An. albimanus, An. punctimacula, and Anopheles (Anopheles) vestitipennis (Dyar and Knab) were more abundant during the rainy season (May–December), whereas An. aquasalis was more abundant in the dry season (January–April). Other vector species collected in this study were Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai (Howard, Dyar, and Knab) and Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis s.l. (Theobald). High diversity of Anopheles species and six confirmed malaria vectors in endemic areas of Panama emphasize the need for more detailed studies to better understand malaria transmission dynamics. PMID:18826025

  19. Ecological and epidemiological status of species of the Phlebotomus perniciosus complex (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Zarrouk, Asmae; Kahime, Kholoud; Boussaa, Samia; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2016-03-01

    Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) infection is transmitted by an infected female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) of the subgenus Larroussius: Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis in the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, the vectorial role of P. ariasi was demonstrated, while that of P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus is not elucidated. In addition, Moroccan P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus populations present a higher morphologic and genetic variability. It was classified as P. perniciosus complex, including typical (PN) and atypical (PNA) morphs of P. perniciosus, P. longicuspis sensu stricto (LCss), and a sibling species of P. longicuspis (LCx). With the aim to study the ecological and epidemiological status of P. perniciosus complex species in Morocco, entomological surveys were carried out during three entomological seasons (2012, 2013, and 2014). We collected a total of 6298 specimens from 81 localities of northern, central, and southern Morocco. After describing the geographical distribution of P. perniciosus complex trough Morocco according to many variables (altitude, latitude, and longitude), we discuss the resulting epidemiological implications of its species. Our results highlight the geographical distribution of the two morphs of P. perniciosus through Morocco: PN is limited to the north, while PNA is widespread in northern, central, and southern Morocco. In terms of vectorial role, we hypothesize the potential involvement of PN, LCss, and LCx, at least, with P. ariasi, in the epidemiological cycle of L. infantum in Morocco.

  20. A DNA Barcode Library for Korean Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) and Indexes for Defining Barcode Gap

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungmin; Song, Kyo-Hong; Ree, Han-Il; Kim, Won

    2012-01-01

    Non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) are a diverse population that commonly causes respiratory allergies in humans. Chironomid larvae can be used to indicate freshwater pollution, but accurate identification on the basis of morphological characteristics is difficult. In this study, we constructed a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)-based DNA barcode library for Korean chironomids. This library consists of 211 specimens from 49 species, including adults and unidentified larvae. The interspecies and intraspecies COI sequence variations were analyzed. Sophisticated indexes were developed in order to properly evaluate indistinct barcode gaps that are created by insufficient sampling on both the interspecies and intraspecies levels and by variable mutation rates across taxa. In a variety of insect datasets, these indexes were useful for re-evaluating large barcode datasets and for defining COI barcode gaps. The COI-based DNA barcode library will provide a rapid and reliable tool for the molecular identification of Korean chironomid species. Furthermore, this reverse-taxonomic approach will be improved by the continuous addition of other speceis’ sequences to the library. PMID:22138764

  1. Large-scale mitogenomics enables insights into Schizophora (Diptera) radiation and population diversity.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Ana Carolina M; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L; Paulo, Daniel F; Marinho, Marco Antonio T; Tomsho, Lynn P; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Purbojati, Rikky W; Ratan, Aakrosh; Schuster, Stephan C

    2016-02-25

    True flies are insects of the order Diptera and encompass one of the most diverse groups of animals on Earth. Within dipterans, Schizophora represents a recent radiation of insects that was used as a model to develop a pipeline for generating complete mitogenomes using various sequencing platforms and strategies. 91 mitogenomes from 32 different species were sequenced and assembled with high fidelity, using amplicon, whole genome shotgun or single molecule sequencing approaches. Based on the novel mitogenomes, we estimate the origin of Schizophora within the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, about 68.3 Ma. Detailed analyses of the blowfly family (Calliphoridae) place its origin at 22 Ma, concomitant with the radiation of grazing mammals. The emergence of ectoparasitism within calliphorids was dated 6.95 Ma for the screwworm fly and 2.3 Ma for the Australian sheep blowfly. Varying population histories were observed for the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala and the housefly Musca domestica samples in our dataset. Whereas blowflies (n = 50) appear to have undergone selective sweeps and/or severe bottlenecks in the New World, houseflies (n = 14) display variation among populations from different zoogeographical zones and low levels of gene flow. The reported high-throughput mitogenomics approach for insects enables new insights into schizophoran diversity and population history of flies.

  2. Syritta pipiens (Diptera: Syrphidae), a new species associated with human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Magni, Paola A; Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Borrini, Matteo; Dadour, Ian R

    2013-09-10

    The analyses of necrophagous insects feeding on a corpse can be successfully used to estimate the minimum time since death. A minimum time frame is sometimes an underestimate, but it is actually the only method that can provide such information when decomposed remains are found at a crime scene. Many insects are known to be colonisers of a corpse, but because there is an endless spectrum of crime scene environments, the development data bases for necrophagous insects is incomplete. The two cases detailed in this paper show different entomological patterns due to the different environments (well and burial) and locations (south and central Italy) where the two cadavers were found. Common to both of these cases' was the discovery of the corpse in the same period of the year (January) and the presence of Syritta pipiens (Diptera: Syrphidae), a species that has never been associated with deceased humans. The ecological information concerning this insect was used in combination with the more typical entomofauna found on the corpse to provide a minimum post mortem interval.

  3. Inhibitory Effects of Amorphigenin on the Mitochondrial Complex I of Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Mingshan; Liang, Yaping; Gu, Zumin; Li, Xiuwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory found that the extract from seeds of Amorpha fruticosa in the Leguminosae family had lethal effects against mosquito larvae, and an insecticidal compound amorphigenin was isolated. In this study, the inhibitory effects of amorphigenin against the mitochondrial complex I of Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) were investigated and compared with that of rotenone. The results showed that amorphigenin and rotenone can decrease the mitochondrial complex I activity both in vivo and in vitro as the in vivo IC50 values (the inhibitor concentrations leading to 50% of the enzyme activity lost) were determined to be 2.4329 and 2.5232 μmol/L, respectively, while the in vitro IC50 values were 2.8592 and 3.1375 μmol/L, respectively. Both amorphigenin and rotenone were shown to be reversible and mixed-I type inhibitors of the mitochondrial complex I of Cx. pipiens pallens, indicating that amorphigenin and rotenone inhibited the enzyme activity not only by binding with the free enzyme but also with the enzyme-substrate complex, and the values of KI and KIS for amorphigenin were determined to be 20.58 and 87.55 μM, respectively, while the values for rotenone were 14.04 and 69.23 μM, respectively. PMID:26307964

  4. Morphology, Ultrastructure and Possible Functions of Antennal Sensilla of Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Li, Dan; Liu, Yang; Li, Xue-Jiao; Cheng, Wei-Ning; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical. Seven types of sensilla were identified in both sexes. Two types of s. chaetica have a lumen without dendrites and thick walls, suggesting that they are mechanoreceptors. S. trichodea and s. circumfila are typical chemoreceptors, possessing thin multiporous walls encircling a lumen with multiple dendrites. There are significantly more s. trichodea in female than in male, which may be related to host plant localization. In contrast, male s. circumfila are highly elongated compared to those of females, perhaps for pheromone detection. Peg-shaped s. coeloconica are innervated with unbranched dendrites extending from the base to the distal tip. Type 1 s. coeloconica, which have deep longitudinal grooves and finger-like projections on the surface, may serve as olfactory or humidity receptors, whereas type 2 s. coeloconica, smooth with a terminal pore, may be contact chemoreceptors. Also, this is the first report of Böhm’ bristles at proximal scape on antennae of Cecidomyiid species potentially functioning as mechanoreceptors.

  5. Online database for mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) occurrence records in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Talaga, Stanislas; Murienne, Jérôme; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A database providing information on mosquito specimens (Arthropoda: Diptera: Culicidae) collected in French Guiana is presented. Field collections were initiated in 2013 under the auspices of the CEnter for the study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: http://www.labexceba.fr/en/). This study is part of an ongoing process aiming to understand the distribution of mosquitoes, including vector species, across French Guiana. Occurrences are recorded after each collecting trip in a database managed by the laboratory Evolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), Toulouse, France. The dataset is updated monthly and is available online. Voucher specimens and their associated DNA are stored at the laboratory Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane (Ecofog), Kourou, French Guiana. The latest version of the dataset is accessible through EDB’s Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=mosquitoes_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/5a8aa2ad-261c-4f61-a98e-26dd752fe1c5 It can also be viewed through the Guyanensis platform at http://guyanensis.ups-tlse.fr PMID:26692809

  6. Near Infrared Imaging As a Method of Studying Tsetse Fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) Pupal Development

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Zelda R.; Parker, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) photography and video was investigated as a method for observing and recording intrapuparial development in the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis and other Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha) Diptera. We showed that NIR light passes through the puparium, permitting images of the true pupae and pharate adult to be captured. Various wavelengths of NIR light from 880 to 1060 nm were compared to study the development of tsetse fly pupae from larviposition to emergence, using time-lapse videos and photographs. This study was carried out to advance our understanding of tsetse pupal development, specifically with the goal of improving a sorting technique which could separate male from female tsetse flies several days before emergence. Separation of the sexes at this stage is highly desirable for operational tsetse sterile insect technique control programmes, as it would permit the easy retention of females for the colony while allowing the males to be handled, irradiated and shipped in the pupal stage when they are less sensitive to vibration. In addition, it presents a new methodology for studying the pupal stage of many coarctate insects for many applications. NIR imaging permits observation of living pupae, allowing the entire development process to be observed without disruption. PMID:27402791

  7. Olfactory response of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava and sweet orange volatiles.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Santiz, Edvin; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Hernández, Emilio; Malo, Edi A

    2016-10-01

    The behavioral responses of virgin and mated female Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava (Psidium guajava L.) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) were evaluated separately using multilure traps in two-choice tests in field cages. The results showed that flies were more attracted to guava and sweet orange volatiles than to control (unbaited trap). The physiological state (virgin or mated) of females did not affect their attraction to the fruit volatiles. Combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of volatile extracts of both fruits showed that 1 and 6 compounds from orange and guava, respectively elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females. The EAD active compounds in guava volatile extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as ethyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. Linalool was identified as the only antennal active compound in sweet orange extracts. In field cage tests, there were no significant differences between the number of mated flies captured by the traps baited with guava extracts and the number caught by traps baited with the 6-component blend that was formulated according to the relative proportions in the guava extracts. Similar results occurred when synthetic linalool was evaluated against orange extracts. From a practical point of view, the compounds identified in this study could be used for monitoring A. striata populations. PMID:25800723

  8. Dominant fitness costs of resistance to fipronil in Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naeem; Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Azher, Faheem

    2016-08-15

    House fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) a common pest of poultry, has developed resistance to the commonly used insecticide fipronil. The life history traits were examined in the fipronil-selected (Fipro-SEL), susceptible counterpart (UNSEL), and their hybrid progeny strains in order to design an effective resistant management strategy. Compared to the UNSEL strain, the Fipro-SEL was 181.94-fold resistant to fipronil. This resistance was unstable after five generations without selection. The Fipro-SEL had a significantly longer larval duration, lower pupal weight, lower fecundity, lower hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, lower intrinsic rate of population increase and lower biotic potential than the UNSEL strain. Most fitness parameters of the hybrid progeny were similar and significantly lower than that in the UNSEL strain, suggesting autosomal and dominant fitness costs. Compared to the UNSEL strain, relative the fitness of the Fipro-SEL, Hybrid1 and Hybrid2 was 0.13, 0.33 and 0.30, respectively. Fipronil resistance resulted in high fitness costs and these fitness costs were dominant and autosomal in the Fipro-SEL strain of M. domestica. Rotation of fipronil with other insecticides having no cross resistance should be useful for delaying the development of resistance in M. domestica.

  9. Environmental factors affecting early carcass attendance by four species of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Texas.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Rachel M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2014-05-01

    As the most common primary colonizer of carrion, adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) play an important role in initiating arthropod-mediated breakdown of soft tissue; however, their timing is highly variable. This variability complicates the estimation of precolonization intervals or periods of insect activity by forensic entomologists. In this study, the size of the adult blow fly on swine carcasses was compared with various environmental conditions including time of day, temperature, wind speed, and light levels. Four trials were conducted: two in August and September 2008, one in January 2009, and one in February-March 2010. Of the measured variables, time of day was the only consistent factor explaining the population size of blow fly on a carcass, although precipitation and high winds affected winter-active Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Male flies were also collected, suggesting that carcasses may play additional roles in adult blow fly ecology beyond that of a simple oviposition site. For both sexes of flies, a strong diel pattern of behavior emerged, which could be useful in estimating precolonization intervals by considering the environmental conditions at a scene, and thus forensic entomologists may be better able to estimate the likelihood of adult activity at a carcass.

  10. Seasonal occurrence of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in a desert stream receiving trout farm effluent.

    PubMed

    Pachón, R Trudith; Walton, William E

    2011-06-01

    The distribution and abundance of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in a small desert stream were influenced by environmental changes caused by recharge of water supply storage basins and an aquaculture operation. Simulium virgatum was the most abundant benthic insect collected in Whitewater Canyon (Riverside County, CA) after April; however, it was never found in trout farm effluent where the ammonium-nitrogen concentration was > 0.25 mg/liter. S. virgatum densities downstream of the input of water from the Colorado River aqueduct were lower than at other sampling sites in the Whitewater River. Simulium tescorum, an especially anthropophilic black fly, was most abundant during February and March, was not collected from late spring through early autumn, and was found only in the highly enriched, less variable flow of trout farm effluent. The mean concentrations of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in the trout farm effluent nearly 1 km from the fish holding ponds were ten and two times, respectively, the ambient levels in the Whitewater River upstream of the effluent discharge point. A combination of factors probably contributed to the presence of S. tescorum in the trout farm effluent including homogenization of the flow regime, enrichment of larval resources, and the development of riparian vegetation that provided oviposition and attachment sites.

  11. An Adaptive Kernel Smoothing Method for Classifying Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) Larval Instars

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Guanjun; Zeng, Xianru; Long, Xiuzhen; Wei, Dewei; Gao, Xuyuan; Zeng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the frequency distribution of the measurements of sclerotized body parts is generally used to classify larval instars and is characterized by a multimodal overlap between instar stages. Nonparametric methods with fixed bandwidths, such as histograms, have significant limitations when used to fit this type of distribution, making it difficult to identify divisions between instars. Fixed bandwidths have also been chosen somewhat subjectively in the past, which is another problem. In this study, we describe an adaptive kernel smoothing method to differentiate instars based on discontinuities in the growth rates of sclerotized insect body parts. From Brooks’ rule, we derived a new standard for assessing the quality of instar classification and a bandwidth selector that more accurately reflects the distributed character of specific variables. We used this method to classify the larvae of Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) based on five different measurements. Based on head capsule width and head capsule length, the larvae were separated into nine instars. Based on head capsule postoccipital width and mandible length, the larvae were separated into 8 instars and 10 instars, respectively. No reasonable solution was found for antennal segment 3 length. Separation of the larvae into nine instars using head capsule width or head capsule length was most robust and agreed with Crosby’s growth rule. By strengthening the distributed character of the separation variable through the use of variable bandwidths, the adaptive kernel smoothing method could identify divisions between instars more effectively and accurately than previous methods. PMID:26546689

  12. Diversification in Hawaiian long-legged flies (Diptera: Dolichopodidae: Campsicnemus): biogeographic isolation and ecological adaptation.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Kari Roesch; Evenhuis, Neal L; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; O'Grady, Patrick M

    2014-12-01

    Flies in the genus Campsicnemus have diversified into the second-largest adaptive radiation of Diptera in the Hawaiian Islands, with 179 Hawaiian endemic species currently described. Here we present the first phylogenetic analysis of Campsicnemus, with a focus on the Hawaiian fauna. We analyzed a combination of two nuclear (CAD, EF1α) and five mitochondrial (COI, COII, 12S, 16S, ND2) loci using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to generate a phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus Campsicnemus. Our sampling included a total of 84 species (6 species from Europe, 1 from North America, 7 species from French Polynesia and 70 species from the Hawaiian Islands). The phylogenies were used to estimate divergence times, reconstruct biogeographic history, and infer ancestral ecological associations within this large genus. We found strong support for a South Pacific+Hawaiian clade, as well as for a monophyletic Hawaiian lineage. Divergence time estimates suggest that Hawaiian Islands were colonized approximately 4.6 million years ago, suggesting that most of the diversity within Campsicnemus evolved since the current high islands began forming ∼5 million years ago. We also observe a novel ecotype within the Pacific Campsicnemus; a widespread obligate water-skating form that has arisen multiple times across the Pacific Islands. Together, these analyses suggest that a combination of ecological, biogeographic and temporal factors have led to the impressive diversity of long-legged flies in Hawaii and elsewhere in the Pacific.

  13. Persistence and Retention of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Stable Flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Rochon, K; Baker, R B; Almond, G W; Gimeno, I M; Pérez de León, A A; Watson, D W

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the acquisition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus by the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae; Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) through a bloodmeal, and virus persistence in the digestive organs of the fly using virus isolation and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Stable flies were fed blood containing live virus, modified live vaccine virus, chemically inactivated virus, or no virus. Stable flies acquired PRRSV from the bloodmeal and the amount of virus in the flies declined with time, indicating virus did not replicate in fly digestive tissues. Virus RNA was recovered from the flies fed live virus up to 24 h postfeeding using virus isolation techniques and 96 h using qRT-PCR. We further examined the fate of PRRSV in the hemolymph of the flies following intrathoracic injection to bypass the midgut barrier. PRRSV was detected in intrathoracically inoculated adult stable flies for 10 d using qRT-PCR. In contrast to what we observed in the digestive tract, detectable virus quantities in the intrathoracically inoculated stable flies followed an exponential decay curve. The amount of virus decreased fourfold in the first 3 d and remained stable thereafter, up to 10 d.

  14. Immunofluorescent characterization of DNA . RNA hybrids on polytene chromosomes of Trichosia pubescens (Diptera, sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Büsen, W; Amabis, J M; Leoncini, O; Stollar, B D; Lara, F J

    1982-01-01

    We have studied the distribution of DNA X RNA hybrids on polytene chromosomes with the aid of a goat antibody against DNA X RNA hybrids using the immunofluorescence technique. Fixed polytene chromosomes of the sciarid Trichosia pubescens (Diptera) show distinct, stage-specific labelling patterns throughout larval development. Controls for the staining procedure - including preincubation with hybrid-specific endoribonuclease H - prove that DNA X RNA hybrids are present on fixed chromosomes. They are revealed only under mild fixation conditions which do not efficiently immobilize all chromosomal proteins, indicating that some proteins have to be removed to make the antigens accessible to antibody. Certain fixation conditions may also cause local denaturation of chromosomal DNA, and some hybrids may possibly form during specimen preparation. After incorporation of radioactive uridine, a combination of phase contrast, fluorescent, and autoradiographic images of one and the same chromosomal preparation demonstrates that hybrid fluorescence is confined to transcriptionally active regions. Two puff classes can be distinguished. The first binds antibody and includes most RNA puffs and all DNA puffs so far studied; the second, comprising some RNA puffs, does not show bright fluorescence in spite of the fact that RNA synthesis is high as revealed by 3H-uridine incorporation. DNA X RNA hybrids are not found at DNA puff sites during the DNA amplification period; these sites contain detectable hybrids only when transcription is taking place. - Combination of the fluorescent technique with its excellent resolution and autoradiography should be helpful in studying detailed topological aspects of transcriptionally active chromosomal regions.

  15. Assessment of resistance risk in Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) to methoxyfenozide.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2015-09-01

    Methoxyfenozide, an ecdysone receptor agonist is an effective larvicide against many pests of public health and veterinary importance including house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Methoxyfenozide is a bio-rational insecticide having many environmentally friendly attributes that make it compatible with integrated pest management programs. This experiment was performed for the assessment of resistance evolution in M. domestica to methoxyfenozide. A field population of M. domestica, after 24 rounds of selection with methoxyfenozide, resulted in 64 fold and 915-fold increase in lethal concentration 50 (LC50) compared to field and susceptible strain, respectively. Realized heritability (h(2)) of resistance to methoxyfenozide was 0.17 in methoxyfenozide-selected strain of M. domestica. The projected rate of resistance development indicated that, if slope=1.71 and h(2)=0.17, then 13-5 generations are required for tenfold increase in LC50 at 50-95% selection intensity. These findings suggest that a risk for resistance development to methoxyfenozide occurred in M. domestica under continuous selection pressure.

  16. Estimating the Number of Eggs in Blow Fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Egg Masses Using Photographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosati, J Y; Pacheco, V A; Vankosky, M A; Vanlaerhoven, S L

    2015-07-01

    Little work has been done to quantify the number of eggs oviposited by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in studies examining colonization behavior. Egg counting methods currently available are time-consuming and destructive. This study used ImageJ software and analysis of covariance to relate the volume of egg masses to the number of eggs laid by three different blow fly species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Egg mass volume, species, and the interaction of species and egg mass volume all affected the number of blow fly eggs deposited in egg masses. Both species identity and egg mass volume are important when predicting egg number, as such a single regression equation cannot be used to estimate egg number for these three species. Therefore, simple linear regression equations were determined for each species. The volume of individual eggs was incorporated into the model, yet differences between species were observed, suggesting that the orientation of the eggs oviposited by multiple conspecific females within egg masses influences egg estimates. Based on our results, we expect that imaging software can be used for other blow fly species, as well as other insect species; however, equations specific to each species must be developed. This study describes an important tool for quantifying egg deposition in a nondestructive manner, which is important in studying the colonization behavior and life history of insects of ecological and forensic importance.

  17. Purification and characterization of an antimicrobial peptide, insect defensin, from immunized house fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Dang, X L; Wang, Y S; Huang, Y D; Yu, X Q; Zhang, W Q

    2010-11-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is involved in phoretic movement of pathogenic agents, but it has a very efficient defense mechanism against infection. It is believed that antimicrobial peptides play a significant role in the defense system of the house fly. Here, we isolated a peptide from the immunized house fly pupae, measured its molecular mass (3987.6 Da) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight-mass spectrometry, and determined its amino acid sequence by using the Procise Protein Sequencing System (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The peptide was confirmed as a member of the insect defensin family. It displayed high activity against gram-positive bacteria but lower activity against gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that the house fly defensin gene was constitutively expressed in naive pupae and strongly up-regulated after immunization. House fly defensin is an amphiphilic peptide with a structure similar to that of the CSalphabeta scaffold of insect defensin A from the flesh fly, Phormia terraenovae Robineau-Desvoidy. To our knowledge, this is the first isolated and characterized house fly antimicrobial peptide, and our work may provide useful information for developing pharmacologically active antimicrobial agents.

  18. Examination of nocturnal blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) oviposition on pig carcasses in mid-Michigan.

    PubMed

    Zurawski, Kristi N; Benbow, M Eric; Miller, James R; Merritt, Richard W

    2009-05-01

    The most common application of forensic entomology involves estimating a portion of the postmortem interval (PMI), which usually assumes that blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) do not oviposit nocturnally. Research objectives were to (1) investigate blow fly nocturnal oviposition in relation to sunrise and sunset in Michigan; (2) evaluate abiotic variables postulated to affect blow fly oviposition; and (3) conduct laboratory experiments testing blow fly activity under complete darkness. In 2006, nocturnal oviposition was evaluated in relation to sunset by exposing pigs to fly colonization at 1-h intervals, beginning 2 h before and ending 2 h after sunset. This test was replicated in 2007; however, replicate pigs were placed in the field 2 h after sunset, and hourly observations were made into the following morning. Oviposition was never observed at night. In a laboratory experiment, Lucilia sericata (Meigen), never oviposited on liver hanging above or placed directly on the ground in a completely dark room, Another dark room laboratory study documented that adult flies launched into the air could not fly. This study documents that the probability of nocturnal oviposition on pig carcasses in Michigan was extremely low to nonexistent. These results should be considered when estimating a portion of the PMI in forensic entomological investigations.

  19. The effect of dietary fat levels on the size and development of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Li, Xuebo; Yang, Yongqiang; Li, Genping; Li, Hongwei; Wang, Qingshan; Wan, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Variation in the type of tissue that larvae feed on can produce marked differences in developmental rate and body size, which can compromise predictions of minimum postmortem interval. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of fat content in the diet on larval growth in Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an important forensic blowfly species in China. Bionomical parameters such as body size, development time, mortality, and sex ratio were observed. The results indicated that fat content in the diet has a dramatic effect on the body size and larval development. More dietary fat content was beneficial for development of larvae in first and early second instar. But it was adverse in the later third instar. Significantly, a high-fat diet resulted in increased development rates and the production of undersized larvae and adults. Overall mortality of larvae and pupa was higher when more fat was added to the diet, but sex ratio of adults was not negatively affected. This study highlights that the fat content in the diet should be considered in the entomological research and forensic application when estimating minimum postmortem interval on the basis of larval body size and developmental stage. PMID:25550356

  20. Evaluation of Housekeeping Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Caihua; Yang, Fengshan; Zhu, Xun; Du, Erxia; Yang, Yuting; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    The soil insect Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) causes substantial damage to Chinese chive. Suitable reference genes in B. odoriphaga (Bradysia odoriphaga) have yet to be identified for normalizing target gene expression among samples by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). This study was focused on identifying the expression stability of 12 candidate housekeeping genes in B. odoriphaga under various experiment conditions. The final stability ranking of 12 housekeeping genes was obtained with RefFinder, and the most suitable number of reference genes was analyzed by GeNorm. The results revealed that the most appropriate sets of internal controls were RPS15, RPL18, and RPS18 across developmental phases; RPS15, RPL28, and GAPDH across temperatures; RPS15 and RPL18 across pesticide treatments; RSP5, RPS18, and SDHA across photoperiods; ACTb, RPS18, and RPS15 across diets; RPS13 and RPL28 across populations; and RPS15, ACTb, and RPS18 across all samples. The use of the most suitable reference genes versus an arbitrarily selected reference gene resulted in significant differences in the analysis of a target gene expression. HSP23 in B. odoriphaga was found to be up-regulated under low temperatures. These results will contribute to the standardization of qRT-PCR and will also be valuable for further research on gene function in B. odoriphaga. PMID:27399679

  1. Morphology, Ultrastructure and Possible Functions of Antennal Sensilla of Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Li, Dan; Liu, Yang; Li, Xue-Jiao; Cheng, Wei-Ning; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical. Seven types of sensilla were identified in both sexes. Two types of s. chaetica have a lumen without dendrites and thick walls, suggesting that they are mechanoreceptors. S. trichodea and s. circumfila are typical chemoreceptors, possessing thin multiporous walls encircling a lumen with multiple dendrites. There are significantly more s. trichodea in female than in male, which may be related to host plant localization. In contrast, male s. circumfila are highly elongated compared to those of females, perhaps for pheromone detection. Peg-shaped s. coeloconica are innervated with unbranched dendrites extending from the base to the distal tip. Type 1 s. coeloconica, which have deep longitudinal grooves and finger-like projections on the surface, may serve as olfactory or humidity receptors, whereas type 2 s. coeloconica, smooth with a terminal pore, may be contact chemoreceptors. Also, this is the first report of Böhm’ bristles at proximal scape on antennae of Cecidomyiid species potentially functioning as mechanoreceptors. PMID:27623751

  2. Online database for mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) occurrence records in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Talaga, Stanislas; Murienne, Jérôme; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2015-01-01

    A database providing information on mosquito specimens (Arthropoda: Diptera: Culicidae) collected in French Guiana is presented. Field collections were initiated in 2013 under the auspices of the CEnter for the study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: http://www.labexceba.fr/en/). This study is part of an ongoing process aiming to understand the distribution of mosquitoes, including vector species, across French Guiana. Occurrences are recorded after each collecting trip in a database managed by the laboratory Evolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), Toulouse, France. The dataset is updated monthly and is available online. Voucher specimens and their associated DNA are stored at the laboratory Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane (Ecofog), Kourou, French Guiana. The latest version of the dataset is accessible through EDB's Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=mosquitoes_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/5a8aa2ad-261c-4f61-a98e-26dd752fe1c5 It can also be viewed through the Guyanensis platform at http://guyanensis.ups-tlse.fr.

  3. Worthy of their name: how floods drive outbreaks of two major floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed.

  4. Larvicidal Effects of Four Citrus Peel Essential Oils Against the Arbovirus Vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Campolo, Orlando; Romeo, Flora V; Algeri, Giuseppe M; Laudani, Francesca; Malacrinò, Antonino; Timpanaro, Nicolina; Palmeri, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal activity of four citrus essential oils (EOs; sweet orange, mandarin, bergamot, and lemon) against the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, we found that in sweet orange, mandarin, and lemon EOs, limonene was the most abundant compound, whereas linalyl acetate was the most abundant in the bergamot EO. All tested EOs showed a marked larvicidal activity, in particular sweet orange, lemon, and bergamot that killed all treated larvae. After 24 h of exposure, the LC50 values of the tested citrus EOs ranged from 145.27 (lemon EO) to 318.07 mg liter(-1) (mandarin EO), while LC(95) ranged from 295.13 to 832.44 mg liter(-1). After 48 h of exposure, the estimated LC(50) values decreased to values ranging from 117.29 to 209.38 mg liter(-1), while LC(95) ranged from 231.85 to 537.36 mg liter(-1). The results obtained from these evaluations, together with the large availability at reasonable costs of citrus EOs, are promising for the potential development of a new botanical mosquitocide. PMID:26357845

  5. Cold tolerance and disinfestation of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Hass' avocado.

    PubMed

    Ware, A B; Du Toit, C L N; Mohamed, S A; Nderitu, P W; Ekasi, S

    2012-12-01

    Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) has spread rapidly across Africa and currently poses a phytosanitary threat to the fruit industry of South Africa. In reaction a cold mitigating treatment to provide phytosanitary security to importing countries was developed in Nairobi, Kenya. Using laboratory reared fruit flies, the rate of development in 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller) was determined at 28 degrees C. Fruit ripeness or softness was found to be a factor improving larval fruit fly survival. Using this information the egg and larval developmental stages were subjected to 2 degrees C cold treatment and it was found that the third instars were the most cold tolerant life stage and that it was expected that between 16 and 17 d treatment would provide phytosanitary security. There were no survivors in the treatment of an estimated 153,001 individuals in four replicates at an average fruit pulp temperature of 2 degrees C satisfying the Probit 9 level of efficiency at a confidence of >95%. These data provide evidence that a continuous cold treatment of 1.5 degrees C or lower for 18 d would provide phytosanitary security in that any consignment entering an importing country poses no risk of accidental importation of B. invadens.

  6. Phylogeographic Structure in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations Inferred With mtDNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Arce, Raul; Owen, Christopher L; Thomas, Donald B; Barr, Norman B; McPheron, Bruce A

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Mexican fruit fly, is a major pest of citrus and mango. It has a wide distribution in Mexico and Central America, with infestations occurring in Texas, California, and Florida with origins believed to have been centered in northeastern Mexico. This research evaluates the utility of a sequence-based approach for two mitochondrial (COI and ND6) gene regions. We use these markers to examine genetic diversity, estimate population structure, and identify diagnostic information for A. ludens populations. We analyzed 543 individuals from 67 geographic collections and found one predominant haplotype occurring in the majority of specimens. We observed 68 haplotypes in all and see differences among haplotypes belonging to northern and southern collections. Mexico haplotypes differ by few bases possibly as a result of a recent bottleneck event. In contrast to the hypothesis suggesting northeastern Mexico as the origin of this species, we see that specimens from two southern collections show high genetic variability delineating three mitochondrial groups. These data suggest that Central America is the origin for A. ludens. We show that COI and ND6 are useful for phylogeographic studies of A. ludens. PMID:26470261

  7. Oviposition in Delia platura (Diptera, Anthomyiidae): the role of volatile and contact cues of bean.

    PubMed

    Gouinguené, Sandrine P; Städler, Erich

    2006-07-01

    The choice of a suitable oviposition site by female insects is essential for survival of their progeny. Both olfactory and contact cues of the oviposition site may mediate this choice. The polyphagous Delia platura (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), a severe agricultural pest of numerous crops, lays eggs in the soil close to germinating seeds. Maggots feed upon the cotyledons. Only little is known about the cues guiding oviposition behavior. In this study, the effects of both olfactory and contact cues of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) on oviposition of D. platura females were tested. Egg deposition on germinated beans was preferred to egg deposition on ungerminated beans or on beans in different postgerminating developmental stages. Olfactory cues of germinating beans alone stimulated female flies to lay eggs. Additional contact cues of germinating beans seemed to enhance the response, but the difference was not significant. Surface extracts of germinating beans sprayed on surrogate beans showed that both polar and nonpolar substances stimulated oviposition of D. platura flies. Gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection recordings of head space samples of germinating beans showed positive response of females to different compounds. We conclude that olfaction plays a major role when D. platura females are searching for oviposition sites. Volatile compounds released from germinating beans such as 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, 1-hepten-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, and 3-octanone should be considered as key compounds that mediate oviposition behavior. The use of different sensory modalities by closely related species of Delia is discussed.

  8. Morphometric Analysis of Longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) Complex Populations in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mirella F C; Andrade Filho, José D; Fernandes, Carlos E S; Mateus, Nathália L F; Eguchi, Gabriel U; Fernandes, Wedson D; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Oliveira, Everton F; Oliveira, Alessandra G

    2015-05-01

    Owing to the existence of cryptic species that are difficult to distinguish morphologically, the search for new taxonomic characters and methods for identifying and classifying sand flies continues. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) (Diptera: Psychodidae) are two such species that occur in sympatry in some regions of Mato Grosso do Sul State (MS). Twenty females and twenty males from each of the five populations of Lu. longipalpis and one population of Lu. cruzi from MS were examined. An outlying population of Lu. longipalpis from Estrela de Alagoas, State of Alagoas, was used to compare the degree of divergence among the groups in MS. Specimens were cleared, mounted on slides, identified, and measured using LAS-Leica. The principal component analysis of morphometric characters showed a high degree of variation among females, while males varied to a lower degree. The populations of Alagoas and Miranda demonstrated the greatest variation. The first region, Alagoas, is geographically distant from the others and occurs under distinctly different ecological conditions, which likely accounts for the variation. Further studies should be made to elucidate the factors that contribute to the differences found between the populations of MS.

  9. Scanning electron microscopy of antennal sensory organs of the cattle grub, Hypoderma lineatum (Diptera: Oestridae).

    PubMed

    Li, X Y; Liu, X H; Ge, Y Q; Zhang, D

    2015-10-01

    Hypoderma lineatum (Villers, 1789) (Diptera: Oestridae) is a hypodermosis fly that has resulted in great economic losses worldwide. The antennae of cattle grub males and females were examined through stereoscopic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to reveal the general morphology, combined with distribution, type, size, and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. All of the three antennal segments (antennal scape, pedicel, and funiculus) possess microtrichiae on their surface. Mechanoreceptors only exist on the antennal scape and pedicel. The antennal funiculus presents four types of antennal sensilla: trichoid, basiconic, coeloconic, and clavate sensilla. Three distinctive characters of H. lineatum are obvious: (1) the relatively slender, flexible, and equal-height mechanoreceptors; (2) the enlarged antennal pedicel, and numerous antennal sensory pits and pit sensilla on the antennal funiculus; and (3) all types of antennal sensilla clustered in sensory pits, respectively. Additionally, the enlarged antennal pedicel and abundant sensory pits and pit sensilla might facilitate odor detection, enhance olfactory sensitivity and accuracy, and also protect the fragile antennal sensilla from mechanical irritation or damage. PMID:26193822

  10. Larvicidal Effects of Four Citrus Peel Essential Oils Against the Arbovirus Vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Campolo, Orlando; Romeo, Flora V; Algeri, Giuseppe M; Laudani, Francesca; Malacrinò, Antonino; Timpanaro, Nicolina; Palmeri, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal activity of four citrus essential oils (EOs; sweet orange, mandarin, bergamot, and lemon) against the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, we found that in sweet orange, mandarin, and lemon EOs, limonene was the most abundant compound, whereas linalyl acetate was the most abundant in the bergamot EO. All tested EOs showed a marked larvicidal activity, in particular sweet orange, lemon, and bergamot that killed all treated larvae. After 24 h of exposure, the LC50 values of the tested citrus EOs ranged from 145.27 (lemon EO) to 318.07 mg liter(-1) (mandarin EO), while LC(95) ranged from 295.13 to 832.44 mg liter(-1). After 48 h of exposure, the estimated LC(50) values decreased to values ranging from 117.29 to 209.38 mg liter(-1), while LC(95) ranged from 231.85 to 537.36 mg liter(-1). The results obtained from these evaluations, together with the large availability at reasonable costs of citrus EOs, are promising for the potential development of a new botanical mosquitocide.

  11. Assessing Insecticide Susceptibility of Laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, David S.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Lawyer, Phillip G.; Black, William C.; Bernhardt, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose–response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the QCal software, LCs causing 50, 90, and 95% mortality were determined for each insecticide. The LCs and LTs from this study will be useful as baseline reference points for future studies using the CDC bottle bioassays to assess insecticide susceptibility of sand fly populations in the field. There is a need for a larger repository of sand fly insecticide susceptibility data from the CDC bottle bioassays, including a range of LCs and LTs for more sand fly species with more insecticides. Such a repository would be a valuable tool for vector management. PMID:26336231

  12. Large-scale mitogenomics enables insights into Schizophora (Diptera) radiation and population diversity

    PubMed Central

    Junqueira, Ana Carolina M.; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L.; Paulo, Daniel F.; Marinho, Marco Antonio T.; Tomsho, Lynn P.; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Purbojati, Rikky W.; Ratan, Aakrosh; Schuster, Stephan C.

    2016-01-01

    True flies are insects of the order Diptera and encompass one of the most diverse groups of animals on Earth. Within dipterans, Schizophora represents a recent radiation of insects that was used as a model to develop a pipeline for generating complete mitogenomes using various sequencing platforms and strategies. 91 mitogenomes from 32 different species were sequenced and assembled with high fidelity, using amplicon, whole genome shotgun or single molecule sequencing approaches. Based on the novel mitogenomes, we estimate the origin of Schizophora within the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, about 68.3 Ma. Detailed analyses of the blowfly family (Calliphoridae) place its origin at 22 Ma, concomitant with the radiation of grazing mammals. The emergence of ectoparasitism within calliphorids was dated 6.95 Ma for the screwworm fly and 2.3 Ma for the Australian sheep blowfly. Varying population histories were observed for the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala and the housefly Musca domestica samples in our dataset. Whereas blowflies (n = 50) appear to have undergone selective sweeps and/or severe bottlenecks in the New World, houseflies (n = 14) display variation among populations from different zoogeographical zones and low levels of gene flow. The reported high-throughput mitogenomics approach for insects enables new insights into schizophoran diversity and population history of flies. PMID:26912394

  13. Conochironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Asia: new and redescribed species and vouchering issues.

    PubMed

    Cranston, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the Afro-Australian genus Conochironomus Freeman, 1961 (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Asia has been recognised only informally. An unpublished thesis included Conochironomus from Singapore, and the genus has been keyed from Malaysia without named species. Here, the Sumatran Conochironomus tobaterdecimus (Kikuchi & Sasa, 1980) comb. n. is recorded from Singapore and Thailand. The species is transferred from Sumatendipes Kikuchi & Sasa, 1980, rendering the latter a junior synonym (syn. n.) of Conochironomus Freeman. Conochironomus nuengthai sp. n. and Conochironomus sawngthai sp. n. are described as new to science, based on adult males from Chiang Mai, Thailand. All species conform to existing generic diagnoses for all life stages, with features from male and female genitalia, pupal cephalic tubercles and posterolateral 'spurs' of tergite VIII providing evidence for species distinction. Some larvae are linked to C. tobaterdecimus through molecular barcoding. Variation in other larvae, which clearly belong to Conochironomus and are common throughout Thailand, means that they cannot be segregated to species. Larval habitats include pools in river beds, urban storage reservoirs, drains with moderately high nutrient loadings, and peat swamps. Endochironomus effusus Dutta, 1994 from north-eastern India may be a congener but may differ in adult morphology, thereby precluding formal new combination until discrepancies can be reconciled. Many problems with vouchering taxonomic and molecular material are identified that need to be rectified in the future. PMID:27394867

  14. The Mitochondrial Genome of Elodia flavipalpis Aldrich (Diptera: Tachinidae) and the Evolutionary Timescale of Tachinid Flies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhe; Su, Tian-juan; Chesters, Douglas; Wang, Shi-di; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Zhu, Chao-dong; Chen, Xiao-lin; Zhang, Chun-tian

    2013-01-01

    Tachinid flies are natural enemies of many lepidopteran and coleopteran pests of forests, crops, and fruit trees. In order to address the lack of genetic data in this economically important group, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Palaearctic tachinid fly Elodia flavipalpis Aldrich, 1933. Usually found in Northern China and Japan, this species is one of the primary natural enemies of the leaf-roller moths (Tortricidae), which are major pests of various fruit trees. The 14,932-bp mitochondrial genome was typical of Diptera, with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes. However, its control region is only 105 bp in length, which is the shortest found so far in flies. In order to estimate dipteran evolutionary relationships, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 58 mitochondrial genomes from 23 families. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods supported the monophyly of both Tachinidae and superfamily Oestroidea. Within the subsection Calyptratae, Muscidae was inferred as the sister group to Oestroidea. Within Oestroidea, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae formed a sister clade to Oestridae and Tachinidae. Using a Bayesian relaxed clock calibrated with fossil data, we estimated that Tachinidae originated in the middle Eocene. PMID:23626734

  15. Effects of foliar surfactants on host plant selection behavior of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    PubMed

    McKee, Fraser R; Levac, Joshua; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2009-10-01

    The pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae), is a highly polyphagous insect pest of global distribution. L. huidobrensis feeds and lays its eggs on leaf tissue and reduces crop marketability because of stippling and mining damage. In field insecticide trials, it was observed that stippling was reduced on plants treated with surfactant alone. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of surfactants on host selection behaviors of female L. huidobrensis and to assess the phytotoxicity of two common surfactants to test plants. The application of the surfactant Sylgard 309 to celery (Apium graveolens) caused a significant reduction in stippling rates. The application of Agral 90 to cucumber leaves (Cucumis sativus) resulted in changes to the amount of effort invested by females in specific host plant selection behaviors, as well as causing a significant reduction in the amount of stippling damage. The recommended dose of Sylgard 309 does not induce phytotoxicity on celery over a range of age classes nor does Agral 90 cause a phytotoxic effect in 35-d-old cucumber. Thus, reductions in observed stippling and changes to host selection behaviors were caused by an antixenotic effect of the surfactant on L. huidobrensis rather than a toxic effect of the surfactant on the plant. The presence of surfactant on an otherwise acceptable host plant seems to have masked host plant cues and prevented host plant recognition. Results indicate that surfactants may be used to reduce leafminer damage to vegetable crops, potentially reducing the use of insecticides.

  16. Bionomics of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the province of Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Doha, Said Abdallah; Samy, Abdallah M

    2010-11-01

    The bionomics of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were studied for two successive years (January 1996-December 1997) at 12 collecting stations representing six sectors of the province of Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia. The predominant species was Phlebotomus bergeroti (41.7%), followed by lesser numbers of Phlebotomus sergenti (11%), Phlebotomus arabicus (10.6%), Sergentomyia tiberiadis (10.5%), Phlebotomus papatasi (10.2%), Sergentomyia antennata (9.6%), Phlebotomus alexandri (3%), Phlebotomus orientalis (2.3%) and Sergentomyia clydei (1.1%). The distribution of the collected species including species that are elsewhere known to act as vectors of human cutaneous leishmaniasis were distributed across different altitudes in Al-Baha. P. bergeroti, P. papatasi and P. arabicus were more abundant indoors; however, P. sergenti was more abundant outdoors. Sand fly populations exhibited three patterns of seasonal abundance in terms of their monthly activity. P. bergeroti, P. sergenti and P. arabicus were found to be naturally infected with Leishmania-like flagellates at an infection rate of 0.2%. PMID:21120352

  17. Streblidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) from Yucatan and Updated Species List for Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuxim-Koyoc, Alan; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique; Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Bolívar-Cimé, Beatriz; Laborde, Javier

    2015-09-01

    This study describes the diversity of ectoparasitic bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae) in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. Fieldwork was carried out from June 2010 to January 2012 in seven municipalities of Yucatan, where 13 sampling sites were selected to capture bats using mist nets. Over 156 sampling nights a total of 910 bats were captured; these belonged to 19 species in four families: Mormoopidae, Phyllostomidae, Natalidae, and Vespertilionidae. Phyllostomidae was the richest family (13 bat species), followed by Mormoopidae (3 spp.), Vespertilionidae (2 spp.), and Natalidae (1 spp.). After careful inspection of the bats, a total of 2,134 Streblid bat flies were collected, belonging to 17 species in six genera (Nycterophilia coxata Ferris, N. natali Wenzel, Trichobius diphyllae Wenzel, T. dugesii Townsend, T. galei Wenzel, T. hirsutulus Bequaert, T. intermedius Peterson and Hurka, T. parasiticus Gervais, T. uniformis Curran, T. yunkeri Wenzel, Megistopoda aranea Coquillett, M. proxima Séguy, Aspidoptera delatorrei Wenzel, Strebla alvarezi Wenzel, S. diphyllae Wenzel, S. wiedemanni Kolenati, and Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett). The richest and most diverse genus was Trichobius. Five species--N. natali, T. diphyllae, M. proxima, A. delatorrei, and M. pseudopterus, are new records for Yucatan, and T. galei is a new record for the country, increasing the total number of Streblidae species for Mexico to 49.

  18. Larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of railway creeper, Ipomoea cairica Extract Against Dengue Vector Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    AhbiRami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran

    2014-01-01

    Natural insecticides from plant origin against mosquito vectors have been the main concern for research due to their high level of eco-safety. Control of mosquitoes in their larval stages are an ideal method since Aedes larvae are aquatic, thus it is easier to deal with them in this habitat. The present study was specifically conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of Ipomoea cairica (L.) or railway creeper crude extract obtained using two different solvents; methanol and acetone against late third-stage larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant materials of I. cairica leaf, flower, and stem were segregated, airdried, powdered, and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Larvicidal bioassays were performed by using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for each species which were conducted separately for different concentration ranging from 10 to 450 ppm. Both acetone and methanol extracts showed 100% mortality at highest concentration tested (450 ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Results from factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal effects between mosquito species, solvent used and plant parts (F=5.71, df=2, P<0.05). The acetone extract of I. cairica leaf showed the most effective larvicidal action in Ae. aegypti with LC50 of 101.94 ppm followed by Ae. albopictus with LC50 of 105.59 ppm compared with other fractions of I. cairica extract obtained from flower, stem, and when methanol are used as solvent. The larvae of Ae. aegypti appeared to be more susceptible to I. cairica extract with lower LC50 value compared with Ae. albopictus (F=8.83, df=1, P<0.05). Therefore, this study suggests that the acetone extract of I. cairica leaf can be considered as plant-derived insecticide for the control of Aedes mosquitoes. This study quantified the larvicidal property of I. cairica extract, providing information on lethal concentration that

  19. Larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of railway creeper, Ipomoea cairica Extract Against Dengue Vector Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    AhbiRami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran

    2014-01-01

    Natural insecticides from plant origin against mosquito vectors have been the main concern for research due to their high level of eco-safety. Control of mosquitoes in their larval stages are an ideal method since Aedes larvae are aquatic, thus it is easier to deal with them in this habitat. The present study was specifically conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of Ipomoea cairica (L.) or railway creeper crude extract obtained using two different solvents; methanol and acetone against late third-stage larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant materials of I. cairica leaf, flower, and stem were segregated, airdried, powdered, and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Larvicidal bioassays were performed by using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for each species which were conducted separately for different concentration ranging from 10 to 450 ppm. Both acetone and methanol extracts showed 100% mortality at highest concentration tested (450 ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Results from factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal effects between mosquito species, solvent used and plant parts (F=5.71, df=2, P<0.05). The acetone extract of I. cairica leaf showed the most effective larvicidal action in Ae. aegypti with LC50 of 101.94 ppm followed by Ae. albopictus with LC50 of 105.59 ppm compared with other fractions of I. cairica extract obtained from flower, stem, and when methanol are used as solvent. The larvae of Ae. aegypti appeared to be more susceptible to I. cairica extract with lower LC50 value compared with Ae. albopictus (F=8.83, df=1, P<0.05). Therefore, this study suggests that the acetone extract of I. cairica leaf can be considered as plant-derived insecticide for the control of Aedes mosquitoes. This study quantified the larvicidal property of I. cairica extract, providing information on lethal concentration that

  20. Characterization of irritans mariner-like elements in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae): evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements. PMID:27392643