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Sample records for plana vitrectomy ppv

  1. Treatment of endophthalmitis by pars plana vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Verbraeken, H; Geeroms, B; Karemera, A

    1988-01-01

    Between 1976 and 1985 81 cases of endophthalmitis have been treated by pars plana vitrectomy and intravitreous injection of antibiotics or antimycotics. The functional results and the etiology of the endophthalmitis are discussed, as well as the reasons to perform a vitrectomy in endophthalmitis, and a possible explanation for the relatively high incidence of pseudophakic endophthalmitis is given.

  2. [Pars plana vitrectomy with the vitreous stripper].

    PubMed

    Klöti, R

    1975-01-01

    We report on the construction and the function of a new microsurgical instrument for vitrectomy. The instrument is introduced into the vitreous cavity through a small scleral incision in the pars plana area. Microscope observation with slit-lamp illumination and a specially designed contact lens are used for this surgical procedure. Our clinical experiences and the indications are discussed.

  3. Pars Plana Vitrectomy for the Treatment of Uveitis.

    PubMed

    Henry, Christopher R; Becker, Matthias D; Yang, Yongsheng; Davis, Janet L

    2018-06-01

    To review and summarize evidence in the medical literature regarding the use of pars plana vitrectomy in the management of uveitis. Systematic literature review. A systematic literature search was conducted for relevant articles on pars plana vitrectomy for the management of uveitis. Results from the studies were compiled and analyzed. Thirty-four articles, published from 2005 through 2014, were included in the final data analysis. Thirty-two manuscripts were from retrospective case series and 2 manuscripts were from randomized pilot studies. The median Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network level of evidence grade was 3 and the median Oxford Center for Evidence-based Medicine level of evidence grade was 4. Fewer than 50% of the articles in the current study applied Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN) criteria in regard to reporting the anatomic location of uveitis, fewer than 25% of studies applied SUN criteria in regard to the reporting of anterior chamber cells before and after PPV, fewer than 10% of studies applied SUN criteria to the grading of anterior chamber flare before and after PPV, and fewer than 10% of studies applied standardized criteria to the grading of vitreous haze after PPV. Overall, 627 patients and 708 total eyes undergoing PPV for uveitis were included. The average reported age of all patients was 43.4 years. The median duration of uveitis prior to PPV reported in the studies was 36.1 months (range 4-198 months). The median follow-up after PPV reported in the studies was 18.9 months (range 2-114 months). Vision was reported for 519 eyes and was improved in 356 eyes (69%), unchanged in 95 eyes (18%), and worse in 68 eyes (13%) following PPV. Preoperatively, 157 of 300 (52%) eyes in these studies had documented cystoid macular edema compared to 112 of 300 (37%) postoperatively. Median use of oral corticosteroids improved from 48% preoperatively to 12% postoperatively among the reporting studies. Median use of other

  4. Endophthalmitis following pars plana vitrectomy for vitreous floaters

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Christopher R; Schwartz, Stephen G; Flynn, Harry W

    2014-01-01

    A case of Staphylococcus caprae endophthalmitis in a young patient following pars plana vitrectomy for symptomatic vitreous floaters is reported here. Recent literature suggests that there is an increasing trend of performing pars plana vitrectomy for symptomatic floaters. Although rare, the potential risk of endophthalmitis should be explicitly discussed with patients considering surgical intervention for vitreous floaters. PMID:25210434

  5. Endophthalmitis following pars plana vitrectomy for vitreous floaters.

    PubMed

    Henry, Christopher R; Schwartz, Stephen G; Flynn, Harry W

    2014-01-01

    A case of Staphylococcus caprae endophthalmitis in a young patient following pars plana vitrectomy for symptomatic vitreous floaters is reported here. Recent literature suggests that there is an increasing trend of performing pars plana vitrectomy for symptomatic floaters. Although rare, the potential risk of endophthalmitis should be explicitly discussed with patients considering surgical intervention for vitreous floaters.

  6. Keratometric alterations following the 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy versus the conventional pars plana vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Citirik, Mehmet; Batman, Cosar; Bicer, Tolga; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2009-09-01

    To assess the alterations in keratometric astigmatism following the 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy versus the conventional pars plana vitrectomy. Sixteen consecutive patients were enrolled into the study. Conventional vitrectomy was applied to eight of the cases and 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy was performed in eight patients. Keratometry was performed before and after the surgery. In the 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy group, statistically significant changes were not observed in the corneal curvature in any post-operative follow-up measurement (p > 0.05); whereas in the conventional pars plana vitrectomy group, statistically significant changes were observed in the first postoperative day (p = 0.01) and first postoperative month (p = 0.03). We noted that these changes returned to baseline in three months (p = 0.26). Both 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless and conventional pars plana vitrectomy are effective surgical modalities for selected diseases of the posterior segment. Surgical procedures are critical for the visual rehabilitation of the patients. The post-operative corneal astigmatism of the vitrectomised eyes can be accurately determined at least two months post-operatively.

  7. ReSure Sealant for Pars Plana Vitrectomy Wound Closure.

    PubMed

    Ho, Vincent Y; Shah, Gaurav K; Liu, Enchun M

    2015-01-01

    ReSure Sealant (Ocular Therapeutix, Bedford, MA) is an ocular sealant that demonstrated both safety and effectiveness in a prospective, randomized clinical trial for sealing clear corneal incisions following cataract surgery and intraocular lens placement in adults.1 PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is the first literature report of ReSure Sealant used for the closure of 23-gauge (G) pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) sclerotomies. A 70-year-old pseudophakic female with a history of epiretinal membrane and branch retinal vein occlusion of the right eye underwent 23-G PPV, membrane peel, and air-fluid exchange and was found to have leaking subconjunctival air at the end of the case. A linear conjunctival incision was performed to access the sclerotomy site. The incisions were then carefully dried before the sealant was applied to seal both the sclera and conjunctiva. After polymerization, the sealant formed a polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel that was 89% water and 9.44% PEG. PEG is a synthetic material that is non-toxic and inert and, thus, suitable for use in medical products. ReSure Sealant may be a safe, quick method to close sclerotomy wounds in select cases. [ Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Treatment of dystrophic calcification on a silicone intraocular lens with pars plana vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Nitish; Goldberg, Roger A; Shah, Chirag P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Dense, vision-obscuring calcification on the posterior aspect of silicone intraocular lenses (IOLs) is often not amenable to neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet capsulotomy, and, in prior reports, has required IOL exchange. We report the successful removal of dense calcium deposition on the posterior surface of a three-piece silicone lens using pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Materials and methods A 23-gauge PPV was performed using the Stellaris® vitrectomy system. A light pipe was used to retroilluminate the IOL, and a dense fibrous tissue setting with a low cut-rate and high aspiration rate was able to clear the visual axis of the dystrophic calcification without damaging the IOL optic. Results Visual acuity improved from 20/100 to 20/25. Conclusion Small-gauge PPV may be utilized to remove dense dystrophic calcium deposits on the lens surface in lieu of IOL exchange. PMID:25045246

  9. Management of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous by pars plana vitrectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Peyman, G A; Sanders, D R; Nagpal, K C

    1976-01-01

    Two children with persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) underwent vitrectomy and lensectomy via the pars plana to remove the fibrovascular stalk. Postoperatively the eyes were quiet, only a slight vitreous haze obscured the fundus view in the immediate postoperative period, and the stumps of the stalks retracted. Early surgical treatment of PHPV may prevent later serious complications. Images PMID:1009053

  10. Management of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous by pars plana vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Peyman, G A; Sanders, D R; Nagpal, K C

    1976-11-01

    Two children with persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) underwent vitrectomy and lensectomy via the pars plana to remove the fibrovascular stalk. Postoperatively the eyes were quiet, only a slight vitreous haze obscured the fundus view in the immediate postoperative period, and the stumps of the stalks retracted. Early surgical treatment of PHPV may prevent later serious complications.

  11. David Kasner, MD, and the Road to Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Blodi, Christopher F.

    2016-01-01

    David Kasner, MD (1927–2001), used his extensive dissections of eye bank eyes and experiences in teaching cataract surgery to resident physicians to realize that excision of vitreous when present in the anterior chamber of eyes undergoing cataract surgery was preferable to prior intraoperative procedures. Noting that eyes tolerated his maneuvers, he then performed planned subtotal open-sky vitrectomies; first on a traumatized eye in 1961, then on two eyes of patients with amyloidosis (1966–1967). The success of these operations was noted by others, most particularly Robert Machemer, MD. Kasner’s work directly led to further surgical developments, including closed pars plana vitrectomy. PMID:27660504

  12. Endophthalmitis following 27-Gauge Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Vitreous Floaters

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhong; Wu, Rong Han; Moonasar, Nived

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of Staphylococcus epidermidis endophthalmitis following 27-gauge pars plana vitrectomy for symptomatic vitreous floaters. Methods The clinical course and imaging findings, including fundus optomap, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography of a 24-year-old male patient were documented. Results The patient, with a preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 1.0, developed endophthalmitis following 27-gauge pars plana vitrectomy for symptomatic vitreous floaters. After a series of treatments, including emergent vitreous tap and silicone oil injection, antibiotic treatment, and silicone oil removal, the patient regained a BCVA of 0.6. Conclusion Although rare, the potential risk of endophthalmitis should be explicitly discussed with patients considering surgical intervention for vitreous floaters. PMID:28101041

  13. Endophthalmitis following 27-Gauge Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Vitreous Floaters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhong; Wu, Rong Han; Moonasar, Nived

    2016-01-01

    To report a case of Staphylococcus epidermidis endophthalmitis following 27-gauge pars plana vitrectomy for symptomatic vitreous floaters. The clinical course and imaging findings, including fundus optomap, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography of a 24-year-old male patient were documented. The patient, with a preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 1.0, developed endophthalmitis following 27-gauge pars plana vitrectomy for symptomatic vitreous floaters. After a series of treatments, including emergent vitreous tap and silicone oil injection, antibiotic treatment, and silicone oil removal, the patient regained a BCVA of 0.6. Although rare, the potential risk of endophthalmitis should be explicitly discussed with patients considering surgical intervention for vitreous floaters.

  14. Surgical Outcomes of 27-Gauge Pars PLana Vitrectomy for Symptomatic Vitreous Floaters

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhong; Liang, Qi Hua; Lin, Ke; Xiao, Yu Shu; Moonasar, Nived

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To report the surgical outcomes of 27-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for symptomatic vitreous floaters. Methods 47 eyes of 47 patients (39 males, 83.0%) with symptomatic vitreous floaters who underwent 27-gauge PPV and followed up for more than 6 months were included. The mean age was 34.7 ± 13.5 years. Results No operative complication occurred. At first day postoperatively, the intraocular pressure (IOP) was significantly lower than that at other time points (8.6 ± 2.7 mmHg, p < 0.001). 28 (59.6%) eyes had transient hypotony (IOP < 8 mmHg). All were recovered within 1 week postoperatively. The BCVA of 41 eyes (41/47, 87.2%) remained unchanged or improved. Postoperative complications occurred in two eyes: one (2.1%) had endophthalmitis and one (2.1%) had retinal detachment. No clinical significant cataract was observed in the 42 postoperative phakic eyes. 91.5% of the patients were satisfied with the surgery outcome. Besides, 91.3% of the patients felt that the floaters were removed completely or only had an acceptable residual. Conclusion Visual acuity of most patients remained unchanged or improved following 27-gague pars plana vitrectomy for symptomatic vitreous floaters, resulting in high patient satisfaction. However, this treatment should be performed with great caution since severe postoperative complications may still occur. This trial is registered with NCT03049163. PMID:29318039

  15. Surgical Outcomes of 27-Gauge Pars PLana Vitrectomy for Symptomatic Vitreous Floaters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhong; Zhang, Rui; Liang, Qi Hua; Lin, Ke; Xiao, Yu Shu; Moonasar, Nived; Wu, Rong Han

    2017-01-01

    To report the surgical outcomes of 27-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for symptomatic vitreous floaters. 47 eyes of 47 patients (39 males, 83.0%) with symptomatic vitreous floaters who underwent 27-gauge PPV and followed up for more than 6 months were included. The mean age was 34.7 ± 13.5 years. No operative complication occurred. At first day postoperatively, the intraocular pressure (IOP) was significantly lower than that at other time points (8.6 ± 2.7 mmHg, p < 0.001). 28 (59.6%) eyes had transient hypotony (IOP < 8 mmHg). All were recovered within 1 week postoperatively. The BCVA of 41 eyes (41/47, 87.2%) remained unchanged or improved. Postoperative complications occurred in two eyes: one (2.1%) had endophthalmitis and one (2.1%) had retinal detachment. No clinical significant cataract was observed in the 42 postoperative phakic eyes. 91.5% of the patients were satisfied with the surgery outcome. Besides, 91.3% of the patients felt that the floaters were removed completely or only had an acceptable residual. Visual acuity of most patients remained unchanged or improved following 27-gague pars plana vitrectomy for symptomatic vitreous floaters, resulting in high patient satisfaction. However, this treatment should be performed with great caution since severe postoperative complications may still occur. This trial is registered with NCT03049163.

  16. Inflammation and Macular Oedema after Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Vito; Angi, Martina; del Grosso, Renata; Romano, Davide; Vinciguerra, Paolo; Romano, Mario R.

    2013-01-01

    Cystoid macular oedema (CMO) is a major cause of reduced vision following intraocular surgery. Although the aetiology of CMO is not completely clarified, intraocular inflammation is known to play a major role in its development. The macula may develop cytotoxic oedema when the primary lesion and fluid accumulation occur in the parenchymatous cells (intracellular oedema) or vasogenic oedema when the primary defect occurs in the blood-retinal barrier and leads to extracellular fluid accumulation (extracellular oedema). We report on the mechanisms of CMO formation after pars plana vitrectomy and associated surgical procedures and discuss possible therapeutic approaches. PMID:24288446

  17. Multicenter study of pars plana vitrectomy for optic disc pit maculopathy: MACPIT study.

    PubMed

    Avci, R; Kapran, Z; Ozdek, Ş; Teke, M Y; Oz, O; Guven, D; Yilmaz, S; Kaderli, B; Durukan, A H; Sobaci, G; Unver, Y B; Akduman, L; Kaynak, S; Dogan, I; Inan, U U

    2017-09-01

    PurposeTo evaluate surgical intervention with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for correction of optic disc pit maculopathy (ODP-M).Patients and methodsRetrospective chart review from 13 centres of 51 eyes of 50 patients with ODP-M who underwent PPV between 2002-2014. Anatomic and final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) outcomes were evaluated for all cases with different adjuvant techniques.ResultsThere were 23 males and 27 females with median age 25.5 (6-68) years. Preoperative median foveal thickness was 694.5 (331-1384) μm and improved to 252.5 (153-1405) μm. Median BCVA improved from 20/200 (20/20000 to 20/40) to 20/40 (20/2000 to 20/20) with 20/40 or better in 31 eyes. Complete retinal reattachment was achieved in 44 eyes (86.3%) at 7.1 (5.9) months. The good surgical outcomes were achieved in different adjuvant groups. Median follow-up was 24 (6 to 120) months.ConclusionsThese results confirm the long-term effectiveness of PPV for ODP-M. Prospective studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of any adjuvant technique in improving the success of PPV for ODP-M.

  18. Longterm follow-up of pars plana vitrectomy for vitreous floaters: complications, outcomes and patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Schulz-Key, Steffen; Carlsson, Jan-Olof; Crafoord, Sven

    2011-03-01

    Floaters caused by degenerative or postoperative changes in the vitreous can interfere with all aspects of visual functioning. The aim of this study is to report the longterm outcome of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for persistent vitreous opacities. In a retrospective, non-randomized, interventional case study we reviewed all cases of vitreous floaters that were vitrectomized at our department between 1997 and 2006. Patient complaints and satisfaction were assessed by a questionnaire administered at the end of follow-up. Seventy-three consecutive cases were included (61 patients). Mean Snellen best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) before surgery was 0.81. Overall, 85% of patients complained of severe or very severe difficulty caused by floaters. A total of 42% of eyes were pseudophakic, four of which were operated with combined PPV and phacoemulsification. Mean follow-up time was 37 months. Of the phakic eyes, 60% were operated for cataract during follow-up. One retinal detachment (RD) occurred immediately postoperatively (1.3%) and another four eyes developed RD during longterm follow-up 24-44 months after PPV (5.5% of cases). Postoperative BCVA remained mostly unchanged. Overall, 88% of patients were satisfied with the results of the operation. Some patients make considerable complaints as a result of vitreous opacities and their distress does not correlate with visual acuity. Vitrectomy is a safe and effective procedure with which to help these patients. Patients should be informed about the risk of cataract progression, unexpected inflammatory reaction and an increased risk for RD several years after PPV (5.5%). © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  19. Clinical outcomes after combined Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation and penetrating keratoplasty or pars plana vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Young; Sung, Kyung Rim; Tchah, Hung Won; Yoon, Young Hee; Kim, June Gone; Kim, Myoung Joon; Kim, Jae Yong; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Lee, Joo Yong

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate whether a combination of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) or pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation affords a level of success similar to that of AGV implantation alone. Eighteen eyes underwent simultaneous PPV and AGV, 14 eyes with PKP and AGV and 30 eyes with AGV implantation alone were evaluated. Success was defined as attainment of an intraocular pressure (IOP) >5 and <22 mmHg, with or without use of anti-glaucoma medication. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to compare cumulative survival between the combined surgery groups and the AGV implantation-alone group. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was conducted to identify factors predictive of success in each of the three groups. Mean (±standard deviation) preoperative IOP was 30.2 ± 10.2 mmHg in the PKP + AGV, 35.2 ± 9.8 mmHg in the PPV + AGV, and 36.2 ± 10.1 mmHg in the AGV implantation-alone group. The cumulative success rate at 18 months was 66.9%, 73.2%, and 70.8% in the three groups, respectively. Neither combined surgery group differed significantly in terms of cumulative success rate compared with the AGV implantation-alone group (p = 0.556, p = 0.487, respectively). The mean number of preoperative anti-glaucoma medications prescribed was significantly associated with success in the PKP + AGV implantation group (hazard ratio, 2.942; p = 0.024). Either PKP or PPV performed in conjunction with AGV implantation afforded similar success rates compared to patients treated with AGV implantation alone. Therefore, in patients with refractory glaucoma who have underlying corneal or retinal pathology requiring treatment with PKP or PPV, AGV implantation can be performed simultaneously.

  20. The Outcomes of Pars Plana Vitrectomy without Tamponade for Tractional Retinal Detachment Secondary to Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Rao Muhammad Rashad; Saleem, Muhammad Imran; Saleem, Muhammad Farhan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this research was to evaluate the outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) without the use of an ocular tamponade in patients with tractional retinal detachment (TRD) secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) presenting to Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Methods: This was an interventional study conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Bahawal Victoria (B.V.) Hospital, Bahawalpur, Pakistan, from July 2011 to July 2012. A total of 75 patients (84 eyes) with TRD secondary to PDR were treated by PPV without using an ocular tamponade. All patients included in the study had a TRD secondary to PDR but did not have or develop retinal breaks before or during the study period. The surgical procedure included a PPV combined with the removal of the tractional retinal membranes and the application of endolaser photocoagulation to the retina. The mean follow-up period was 12 months. Results: The study included 75 patients (84 eyes). Among these, 40 patients were females and 35 males. Successful retinal reattachment was observed in 78 of the operated eyes (92.8%). In these patients, the retina remained attached until the end of the 12 month follow-up period. Improvement in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was seen in 63 eyes (75%). The visual acuity remained unchanged in nine eyes (10.7%). Mean improvement in BCVA was 2.00 ± 1.24 at baseline to 1.24 ± 1.22 (P = 0.010) at the end of the follow-up period. Conclusion: In the absence of retinal breaks, a TRD secondary to PDR can be successfully treated and improved by PPV without the use of an ocular tamponade. PMID:23966826

  1. Ocular perfusion pressure control during pars plana vitrectomy: testing a novel device.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Tommaso; Querzoli, Giorgio; Gelso, Aldo; Angelini, Giampiero; Rossi, Alessandro; Corazza, Paolo; Landi, Laura; Telani, Serena; Ripandelli, Guido

    2017-12-01

    To study the efficacy of a novel device intended to control infusion pressure based on mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP) during pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). An arm blood pressure cuff connected to a vitrectomy machine calculated mean arterial pressure (MAP), while a pressure sensor close to the infusion trocar measured intraocular pressure (IOP). MOPP was calculated in real time in 36 consecutive patients undergoing PPV, who were divided into two groups. The device lowered IOP every time that calculated MOPP fell below 30 mmHg in the Control ON group (18 patients), while no action was taken in the Control OFF group (18 patients). Baseline IOP and blood pressure were similar between groups. The Control ON group had significantly lower average intraoperative IOP (30.5 ± 2.1 vs. 35.9 ± 6.9 mmHg; p = 0.002) and higher MOPP (56.4 ± 5.9 vs. 49.7 ± 6.1 mmHg) than the Control OFF group. The Control ON group also spent less time at MOPP < 10 mmHg and < 30 mmHg: 0 vs. 3.40 ± 2.38 min (p < 0.001) and 9.91 ± 7.15 vs. 16.13 ± 8.12 min (p = 0.02), respectively. The MOPP control device effectively maintained lower IOP and higher MOPP throughout surgery. It also helped avoid dangerous IOP peaks and MOPP dips, allowing patients to spend less time at MOPP of < 10 and < 30 mmHg.

  2. Long-term results of pars plana vitrectomy as an anti-inflammatory therapy of pediatric intermediate uveitis resistant to standard medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Darsová, Denisa; Pochop, Pavel; Štěpánková, Jana; Dotřelová, Dagmar

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) as an anti-inflammatory therapy in pediatric recurrent intermediate uveitis. A retrospective study evaluated the long-term results of PPV indicated for intermediate uveitis with a mean observation period of 10.3 years (range 7-15.6 years) in 6 children (mean age 8 years, range 6-12 years). Pars plana vitrectomy was performed on 10 eyes in the standard manner and was initiated by vitreous sampling for laboratory examination. Data recorded were perioperative or postoperative vitrectomy complications, anatomic and functional results of PPV, and preoperative and postoperative best-corrected Snellen visual acuity. No perioperative or postoperative complications were observed. Bacteriologic, virologic, mycotic, and cytologic analysis of the vitreous was negative in all tested children. Five eyes were subsequently operated on for posterior subcapsular cataracts. An average preoperative visual acuity of 0.32 improved to an average postoperative visual acuity of 0.8. In the case of systemic immunosuppressive treatment failure in pediatric uveitis, particularly in eyes with cystoid macular edema, we recommend PPV relatively early.

  3. Preretinal partial pressure of oxygen gradients before and after experimental pars plana vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Petropoulos, Ioannis K; Pournaras, Jean-Antoine C; Stangos, Alexandros N; Pournaras, Constantin J

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate preretinal partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) gradients before and after experimental pars plana vitrectomy. Arteriolar, venous, and intervascular preretinal PO2 gradients were recorded in 7 minipigs during slow withdrawal of oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes (10-μm tip diameter) from the vitreoretinal interface to 2 mm into the vitreous cavity. Recordings were repeated after pars plana vitrectomy and balanced salt solution (BSS) intraocular perfusion. Arteriolar, venous, and intervascular preretinal PO2 at the vitreoretinal interface were 62.3 ± 13.8, 22.5 ± 3.3, and 17.0 ± 7.5 mmHg, respectively, before vitrectomy; 97.7 ± 19.9, 40.0 ± 21.9, and 56.3 ± 28.4 mmHg, respectively, immediately after vitrectomy; and 59.0 ± 27.4, 25.2 ± 3.0, and 21.5 ± 4.5 mmHg, respectively, 2½ hours after interruption of BSS perfusion. PO2 2 mm from the vitreoretinal interface was 28.4 ± 3.6 mmHg before vitrectomy; 151.8 ± 4.5 mmHg immediately after vitrectomy; and 34.8 ± 4.1 mmHg 2½ hours after interruption of BSS perfusion. PO2 gradients were still present after vitrectomy, with the same patterns as before vitrectomy. Preretinal PO2 gradients are not eliminated after pars plana vitrectomy. During BSS perfusion, vitreous cavity PO2 is very high. Interruption of BSS perfusion evokes progressive equilibration of vitreous cavity PO2 with concomitant progressive return of preretinal PO2 gradients to their previtrectomy patterns. This indicates that preretinal diffusion of oxygen is not altered after vitrectomy. The beneficial effect of vitrectomy in ischemic retinal diseases or macular edema may be related to other mechanisms, such as increased oxygen convection currents or removal of growth factors and cytokines secreted in the vitreous.

  4. Corneal Subbasal Nerve Density and Sensitivity After Pars Plana Vitrectomy Using Contact or Noncontact Wide-Angle Viewing Systems.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Gian Marco; Bacci, Tommaso; Tarantello, Antonio; Martone, Gianluca; Traversi, Claudio; Marigliani, Davide; Cevenini, Gabriele; Virgili, Gianni

    2018-06-07

    To assess corneal subbasal nerve density (SBND) and corneal sensitivity (CS) after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) without intraoperative 360-degree laser treatment using contact or noncontact panoramic viewing systems. This is a prospective study of 34 eyes affected by RRD, which underwent PPV using contact (18 eyes) and noncontact (16 eyes) panoramic viewing systems; 12 eyes which underwent scleral buckling, and 17 eyes which underwent cataract surgery. SBND and CS were assessed before surgery and 3 and 6 months postoperatively by in vivo confocal microscopy and Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry. Compared with baseline values, at 6 months, SBND and CS decreased in both contact PPV (SBND preoperative value: 19.1 ± 3.7 mm/mm; SBND postoperative value: 3.5 ± 1.3 mm/mm; CS preoperative value: 5.1 ± 0.5 cm; CS postoperative value: 1.5 ± 0.4 cm) and in noncontact PPV groups (SBND preoperative value: 19.5 ± 3.8 mm/mm; SBND postoperative value: 8.7 ± 2.3 mm/mm; CS preoperative value: 5.3 ± 0.5 cm; CS postoperative value: 2.5 ± 0.7 cm) (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). SBND reduction was greater in the contact PPV group than in the noncontact PPV group (P < 0.001). By contrast, the scleral buckling and cataract surgery group values were unchanged (P > 0.1 for all comparisons). In multivariate analysis, no significant effect was found for cataract surgery associated with PPV, pseudophakia, surgical time, intraocular pressure, or for laser in horizontal sectors for PPV groups. SBND was highly correlated with CS (r = 0.93). A contact viewing system reduces SBND after PPV more than a noncontact system does.

  5. Pars plana Ahmed valve and vitrectomy in patients with glaucoma associated with posterior segment disease.

    PubMed

    Wallsh, Josh O; Gallemore, Ron P; Taban, Mehran; Hu, Charles; Sharareh, Behnam

    2013-01-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of a modified technique for pars plana placement of the Ahmed valve in combination with pars plana vitrectomy in the treatment of glaucoma associated with posterior segment disease. Thirty-nine eyes with glaucoma associated with posterior segment disease underwent pars plana vitrectomy combined with Ahmed valve placement. All valves were placed in the pars plana using a modified technique, without the pars plana clip, and using a scleral patch graft. The 24 eyes diagnosed with neovascular glaucoma had an improvement in intraocular pressure from 37.6 mmHg to 13.8 mmHg and best-corrected visual acuity from 2.13 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution to 1.40 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution. Fifteen eyes diagnosed with steroid-induced glaucoma had an improvement in intraocular pressure from 27.9 mmHg to 14.1 mmHg and best-corrected visual acuity from 1.38 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution to 1.13 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution. Complications included four cases of cystic bleb formation and one case of choroidal detachment and explantation for hypotony. Ahmed valve placement through the pars plana during vitrectomy is an effective option for managing complex cases of glaucoma without the use of the pars plana clip.

  6. Eccentric Macular Hole after Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Epiretinal Membrane Without Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Garnavou-Xirou, Christina; Xirou, Tina; Kabanarou, Stamatina; Gkizis, Ilias; Velissaris, Stavros; Chatziralli, Irini

    2017-12-01

    Postoperative eccentric macular hole formation is an uncommon complication after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for the treatment of epiretinal membrane (ERM). We present a case of eccentric macular hole formation after PPV for ERM without ILM peeling. A 68-year-old male patient presented with ERM and visual acuity of 6/24 in his left eye. He underwent 23-gauge PPV without ILM peeling for treatment of ERM. One week postoperatively the retina was attached and the epiretinal membrane was successfully removed, while visual acuity was 6/9. One month after PPV, a single eccentric retinal hole below the macula was detected using fundoscopy and subsequently confirmed by optical coherence tomography. At this time the visual acuity was 6/9 and the patient reported no symptoms. No further intervention was attempted and at the 9-month follow-up, the visual acuity and the size of the eccentric macular hole remained stable. Eccentric macular holes can be developed after PPV even without ILM peeling and are usually managed conservatively by observation.

  7. [Four-port pars plana vitrectomy for severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy].

    PubMed

    Wei, Wen-bin; Yang, Qiong; Mo, Jing; Zhou, Dan

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the 4-port pars plana vitrectomy in eyes with severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). It was a case-control study. Twenty-eight eyes in 27 patients with extensive fibrovascular proliferation associated with PDR were retrospectively collected, who were undergone 4-port pars plana vitreous surgery with bimanual manipulation techniques, such as membrane dissections and enbloc membranectomy. The control group consisted of 30 eyes in 30 patients with PDR which were undergone 3-port pars plana vitrectomy by the same surgeon. Twenty-eight eyes were undergone membrane dissection and enbloc membranectomy smoothly during 4-port pars plana vitrectomy, 2 iatrogenic holes occurred in 1 eye. During the follow up 7 months to 4.5 years, the retina was fully attached in all eyes, visual acuity had improved except 1 eye which complicated with neovascular glaucoma. In the control group, membranes partially remained in 2 eyes, 4 iatrogenic holes appeared in 3 eyes, neovascular glaucoma occurred in 3 eyes, the retina was reattached during the follow-up time from 12 to 34 months. For severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy, the 4-port pars plana vitrectomy with bimanual manipulations of membrane peeling is safe and efficiency.

  8. The rate of endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy and its risk factors.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Ali; Soleimani, Mohammad; Vakili, Hadi; Naderan, Morteza; Lashay, Alireza; Faghihi, Houshang; Yaseri, Mehdi

    2018-05-11

    To study the incidence of endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy, its causative organisms, and visual acuity outcomes. In this retrospective, comparative study, the medical records of patients with acute-onset postoperative endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy at Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran, during a 12-year period between January 2004 and November 2015 were reviewed. To compare the endophthalmitis patients with other cases who underwent pars plana vitrectomy at the same day and also the same operating room, a control group was developed by gathering the data from surgical records. In the present study, the incidence rate of pos- vitrectomy endophthalmitis was 0.04% (16/39783). The organisms identified in aqueous or vitreous cultures (culture positive 44%) included Streptococcus pneumoniae (two patients, 12.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (two patients, 12.5%), fungi (two patients, 12.5%), and Streptococcus viridans (one patient, 6.25%). Visual acuity after treatment for endophthalmitis ranged from light perception (7 eyes) to hand motion (1 eye), and evisceration was performed in 8 eyes (50%). When comparing the cases (patients developing endophthalmitis) and controls (patients with no complications operated in the same day and place of operation with the case group), only not using tamponade showed a statistically significant relation with the occurrence of endophthalmitis (p = 0.034). Our results indicated low incidence of endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy comparable to previous studies which resulted in poor visual acuity. It seems that not using tamponade might increase the risk of endophthalmitis among these patients.

  9. The outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy without endotamponade for tractional retinal detachment secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Rao Muhammad Rashad; Saleem, Muhammad Imran; Saleem, Muhammad Farhan

    2013-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) without the use of an ocular tamponade in patients having tractional retinal detachment (TRD) secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). METHODS It was an interventional study conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, B.V. Hospital, Bahawalpur, Pakistan, from July 2011 to July 2012. A total of 75 patients (84 eyes) having TRD secondary to PDR were treated by PPV without using an ocular tamponade. All patients included in the study had a tractional retinal detachment secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy but didn't have or develop retinal breaks before or during the study period. The surgical procedure included a PPV combined with the removal of the tractional retinal membranes and the application of endolaser photocoagulation to the retina. The mean follow-up period was 12 months. RESULTS Successful retinal reattachement was observed in 78 of the operated eyes (92.8%). In these patients, the retina remained attached till the end of the one year follow-up period. Improvement in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was seen in 63 eyes (75%). The visual acuity remained unchanged in 9 eyes (10.7%). Mean improvement in BCVA was 2.00+1.24 at baseline to 1.24+1.22 (P<0.05) at the end of the follow-up period. CONCLUSION In the absence of the retinal breaks, a TRD secondary to PDR can be successfully treated by pars plana vitrectomy without the use of an ocular tamponade. PMID:24195047

  10. Late Closure of a Stage III Idiopathic Macular Hole after Pars Plana Vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Afrashi, Filiz; Öztaş, Zafer; Nalçacı, Serhad

    2015-12-01

    A 57-year-old female presented to our hospital with decreased vision in her right eye. Detailed ocular examination was performed, and a macular hole was detected in the right eye. The presence of a full-thickness stage III macular hole was confirmed with optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Pars plana vitrectomy followed by long-acting gas tamponade (C3F8) was performed as treatment. One month after surgery, clinical examination revealed a persistent macular hole, confirmed by an OCT scan. Although the patient was scheduled for reoperation, the surgery was postponed due to personal reasons of the patient. Surprisingly, after five months, a closure pattern with accompanying epiretinal membrane was observed in the macular hole area. The closure of the macular hole was completed without any further intervention 8 months post-surgery. In cases of unclosed macular hole after the first surgery, if a second surgery cannot be performed, follow-up with OCT recommended due to the possibility of spontaneous closure. However, spontaneous closure of a persistent macular hole following PPV is rare, so early diagnosis and surgical repair of unclosed macular holes must remain the primary goal.

  11. Nd:YAG vitreolysis and pars plana vitrectomy: surgical treatment for vitreous floaters.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Y M; Oyinloye, A; Benjamin, L

    2002-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of Nd:YAG vitreolysis and pars plana vitrectomy in the treatment of vitreous floaters. This is a single centre retrospective study of 31 patients (42 eyes) who underwent 54 procedures, Nd:YAG vitreolysis or pars plana vitrectomy, for the treatment of vitreous floaters between January 1992 and December 2000. Main outcome measures were percentage symptomatic improvement following treatment and incidence of post-operative complications. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher exact test. Posterior vitreous detachment was the primary cause of floaters in all 42 eyes with co-existing vitreous veils in three eyes and asteroid hyalosis in two eyes. Thirty-nine of 42 eyes received Nd:YAG vitreolysis. Thirty-eight percent found Nd:YAG vitreolysis moderately improved their symptoms while 61.5% found no improvement. After an average of 14.7 months follow-up no post-operative complications were recorded. Fifteen eyes underwent a pars plana vitrectomy, one with combined phacoemulsification and posterior chamber implantation and 11 following unsuccessful laser vitreolysis. Pars plana vitrectomy resulted in full resolution of symptoms in 93.3% of eyes. One patient developed a post-operative retinal detachment which was successfully treated leaving the patient with 6/5 VA. Patients' symptoms from vitreous floaters are often underestimated resulting in no intervention. This paper shows Nd:YAG vitreolysis to be a safe but only moderately effective primary treatment conferring clinical benefit in one third of patients. Pars plana vitrectomy, while offering superior results, should be reserved for patients who remain markedly symptomatic following vitreolysis, until future studies further clarify its role in the treatment of patients with floaters and posterior vitreous detachment.

  12. Long-term outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy without internal limiting membrane peeling for optic disc pit maculopathy.

    PubMed

    Avci, R; Yilmaz, S; Inan, U U; Kaderli, B; Kurt, M; Yalcinbayir, O; Yildiz, M; Yucel, A

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the results of surgical treatment of maculopathy secondary to congenital optic pit anomaly with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), endolaser to the temporal edge of the optic disc and C3F8 tamponade without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. Thirteen eyes of 12 patients with serous macular detachment and/or macular retinoschisis secondary to congenital optic disc pit (ODP) were included in the study. All eyes underwent PPV, posterior hyaloid removal, endolaser photocoagulation on the temporal margin of the optic disc and 12% C3F8 gas tamponade. Anatomic success and functional outcome determined retrospectively by optical coherence tomography and measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), respectively were the main outcome parameters. Two lines or more improvement in BCVA was obtained in 11 eyes and 6 of these eyes had 20/40 or better BCVA at the final visit. Subretinal or intraretinal fluid was completely resorbed postoperatively in 12 eyes but a little intraretinal fluid persisted in one eye at the 16-month follow-up. Better visual improvement was observed in patients treated by earlier surgical intervention. PPV, C3F8 gas tamponade and endolaser to the optic disc margin without ILM peeling may yield favourable results in the treatment of ODP maculopathy.

  13. [Pars plana vitrectomy in treatment of ocular toxocariasis complications--case report].

    PubMed

    Oficjalska-Młyńczak, J; Duda, A; Muzyka-Woźniak, M; Zajac-Pytrus, H; Marek, J

    2001-01-01

    Ocular toxocariasis in adults may cause serious diagnostic and therapeutic problems. We describe a case of a 54-year-old farmer who developed peripheral granuloma with dense connective tissue strands joined to the disc. The diagnosis was confirmed by high ELISA titers in the serum and vitreous body. We performed pars plana vitrectomy with epiretinal membrane removal and laser photocoagulation of the inferior retina, obtaining improvement of visual acuity. After a few weeks the patient returned with central retinal detachment and macular hole. After the second vitrectomy with use of silicon oil we obtained reattachment of the retina but without functional improvement.

  14. Pars plana vitrectomy for disturbing primary vitreous floaters: clinical outcome and patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    de Nie, Karlijn F; Crama, N; Tilanus, Maurits A D; Klevering, B Jeroen; Boon, Camiel J F

    2013-05-01

    Primary vitreous floaters can be highly bothersome in some patients. In the case of persistently bothersome floaters, pars plana vitrectomy may be the most effective treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of complications, and patient satisfaction, after pars plana vitrectomy for disabling primary vitreous opacities. We included a total of 110 eyes that underwent pars plana vitrectomy between February 1998 and August 2010. Fifty-seven eyes (51.8%) underwent 20-gauge vitrectomy, whereas 53 eyes (48.2%) underwent 23-gauge vitrectomy. In a retrospective manner, we assessed intraoperative and postoperative complications. There was a considerable range of time between surgery and questionnaire (range: 4-136 months). Patient satisfaction was assessed by a questionnaire based on a modified NEI VFQ-25 questionnaire. A retinal detachment occurred in 10.9% of cases, and the incidence did not differ significantly between the 20-gauge and 23-gauge vitrectomy groups. In 4.5% of the eyes, a retinal detachment developed within the first 3 months, and 6.4% occurred later in the postoperative period. Cystoid macular edema occurred in 5.5%, and an epiretinal membrane was seen postoperatively in 3.6% of cases. Development of glaucoma requiring glaucoma surgery, a macular hole, and postoperative scotoma, each occurred in 0.9% of cases. No cases of endophthalmitis occurred. Eighty-five percent of patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the results of the vitrectomy. Eighty-four percent of all patients were completely cured from their troublesome vitreous floaters, and an additional 9.3% of patients were less troubled by vitreous floaters. Ten patients (9.3%) were dissatisfied, and six of these patients (5.6%) had a serious complication that resulted in permanent visual loss. Pars plana vitrectomy is an effective approach to treat primary vitreous floaters, resulting in a high rate of patient satisfaction. Postoperative complications may be more frequent

  15. One hundred consecutive cases of pars plana vitrectomy with the vitreous stripper.

    PubMed

    Syrdalen, P

    1979-01-01

    The results of 100 consecutive cases of pars plana vitrectomy are reported. Vitrectomy was performed on accunt of complications of diabetic retinopathy (37 eyes), complicated retinal detachment (28 eyes), vitreous haemorrhage of various causes (17 eyes), vitreous haemorrhage and complications secondary to injuries (13 eyes) and secondary cataract or vitreous in the anterior chamber creating corneal dystrophy (5 eyes). With an average follow-up time of 14.2 months, vitrectomy resulted in visual improvement in 55 eyes, unchanged visual acuity in 24 eyes and reduced visual acuity in 21 eyes. The operative and postoperative complications were: secondary vitreous haemorrhage (11 eyes), retinal detachment (8 eyes), haemorrhagic glaucoma (7 eyes), retinal tears (5 eyes), lens injury (4 eyes), corneal dystrophy (2 eyes) and endophthalmitis (1 eye).

  16. Optic neuropathy causing vertical unilateral hemianopsia after pars plana vitrectomy for a macular hole: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Hirohiko; Nagai, Norihiro; Shinoda, Hajime; Tsubota, Kazuo; Ozawa, Yoko

    2018-04-01

    Recent progress in medical technology has resulted in improved surgical outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV); with microincision systems, the incidence of procedure-related complications during surgery has been reduced. However, unpredictable visual field defects after PPV remain an unresolved issue. A few reports have shown that damage to the retinal neurofibers owing to dry-up during air/fluid exchange or retinal neurotoxicity of the dye used to visualize the internal limiting membrane (ILM), as well as unintentional removal of retinal neurofibers during ILM peeling, are responsible for such visual field disorders. In this report, we present a case of extensive visual field defect due to optic neuropathy exhibiting vertical hemianopsia after PPV. A 50-year-old woman underwent PPV and cataract surgery for a macular hole and mild cataract under retrobulbar anesthesia with 3.5 mL of xylocaine. At the time of opening an infusion cannula for PPV, the intraocular lens was herniating, with an acute increase in pressure from the posterior eyeball; thus, intraocular pressure configuration level had to be decreased from the default level, whereas the other procedures including 20% SF6 injection were performed without any modification. The macular hole was closed postoperatively. However, the patient experienced nasal hemianopsia, which turned out to be optic neuropathy, as assessed via electric physiological examinations. The pattern of the visual field defect was not typical for glaucoma or anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Her optic nerve head was pale at the temporal side soon after the surgery, and her blood pressure was low, suggesting that there may have been a congestion of the optic nerve feeder vessels because of the relatively high pressure in the orbit. The space occupancy with xylocaine and extensively stretched and plumped out eye ball with infusion during PPV may have pressed the surrounding tissue of the optic nerve and the feeder vessels. PPV is safe

  17. Clinical Efficacy of Ciliary Ring Incision Combined with Modified Partial Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Malignant Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianchun; Chen, Xing; Zhou, Danying; Shen, Jian; Wu, Yanbing; Sun, Qingzhu

    2018-06-10

    BACKGROUND Currently, safe and effective surgical treatment of malignant glaucoma is still under investigation. This study evaluated the clinical efficacy of ciliary ring incision combined with modified partial pars plana vitrectomy in the treatment of malignant glaucoma. The technique is particularly useful in the treatment of "phakic" patients with malignant glaucoma, especially those who wish to preserve the natural lens. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively analyzed 13 cases (16 eyes) of malignant glaucoma in which patients underwent ciliary ring incision combined with modified partial pars plana vitrectomy based on follow-up data collected from May 2004 to March 2017. The data we analyzed included postoperative best-corrected visual acuity(BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), anterior chamber depth (ACD), optic cup changes, and surgical complications; some patients underwent visual field tracking. The mean follow-up period was 33.1±10.6 (range, 19-46) months. RESULTS A statistically significant number of eyes had improved visual acuity 1 year after surgery compared with the preoperative difference (Z=-3.853, P=0.000). Increases in the mean anterior chamber depth and decreases in the mean IOP measured at the 1-week and the 1-year follow-ups were also statistically significant. There were no serious complications during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS Ciliary ring incision combined with modified partial pars plana vitrectomy for malignant glaucoma not only provided a clear and reliable intraoperative vitrectomy channel, but it also caused less disturbance of intraocular tissue structure and fewer complications. It also has the advantage of preserving the lens and avoiding further damage to the anatomy in the anterior segment of the eye.

  18. Retinal damage caused by air-fluid exchange during pars plana vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sam S; McDonald, H Richard; Everett, A I; Johnson, Robert N; Jumper, J Michael; Fu, Arthur D

    2006-03-01

    To report two cases of retinal damage associated with air infusion during pars plana vitrectomy. Observational case report. The authors reviewed the course of two patients who had retinal damage during par plana vitrectomy and air-fluid exchange for the treatment of macular hole and optic pit-related macular detachment, respectively. The intraoperative observations, postoperative course, and outcomes were reported. As a result of high air infusion flow during air-fluid exchange, retinal damage was created in the area contralateral to the infusion port. In Case 1, an oval area of whitening was noted on the first postoperative day. This area subsequently developed into a large retinal break associated with retinal detachment. In the second case, retinal whitening was noted intraoperatively. This region of pallor resolved quickly during the early postoperative period but resulted in a corresponding inferotemporal visual field defect. High infusion flow during air-fluid exchange in eyes undergoing vitrectomy surgery may result in significant retinal damage. This pressure-induced trauma initially causes retinal whitening that may be seen intraoperatively or during the early postoperative period. The region of damaged retina may develop a retinal break and detachment or a corresponding visual field defect.

  19. Combined Cataract Extraction With Pars Plana Vitrectomy and Metallic Intraocular Foreign Body Removal Through Sclerocorneal Tunnel Using a Novel "Magnet Handshake" Technique.

    PubMed

    Dhoble, Pankaja; Khodifad, Ashish

    2018-01-01

    To study the outcomes of combined cataract extraction with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and metallic intraocular foreign body (IOFB) removal through a sclerocorneal tunnel using the "magnetic handshake" technique. A retrospective review. Retrospective review of case records of 14 patients from 2010 to 2016 with metallic IOFB and traumatic cataract was performed. Cataract extraction was combined with PPV. Two intraocular magnets (IOMs) introduced through 20-gauge vitrectomy port and sclerocorneal tunnel helped achieve safe delivery of IOFB outside the globe by the "magnetic handshake" technique. All patients were males with a mean age of 33.04 years. A final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/60 or better was noted in 10 (71.42%) of 14 patients. Final reattachment with more than 1 surgery was achieved in 13 (92.85%) patients. Postoperative complications included retinal detachment (RD) and phthisis bulbi in 1 (14.28%) patient each. Combined cataract extraction with PPV and metallic IOFB removal through sclerocorneal tunnel using the "magnet handshake" technique gives good visual and surgical outcomes. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  20. [Cost recovery for the treatment of retinal and vitreal diseases by pars plana vitrectomy under the German DRG system].

    PubMed

    Framme, C; Franz, D; Mrosek, S; Helbig, H

    2007-10-01

    Since 2004 inpatient health care in Germany is paid according to calculated DRGs. Only a few university hospitals participated in distinct cost calculations of clinical treatment. It was the aim of this study to check the cost recovery at a University Eye Hospital for the surgical treatment of retinal and vitreal diseases by pars plana vitrectomy (ppV), which are included in DRGs C03Z and C17Z. The performance data for both DRGs were collected for the years 2005 and 2006 using the E1 sheets according to section 21 KHEntG. The mean duration of all procedures was collected by data from the internal controlling. Costs for single operations were calculated from fixed and variable costs for the operation theatre and the ward including costs for personnel and material. In the 2-year period of 4,721 inpatient procedures 1,307 ppVs were performed. Each ppV had fixed surgical costs of 130.60 EUR; personnel costs varied between 575 EUR (C03Z; including cataract surgery; mean OP duration: 85 min) and 510 EUR (C17Z; no cataract surgery; mean OP duration: 73 min) at a proportion between general anaesthesia and local anaesthesia of 80/20. For a pure ppV material costs were 255 EUR. Additional adjuncts such as an encircling band, perfluorcarbon, ICG, tPA, gas and silicon oil or cataract surgery led to extra costs between 51 EUR and 250 EUR per adjunct und were used in 56% (C03Z) and 74.5% (C17Z) of all procedures. Costs for hospitalisation were about 1765 EUR at a mean residence time of 6.5 days. Thus, the overall costs of a pure basic ppV amounted to 2975 EUR (C03Z) and 2661 EUR (C17Z). In consideration of the current relative DRG weights of 1.08 and 0.957 and a current base rate of 2787.19 EUR in Bavaria, cost recovery is only given for basic ppV but not for complex ppVs having higher material and personnel costs. Additionally, the costs for multiple surgeries as occur in 5.9% of cases are not compensated by the DRG system. The reimbursement for inpatient ppVs in a University

  1. Nd:YAG laser vitreolysis versus pars plana vitrectomy for vitreous floaters.

    PubMed

    Kokavec, Jan; Wu, Zhichao; Sherwin, Justin C; Ang, Alan Js; Ang, Ghee Soon

    2017-06-01

    The vitreous is the clear jelly of the eye and contains fine strands of proteins. Throughout life the composition of this vitreous changes, which causes the protein strands in it to bundle together and scatter light before it reaches the retina. Individuals perceive the shadows cast by these protein bundles as 'floaters'. Some people are so bothered by floaters that treatment is required to control their symptoms. Two major interventions for floaters include Nd:YAG laser vitreolysis and vitrectomy. Nd:YAG laser vitreolysis involves using laser energy to fragment the vitreous opacities via a non-invasive approach. Vitrectomy involves the surgical replacement of the patient's vitreous (including the symptomatic vitreous floaters) with an inert and translucent balanced salt solution, through small openings in the pars plana. To compare the effectiveness and safety of Nd:YAG laser vitreolysis to pars plana vitrectomy for symptomatic vitreous floaters. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 12), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 17 January 2017), Embase Ovid (1947 to 17 January 2017), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database) (1982 to 17 January 2017), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch); searched 17 January 2017, ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 17 January 2017 and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 17 January 2017. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We also searched conference proceedings to identify additional studies. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared Nd:YAG laser vitreolysis to pars plana vitrectomy for treatment of symptomatic floaters. We planned to use methods recommended by Cochrane. The primary outcome we planned

  2. Pars Plana Vitrectomy with Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Nontractional Diabetic Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Jan Niklas

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus remains the leading cause of blindness among working age Americans with diabetic macular edema being the most common cause for moderate and severe vision loss. To investigate the anatomical and visual benefits of pars plana vitrectomy with inner limiting membrane peeling in patients with nontractional diabetic macular edema as well as correlation of integrity of outer retinal layers on spectral domain optical coherence tomography to visual outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 42 diabetic patients that underwent vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling for nontractional diabetic macula edema. The integrity of outer retinal layers was evaluated and preoperative central macular thickness and visual acuity were compared with data at 1 month, 3 months and 6 months postoperatively. The student t-test was used to compare the groups. 31 eyes were included. While no differences were seen at 1 and 3 months, there was significant improvement of both central macular thickness and visual acuity at the 6 months follow up visit compared to preoperatively (357, 427 microns; p=0.03. 20/49, 20/82; p=0.03) . Patients with intact external limiting membrane and ellipsoid zone had better preoperative vision than patients with outer retinal layer irregularities (20/54, 20/100; p=0.03) and greater visual gains postoperatively (20/33, p<0.001 versus 20/81; p=non-significant). Pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling can improve retinal anatomy and visual acuity in patients with nontractional diabetic macular edema. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography may help identify patients with potential for visual improvement.

  3. LONG-TERM INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE AFTER UNCOMPLICATED PARS PLANA VITRECTOMY FOR IDIOPATHIC EPIRETINAL MEMBRANE.

    PubMed

    Tognetto, Daniele; Pastore, Marco R; Cirigliano, Gabriella; DʼAloisio, Rossella; Borelli, Massimo; De Giacinto, Chiara

    2017-11-16

    To investigate long-term intraocular pressure trends after uncomplicated pars plana vitrectomy for idiopathic epiretinal membrane. Three hundred and sixty-eight eyes of 368 consecutive patients were enrolled. Changes in intraocular pressure 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery and during the final follow-up visit were evaluated in vitrectomized eyes and nonvitrectomized fellow eyes. The median follow-up period was 36 months (range 12-92 months). Longitudinal data analysis evidenced a 2.5-mmHg (2.2 mmHg; 2.7 mmHg, 95% confidence interval) statistically significant difference in intraocular pressure 30 days after surgery between treated and fellow untreated eyes, gradually recovering to a not significant 0.2-mmHg (-0.1 mmHg; 0.4 mmHg, 95% confidence interval) difference within 26 months. The incidence of late-onset ocular hypertension was 5.7% (21 over 347, 2%; 12%, 95% confidence interval) without difference between the treated eyes and the group control. No significant difference in the incidence of late-onset ocular hypertension and sex, lens status, or gauge of vitrectomy instruments was detected. Only patient's age was significantly higher (mean difference 4.2 years; 0.1-8.0 years, Monte Carlo, 95% confidence interval) in those who developed late-onset ocular hypertension in the vitrectomized eye. Uncomplicated pars plana vitrectomy for idiopathic epiretinal membrane seems not to increase the risk of late-onset ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma development.

  4. Pars plana vitrectomy for visually disturbing vitreous floaters in pseudophacic eyes.

    PubMed

    Stoffelns, B M; Vetter, J; Keicher, A; Mirshahi, A

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of vitrectomy in patients with visually disturbing vitreous opacities. A retrospective analysis of the patient characteristics and the outcome of all pseudophacic eyes, which consecutively received in the decade 1996 to 2005 20 G pars plana vitrectomy for visually disturbing floaters, was carried out at the Mainz University Eye Clinic. Forty-one eyes of 32 patients (63 % university graduates, median age: 64 years) were included in the study. The mean axial length of the globe was 25.3 mm (range: 22.8 to 28.9 mm). Additional pathologies having influence on the vitreous condition were history of laser or cryo retinopexy (12 ×), buckle surgery (5 ×), complicated cataract surgery (16 ×) and Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy (4 ×). Vitreous floaters were considered to be the result of posterior vitreous detachment alone in 61 %, of asteroid hyalosis accompanied by posterior vitreous detachment in 17 %, and vitreous syneresis in 15 % of the eyes. Intraoperatively retinopexy with endolaser or cryo was performed in 6 % of cases. A secondary retinal detachment occurred in one eye (2 %). Thirty-one of 32 patients reported to be very satisfied with the postoperative result. Objectively, their visual acuity was better than or equal to preoperative acuity in 95 % of the eyes. Pars plana vitrectomy provides a highly effective treatment for visually disturbing vitreous floaters. In an era in which the expectations and demands of individuals on the quality of vision and life have increased significantly, with careful case selection the benefits of the surgical intervention may outweigh the surgical risks. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Direct cost of pars plana vitrectomy for the treatment of macular hole, epiretinal membrane and vitreomacular traction: a bottom-up approach.

    PubMed

    Nicod, Elena; Jackson, Timothy L; Grimaccia, Federico; Angelis, Aris; Costen, Marc; Haynes, Richard; Hughes, Edward; Pringle, Edward; Zambarakji, Hadi; Kanavos, Panos

    2016-11-01

    The direct cost to the National Health Service (NHS) in England of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) is unknown since a bottom-up costing exercise has not been undertaken. Healthcare resource group (HRG) costing relies on a top-down approach. We aimed to quantify the direct cost of intermediate complexity PPV. Five NHS vitreoretinal units prospectively recorded all consumables, equipment and staff salaries during PPV undertaken for vitreomacular traction, epiretinal membrane and macular hole. Out-of-surgery costs between admission and discharge were estimated using a representative accounting method. The average patient time in theatre for 57 PPVs was 72 min. The average in-surgery cost for staff was £297, consumables £619, and equipment £82 (total £997). The average out-of-surgery costs were £260, including nursing and medical staff, other consumables, eye drops and hospitalisation. The total cost was therefore £1634, including 30 % overheads. This cost estimate was an under-estimate because it did not include out-of-theatre consumables or equipment. The average reimbursed HRG tariff was £1701. The cost of undertaking PPV of intermediate complexity is likely to be higher than the reimbursed tariff, except for hospitals with high throughput, where amortisation costs benefit from economies of scale. Although this research was set in England, the methodology may provide a useful template for other countries.

  6. Vitreous web after pars plana vitrectomy and bevacizumab with fluid-air exchange.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Allen; Reddy, Shantan; Tsui, Irena; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Intravitreal bevacizumab may result in intraocular inflammation of infectious and non-infectious etiology. Appropriate recognition of a sterile process can circumvent unnecessary treatment for endophthalmitis. Observational case report. A marked web-like inflammatory response within the vitreous following intraoperative intravitreal bevacizumab is described in a patient with pre-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, macular edema, and epiretinal membrane who underwent pars plana vitrectomy, membrane peel, endolaser, and fluid-air exchange. Wide-field fundus photography captured the full extent of this reaction. On post-operative day one, the patient presented with vitreous opacities in the form of a web of multiple white strands inferior to an air bubble, with minimal anterior or vitreous cell. At one week, the inflammatory reaction had completely resolved. Existing reports of intraocular inflammation following intravitreal bevacizumab range from uveitis to infectious endophthalmitis. With wide-field fundus imaging, we report an acute, marked web-like inflammatory response following intraoperative intravitreal bevacizumab that resolved spontaneously.

  7. Pars plana vitrectomy for retinal detachment due to internal posterior ophthalmomyiasis after cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Billi, B; Lesnoni, G; Audisio, P; Giuliano, M A; Rossi, T; Costi, E; Stirpe, M

    1997-04-01

    The authors report a case of posterior internal ophthalmomyiasis causing vitreous haemorrhage and retinal detachment after uncomplicated cataract extraction. The patient suffered an abrupt vitreous haemorrhage 9 days after ECCE and posterior chamber IOL implantation. After 2 months the haemorrhage did not clear up and a retinal detachment arose. The patient underwent encircling scleral buckle, pars plana vitrectomy and fluid-gas exchange. In course of intervention the surgeon removed from the vitreous chamber a 14-mm-long round worm subsequently identified as a dipterous larva of the Sarcophagidae family. The patient showed no sign of subretinal tracking or retinal breaks or holes. The sclerocorneal surgical wound seems the most likely site of entrance of the parasite, and this would then be the first reported case of myiasis with no RPE tracking.

  8. Surgical outcomes of 23-gauge transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy combined with lensectomy for glaucomatous eyes with extremely shallow anterior chamber and cataract.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaotian; Zhang, Shaochong; Jiang, Xintong; Qiu, Suo; Wei, Yantao

    2016-01-04

    Glaucoma combined with an extremely shallow anterior chamber and cataracts remains as a complex condition to deal with. And the emergence of microincision vitrectomy surgery (MIVS) system may provide an ideal option for the treatment of that. We report a clinical study of surgical outcomes of 23-gauge transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) combined with lensectomy in the treatment of glaucomatous eyes with extremely shallow anterior chamber and cataract. Prospective, nonrandomized and noncomparative case series study. Consecutive patients with secondary glaucoma, extremely shallow anterior chamber and cataract were recruited to have combined surgeries of 23-gauge transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy and lensectomy. The main outcomes were best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), anterior chamber depth (ACD), number of anti-glaucoma medications and surgery-associated complications. Seventeen consecutive patients with secondary glaucoma, extremely shallow anterior chamber and cataract were recruited. The mean follow-up was 21.2 ± 8.8 months. Postoperatively, there was no significant improvement of BCVA (P = 0.25). The mean intraocular (IOP) decreased significantly from 43.14 ± 6.53 mmHg to 17.29 ± 1.80 mmHg (P < 0.001), and the mean depth of anterior chamber increased significantly from 0.507 ± 0.212 mm to 3.080 ± 0.313 mm (P < 0.001). The mean number of anti-glaucoma medications decreased from 4.1 ± 0.8 to 0.6 ± 0.8 (P < 0.001). No severe vision-threatening intra- or post-operative complications occurred. Glaucoma with an extremely shallow anterior chamber and cataract can be managed well with the combined surgeries of 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and lensectomy. The surgical procedure is an effective and safe method to resolve the pupillary block and deepen the anterior chamber.

  9. Comparison of Topical Versus Peribulbar Anesthesia for 23G Pars Plana Vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Rizwan Ahmad; Khaqan, Hussain Ahmad; Ahmad, Ayesha; Imtiaz, Usman; Raza, Hassan; Shabbir, Usman

    2018-06-01

    To compare the safety and efficacy of topical anesthesia versus peribulbar anesthesia for 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy. Randomized controlled trial. Ophthalmology Department, Lahore General Hospital, Ameer-ud-Din Medical College, Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lahore from April 2013 to March 2016. A total of 110 patients were equally divided (n=55) in group A (topical anesthesia) and group B (peribulbar anesthesia). In group A, pledget soaked with 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride were placed in the superior and inferior fornices three minutes before surgery, and removed just before surgery. For group B patients, 3 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine was used for peribulbar anesthesia three minutes before surgery. Surgical time was noted from the placement of pledget in fornix till the eye pad placed in group A, and from the time of peribulbar anesthesia in group B till the eye pad placed at the end of surgery. All data was recorded in Excel sheet and p-values were calculated using online OpenEpi. The mean age of the patient was 56.28 ±13.76 years. Male patients were 78 (70.9%) and female patients were 32 (29.1%). Mean duration of surgery was 30.32 ±7.07 minutes and mean pain score was 2.30 ±0.98. There was a significant difference with respect to mean duration of surgery in patients who were given topical anesthesia (32.52 ±6.92 minutes) versus those given peribulbar anesthesia (28.12 ±6.57 minutes, p<0.001). Mean pain score in topical anesthesia group (3.11 ±0.89) was significantly higher as compared to peribulbar anesthesia group (2.67 ±0.91, p=0.011). Topical anesthesia is as effective as peribulbar anesthesia in terms of patient comfort and duration of surgery for 23-G pars plana vitrectomy in patients with vitreous hemorrhage.

  10. Intraoperative optical coherence tomography assisted analysis of pars Plana vitrectomy for retinal detachment in morning glory syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lytvynchuk, Lyubomyr M; Glittenberg, Carl G; Ansari-Shahrezaei, Siamak; Binder, Susanne

    2017-08-01

    The pathogenesis of non-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (non-RRD) associated with morning glory syndrome (MGS) is not established, as well as best surgical approach to treat RD. Our purpose was to analyse intraoperative optical coherence tomography data (iOCT) in all steps of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for non-RRD in MGS, in order to follow pathophysiological aspects of the disease and to understand the tissues behaviour during surgical workflow. Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherent tomography (iSD-OCT) assisted PPV using Rescan 700 (Carl Zeiss Meditech, Jena, Germany) with epiretinal membrane (ERM) and internal retinal membrane (ILM) peeling, and air endotamponade was performed on the only eye of a 21 years old female with non-RRD associated with MGS. BCVA, pre-, intra- and postoperative OCT were performed along with standard ocular examination. iOCT video and snapshots were analysed intra- and postoperatively using post-processing approach using graphic software. The progression of non-RRD resulted in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) decrease from 0.8 to 0.2. Triamcinolone enhanced iOCT imaging revealed strong vitreous traction and adhesion above the macula and optic disc. Internal limiting membrane was peeled under iOCT control to prevent the peeling of inner layers of the retinal schisis. No retinal break was detected, and only air endotamponade was performed. The retina reattached during first 4 weeks of follow-up with gradual resolution of intraretinal- and subretinal fluid, and remained stable in 12 months. BCVA improved to 0.8. Based on iSD-OCT findings we assume that non-RRD in this case of MGS is caused primarily by the vitreous traction with further possible formation of the retinal breaks. Retinal reattachment reached only with air endotamponade strongly advocates the tractional component of non-RRD and retinal schisis assotiated with MGS. Early PPV for central non-RRD and retinal schisis with the use of iOCT can be performed in more

  11. CHARACTERISTICS OF EPIRETINAL MEMBRANE REMNANT EDGE BY OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY AFTER PARS PLANA VITRECTOMY.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Raouf; You, Qi Sheng; Muftuoglu, Ilkay Kilic; Alam, Mostafa; Tsai, Frank F; Mendoza, Nadia; Freeman, William R

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the incidence, characteristics, and the progression of epiretinal membrane (ERM) remnant edge seen by optical coherence tomography after ERM peeling. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 86 eyes of 85 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with ERM and underwent pars plana vitrectomy for epiretinal membrane peeling between 2013 and 2014. Data collected and analyzed included age, gender, preoperative and postoperative visual acuity, use of indocyanine green dye to stain internal limiting membrane, tamponade used after vitrectomy, ERM edge boundaries, presence of cystoid macular edema, and central foveal thickness. An ERM remnant edge was detected in 33/86 study eyes (38.4%) at the first postoperative optical coherence tomography scan. Compared with those without an ERM remnant, patients with an ERM remnant after surgery were significantly older at baseline and had a higher incidence of ERM recurrence at their last visit. They were not significantly different in terms of gender, preoperative and postoperative visual acuity, reduction of central foveal thickness from baseline, proportion of eyes with preoperative ERM elevation on optical coherence tomography, presence of macular edema before surgery, intraoperative use of indocyanine green staining for ILM peeling, or tamponade used. Based on the edge morphology, we classified the ERM remnant into three types: Type 1 was flat and blended with the retina (14/33 eyes, 42.4%), Type 2 was flat but stepped (17/33 eyes, 51.5%), and Type 3 was elevated (2/33 eyes, 6.0%). A significantly higher risk of ERM recurrence was seen in Type 2 and Type 3 ERM remnants (75% and 100%, respectively) than Type 1 ERM remnants (10%). An ERM remnant edge was detected by optical coherence tomography after ERM peeling in 38.4% of eyes. The presence of a postoperative ERM edge was associated with a higher risk of ERM recurrence, particularly in Type 2 and Type 3 ERM remnants.

  12. Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy following pars plana vitrectomy for macular hole treatment: case report.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Leonardo Provetti; Cunha, Luciana Virgínia Ferreira Costa; Costa, Carolina Ferreira; Monteiro, Mário Luiz Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report a case of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) following uneventful pars plana vitrectomy for macular hole treatment. A 56-year-old previously healthy woman presented with a full-thickness macular hole in right eye (OD) and small cup-to-disc ratios in both eyes. Five days after surgery, she noticed sudden painless loss of vision in OD and was found to have an afferent pupillary defect and intraocular pressure of 29 mmHg. Fundus examination showed right optic disc edema and the resolution of a macular hole with an inferior altitudinal visual field defect. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein levels, and general physical examination findings were normal. She was treated with hypotensive eyedrops and oral prednisone, resulting in mild visual improvement and a pale optic disc. A combination of face-down position and increased intraocular pressure due to a small optic disc cup were considered as potential mechanisms underlying NAION in the present case. Vitreoretinal surgeons should be aware of NAION as a potentially serious complication and be able to recognize associated risk factors and clinical findings.

  13. New illuminations approaches with single-use micro LEDs endoilluminators for the pars plana vitrectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelbl, Philipp Simon; Koch, Frank H. J.; Lingenfelder, Christian; Hessling, Martin

    2018-02-01

    The illumination of the intraocular space during pars plana vitrectomy always bears the risk of retina damage by irradiation. Conventional illumination systems consist of an external light source and an optical fiber to transfer the visible light (radiation) into the eye. Often xenon arc and halogen lamps are employed for this application with some disadvantageous properties like high phototoxicity and low efficiency. Therefore, we propose to generate the light directly within the eye by inserting a white micro LED with a diameter of 0.6 mm. The LED offers a luminous flux of 0.6 lm of white light with a blue peak @ 450 nm and a yellow peak @ 555 nm. The presented prototypes fit through a standard 23 G trocar and are the first intraocular light sources worldwide. Two different single-use approaches have already been developed: a handguided and a chandelier device. The hand-guided applicator enables a directly navigation and illumination up to a working distance of 6 mm. The chandelier device is much smaller and does not need an active navigation of the light cone. The brightness and homogeneity of the illumination of these LED devices have been successfully tested on porcine eyes. Presented measurements and calculations prove that even for high LED currents and small distances to the retina these intraocular micro LED devices expose the retina to less hazard than conventional illumination sources like fiber based xenon systems. Even under the worst circumstances application durations of 180 hours would be justifiable.

  14. Pars plana vitrectomy with juxtapapillary laser photocoagulation versus vitrectomy without juxtapapillary laser photocoagulation for the treatment of optic disc pit maculopathy: the results of the KKESH International Collaborative Retina Study Group.

    PubMed

    Abouammoh, Marwan A; Alsulaiman, Sulaiman M; Gupta, Vishali S; Mousa, Ahmed; Hirakata, Akito; Berrocal, Maria H; Chenworth, Megan; Chhablani, Jay; Oshima, Yusuke; AlZamil, Waseem M; Casella, Antonio Marcelo; Papa-Oliva, Gabriela; Banker, Alay S; Arevalo, J Fernando

    2016-04-01

    To compare the functional and anatomic outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with juxtapapillary laser photocoagulation (JLP) versus vitrectomy without JLP in optic disc pit maculopathy. This was a multicentre, retrospective study of 46 consecutive patients with optic disc pit maculopathy presenting at tertiary eye centres between 1992 and 2012. Indications for surgery included distorted or decreased vision. Surgical intervention included PPV, posterior vitreous detachment, with or without gas tamponade. Twenty-four patients received laser photocoagulation at the temporal edge of the optic disc pit (group A) and 22 patients had no laser (group B). Postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and optical coherence tomography findings were the main outcome measures. Mean follow-up was 44 months (range 12-98 months). BCVA in group A improved significantly from 0.7 logMAR (20/100) preoperatively to 0.5 logMAR (20/60) postoperatively (p=0.017). In group B, BCVA improved from 0.7 logMAR (20/100) preoperatively to 0.4 logMAR (20/40) postoperatively (p=0.014). The difference in final BCVA between groups was not statistically significant (p=0.693). The mean central macular thickness (CMT) in group A improved significantly from 750 μm preoperatively to 309 μm at last follow-up (p<0.0001). The mean CMT in group B improved from 616 μm preoperatively to 291 μm at last follow-up (p=0.028). The difference in final CMT between groups was not statistically significant (p=0.747). PPV with JLP for optic disc pit maculopathy had similar functional and anatomic outcomes compared with vitrectomy without JLP. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. An intraocular micro light-emitting diode device for endo-illumination during pars plana vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Koelbl, Philipp S; Lingenfelder, Christian; Spraul, Christoph W; Kampmeier, Juergen; Koch, Frank Hj; Kim, Yong Keun; Hessling, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Development of a new, fiber-free, single-use endo-illuminator for pars plana vitrectomy as a replacement for fiber-based systems with external light sources. The hand-guided intraocularly placed white micro light-emitting diode is evaluated for its illumination properties and potential photochemical and thermal hazards. A micro light-emitting diode was used to develop a single-use intraocular illumination system. The light-source-on-tip device was implemented in a prototype with 23G trocar compatible outer diameter of 0.6 mm. The experimental testing was performed on porcine eyes. All calculations of possible photochemical and thermal hazards during the application of the intraocular micro light-emitting diode were calculated according to DIN EN ISO 15007-2: 2014. The endo-illuminator generated a homogeneous and bright illumination of the intraocular space. The color impression was physiologic and natural. Contrary to initial apprehension, the possible risk caused by inserting a light-emitting diode into the intraocular vitreous was much smaller when compared to conventional fiber-based illumination systems. The photochemical and thermal hazards allowed a continuous exposure time to the retina of at least 4.7 h. This first intraocular light source showed that a light-emitting diode can be introduced into the eye. The system can be built as single-use illumination system. This light-source-on-tip light-emitting diode-endo-illumination combines a chandelier wide-angle illumination with an adjustable endo-illuminator.

  16. Incidence, microbiology, and outcomes of endophthalmitis after 111,876 pars plana vitrectomies at a single, tertiary eye care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Rajiv; Jain, Mukesh; Shah, Pratik K.; Sharma, Tarun; Gopal, Lingam; Bhende, Pramod S.; Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Jambulingam, Malathi

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To describe the incidence, risk factors, clinical presentation, causative organisms, and outcomes in patients with endophthalmitis following pars plana vitrectomy (20G and minimally invasive vitrectomy surgery (MIVS). Methods Of 111,876 vitrectomies (70,585 20-G 41,291 MIVS) performed, 45 cases developed acute-onset, postoperative endophthalmitis. Results The rate of culture positive and culture negative endophthalmitis was 0.021% (2.1/10,000 surgeries) and 0.019% (1.9/10,000 surgeries) overall, 0.031% (3.1/10,000 surgeries) and 0.025% (2.5/10,000 surgeries) in 20G, and 0.005% (0.5/10,000 surgeries) and 0.007% (0.7/10,000 surgeries) in the MIVS group respectively. Potential predisposing factors were as follows: diabetes, 46.7%; vitrectomy for vascular retinopathies, 44.4%; and vitrectomy combined with anterior segment surgeries, 35.5%. The culture proven rates were 53.3% overall, 55.0% for 20G and 40.0% for MIVS. The most common organism was Pseudomonas aeruginosa for 20G. Klebsiella and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated in the two culture positive cases in MIVS group. The follow-up period for the patients with endophthalmitis was 586.14 ± 825.15 days. Seven were lost to follow up beyond one week. Of the remaining 38, 13 (34.2%) cases had a favorable visual outcome (i.e., best-corrected visual acuity [BCVA] > 5/200) and 24 (63.2%) had unfavorable visual outcome (BCVA < 5/200). Group with culture test results negative had significantly better outcomes (P < 0.05) as compared to those with positive. Conclusions MIVS does not increase the risk of endophthalmitis. Outcomes are poor despite appropriate treatment, particularly in cases with culture results positive. PMID:29338030

  17. Ocular blood flow parameters after pars plana vitrectomy in patients with diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Krepler, Katharina; Polska, Elzbieta; Wedrich, Andreas; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2003-04-01

    Whereas the anatomic result of vitrectomy in patients with vitreoretinal complications due to diabetes is usually satisfying, the functional outcome is sometimes poor. The authors investigated whether this may be related in part to effects of vitrectomy on ocular perfusion. Ocular hemodynamics were measured before vitrectomy and 1 and 4 weeks postoperatively in 13 consecutive diabetic patients. Pulsatile choroidal blood flow was assessed with laser interferometric measurement of fundus pulsation amplitude. In addition, mean blood flow velocity and resistive index in the ophthalmic artery, the central retinal artery, and the posterior ciliary arteries were measured with color Doppler imaging. Fundus pulsation amplitude was significantly reduced after surgery as compared to baseline (baseline: 3.7 +/- 1.0 microm; 4 weeks: 3.1 +/- 0.8; P < 0.001). Postoperatively, mean blood flow velocity in the central retinal artery (P = 0.009) and the posterior ciliary arteries (P = 0.0006) was significantly reduced, whereas resistive index was increased in the central retinal artery (P = 0.028) but not in the posterior ciliary arteries. The current data suggest that vitrectomy induces significant reductions in ocular blood flow in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Whether this may affect the visual outcome after vitrectomy or whether this reflects improved retinal oxygenation after vitrectomy remains to be established.

  18. Small-Gauge Pars Plana Vitrectomy for the Management of Symptomatic Posterior Vitreous Detachment after Phacoemulsification and Multifocal Intraocular Lens Implantation: A Pilot Study from the Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Rodrigo M.; Machado, Leonardo M.; Maia, Ossires; Wu, Lihteh; Farah, Michel E.; Magalhaes, Octaviano; Arevalo, J. Fernando; Maia, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the efficacy of 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for symptomatic posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) on visual acuity (VA) and quality after multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs). Methods. In this prospective case series, patients who developed symptomatic PVD and were not satisfied with visual quality due to floaters and halos after multifocal IOL implantation underwent PPV. Examinations included LogMAR uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), intraocular pressure, biomicroscopy, and indirect ophthalmoscopy at baseline and 1, 7, 30, and 180 days postoperatively. Ultrasonography and aberrometry were performed. The Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25 (VFQ-25) was administered preoperatively and at 30 days postoperatively. Both the postoperative UCVA and questionnaire results were compared to preoperative findings using the Wilcoxon test. Results. Sixteen eyes of 8 patients were included. VA significantly improved from 0.17 to 0.09 postoperatively (P = 0.017). All patients reported improvement of halos, glare, and floaters. VFQ-25 scores significantly improved in general vision (P = 0.023), near activities (P = 0.043), distance activities (P = 0.041), mental health (P = 0.011), role difficulties (P = 0.042), and driving (P = 0.016). Conclusion. PPV may increase UCVA and quality of vision in patients with bilateral multifocal IOLs and symptomatic PVD. Larger studies are advised. PMID:26504590

  19. Early simultaneous fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography features after pars plana vitrectomy for primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    PubMed

    Dell'Omo, Roberto; Mura, Marco; Lesnik Oberstein, Sarit Y; Bijl, Heico; Tan, H Stevie

    2012-04-01

    To describe fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of the macula after pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Thirty-three eyes of 33 consecutive patients with repaired rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with or without the involvement of the macula were prospectively investigated with simultaneous fundus autofluorescence and OCT imaging using the Spectralis HRA+OCT (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) within a few weeks after the operation. Fundus autofluorescence imaging of the macula showed lines of increased and decreased autofluorescence in 19 cases (57.6%). On OCT, these lines corresponded to the following abnormalities: outer retinal folds, inner retinal folds, and skip reflectivity abnormalities of the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment band. Other OCT findings, not related to abnormal lines on fundus autofluorescence, consisted of disruption of photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment band and collection of intraretinal or subretinal fluid. The presence of outer retinal folds significantly related to metamorphopsia but did not relate to poor postoperative visual acuity. Partial-thickness retinal folds occur commonly after vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair and may represent an important anatomical substrate for postoperative metamorphopsia. Fundus autofluorescence and OCT are both sensitive techniques for the detection of these abnormalities.

  20. SURGICAL REMOVAL OF DENSE POSTERIOR CAPSULE OPACIFICATION AND VITREOUS FLOATERS IN ADULTS BY POSTERIOR CONTINUOUS CURVILINEAR CAPSULORHEXIS THROUGH THE PARS PLANA AND 23-GAUGE VITRECTOMY.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jijian; Su, Zhitao; Huang, Xiaodan; Ji, Xian; Yao, Ke

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis through the pars plana and 23-gauge vitrectomy in surgical management of dense posterior capsule opacification and vitreous floaters. Fifteen pseudophakic eyes of 15 patients with dense posterior capsule opacification and vitreous floaters between September 2012 and June 2014 were included; after vitrectomy, posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis through the pars plana was performed. Data were collected, including baseline preoperative characteristics, postoperative outcomes, complications, and a modified quality-of-life survey that patients completed. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were encountered in any of the 15 cases. Mean Snellen best-corrected visual acuity was 20/250 preoperatively and improved to 20/32 postoperatively (P < 0.001). All patients showed normal intraocular pressure 7 days after the procedure. The mean overall corneal endothelial cell loss at postoperative Month 3 was 1.2%. Approximately 80% of the patients had no complaint of vitreous floaters after the procedure. Except for 1 patient (7%) diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration, the rest of the patients (93%) were satisfied with the procedure and would recommend it to friends with dense posterior capsule opacification and vitreous floaters. Posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis through the pars plana combined with 23-gauge vitrectomy may be used to remove dense posterior capsule opacification and vitreous floaters in pseudophakic eyes.

  1. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Pars Plana Vitrectomy with and without Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Idiopathic Retinal Membrane Removal: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hanhan; Zuo, Shanru; Ding, Chun; Dai, Xunzhang; Zhu, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of published retrospective studies and compared the effectiveness of pars plana vitrectomy with and without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (IERM). The results revealed that patients in the IERM+ILM peeling group had better BCVA after surgery within 12 months than those in IERM peeling group. But patients in the IERM peeling group showed better BCVA in the 18th month. More retrospective studies or randomized controlled trials are required to investigate and compare the long-term effect of IERM removal with and without ILM peeling. PMID:26693348

  2. 23G pars plana vitrectomy for vitreal floaters: prospective assessment of subjective self-reported visual impairment and surgery-related risks during the course of treatment.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Ursula; Krummenauer, Frank; Ludwig, Klaus

    2018-06-01

    Quantifying the subjective impairment due to floaters based on an indication-specific questionnaire and setting its change between prior to and 3/12 months after elective vitrectomy in relation to surgical risks. Single-arm longitudinal observational multicenter study. Sixty-four floater patients underwent 23G pars plana vitrectomy; simultaneous phacoemulsification was excluded. An overall self-rated impairment index (SRI) and sub-indices SRI were calculated on the basis of a modified Visual Quality of Life questionnaire (VQoL), which addresses general vision, glare, near-sight problems and mobility of floaters. SRI ranged from 0 to 100% (maximum impairment). Secondary endpoints included corrected visual acuity and complications. Data were collected prior to and 3 (n = 64) and 12 (n = 62) months after surgery. The median overall SRI improved (44, 12, 11%) with a statistically significant median reduction of 69% (95% confidence interval 50-89%) 3 months postop. The median sub-SRIs improved for glare (50, 17, 17%), near sight problems (50, 17, 8%), and mobility of floaters (43, 5, 0%). Sixteen eyes needed cataract surgery during follow-up (10 showed cataract already prior to vitrectomy). Eight complications were reported (6 intra-operative retinal holes, 2 post-operative retinal detachments). For the majority of floater patients, subjective impairment was profoundly reduced by vitrectomy. Benefits of surgery prevailed despite complications.

  3. COMPARISON BETWEEN PARS PLANA VITRECTOMY WITH VERSUS WITHOUT A 360° EPISCLERAL BAND IN THE MANAGEMENT OF GUNSHOT PERFORATING EYE INJURY.

    PubMed

    Ghoraba, Hammouda Hamdy; Mansour, Hosam Osman; Heikal, Mohamed Amin; Abdelfattah, Hitham Mammon; Elgemai, Emad Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate whether omitting the use of the 360° episcleral band in combination with pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade had an effect on either anatomical or functional success in cases of perforating eye injury due to gunshot. A retrospective consecutive interventional study from medical records. Surgeries were performed in the period from January 2011 until the end of December 2013. Patients with perforating eye injury due to gunshots were treated with pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade with or without the addition of a 360° scleral band. Two hundred and thirteen eyes of 210 patients were reviewed of which 17 patients were excluded, 5 patients because the vision had no light perception and 12 patients because of the short follow-up period (less than 6 months). The remaining 196 eyes of 193 patients were analyzed. All surgeries were performed by 1 surgeon. The included eyes have been classified into 2 groups; 101 eyes in the first group (360° band was used), and 95 eyes in the second group (without 360° band). The included patients were followed up at least 6 months after the last surgery. By first surgery, anatomical success was achieved in 93 eyes (92.08%) in Group 1, and retinal detachment developed in 8 eyes (7.92%). In Group 2 anatomical success was achieved in 91 eyes (95.78%), and retinal detachment developed in 4 eyes (4.21%). All cases with retinal detachment were reattached by second surgery. In the first group, visual acuity improved in 80 eyes (79.2%), unchanged in 14 eyes (13.86%), and was less than that of preoperative value in 7 eyes (6.93%). In the second group visual acuity improved in 78 eyes (82.1%), unchanged in 13 eyes (13.68%) and less than that of preoperative value in 4 eyes (4.21%). No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups (P = 0.943) in anatomical or functional results. None of the operated eyes developed phthisis bulbi. The abundant use of the 360° scleral band in

  4. Visual Outcomes of Pars Plana Vitrectomy with Epiretinal Membrane Peeling in Patients with Asteroid Hyalosis: A Matched Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Mouna, Ali; Berrod, Jean-Paul; Conart, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate outcomes of epiretinal membrane (ERM) peeling in patients with asteroid hyalosis (AH) and to compare them with those from controls without AH. This is a retrospective matched cohort study of 1,104 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for ERM between January 2004 and February 2014. Patients with AH were included in the study group and were matched for preoperative visual acuity, age, gender, date of surgery, and axial length with control patients without AH selected from the same cohort. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT) on optical coherence tomography were measured at baseline and postoperatively with a minimum follow-up period of 12 months. A total of 44 patients were included in the AH group and 44 in the control group. The mean initial BCVA was 0.53 ± 0.21 LogMAR for the AH group vs. 0.49 ± 0.20 LogMAR for the control group, and the mean initial CMT was 419 ± 74 vs. 423 ± 75 µm, respectively. During the follow-up, no significant difference was found regarding the final BCVA at 6 months (0.23 ± 0.14 vs. 0.24 ± 0.17) LogMAR (p = 0.87) and 12 months (0.16 ± 0.09 vs. 0.17 ± 0.12) LogMAR (p = 0.92), despite a tendency toward slower visual recovery for the AH group at 1 month, with a mean BCVA of 0.36 ± 0.12 vs. 0.28 ± 0.18 LogMAR (p = 0.08). No difference was found regarding the progression of CMT at 1.6 and 12 months with a mean CMT of 396 ± 47 vs. 378 ± 55 µm (p = 0.39), 356 ± 39 vs. 365 ± 41 µm (p = 0.48), and 349 ± 68 vs. 352 ± 53 µm (p = 0.87), respectively. Vitrectomy with ERM peeling in patients with AH was beneficial and showed similar functional and anatomical outcomes in both groups. AH does not seem to affect visual improvement or the complication rate after ERM peeling. Therefore, the indications for vitrectomy in case of ERM should not be prompted by the presence of AH. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Efficacy of vitrectomy with triamcinolone assistance versus internal limiting membrane peeling for highly myopic macular hole retinal detachment.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yong; Wang, Ningli; Zu, Zhongqiao; Bi, Chuncao; Wang, Huaizhou; Chen, Fenghua; Yang, Xingguang

    2013-06-01

    To compare the outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with or without the adjuvant surgical procedures: triamcinolone acetonide (TA) assistance and/or internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for the treatment of highly myopic macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD). Case-control study. Pars plana vitrectomy combined with 2 kinds of adjuvant surgical procedures were used on 96 highly myopic eyes with MHRD. These eyes were assigned to 4 groups randomly: Group 1, non-TA-assisted PPV and without ILM peeling; Group 2, non-TA-assisted PPV with ILM peeling; Group 3, TA-assisted PPV and without ILM peeling; Group 4, TA-assisted PPV with ILM peeling. Anatomical reattachment of the retina, macular hole closure, and best-corrected visual acuity were measured. The rates of both retinal reattachment and macular hole closure were higher in Group 2 (84.0 and 44.0%) and Group 3 (80.8 and 46.2%) than Group 1 (73.9 and 17.4%); however, there were no differences between Group 2 and Group 3 (P > 0.05). The rates of macular hole closure were extremely low in Group 1 and also in eyes with extreme long axial lengths (≥29.0 mm), "severe" chorioretinal atrophy, and posterior staphyloma. Pars plana vitrectomy with either TA assistance or ILM peeling was effective for the treatment of highly myopic MHRD. If you peel the ILM, adding TA does not affect closure rates; and if TA is used to visualize the vitreous, ILM peeling may not be necessary in MHRD. There was a lower anatomical success rate in MHRD with extreme long axial lengths, severe chorioretinal atrophy, and posterior staphyloma.

  6. Effect of internal limiting membrane peeling on the development of epiretinal membrane after pars plana vitrectomy for primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Yup; Kim, Jung Yeul

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the difference in the occurrence of postoperative epiretinal membranes (ERMs) in vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with and without peeling of the internal limiting membrane (ILM). The medical records of the 135 patients, who underwent vitrectomy for primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment from November 2007 to August 2011, were analyzed retrospectively. Of the subjects, 70 patients underwent ILM peeling during the surgery and 65 did not. The best-corrected visual acuity, fundus photograph, and optical coherence tomography were collected 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The relationship between ILM peeling and the preoperative findings of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and development of a postoperative ERM was analyzed. No ERM occurred in the ILM peeling group, whereas an ERM occurred in 14 of 65 patients who underwent vitrectomy without ILM peeling (21.5%). This difference was significant (P < 0.001). The occurrence of a postoperative ERM was not significantly correlated with other preoperative factors. In the macular-on group, the overall mean best-corrected visual acuity was better in the ILM peeling group and was significantly higher 12 months postoperatively (P = 0.03). Internal limiting membrane peeling seems to prevent the occurrence of a postoperative ERM in patients with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

  7. Characterization of a Standardized Ex-vivo Porcine Model to Assess Short Term Intraocular Pressure Changes and Trabecular Meshwork Vitality After Pars Plana Vitrectomy with Different Silicone Oil and BSS Tamponades.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Martina; Mariacher, Siegfried; Hurst, José; Szurman, Peter; Schnichels, Sven; Spitzer, Martin S; Januschowski, Kai

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a standardized porcine ex-vivo testing system for intraocular pressure (IOP) monitoring after vitrectomy with different endotamponades. Twenty-four pig eyes, six per endotamponade group were obtained immediately postmortem. After pars plana vitrectomy, vitreous substitutes (silicone oil 1000 mPas, 2000 mPas, 5000 mPas, and Balanced Salt Solution (BSS)) were instillated and IOP was observed over 24-hours. Infusion pumps with Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) simulated a constant aqueous humor circulation. A histological examination of the trabecular meshwork with DAPI- and TUNEL-staining was performed to detect the amount of apoptotic cells. TUNEL-assay showed a mean cell death rate of 3.78% (SD ± 1.46%) for silicone oil endotamponades compared to 5.05% (SD ± 2.18%) in BSS group. One-way ANOVA (p = 0.425) showed no significant difference between both groups. Mean IOP in silicone oil endotamponades was 9.50 mmHg (SD ± 1.68 mmHg) at baseline, 13.23 mmHg (SD ± 0.79 mmHg) after 1 hour, 18.46 mmHg (SD ± 2.13 mmHg) after 12 hours and 15.51 mmHg (SD ± 2.82 mmHg) 24 hours after instillation. A comparison of all silicone oil groups (one-way ANOVA, Bonferroni post-hoc test, p = 0.269 to 1.000) didn't reveal significant differences in mean IOP. The standardized ex-vivo porcine model represents an effective alternative to the in-vivo testing in animals. Maintaining the trabecular and uveoscleral outflow pathway enables a pseudo in-vivo analysis.

  8. Four-port bimanual 23-gauge vitrectomy for diabetic tractional retinal detachment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-Yang; Zhao, Ke-Ke; Li, Jia-Kai; Rossmiller, Brian; Zhao, Pei-Quan

    2016-06-01

    Four-port bimanual vitrectomy is a surgical technique that facilitates removal of epiretinal membranes in severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). As the illumination is held by the assistant through the fourth scleral incision, fibrovascular membranes are removed by bimanual manipulation techniques. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of four-port bimanual 23-gauge vitrectomy for patients with tractional retinal detachment (TRD) in severe PDR. Retrospective, comparative, consecutive, interventional case series. Sixty-six eyes of 58 consecutive patients who underwent primary vitrectomy for severe diabetic TRD. Thirty-six eyes of 31 cases that were treated with four-port 23-gauge vitrectomy were compared with 30 eyes of 27 cases that were treated with 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Main outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), retinal status, intraocular pressure, and incidence of intraoperative and postoperative complications with at least 6 months of follow-up. The primary and ultimate anatomic success rates (94.4% versus 93.3%, and 100% in both groups, respectively) and the mean BCVA changes did not differ significantly between groups. The whole surgical time and the membrane removal time were significantly (p < 0.001, respectively) shorter in the four-port 23-gauge group than in the 23-gauge group. There was no difference in the incidence of intraoperative and postoperative complications in both groups. Four-port bimanual 23-gauge vitrectomy offers comparable anatomic success and shortens the surgical time compared with conventional 23-gauge PPV in patients with TRD resulting from severe PDR. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Intraoperative retinal detachment prophylaxis in vitrectomy for retained cataract fragments.

    PubMed

    Morris, Robert E; Shere, Jeffrey L; Witherspoon, C Douglas; Segal, Zachary K; Tehranchi, Linda; Kuhn, Ferenc; Sapp, Mathew

    2009-03-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of peripheral 360-degree laser retinopexy as prophylaxis against rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in eyes having pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for the removal of retained cataract fragments. Private practice, Callahan Eye Foundation Hospital, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and Helen Keller Foundation for Research and Education, Birmingham, Alabama, USA. This retrospective analysis comprised a consecutive series of patients who had PPV with 360-degree laser retinopexy for retained cataract fragment removal between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2000. All laser treatments were applied with indirect ophthalmoscope delivery. In 78 eyes of 78 patients, the mean interval between cataract surgery and PPV with 360-degree laser retinopexy prophylaxis was 14 days. One (1.3%) of 78 eyes had postoperative RRD during a mean follow-up of 6 years. No laser-related complications occurred. The incidence of RRD after PPV with 360-degree laser retinopexy prophylaxis was 1.3%, a significant reduction from the average 8.2% RRD rate in the literature (P = .024). Although future prospective trials are indicated, the results suggest that 360-degree laser retinopexy prophylaxis could significantly reduce the incidence of this visually disabling complication.

  10. Predictive factors of open globe injury in patients requiring vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Pimolrat, Weeraya; Choovuthayakorn, Janejit; Watanachai, Nawat; Patikulsila, Direk; Kunavisarut, Paradee; Chaikitmongkol, Voraporn; Ittipunkul, Nimitr

    2014-01-01

    To determine the outcomes and predictive factors of patients with open globe injury requiring pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). The medical records of 114 patients age 10 years or older who had undergone PPV due to ocular trauma, with at least 6 months follow up, were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 42 (SD14) years, with males accounting for 89% of the cases. Penetrating eye injury was the most common injury mechanism (43%) with most injuries occurring secondary to work related incidents (54%). After surgical interventions, 78% of the patients had visual improvement of one or more Snellen lines, while no light perception occurred in 10%. Anatomical attachment was achieved in 87% of eyes at the final follow up. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of a relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) was a significant predictive factor of visual outcome, while initial retinal detachment was a significant predictor of anatomical outcome. Pupillary reaction is an important presenting ocular sign in estimating the post-vitrectomy poor visual outcome for open globe injury. Vision was restored and improved in more than half of the patients in this study; however, long-term sequelae should be monitored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Two-Port Pars Plana Anterior and Central Core Vitrectomy (Lam Floaterectomy) in Combination With Phacoemulsification and Intraocular Lens Implantation Under Topical Anesthesia for Patients with Cataract and Significant Floaters: Results of the First 50 Consecutive Cases.

    PubMed

    Lam, Dennis S C; Leung, Hiu Ying; Liu, Shu; Radke, Nishant; Yuan, Ye; Lee, Vincent Y W

    2017-01-01

    To study the safety and efficacy of 2-port pars plana anterior and central core vitrectomy (Lam floaterectomy) in combination with phacoemulsification (phaco) and intraocular lens implantation (IOL) for patients with cataract and significant floaters under topical anesthesia. Retrospective review of the first 50 consecutive cases. A standardized treatment protocol was used for patients with cataract and significant (moderate to severe) floaters (duration > 3 months). Data analysis included intraoperative and postoperative complications, floater status, and patient satisfaction. There were 50 eyes (38 patients) with a male-to-female ratio of 1 to 2.3. Twelve patients had bilateral eye surgeries. Mean age was 58.10 ± 9.85 years (range, 39-83). All patients completed the 3-month follow-up. One eye had mild vitreous hemorrhage at the end of surgery arising from sclerotomy wound oozing. No other intraoperative compli-cations were encountered. Postoperatively, there was 1 case of transient hypotony and 1 case of congestion at sclerotomy wound. No cases of retinal break or detachment, or clinically significant macular edema, were reported. There were 5 cases (10%) of mild residual floaters and 1 case (2%) of floater recurrence. Total floater clearance rate was 88%. Patient satisfaction rates were 80%, 14%, 6%, and 0% for very satisfied, satis-fied, acceptable, and unsatisfied, respectively. The 3-month results in terms of safety and efficacy of the Lam floaterectomy in combination with phaco and IOLfor patients with cataract and significant floaters under topical anesthesia are encouraging. Further larger-scale, prospective, multicenter studies seem warranted. Copyright© 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  12. Functional and Morphological Correlations before and after Video-Documented 23-Gauge Pars Plana Vitrectomy with Membrane and ILM Peeling in Patients with Macular Pucker.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Wolfgang J; Fazekas, Clara; Schumann, Ricarda; Wolf, Armin; Compera, Denise; Kampik, Anselm; Haritoglou, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess functional and morphological alterations following video-documented surgery for epiretinal membranes. Methods. Forty-two patients underwent video-documented 23-gauge vitrectomy with peeling of epiretinal (ERM) and inner limiting membrane (ILM). Patient assessment was performed before and 3 and 6 months including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), slit lamp biomicroscopy, SD-OCT, and central 2° and 18° microperimetry. In addition, all video-documented areas of peeling on the retinal surface were evaluated postoperatively using an additional focal 2° microperimetry. Retinal sensitivity and BCVA were correlated with morphological changes (EZ and ELM) in the foveal region and in regions of membrane peeling. Results. Overall, BCVA increased from 0.6 (±0.2) to 0.2 (±0.2) logMAR after 6 months with an increase in retinal sensitivity (17.9 ± 2.7 dB to 26.8 ± 3.1 dB, p < 0.01). We observed a significant correlation between the integrity of the EZ but not of the ELM and the retinal sensitivity, overall and in peeling areas (p < 0.05). However, no significant correlation between alterations in the area of peeling and overall retinal sensitivity regarding visual acuity gain could be observed after 6 months (p > 0.05). In contrast, overall postoperative retinal sensitivity was significantly decreased in patients with a visual acuity gain lower than 2 lines (p < 0.05) correlating with EZ defects seen in OCT. Conclusions. Mechanical trauma of epiretinal membrane and ILM peeling due to the use of intraocular forceps may affect the outer retinal structure. Nevertheless, these changes seem to have no significant impact on postoperative functional outcome.

  13. 20 g PPV with indocyanine green-assisted ILM peeling versus 23 g PPV with brilliant blue G-assisted ILM peeling for epiretinal membrane.

    PubMed

    Manousaridis, Kleanthis; Peter, Silvia; Mennel, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    To compare the anatomical and visual outcomes of 20 gauge (g) pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with indocyanine green (ICG)-assisted internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and 23 g PPV with brilliant blue G (BBG)-assisted ILM peeling for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM). 38 eyes of 38 patients with idiopathic ERM were included. They were divided in two groups: group 1 (18 eyes) underwent 20 g PPV with ICG-assisted ILM peeling and group 2 (20 eyes) 23 g PPV with BBG-assisted ILM peeling. Postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT) were compared. Average BCVA in group 1 improved significantly from 0.60 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (log MAR) at baseline to 0.3 log MAR postoperatively. Average BCVA in group 2 improved significantly from 0.60 log MAR at baseline to 0.3 log MAR postoperatively. Mean CMT reduced significantly from 473 to 375 μm in group 1 and from 486 to 396 μm in group 2. There were no significant differences in the BCVA and CMT between the groups. Both surgical methods appeared to be safe and provided similar anatomical and visual outcomes.

  14. Outcomes of transconjunctival sutureless 27-gauge vitrectomy for vitreoretinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Liu, San-Mei; Dong, Wen-Tao; Li, Fang; Zhou, Cai-Hong; Xu, Xiao-Dan; Zhong, Jie

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy profile of 27-gauge (27G) pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for the treatment of various vitreoretinal diseases. The clinical outcomes of 61 eyes (58 patients) with various vitreoretinal diseases following 27G PPV were retrospectively reviewed. Surgical indications included rhegmatogenous retinal detachment ( n =24), full-thickness macular hole ( n =12), diabetic retinopathy ( n =11), vitreous hemorrhage ( n =6), Eales disease ( n =4), pathological myopia-related vitreous floater ( n =2), and macular epiretinal membrane ( n =2). The mean follow-up was 166.4±61.3d (range 98-339d). The mean logMAR best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved from 1.7±1.1 [0.02 decimal visual acuity (VA) equivalent] preoperatively to 1.2±1.0 (0.06 decimal VA equivalent) at the last postoperative visit ( P <0.001). The mean operative time was 49.9min. With the exception of complicated cataract in one eye, no intraoperative complications were encountered. No case required conversion to conventional 20-, 23- or 25G instrumentation in all surgical maneuvers except for silicone oil infusion, which required a 25G oil injection syringe. Postoperative complications included transient ocular hypertension, vitreous hemorrhage, persistent intraocular pressure elevation, subconjunctival oil leakage, and recurrent retinal detachment. No cases of hypotony, endophthalmitis, and sclerotomy-related tears were observed. The current results suggest that 27G PPV system is a safe and effective treatment for various vitreoretinal diseases. When learning to perform 27G PPV, surgeons may encounter a learning curve and should gradually expand surgical indications from easy to pathologically complicated cases.

  15. Meta-analysis comparing same-day versus delayed vitrectomy clinical outcomes for intravitreal retained lens fragments after age-related cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Vanner, Elizabeth A; Stewart, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/design We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the risk difference of clinical outcomes for same-day (SD) vs delayed (DEL) pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Methods We searched MEDLINE (English; January 1, 1985 to July 16, 2013) and article reference lists, for patients with crystalline retained lens fragments and discussion of SD-PPV vs DEL-PPV. For the meta-analysis, articles needed the number of patients receiving SD-PPV and DEL-PPV, and the number, in each group, who experienced one or more of the outcomes: not good visual acuity (VA) (<20/40), bad VA (≤20/200), retinal detachment, increased intraocular pressure/glaucoma, intraocular infection/inflammation, cystoid macular edema, and corneal edema. Results Of 304 articles identified, 23 provided data for the meta-analysis. Results were mixed, indicating 1) neither vitrectomy time produced better outcomes in all studies (not good VA risk difference =10.3% [positive numbers favored SD-PPV; negative numbers favored DEL-PPV], 95% confidence interval [CI] = [−0.4% to 21.0%], P=0.059; and bad VA risk difference =−0.3%, 95% CI = [−10.7% to 10.1%], P=0.953); 2) better outcomes with immediate SD-PPV compared with all DEL-PPV (not good VA risk difference =16.2%, 95% CI = [0.8% to 31.5%], P=0.039; and bad VA risk difference =8.5%; 95% CI = [0.8% to 16.2%], P=0.030); and 3) immediate SD-PPV and prompt DEL-PPV (3 to 14 days after cataract surgery) had no significant differences and so may produce similar outcomes (not good VA risk differences range = [−19.9% to 6.5%], 95% CI = [−59.9% to 36.4%]; and bad VA risk differences range = [−6.9% to 7.4%], 95% CI = [−33.1% to 31.8%]). Conclusion Perhaps SD-PPV should be limited to facilities at which a vitreoretinal surgeon is immediately available. Otherwise, these results support referring a patient with retained lens fragments promptly to a vitreoretinal surgeon but do not support interfacility transport for SD-PPV. PMID:25429196

  16. Vitrectomy for vitreous floaters: analysis of the benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Sommerville, Drew N

    2015-05-01

    To review the pros and cons of small-gauge vitrectomy for symptomatic floaters. Current treatment options for floaters include Nd:YAG vitreolysis and pars plana vitrectomy. There are risks and benefits associated with vitrectomy for floaters. However, small-gauge vitrectomy is a minimally invasive way of removing the floaters. The current literature demonstrates vitrectomy has some risk, but is highly effective at improving vision, symptoms, contrast sensitivity, and quality of life. Small-gauge vitrectomy for floaters is a well tolerated and effective procedure to remove the symptomatic floaters. Symptomatic patients are willing to take some risk to have their troublesome vitreous floaters removed, often resulting in an improvement in their vision and quality of life.

  17. [Internal limiting membrane peeling as prophylaxis of epimacular membrane formation in eyes undergoing vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachement].

    PubMed

    Hejsek, L; Dusová, J; Stepanov, A; Rozsíval, P

    2014-06-01

    Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is a serious condition that can significantly impair visual function, even after a successful surgery. One of the complications that can significantly impair visual acuity in the postoperative period is a development of the epimacular membrane (ERM). The aim of this work is to monitor the effect of peeling of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) in the macula at the anatomical and functional results in the postoperative period, especially with regard to the development of ERM. Prospective study of 21 eyes, which underwent peeling of ILM during pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (on detached macula). The ILM peeling was done without using decalin during this procedure. We tested best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and followed fundus biomicroscopic findings. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) was evaluated according to the recommendations of the Retina Society Terminology Committee. To exclude the development of ERM in the macula optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed at the end of the 18-month follow-up period. In total, the results of 21 eyes of 21 patients who underwent PPV for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment were evaluated. In all of them was during PPV performed ILM peeling on detached macula, these are followed prospectively. ILM peeling without using decalin was sufficient in all eyes. All eyes with ILM peeling did not develop ERM at the end of the follow-up period. ILM peeling during PPV for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment reduces the risk of developing secondary ERM.

  18. Intraoperative Macula Protection by Perfluorocarbon Liquid for the Metallic Intraocular Foreign Body Removal during 23-Gauge Vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Rejdak, Robert; Choragiewicz, Tomasz; Moneta-Wielgos, Joanna; Wrzesinska, Dominika; Borowicz, Dorota; Forlini, Matteo; Jünemann, Anselm G; Nowomiejska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate visual and safety outcomes of 23-gauge (G) pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with application of perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL) for intraoperative protection of the macula during intraocular foreign body (IOFB) removal. Methods. Retrospective study of 42 patients who underwent 23 G PPV for IOFB removal from posterior segment with intraoperative PFCL application for the macula shielding. Collected data included corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), size of IOFB, and complication rate. The mean follow-up period was 12 months. Results . The mean preoperative CDVA was 0.54 logMAR (SD 0.46), and the final mean CDVA was 0.68 logMAR (SD 0.66). All IOFBs were metallic with mean dimensions of 4.6 mm × 2.1 mm. Twenty-two IOFBs were removed through the corneal tunnel and 20 IOFBs through the sclerotomy. No intraoperative iatrogenic lesion of the macula was observed. As a tamponade, silicon oil was applied in 31 eyes, SF 6 gas in 5 eyes, air in 4 eyes, and 2 eyes required no tamponade. Secondary retinal detachment was observed in 17% of cases, but at the end of the follow-up, all the retinas were attached. Conclusion . PFCL application during PPV is a safe method of protecting the macula from unexpected falling of the metallic IOFB during its removal.

  19. 27-Gauge Vitrectomy for Symptomatic Vitreous Floaters with Topical Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhong; Moonasar, Nived; Wu, Rong Han; Seemongal-Dass, Robin R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Traditionally acceptable methods of anesthesia for vitrectomy surgery are quite varied. However, each of these methods has its own potential for complications that can range from minor to severe. The surgery procedure of vitrectomy for symptomatic vitreous floaters is much simpler, mainly reflecting in the nonuse of sclera indentation, photocoagulation, and the apparently short surgery duration. The use of 27-gauge cannulae makes the puncture of the sclera minimally invasive. Hence, retrobulbar anesthesia, due to its rare but severe complications, seemed excessive for this kind of surgery. Method Three cases of 27-gauge, sutureless pars plana vitrectomy for symptomatic vitreous floaters with topical anesthesia are reported. Results The vitrectomy surgeries were successfully performed with topical anesthesia (proparacaine, 0.5%) without operative or postoperative complications. Furthermore, none of the patients experienced apparent pain during or after the surgery. Conclusion Topical anesthesia can be considered for 27-guage vitrectomy in patients with symptomatic vitreous floaters. PMID:28203195

  20. 27-Gauge Vitrectomy for Symptomatic Vitreous Floaters with Topical Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhong; Moonasar, Nived; Wu, Rong Han; Seemongal-Dass, Robin R

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally acceptable methods of anesthesia for vitrectomy surgery are quite varied. However, each of these methods has its own potential for complications that can range from minor to severe. The surgery procedure of vitrectomy for symptomatic vitreous floaters is much simpler, mainly reflecting in the nonuse of sclera indentation, photocoagulation, and the apparently short surgery duration. The use of 27-gauge cannulae makes the puncture of the sclera minimally invasive. Hence, retrobulbar anesthesia, due to its rare but severe complications, seemed excessive for this kind of surgery. Three cases of 27-gauge, sutureless pars plana vitrectomy for symptomatic vitreous floaters with topical anesthesia are reported. The vitrectomy surgeries were successfully performed with topical anesthesia (proparacaine, 0.5%) without operative or postoperative complications. Furthermore, none of the patients experienced apparent pain during or after the surgery. Topical anesthesia can be considered for 27-guage vitrectomy in patients with symptomatic vitreous floaters.

  1. Corneal endothelial cell loss and corneal biomechanical characteristics after two-step sequential or combined phaco-vitrectomy surgery for idiopathic epiretinal membrane.

    PubMed

    Hamoudi, Hassan; Christensen, Ulrik Correll; La Cour, Morten

    2017-08-01

    To assess the impact of sequential and combined surgery [cataract surgery and 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with peeling] on corneal endothelium cell density (CED) and corneal biomechanical characteristics. Phakic eyes with epiretinal membrane (ERM) were prospectively allocated to (i) cataract surgery and subsequent PPV (CAT group), (ii) PPV and subsequent cataract surgery (VIT group) or (iii) phacovitrectomy (COMBI group). Eyes were examined at baseline, 1 month after each surgery, and at 3 and 12 months follow-up. Corneal endothelium cell density (CED) was assessed with non-contact specular microscopy. Pachymetry [central cornea thickness (CCT)], keratometry and cornea volume (CV) were measured with Pentacam Scheimpflug camera. Primary outcome was change in CED after 12 months; secondary outcomes were changes in CCT and CV after 12 months. Sixty-two eyes were enrolled and allocated to the three groups. The mean preoperative CED was 2776, 2794 and 2653 cells/mm 2, which decreased significantly at 12 months by 15.3, 20.0 and 19.3% in the CAT, VIT and COMBI group. There was no significant difference in percentage cell loss between the groups at final follow-up. The CED decreased significantly after cataract surgery, but was unaffected by PPV. Central cornea thickness (CCT) increased by 10 μm (p = 0.005) and CV by 1.38 mm 3 (2.3%, p < 0.001) in the COMBI group. There were no significant differences in CCT or CV between the groups at final follow-up. Combined and sequential surgery in ERM leads to a small decrease in CED. Performing cataract surgery before, after or in combination with vitrectomy did not make any significant difference with respect to final CED, CCT or CV. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Vitrectomy-assisted phacoemulsification for lenticular coloboma.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashvin; Narang, Priya; Agarwal, Amar

    2017-02-01

    We describe a technique to prevent continuous vitreous hydration during phacoemulsification in eyes with lenticular coloboma. The hydration results from communication between the anterior and posterior chambers from the edges of the colobomatous defect. To avoid this, a valved trocar is placed at the pars plana site around the area of the lenticular defect, which allows a limited dry vitrectomy during phacoemulsification. Intermittent vitrectomy with a moderate cutting rate and low vacuum parameters accompanied by temporary halting of the phacoemulsification procedure prevents vitreous herniation into the anterior chamber and limits the extension of zonular compromise, facilitating safe phacoemulsification with appropriate capsule expansion and fixation devices and implantation of an intraocular lens. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Safety, efficacy, and quality of life following sutureless vitrectomy for symptomatic vitreous floaters.

    PubMed

    Mason, John O; Neimkin, Michael G; Mason, John O; Friedman, Duncan A; Feist, Richard M; Thomley, Martin L; Albert, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    To determine the safety, efficacy, and quality of life improvement following sutureless 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy for symptomatic floaters. Patients with symptomatic vitreous floaters who underwent sutureless vitrectomy between January 2008 and January 2011 were included. Data were collected regarding baseline preoperative characteristics, postoperative outcomes, complications, and a nine-item quality-of-life survey completed by each patient. One hundred and sixty-eight eyes (143 patients) underwent sutureless 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy for symptomatic vitreous floaters. Mean Snellen visual acuity was 20/40 preoperatively and improved to 20/25 postoperatively (P < 0.0001). Iatrogenic retinal breaks occurred in 12 of 168 eyes (7.1%). Intraoperative posterior vitreous detachment induction was not found to increase the risk of retinal breaks (P = 1.000). Postoperative complications occurred in three eyes, of which one had transient cystoid macular edema and two had transient vitreous hemorrhage. Approximately 88.8% of patients completed a quality-of-life survey, which revealed that 96% were "satisfied" with the results of the operation, and 94% rated the experience as a "complete success." Sutureless 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy for symptomatic vitreous floaters improved visual acuity, resulted in a high patient satisfaction quality-of-life survey, and had a low rate of postoperative complications. Sutureless pars plana vitrectomy should be considered as a viable means of managing patients with symptomatic vitreous floaters.

  4. Vitrectomy for full-thickness macular hole in adult-onset Coats’ disease

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Pradeep; Garg, Gaurav; Damodaran, Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of full thickness macular hole in Coats’ disease is extremely rare. The purpose of this case report is to report pars plana vitrectomy for the treatment of full thickness macular hole in a patient with adult onset Coats disease. A young male presented with decreased vision in his right eye because of full thickness macular hole. The macular hole was found to be associated with adult onset Coats’ disease that was evident on ultra-wide field imaging. The patient underwent laser photocoagulation to the vascular telangiectasia followed by pars plana vitrectomy, large internal limiting membrane peeling and gas tamponade. This resulted in regression of exudation, closure of macular hole and improvement in vision. Coats disease of adult onset can present with decreased vision because of full thickness macular hole. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling can result in excellent visual outcome. PMID:29133668

  5. Predictors of postoperative bleeding after vitrectomy for vitreous hemorrhage in patients with diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Motoda, Saori; Shiraki, Nobuhiko; Ishihara, Takuma; Sakaguchi, Hirokazu; Kabata, Daijiro; Takahara, Mitsuyoshi; Kimura, Takekazu; Kozawa, Junji; Imagawa, Akihisa; Nishida, Kohji; Shintani, Ayumi; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2017-12-19

    To clarify the association between perioperative variables and postoperative bleeding in pars plana vitrectomy for vitreous hemorrhage in diabetic retinopathy. The present retrospective study enrolled 72 eyes of 64 patients who were admitted to Osaka University Hospital between April 2010 and March 2014, and underwent vitrectomy for vitreous hemorrhage as a result of diabetic retinopathy. Postoperative bleeding developed in 12 eyes. Using binomial logistic regression analysis, we found that the duration of operation was the only significant variable associated with postoperative bleeding within 12 weeks after vitrectomy. Furthermore, Poisson regression analysis identified fasting blood glucose just before vitrectomy, no treatment with antiplatelet drugs and treatment with antihypertensive drugs, as well as duration of operation, to be significantly associated with the frequency of bleeding within 52 weeks after vitrectomy. Long duration of operation can be used to predict bleeding within both 12 and 52 weeks after vitrectomy. In addition, fasting blood glucose just before vitrectomy, no treatment with antiplatelet drugs and treatment with antihypertensive drugs might be risk factors for postoperative bleeding up to 1 year after vitrectomy. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Changes in Inner and Outer Retinal Layer Thicknesses after Vitrectomy for Idiopathic Macular Hole: Implications for Visual Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Yuki; Saito, Wataru; Fujiya, Akio; Yoshizawa, Chikako; Hirooka, Kiriko; Mori, Shohei; Noda, Kousuke; Ishida, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate sequential post-operative thickness changes in inner and outer retinal layers in eyes with an idiopathic macular hole (MH). Methods Retrospective case series. Twenty-four eyes of 23 patients who had received pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for the closure of MH were included in the study. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography C-scan was used to automatically measure the mean thickness of the inner and outer retinal layers pre-operatively and up to 6 months following surgery. The photoreceptor outer segment (PROS) length was measured manually and was used to assess its relationship with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Results Compared with the pre-operative thickness, the inner layers significantly thinned during follow-up (P = 0.02), particularly in the parafoveal (P = 0.01), but not perifoveal, area. The post-operative inner layer thinning ranged from the ganglion cell layer to the inner plexiform layer (P = 0.002), whereas the nerve fiber layer was unaltered. Outer layer thickness was significantly greater post-operatively (P = 0.002), and especially the PROS lengthened not only in the fovea but also in the parafovea (P < 0.001). Six months after surgery, BCVA was significantly correlated exclusively with the elongated foveal PROS (R = 0.42, P = 0.03), but not with any of the other thickness parameters examined. Conclusions Following PPV for MH, retinal inner layers other than the nerve fiber layer thinned, suggestive of subclinical thickening in the inner layers where no cyst was evident pre-operatively. In contrast, retinal outer layer thickness significantly increased, potentially as a result of PROS elongation linking tightly with favorable visual prognosis in MH eyes. PMID:26291526

  7. Effectiveness of combined macular buckle under direct vision and vitrectomy with ILM peeling in refractory macular hole retinal detachment with extreme high axial myopia: a 24-month comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jin; Li, Honghui; Ding, Xiaohu; Tanumiharjo, Silvia; Lu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of a combined macular buckle under direct vision and 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in refractory macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD) with extreme high axial myopia. Design Prospective, randomised controlled study. Participants The study included 98 eyes of 98 patients of MHRD with extreme high axial (>30 mm) myopia. Intervention Patients were randomly assigned to undergo PPV with ILM peeling (group 1, n=52) or PPV with ILM peeling combined with macular buckle under direct vision (group 2, n=46). Main outcome measures Complete ocular examination included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (LogMAR), applanation tonometry, optical biometry, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, colour fundus photography, ultrasound examination and optical coherence tomography at baseline and every follow-up visit. Results Initial retinal reattachment rate was significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 at 12-month postoperatively (χ2 test, p=0.020). Macular hole closure rate in group 2 was significantly higher than that in group 1 at 3, 12, 18 and 24 months postoperatively (Fisher's exact test, p<0.05). In initial retinal reattachment cases, the mean BCVA decreased significantly in group 2 than in group 1 at 3 months postoperatively (Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test, p=0.036), and had increased significantly in group 2 than in group 1 since 6 months postoperatively (Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test, p<0.05). Mean axial lengths in group 2 were significantly shorter than that of group 1 at each follow-up time point (Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test, p<0.05). Conclusions Combined macular buckle under direct vision and PPV with ILM peeling is more effective in treatment of MHRD with extreme high axial (>30 mm) myopia. PMID:28292775

  8. COMPARING PERIPHERAL VITRECTOMY UNDER AIR AND FLUID INFUSION FOR PRIMARY RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Gurkan; Unlu, Cihan; Karasu, Bugra; Kardes, Esra; Ergin, Ahmet

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of peripheral vitrectomy under air infusion in comparison with fluid infusion in patients undergoing 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy for primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. A total of 80 eyes of 80 patients with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment were enrolled into the study. Forty cases underwent peripheral vitrectomy under air infusion (air group), and a control group of equal number underwent peripheral vitrectomy under fluid infusion (fluid group). Peripheral iatrogenic retinal breaks during peripheral vitrectomy, postoperative visual acuities, and retinal redetachment rates were compared. The number of eyes with peripheral iatrogenic retinal breaks in air group during peripheral vitrectomy was statistically comparable with that in fluid group (1/40 and 4/40, 2.5% and 10%, respectively; P = 0.16). Scleral depression was necessitated in 7 of 40 cases (17.5%) during the operation in the air group. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in means of postoperative visual acuity and retinal redetachment (P = 0.18 and P = 1.0, respectively). Peripheral vitrectomy under air infusion for primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment revealed comparable results with fluid infusion in terms of intraoperative and postoperative complications and surgical outcomes.

  9. Vitrectomy for epiretinal membrane in adult-onset Coats' disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Kumar, Vinod

    2017-10-01

    Coats' disease is characterized by retinal vascular telangiectasia and subretinal and intraretinal exudation. A relatively benign form of the disease that occurs in adults is referred to as adult-onset Coats' disease. Involvement of macula in the form of macular edema and exudation are the common presenting features in both forms of the disease. We describe a rare case of adult-onset Coats' disease that presented with epiretinal membrane (ERM). Laser photocoagulation of retinal vascular telangiectasia resulted in worsening of patient's symptoms and ERM. Early pars plana vitrectomy resulted in resolution of the patient's symptoms. Utility of ultra-wide-field imaging and rationale of early vitrectomy in such cases are discussed.

  10. Vitrectomy for epiretinal membrane in adult-onset Coats’ disease

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pradeep; Kumar, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    Coats’ disease is characterized by retinal vascular telangiectasia and subretinal and intraretinal exudation. A relatively benign form of the disease that occurs in adults is referred to as adult-onset Coats’ disease. Involvement of macula in the form of macular edema and exudation are the common presenting features in both forms of the disease. We describe a rare case of adult-onset Coats’ disease that presented with epiretinal membrane (ERM). Laser photocoagulation of retinal vascular telangiectasia resulted in worsening of patient's symptoms and ERM. Early pars plana vitrectomy resulted in resolution of the patient's symptoms. Utility of ultra-wide-field imaging and rationale of early vitrectomy in such cases are discussed. PMID:29044085

  11. [Vitrectomy: in search of the ideal vitreous replacement].

    PubMed

    Steijns, Daan; Stilma, Jan S

    2009-01-01

    Pars plana vitrectomy is a form of surgery to remove the vitreous body. It is performed with various eye diseases. Replacement of the vitreous body is necessitated by its removal. After more than 50 years the search for the ideal vitreous replacement has not yet ended. Different materials are used to replace the vitreous body. The advantages, disadvantages and applications of those materials are discussed. The lack of a material to successfully replace the vitreous body is a significant restriction in the treatment vitreoretinal pathologies.

  12. Macular Hole Development After Vitrectomy for Floaters: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Appeltans, Andrea; Mura, Marco; Bamonte, Giulio

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a case of macular hole development after vitrectomy for floaters with induction of posterior vitreous detachment. A 44-year-old otherwise healthy man presented with visually debilitating floaters in his right eye; these had been present for more than 2 years. Preoperative examination was unremarkable in both eyes, apart from some degree of vitreous degeneration in the right eye. Preoperative visual acuity was 20/20 bilaterally. A 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana complete vitrectomy with induction of posterior vitreous detachment was performed in the right eye. Upon examination 1 month after surgery, a small full-thickness macular hole was detected in the right eye. Visual acuity was diminished to 20/80. The macular hole was closed after a second vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling and gas tamponade. Macular hole development should be listed as a possible complication of vitrectomy for visually debilitating floaters when a posterior vitreous detachment is induced during surgery.

  13. Optimized feline vitrectomy technique for therapeutic stem cell delivery to the inner retina

    PubMed Central

    Jayaram, Hari; Becker, Silke; Eastlake, Karen; Jones, Megan F; Charteris, David G; Limb, G Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe an optimized surgical technique for feline vitrectomy which reduces bleeding and aids posterior gel clearance in order to facilitate stem cell delivery to the inner retina using cellular scaffolds. Procedures Three-port pars plana vitrectomies were performed in six-specific pathogen-free domestic cats using an optimized surgical technique to improve access and minimize severe intraoperative bleeding. Results The surgical procedure was successfully completed in all six animals. Lens sparing vitrectomy resulted in peripheral lens touch in one of three animals but without cataract formation. Transient bleeding from sclerotomies, which was readily controlled, was seen in two of the six animals. No cases of vitreous hemorrhage, severe postoperative inflammation, retinal detachment, or endophthalmitis were observed during postoperative follow-up. Conclusions Three-port pars plana vitrectomy can be performed successfully in the cat in a safe and controlled manner when the appropriate precautions are taken to minimize the risk of developing intraoperative hemorrhage. This technique may facilitate the use of feline models of inner retinal degeneration for the development of stem cell transplantation techniques using cellular scaffolds. PMID:24661435

  14. Optimized feline vitrectomy technique for therapeutic stem cell delivery to the inner retina.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Hari; Becker, Silke; Eastlake, Karen; Jones, Megan F; Charteris, David G; Limb, G Astrid

    2014-07-01

    To describe an optimized surgical technique for feline vitrectomy which reduces bleeding and aids posterior gel clearance in order to facilitate stem cell delivery to the inner retina using cellular scaffolds. Three-port pars plana vitrectomies were performed in six-specific pathogen-free domestic cats using an optimized surgical technique to improve access and minimize severe intraoperative bleeding. The surgical procedure was successfully completed in all six animals. Lens sparing vitrectomy resulted in peripheral lens touch in one of three animals but without cataract formation. Transient bleeding from sclerotomies, which was readily controlled, was seen in two of the six animals. No cases of vitreous hemorrhage, severe postoperative inflammation, retinal detachment, or endophthalmitis were observed during postoperative follow-up. Three-port pars plana vitrectomy can be performed successfully in the cat in a safe and controlled manner when the appropriate precautions are taken to minimize the risk of developing intraoperative hemorrhage. This technique may facilitate the use of feline models of inner retinal degeneration for the development of stem cell transplantation techniques using cellular scaffolds. © 2014 The Authors Veterinary Ophthalmology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  15. [Dry transconjunctival sutureless 25-gauge vitrectomy in the treatment of pediatric cataract].

    PubMed

    You, Cai-yun; Xie, Li-xin

    2009-08-01

    Posterior capsule opacification is the most frequent complication of pediatric cataract surgery. To prevent posterior capsule opacification, primary phacoemulsification, posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy with intraocular lens implantation is the preferred method in the treatment of pediatric cataract. Anterior vitrectomy cutter, with 18-gauge, maximum frequency at 600/min and has simultaneous cutting, irrigation and aspiration functions, is associated with more complications and poor outcomes. In 20-gauge surgery, pars plana vitrectomy is performed with two-port sclerotomy. The irrigation increases movement of vitreous and 20-gauge sclerotomy needs suture for closing. In 25-gauge surgery, the vitreous cutter can be introduced into the vitreous cavity directly though conjunctiva and sclera. The stab incision is roughly half the size of 20-gauge cutter, therefore, the sclerotomy incision can be left unsutured. Surgery with dry transconjunctival sutureless 25-gauge vitrectomy may decrease the requirement for secondary membrane surgery and the risk for retinal detachment. The application of dry transconjunctival sutureless 25-gauge vitrectomy in the treatment of pediatric cataract is reviewed.

  16. Vitrectomy for the diagnosis and management of uveitis of unknown cause.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Ron; Brasil, Oswaldo F M; Lowder, Careen Y; Singh, Rishi P; Kaiser, Peter K; Smith, Scott D; Perez, Victor L; Sonnie, Christine; Sears, Jonathan E

    2007-10-01

    To determine the diagnostic yield of tests commonly used for vitreous fluid analysis in eyes with suspected intraocular infection or malignancy. Noncomparative interventional case series. Forty-four consecutive patients (45 eyes) treated from 1998 through 2006 with posterior segment inflammation who underwent pars plana vitrectomy for diagnostic purposes. Vitreous specimens obtained via pars plana vitrectomy were analyzed by microbiologic culture, cytologic analysis, and flow cytometry. Diagnostic yield and sensitivity of each test performed on vitreous specimens and visual outcomes of eyes that underwent diagnostic vitrectomy (DVx). Preoperative diagnoses were infection in 15 eyes and malignancy in 30 eyes. Overall, vitreous analysis identified a specific cause in 9 (20%) of 45 eyes. The overall sensitivity of DVx was 63.6%. The sensitivities of individual tests were: culture, 50%; cytologic analysis, 66.7%; and flow cytometry, 83.3%. The yields of diagnostic tests were: culture, 5.7%; cytologic analysis, 14.3%; and flow cytometry, 20.6%. Final diagnoses were infection in 6 eyes, malignancy in 9 eyes, and idiopathic in 30 eyes. Mean visual acuity improved significantly in the first 6 months after DVx. Visual acuity improved in 60% of eyes, with 37.8% of eyes improving by 3 lines or more. Analysis of vitreous fluid by widely available tests is useful in identifying intraocular infection or malignancy. Most patients experienced a substantial improvement in vision.

  17. Microplastics effects in Scrobicularia plana.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Francisca; Garcia, Ana R; Pereira, Beatriz P; Fonseca, Maria; Mestre, Nélia C; Fonseca, Tainá G; Ilharco, Laura M; Bebianno, Maria João

    2017-09-15

    One of the most common plastics in the marine environment is polystyrene (PS) that can be broken down to micro sized particles. Marine organisms are vulnerable to the exposure to microplastics. This study assesses the effects of PS microplastics in tissues of the clam Scrobicularia plana. Clams were exposed to 1mgL -1 (20μm) for 14days, followed by 7days of depuration. A qualitative analysis by infrared spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance mode period detected the presence of microplastics in clam tissues upon exposure, which were not eliminated after depuration. The effects of microplastics were assessed by a battery of biomarkers and results revealed that microplastics induce effects on antioxidant capacity, DNA damage, neurotoxicity and oxidative damage. S. plana is a significant target to assess the environmental risk of PS microplastics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectiveness of combined macular buckle under direct vision and vitrectomy with ILM peeling in refractory macular hole retinal detachment with extreme high axial myopia: a 24-month comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jin; Li, Honghui; Ding, Xiaohu; Tanumiharjo, Silvia; Lu, Lin

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a combined macular buckle under direct vision and 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in refractory macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD) with extreme high axial myopia. Prospective, randomised controlled study. The study included 98 eyes of 98 patients of MHRD with extreme high axial (>30 mm) myopia. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo PPV with ILM peeling (group 1, n=52) or PPV with ILM peeling combined with macular buckle under direct vision (group 2, n=46). Complete ocular examination included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (LogMAR), applanation tonometry, optical biometry, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, colour fundus photography, ultrasound examination and optical coherence tomography at baseline and every follow-up visit. Initial retinal reattachment rate was significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 at 12-month postoperatively (χ 2 test, p=0.020). Macular hole closure rate in group 2 was significantly higher than that in group 1 at 3, 12, 18 and 24 months postoperatively (Fisher's exact test, p<0.05). In initial retinal reattachment cases, the mean BCVA decreased significantly in group 2 than in group 1 at 3 months postoperatively (Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test, p=0.036), and had increased significantly in group 2 than in group 1 since 6 months postoperatively (Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test, p<0.05). Mean axial lengths in group 2 were significantly shorter than that of group 1 at each follow-up time point (Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test, p<0.05). Combined macular buckle under direct vision and PPV with ILM peeling is more effective in treatment of MHRD with extreme high axial (>30 mm) myopia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. SURGICAL OUTCOMES IN PATIENTS WITH MACULAR PUCKER AND GOOD PREOPERATIVE VISUAL ACUITY AFTER VITRECTOMY WITH MEMBRANE PEELING.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Gayatri; Melamud, Alexander; Lipscomb, Peter; Toussaint, Brian

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate whether patients with macular pucker (epiretinal membrane [ERM]) and good preoperative visual acuity (20/50 or better) benefit from small-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with membrane peeling. Retrospective chart review of eyes undergoing small-gauge pars plana vitrectomy for ERM. Inclusion criterion was impaired visual acuity (20/50 or better) due to ERM. Exclusion criteria were preoperative visual acuity of 20/60 or worse, previous surgery (other than uncomplicated cataract surgery), and any documented evidence of macular or corneal disease that would limit visual potential. The main outcome measure was final visual acuity. Secondary outcomes included the role of internal limiting membrane peeling, and the effect of preoperative cystoid macular edema and internal limiting membrane peeling on visual acuity. One hundred and forty eyes met inclusion criteria of which 94% underwent 25-gauge vitrectomy (remainder had 23-gauge). There was a statistically significant improvement in final vision with the mean preoperative visual acuity of 0.305 logMAR (20/40) and 1-year visual acuity of 0.250 logMAR (20/35) (P = 0.0167). Cataract formation in phakic patients had a significant effect on the final visual outcome. Fifty-six of 63 patients (89%) in the phakic cohort developed a visually significant cataract by study end. The mean time to recommendation of cataract surgery was 8.4 months. Thirty-eight eyes (27%) had preoperative cystoid macular edema. Fifty-nine eyes (42%) underwent internal limiting membrane peeling. Neither one of these secondary outcome measures had a significant effect on the final visual outcome. Pars plana vitrectomy is both efficacious and safe an option for patients with ERMs and good preoperative vision. Eyes with an ERM and vision 20/50 or better had a statistically significant improvement in the final visual outcome after small-gauge pars plana vitrectomy surgery. As with large-gauge vitrectomy, cataract formation occurred in most phakic

  20. Perfluorocarbon perfused vitrectomy: animal studies.

    PubMed

    Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Suarez-Tatá, Luis; Magdalenic, Rudi; Murillo-López, Sergio; García-Aguirre, Gerardo; Guerrero-Naranjo, Jose; Rodríguez-Reyes, Abelardo A

    2004-02-01

    To investigate the feasibility and advantages of using perfluorocarbon liquid (PCL) perfusion to remove vitreous during suction-cutting vitrectomy in rabbit and pig eyes. Experimental study. Balanced salt solution (BSS) was replaced by PCL perfusion during experimental vitrectomy. Oxygenated or nonoxygenated PCL was used in a recycling or a nonrecycling system. Recycling was achieved by two systems: a manual recycling system or a closed-loop system. The experiments in this study consisted of: an in vitro solubility observation, safety and feasibility of vitrectomy in rabbit eyes, effectiveness of vitrectomy with equal vitrectomy time in rabbit eyes, and retinal stability and pigment and blood dispersion in porcine eyes. Toxicity was assessed by a complete ophthalmic examination, endothelial cell count, electroretinography, and histopathology. Vitreous, blood, and pigments were immiscible in PCL. Manual recycling required less amounts of PCL than nonrecycling (15 vs 25 cc). Oxygenated and nonoxygenated PCL were not toxic. Perfluorocarbon liquid infusion removed more vitreous than balanced salt solution in a 3-minute vitrectomy time using the same settings on the vitrectomy machine. The PCL infusion in porcine eyes stabilized the retina and isolated vitreous cavity from pigment and blood and maintained a clear vitreous cavity. These data indicate that perfusion of PCL can be used to remove vitreous with a suction-cutting probe in rabbit and pig eyes. Retinal stability and isolation of the vitreous cavity at the time of vitreous removal along with PCL immiscibility and its specific gravity suggest that PCL has a potential clinical use as an irrigating solution to remove vitreous.

  1. [Vitrectomy for idiopathic and secondary preretinal macular membrane].

    PubMed

    Oficjalska-Młyńczak, Jolanta; Jamrozy-Witkowska, Agnieszka

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the results of pars plana vitrectomy and membrane stripping for idiopathic and secondary preretinal macular membrane (PMM). Twenty one consecutive subjects (21 eyes) ranging in age from 40 to 78 (mean 66.9) with PMM underwent vitrectomy and membrane peeling. 17 cases had membranes that were considered idiopathic, and 4 cases were associated with other disorders: 3 occurred after successful retinal reattachment surgery, 1--after laserotherapy in the course of diabetic retinopathy. Visual acuity (VA), Amsler grid, and postoperative complications were assessed. The follow-up was 1 to 22 months, mean 5.7. Visual acuity improved postoperatively in 15 eyes (71.4%), at least two lines on the Snellen chart in 8 eyes (38.1%), entirely in patients with idiopathic PMM. It remained unchanged in 3 eyes (14.3%) and deteriorated in 3 eyes (14.3%). Eyes with transparent membrane showed greater visual improvement than opaque ones. The preoperative Amsler test was positive in 15 patients (71.4%), postoperatively--in 4 cases (19%). 2 idiopathic cases with VA of 0.7 showed postoperatively VA of 1.0. Complications included retinal detachment in 2 eyes (1 in idiopathic and 1 in secondary PMM), and development of nuclear sclerotic cataract in 2 eyes. At 6 months of follow-up, a residual membrane formation in 1 cases appeared. Macular pseudohole was observed in 1 eye with no impact on visual results. 1. Vitrectomy with membrane peeling for preretinal macular membrane provides improvement in visual acuity and reduces metamorphopsia 2. Thin, cellophane-like appearance of the membrane gives a better prognosis of visual function improvement.

  2. Genome sequence of Chinese porcine parvovirus strain PPV2010.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jin; Wang, Xin; Ren, Yudong; Cui, Shangjin; Li, Guangxing; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2012-02-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) isolate PPV2010 has recently emerged in China. Herein, we analyze the complete genome sequence of PPV2010. Our results indicate that the genome of PPV2010 bears mixed characteristics of virulent PPV and vaccine strains. Importantly, PPV2010 has the potential to be a naturally attenuated candidate vaccine strain.

  3. Genome Sequence of Chinese Porcine Parvovirus Strain PPV2010

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jin; Wang, Xin; Ren, Yudong; Cui, Shangjin; Li, Guangxing

    2012-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) isolate PPV2010 has recently emerged in China. Herein, we analyze the complete genome sequence of PPV2010. Our results indicate that the genome of PPV2010 bears mixed characteristics of virulent PPV and vaccine strains. Importantly, PPV2010 has the potential to be a naturally attenuated candidate vaccine strain. PMID:22282333

  4. Safety of vitrectomy for floaters.

    PubMed

    Tan, H Stevie; Mura, Marco; Lesnik Oberstein, Sarit Y; Bijl, Heico M

    2011-06-01

    To assess the risks of vitrectomy for the removal of primary and secondary vitreous opacities. Retrospective, nonrandomized, interventional case series. We reviewed the results of 116 consecutive cases of vitrectomy for vitreous floaters. Eighty-six cases were primary and 30 cases were secondary floaters. Main outcome measures were the incidence of iatrogenic retinal breaks and postoperative rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. We found iatrogenic retinal breaks in 16.4% of operations. There was no statistically significant difference in risk between cases of primary and secondary floaters. Intraoperative posterior vitreous detachment induction was found to increase significantly the risk of breaks. Retinal detachment occurred in 3 cases (2.5%), all after operations for primary floaters. One case of complicated retinal detachment ended with a low visual acuity of hand movements. Cataract occurred in 50% of phakic cases. Transient postoperative hypotony was found after 5.2% of our operations, and transient postoperative high intraocular pressure was encountered in 7.8%. An intraoperative choroidal hemorrhage occurred in 1 case, which resolved spontaneously. The mean visual acuity improved from 0.20 to 0.13 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution units. The risk profile of vitrectomy for floaters is comparable with that of vitrectomy for other elective indications. Retinal breaks are a common finding during surgery and treatment of these breaks is crucial for the prevention of postoperative retinal detachment. Patients considering surgery for floaters should be informed specifically about the risks involved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Vitrectomy and gas-fluid exchange for the treatment of serous macular detachment due to optic disc pit: long-term evaluation].

    PubMed

    Moreira Neto, Carlos Augusto; Moreira Junior, Carlos Augusto

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate 5 patients with serous macular detachment due to optic disc pit that were submitted to pars plana vitrectomy and were followed for at least 7 years. Patients were submitted to pars plana vitrectomy, posterior hyaloid removal, autologous serum injection and gas-fluid exchange, without laser photocoagulation, and were evaluated pre and post-operatively with visual acuity and Amsler grid testing, retinography, and recently, with autofluorescence imaging and high resolution OCT. All 5 eyes improved visual acuity significantly following the surgical procedure maintaining good vision throughout the follow-up period. Mean pre-operative visual acuity was 20/400 and final visual acuity was 20/27 with a mean follow-up time of 13.6 years. No recurrences of serous detachments were observed. OCT examinations demonstrated an attached retina up to the margin of the pit. Serous macular detachments due to optic disc pits were adequately treated with pars plana vitrectomy and gas fluid exchange, without the need for laser photocoagulation, maintaining excellent visual results for a long period of time.

  6. EFFECT OF INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING DURING VITRECTOMY FOR DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Takuya; Roggia, Murilo F; Noda, Yasuo; Ueta, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling during vitrectomy for diabetic macular edema. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL were systematically reviewed. Eligible studies included randomized or nonrandomized studies that compared surgical outcomes of vitrectomy with or without ILM peeling for diabetic macular edema. The primary and secondary outcome measures were postoperative best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness. Meta-analysis on mean differences between vitrectomy with and without ILM peeling was performed using inverse variance method in random effects. Five studies (7 articles) with 741 patients were eligible for analysis. Superiority (95% confidence interval) in postoperative best-corrected visual acuity in ILM peeling group compared with nonpeeling group was 0.04 (-0.05 to 0.13) logMAR (equivalent to 2.0 ETDRS letters, P = 0.37), and superiority in best-corrected visual acuity change in ILM peeling group was 0.04 (-0.02 to 0.09) logMAR (equivalent to 2.0 ETDRS letters, P = 0.16). There was no significant difference in postoperative central macular thickness and central macular thickness reduction between the two groups. The visual acuity outcomes using pars plana vitrectomy with ILM peeling versus no ILM peeling were not significantly different. A larger randomized prospective study would be necessary to adequately address the effectiveness of ILM peeling on visual acuity outcomes.

  7. Optical coherence tomography in optic pit maculopathy managed with vitrectomy-laser-gas.

    PubMed

    García-Arumí, José; Guraya, Borja Corcóstegui; Espax, Ana Boixadera; Castillo, Vicente Martínez; Ramsay, Laura Sararols; Motta, R Max

    2004-10-01

    Optic disc pit (ODP) maculopathy has a poor visual prognosis if left to its natural course. Several therapeutic approaches have been attempted. The cases of 11 patients evaluated with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and treated with vitrectomy-laser-gas and their functional and anatomical outcomes are presented. Retrospective interventional consecutive case series, including 11 eyes with ODP maculopathy. Pre- and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), OCT and angiography were recorded. All patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy, posterior hyaloid dissection peripapillary diode laser prior to retinal reapplication and C(3)F(8) 15% injection. Mean preoperative BCVA was 20/126. Median preoperative BCVA was 1.0 LogMAR (range 1.3-0.4) . Eighty-two per cent of patients gained 2 or more Snellen lines of vision (mean 4.4 lines gained). Mean final BCVA was 20/32, and median final BCVA was 20/30 in Snellen VA and 0.2 in LogMAR (range 0.7-0) Preoperative OCT in all but one case confirmed the bilaminar structure of the macular detachment. Postoperative OCT helped in monitoring reabsorption of the macular detachment, which was achieved in all cases after an average of 6.5 months post-surgery. BCVA increased progressively as the subretinal fluid was reabsorbed (P=0.006). Mean duration of postoperative follow-up was 15 months. Recurrence was observed in two cases. In our series, the vitrectomy-laser-gas procedure for ODP maculopathy improved vision and achieved satisfactory anatomic results in all 11 cases. OCT was useful in the diagnosis and follow-up of this pathology. However, the low incidence of this entity makes it difficult to obtain series large enough to determine the efficacy of the vitrectomy-laser-gas procedure and other treatment modalities and be able to suggest a procedure of choice.

  8. Microvascular changes after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling: an optical coherence tomography angiography study.

    PubMed

    Mastropasqua, Leonardo; Borrelli, Enrico; Carpineto, Paolo; Toto, Lisa; Di Antonio, Luca; Mattei, Peter A; Mastropasqua, Rodolfo

    2017-06-19

    To evaluate superficial capillary plexus (SCP) changes occurring after internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for the treatment of idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM). A total of 15 eyes of 15 patients affected by idiopathic ERM (eight males and seven females; mean age 59.8 ± 9.6 years) were enrolled in the study. Patients were treated with pars plana vitrectomy followed by ERM and ILM peeling. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and at the week-1 and month-1 follow-up visits. At each visit, patients were evaluated with a complete ophthalmologic evaluation, which included imaging with optical coherence tomography angiography. Overall, the SCP vessel density was 43.0 ± 3.0% at baseline and was stable throughout the follow-up (40.0 ± 4.0% at week-1 and 41.0 ± 4.0% at month-1 follow-up visits; p = 0.087 and p = 0.426, respectively). Nevertheless, the SCP vessel density was reduced at week-1 visit in both the superior and inferior sectors. In these sectors, the superficial vessel density was still reduced at the month-1 follow-up visit. We observed a reduction in the SCP vessel density occurring after pars plana vitrectomy with ILM peeling. The reduction is referred to those areas where other changes (e.g., swelling of the arcuate nerve fiber layer) have been already described. In theory, superficial vessel density modifications may be due to the direct surgical trauma to the inner retina, where the superficial plexus is contained, during the ILM grasping.

  9. Beacons In Brief. P/PV In Brief. Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Susan; Farley, Chelsea

    2004-01-01

    This second issue in P/PV's "In Brief" series focuses on the San Francisco Beacon Initiative and P/PV's recently released evaluation results. The Beacon Initiative established after-school programs in eight public schools in low-income San Francisco neighborhoods. P/PV's 36-month evaluation examined key developmental and academic outcomes.…

  10. Combined 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy and scleral fixation of intraocular lens without conjunctival dissection in managing lens complications.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Ling; Wang, Nan-Kai; Wu, Wei-Chi; Chen, Kuan-Jen

    2018-04-23

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of combined 23-gauge transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy and scleral fixation of intraocular lens (IOL) without conjunctival dissection. A retrospective study in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung and Taoyuan, Taiwan. Patients receiving combined 23-gauge transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy and scleral fixation of IOL without conjunctival dissection were enrolled. The ocular findings, causes of lens complication, surgical procedures, type of IOL used, and complications were documented. We included 40 eyes from 39 patients (27 male, 12 female) with a mean age of 59.5 [standard deviation (±) 14.8] years old. The mean follow-up duration was 6.8 ± 5.4 months. The cause of lens complications was ocular trauma in 24 (60%) eyes, cataract surgery complications in 11 (28%) eyes, and spontaneous subluxation of crystalline lens in 5 (13%) eyes. The overall best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (logMAR) improved from 1.359 ± 0.735 to 0.514 ± 0.582 (p < 0.001). The BCVA also improved significantly in each group with different causes of lens complications. Preoperative BCVA was the only factor associated with the postoperative visual outcome (p = 0.008). Most surgery-related complications were self-limited, including mild vitreous hemorrhage (5%), microhyphema (5%), transient elevated intraocular pressure (3%), and transient hypotony (3%). Cystoid macular edema and IOL decentration was found in 3 (8%) eyes and 1 (3%) eye respectively. Combined 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy and scleral fixation of IOL without conjunctival dissection is effective and safe in managing a wide variety of lens complications, with good postoperative comfort and visual recovery. Retrospective study, not applicable.

  11. Scleral fixation of foldable acrylic intraocular lenses in aphakic post-vitrectomy eyes

    PubMed Central

    Mutoh, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Chikuda, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the outcome for scleral fixation of a foldable acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) in aphakic post-pars plana vitrectomy eyes for vitreoretinal disease. Methods The medical records of 15 patients were reviewed. We evaluated such factors as the underlying vitreoretinal disease, preoperative expected refraction and postoperative actual refraction, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), corneal endothelial cell density, and intraoperative and postoperative complications. Results The most common cause of underlying vitreoretinal disease was retinal detachment, which was found in 8 cases. The mean refractive error was −0.10 diopters (D). The mean minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) values of BCVA were 0.27 preoperatively and 0.14 postoperatively. The mean corneal endothelial cell density was 2400 cells/mm2 preoperatively and 2187 cells/mm2 postoperatively. No significant differences were observed in either the logMAR values of BCVA or the corneal endothelial cell density before and after surgery. No intraoperative complications occurred in any of the patients. Postoperative complications occurred in a total of 7 eyes, and the most severe complications comprised 4 cases of transient ocular hypertension. Conclusion The results for the scleral fixation of foldable acrylic IOLs were good in aphakic post-vitrectomy eyes. PMID:21311652

  12. Surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract

    PubMed Central

    Do, Diana V; Gichuhi, Stephen; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Hawkins, Barbara S

    2014-01-01

    Background Cataract formation or acceleration can occur after intraocular surgery, especially following vitrectomy, a surgical technique for removing the vitreous which is used in the treatment of disorders that affect the posterior segment of the eye. The underlying problem that led to vitrectomy may limit the benefit from cataract surgery. Objectives The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract with respect to visual acuity, quality of life, and other outcomes. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 4), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE in-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily Update, Ovid OLDMED-LINE (January 1946 to May 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2013, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to May 2013), PubMed (January 1946 to May 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrial.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 22 May 2013. Selection criteria We planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing cataract surgery with no surgery in adult patients who developed cataract following vitrectomy. Data collection and analysis Two authors screened the search results independently according to the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We found no randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing cataract surgery with no cataract surgery for patients who developed cataracts following vitrectomy surgery. Authors' conclusions There is no evidence from randomized or quasi

  13. Temporary resolution of foveal schisis following vitrectomy with silicon oil tamponade in X-linked retinoschisis with retinal detachment

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Neha; Ghosh, Basudeb

    2015-01-01

    X-linked retinoschisis (XLR) is an uncommon bilateral vitreoretinal dystrophy characterized by typical foveoschisis in all patients that may be associated with peripheral retinoschisis. A young male with XLR with retinal detachment in his right eye underwent 23 gauge pars plana vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade. Postoperatively, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved to 20/120 with an attached retina. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed macular thinning with the collapse of the schitic cavities with silicone oil in situ. Following silicone oil removal at 6 months follow-up, the retina remained attached with a BCVA of 20/80 however the foveal schitic cavities reappeared. This unusual course has not been described previously. PMID:26669343

  14. Hybrid solar cells from MDMO-PPV and silicon nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chin-Yi; Kortshagen, Uwe R

    2012-07-07

    Solution-processed bulk heterojunction solar cells from silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) have shown promising power conversion efficiencies. Here we report on an attempt to enhance the performance of Si NC-polymer hybrid solar cells by using poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV) as a hole conductor, which is expected to yield a higher open circuit voltage than P3HT due to its lower highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO). Bulk heterojunction solar cells consisting of 3-5 nm silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) and poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV) have been fabricated. The properties of the hybrid Si NC/MDMO-PPV devices were studied as a function of the Si NC/MDMO-PPV weight ratio. Cells of 58 wt% 3-5 nm Si NCs showed the best overall performance under simulated one-sun AM 1.5 global illumination (100 mW cm(-2)). Compared to composite films of Si NCs and poly(3-hexylthiophene), we indeed observed an improved open circuit voltage but a lower power conversion efficiency from the Si NC/MDMO-PPV devices. The lower efficiency of Si NC/MDMO-PPV is correlated to the lower hole mobility and narrower absorption spectrum of MDMO-PPV compared to P3HT.

  15. Evaluation of corneal topographic changes and surgically induced astigmatism after transconjunctival 27-gauge microincision vitrectomy surgery.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Kemal; Sonmez, Kenan; Inanc, Merve; Ozdemir, Kubra; Goker, Yasin Sakir; Yilmazbas, Pelin

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the corneal topographic changes and postvitrectomy astigmatism after 27-gauge (g) microincision vitrectomy surgery (MIVS) by using Pentacam HR-Scheimpflug imaging system. This prospective descriptive study included 30 eyes of 30 patients who underwent 27-g MIVS. All eyes underwent a Pentacam HR examination preoperatively and on the first week, first month and third month postoperatively. The power of the corneal astigmatism, mean keratometry (K m ), K 1 and K 2 values and corneal asphericity (Q value) values for the both front and back surfaces of the cornea, index of surface variance (ISV), index of vertical asymmetry (IVA), index of height asymmetry (IHA), index of height decentration (IHD) and higher-order aberrations including coma, trefoil, spherical aberration, higher-order root-mean-square and total RMS were recorded. Additionally, the mean induced astigmatism was estimated by vector analysis. No statistically significant changes were observed in the mean power of corneal astigmatism, mean keratometry, K 1 and K 2 values, corneal asphericity values, ISV, IVA, IHA, IHD and higher-order aberrations on the first week, first month and third month after the operation. The mean surgically induced astigmatism was calculated as 0.23 ± 0.11 D on the first week, 0.19 ± 0.10 D on the first month and 0.19 ± 0.08 D on the third month postoperatively. Minor corneal surface and induced astigmatic changes are expected to result in rapid visual rehabilitation after pars plana vitrectomy with the 27-g MIVS system.

  16. Globe stability during simulated vitrectomy with valved and non-valved trocar cannulas

    PubMed Central

    Abulon, Dina Joy; Charles, Martin; Charles, Daniel E

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effects of valved and non-valved cannulas on intraocular pressure (IOP), fluid leakage, and vitreous incarceration during simulated vitrectomy. Methods Three-port pars plana incisions were generated in six rubber eyes using 23-, 25-, and 27-gauge valved and non-valved trocar cannulas. The models were filled with air and IOP was measured. Similar procedures were followed for 36 acrylic eyes filled with saline solution. Vitreous incarceration was analyzed in eleven rabbit and twelve porcine cadaver eyes. Results In the air-filled model, IOP loss was 89%–94% when two non-valved cannulas were unoccupied versus 1%–5% when two valved cannulas were unoccupied. In the fluid-filled model, with non-valved cannulas, IOP dropped while fluid leaked from the open ports. With two open ports, the IOP dropped to 20%–30% of set infusion pressure, regardless of infusion pressure and IOP compensation. The IOP was maintained in valved cannulas when one or two ports were left open, regardless of IOP compensation settings. There was no or minimal fluid leakage through open ports at any infusion pressure. Direct microscopic analysis of rabbit eyes showed that vitreous incarceration was significantly greater with 23-gauge non-valved than valved cannulas (P<0.005), and endoscopy of porcine eyes showed that vitreous incarceration was significantly greater with 23-gauge (P<0.05) and 27-gauge (P<0.05) non-valved cannulas. External observation of rabbit eyes showed vitreous prolapse through non-valved, but not valved, cannulas. Conclusion Valved cannulas surpassed non-valved cannulas in maintaining IOP, preventing fluid leakage, and reducing vitreous incarceration during simulated vitrectomy. PMID:26445520

  17. Early vitrectomy effective for Norrie disease.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Mark K; Drenser, Kimberly A; Capone, Antonio; Trese, Michael T

    2010-04-01

    To review our experience with Norrie disease to determine if early vitrectomy abrogates the natural history of this rare disease; namely, bilateral no light perception visual acuity and phthisis bulbi. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients seen in our tertiary care pediatric retinal clinical practice from 1988 through 2008 with a potential diagnosis of Norrie disease. Inclusion required not only clinical findings consistent with Norrie disease but also genetics and/or a family history consistent with Norrie disease. Medical record review revealed 14 boys with clinically diagnosed Norrie disease and either Norrie disease gene (NDP) mutations noted on genetic testing (13 patients) and/or a clear family history consistent with Norrie disease (4 patients). All 14 boys with definite Norrie disease had vitrectomy with or without lensectomy in at least 1 eye prior to 12 months of age. Of the 14 boys with definite Norrie disease, 7 maintained at least light perception visual acuity in 1 eye and 3 had no light perception visual acuity bilaterally; visual acuity data were not available for 4 patients. Only 2 of 24 (8%) eyes became phthisical. Historically, no treatment has been offered to mitigate the dismal natural history of Norrie disease. We recommend consideration of early vitrectomy in Norrie disease.

  18. Effect of solution concentration on MEH-PPV thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affendi, I. H. H.; Sarah, M. S. P.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    MEH-PPV thin films were prepared with a mixture of THF (tetrahydrofuran) solution deposited by spin coating method. The surface topology of MEH-PPV thin film were characterize by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical properties of absorption spectra were characterized by using Ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-Vis-NIR). The MEH-PPV concentration variation affects the surface and optical properties of the thin film where 0.5 mg/ml MEH-PPV concentration have a good surface topology provided the same film also gives the highest absorption coefficient were then deposited to a TiO2 thin film forming composite layer. The composite layer then shows low current flow of short circuit current of Isc = -5.313E-7 A.

  19. Anatomical and functional outcomes following vitrectomy for dense vitreous hemorrhage related to Terson syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Sayman Muslubas, Isil; Karacorlu, Murat; Hocaoglu, Mumin; Ersoz, Mehmet Giray; Arf, Serra

    2018-03-01

    Our purpose was to assess anatomical and functional outcomes of vitrectomy in pediatric cases of Terson syndrome. A total of 11 eyes of seven children diagnosed with Terson syndrome secondary to traumatic brain injury and 17 eyes of 12 children diagnosed with Terson syndrome secondary to nontraumatic brain hemorrhage who had 20-gauge or 23-gauge pars plana or pars plicata vitrectomy were included in this retrospective study. The primary outcome was the change in visual acuity from the preoperative examination to postoperative final follow-up. Secondary outcomes were anatomic surgical success and postoperative complications. The mean time between diagnosis and surgery was 62 ± 35 days (range, 30-150), and the average age at the time of the surgery was 4.5 ± 6.4 years (range, 3 months to 17 years). The mean preoperative logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) (Snellen) best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 2.6 ± 0.7 (20/7260) (n = 9) and in the remaining 19 eyes it was recorded as noncentral, unsteady, nonmaintained fixation. The mean follow-up period was 50 ± 54 months (range, 12-192 months). At the last follow-up visit, the mean logMAR BCVA was 0.46 ± 0.6 (20/60) (n = 19) and in eight eyes it was recorded as fix-and-follow. One eye developed a retinal detachment 14 months after the first operation, and one eye developed an epiretinal membrane after 2 years. Anatomical success was recorded in all patients at the final visit. In children with massive vitreous hemorrhage secondary to Terson syndrome, vitrectomy is an effective procedure and offers a rapid visual improvement. Earlier surgical treatment prevents amblyopia and blood-related potential complications.

  20. Outcomes of 23- and 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomies for dislocated intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Bajgai, Priya; Tigari, Basavraj; Singh, Ramandeep

    2017-10-04

    To compare the outcome of 23-gauge as compared with 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (TSV) in the management of dislocated intraocular lenses (IOLs). Retrospective, non-consecutive, comparative, interventional case series. Patients with dislocated intraocular lens who underwent sutureless PPV using either 23-gauge or 25-gauge instruments. The patients who presented with a dislocated IOL, underwent TSV with repositioning of the intraocular lens, either in the sulcus or scleral-fixated sutured/glued. Of the total 61 eyes, 33 (54.09%) underwent 23-gauge TSV and 28 (45.90%) underwent 25-gauge TSV. The mean logMAR BCVA at baseline and 6 months after surgery was 0.8 and 0.46 in the 23-gauge group, and 0.82 and 0.47 in the 25-gauge group. There was no significant difference in logMAR BCVA values between the two groups at any time point of time during the follow-up. The mean postoperative IOP on postoperative day 1 was 14.76 ± 5.4 in 23-gauge group and 17.57 ± 7.9 in the 25-gauge group (p = 0.10). Retinal break was noticed intraoperatively in two cases in 23-gauge group and in three cases in 25-gauge group (p = 0.509). Postoperative complications included IOL decentration in one case of 23-gauge vitrectomy and two cases in 25-gauge group (p = 0.5), cystoid macular edema in four patients in 23-gauge group and six cases of 25-gauge group (p = 0.3) and retinal detachment in one case in each group (p = 0.9). 25-gauge appears to be as safe and as effective as 23-gauge TSV in the management of dislocated intraocular lenses.

  1. Vitrectomy with complete posterior hyaloid removal for ischemic central retinal vein occlusion: Series of cases

    PubMed Central

    Leizaola-Fernández, Carlos; Suárez-Tatá, Luis; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Colina-Luquez, Juner; Fromow-Guerra, J; Jiménez-Sierra, Juan M; Guerrero-Naranjo, Jose L; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio

    2005-01-01

    Background Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is a common retinal vascular disorder with potentially complications: (1) persistent macular edema and (2) neovascular glaucoma. No safe treatment exists that promotes the return of lost vision. Eyes with CRVO may be predisposed to vitreous degeneration. It has been suggested that if the vitreous remains attached to the macula owing to a firm vitreomacular adhesion, the resultant vitreous traction can cause inflammation with retinal capillary dilation, leakage and subsequent edema6. The roll of vitrectomy in ischemic CRVO surgical procedures has not been evaluated. Case presentation This is a non comparative, prospective, longitudinal, experimental and descriptive series of cases. Ten eyes with ischemic CRVO. Vitrectomy with complete posterior hyaloid removal was performed. VA, rubeosis, intraocular pressure (IOP), and macular edema were evaluated clinically. Multifocal ERG (m-ERG), fluorescein angiography (FAG) and optic coherence tomography (OCT) were performed. Follow-up was at least 6 months. Moderate improvement of visual acuity was observed in 60% eyes and stabilized in 40%. IOP changed from 15.7 ± 3.05 mmHg to 14.9 ± 2.69 mmHg post-operative and macular edema from 976 ± 196 μm to 640 ± 191 μm to six month. The P1 wave amplitude changed from 25.46 ± 12.4 mV to 20.54 ± 11.2 mV. Conclusion A solo PPV with posterior hyaloid removal may help to improve anatomic and functional retina conditions in some cases. These results should be considered when analyzing other surgical maneuvers. PMID:15943889

  2. VITRECTOMY FOR MACULAR RETINOSCHISIS WITHOUT A DETECTABLE OPTIC DISK PIT.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Masatoshi; Yamakawa, Ryoji

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of vitrectomy in the treatment of macular retinoschisis without a detectable optic disk pit. This retrospective interventional case series included eight patients with acquired, unilateral macular retinoschisis with or without foveal detachment. Patients with an optic disk pit, vitreomacular traction, or high myopia were excluded. Six of the eight patients underwent vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling and fluid-air exchange. The surgical outcome was evaluated in terms of the improvement in the macular anatomy and the best-corrected visual acuity. During vitrectomy, all the six eyes were confirmed to have preexisting posterior vitreous detachment. Macular retinoschisis was resolved or reduced in all the six eyes after vitrectomy. The mean central foveal thickness showed significant improvement at the time of the patient's final visit after vitrectomy. The mean best-corrected visual acuity was 20/52 before surgery and 20/31 at the final visit. Vitrectomy might be effective for the treatment of macular retinoschisis without an optic disk pit. Although clinically similar to optic pit maculopathy except for the absence of pit, our intraoperative observations of the posterior hyaloid membrane suggest that maculopathy without optic disk pit has a distinct pathogenesis.

  3. Clinical clues for differential diagnosis between verruca plana and verruca plana-like seborrheic keratosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Jeong; Lee, Won-Ku; Song, Margaret; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Moon-Bum

    2015-04-01

    Sometimes the clinical differentiation between verruca plana (VP) and VP-like seborrheic keratosis (SK) could be challenged. However, there have been no studies on this issue to date. The aim of this study was to elucidate clinical and dermoscopic differences between these two diseases, and also to suggest a diagnostic algorithm of VP and VP-like SK without skin biopsy. The patients who had lesions clinically considered as VP or VP-like SK were the target of our study. We took clinical and dermoscopic photos with informed consent and conducted a questionnaire. All patients had their diagnoses confirmed by biopsy. Thirty-three patients were enrolled in our study. Seventeen patients were finally diagnosed with VP (51.5%) and 16 patients with VP-like SK (48.5%). In clinical findings, VP-like SK showed significantly more scattered distribution than VP (P = 0.039), which exhibited more clustered or grouped distribution (P = 0.039). In dermoscopic findings, brain-like appearance was more commonly observed in VP-like SK (P = 0.003) whereas VP showed more red dots or globular vessels (P = 0.017) and even-colored light brown to yellow patch (P < 0.001). Sex, onset age, the size of each lesion, location, color and shape showed no significant differences between them (P > 0.05). Based on our results, we suggest a diagnostic algorithm using Koebner's phenomenon, dermoscopic findings, distribution of each lesion and biopsy for multiple VP-like lesions in adults, and we think it will be a very useful diagnostic tool in daily clinical dermatological practice. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  4. Structural dependence of MEH-PPV chromism in solution.

    PubMed

    de Magalhães, Carlos E T; Savedra, Ranylson M L; Dias, Karina S; Ramos, Rodrigo; Siqueira, Melissa F

    2017-03-01

    The chromism observed in the MEH-PPV polymer in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution is discussed as a function of the structural morphology of the backbone chains. To evaluate this phenomenon, we carried out simulations employing a hybrid methodology using molecular dynamics and quantum mechanical approaches. Our results support the hypothesis that the morphological order-disorder transition is related to the change from red to blue phase observed experimentally. The morphological disorder is associated with total or partial twisted arrangements in the polymer backbone, which induces an electronic conjugation length more confined to shorter segments. In addition, the main band of the MEH-PPV UV-Vis spectrum at the lower wavelength is related to the blue phase, in contrast to the red phase found for the more planar backbone chains.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of SF-PPV-I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y.; Fan, Z.; Taft, C.; Sun, S.

    2001-01-01

    Conjugated electro-active polymers find their potential applications in developing variety inexpensive and flexible shaped electronic and photonic devices, such as photovoltaic or photo/electro light emitting devices. In many of these opto-electronic polymeric materials, certain electron rich donors and electron deficient acceptors are needed in order to fine-tune the electronic or photonic properties of the desired materials and structures. While many donor type of conjugated polymers have been widely studied and developed in the past decades, there are relatively fewer acceptor type of conjugated polymers have been developed. Key acceptor type conjugated polymers developed so far include C60 and CN-PPV, and each has its limitations. Due to the complexity and diversity of variety future electronic materials and structural needs, alternative and synthetically amenable acceptor conjugated polymers need to be developed. In this paper, we present the synthesis and characterization of a new acceptor conjugated polymer, a sulfone derivatized polyphenylenevinylene "SF-PPV".

  6. Genomic analysis reveals candidate genes for PPV resistance in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sharka disease, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV), is the most important disease affecting Prunus species. A major PPV resistance locus (PPVres) was previously mapped to the upper part of apricot (Prunus armeniaca) linkage group 1. In this study, a physical map of the PPVres locus in the PPV resistan...

  7. Plum pox virus (PPV) genome expression in genetically engineered RNAi plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An important approach to controlling sharka disease caused by Plum pox virus (PPV) is the development of PPV resistant plants using small interfering RNAs (siRNA) technology. In order to evaluate siRNA induced gene silencing, we studied, based on knowledge of the PPV genome sequence, virus genome t...

  8. Safety of medium-chain triglycerides used as an intraocular tamponading agent in an experimental vitrectomy model rabbit.

    PubMed

    Auriol, Sylvain; Mahieu, Laurence; Brousset, Pierre; Malecaze, François; Mathis, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate safety of medium-chain triglycerides used as a possible intraocular tamponading agent. A 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed in the right eye of 28 rabbits. An ophthalmologic examination was performed every week until rabbits were killed. At days 7, 30, 60, and 90, rabbits were killed and the treated eyes were examined macroscopically and prepared for histologic examination. Principal outcome was retinal toxicity evaluated by light and electron microscopy, and secondary outcomes were the presence of medium-chain triglyceride emulsification, inflammatory reactions, and the development of cataract. Histologic examination did not reveal any retinal toxicity. Two cases of moderate emulsification were observed, but in these cases, emulsification was caused by the perioperative injection of the agent and did not increase during the postoperative period. We noted 13 cases of inflammatory reaction in vitreous cavity and no case of inflammatory reaction in anterior chamber. Two eyes developed cataract as a result of perioperative trauma to the lens with the vitreous cutter and not secondary to the presence of medium-chain triglycerides in the vitreous cavity. Medium-chain triglycerides did not induce morphologic evidence of retinal toxicity. The results suggest that medium-chain triglycerides could be a promising alternative intraocular tamponading agent for the treatment of retinal detachments.

  9. [Retinal whitening following vitrectomy for epiretinal macular membrane].

    PubMed

    Uemura, A

    1993-09-01

    To investigate the clinical pictures of retinal whitening following epiretinal membrane dissection. I studied retrospectively the records of 18 eyes which had undergone vitrectomy. Two types of retinal whitening were observed: cotton wool-like spots within the superficial retinal layers and a linear or dendritic pattern within the deep retinal layers. The spots were mainly noted in idiopathic cases and resolved completely in a few weeks, and the pattern was observed in macular pucker cases after retinal detachment surgery and persisted for a long time after vitrectomy.

  10. Solar Cell Polymer Based Active Ingredients PPV and PCBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardeli, H.; Sanjaya, H.; Resikarnila, R.; Nitami H, R.

    2018-04-01

    A polymer solar cell is a solar cell based on a polymer bulk heterojunction structure using the method of thin film, which can convert solar energy into electrical energy. Absorption of light is carried by active material layer PPV: PCBM. This study aims to make solar cells tandem and know the value of converting solar energy into electrical energy and increase the value of efficiency generated through morphological control, ie annealing temperature and the ratio of active layer mixture. The active layer is positioned above the PEDOT:PSS layer on ITO glass substrate. The characterization results show the surface morphology of the PPV:PCBM active layer is quite evenly at annealing temperature of 165 ° C. The result of conversion of electrical energy with a UV light source in annealing samples with temperature 165 ° C is 0.03 mA and voltage of 4.085 V with an efficiency of 2.61% and mixed ratio variation was obtained in comparison of P3HT: PCBM is 1: 3

  11. Subluxation of the femoral head in coxa plana.

    PubMed

    Richards, B S; Coleman, S S

    1987-12-01

    Twenty-two patients who had severe coxa plana had closed reduction for lateral subluxation of the femoral head, as determined radiographically. All had painful limitation of motion of the hip that prevented proper positioning of the femoral head using a brace. The average age when the patients were first seen was eight years and six months. General anesthesia was required in order to obtain the reduction, and percutaneous tenotomy of the adductor longus was done whenever necessary. After the reduction, a Petrie cast was worn for several months. The length of follow-up averaged three years and eight months (range, two years to six years and eight months). Radiographic evaluation at the time of the last follow-up showed nine hips to be spherically congruent, twelve to be spherically congruent, and one to be incongruent. Thus, in 95 per cent of the hips, a congruent joint was obtained using this method of treatment. These results strongly support the concept that all treatment should be directed at containing the femoral head within the acetabulum during the clinically active phase of coxa plana.

  12. Performance Comparison of High-Speed Dual-Pneumatic Vitrectomy Cutters during Simulated Vitrectomy with Balanced Salt Solution.

    PubMed

    Abulon, Dina Joy K; Buboltz, David C

    2015-02-01

    To measure flow rate of balanced salt solution and IOP during simulated vitrectomy using two sets of high-speed dual-pneumatic probes. A closed-model eye system measured IOP and flow rate of a balanced salt solution through infusion cannula. The Constellation Vision System was tested with two sets of high-speed dual-pneumatic probes (UltraVit 23-gauge and enhanced 25+-gauge 5000-cpm probes; UltraVit 23-gauge and enhanced 25+-gauge 7500-cpm probes; n = 6 each) under different vacuum levels and cut rates in three duty cycle modes. In both probe sets, flow rates were dependent on cut rate with the biased open and biased closed duty cycles. Flow rates were highest with the biased open duty cycle, lower with the 50/50 duty cycle, and lowest with the biased closed duty cycle. IOP, as expected, was inversely associated with flow rate using both probe sets. The 7500-cpm probes offer greater control and customization compared with 5000-cpm probes under certain experimental conditions. At maximum cut rates, performance of 7500-cpm probes was similar to that of 5000-cpm probes, suggesting that 7500-cpm probes may be used without sacrifice of flow rate and IOP stability. Customization of vitrectomy parameters allows greater surgeon control during vitrectomy and may expand the usefulness of vitrectomy probes.

  13. Asymptotic Properties of the Sequential Empirical ROC, PPV and NPV Curves Under Case-Control Sampling.

    PubMed

    Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Feng, Ziding

    2011-01-01

    The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the positive predictive value (PPV) curve and the negative predictive value (NPV) curve are three measures of performance for a continuous diagnostic biomarker. The ROC, PPV and NPV curves are often estimated empirically to avoid assumptions about the distributional form of the biomarkers. Recently, there has been a push to incorporate group sequential methods into the design of diagnostic biomarker studies. A thorough understanding of the asymptotic properties of the sequential empirical ROC, PPV and NPV curves will provide more flexibility when designing group sequential diagnostic biomarker studies. In this paper we derive asymptotic theory for the sequential empirical ROC, PPV and NPV curves under case-control sampling using sequential empirical process theory. We show that the sequential empirical ROC, PPV and NPV curves converge to the sum of independent Kiefer processes and show how these results can be used to derive asymptotic results for summaries of the sequential empirical ROC, PPV and NPV curves.

  14. A New Acceptor (N-type) Polyphenylenevinylene Building Block: SF-PPV-I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yiqing; Fan, Zhen; Taft, Charles; Sun, Sam-Shajing

    2002-01-01

    A new sulfone derivatized acceptor (n-type) polyphenylenevinylene "SF-PPV" with nano meter sizes and functional terminals has been synthesized and characterized. The SF-PPV-I that contains hydrocarbon alkyl-sulfone moieties has a strong photoluminescence in both solution and in solid thin film states. In dichloromethane, the 5-10 nm sized SF-PPV has a maximum emission at about 530 nm with excitation maximum at about 490 nm. UV-VIS shows a absorption peak onsite at about 500 nm. Optical spectroscopy and electrochemical studies revealed that the SF-PPV-I has an LUMO level at about -3.6 eV (relative to vacuum), and an HOMO level at about -6.1 eV. The average size (length) of SF-PPV-I can be controlled on the nano meter scale via synthetic means. The SF-PPV has the potential in developing polymer based supramolecular opto-electronic semiconductor devices.

  15. Vitrectomy for floaters: prospective efficacy analyses and retrospective safety profile.

    PubMed

    Sebag, Jerry; Yee, Kenneth M P; Wa, Christianne A; Huang, Laura C; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2014-06-01

    Floaters impact vision but the mechanism is unknown. We hypothesize that floaters reduce contrast sensitivity function, which can be normalized by vitrectomy, and that minimally invasive vitrectomy will have lower incidences of retinal tears (reported at 30%) and cataracts (50-76%). Seventy-six eyes (34 phakic) with floaters were evaluated in 2 separate studies. Floater etiologies were primarily posterior vitreous detachment in 61 of 76 eyes (80%) and myopic vitreopathy in 24 of 76 eyes (32%). Minimally invasive 25G vitrectomy was performed without posterior vitreous detachment induction, leaving anterior vitreous, and using nonhollow probes for cannula extraction. Efficacy was studied prospectively (up to 9 months) in 16 floater cases with Freiburg Acuity Contrast Testing (Weber index [%W] reproducibility = 92.1%) and the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire. Safety was separately evaluated in 60 other cases followed up on an average of 17.5 months (range, 3-51 months). Floater eyes had 67% contrast sensitivity function attenuation (4.0 ± 2.3 %W; control subjects = 2.4 ± 0.9 %W, P < 0.013). After vitrectomy, contrast sensitivity function normalized in each case at 1 week (2.0 ± 1.4 %W, P < 0.01) and remained normal at 1 month (2.0 ± 1.0 %W, P < 0.003) and 3 months to 9 months (2.2 ± 1.5 %W, P < 0.018). Visual Function Questionnaire was 28.3% lower in floater patients (73.2 ± 15.6, N = 16) than in age-matched control subjects (93.9 ± 8.0, N = 12, P < 0.001), and postoperatively improved by 29.2% (P < 0.001). In the safety study of 60 floater cases treated with vitrectomy, none developed retinal breaks, infection, or glaucoma after a mean follow-up of 17.5 months. Only 8 of 34 cases (23.5%) required cataract surgery (none younger than 53 years) at an average of 15 months postvitrectomy. Floaters lower contrast sensitivity function, which normalizes after vitrectomy. Visual Function Questionnaire quantified improvement in satisfaction. Not

  16. Hairpin plum pox virus coat protein (hpPPV-CP) structure in 'HoneySweet' C5 plum provides PPV resistance when genetically engineered into plum (Prunus domestica) seedlings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genetically engineered plum 'HoneySweet' (aka C5) has proven to be highly resistant to Plum pox virus (PPV) for over 10 years in field trials. The original vector used for transformation to develop 'HoneySweet' carried a single sense sequence of the full length PPV coat protein (ppv-cp) gene, y...

  17. No air leak on PPV does not exclude tracheobronchial injury after blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Ong, Victor Yeok Kein; Tan, Kenneth Hock Soon

    2008-04-01

    Tracheobronchial injuries are commonly associated with persistent air leak with pneumothoraces especially when on positive pressure ventilation (PPV). Injuries with absence of these features together with collapse of the lung and consequent low arterial oxygen tension while on PPV are less well recognised. We present a patient with traumatic aortic dissection and preoperatively undiagnosed complete transaction of the left main bronchus following blunt chest trauma. He had no persistent air leak with lower lung lobe collapse despite undergoing PPV and had low arterial oxygen tension which failed to respond to appropriate oxygen therapy.

  18. A meta-analysis of vitrectomy with or without internal limiting membrane peeling for macular hole retinal detachment in the highly myopic eyes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xinxiao; Guo, Jia; Meng, Xin; Wang, Jun; Peng, Xiaoyan; Ikuno, Yasushi

    2016-06-13

    To evaluate the anatomical and visual outcomes by par plana vitrectomy with or without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in highly myopic eyes with macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD). MEDLINE (Ovid, PubMed) and EMBASE were used for data collection up to September 30, 2015. The parameters of anatomical success, macular hole closure and improved best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at or beyond 6 months after operation were assessed as the primary outcome measurement. The meta-analysis was performed with the fixed-effects model. Seven comparative analyses involving a total of 373 patients were included in the present meta-analysis. Statistically the pooled data showed significant relative risk (RR) in terms of primary reattachment between ILM peeling and non-peeling groups (RR, 1.19; 95 % CI, 1.04 to 1.36; P = 0.012). An effect favoring ILM peeling with regard to macular hole closure was also detected (RR, 1.71; 95 % CI, 1.20 to 2.43; P = 0.003). However, no statistically significant difference was found in the improved BCVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) at 6 months or more (95 % CI, -0.31 to 0.44; P = 0.738). There is no proved benefit of postoperative visual improvement. However, the available evidences from this study suggested a superiority of ILM peeling over no peeling for myopic patients with MHRD.

  19. Identification and genomic characterization of a novel porcine parvovirus (PPV6) in China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jianqiang; Qiao, Caixia; Han, Xue; Han, Tao; Kang, Wenhua; Zi, Zhanchao; Cao, Zhen; Zhai, Xinyan; Cai, Xuepeng

    2014-12-02

    Parvoviruses are classified into two subfamilies based on their host range: the Parvovirinae, which infect vertebrates, and the Densovirinae, which mainly infect insects and other arthropods. In recent years, a number of novel parvoviruses belonging to the subfamily Parvovirinae have been identified from various animal species and humans, including human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), porcine hokovirus, ovine partetravirus, porcine parvovirus 4 (PPV4), and porcine parvovirus 5 (PPV5). Using sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA), a novel parvovirus within the subfamily Parvovirinae that was distinct from any known parvoviruses was identified and five full-length genome sequences were determined and analyzed. A novel porcine parvovirus, provisionally named PPV6, was initially identified from aborted pig fetuses in China. Retrospective studies revealed the prevalence of PPV6 in aborted pig fetuses and piglets(50% and 75%, respectively) was apparently higher than that in finishing pigs and sows (15.6% and 3.8% respectively). Furthermore, the prevalence of PPV6 in finishing pig was similar in affected and unaffected farms (i.e. 16.7% vs. 13.6%-21.7%). This finding indicates that animal age, perhaps due to increased innate immune resistance, strongly influences the level of PPV6 viremia. Complete genome sequencing and multiple alignments have shown that the nearly full-length genome sequences were approximately 6,100 nucleotides in length and shared 20.5%-42.6% DNA sequence identity with other members of the Parvovirinae subfamily. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PPV6 was significantly distinct from other known parvoviruses and was most closely related to PPV4. Our findings and review of published parvovirus sequences suggested that a novel porcine parvovirus is currently circulating in China and might be classified into the novel genus Copiparvovirus within the subfamily Parvovirinae. However, the clinical manifestations of PPV6 are still unknown in that the

  20. Asymptotic Properties of the Sequential Empirical ROC, PPV and NPV Curves Under Case-Control Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Koopmeiners, Joseph S.; Feng, Ziding

    2013-01-01

    The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the positive predictive value (PPV) curve and the negative predictive value (NPV) curve are three measures of performance for a continuous diagnostic biomarker. The ROC, PPV and NPV curves are often estimated empirically to avoid assumptions about the distributional form of the biomarkers. Recently, there has been a push to incorporate group sequential methods into the design of diagnostic biomarker studies. A thorough understanding of the asymptotic properties of the sequential empirical ROC, PPV and NPV curves will provide more flexibility when designing group sequential diagnostic biomarker studies. In this paper we derive asymptotic theory for the sequential empirical ROC, PPV and NPV curves under case-control sampling using sequential empirical process theory. We show that the sequential empirical ROC, PPV and NPV curves converge to the sum of independent Kiefer processes and show how these results can be used to derive asymptotic results for summaries of the sequential empirical ROC, PPV and NPV curves. PMID:24039313

  1. [Triamcinolone-assisted vitrectomy in the treatment of recurrent retinal detachment due to myopic macular hole].

    PubMed

    Le Rouic, J-F; Ducournau, D; Becquet, F

    2006-09-01

    To report the use of triamcinolone-assisted vitrectomy to assess the cause of vitrectomy failure in the treatment of retinal detachment due to myopic macular hole. We report the cases of three myopic patients presenting with recurrent retinal detachment due to macular hole after initial vitrectomy treatment with posterior vitreous detachment, a systematic attempt at membrane peeling, and gas injection (SF6). No retinal traction or tear other than the macular hole was observed. The recurrence of retinal detachment was treated with vitrectomy and intraoperative use of triamcinolone, which demonstrated persistent posterior hyaloid and thin and strongly adherent membrane remnants in each case. Anatomic success was obtained after peeling these structures. Intraoperative use of triamcinolone reduces the risk of overlooking hyaloid or membrane remnants during vitrectomy for the treatment of myopic retinal detachment. Transparent remnants of posterior hyaloid and membranes were visualized by triamcinolone-assisted vitrectomy. They could lead to traction on the retina and explain the failure of the initial vitrectomy. Anatomic success was obtained after peeling these structures.

  2. Verruca plana as a complication of CO2 laser treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Winn, Aubrey E; Kentosh, Joshua; Bingham, Jonathan L

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser treatment is a common therapeutic modality for many dermatologic conditions. It uses a high energy, infrared beam of light, which selectively targets water-containing tissue resulting in controlled ablative resurfacing. This modality, however, can manifest significant cosmetic side effects. Here we report a case of verruca plana manifesting as a response to CO2 laser treatment. A 74-year-old female with recent Mohs surgery for a basal cell carcinoma, presented for full-face-fractionated CO2 treatment to address her surgical scars in addition to treating her mild diffuse actinic damage. Six weeks post treatment, the patient developed erythematous thin plaques over the areas that had been treated. Histology was consistent with verruca plana. Lesions showed mild improvement with topical tretinoin. Verruca plana are benign and typically self-limited; however, they can present a significant cosmetic burden to patients and are an important complication to consider when performing elective cosmetic procedures.

  3. A Multicenter Retrospective Review of Prone Position Ventilation (PPV) in Treatment of Severe Human H7N9 Avian Flu

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yun; Zhou, Lixin; He, Weiqun; Chen, Sibei; Nong, Lingbo; Huang, Huang; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Tieou; Li, Yimin; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with H7N9 avian flu concurrent with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) usually have a poor clinical outcome. Prone position ventilation (PPV) has been shown to improve the prognosis of patients with severe ARDS. This study explored the effects of PPV on the respiratory and circulatory mechanics of H7N9-infected patients with severe ARDS. Methods Individuals admitted to four hospitals designated for H7N9 patients in Guangdong province were treated with PPV, and their clinical data were recorded before and after receiving PPV. Results Six of 20 critically ill patients in the ICU received PPV. After treatment with 35 PPV sessions, the oxygenation index (OI) values of the six patients when measured post-PPV and post-supine position ventilation (SPV) were significantly higher than those measured pre-PPV (P < 0.05).The six patients showed no significant differences in their values for respiratory rate (RR), peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), tidal volume (TV) or arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) when compared pre-PPV, post-PPV, and post-SPV. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the mean values for arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac index (CI), central venous pressure (CVP), heart rate (HR), lactic acid (LAC) levels or the doses of norepinephrine (NE) administered when compared pre-PPV, post-PPV, and post-SPV. Conclusion PPV provided improved oxygenation that was sustained after returning to a supine position, and resulted in decreased carbon dioxide retention. PPV can thus serve as an alternative lung protective ventilation strategy for use in patients with H7N9 avian flu concurrent with severe ARDS. PMID:26317621

  4. A Multicenter Retrospective Review of Prone Position Ventilation (PPV) in Treatment of Severe Human H7N9 Avian Flu.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanda; Deng, Xilong; Han, Yun; Zhou, Lixin; He, Weiqun; Chen, Sibei; Nong, Lingbo; Huang, Huang; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Tieou; Li, Yimin; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    Patients with H7N9 avian flu concurrent with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) usually have a poor clinical outcome. Prone position ventilation (PPV) has been shown to improve the prognosis of patients with severe ARDS. This study explored the effects of PPV on the respiratory and circulatory mechanics of H7N9-infected patients with severe ARDS. Individuals admitted to four hospitals designated for H7N9 patients in Guangdong province were treated with PPV, and their clinical data were recorded before and after receiving PPV. Six of 20 critically ill patients in the ICU received PPV. After treatment with 35 PPV sessions, the oxygenation index (OI) values of the six patients when measured post-PPV and post-supine position ventilation (SPV) were significantly higher than those measured pre-PPV (P < 0.05).The six patients showed no significant differences in their values for respiratory rate (RR), peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), tidal volume (TV) or arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) when compared pre-PPV, post-PPV, and post-SPV. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the mean values for arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac index (CI), central venous pressure (CVP), heart rate (HR), lactic acid (LAC) levels or the doses of norepinephrine (NE) administered when compared pre-PPV, post-PPV, and post-SPV. PPV provided improved oxygenation that was sustained after returning to a supine position, and resulted in decreased carbon dioxide retention. PPV can thus serve as an alternative lung protective ventilation strategy for use in patients with H7N9 avian flu concurrent with severe ARDS.

  5. Size-dependent properties of functional PPV-based conjugated polymer nanoparticles for bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Peters, Martijn; Seneca, Senne; Hellings, Niels; Junkers, Tanja; Ethirajan, Anitha

    2018-05-24

    Conjugated polymer nanoparticle systems have gained significant momentum in the bioimaging field on account of their biocompatibility and outstanding spectroscopic properties. Recently, new control procedures have spawned custom-built functional poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV). These facilitate the one-pot synthesis of semiconducting polymer NPs with incorporated surface functional groups, an essential feature for advanced biomedical applications. In this work, nanoparticles (NPs) of different sizes are synthesized consisting of the statistical copolymer CPM-co-MDMO-PPV with monomer units 2-(5'-methoxycarbonylpentyloxy)-5-methoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene (CPM-PPV) and poly(2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethoxyoctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MDMO-PPV). To monitor potential implications of switching from a commonly used homopolymer to copolymer system, MDMO-PPV NPs were prepared as a control. The versatile combination of the miniemulsion and solvent evaporation method allowed for an easy adaptation of the NP size. Decreasing the diameter of functional PPV-based NPs up to 20 nm did not significantly affect their optical properties nor the biocompatibility of the bioimaging probe, as cell viability never dropped below 90%. The quantum yield and molar extinction coefficient remained stable at values of 1-2% and 10 6  M -1  cm -1 respectively, indicating an excellent fluorescence brightness. However, a threshold was observed to which the size could be lowered without causing irreversible changes to the system. Cell uptake varied drastically depended on size and material choice, as switching from homo- to copolymer system and lowering the size significantly increased NP uptake. These results clearly demonstrate that adjusting the size of functional PPV-based NPs can be achieved easily to a lower limit of 20 nm without adversely affecting their performance in bioimaging applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hybrid device based on GaN nanoneedles and MEH-PPV/PEDOT:PSS polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Min Jeong; Gwon, Dong-Oh; Lee, Chan-Mi

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • A hybrid device was demonstrated by using MEH-PPV, PEDOT:PSS, and GaN nanoneedles. • I–V curve of the hybrid device showed its rectification behaviour, similar to a diode. • EL peak originated by the different potential barriers at MEH-PPV and GaN interface. - Abstract: A hybrid device that combines the properties of organic and inorganic semiconductors was fabricated and studied. It incorporated poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)- 1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as organic polymers and GaN nanoneedles as an inorganic semiconductor. Layers of the two polymers were spin coated on to the GaN nanoneedles. The one peak in the electroluminescence spectrum originatedmore » from the MEH-PPV layer owing to the different potential barriers of electrons and holes at its interface with the GaN nanoneedles. However, the photoluminescence spectrum showed peaks due to both GaN nanoneedles and MEH-PPV. Such hybrid structures, suitably developed, might be able to improve the efficiency of optoelectronic devices.« less

  7. Energy transfer in PPV-based conjugated polymers: a defocused widefield fluorescence microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Hooley, E N; Tilley, A J; White, J M; Ghiggino, K P; Bell, T D M

    2014-04-21

    Both pendant and main chain conjugated MEH-PPV based polymers have been studied at the level of single chains using confocal and widefield fluorescence microscopy techniques. In particular, defocused widefield fluorescence is applied to reveal the extent of energy transfer in these polymers by identifying whether they act as single emitters. For main chain conjugated MEH-PPV, molecular weight and the surrounding matrix play a primary role in determining energy transport processes and whether single emitter behaviour is observed. Surprisingly in polymers with a saturated backbone but containing the same pendant MEH-PPV oligomer on each repeating unit, intra-chain energy transfer to a single emitter is also apparent. The results imply there is chromophore heterogeneity that can facilitate energy funneling to the emitting site. Both main chain conjugated and pendant MEH-PPV polymers exhibit changes in orientation of the emission dipole during a fluorescence trajectory of many seconds, whereas a model MEH-PPV oligomer does not. The results suggest that, in the polymers, the nature of the emitting chromophores can change during the time trajectory.

  8. Morphological, structural and optical properties of MEH-PPV: PC70BM nanocomposite film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhamdi, Asya; Sweii, Fatma ben Slama; Saidi, Hamza; Saidi, Faouzi; Bouazizi, Abdelaziz

    2018-05-01

    In this report, the influence of annealing temperature and spin coating speed on the structural and morphological properties of a blend of poly (2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl-oxy)-p-phenylene-vinylene) (MEH-PPV) and [6-6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) layer has been investigated. The photoactive layer (MEH-PPV: PC70BM) was deposited on ZnO film deposited on top of indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate by spin-coating. The effect of spin coating speed via atomic force microscope (AFM) leads to conclude that high speed is favorable for a good homogeneity of the film surface and good aggregates dispersion. The optimized structure was studied by varying the annealing temperatures using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD analysis indicates that annealing treatment promoted the ordered aggregation and crystallization of MEH-PPV: PC70BM films. Indeed, the blend ratio effect on the optical properties of MEH-PPV: PC70BM thin film was investigated. While, the effect of incorporation of PC70BM on the optical properties was studied using UV-Vis and photoluminescence (PL) measurement. We conclude that MEH-PPV: PC70BM (1:3) film leads to high charge transfer rate.

  9. 76 FR 14402 - Draft Action Plan-A Public Health Action Plan To Combat Antimicrobial Resistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ...-2011-0002] Draft Action Plan--A Public Health Action Plan To Combat Antimicrobial Resistance AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). ACTION... requesting public comment on the draft A Public Health Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance. HHS...

  10. 76 FR 21907 - Draft Action Plan-A Public Health Action Plan To Combat Antimicrobial Resistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ...-2011-0002] Draft Action Plan--A Public Health Action Plan To Combat Antimicrobial Resistance AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). ACTION... Federal Register requesting public comment on the draft, A Public Health Action Plan to Combat...

  11. Enhancement in fluorescence quantum yield of MEH-PPV:BT blends for polymer light emitting diode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimith, K. M.; Satyanarayan, M. N.; Umesh, G.

    2018-06-01

    We have investigated the effect of blending electron deficient heterocycle Benzothiadiazole (BT) on the photo-physical properties of conjugated polymer Poly [2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV). Quantum yield (QY) value has been found to increase from 37% for pure MEH-PPV to 45% for an optimum MEH-PPV:BT blend ratio of 1:3. This can be attributed to the efficient energy transfer from the wide bandgap BT (host) to the small bandgap MEH-PPV (guest). The FTIR spectrum of MEH-PPV:BT blended thin film indicates suppression of aromatic C-H out-of-plane and in-plane bending, suggesting planarization of the conjugated polymer chains and, hence, leading to increase in the conjugation length. The increase in conjugation length is also evident from the red-shifted PL spectra of MEH-PPV:BT blended films. Single layer MEH-PPV:BT device shows lower turn-on voltage than single layer MEH-PPV alone device. Further, the effect of electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS on the current-voltage characteristics is investigated in the PLED devices with MEH-PPV:BT blend as the active layer. PEDOT:PSS with higher conductivity as HIL reduces the turn on voltage from 4.5 V to 3.9 V and enhances the current density and optical output in the device.

  12. Risk factors for requirement of filtration surgery after vitrectomy in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Masashi; Hashimoto, Ryuya; Yoshida, Izumi; Maeno, Takatoshi

    2018-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed patients with postoperative neovascular glaucoma (NVG) after vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy to investigate how variables assessed before, during, and after vitrectomy are associated with the requirement for filtration surgery. The subjects in this retrospective, observational, comparative study were 55 consecutive patients (61 eyes) who underwent vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy at Toho University Sakura Medical Center between December 2011 and November 2016, were followed up for at least 6 months after surgery, and developed NVG within 2 years after surgery. They comprised 44 men and 11 women of mean age 52.4±9.1 years, who were followed up for a mean 7.1±6.1 months. We collected data on the following 16 variables: sex, age, history of panretinal photocoagulation completed within 3 months before vitrectomy, presence/absence of a lens, obvious iris/angle neovascularization, tractional retinal detachment, diabetic macular edema, vitreous hemorrhage, visual acuity and intraocular pressure before vitrectomy and at the onset of NVG, glycated hemoglobin, fasting blood glucose, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and use of intraoperative gas tamponade. Logistic regression analysis with the backward elimination method identified preoperative fasting hyperglycemia ( P =0.08), high intraocular pressure at the onset of NVG ( P =0.04), and use of gas tamponade during vitrectomy ( P =0.008) to be significant risk factors for requirement of filtration surgery. Preoperative fasting hyperglycemia, high intraocular pressure at the onset of NVG, and use of gas tamponade during vitrectomy predispose patients to require filtration surgery in the event of postoperative NVG.

  13. Twenty-five-gauge vitrectomy versus 23-gauge vitrectomy in the management of macular diseases: a comparative analysis through a Health Technology Assessment model.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Andrea; Charrier, Lorena; Lovato, Emanuela; Panico, Claudio; Mariotti, Cesare; Dapavo, Giancarlo; Chiuminatto, Roberto; Siliquini, Roberta; Gianino, Maria Michela

    2014-04-01

    Small-gauge vitreoretinal techniques have been shown to be safe and effective in the management of a wide spectrum of vitreoretinal diseases. However, the costs of the new technologies may represent a critical issue for national health systems. The aim of the study is to plan a Health Technology Assessment (HTA) by performing a comparative analysis between the 23- and 25-gauge techniques in the management of macular diseases (epiretinal membranes, macular holes, vitreo-macular traction syndrome). In this prospective study, 45-80-year-old patients undergoing vitrectomy surgery for macular disease were enrolled at the Torino Eye Hospital. In the HTA model we assessed the safety, clinical effectiveness, and cost and financial evaluation of 23-gauge compared with 25-gauge vitrectomies. Fifty patients entered the study; 14 patients underwent 23-gauge vitrectomy and 36 underwent 25-gauge vitrectomy. There was no statistically significant difference in post-operative visual acuity at 1 year between the two groups. No cases of retinal detachment or endophtalmitis were registered at 1-year follow-up. The 23-gauge technique was slightly more expensive than the 25-gauge: the total surgical costs were EUR1217.70 versus EUR1164.84 (p = 0.351). We provide a financial comparison between new vitreoretinal procedures recently introduced in the market and reimbursed by the Italian National Health System and we also stimulate a critical debate about the expensive technocratic model of medicine.

  14. Optoelectronic characteristics of MEH-PPV + BT blend thin films in polymer light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massah Bidgoli, M.; Mohsennia, M.; Akbari Boroumand, F.; Mohsen Nia, A.

    2015-06-01

    Due to the unique optical and electronic properties of conjugated polymers, much research has been conducted to study the effect of the incorporation of electron-transporting materials on the polymer blends’ compatibility and their capability for use in optoelectronic devices. In this work, to characterize the optoelectronic properties of blend thin films of poly [2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) with benzothiadiazole (BT), polymer light- emitting diodes (PLEDs) with single-emission layers of MEH-PPV + BT blends have been fabricated. The influence of MEH-PPV + BT blend weight ratios over ITO/PEDOT:PSS/MEH-PPV + BT/Al PLEDs performances, e.g., lifetime, turn-on voltage, and current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics, has been studied. According to the obtained results, the turn-on voltage of the devices successfully decreased with the addition of the BT as an electronic transportation material. At an optimum condition, we obtained a turn-on voltage as low as 5 V and a lifetime of about 190 h for a device incorporating 65% BT. The logarithmic plots of the J-V characteristics of the fabricated devices showed a power law behavior (J ∝ Vk+1) with three distinct regions. The J-V characteristics have been explained by the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling model. It was found that the hole-injection barrier height decreases with increasing BT content in the range of 0-65%. According to the obtained results, in all of our investigations, the electroluminescence (EL) originated exclusively from the MEH-PPV material, even for the high BT contents.

  15. Changes in Retinal Thickness after Vitrectomy for Epiretinal Membrane with and without Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling.

    PubMed

    Obata, Shumpei; Fujikawa, Masato; Iwasaki, Keisuke; Kakinoki, Masashi; Sawada, Osamu; Saishin, Yoshitsugu; Kawamura, Hajime; Ohji, Masahito

    2017-01-01

    To investigate anatomic changes in retinal thickness (RT) and functional changes after vitrectomy for idiopathic epiretinal membranes (ERMs) with and without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. The medical records of 100 eyes of 96 patients with ERM who underwent vitrectomy and ERM removal were reviewed retrospectively. The RT was measured by optical coherence tomography, and the area was divided into 9 sections. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), 9 RT areas, and incidence rates of recurrent ERM were compared between the groups with and without ILM peeling before the operation and 12 months postoperatively. Thirty-nine eyes that underwent vitrectomy with ILM peeling and 61 eyes that underwent vitrectomy without ILM peeling met the inclusion criteria. There were no significant differences between the groups in the BCVA and any of the RTs before the operation and 12 months postoperatively. The ERMs recurred in 8 (20.5%) of 39 eyes and 26 (42.6%) of 61 eyes in the groups with and without ILM peeling, respectively, with a difference that reached significance (p = 0.02) 12 months postoperatively. Vitrectomy for ERM affects the BCVA or the RTs 12 months postoperatively. Additional ILM peeling does not affect them, but it might reduce the ERM recurrence rate. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Corneal approach 20 Guage vitrectomy system for the management of congenital cataract

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Mariya Nazish; Bukhari, Sadia; Bhutto, Israr Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and complications of 20 gauge vitrectomy via corneal approach for the management of congenital cataract. Method: We performed anterior capsular vitreorhexis, lens matter aspiration (LMA), primary posterior vitrectorhexis and anterior vitrectomy via corneal approach using 20 gauge vitrectomy system in children younger than two years of age with congenital cataract between January 2014 to December 2014. The intra and postoperative complications were observed. Results: Twenty nine eyes of 21 children were included in this study. Congenital cataract surgery using 20 gauge vitrectomy system via corneal approach did not reveal any intra operative complication. Post operatively all children were able to freely open their operated eyes. Conjunctival congestion at the incision site in four eyes and mild anterior chamber reaction in 8 eyes were seen on 1st daywhich resolved at one week follow up. Other major post operative complications such as inflammatory membrane, irregular pupil, posterior/anterior syneache and opacification of visual axis were not seen during follow up period. Conclusion: The 20-gauge vitrectomy system via corneal approach is easy to perform, is less time consuming, safe and effective for the management of congenital cataract in younger children. PMID:27182257

  17. Corneal approach 20 Guage vitrectomy system for the management of congenital cataract.

    PubMed

    Memon, Mariya Nazish; Bukhari, Sadia; Bhutto, Israr Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and complications of 20 gauge vitrectomy via corneal approach for the management of congenital cataract. We performed anterior capsular vitreorhexis, lens matter aspiration (LMA), primary posterior vitrectorhexis and anterior vitrectomy via corneal approach using 20 gauge vitrectomy system in children younger than two years of age with congenital cataract between January 2014 to December 2014. The intra and postoperative complications were observed. Twenty nine eyes of 21 children were included in this study. Congenital cataract surgery using 20 gauge vitrectomy system via corneal approach did not reveal any intra operative complication. Post operatively all children were able to freely open their operated eyes. Conjunctival congestion at the incision site in four eyes and mild anterior chamber reaction in 8 eyes were seen on 1(st) daywhich resolved at one week follow up. Other major post operative complications such as inflammatory membrane, irregular pupil, posterior/anterior syneache and opacification of visual axis were not seen during follow up period. The 20-gauge vitrectomy system via corneal approach is easy to perform, is less time consuming, safe and effective for the management of congenital cataract in younger children.

  18. Assessment of diagnostic and therapeutic vitrectomy for vitreous opacity associated with uveitis with various etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tomohito; Kinoshita, Rina; Taguchi, Manzo; Sugita, Sunao; Kaburaki, Toshikatsu; Sakurai, Yutaka; Takeuchi, Masaru

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Vitreous opacity (VO) is a common feature of intermediate uveitis, posterior uveitis, and panuveitis. Fundus observation is critical for determining the etiology of uveitis, however, is often interfered with VO. In these clinical settings, vitrectomy contributes to a correct diagnosis and guides alternative management strategies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield and surgical outcome of vitrectomy in uveitic patients with VO and compare the visual outcome between infectious and noninfectious uveitis. Forty-five eyes with uveitis-associated VO underwent diagnostic and therapeutic vitrectomy, and etiological diagnosis of uveitis was confirmed in 34 of 45 eyes (75.6%). The diagnoses were infectious uveitis in 13 eyes (28.9%), noninfectious uveitis in 21 eyes (46.7%), and unidentified uveitis in 11 eyes (24.4%). Visual acuity (VA) improvement rates at 6 months after surgery were 69.2%, 76.2%, and 90.9% in the infectious, noninfectious, and unidentified uveitis groups, with no significant difference among 3 groups. Significant decrease in inflammation score after vitrectomy was observed only in the infectious uveitis group. This study demonstrated that diagnostic vitrectomy for inflammatory eyes with VO of unknown etiology was effective in infectious and noninfectious uveitis, and the therapeutic effect of VA improvement was observed in both types of uveitis. PMID:29480837

  19. Full-Thickness Macular Hole Formation in the Postoperative Period After Initial Vitrectomy for Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment.

    PubMed

    Takashina, Hirotsugu; Watanabe, Akira; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate full-thickness macular hole (MH) formation in the postoperative period after initial vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (rRD). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 4 consecutive eyes that required additional vitrectomy for full-thickness MH between April 2013 and March 2016 after undergoing an initial vitrectomy for rRD. Epiretinal membrane (ERM) was identified by preoperative optical coherence tomography or intraoperative dye staining in each case. Photocoagulation of retinal breaks prior to initial vitrectomy was performed in Cases 1, 2, and 3 (4-16 days), with yttrium-aluminum-garnet capsulotomy after cataract extraction also performed prior to the retinal break formation in Case 3. At the initial vitrectomy, there was a superior retinal break which crossed the equator in Case 2, and an intentional hole was created in Cases 1 and 4. The mean interval from the initial vitrectomy until MH formation was 27.5 ± 15.8 months. As with Case 2, the intervals in Cases 1 and 4, in which an intentional hole was created, were clearly shorter than in those in Case 3. Finally, MH closure was achieved after an additional vitrectomy (removal of the internal limiting membrane with ERM and gas tamponade) and best-corrected visual acuity improved in each case. ERM was identified in the cases examined in our study. The presence of an intentional hole might shorten the interval of MH formation after vitrectomy for rRD.

  20. Early postoperative endophthalmitis after pars plana Ahmed valve placement with persistent extraocular infection.

    PubMed

    Park, Susanna S; Rabowsky, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a case of early postoperative endophthalmitis that occurred after vitrectomy and Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (New World Medical, Inc., Rancho Cucamonga, CA) placement and was treated with intravitreal antibiotics. Intravenous vancomycin was started after aqueous culture grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The endophthalmitis improved, but new purulent discharge around the peritomy was noted 10 days after presentation, requiring removal of the valve.

  1. Cadmium sulfide quantum dots induce oxidative stress and behavioral impairments in the marine clam Scrobicularia plana.

    PubMed

    Buffet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Zalouk-Vergnoux, Aurore; Poirier, Laurence; Lopes, Christelle; Risso-de-Faverney, Christine; Guibbolini, Marielle; Gilliland, Douglas; Perrein-Ettajani, Hanane; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots have a number of current applications in electronics and solar cells and significant future potential in medicine. The aim of the present study was to examine the toxic effects of CdS quantum dots on the marine clam Scrobicularia plana exposed for 14 d to these nanomaterials (10 µg Cd L(-1) ) in natural seawater and to compare them with soluble Cd. Measurement of labile Cd released from CdS quantum dots showed that 52% of CdS quantum dots remained in the nanoparticulate form. Clams accumulated the same levels of Cd regardless of the form in which it was delivered (soluble Cd vs CdS quantum dots). However, significant changes in biochemical responses were observed in clams exposed to CdS quantum dots compared with soluble Cd. Increased activities of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were significantly higher in clams exposed in seawater to Cd as the nanoparticulate versus the soluble form, suggesting a specific nano effect. The behavior of S. plana in sediment showed impairments of foot movements only in the case of exposure to CdS quantum dots. The results show that oxidative stress and behavior biomarkers are sensitive predictors of CdS quantum dots toxicity in S. plana. Such responses, appearing well before changes might occur at the population level, demonstrate the usefulness of this model species and type of biomarker in the assessment of nanoparticle contamination in estuarine ecosystems. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. Increased internal higher-order aberrations as a useful parameter for indication of vitrectomy in three asteroid hyalosis cases

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Sho; Kojima, Takashi; Kaga, Tatsushi; Ichikawa, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    We report three asteroid hyalosis cases in which internal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were improved concomitant with improved visual symptoms after vitrectomy. Cases 1 and 2 reported severe floaters and glare disability, although their visual acuities were fairly good. Case 3 showed poor visual acuity since this patient also suffered from mild macular degeneration. For these three asteroid hyalosis cases, we were unsure if treatment with vitrectomy could improve visual symptoms. Therefore, we measured internal HOAs with an aberrometer, and found that the internal HOA values in these cases were high. We suspected that internal high HOAs values were associated with visual disturbance, and performed vitrectomy. After the vitrectomy, the internal HOA values in these three asteroid hyalosis cases markedly decreased, and visual symptoms improved. These observations suggested that measurement of internal HOAs may be useful to determine the indication for vitrectomy. PMID:26698200

  3. Increased internal higher-order aberrations as a useful parameter for indication of vitrectomy in three asteroid hyalosis cases.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Sho; Kojima, Takashi; Kaga, Tatsushi; Ichikawa, Kazuo

    2015-12-23

    We report three asteroid hyalosis cases in which internal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were improved concomitant with improved visual symptoms after vitrectomy. Cases 1 and 2 reported severe floaters and glare disability, although their visual acuities were fairly good. Case 3 showed poor visual acuity since this patient also suffered from mild macular degeneration. For these three asteroid hyalosis cases, we were unsure if treatment with vitrectomy could improve visual symptoms. Therefore, we measured internal HOAs with an aberrometer, and found that the internal HOA values in these cases were high. We suspected that internal high HOAs values were associated with visual disturbance, and performed vitrectomy. After the vitrectomy, the internal HOA values in these three asteroid hyalosis cases markedly decreased, and visual symptoms improved. These observations suggested that measurement of internal HOAs may be useful to determine the indication for vitrectomy. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. No-patch 23-gauge vitrectomy under topical anesthesia: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Deka, Satyen; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Barman, M J; Kalita, Kruto; Singh, Sunil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    A pilot study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 23-gauge vitrectomy under topical anesthesia. Five eyes of five patients underwent 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy under topical anesthesia with a pledget soaked in 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride anesthetic, for vitreous hemorrhage (four eyes), epiretinal membrane (one eye). Subjective pain and discomfort were graded using a visual analogue chart from 0 (no pain or discomfort) to 4 (severe pain and discomfort). At the end of surgery no patch was applied and patients were given dark glasses. Patients underwent an immediate postoperative assessment, followed by next day and one week postoperative evaluation. Four patients had Grade 0 pain during the surgery. One patient had Grade 1 pain during the placement and withdrawal of the micro cannulas. The surgical outcomes were favorable. 23-gauge vitrectomy under topical anesthesia is safe and effective in selected cases. Further study is recommended to validate the outcome of this study. PMID:21350284

  5. No-patch 23-gauge vitrectomy under topical anesthesia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Deka, Satyen; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Barman, M J; Kalita, Kruto; Singh, Sunil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    A pilot study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 23-gauge vitrectomy under topical anesthesia. Five eyes of five patients underwent 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy under topical anesthesia with a pledget soaked in 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride anesthetic, for vitreous hemorrhage (four eyes), epiretinal membrane (one eye). Subjective pain and discomfort were graded using a visual analogue chart from 0 (no pain or discomfort) to 4 (severe pain and discomfort). At the end of surgery no patch was applied and patients were given dark glasses. Patients underwent an immediate postoperative assessment, followed by next day and one week postoperative evaluation. Four patients had Grade 0 pain during the surgery. One patient had Grade 1 pain during the placement and withdrawal of the micro cannulas. The surgical outcomes were favorable. 23-gauge vitrectomy under topical anesthesia is safe and effective in selected cases. Further study is recommended to validate the outcome of this study.

  6. MEH-PPV film thickness influenced fluorescent quenching of tip-coated plastic optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusufu, A. M.; Noor, A. S. M.; Tamchek, N.; Abidin, Z. Z.

    2017-12-01

    The performance of plastic optical fiber sensors in detecting nitro aromatic explosives 1,4-dinitrobenzene (DNB) have been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and analyzed by using fluorescence quenching technique. The plastic optical fiber utilized is 90 degrees cut tip and dip-coated with conjugated polymer MEH-PPV poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] thin films for detection conjugants. The thicknesses of the MEH-PPV coating were varied to improvise the sensitivity whilst slowly reducing the fluorescence intensity. It was shown that fluorescence intensity from thinner film decreased by (82% in 40 s) in the presence of DNB signifying an improvement of 28% reduction with time 13 s less than that of the thicker film.

  7. Annealing temperature effect on electrical properties of MEH-PPV thin film via spin coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, N. E. A.; Shariffudin, S. S.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Organic semiconductor has been discovered in different application devices such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Poly [2-methoxy-5(2' -ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene), MEH-PPV widely used in this device because its ability to produce a good optical quality films. The MEH-PPV was prepared on glass substrate by spin coating method. The thin film was investigated at different annealing temperatures. The scanning electron micrographs (SEM) revealed that sample annealed at 50°C showed uniformity and less aggregation on morphology polymer thin film. Optical properties showed the intensities of visible emission increased as temperatures increased. The current-voltage (I-V) measurement revealed that the temperature of 50°C showed high conductive and it is suitable for optoelectronic device.

  8. [Photovoltaic character of organic EL devices MEH-PPV/Alq3].

    PubMed

    Lin, Peng; Liang, Chun-Jun; Deng, Zhen-Bo; Xiong, De-Ping; Wang, Li; Zhang, Zhi-Feng; Zhang, Xi-Qing

    2005-01-01

    An organic photovoltaic(PV) cell, ITO/MEH-PPV/Alq3/LiF/Al, was fabricated. The MEH-PPV and Alq3 are the electron-acceptor and donor in the cell, respectively. The respond region matchs the adsorption of Alq3 film. Under UV light with 0.5 mW x cm(-2), the cell shows a short-circuit current of 2.4 microA x cm(-2), open-circuit voltage of 2.6 V, a fill factor of 0.71, and a power conversion efficiency of 0.9%. It was found that the PV cell indicates electroluminescence (EL) performance and could emit orange light at DC voltage. The maximum luminance is about 1 000 cd x cm(-2) at 15 V.

  9. Outcomes of 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy for acute postoperative endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Ming; Chen, Shih-Chou; Wu, Tsung-Tien; Sheu, Shwu-Jiuan

    2017-08-01

    To report our 3-year experience of 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (TSV) for acute postoperative endophthalmitis at a tertiary referral center in southern Taiwan. This retrospective chart review study included 19 patients with acute postoperative endophthalmitis who underwent 23-gauge TSV from January 2011 to January 2015 at Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan. Bacterial and fungal cultures from aqueous samples, vitreous samples, or both were performed. Nineteen patients (12 male; 7 female) were included. The mean age was 72.4 ± 8.29 years. Acute postoperative endophthalmitis was noted in 18 patients after cataract surgery and in 1 patient after 23-gauge vitrectomy for a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Upon presentation, visual acuity was less than hand movement for 80% of the patients. Chief complaints included blurred vision (19 patients, 100%), followed by pain (10 patients, 52.6%) and red eye (4 patients, 21%). All patients were administered an intravitreal injection (IVI) of antibiotics and 23-gauge TSV, and the average number of IVIs was 2.68 ± 1.73 (1-9 IVIs). The interval between their initial eye symptoms and vitrectomy was 4.11 ± 4.73 days (0-2 days), and the interval between diagnosis with endophthalmitis and a vitrectomy was 1.11 ± 1.52 days (0-6 days). The final visual acuity was no light perception for 1 patient (5.3%), between 6/60 and 6/12 for 8 patients (42.1%), and 6/12 or better for 9 patients (47.4%). No retinal detachment or hypotony was noted postoperatively in any case. 23-gauge vitrectomy is safe and effective for the management of acute postoperative endophthalmitis. Early diagnosis and treatment with 23-gauge vitrectomy may provide a good visual outcome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  10. Change in refraction after lens-sparing vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and epiretinal membrane.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Yanagida, Kosei; Kobayashi, Misato; Ra, Eimei; Murotani, Kenta; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare changes in refraction following lens-sparing vitrectomy between patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) and epiretinal membrane (ERM) and to investigate factors associated with the change in refraction.We reviewed medical records of 49 eyes of 49 patients with RRD (53.6 ± 7.8 years, mean ± standard deviation) and 24 eyes of 24 patients with ERM (50.9 ± 15.7 years) who underwent lens-sparing vitrectomy. Spherical equivalent refractive power was evaluated before and up to 18 months after surgery. The relationship between the change in refraction and several parameters was evaluated.A significant progressive myopic shift in refractive power was observed after vitrectomy in operated RRD and ERM eyes (P < 0.001, P = 0.016, respectively), with no significant difference in fellow eyes. The refraction values observed at ≥3 and ≥12 months following vitrectomy were significantly different as compared with those observed at baseline in the RRD group (P < 0.001) and the ERM group (P < 0.05), respectively. The change in refraction between the RRD and ERM groups was significant (P = 0.030). The multiple linear regression analysis showed that only age was significantly correlated with the change in refraction in RRD (P = 0.018) and ERM (P < 0.001) groups. The change in refraction was significantly and positively correlated with age in RRD (r = -0.461, P = 0.001) and ERM (r = -0.687, P < 0.001) groups. Following lens-sparing vitrectomy, cataract surgery was performed on 30 eyes after 0.89 ± 0.26 years in the RRD group and on 10 eyes after 1.11 ± 0.14 years in the ERM group; there was a significant difference in time to cataract surgery between the groups (P = 0.007). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that there was a significant difference in the rate of cataract surgeries between the RRD and ERM groups (P = 0.022).Following lens

  11. Change in refraction after lens-sparing vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and epiretinal membrane

    PubMed Central

    Iwase, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Yanagida, Kosei; Kobayashi, Misato; Ra, Eimei; Murotani, Kenta; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare changes in refraction following lens-sparing vitrectomy between patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) and epiretinal membrane (ERM) and to investigate factors associated with the change in refraction. We reviewed medical records of 49 eyes of 49 patients with RRD (53.6 ± 7.8 years, mean ± standard deviation) and 24 eyes of 24 patients with ERM (50.9 ± 15.7 years) who underwent lens-sparing vitrectomy. Spherical equivalent refractive power was evaluated before and up to 18 months after surgery. The relationship between the change in refraction and several parameters was evaluated. A significant progressive myopic shift in refractive power was observed after vitrectomy in operated RRD and ERM eyes (P < 0.001, P = 0.016, respectively), with no significant difference in fellow eyes. The refraction values observed at ≥3 and ≥12 months following vitrectomy were significantly different as compared with those observed at baseline in the RRD group (P < 0.001) and the ERM group (P < 0.05), respectively. The change in refraction between the RRD and ERM groups was significant (P = 0.030). The multiple linear regression analysis showed that only age was significantly correlated with the change in refraction in RRD (P = 0.018) and ERM (P < 0.001) groups. The change in refraction was significantly and positively correlated with age in RRD (r = −0.461, P = 0.001) and ERM (r = −0.687, P < 0.001) groups. Following lens-sparing vitrectomy, cataract surgery was performed on 30 eyes after 0.89 ± 0.26 years in the RRD group and on 10 eyes after 1.11 ± 0.14 years in the ERM group; there was a significant difference in time to cataract surgery between the groups (P = 0.007). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis demonstrated that there was a significant difference in the rate of cataract surgeries between the RRD and ERM groups (P = 0

  12. Efficiency Enhancement of Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells with MEH-PPV Hole-Transporting Layers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsin-Wei; Huang, Tzu-Yen; Chang, Ting-Hsiang; Sanehira, Yoshitaka; Kung, Chung-Wei; Chu, Chih-Wei; Ikegami, Masashi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, hybrid perovskite solar cells are fabricated using poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) as dopant-free hole-transporting materials (HTMs), and two solution processes (one- and two-step methods, respectively) for preparing methylammonium lead iodide perovskite. By optimizing the concentrations and solvents of MEH-PPV solutions, a power conversion efficiency of 9.65% with hysteresis-less performance is achieved, while the device with 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9′spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) doped with lithium salts and tert-butylpyridine (TBP) exhibits an efficiency of 13.38%. This result shows that non-doped MEH-PPV is a suitable, low-cost HTM for efficient polymer-based perovskite solar cells. The effect of different morphologies of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite on conversion efficiency is also investigated by incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). PMID:27698464

  13. Guided in Situ Polymerization of MEH-PPV in Mesoporous Titania Photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Minar, Norma K; Docampo, Pablo; Fattakhova-Rohlfing, Dina; Bein, Thomas

    2015-05-20

    Incorporation of conjugated polymers into porous metal oxide networks is a challenging task, which is being pursued via many different approaches. We have developed the guided in situ polymerization of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) in porous titania films by means of surface functionalization. The controlled polymerization via the Gilch route was induced by an alkoxide base and by increasing the temperature. The selected and specially designed surface-functionalizing linker molecules mimic the monomer or its activated form, respectively. In this way, we drastically enhanced the amount of MEH-PPV incorporated into the porous titania phase compared to nonfunctionalized samples by a factor of 6. Additionally, photovoltaic measurements were performed. The devices show shunting or series resistance limitations, depending on the surface functionalization prior to in situ polymerization of MEH-PPV. We suggest that the reason for this behavior can be found in the orientation of the grown polymer chains with respect to the titania surface. Therefore, the geometry of the anchoring via the linker molecules is relevant for exploiting the full electronic potential of the conjugated polymer in the resulting hybrid composite. This observation will help to design future synthesis methods for new hybrid materials from conjugated polymers and n-type semiconductors to take full advantage of favorable electronic interactions between the two phases.

  14. Surgical Versus Medical Treatment for Diabetic Macular Edema: A Review.

    PubMed

    Crim, Nicolás; Velez-Montoya, Raúl; Morales-Canton, Virgilio

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to compare the results of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, an alternative therapeutic strategy, with those of medical treatment for chronic macular edema. We conducted a review of the literature on the microscopic, anatomical, and functional reasons for performing PPV with ILM peeling in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). We searched the PubMed database for articles published between 2000 and 2017. We used the medical subject heading "vitrectomy diabetic macular edema" and the keywords "diabetic macular edema", "internal limiting membrane peeling", "pars plana vitrectomy", "diabetic retinopathy", and "optical coherence tomography". Analysis of the literature revealed that cytokines, vascular endothelial growth factor, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) play a unique role in DME. The vitreous cavity serves as a physiological reservoir for all inflammatory molecules. AGE receptors are localized at the footplates of Müller cells and the external limiting membrane (ELM). The footplates of Müller cells are in contact with the ILM, which suggests that they might be responsible for the structural damage (i.e., thickening) observed in the ILM of patients with DME. Therefore, PPV could allow a reduction of cytokines and pro-inflammatory molecules from the vitreous cavity. ILM peeling could eliminate not only the physical traction of a thickened structure, but also the natural reservoir of AGEs, ROS, and inflammatory molecules. PPV with ILM peeling is a surgical option that should be considered when treating patients with chronic DME.

  15. Polyethylene glycol hydrogel polymer sealant for vitrectomy surgery: an in vitro study of sutureless vitrectomy incision closure.

    PubMed

    Hariprasad, Seenu M; Singh, Ajay

    2011-03-01

    To test a novel hydrogel sealant to secure sutureless sclerotomies under variable intraocular pressure conditions. In cadaver eyes, 23- and 20-gauge (G) sclerotomies were constructed. Sixteen 23-G beveled sclerotomies were constructed in 4 eyes: 8 of the incisions were treated with hydrogel sealant, while 8 were left bare. All sclerotomies were monitored for leaks while the intraocular pressure was elevated. The pressure on incision leakage was recorded as the leak pressure (maximum tested = 140 mm Hg). Additionally, sixteen 20-G sclerotomies were constructed in 4 other eyes: 8 of the incisions were treated with hydrogel sealant, while 8 were sutured. These incisions were similarly pressure tested. Among the 23-G incisions, hydrogel sealant application to the incisions significantly increased the leak pressure relative to bare incisions: mean (SE), 131.8 (8.2) vs 39.5 (5.2) mm Hg, respectively (P < .001). Only 1 of the 8 sealant-treated 23-G incisions leaked below 140 mm Hg, compared with all of the 8 bare incisions. Among the 20-G incisions, there was no difference in leak pressure among sealant-treated and sutured incisions: mean (SE), 140.0 (0.0) vs 136.3 (3.8) mm Hg, respectively (P = .35). None of the 8 sealant-treated 20-G incisions leaked below 140 mm Hg, compared with 1 of the 8 sutured incisions. Hydrogel sealant significantly increased the leak pressure among 23-G incisions relative to 23-G bare incisions and was equivalent to suturing among 20-G incisions. Hydrogel sealants effectively close vitrectomy incisions and may decrease the incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis and hypotony.

  16. Changes in Matrix Metalloproteinases in Diabetes Patients' Tears After Vitrectomy and the Relationship With Corneal Epithelial Disorder.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Takehiro; Takamura, Yoshihiro; Tomomatsu, Takeshi; Arimura, Shogo; Gozawa, Makoto; Takihara, Yuji; Inatani, Masaru

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies indicate involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the pathogenesis of diabetic keratopathy. To evaluate MMP levels in the tears of patients with diabetes, we investigated changes in MMP levels during perioperative periods and clarify the relationship with corneal epithelial disorders following vitrectomy. Matrix metalloproteinase levels in tears were measured by multiplex bead array in patients with or without diabetes who were scheduled for vitrectomy. Twenty-two patients with diabetes and proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and 20 patients with epiretinal membrane or macular hole (control group), were recruited. Changes in MMP levels during perioperative periods and the relationship with corneal epithelial disorders after vitrectomy were analyzed. The levels of MMP-2, -9, and -10 at 1 day after surgery in the diabetic group were significantly higher than in the control group. At 1 week after surgery, MMP-10 levels in the diabetic group were significantly higher than in the control group. After vitrectomy, corneal epithelial disorders occurred in six patients in the diabetic group but not in the control group. In the diabetic group, MMP-10 levels in tears of patients with corneal epithelial disorders were significantly higher than those in patients without corneal epithelial disorders. The MMP concentration in tears of patients with diabetes was higher than in nondiabetic patients after vitrectomy. High MMP-10 levels were observed in patients with diabetes and corneal epithelial disorders after vitrectomy. Aberrant levels of MMP-10 may cause corneal epithelial disorder after vitrectomy.

  17. Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling to Prevent Post-vitrectomy Epiretinal Membrane Development in Retinal Detachment.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Kunihiko; Fujinami, Kaoru; Watanabe, Ken; Tsunoda, Kazushige; Noda, Toru

    2016-11-01

    To determine the efficacy of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling during vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) regarding post-vitrectomy epiretinal membrane (ERM) development and visual outcomes. Retrospective, interventional, comparative case series. Setting: Institutional. One hundred and two consecutive eyes with RRD treated with vitrectomy and followed for at least 6 months. ILM was peeled without using dye such as indocyanine green (ICG). Observational Procedures: Patients were divided into 2 groups based on postoperative ERM development: Group 1, 81 eyes without ERM formation; Group 2, 21 eyes with ERM development. Patients also were divided into 2 subgroups: those with and without ILM peeling (58 and 44 eyes, respectively). Statistical analyses were performed between the 2 groups with/without ERM formation and between the 2 subgroups with/without ILM peeling for 5 preoperative factors including foveal involvement of the RRD, 4 intraoperative factors including ILM peeling, baseline best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and final BCVA. An association of ILM peeling with ERM prevention and the influence of ILM peeling on visual outcomes. ILM peeling was significantly (P < .001) associated with ERM prevention. There was no significant difference in the final BCVA between subgroups with and without ILM peeling. ILM peeling without ICG staining during the initial vitrectomy for RRDs may prevent postoperative ERM formation with favorable visual outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of topical rebamipide on conjunctival goblet cell recovery after vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kumiko; Takashima, Yuko; Matsunaga, Koichi; Sugimoto, Masahiko; Matsubara, Hisashi; Hirano, Koji; Kondo, Mineo

    2016-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that topical rebamipide will increase the number of goblet cells in the bulbar conjunctiva. The purpose of this study was to determine whether topical rebamipide will enhance the recovery of conjunctival goblet cells that were damaged during vitrectomy. Forty patients who underwent vitrectomy surgery were studied. The 40 patients consisted of 20 with diabetes mellitus (DM) and 20 patients without DM. They were randomized in a 1:1 ratio into groups that were treated or not treated with topical 2% rebamipide after the surgery. Impression cytology was performed at the end of surgery and at 14 days after the surgery. The mean goblet cell density of each specimen was determined by averaging the total number of goblet cells obtained from three consecutive high magnification microscopic images. In patients without DM, the mean goblet cell density at 14 days after the vitrectomy was significantly higher in eyes with topical rebemipide than in eyes without rebemipide (P < 0.01). In patients with DM, a similar tendency was observed but the difference was not significant (P = 0.09). These results suggest that topical rebamipide can be helpful in patients with globlet cell damage that occur during and after vitrectomy. PMID:26762482

  19. Effect of topical rebamipide on conjunctival goblet cell recovery after vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kumiko; Takashima, Yuko; Matsunaga, Koichi; Sugimoto, Masahiko; Matsubara, Hisashi; Hirano, Koji; Kondo, Mineo

    2016-01-14

    In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that topical rebamipide will increase the number of goblet cells in the bulbar conjunctiva. The purpose of this study was to determine whether topical rebamipide will enhance the recovery of conjunctival goblet cells that were damaged during vitrectomy. Forty patients who underwent vitrectomy surgery were studied. The 40 patients consisted of 20 with diabetes mellitus (DM) and 20 patients without DM. They were randomized in a 1:1 ratio into groups that were treated or not treated with topical 2% rebamipide after the surgery. Impression cytology was performed at the end of surgery and at 14 days after the surgery. The mean goblet cell density of each specimen was determined by averaging the total number of goblet cells obtained from three consecutive high magnification microscopic images. In patients without DM, the mean goblet cell density at 14 days after the vitrectomy was significantly higher in eyes with topical rebemipide than in eyes without rebemipide (P < 0.01). In patients with DM, a similar tendency was observed but the difference was not significant (P = 0.09). These results suggest that topical rebamipide can be helpful in patients with globlet cell damage that occur during and after vitrectomy.

  20. Vitrectomy with or without internal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic epiretinal membrane: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Chin; Lee, Cho-Hao; Sung, Tzu-Ling; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Liu, Jorn-Hon

    2017-01-01

    Studies on vitrectomy with and without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) have yielded uncertain results regarding clinical outcomes and recurrence rates. To compare the clinical outcomes of vitrectomy with and without ILM peeling for idiopathic ERM. Databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, Google Scholar, CNKI databases, FDA.gov, and ClinicalTrials.gov, published until July 2016, were searched to identify studies comparing the clinical outcomes following vitrectomy with ERM and ILM peeling and with only ERM peeling, for treating idiopathic ERM. Studies with sufficient data were selected. Pooled results were expressed as mean differences (MDs) and risk ratios (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for vitrectomy with and without ILM peeling with regard to postoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), and ERM recurrence rate. Eleven retrospective studies and one randomized controlled trial involving 756 eyes were identified. This demonstrated that the postoperative BCVA within 12 months was significantly better in the non-ILM peeling group (MD = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.08; P = 0.0460), but that the patients in the ILM peeling group had significantly better postoperative BCVA after 18 months (MD = -0.13, 95% CI: -0.23 to -0.04; P = 0.0049) than did those in the non-ILM peeling group. The non-ILM peeling group exhibited a higher reduction in postoperative CRT (MD = 51.55, 95% CI:-84.23 to -18.88; P = 0.0020) and a higher recurrence rate of ERM (RR = 0.34, 95% CI:0.16 to 0.72; P = 0.0048) than did the ILM peeling group. However, the improvement rates of BCVA (RR = 1.03, 95% CI:0.72 to 1.47; P = 0.8802) and postoperative CRTs (MD = 18.15, 95% CI:-2.29 to 38.60; P = 0.0818) were similar between the two groups. Vitrectomy with ILM peeling results in better visual improvement in long-term follow-ups and lower ERM recurrence rates, and vitrectomy with

  1. Vitrectomy with or without internal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic epiretinal membrane: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chin; Lee, Cho-Hao; Sung, Tzu-Ling; Tung, Tao-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Background Studies on vitrectomy with and without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) have yielded uncertain results regarding clinical outcomes and recurrence rates. Objective To compare the clinical outcomes of vitrectomy with and without ILM peeling for idiopathic ERM. Methods Databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, Google Scholar, CNKI databases, FDA.gov, and ClinicalTrials.gov, published until July 2016, were searched to identify studies comparing the clinical outcomes following vitrectomy with ERM and ILM peeling and with only ERM peeling, for treating idiopathic ERM. Studies with sufficient data were selected. Pooled results were expressed as mean differences (MDs) and risk ratios (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for vitrectomy with and without ILM peeling with regard to postoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), and ERM recurrence rate. Results Eleven retrospective studies and one randomized controlled trial involving 756 eyes were identified. This demonstrated that the postoperative BCVA within 12 months was significantly better in the non-ILM peeling group (MD = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.08; P = 0.0460), but that the patients in the ILM peeling group had significantly better postoperative BCVA after 18 months (MD = −0.13, 95% CI: −0.23 to −0.04; P = 0.0049) than did those in the non-ILM peeling group. The non-ILM peeling group exhibited a higher reduction in postoperative CRT (MD = 51.55, 95% CI:−84.23 to −18.88; P = 0.0020) and a higher recurrence rate of ERM (RR = 0.34, 95% CI:0.16 to 0.72; P = 0.0048) than did the ILM peeling group. However, the improvement rates of BCVA (RR = 1.03, 95% CI:0.72 to 1.47; P = 0.8802) and postoperative CRTs (MD = 18.15, 95% CI:−2.29 to 38.60; P = 0.0818) were similar between the two groups. Conclusions Vitrectomy with ILM peeling results in better visual improvement in long

  2. Anatomic and visual outcomes of 23-G vitrectomy without scleral buckling for primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Marta S; Contreras, Inés; Noval, Susana

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the anatomic success rate, visual acuity (VA) changes, and complications of 23-G vitrectomy without associated scleral procedures for the treatment of primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (PRRD). 
 Patients diagnosed with PRRD were considered for inclusion. Patients with evidence of proliferative vitreoretinopathy or coexisting ocular pathologies were excluded. Surgery consisted of 23-G vitrectomy with endolaser photocoagulation of retinal breaks and fluid-air-gas (12% C3F8) exchange. Minimum follow-up was 3 months. 
 A total of 133 eyes of 118 patients were included. Fifty eyes were phakic and 83 pseudophakic. Mean time from diagnosis to surgery was 6.9 days (range 1-40). Mean VA improved significantly from 20/50 (range: hand movements to 20/20) to 20/30 (range: counting fingers to 20/16), with no statistically significant differences between phakic and pseudophakic eyes (p = 0.233). Visual acuity improved to 20/40 or better in 104 eyes (78.2%). A redetachment developed in 5 eyes (3.8%), so the primary anatomic success rate was 96.2%. Four eyes required a second surgical procedure and one eye a third to achieve retinal reattachment. Cataract progression in phakic eyes made cataract surgery necessary within 1 year of vitrectomy in 12/50 (24%) eyes. Subretinal perfluoro-N-octane (PFO) was detected in 6 eyes (4.5%). 
 Twenty-three--gauge vitrectomy without scleral buckling seems to be an effective technique for the treatment of PRRD without proliferative vitreoretinopathy. The high anatomic success rate was comparable to that previously described with 20 G and scleral buckling. Complications were similar to those described for 20-G vitrectomy, except for retained subretinal PFO, which has a higher rate.

  3. Elimination of PPV and PNRSV through thermotherapy and meristem-tip culture in nectarine.

    PubMed

    Manganaris, G A; Economou, A S; Boubourakas, I N; Katis, N I

    2003-10-01

    The plum pox virus (PPV) and prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) cause serious disease problems in stone-fruit trees. In this work, the possibility of obtaining plant material free from these viruses through thermotherapy and meristem-tip culture from infected nectarine shoots (Prunus persica var. nectarina Max, cv. 'Arm King') was studied. In addition, the detection of these viruses in in vitro cultures and young acclimatized plantlets with double antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was studied. Meristem-tip explants (0.8-1.3 mm) derived from sprouted buds of winter wood and spring shoots from field grown plants had a 2-5% regeneration response. However, application of thermotherapy to potted nectarine trees (3 weeks at a maximum temperature of 35 degrees C) facilitated excision of longer meristem tips (1.3-2.0 mm) that resulted in a significantly higher regeneration response (38%) in woody plant medium (WPM) without plant growth regulators. Such explants formed multiple shoots with the addition of 8 microM benzylaminopurine and 0.8 microM indoleacetic acid. When they were tested for the presence of PPV and PNRSV, 86% and 81% were found to be virus-free as detected by DAS-ELISA and multiplex RT-PCR, respectively. Individual shoots excised from virus-free cultures readily rooted in vitro (half-strength WPM plus 2 microM indolebutyric acid) and grew to plantlets. The combination of an efficient protocol for virus elimination and the establishment of highly sensitive diagnostics resulted in the production of nectarine plants free from PPV and PNRSV.

  4. Conformation Effects on the Photoluminescence Behavior of Anchored MEH-PPV Pancakes and Brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Kuo Sheng; Chen, Po-Tsun; Yang, Arnold C.-M.

    2012-02-01

    Single molecular layer of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyl)oxy)-1,4- phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) grafted on primed silicon wafer were synthesized, forming brushes (chain spacing 0.54 nm via graft-from) or pancakes (˜ 7nm to 34 nm via graft-to). For the tight-packed brushes, the PL emission peak, residing in the range from 434 nm to 550 nm depending on the chain length, was generally unchanged when transferring between the dry and solvent immersion states. However, for the pancakes, the emission peak blue-shifted dramatically (up to 100 nm) when dried in the air relative to that in the solvent. These shifts were fully reversible in the dry-wet cycles. The large blue shifts of the anchored pancakes were attributed to the mechanical stretching of entangled MEH-PPV segments in contact with substrate upon solvent loss. In contrast, the blue shifts disappeared and small red shifts emerged instead for extremely slowly drying (24 hrs drying time), revealing the stress-relaxation pathways in the equilibrium conditions. The drying-induced blue shift was also observed in the un-anchored drop-casting samples but the reversibility vanished. Finally, a large enhancement of PL intensity was accompanied with the blue shifts, manifesting the effect of the molecular constraints.

  5. Exciton-Exciton Annihilation as a Probe of Interchain Interactions in PPV-Oligomer Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Peteanu, Linda A; Chowdhury, Sanchari; Wildeman, Jurjen; Sfeir, Matthew Y

    2017-02-23

    One measure of exciton mobility in an aggregate is the efficiency of exciton-exciton annihilation (EEA). Both exciton mobilities and EEA are enhanced for aggregate morphologies in which the distances between chromophores and their relative orientations are favorable for Förster energy transfer. Here this principle is applied to gauge the strength of interchain interactions in aggregates of two substituted PPV oligomers of 7 (OPPV7) and 13 (OPPV13) phenylene rings. These are models of the semiconducting conjugated polymer MEH-PPV. The aggregates were formed by adding a poor solvent (methanol or water) to the oligomers dissolved in a good solvent. Aggregates formed from the longer-chain oligomer and/or by addition of the more polar solvent showed the largest contribution of EEA in their emission decay dynamics. This was found to correlate with the degree to which the steady-state emission spectrum of the monomer is altered by aggregation. The wavelength dependence of the EEA signal was also shown to be useful in differentiating emission features due to monomeric and aggregated chains when their spectra overlap significantly.

  6. Morphology of Wrinkle Ridges on Lunae and Solis Plana, Mars from MOLA Topography: Implications for Their Kinematic Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tate, A.; Golombek, M. P.; Mueller, K. J.

    2001-01-01

    Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography is used to define the detailed morphology and kinematic development of martian wrinkle ridges on Lunae and Solis Plana. Changes in ridge morphology suggest they form as fault-propagation folds, often with significant backthrusts. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. 77 FR 38296 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ...-2012-0004] Draft Public Health Action Plan--A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Extension of public comment period. SUMMARY: On May 16... National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention, and Management of Infertility (77 FR...

  8. 77 FR 28883 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ...-2012-0004] Draft Public Health Action Plan--A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice of availability and request for public comment..., Division of Reproductive Health, Attn: National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention...

  9. Quarter-Shifted Microincisional Sutureless Vitrectomy in Patients with a Glaucoma Drainage Implant or Filtering Bleb.

    PubMed

    Song, Ji Hun; Jang, Seran; Cho, Eun Hyung; Ahn, Jaehong

    2017-05-01

    When vitrectomy is performed in eyes that have undergone glaucoma surgery, the site of sclerotomy often overlaps with the previous glaucoma operation site. It can lead to serious complications such as postoperative hypotony, leakage, and/or infection. Our technique involves modification of surgeon's position and two sclerotomy sites 45° away from the original position, with an infusion cannula inserted infranasally to avoid damage to the glaucoma drainage implant or filtering bleb. The modified approach was applied to seven eyes with various indications. Vitrectomy was successfully completed, and there were no sclerotomy site complications, leakage, or hypotony in any case. Good intraocular pressure control was maintained throughout the postoperative course in all cases. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017.

  10. Toxic anterior segment syndrome outbreak after vitrectomy and silicone oil injection.

    PubMed

    Moisseiev, Elad; Barak, Adiel

    2012-01-01

    To report a rare outbreak of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) in 4 patients who underwent vitrectomy with silicone oil injection. Review of the medical charts of all patients who underwent surgery in the operating theater of our department during a 10-day period in May 2011. We report on 4 patients who developed TASS after vitrectomy with silicone oil injection. The clinical presentation was typical of TASS, and different from the anterior chamber reaction that may occur after silicone oil injection. All cases were treated effectively with topical steroids, and the outbreak stopped after the silicone oil batch was exchanged. We discuss the possible mechanisms for this unusual TASS outbreak, and suggest the silicone oil as its cause.

  11. Macular retinoschisis in eyes with glaucomatous optic neuropathy: Vitrectomy and natural course.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Tadanobu; Yamanaka, Chihiro; Kinoshita, Takamasa; Morikawa, Shohei; Ogata, Nahoko

    2018-02-01

    Our purpose was to determine the effectiveness of vitrectomy in resolving the macular retinoschisis in an eye with glaucomatous optic neuropathy and also to determine the natural course of macular retinoschisis. This was a retrospective case series of patients who were diagnosed with macular retinoschisis and glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Fourteen eyes of 13 patients were studied. Patients with high myopia, vitreomacular traction syndrome, and the pit macular syndrome were excluded. There were three men and ten women, and 12 had unilateral and one had bilateral macular retinoschisis. Vitrectomy was performed for a serous retinal detachment, macular hole, or severe visual loss in five eyes. The mean follow-up time was 68.8 months in these five eyes, and the macular retinoschisis was resolved and the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at the final visit was significantly improved in all eyes (P = 0.007). However, two of these fiv e eyes developed a macular hole and required a second vitrectomy. Of the nine eyes without treatment with a mean follow-up time of 29.0 months, the BCVA at the final visit remained unchanged from the baseline BCVA in all eyes. The macular retinoschisis was resolved or reduced in three eyes without treatment. Vitrectomy was effective for the resolution of macular retinoschisis in eyes with glaucomatous optic neuropathy and serous retinal detachment or macular hole or severe reduction of the BCVA. Macular retinoschisis can be resolved without a reduction of the BCVA in some cases without treatment.

  12. Postoperative eccentric macular holes after vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling.

    PubMed

    Brouzas, Dimitrios; Dettoraki, Maria; Lavaris, Anastasios; Kourvetaris, Dimitrios; Nomikarios, Nikolaos; Moschos, Marilita M

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of eccentric macular holes presenting after vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for the treatment of macular pathology and discuss the pathogenesis of holes formation. A retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case-series study of five patients who developed eccentric macular holes postoperatively following vitrectomy in 198 consecutive patients who underwent ILM peeling for idiopathic macular hole and epiretinal membrane formation between 2008 and 2015. Five patients (2.5 %) developed full-thickness eccentric macular holes postoperatively. Three patients presented with a single eccentric macular hole, one patient had an eccentric hole after a failed idiopathic macular hole surgery and one patient developed four eccentric macular holes. The mean diameter of the holes was 584 μm (range 206-1317 μm) and the average time of holes formation after vitrectomy was 27.7 weeks (range 1-140 weeks). Postoperative best-corrected visual acuity ranged from "counting fingers" to 20/25. The eyes with the holes distant from the fovea had the best final visual acuity. No further intervention was attempted and no complications occurred. The mean follow-up time was 26.8 months. The postoperative macular holes after vitrectomy and ILM peeling were variable in number, size, and time of appearance but remained stable and were not associated with any complications. The pathogenesis of macular holes is most consistent with contraction of the residual ILM or secondary epimacular proliferation probably stimulated by ILM peeling.

  13. Displacement of the retina and its recovery after vitrectomy in idiopathic epiretinal membrane.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Eri; Shiraga, Fumio; Shiragami, Chieko; Fukuda, Kouki; Yamashita, Ayana; Fujiwara, Atsushi

    2013-06-01

    To study the displacement of the retina and its change after vitrectomy in idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM). Prospective, interventional case series. Fifty-six eyes of 53 consecutive patients with ERM underwent vitrectomy with ERM removal and internal limiting membrane peeling. Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging was examined before and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after vitrectomy. Main outcome measures were the proportion of eyes with retinal displacement for ERM detected by FAF imaging and the recovery rate of retinal displacement after vitrectomy. Before surgery, FAF photography demonstrated hyperautofluorescent lines within the vascular arcade in 37 (66.1%) of the 56 eyes. The lines seemed to be consistent with the location of the retinal vessels before their displacement. These hyperautofluorescent lines appeared significantly more frequently among patients in whom the disease duration was 3 years or less. In 23 (62.2%) of these 37 eyes, within the first postoperative month, the hyperautofluorescent lines disappeared. The disappearance of the hyperautofluorescent line was thought to be the result of the return of the retinal vessel to its original position. Greater visual improvements (logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution, ≥0.3) were statistically significantly obtained in patients in whom the hyperautofluorescent lines had become indistinct at 1 month after surgery (P < .05). Hyperautofluorescent lines indicating retinal displacement were found by FAF in 66.1% of patients before surgery for ERM. In addition, retinal displacement was significantly more common among patients who had experienced subjective symptoms for 3 years or less. Fundus autofluorescence is useful for predicting postoperative visual acuity improvement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Perfluorocarbon-perfused 23 gauge three-dimensional vitrectomy for complicated diabetic tractional retinal detachment

    PubMed Central

    Velez-Montoya, Raul; Guerrero-Naranjo, Jose Luis; Garcia-Aguirre, Gerardo; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio; Fromow-Guerra, Jans; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Background Perfluorocarbon liquid (PCL)-perfused vitrectomy has been shown in previous studies to be feasible, safe, and to have advantages in managing complicated cases of tractional retinal detachment. The present study had the objectives of describing the anatomical results and measuring surgical time and PCL consumption when combining PCL-perfused techniques with modern vitrectomy equipment. Methods A prospective, interventional consecutive case series was investigated. We enrolled patients with diabetic tractional retinal detachment, complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy and poor vision. A 23 gauge PCL-perfused vitrectomy was done with three-dimensional settings. During the procedure, we assessed the degree of surgical bleeding, visualization quality, and difficulty of membrane dissections. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and anatomical success were assessed at one and 3 months of follow-up. Results Twelve patients were enrolled in this study. There were no statistical significant changes in intraocular pressure and visual acuity throughout the follow-up period. Surgery was performed in a hemorrhage-free environment in almost all cases, with good visualization and low technical difficulty. The mean complete surgical time was 94.92 ± 25.03 minutes. The mean effective vitrectomy time was 22.50 ± 19.04 minutes and the mean PCL consumption was 25.08 ± 9.76 mL, with a speed of 1.11 mL/minute. Anatomical success was 67% at 3 months. Conclusion Although the technique proved to have some advantages in managing complicated cases of diabetic tractional retinal detachment, there was a high consumption of PCL. A redesign of the entire system is needed in order to decrease the amount of PCL needed for the technique. PMID:22267907

  15. Effects of kallidinogenase in patients undergoing vitrectomy for diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Yoshizumi, Yuki; Ohara, Zaigen; Tabuchi, Hitoshi; Sumino, Hitomi; Maeda, Yukiko; Mochizuki, Hideki; Yamane, Ken; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki

    2018-05-12

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of vitrectomy with kallidinogenase for diabetic macular edema (DME). This study was designed as a prospective, randomized, multicenter study comparing 19 eyes of 19 patients who received 150 units of kallidinogenase administered a day for 52 weeks from the day after vitrectomy (study group) with 20 eyes of 20 patients who received no kallidinogenase (control group). The main outcome measurements included logMAR visual acuity and central foveal thickness (CFT) before surgery and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after vitrectomy. During follow-up, 11 patients dropped out (six in the study group and five in the control group), leaving 28 eyes in 28 patients for analysis (13 in the study group and 15 in the control group). Visual acuity improved significantly at 12 months in both groups compared with before surgery. The degree of improvement did not differ significantly between the groups. At 12 months, the mean CFT decreased significantly in both groups, with no significant difference in the rate of change between the two groups. In the study group, the visual acuity and CFT significantly improved from 3 to 12 months and from 6 to 12 months, whereas these parameters did not continue to improve in the control group after 6 months (for visual acuity) or 3 months (for CFT). After vitrectomy for DME, visual acuity and CFT improved significantly in both groups, but only patients treated with kallidinogenase continued to have significant improvement throughout the study period.

  16. Comparison of clinical outcome between 23-G and 25-G vitrectomy in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Taleb, Eman Abo; Nagpal, Manish P; Mehrotra, Navneet S; Bhatt, Kalyani; Goswami, Sangeeta; Babalola, Yewande O; Noman, Abdulrahman

    2017-01-01

    To compare the clinical outcomes and complications between 23-G and 25-G vitrectomy in patients with diabetic vitreous hemorrhage (VH). A retrospective comparative study comprising 69 eyes (36 eyes in 23-G group and 33 eyes in 25-G group) of 65 patients who underwent vitrectomy with air tamponade for diabetic vitreous hemorrhage (VH) with at least 6 months of follow-up was conducted. There were no significant differences between the two groups in age, gender, bilaterality, type of diabetes, presence of hypertension, lens status, and previous argon laser photocoagulation state ( P > 0.05). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of both groups at postoperative 1 month logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) (1.06 ± 0.99, 0.90 ± 0.96), 3 months logMAR (1.07 ± 0.93, 0.83 ± 0.85), and 6 months logMAR (1.03 ± 0.89, 0.83 ± 0.85) significantly improved from the preoperative BCVA logMAR (2.03 ± 0.83, 2.15 ± 0.99) for 23-G group, 25-G group, respectively ( P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in BCVA between the two groups preoperatively and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively ( P = 0.566, 0.506, 0.333, and 0.445, respectively), incidence of intraoperative wound suturing (21.4%, 15.2%), postoperative hypotony (0.0%, 0.0%), early postoperative VH (POVH) (11.1%, 15.2%), late POVH (5.6%, 0.0%), retinal detachment (2.8%, 6.1%), neovascular glaucoma (92.8%, 9.1%), and endophthalmitis (0.0%, 0.0%) for 23-G group, 25-G group, respectively ( P > 0.05). 25-G vitrectomy is as effective for PDR as 23-G vitrectomy.

  17. Identification of the optically active vibrational modes in the photoluminescence of MEH-PPV films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, M. A. T.; Dias, I. F. L.; Duarte, J. L.; Laureto, E.; Silvestre, I.; Cury, L. A.; Guimara~Es, P. S. S.

    2008-03-01

    The temperature dependence of the photoluminescence properties of a thin film of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene-vinylene], MEH-PPV, fabricated by spin coating, is analyzed. The evolution with temperature of the peak energy of the purely electronic transition, of the first vibronic band, of the effective conjugation length, and of the Huang-Rhys factors are discussed. The asymmetric character of the pure electronic transition peak and the contribution of the individual vibrational modes to the first vibronic band line shape are considered by a model developed by Cury et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 121, 3836 (2004)]. The temperature dependence of the Huang-Rhys factors of the main vibrational modes pertaining to the first vibronic band allows us to identify two competing vibrational modes. These results show that the electron coupling to different vibrational modes depends on temperature via reduction of thermal disorder.

  18. The effect of vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade on intraocular pressure and anterior chamber morphology.

    PubMed

    Suic, S P; Sikić, J

    2001-01-01

    We measured the tamponading effect of silicone oil, saline and air after vitrectomy, on intraocular pressure and aqueous humor outflow in 85 patients with highly proliferative retina and vitreous changes. Silicone oil as retinal tamponading agent after vitrectomy was used in 45 patients, and saline or air in 39 patients. The mean intraocular pressure measured at one month after treatment was greatly elevated in patients with silicone oil tamponade as compared to those with saline or air tamponade. At 6 and 12 months examinations, mean intraocular pressures were compared in these two groups of patients. Gonioscopy revealed silicone oil emulsification and presence of emulsified bubbles in the anterior chamber in 22.22% of patients, and narrowing of the chamber angle in several patients with silicone oil tamponade. Intraocular pressure elevation following vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade was found to be of transient rather than permanent nature, since it regressed after silicone oil removal. This transient elevation was due to silicone oil tendency to emulsify. Silicone oil bubbles changed the morphology of the anterior chamber angle and fine trabecular structures by creating a barrier to aqueous humor outflow.

  19. [Long-term outcome of vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic macular holes].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kaori; Hori, Sadao

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the long-term outcome of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling on visual function during vitrectomy for idiopathic macular holes using scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) microperimetry. Prospective uncontrolled study. We studied 31 eyes (29 patients) with idiopathic macular holes. All patients underwent vitrectomy with ILM peeling. The SLO microperimetry was performed preoperatively, and once a year for 3 years postoperatively to detect scotomas in and around the macular holes, and both within and in close vicinity to the areas of ILM peeling. Closure of macular holes after one surgery was confirmed in all cases except for 2 with second surgery. The visual acuity by logarithmic minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) averaged 0.71 +/- 0.36 before surgery, 0.23 +/- 0.31 one year, 0.14 +/- 0.27 two years and 0.12 +/- 0.26 three years after surgery. There was significant improvement up to 2 years after the surgery. All scotomas detected before surgery in the holes, and 77.4% of those detected around the holes decreased gradually. No scotomas were detected in or around the area of ILM peeling either before or after surgery. ILM peeling in vitrectomy for idiopathic macular holes successfully improved visual acuity and did not influence retinal sensitivity in and around the area of ILM peeling. The scotomas detected in and around the holes before surgery gradually reduced or disappeared.

  20. Surface structure, optoelectronic properties and charge transport in ZnO nanocrystal/MDMO-PPV multilayer films.

    PubMed

    Lian, Qing; Chen, Mu; Mokhtar, Muhamad Z; Wu, Shanglin; Zhu, Mingning; Whittaker, Eric; O'Brien, Paul; Saunders, Brian R

    2018-05-07

    Blends of semiconducting nanocrystals and conjugated polymers continue to attract major research interest because of their potential applications in optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells, photodetectors and light-emitting diodes. In this study we investigate the surface structure, morphological and optoelectronic properties of multilayer films constructed from ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) and poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV). The effects of layer number and ZnO concentration (C ZnO ) used on the multilayer film properties are investigated. An optimised solvent blend enabled well-controlled layers to be sequentially spin coated and the construction of multilayer films containing six ZnO NC (Z) and MDMO-PPV (M) layers (denoted as (ZM) 6 ). Contact angle data showed a strong dependence on C ZnO and indicated distinct differences in the coverage of MDMO-PPV by the ZnO NCs. UV-visible spectroscopy showed that the MDMO-PPV absorption increased linearly with the number of layers in the films and demonstrates highly tuneable light absorption. Photoluminescence spectra showed reversible quenching as well as a surprising red-shift of the MDMO-PPV emission peak. Solar cells were constructed to probe vertical photo-generated charge transport. The measurements showed that (ZM) 6 devices prepared using C ZnO = 14.0 mg mL -1 had a remarkably high open circuit voltage of ∼800 mV. The device power conversion efficiency was similar to that of a control bilayer device prepared using a much thicker MDMO-PPV layer. The results of this study provide insight into the structure-optoelectronic property relationships of new semiconducting multilayer films which should also apply to other semiconducting NC/polymer combinations.

  1. EFFECTS OF A MODIFIED VITRECTOMY PROBE IN SMALL-GAUGE VITRECTOMY: An Experimental Study on the Flow and on the Traction Exerted on the Retina.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Stanislao; Fantoni, Gualtiero; de Santis, Giovanni; Lue, Jaw-Chyng Lormen; Ciampi, Jonathan; Palla, Michele; Genovesi Ebert, Federica; Savastano, Alfonso; De Maria, Carmelo; Vozzi, Giovanni; Brant Fernandes, Rodrigo A; Faraldi, Francesco; Criscenti, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    Thorough this experimental study, the physic features of a modified 23-gauge vitrectomy probe were evaluated in vitro. A modified vitrectomy probe to increase vitreous outflow rate with a small-diameter probe, that also minimized tractional forces on the retina, was created and tested. The "new" probe was created by drilling an opening into the inner duct of a traditional 23-gauge probe with electrochemical or electrodischarge micromachining. Both vitreous outflow and tractional forces on the retina were examined using experimental models of vitreous surgery. The additional opening allowed the modified probe to have a cutting rate of 5,000 cuts per minute, while sustaining an outflow approximately 45% higher than in conventional 23-gauge probes. The modified probe performed two cutting actions per cycle, not one, as in standard probes. Because tractional force is influenced by cutting rate, retinal forces were 2.2 times lower than those observed with traditional cutters. The modified probe could be useful in vitreoretinal surgery. It allows for faster vitreous removal while minimizing tractional forces on the retina. Moreover, any available probe can be modified by creating a hole in the inner duct.

  2. Combined proteomic and metallomic analyses in Scrobicularia plana clams to assess environmental pollution of estuarine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, Raúl; Santos, Hugo Miguel; Bebianno, Maria João; García-Barrera, Tamara; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis; Capelo, José Luis

    2016-12-15

    Estuaries are very important ecosystems with great ecological and economic value, but usually highly impacted by anthropogenic pressure. Thus, the assessment of pollution levels in these habitats is critical in order to evaluate their environmental quality. In this work, we combined complementary metallomic and proteomic approaches with the aim to monitor the effects of environmental pollution on Scrobicularia plana clams captured in three estuarine systems from the south coast of Portugal; Arade estuary, Ria Formosa and Guadiana estuary. Multi-elemental profiling of digestive glands was carried out to evaluate the differential pollution levels in the three study areas. Then, proteomic analysis by means of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed twenty-one differential proteins, which could be associated with multiple toxicological mechanisms induced in environmentally stressed organisms. Accordingly, it could be concluded that the combination of different omic approaches presents a great potential in environmental research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Effect of thermal treatments on the chemical characteristics of mora crab meat (Homalaspis plana)].

    PubMed

    Quitral Robles, Vilma; Abugoch, Lilian; Vinagre, Julia; Guarda, Abel; Larraín, M Angélica; Santana, Gabriela

    2003-03-01

    Marine species muscles present non-proteins nitrogenated compounds, used as quality index. They are total volatile basis (NBVT), trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) and trimethylamine (TMA). pH is considered too as a quality index. The aim of this work was to evaluate these parameters in a fresh and canned marine product from the V region, corresponding to mora crab (Homalaspis plana). Fresh pincer meat from mora crab was extracted and kept in ice until theits analysis and thermal process of the canned product. A 3(2) statistical design was applied, considering two variables with 3 levels: 15, 30 y 45 minutes time levels: 80 degrees, 100 degrees y 121 degrees C temperature levels. Nine conditions of time-temperature were obtained. The thermal treatment caused an increase in pH and BVT. The TMA was increased since reduction of TMAO.

  4. [Suppression of replication of swine parvoviral antisense RNA against the NS PPV gene in swine thyroid gland cells].

    PubMed

    Voskresenskaia, E P; Miroshnichenko, O I; Ponamareva, T I; Savich, O M; Tikhonenko, T I

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of suppression of porcine parvovirus (PPV) reproduction in the culture of thyroid gland cells of a swine that contain the integrated genes for asRNA against the nonstructural proteins of the virus has been studied. 10 cell lines with the asRNA genes have been obtained. The line with the maximal number of integrated gene copies was used to inflict with the parvovirus. The expression of asRNA in this cell line was shown to lead to 95% suppression of PPV replication as compared with the control cell line.

  5. [Optimizing the financial impact of transitioning to transconjunctival vitrectomy and microincisional phacoemulsification].

    PubMed

    Cornut, P-L; Soldermann, Y; Robin, C; Barranco, R; Kerhoas, A; Burillon, C

    2013-12-01

    To report the financial impact of using modern lens and vitreoretinal surgical techniques. Bottom-up sterilization and consumables costs for new surgical techniques (microincisional coaxial phacoemulsification and transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy) and the corresponding former techniques (phacoemulsification with 3.2-mm incision and 20G vitrectomy) were determined. These costs were compared to each other and to the target costs of the Diagnosis Related Groups for public hospitals (Groupes Homogènes de Séjours [GHS]) concerned, extracted from the analytic accounting data of the French National Cost Study (Étude Nationale des Coûts [ENC]) for 2009 (target=sum of sterilization costs posted under medical logistics, consumables, implantable medical devices, and special pharmaceuticals posted as direct expenses). For outpatient lens surgery with or without vitrectomy (GHS code: 02C05J): the ENC's target cost for 2009 was 339€ out of a total of 1432€. The cost detailed in this study was 4 % higher than the target cost when the procedure was performed using the former technique (3.2mm sutured incision) and 12 % lower when the procedure was performed using the new technique (1.8mm sutureless) after removing now unnecessary consumables and optimization of the technique. For level I retinal detachment surgeries (GHS code: 02C021): the ENC's 2009 target cost was 641€ out of a total of 3091€. The cost specified in this study was 1 % lower than the target cost when the procedure was done using the former technique (20-G vitrectomy) and 16 % less when the procedure was performed using the new technique (transconjunctival vitrectomy) after removal of now unnecessary consumables and optimization of the technique. Contrary to generally accepted ideas, implementing modern techniques in ocular surgery can result in direct cost and sterilization savings when the operator takes advantage of the possibilities these techniques offer in terms of simplification of the

  6. Vitrectomy outcomes in eyes with diabetic macular edema and vitreomacular traction.

    PubMed

    Haller, Julia A; Qin, Haijing; Apte, Rajendra S; Beck, Roy R; Bressler, Neil M; Browning, David J; Danis, Ronald P; Glassman, Adam R; Googe, Joseph M; Kollman, Craig; Lauer, Andreas K; Peters, Mark A; Stockman, Margaret E

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate vitrectomy for diabetic macular edema (DME) in eyes with at least moderate vision loss and vitreomacular traction. Prospective cohort study. The primary cohort included 87 eyes with DME and vitreomacular traction based on investigator's evaluation, visual acuity 20/63-20/400, optical coherence tomography (OCT) central subfield >300 microns and no concomitant cataract extraction at the time of vitrectomy. Surgery was performed according to the investigator's usual routine. Follow-up visits were performed after 3 months, 6 months (primary end point), and 1 year. Visual acuity, OCT retinal thickening, and operative complications. At baseline, median visual acuity in the 87 eyes was 20/100 and median OCT thickness was 491 microns. During vitrectomy, additional procedures included epiretinal membrane peeling in 61%, internal limiting membrane peeling in 54%, panretinal photocoagulation in 40%, and injection of corticosteroids at the close of the procedure in 64%. At 6 months, median OCT central subfield thickness decreased by 160 microns, with 43% having central subfield thickness <250 microns and 68% having at least a 50% reduction in thickening. Visual acuity improved by > or =10 letters in 38% (95% confidence interval, 28%-49%) and deteriorated by > or =10 letters in 22% (95% confidence interval, 13%-31%). Postoperative complications through 6 months included vitreous hemorrhage (5 eyes), elevated intraocular pressure requiring treatment (7 eyes), retinal detachment (3 eyes), and endophthalmitis (1 eye). Few changes in results were noted between 6 months and 1 year. After vitrectomy performed for DME and vitreomacular traction, retinal thickening was reduced in most eyes. Between 28% and 49% of eyes with characteristics similar to those included in this study are likely to have improvement of visual acuity, whereas between 13% and 31% are likely to have worsening. The operative complication rate is low and similar to what has been reported for this

  7. Long-Term Outcomes of Total Exudative Retinal Detachments in Stage 3B Coats Disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Albert S; Capone, Antonio; Trese, Michael T; Sears, Jonathan E; Kychenthal, Andres; De la Huerta, Irina; Ferrone, Philip J

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the long-term outcomes of treatment of total exudative retinal detachments (ERDs) secondary to Coats disease (stage 3B) and the role of vitrectomy. Retrospective, observational case series. A total of 16 eyes in 16 patients undergoing treatment for total ERDs secondary to Coats disease with at least 5 years of follow-up. We reviewed the records of patients with stage 3B Coats disease. The interventions, including the timing of vitrectomy if used, and clinical course were recorded. The primary outcome measures were visual acuity at the most recent appointment, whether there was progression to neovascular glaucoma (NVG) or phthisis bulbi, and need for enucleation. All patients received ablative treatment (photocoagulation or cryotherapy), with 8 having scleral buckling (SB) and 6 having external drainage of subretinal fluid (XD). Of the 12 patients who had pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), 8 had early PPV (EV) in the first year after presenting, and 4 of 8 in the expectant management group had late PPV (late vitrectomy) at a mean of 4.3 years post-presentation for treatment of significant traction retinal detachment (TRD). The other 4 patients of 8 in the expectant management group did not require vitrectomy. Mean follow-up overall was 9 1/2 years. At the date of last follow-up, 50% had no light perception or light perception vision, which was consistent across the subgroups that underwent EV (4/8), late vitrectomy (2/4), or no PPV (2/4). A total of 4 of 16 patients had progression to NVG or phthisis, 1 of whom required enucleation. In this retrospective series of patients with Stage 3B Coats disease, ablative therapy with a combination of PPV, XD, or SB was effective in preventing progression to NVG or phthisis in the majority of patients, thus preserving the globe. Half of the patients (4/8) in this series who did not undergo PPV in the early vitrectomy group developed late-onset TRD, suggesting a possible role for early prophylactic vitrectomy with possible

  8. Suspected bacterial endophthalmitis following sustained-release dexamethasone intravitreal implant: a case report.

    PubMed

    Arıkan Yorgun, Mücella; Mutlu, Melek; Toklu, Yasin; Cakmak, Hasan Basri; Cağıl, Nurullah

    2014-06-01

    A 58-year-old man admitted to our opthalmology department with the complaint of branch retinal vein occlusion. He was treated with intravitreal Ozurdex in the right eye. Two days after the injection, the patient presented with ocular pain and the visual acuity was hand movement. A diagnosis of endophthalmitis was made. We performed emergent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and the implant was removed from the vitreous cavity using a retinal forceps. A combination of vancomycin 1.0 mg and amikacin 0.4 mg was injected intravitreally. However, because of the blurring in the vitreus one week after the procedure, phacoemulsification and a repeat PPV was performed. Five days after the last procedure the signs and symptoms of endophthalmitis were resolved. Our case demonstrated that endophthalmitis could develop after intravitreal implantation of Ozurdex. Surgical removal of the implant and immediate vitrectomy seems to be a useful treatment option in these cases.

  9. IN VITRO FLOW ANALYSIS OF NOVEL DOUBLE-CUTTING, OPEN-PORT, ULTRAHIGH-SPEED VITRECTOMY SYSTEMS.

    PubMed

    Zehetner, Claus; Moelgg, Marion; Bechrakis, Emmanouil; Linhart, Caroline; Bechrakis, Nikolaos E

    2017-10-09

    To analyze the performance and flow characteristics of novel double-cutting, open-port, 23-, 25-, and 27-gauge ultrahigh-speed vitrectomy systems. In vitro fluidic measurements were performed to assess the volumetric aspiration profiles of several vitrectomy systems in basic salt solution and egg white. Double-cutting open-port vitrectomy probes delivered stable aspiration flow rates that were less prone to flow variation affected by the cutting speed. Increase in cutting frequency to the maximum level resulted in flow reduction of less than 10% (0.0%-9.5%). Commercially available 23-, 25-, and 27-G double-cutting probes exhibited higher egg-white and basic salt solution flow rates at all evaluated cut rates, with aspirational efficiencies being 1.1 to 2.9 times the flow rates of standard single-blade vitrectomy probes of the same caliber at the maximum preset vacuum. The highest relative differences were observed at faster cut rates. The newly introduced double-cutting open-port vitrectomy probes delivered stable aspiration flow rates that were less prone to flow variation affected by the cutting speed. The fluidic principle of constant flow even at the highest cut rates and low vacuum levels might impact surgical strategies, especially when performing manipulations close to the retina.

  10. Identification of three PPV1 VP2 protein-specific B cell linear epitopes using monoclonal antibodies against baculovirus-expressed recombinant VP2 protein.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianhui; Huang, Liping; Wei, Yanwu; Wang, Yiping; Chen, Dongjie; Du, Wenjuan; Wu, Hongli; Feng, Li; Liu, Changming

    2015-11-01

    Porcine parvovirus type 1 (PPV1) is a major causative agent of embryonic and fetal death in swine. The PPV1 VP2 protein is closely associated with viral immunogenicity for eliciting neutralizing antibodies, but its antigenic structures have been largely unknown. We generated three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against baculovirus-expressed recombinant PPV1 VP2 protein. A PEPSCAN analysis identified the minimal B cell linear epitopes of PPV1 VP2 based on these MAbs. Three core epitopes, (228)QQITDA(233), (284)RSLGLPPK(291), and (344)FEYSNGGPFLTPI(356), were defined and mapped onto three-dimensional models of the PPV1 virion and VP2 monomer. The epitope (228)QQITDA(233) is exposed on the virion surface, and the other two are located inside the protein. An alignment of the PPV1 VP2 amino acid sequences showed that (284)RSLGLPPK(291) and (344)FEYSNGGPFLTPI(356) are absolutely conserved, whereas (228)QQITDA(233) has a single substitution at residue 233 in some (S → A or T). We developed a VP2 epitope-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) to test for anti-PPV1 antibodies. In a comparative analysis with an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay using 135 guinea pig sera, the VP2-epitope-based iELISA had a concordance rate of 85.19 %, sensitivity of 83.33 %, and specificity of 85.47 %. MAb 8H6 was used to monitor VP2 during the PPV1 replication cycle in vitro with an indirect immunofluorescence assay, which indicated that newly encapsulated virions are released from the nucleus at 24 h postinfection and the PPV1 replication cycle takes less than 24 h. This study provides valuable information clarifying the antigenic structure of PPV1 VP2 and lays the foundations for PPV1 serodiagnosis and antigen detection.

  11. Further characterization of a new recombinant group of Plum pox virus isolates, PPV-T, found in orchards in the Ankara province of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Serçe, Ciğdem Ulubaş; Candresse, Thierry; Svanella-Dumas, Laurence; Krizbai, Laszlo; Gazel, Mona; Cağlayan, Kadriye

    2009-06-01

    Sixteen Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates collected in the Ankara region of Turkey were analyzed using available serological and molecular typing assays. Surprisingly, despite the fact that all isolates except one, which was a mix infection, were typed as belonging to the PPV-M strain in four independent molecular assays, nine of them (60%) reacted with both PPV-M specific and PPV-D specific monoclonal antibodies. Partial 5' and 3' genomic sequence analysis on four isolates demonstrated that irrespective of their reactivity towards the PPV-D specific monoclonal antibody, they were all closely related to a recombinant PPV isolate from Turkey, Ab-Tk. All three isolates for which the relevant genomic sequence was obtained showed the same recombination event as Ab-Tk in the HC-Pro gene, around position 1566 of the genome. Complete genomic sequencing of Ab-Tk did not provide evidence for additional recombination events in its evolutionary history. Taken together, these results indicate that a group of closely related PPV isolates characterized by a unique recombination in the HC-Pro gene is prevalent under field conditions in the Ankara region of Turkey. Similar to the situation with the PPV-Rec strain, we propose that these isolates represent a novel strain of PPV, for which the name PPV-T (Turkey) is proposed. Given that PPV-T isolates cannot be identified by currently available typing techniques, it is possible that their presence has been overlooked in other situations. Further efforts should allow a precise description of their prevalence and of their geographical distribution in Turkey and, possibly, in other countries.

  12. A novel electroluminescent PPV copolymer and silsesquioxane nanocomposite film for the preparation of efficient PLED devices.

    PubMed

    Venegoni, Ivan; Carniato, Fabio; Olivero, Francesco; Bisio, Chiara; Pira, Nello Li; Lambertini, Vito Guido; Marchese, Leonardo

    2012-11-02

    Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) have attracted growing interest in recent years for their potential use in displays and lighting fields. Nevertheless, PLED devices have some disadvantages in terms of low optoelectronic efficiency, high cost, short lifetimes and low thermal stability, which limit their final applications. Huge efforts have been made recently to improve the performances of these devices. The addition of inorganic or hybrid organic-inorganic nanoparticles to the light-emitting polymers, for example, allows their thermal stability and electroluminescent efficiency to be increased. Following this approach, novel PLED devices based on composite films of PPV-derivative copolymer (commercial name Super Yellow, SY) and octaisobutil POSS, were developed in this study. The device containing Super Yellow loaded with 1 wt% of POSS showed higher efficiency (ca. +30%) and improved lifetime in comparison to PLED prepared with the pure electroluminescent polymer. The PLED devices developed in this study are suitable candidates for automotive dashboards and, in general, for lighting applications.

  13. High School Mentors in Brief: Findings from the Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring Impact Study. P/PV In Brief. Issue 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jucovy, Linda; Herrera, Carla

    2009-01-01

    This issue of "Public/Private Ventures (P/PV) In Brief" is based on "High School Students as Mentors," a report that examined the efficacy of high school mentors using data from P/PV's large-scale random assignment impact study of Big Brothers Big Sisters school-based mentoring programs. The brief presents an overview of the findings, which…

  14. Pars Plana-Modified versus Conventional Ahmed Glaucoma Valve in Patients Undergoing Penetrating Keratoplasty: A Prospective Comparative Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Jitendra Kumar Singh; Jain, Vaibhav Kumar; Kaushik, Jaya; Mishra, Avinash

    2017-03-01

    To compare the outcome of pars-plana-modified Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) versus limbal-based conventional AGV into the anterior chamber, in patients undergoing penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for glaucoma with coexisting corneal diseases. In this prospective randomized clinical trial, 58 eyes of 58 patients with glaucoma and coexisting corneal disease were divided into two groups. Group 1 (29 eyes of 29 patients) included patients undergoing limbal-based conventional AGV into the anterior chamber (AC) along-with PK and group 2 (29 eyes of 29 patients) included those undergoing pars-plana-modified AGV along-with PK. Outcome measures included corneal graft clarity, intraocular pressure (IOP), number of antiglaucoma medications, and postoperative complications. Patients were followed up for a minimum period of 2 years. Out of 58 eyes (58 patients), 50 eyes (50 patients: 25 eyes of 25 patients each in group 1 and group 2) completed the study and were analyzed. Complete success rate for AGV (group 1: 76%; group 2: 72%; p = 0.842) and corneal graft clarity (group 1: 68%; group 2: 76%; p = 0.081) were comparable between the two groups at 2 years. Graft failure was more in conventional AGV (32%) as compared to pars plana-modified AGV (24%) but not statistically significant (p = 0.078) at 2 years. Though both procedures were comparable in various outcome measures, pars-plana-modified AGV is a viable option for patients undergoing PK, as it provides a relatively better corneal graft survival rate and lesser complications that were associated with conventional AGV.

  15. Comparison of disposable sutureless silicone ring and traditional metal ring in 23-gauge vitrectomy combined with cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian-Guo; Wei, Rui-Hua; Liu, Ai-Hua; Zhou, Xiao-Xu; Sun, Guo-Ling; Li, Xiao-Rong

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this prospective, interventional, comparative case series was to evaluate the efficiency and feasibility of a disposable sutureless silicone lens ring for corneal contact lens stabilization during combined 23-gauge vitrectomy and cataract surgery. Methods: We developed a ring consisting of a single silicone component with three footplates along the ring margin to fit cannulae for holding conventional contact lenses. Thirty eyes from 30 patients with cataract and vitreoretinal disease were included, and divided into two matched groups according to disease type and ring used. In Group A, we used a 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy system and a disposable sutureless silicone lens ring (n = 15). In Group B, we used a 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy system and a conventional metal lens ring (n = 15). The main outcome measures were: time required for vitrectomy preparation, rate of intraoperative corneal limbus bleeding, and limbus scar rate at the final follow-up visit. Results: Thirty cases were successfully completed. The average vitrectomy preparation time was less in Group A than in Group B (P < 0.01), and the average preparation time saved was 3.94 minutes. None of the Group A patients had intraoperative bleeding or postoperative scarring, whereas all 15 Group B cases had bleeding and five had scarring. There was a statistically significant difference between Group A and Group B for these complications (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: This report demonstrates the advantages of using a sutureless silicone ring during combined 23-gauge vitrectomy and cataract surgery. Using this method could allow extra time for the surgeon to pay more attention to complex vitreoretinal procedures. PMID:21760720

  16. Comparison of disposable sutureless silicone ring and traditional metal ring in 23-gauge vitrectomy combined with cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Guo; Wei, Rui-Hua; Liu, Ai-Hua; Zhou, Xiao-Xu; Sun, Guo-Ling; Li, Xiao-Rong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, interventional, comparative case series was to evaluate the efficiency and feasibility of a disposable sutureless silicone lens ring for corneal contact lens stabilization during combined 23-gauge vitrectomy and cataract surgery. We developed a ring consisting of a single silicone component with three footplates along the ring margin to fit cannulae for holding conventional contact lenses. Thirty eyes from 30 patients with cataract and vitreoretinal disease were included, and divided into two matched groups according to disease type and ring used. In Group A, we used a 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy system and a disposable sutureless silicone lens ring (n = 15). In Group B, we used a 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy system and a conventional metal lens ring (n = 15). The main outcome measures were: time required for vitrectomy preparation, rate of intraoperative corneal limbus bleeding, and limbus scar rate at the final follow-up visit. Thirty cases were successfully completed. The average vitrectomy preparation time was less in Group A than in Group B (P < 0.01), and the average preparation time saved was 3.94 minutes. None of the Group A patients had intraoperative bleeding or postoperative scarring, whereas all 15 Group B cases had bleeding and five had scarring. There was a statistically significant difference between Group A and Group B for these complications (P ≤ 0.05). This report demonstrates the advantages of using a sutureless silicone ring during combined 23-gauge vitrectomy and cataract surgery. Using this method could allow extra time for the surgeon to pay more attention to complex vitreoretinal procedures.

  17. 25G compared with 20G vitrectomy under Resight non-contact wide-angle lenses for Terson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xinbang; You, Zhipeng

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of 25G vitrectomy to standard 20G vitrectomy for treatment of Terson syndrome under Resight non-contact wide-angle lenses. This was a case-control study of 20 patients with Terson syndrome (study group) that underwent 25G vitrectomy under Resight non-contact wide-angle lenses, with those of 20 matched patients that underwent 20G vitrectomy (control group). Medical records were reviewed from between July 2011 and October 2013. Data included results of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study examination, ophthalmology B-scan ultrasonography and fundus photography. The mean age, follow-up time, the preoperative visual acuity of LogMAR and the preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) were all comparable in the two groups (all P>0.05). There were statistically significant differences in postoperative visual acuity of LogMAR compared with preoperative visual acuity (P<0.001) in both groups, but no difference between the groups (P=0.845). However, the operative times (13.5 min in study group vs. 42 min in control group) and post-operative IOP at day 1 (13.5 vs. 20 mmHg) were significantly reduced in the study group compared to the control group (P<0.001). Therefore, the present findings suggest that 25G Vitrectomy for Terson syndrome under Resight non-contact wide-angle lenses can achieve a significantly shorter operative time and lower post-operative IOP compared with 20G Vitrectomy.

  18. Visual outcomes following vitrectomy for diabetic retinopathy amongst Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in South Australia and the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Kaidonis, Georgia; Hassall, Mark M; Phillips, Russell; Raymond, Grant; Saha, Niladri; Wong, George Hc; Gilhotra, Jagjit S; Liu, Ebony; Burdon, Kathryn P; Henderson, Tim; Newland, Henry; Lake, Stewart R; Craig, Jamie E

    2018-05-01

    Visual outcomes following diabetic vitrectomy have not previously been studied in an Australian population. This analysis aimed to determine the rate of, and factors associated with visual success following diabetic vitrectomy performed for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, and investigate factors predisposing to early progression to diabetic retinopathy (DR) requiring vitrectomy. Retrospective, population-based audit. All patients undergoing vitrectomy for the complications of DR in South Australia (SA) and the Northern Territory (NT) between 2007 and 2011. Medical records were audited and data collected, including demographics, diabetic history, past treatment for DR, indication for vitrectomy and visual acuity pre and postoperatively. Visual success (gain of ≥15 ETDRS letters) at 6 and 12 months, postoperatively. A total of 495 diabetic vitrectomies, for 404 eyes of 335 patients were performed in SA and NT between 2007 and 2011. 77 (23%) patients requiring diabetic vitrectomy were Indigenous Australians. 87% of patients undergoing diabetic vitrectomy had stable or improved vision at 1 year, postoperatively. There was no significant difference between indigenous and non-indigenous eyes achieving visual success (P = 0.929). Timely preoperative laser treatment (P = 0.03) and preoperative visual acuity (P = 0.01) were the predominant factors associated with visual success. Indigenous patients are just as likely to have improved vision following diabetic vitrectomy as non-Indigenous Australians. However, the small subset of indigenous patients with blind eyes prior to vitrectomy are significantly less likely to improve from surgery. The underlying factors associated with poor outcomes in this group requires further exploration. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  19. Efficacy of Insecticide and Bioinsecticide Ground Sprays to Control Metisa plana Walker (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) in Oil Palm Plantations, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Hasber; Rawi, Che Salmah Md.; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of the synthetic insecticides trichlorfon, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin emulsion concentrated (EC) and cypermethrin emulsion water based (EW) and a bio-insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk), was evaluated at 3, 7, 14 and 30 days after treatment (DAT) for the control of Metisa plana larvae in an oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation in Malaysia. Although all synthetic insecticides effectively reduced the larval population of M. plana, trichlorfon, lambda-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin EC were the fastest-acting. The larval population dropped below the economic threshold level (ETL) 30 days after a single application of the synthetic insecticides. Application of Btk, however, gave poor results, with the larval population remaining above the ETL post treatment. In terms of operational productivity, ground spraying using power spray equipment was time-consuming and resulted in poor coverage. Power spraying may not be appropriate for controlling M. plana infestations in large fields. Using a power sprayer, one man could cover 2–3 ha per day. Hence, power spraying is recommended during outbreaks of infestation in areas smaller than 50 ha. PMID:26868711

  20. Efficacy of Insecticide and Bioinsecticide Ground Sprays to Control Metisa plana Walker (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) in Oil Palm Plantations, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Salim, Hasber; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo

    2015-12-01

    The effectiveness of the synthetic insecticides trichlorfon, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin emulsion concentrated (EC) and cypermethrin emulsion water based (EW) and a bio-insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk), was evaluated at 3, 7, 14 and 30 days after treatment (DAT) for the control of Metisa plana larvae in an oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation in Malaysia. Although all synthetic insecticides effectively reduced the larval population of M. plana, trichlorfon, lambda-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin EC were the fastest-acting. The larval population dropped below the economic threshold level (ETL) 30 days after a single application of the synthetic insecticides. Application of Btk, however, gave poor results, with the larval population remaining above the ETL post treatment. In terms of operational productivity, ground spraying using power spray equipment was time-consuming and resulted in poor coverage. Power spraying may not be appropriate for controlling M. plana infestations in large fields. Using a power sprayer, one man could cover 2-3 ha per day. Hence, power spraying is recommended during outbreaks of infestation in areas smaller than 50 ha.

  1. Outcomes of transconjunctival sutureless 27-gauge micro-incision vitrectomy surgery in diabetic vitreous haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Shahzadi, Bashiran; Rizwi, Syed Fawad; Qureshi, Faisal Murtaza; Latif, Kanwal; Mahmood, Syed Asaad

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the visual outcomes of 27-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy surgery and its complications in patients with diabetic vitreous hemorrhage. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted where eighty seven eyes of 87 uncontrolled type II diabetes mellitus patients presenting with diabetic vitreous hemorrhage were selected to undergo 27-gauge transconjunctival sutureless micro-incision vitrectomy surgery. Main outcome measured was best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Post-operative complications were also screened for at each visit. The follow ups were at post-operative day one, one month, three months and six months respectively. Results: Out of 87 patients, 52 (59.8%) were males and 35 (40.2%) were females. The mean age of the patients was 52.32 ± 6.78 years (95% CI: 53.13 - 55.57). For most of the patients, the BCVA improved progressively with each subsequent follow up visit. Pre-operative BCVA was 1.01 ± 0.206 logMar, compared to BCVA at final follow up of 0.44 ± 0.231 (p-value < 0.001). Six (6.9%) patients developed recurrent vitreous hemorrhage during the study period, four (4.6%) developed cataract, one (1.1%) had increased intraocular pressure and sub conjunctival hemorrhage was present in two (2.3%). Conclusion: 27-gauge micro-incision vitrectomy surgery is an effective sutureless surgery with favorable outcomes, in terms of vision, in patients with diabetic vitreous hemorrhage. The associated complications are few which can be easily managed. PMID:28367178

  2. Vitrectomy for optic disk pit with macular schisis and outer retinal dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Dhananjay; Kalliath, Jay; Tandon, Manish; Vijayakumar, Balakrishnan

    2012-07-01

    To describe the outcomes of vitrectomy for optic disc pit-related maculopathy with central outer retinal dehiscence. This prospective interventional case series included seven patients with optic disc pit with macular schisis and central outer retinal dehiscence who underwent vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling, barrage laser photocoagulation, and gas tamponade and were followed for at least 6 months. The surgical outcomes in terms of restoration of macular anatomy and visual improvement were recorded at each visit by fundus photography and optical coherence tomography. The mean age of the patients was 21.3 ± 8.6 years (range, 10-35 years), and the mean duration of defective vision was 6.7 ± 8.5 months (range, 1-24 months). Preoperatively, the median best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/60 (range, 20/40 to 20/120). Full-thickness macular holes were noticed in 4 patients 1 month postoperatively. Gas tamponade was repeated in two patients with large macular holes. By the final follow-up, macular holes had closed and BCVA improved in all patients except one. Final mean central macular thickness was 176.83 ± 55.74 μ, the range being 109 μ to 256 μ. The median postoperative BCVA was 20/30 (range, 20/20 to 20/80). Six of 7 patients (85.7%) had improvement in BCVA postoperatively (mean, +2 lines; range, 1-4 lines). Five patients (71%) achieved a postoperative BCVA of ≥20/30. Best-corrected visual acuity dropped by one line in the patient with persistent macular hole. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling can achieve excellent final surgical outcomes in optic pit maculopathy with outer retinal dehiscence despite the potential for macular hole formation.

  3. Drying temperature effects on electrical and optical properties of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, N. E. A.; Affendi, I. H. H.; Shafura, A. K.; Shariffudin, S. S.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    Temperature effects on electrical and optical properties of a representative semiconducting polymer, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV), has recently attracted much attention. The MEH-PPV thin films were deposited at different drying temperature (anneal temperature) using spin-coating technique. The spin coating technique was used to produce uniform film onto large area. The MEH-PPV was dissolved in toluene solution to exhibits different optical and electrical properties. The absorption coefficient and bandgap was measured using UV-Visible-NIR (UV-VIS-NIR). The bandgap of MEH-PPV was effect by the thickness of thin films. For electrical properties, two-point probe was used to characterize the current-voltage measurement. The current-voltage measurement shows that the MEH-PPV thin films become more conductive at high temperature. This study will provide better performance and suitable for optoelectronic device especially OLEDs applications.

  4. Vitrectomy and fluid/silicone-oil exchange for giant retinal tears: results at six months.

    PubMed Central

    Leaver, P. K.; Cooling, R. J.; Feretis, E. B.; Lean, J. S.; McLeod, D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of vitrectomy combined with fluid/silicone-oil exchange in 73 eyes with giant retinal tears are reported at six months after surgery. Initial anatomical success was achieved in 71 out of 73 eyes (97%) and, prior to removal of silicone-oil, in 66 out of 73 eyes (90%). In 63 eyes (86%) the retina remained attached six months after surgery. Of these visual acuity was 6/60 or better in 44 (70%). The high proportion of eyes with macular detachment before surgery and the frequency of macular abnormalities are thought to account for reduced vision in many of the anatomically successful cases. PMID:6722076

  5. Comparison of clinical outcome between 23-G and 25-G vitrectomy in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Taleb, Eman Abo; Nagpal, Manish P.; Mehrotra, Navneet S.; Bhatt, Kalyani; Goswami, Sangeeta; Babalola, Yewande O.; Noman, Abdulrahman

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the clinical outcomes and complications between 23-G and 25-G vitrectomy in patients with diabetic vitreous hemorrhage (VH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective comparative study comprising 69 eyes (36 eyes in 23-G group and 33 eyes in 25-G group) of 65 patients who underwent vitrectomy with air tamponade for diabetic vitreous hemorrhage (VH) with at least 6 months of follow-up was conducted. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups in age, gender, bilaterality, type of diabetes, presence of hypertension, lens status, and previous argon laser photocoagulation state (P > 0.05). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of both groups at postoperative 1 month logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) (1.06 ± 0.99, 0.90 ± 0.96), 3 months logMAR (1.07 ± 0.93, 0.83 ± 0.85), and 6 months logMAR (1.03 ± 0.89, 0.83 ± 0.85) significantly improved from the preoperative BCVA logMAR (2.03 ± 0.83, 2.15 ± 0.99) for 23-G group, 25-G group, respectively (P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in BCVA between the two groups preoperatively and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively (P = 0.566, 0.506, 0.333, and 0.445, respectively), incidence of intraoperative wound suturing (21.4%, 15.2%), postoperative hypotony (0.0%, 0.0%), early postoperative VH (POVH) (11.1%, 15.2%), late POVH (5.6%, 0.0%), retinal detachment (2.8%, 6.1%), neovascular glaucoma (92.8%, 9.1%), and endophthalmitis (0.0%, 0.0%) for 23-G group, 25-G group, respectively (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: 25-G vitrectomy is as effective for PDR as 23-G vitrectomy. PMID:29118498

  6. Effect of solvents on the optical and morphological properties of MEH-PPV: PC70BM nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhamdi, Asya; Ltaief, Adnen; Bouazizi, Abdelaziz

    2017-10-01

    Focused on phase separation and morphologies of polymer poly [2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl) hexoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and [6,6]-phenylC71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) nanocomposite, we studied the effect of organic solvent on the optical and morphological properties of these blends. The MEH-PPV: PC70BM films was prepared using three different solvent; Tetrahydrofuran (THF), Chlorobenzene (CB) and Toluene. On the other hand, the effect of 1-8 octanedithiol additives is also studied with the same different solvents. These blend films are characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The photoluminescence results show that the THF solvent provide the better charge transfer. In a morphological view point, the phase segregation was clearly appearing by the addition of the additive on the surface of the blend films.

  7. INCOMPLETE REPAIR OF RETINAL STRUCTURE AFTER VITRECTOMY WITH INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Toshio; Tachibana, Takashi; Notomi, Shoji; Nakatake, Shunji; Fujiwara, Kohta; Murakami, Yusuke; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Shigeo; Enaida, Hiroshi; Murata, Toshinori; Sakamoto, Taiji; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2017-08-01

    To examine retinal changes after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, we used a cynomolgus monkey model and focused on surgical damages of ILM peeling for long observational period of 3 years. Vitrectomy was performed followed by ILM peeling similar to clinical settings in humans. Ultrastructural changes of the retina were investigated by light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy at 3 months and 3 years after ILM peeling. Ultrastructural study showed that the ILM peeled area was still clearly recognized after 3 years. The Müller cell processes covered most of the retina; however, the nerve fiber layer was partly uncovered and exposed to the vitreous space. The arcuate linear nerve fiber bundles were observed as comparable with dissociated optic nerve fiber layer appearance. Small round retinal surface defects were also observed around macula, resembling the dimple sign. Forceps-related retinal thinning was also found on the edge of ILM peeling, where we started peeling with fine forceps. The ultrastructural studies showed that most of ILM peeling area was covered with glial cells during wound healing processes. Retinal changes were found comparable with dissociated optic nerve fiber layer appearance or dimple sign, which were clinically observed with optical coherence tomography.

  8. Effects of internal limiting membrane peeling during vitrectomy for macula-off primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Teijeiro, María José; Bande Rodriguez, Manuel; Mansilla Cuñarro, Raquel; Paniagua Fernández, Laura; Ruiz-Oliva Ruiz, Francisco; Piñeiro Ces, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    To determine the effectiveness of internal limiting membrane peeling during vitrectomy for macula-off primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in the prevention of postoperative epiretinal membrane formation and achievement of good visual outcomes and to identify preoperative and intraoperative risk factors for epiretinal membrane formation. We retrospectively analyzed data from 62 eyes of 62 consecutive patients with macula-off primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment who underwent vitrectomy with (n = 30) or without (n = 32) internal limiting membrane peeling between January 2014 and March 2016 and were followed up for at least 12 months. The effects of internal limiting membrane peeling on visual outcomes and postoperative recovery of the macular structure were determined. We subsequently divided patients into an epiretinal membrane group and a non-epiretinal membrane group and assessed the effects of various preoperative and intraoperative factors on postoperative epiretinal membrane formation. Postoperative epiretinal membrane developed in 10 patients in the no internal limiting membrane peeling group and three patients in the internal limiting membrane peeling group. Postoperative visual acuity significantly improved in both groups. Epiretinal membrane formation was found to be correlated with a higher number of retinal breaks. Our results suggest that internal limiting membrane peeling during macula-off primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery can reduce the occurrence of postoperative epiretinal membrane, is safe, and results in favorable visual outcomes.

  9. Evaluation of glutaraldehyde and povidone iodine for sterilization of wide-field contact vitrectomy lenses.

    PubMed

    Das, T; Sharma, S; Singh, J; Rao, V; Chalam, K V

    2001-01-01

    Wide-field vitrectomy contact lenses are currently sterilized with ethylene oxide gas, and other lenses with autoclaving. To maintain a large inventory or possibly run the risk of loss of lens quality with repeated autoclaving, glutaraldehyde 2% and povidone iodine 5% solution were evaluated as possible sterilizing agents. Ethylene oxide presterilized lenses were contaminated with known concentrations (10(5) organisms/mL) of bacteria (S. epidemidis, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis), and fungi (A. flavus, C. albicans) for 5 minutes. The test lenses were treated with glutaraldehyde or povidone iodine for 5, 10, 30, 60, and 120 minutes, and controls with sterilized water for a similar duration. Following treatment, both test and control lenses were sampled with sterile cotton swabs. The swabs were cultured for bacteria (tryptone soya broth 48 hours), and fungi (Saubourd's dextrose broth 5 days). The culture was negative for both glutaraldehyde- and povidone iodine-treated lenses against all organisms at all time points except B subtilis, which needed 120 minutes treatment. Two hours contact time with glutaraldehyde 2% or providone iodine 5% can sterilize vitrectomy contact lenses against common bacteria and fungi without affecting lens quality.

  10. Vitrectomy for primary symptomatic vitreous opacities: an evidence-based review

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, T; Jalil, A; Antoniou, Y; Bishop, P N; Vallejo-Garcia, J L; Patton, N

    2016-01-01

    Floaters are a common ocular condition which form as a consequence of aging changes in the vitreous. Although in most patients the symptoms are minimal, they can cause significant impairment in vision-related quality of life in a small population of patients. Recently there has been an increase in awareness of the visual disability caused by floaters, and the evidence-base for treatment of this condition using small-gauge vitrectomy has increased. In this review, we define the term ‘floaters' as symptomatic vitreous opacities (SVO). We suggest a classification dependent on the presence or absence of posterior vitreous detachment and discuss their pathogenesis and natural history. We review their impact on patients' quality of life related to visual function. We review the psychological factors that may have a role in some patients who appear to be affected by SVO to the extent that they pursue all options including surgery with all its attendant risks. We summarise the available evidence-base of treatment options available for SVO with special emphasis on the safety and efficacy of vitrectomy for this condition. PMID:26939559

  11. An effective system for detecting protein-protein interaction based on in vivo cleavage by PPV NIa protease.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nuoyan; Huang, Xiahe; Yin, Bojiao; Wang, Dan; Xie, Qi

    2012-12-01

    Detection of protein-protein interaction can provide valuable information for investigating the biological function of proteins. The current methods that applied in protein-protein interaction, such as co-immunoprecipitation and pull down etc., often cause plenty of working time due to the burdensome cloning and purification procedures. Here we established a system that characterization of protein-protein interaction was accomplished by co-expression and simply purification of target proteins from one expression cassette within E. coli system. We modified pET vector into co-expression vector pInvivo which encoded PPV NIa protease, two cleavage site F and two multiple cloning sites that flanking cleavage sites. The target proteins (for example: protein A and protein B) were inserted at multiple cloning sites and translated into polyprotein in the order of MBP tag-protein A-site F-PPV NIa protease-site F-protein B-His(6) tag. PPV NIa protease carried out intracellular cleavage along expression, then led to the separation of polyprotein components, therefore, the interaction between protein A-protein B can be detected through one-step purification and analysis. Negative control for protein B was brought into this system for monitoring interaction specificity. We successfully employed this system to prove two cases of reported protien-protein interaction: RHA2a/ANAC and FTA/FTB. In conclusion, a convenient and efficient system has been successfully developed for detecting protein-protein interaction.

  12. Poly(2,5-bis(N-Methyl-N-Hexylamino)Phenylene Vinylene) (BAM-PPV) as Pretreatment Coating for Aerospace Applications: Laboratory and Field Studies.

    PubMed

    Zarras, Peter; Buhrmaster, Diane; Webber, Cindy; Anderson, Nicole; Stenger-Smith, John D; Goodman, Paul A

    2014-12-17

    In this study, an electroactive polymer (EAP), poly(2,5-bis( N -methyl- N -hexylamino)phenylene vinylene) (BAM-PPV) was investigated as a potential alternative surface pretreatment for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI))-based aerospace coatings. BAM-PPV was tested as a pretreatment coating on an aerospace aluminum alloy (AA2024-T3) substrate in combination with a non-Cr(VI) epoxy primer and a polyurethane Advanced Performance Coating (APC) topcoat. This testing was undertaken to determine BAM-PPV's adhesion, corrosion-inhibition, compatibility and survivability in laboratory testing and during outdoor field-testing. BAM-PPV showed excellent adhesion and acceptable corrosion performance in laboratory testing. The BAM-PPV aerospace coating system (BAM-PPV, non-Cr(VI) epoxy primer and polyurethane APC topcoat) was field tested for one year on the rear hatch door of the United States Air Force C-5 cargo plane. After one year of field testing there was no evidence of delamination or corrosion of the BAM-PPV aerospace coating system.

  13. RECURRENT MACULAR HOLES IN THE ERA OF SMALL-GAUGE VITRECTOMY: A Review of Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Abbey, Ashkan M; Van Laere, Lily; Shah, Ankoor R; Hassan, Tarek S

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the preoperative features, intraoperative management, and postoperative outcomes of recurrent macular holes that developed after initial successful repair with small-gauge vitrectomy techniques. We retrospectively reviewed 392 eyes with idiopathic macular holes successfully treated with small-gauge vitrectomy. Thirteen of these eyes underwent reoperation after macular hole reopening. We assessed patient demographics, visual acuity, postoperative anatomical success, potential precipitating clinical factors of hole reopening, and details of the surgical repairs of these eyes. Macular hole reopening occurred in 13 (3.3%) of 392 eyes in a mean of 28 months (range, 1-120 months) after initial repair. All 13 recurrent holes closed after a second vitrectomy, but 4 (31%) holes reopened again and had vitrectomy. Of these, 2 reopened a third time. Ultimately, 11 (85%) holes were closed at the most recent follow-up. The mean best-corrected visual acuity was 20/81 before initial repair, 20/148 after the first reopening, 20/115 after repair of the first reopening, and 20/55 after repair of >1 reopening. Ten of 13 (77%) patients had, or later developed, macular holes in the other eye during follow-up. Reoperation successfully achieved hole closure and ultimate visual improvement in most eyes with recurrent macular holes. Most patients with recurrent holes previously had, or later developed, full-thickness macular holes in the other eye.

  14. Comparison of Efficacy and Safety between Transconjunctival 23-Gauge and Conventional 20-Gauge Vitrectomy Systems in Macular Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gurelik, Gokhan; Hasanreisoglu, Berati

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare the efficacy and safety of 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy with the conventional 20-gauge method in idiopathic epiretinal membrane and macular hole surgery. Methods Sixty-one consecutive patients undergoing vitrectomy for idiopathic epiretinal membrane and macular hole were recruited to either 20- or 23-gauge vitrectomy groups and prospectively evaluated. Surgical success rates, operating time, surgery-related complications, long-term visual outcomes, and postoperative ocular surface problems are compared in the two groups. Results There were 31 eyes in the 20-gauge group and 33 eyes in the 23-gauge group. The macular hole closure rate after the first surgery was 83% and 90.9% in the 20-gauge and 23-gauge groups, respectively, with no significant difference between groups (p = 0.59). The success rate for idiopathic epiretinal membranes cases was 100% in both groups. There was no statistically significant difference between overall surgical times (p = 0.90). None of the patients in either group experienced postoperative complications of severe postoperative hypotony, vitreous hemorrhage or endophthalmitis, except one eye in the 20-gauge group, which was found to have retinal detachment. In both groups, statistically significant improvement in visual acuity was achieved 1-month postoperatively (p = 0.002) and thereafter at all postoperative visits (p < 0.05). The mean ocular surface scores were significantly lower in the 23-gauge group at all postoperative visits compared with the 20-gauge group scores (p = 0.001). Conclusions Transconjunctival 23-gauge vitrectomy appears to be as effective and safe as conventional 20-gauge vitrectomy in idiopathic epiretinal membrane and macular hole surgeries. PMID:23060720

  15. [Proximal chemical composition and functional properties of fresh meat of crab claws (Homalaspis plana)].

    PubMed

    Abugoch, L; Barrios, J; Guarda, A

    1996-12-01

    The research of alternative technological processes is being necessary in order to obtain a better utilization of hydrobiologic resources and food products, with higher added value. Crab (Homolaspis plana) is a crustacean found along the Chilean coast, whose flesh is exported as a frozen product. The resource crab is scantly studied in Chile and could became an excellent raw material for "delicatessen" products, with a high market value. The proximal composition, through the protein, fat, moisture and ashes content was determined. The non nitrogen extract was calculated by difference. The functional properties (water retention, emulsifying and gel-forming capacities) of fresh crab claws meat without additives were measured. The proximal composition for the claw meat was: 79,34 +/- 1.12% moisture, 16.75 +/- 1.29% protein, 1.86 +/- 0.11% ashes, 0.11 +/- 0.01 fat % and 1.93 +/- 1.07% N.N.E. In relation with the emulsifying capacity, claw meat was able to emulsify 2,259.03 +/- 73.04 g vegetal oil/g protein. The water retention was 154.49 +/- 6.85% representing the increase in mass percent; and the force of the gel formed in claw meat was 195.3 +/- 17.16 g-force x cm. According to these results, the claw crab is an attractive food, with a high protein and low fat content. Crab meat showed an excellent emulsifying capacity and water retention, so it can be used as a good raw material for the development of smearing products. In the case of gel-like products, further studies will be required, in order to optimize the conditions in which a stronger gel could be obtained.

  16. Effect of Intravenous Acetaminophen on Postoperative Pain in Vitrectomy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Sadrolsadat, Seyed Hossein; Yousefshahi, Fardin; Ostadalipour, Abbas; Mohammadi, Fatemeh Zahra; Makarem, Jalil

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, pain, nausea, and vomiting are regarded as important complications of anesthesia and surgery. The current study aimed at assessing the effect of preemptive intravenous acetaminophen on control of pain, nausea, vomiting, shivering, and drowsiness following the general anesthesia for retina and/or vitrectomy surgeries. In a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial, 83 candidates for retina or vitrectomy eye surgery under general anesthesia were distributed into 3 groups: A) 41 patients in the control group who received 100 mL of normal saline just before the surgery and 100 mL of normal saline 20 minutes before the end of surgery; B) 21 patients in the preemptive group who received acetaminophen 15 mg/kg in 100 mL normal saline just before the surgery and 100 mL normal saline 20 minutes before the end of surgery; C) 21 patients in the preventive group who received 100 mL normal saline just before the surgery and acetaminophen 15 mg/kg in 100 mL normal saline 20 minutes before the end of surgery. Pain, nausea, vomiting, and shivering were assessed at the recovery and 2, 4, and 24 hours after the operation. Anesthesia emergence situation was assessed after arrival in the recovery room by the Richmond agitation-sedation scale (RASS) questionnaire. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded before anesthesia induction, just after intubation, before extubation, and on discharge from the recovery room. Total intraoperative fentanyl, duration of operation, and duration of anesthesia were not different among the studied groups. Vital signs were not statistically different among the groups at before anesthesia induction, just after intubation, before extubation, and on discharge from the recovery room. Thirty-three patients in the control group (87.8%), 11 in preemptive (52.4%), and 14 in preventive groups (66.7%) needed acetaminophen in the first 24 hours after the surgery (P value = 0.008). Pain scores measured by visual rating scale (VRS) was lower in the

  17. Effect of Intravenous Acetaminophen on Postoperative Pain in Vitrectomy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sadrolsadat, Seyed Hossein; Yousefshahi, Fardin; Ostadalipour, Abbas; Mohammadi, Fatemeh Zahra; Makarem, Jalil

    2017-01-01

    Background Nowadays, pain, nausea, and vomiting are regarded as important complications of anesthesia and surgery. The current study aimed at assessing the effect of preemptive intravenous acetaminophen on control of pain, nausea, vomiting, shivering, and drowsiness following the general anesthesia for retina and/or vitrectomy surgeries. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial, 83 candidates for retina or vitrectomy eye surgery under general anesthesia were distributed into 3 groups: A) 41 patients in the control group who received 100 mL of normal saline just before the surgery and 100 mL of normal saline 20 minutes before the end of surgery; B) 21 patients in the preemptive group who received acetaminophen 15 mg/kg in 100 mL normal saline just before the surgery and 100 mL normal saline 20 minutes before the end of surgery; C) 21 patients in the preventive group who received 100 mL normal saline just before the surgery and acetaminophen 15 mg/kg in 100 mL normal saline 20 minutes before the end of surgery. Pain, nausea, vomiting, and shivering were assessed at the recovery and 2, 4, and 24 hours after the operation. Anesthesia emergence situation was assessed after arrival in the recovery room by the Richmond agitation-sedation scale (RASS) questionnaire. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded before anesthesia induction, just after intubation, before extubation, and on discharge from the recovery room. Results Total intraoperative fentanyl, duration of operation, and duration of anesthesia were not different among the studied groups. Vital signs were not statistically different among the groups at before anesthesia induction, just after intubation, before extubation, and on discharge from the recovery room. Thirty-three patients in the control group (87.8%), 11 in preemptive (52.4%), and 14 in preventive groups (66.7%) needed acetaminophen in the first 24 hours after the surgery (P value = 0.008). Pain scores measured by visual rating scale

  18. Resistance to Plum Pox Virus (PPV) in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is associated with down-regulation of two MATHd genes.

    PubMed

    Zuriaga, Elena; Romero, Carlos; Blanca, Jose Miguel; Badenes, Maria Luisa

    2018-01-27

    Plum pox virus (PPV), causing Sharka disease, is one of the main limiting factors for Prunus production worldwide. In apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) the major PPV resistance locus (PPVres), comprising ~ 196 kb, has been mapped to the upper part of linkage group 1. Within the PPVres, 68 genomic variants linked in coupling to PPV resistance were identified within 23 predicted transcripts according to peach genome annotation. Taking into account the predicted functions inferred from sequence homology, some members of a cluster of meprin and TRAF-C homology domain (MATHd)-containing genes were pointed as PPV resistance candidate genes. Here, we have characterized the global apricot transcriptome response to PPV-D infection identifying six PPVres locus genes (ParP-1 to ParP-6) differentially expressed in resistant/susceptible cultivars. Two of them (ParP-3 and ParP-4), that encode MATHd proteins, appear clearly down-regulated in resistant cultivars, as confirmed by qRT-PCR. Concurrently, variant calling was performed using whole-genome sequencing data of 24 apricot cultivars (10 PPV-resistant and 14 PPV-susceptible) and 2 wild relatives (PPV-susceptible). ParP-3 and ParP-4, named as Prunus armeniaca PPVres MATHd-containing genes (ParPMC), are the only 2 genes having allelic variants linked in coupling to PPV resistance. ParPMC1 has 1 nsSNP, while ParPMC2 has 15 variants, including a 5-bp deletion within the second exon that produces a frameshift mutation. ParPMC1 and ParPMC2 are adjacent and highly homologous (87.5% identity) suggesting they are paralogs originated from a tandem duplication. Cultivars carrying the ParPMC2 resistant (mutated) allele show lack of expression in both ParPMC2 and especially ParPMC1. Accordingly, we hypothesize that ParPMC2 is a pseudogene that mediates down-regulation of its functional paralog ParPMC1 by silencing. As a whole, results strongly support ParPMC1 and/or ParPMC2 as host susceptibility genes required for PPV infection which

  19. Synthesis of capped TiO2 nanocrystals of controlled shape and their use with MEH-PPV conjugated polymer to develop nanocomposite films for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mighri, F.; Duong, Vu Thi Thuy; On, Do Trong; Ajji, A.

    2014-05-01

    This study presents the synthesis details of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) of different shapes (nanospheres, nanorods and nanorhombics) using oleic acid (OA) and oleyl amine (OM) as capping agents. In order to develop nanocomposite thin films for photovoltaic cells, these TiO2 NPs were carefully dispersed in 2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene (MEH-PPV) matrix. The properties of synthesized TiO2 NPs and MEH-PPV/TiO2 nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV-Visible spectroscopy, and Photoluminescence technique. It was found that the shape of NPs and the amount of OA and OM surfactants capped on their surface have an effect on their energy bandgap and also on the dispersion quality of MEH-PPV/TiO2 nanocomposites. Even though there was no evidence of chemical bonding between MEH-PPV matrix and TiO2 dispersed NPs, MEH-PPV/TiO2 nanocomposites showed very promising results for light absorption properties and charge transfer at the interface of the conjugated MEH-PPV matrix and TiO2 dispersed NPs, which are two main characteristics for photovoltaic materials.

  20. Poly(2,5-bis(N-Methyl-N-Hexylamino)Phenylene Vinylene) (BAM-PPV) as Pretreatment Coating for Aerospace Applications: Laboratory and Field Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zarras, Peter; Buhrmaster, Diane; Webber, Cindy; Anderson, Nicole; Stenger-Smith, John D.; Goodman, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an electroactive polymer (EAP), poly(2,5-bis(N-methyl-N-hexylamino)phenylene vinylene) (BAM-PPV) was investigated as a potential alternative surface pretreatment for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI))-based aerospace coatings. BAM-PPV was tested as a pretreatment coating on an aerospace aluminum alloy (AA2024-T3) substrate in combination with a non-Cr(VI) epoxy primer and a polyurethane Advanced Performance Coating (APC) topcoat. This testing was undertaken to determine BAM-PPV’s adhesion, corrosion-inhibition, compatibility and survivability in laboratory testing and during outdoor field-testing. BAM-PPV showed excellent adhesion and acceptable corrosion performance in laboratory testing. The BAM-PPV aerospace coating system (BAM-PPV, non-Cr(VI) epoxy primer and polyurethane APC topcoat) was field tested for one year on the rear hatch door of the United States Air Force C-5 cargo plane. After one year of field testing there was no evidence of delamination or corrosion of the BAM-PPV aerospace coating system. PMID:28788292

  1. Influence of the CdSe quantum dots concentration on the amplified spontaneous emission from the conjugated polymer (MEH-PPV) in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibnaouf, K. H.

    2015-04-01

    The spectral properties of a conjugated polymer poly [2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) in benzene have been studied intensively. The fluorescence spectra for MEH-PPV, under low concentrations, have shown two peaks around 560 nm and 600 nm, which could be attributed to the monomer and excimer states respectively. In our earlier communication, we had shown that MEH-PPV alone could produce amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) only in its excimeric state (600 nm). The spectral properties of 5 nm size of CdSe (core) quantum dots have been investigated. The fluorescence spectra of CdSe core in benzene showed only one band at 590 nm. Mixtures made of MEH-PPV and CdSe (core) quantum dots have been utilized for studying the amplified spontaneous emission characteristics (ASE) in an organic solution under laser excitation. When the mixture was pumped by the third harmonic of Nd:YAG (355 nm), we observed two ASE peaks; one at 575 nm and another at 595 nm. These ASE peaks could arise from the monomer and excimer states of MEH-PPV. This is perhaps the first report on the influence of quantum dots on the laser from the conjugated polymer MEH-PPV, in liquid solution.

  2. VITRECTOMY FOR INTERMEDIATE AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION ASSOCIATED WITH TANGENTIAL VITREOMACULAR TRACTION: A CLINICOPATHOLOGIC CORRELATION.

    PubMed

    Ziada, Jean; Hagenau, Felix; Compera, Denise; Wolf, Armin; Scheler, Renate; Schaumberger, Markus M; Priglinger, Siegfried G; Schumann, Ricarda G

    2018-03-01

    To describe the morphologic characteristics of the vitreomacular interface in intermediate age-related macular degeneration associated with tangential traction due to premacular membrane formation and to correlate with optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings and clinical data. Premacular membrane specimens were removed sequentially with the internal limiting membrane from 27 eyes of 26 patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration during standard vitrectomy. Specimens were processed for immunocytochemical staining of epiretinal cells and extracellular matrix components. Ultrastructural analysis was performed using transmission electron microscopy. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography images and patient charts were evaluated in retrospect. Immunocytochemistry revealed hyalocytes and myofibroblasts as predominant cell types. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated evidence of vitreoschisis in all eyes. Myofibroblasts with contractile properties were observed to span between folds of the internal limiting membrane and vitreous cortex collagen. Retinal pigment epithelial cells or inflammatory cells were not detected. Mean visual acuity (Snellen) showed significant improvement from 20/72 ± 20/36 to 20/41 ± 20/32 (P < 0.001) after a mean follow-up period of 19 months (median, 17 months). During this period, none of the eyes required anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Fibrocellular premacular proliferation in intermediate age-related macular degeneration predominantly consists of vitreous collagen, hyalocytes, and myofibroblasts with contractile properties. Vitreoschisis and vitreous-derived cells appear to play an important role in traction formation of this subgroup of eyes. In patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration and contractile premacular membrane, release of traction by vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling results in significantly functional and anatomical improvement.

  3. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling vs no peeling for Macular Hole-induced Retinal Detachment (MHRD): a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Su, Jing; Liu, Xinquan; Zheng, Lijun; Cui, Hongping

    2015-06-20

    we conducted our meta-analysis of published studies to assess existing evidence about the efficacy and safety of vitrectomy with ILM peeling vs. that of vitrectomy with no ILM peeling for Macular hole-induced retinal detachment. Databases, including Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Ovid, Web of Science, Wanfang and CNKI, were searched to identify studies comparing outcomes following vitrectomy with ILM peeling and that with no ILM peeling for macular hole-induced retinal detachment. The meta-analysis was performed by RevMan 5.1. Six comparative studies comprising 180 eyes were identified. It was indicated that the rate of retinal reattachment (Odds ratio (OR) = 3.03, 95 % Confidence interval (CI):1.35 to 6.78; P = 0.007) and macular hole closure (OR = 6.74, 95 % CI:3.26 to 13.93; P < 0.001) after initial surgery was higher and the rate of recurrent retinal detachment (OR = 0.08, 95 % CI:0.02 to 0.30; P = 0.0002) was lower in the group of vitrectomy with ILM peeling than that in the group of vitrectomy with no ILM peeling. However, the improved BCVA (Weighted mean difference (WMD) = 0.14, 95 % CI: -0.20 to 0.47; P = 0.42) and the rate of postoperative complications were similar between the two groups. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling is an efficient and safe procedure for macular hole-induced retinal detachment.

  4. Pollution biomarkers in two estuarine invertebrates, Nereis diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana, from a Marsh ecosystem in SW Spain.

    PubMed

    Solé, Montserrat; Kopecka-Pilarczyk, Justyna; Blasco, Julián

    2009-04-01

    The polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor and the clam Scrobicularia plana were collected from several sites, affected by different types of contamination, in a littoral enclosure in the SW Spain (Caño Sancti-Petri and Rio San Pedro). N. diversicolor was present in 6 sampling sites whereas S. plana in 4 of them. The aim of our study was to relate several pollution biomarkers to chemical sources (metals and organic pollutants e.g. PCB, PAH) in these species, thereby confirming their adequacy as sentinels for this habitat. The biomarkers surveyed in the two invertebrates were the activities of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT), the phase II detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the neurotoxicity marker acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Metallothionein (MT) levels were measured as a biomarker of exposure to metals. The results suggested a different response in the two sediment-dwelling organisms, the sediment-eating polychaete and the water-filtering clam, probably as a consequence of different contamination exposures. The results also suggested that samples from the "Caño Sancti-Petri" were exposed to biologically active compounds that altered some of their biochemical responses. Of all the biomarkers tested, AChE was the most sensitive one and N. diversicolor the potentially most robust sentinel in this ecosystem. In this low to moderately polluted environment, the biochemical approach better reflected temporal trends than site-related differences although it was also able to detect punctual chemical insults.

  5. Controlling morphology and chain aggregation in semiconducting conjugated polymers: the role of solvent on optical gain in MEH-PPV.

    PubMed

    Lampert, Zach E; Reynolds, C Lewis; Papanikolas, John M; Aboelfotoh, M Osama

    2012-10-25

    We report the results of a detailed investigation that addresses the influence of polymer morphology and chain aggregation, as controlled by the chemical nature of the solvent, on the optical gain properties of the conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV). Using the variable stripe length technique in the picosecond regime, we have extensively studied the optical gain performance of asymmetric planar waveguides formed with thin MEH-PPV films spin-cast from concentrated chlorobenzene (CB) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) solutions onto thermally oxidized silicon substrates. CB and THF solvents were chosen based on their known ability to promote and effectively limit aggregate formation, respectively. Very large net gain coefficients are demonstrated, reaching values of 330 and 365 cm(-1), respectively, when optically pumping the waveguides with a maximum energy density of 85 μJ/cm(2). Our results clearly demonstrate that polymer morphology, and hence, the chain conformation dependence of the degree of aggregation in the films as controlled by the solvent, has minimal impact on the net gain. Moreover, the waveguides exhibit low loss coefficients of 10-20 cm(-1) at the ASE wavelength. These results question the importance of polymer morphology and aggregate formation in polymer-based optical devices operating at high excitation densities in the stimulated emission regime as would be characteristic of lasers and optical amplifiers.

  6. Analytical model for the photocurrent-voltage characteristics of bilayer MEH-PPV/TiO2 photovoltaic devices

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The photocurrent in bilayer polymer photovoltaic cells is dominated by the exciton dissociation efficiency at donor/acceptor interface. An analytical model is developed for the photocurrent-voltage characteristics of the bilayer polymer/TiO2 photovoltaic cells. The model gives an analytical expression for the exciton dissociation efficiency at the interface, and explains the dependence of the photocurrent of the devices on the internal electric field, the polymer and TiO2 layer thicknesses. Bilayer polymer/TiO2 cells consisting of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and TiO2, with different thicknesses of the polymer and TiO2 films, were prepared for experimental purposes. The experimental results for the prepared bilayer MEH-PPV/TiO2 cells under different conditions are satisfactorily fitted to the model. Results show that increasing TiO2 or the polymer layer in thickness will reduce the exciton dissociation efficiency in the device and further the photocurrent. It is found that the photocurrent is determined by the competition between the exciton dissociation and charge recombination at the donor/acceptor interface, and the increase in photocurrent under a higher incident light intensity is due to the increased exciton density rather than the increase in the exciton dissociation efficiency. PMID:21711905

  7. The treatment of postoperative endophthalmitis: should we still follow the endophthalmitis vitrectomy study more than two decades after its publication?

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Turczynowska, Magdalena; Kuhn, Ferenc

    2017-12-02

    Conducted in the early 1990s Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study (EVS) have helped in establishing reasonable guidelines for the management of infectious postoperative endophthalmitis. However at present, more than 20 years after its publication, tremendous progress has been introduced in vitrectomy technology, which now permits the vitreoretinal surgeon to perform surgery more safely, and with better outcomes. Moerover, performing a complete vitreous removal, along with the moving up of the surgical intervention to as early as possible allows the prevention of complications that would limit the functional improvement postoperatively. Thus, it is now highly needed to re-evaluate the conclusions of the EVS study. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Phytohormone Signaling of the Resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV, Sharka Disease) Induced by Almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) Webb) Grafting to Peach (P. persica L. Batsch).

    PubMed

    Dehkordi, Azam Nikbakht; Rubio, Manuel; Babaeian, Nadali; Albacete, Alfonso; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2018-05-03

    Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka) is a limiting factor for peach production, and no natural sources of resistance have been described. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that grafting the almond cultivar "Garrigues" onto the "GF305" peach infected with Dideron-type (PPV-D) isolates progressively reduces disease symptoms and virus accumulation. Furthermore, grafting "Garrigues" onto "GF305" prior to PPV-D inoculation has been found to completely prevent virus infection, showing that resistance is constitutive and not induced by the virus. To unravel the phytohormone signaling of this mechanism, we analyzed the following phytohormones belonging to the principal hormone classes: the growth-related phytohormones cytokinin trans-zeatin (tZ) and the gibberellins GA₃ and GA₄; and the stress-related phytohormones ethylene acid precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA). PPV inoculation produced a significant increase in GA₃ and ABA in peach, and these imbalances were related to the presence of chlorosis symptoms. However, grafting "Garrigues" almond onto the PPV-inoculated "GF305" peach produced the opposite effect, reducing GA₃ and ABA contents in parallel to the elimination of symptoms. Our results showed the significant implication of SA in this induced resistance in peach with an additional effect on tZ and JA concentrations. This SA-induced resistance based in the decrease in symptoms seems to be different from Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) and Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR), which are based in other reactions producing necrosis. Further studies are necessary, however, to validate these results against PPV-D isolates in the more aggressive Marcus-type (PPV-M) isolates.

  9. [Intraocular and serum antibody titers to Leptospira in 150 horses with equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) subjected to vitrectomy].

    PubMed

    Wollanke, B; Gerhards, H; Brem, S; Kopp, H; Meyer, P

    1998-04-01

    Between February 1993 and July 1997, 150 horses suffering from recurrent uveitis were subjected to parsplana vitrectomy. In these horses, antibody titers to Leptospira serovars were determined in serum samples and in samples from diluted vitreous collected during vitrectomy. Although the vitreous samples were diluted with 250 ml of balanced salt solution, in 86 of the 150 vitreous samples (= 57%) the antibody titers were higher than in the serum samples. Additionally, serum samples from 77 horses suffering from ERU, but which were not subjected to vitrectomy, and serum samples from 97 horses with clinically normal eyes were analyzed for antibodies to Leptospira serovars. Among the 227 horses with ERU (150 treated surgically, 77 treated conservatively) 50 horses (50 of 227 = 22%) had serum antibody titers to Leptospira serovars of > or = 1:800. Among the 97 horses with clinically normal eyes, 24 horses (24 of 97 = 25%) had serum antibody titers to Leptospira serovars of > or = 1:800. In undiluted vitreous samples from 20 horses with clinically normal eyes, no antibody titers to Leptospira serovars could be detected. Among the 150 horses with ERU, 90 animals (90 of 150 = 60%) had antibody titers of > or = 1:100 in the diluted vitreous samples, the difference being highly significant (p < 0.001). The findings are discussed in relation to the etiology of recurrent uveitis in horses.

  10. Phacoemulsification combined with posterior capsulorhexis and anterior vitrectomy in the management of malignant glaucoma in phakic eyes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Li, Mei; Cheng, Bing; Mao, Zhen; Zhong, Yimin; Wang, Dandan; Cao, Dan; Yu, Fenfen; Congdon, Nathan G

    2013-11-01

      To describe sequential phacoemulsification-intraocular lens (IOL) implantation-posterior capsulorhexis-anterior vitrectomy in the management of phakic malignant glaucoma.   Twenty consecutive patients (25 eyes) with phakic malignant glaucoma were enrolled at the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University. All patients underwent phacoemulsification, IOL implantation and posterior capsulorhexis together with anterior vitrectomy via a clear corneal paracentesis. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), anterior chamber depth (ACD), surgical complications and medications required after the surgery were recorded.   After surgery, the mean LogMAR visual acuity and ACD increased significantly (visual acuity from -1.56 ± 1.17 to -0.54 ± 0.81, p < 0.001; ACD from 0.367 ± 0.397 mm to 2.390 ± 0.575 mm, p < 0.001), and mean IOP decreased significantly (from 39.6 ± 10.6 mm Hg to 14.5 ± 4.1 mmHg, p < 0.001). No serious perioperative complications occurred, and only five eyes required topical glaucoma medications after surgery.   Combined phacoemulsification-IOL implantation-posterior capsulorhexis-anterior vitrectomy surgery is a safe and effective method for treating patients with phakic malignant glaucoma. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  11. VISUALIZATION FROM INTRAOPERATIVE SWEPT-SOURCE MICROSCOPE-INTEGRATED OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN VITRECTOMY FOR COMPLICATIONS OF PROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY.

    PubMed

    Gabr, Hesham; Chen, Xi; Zevallos-Carrasco, Oscar M; Viehland, Christian; Dandrige, Alexandria; Sarin, Neeru; Mahmoud, Tamer H; Vajzovic, Lejla; Izatt, Joseph A; Toth, Cynthia A

    2018-01-10

    To evaluate the use of live volumetric (4D) intraoperative swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography in vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy complications. In this prospective study, we analyzed a subgroup of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy complications who required vitrectomy and who were imaged by the research swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography system. In near real time, images were displayed in stereo heads-up display facilitating intraoperative surgeon feedback. Postoperative review included scoring image quality, identifying different diabetic retinopathy-associated pathologies and reviewing the intraoperatively documented surgeon feedback. Twenty eyes were included. Indications for vitrectomy were tractional retinal detachment (16 eyes), combined tractional-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (2 eyes), and vitreous hemorrhage (2 eyes). Useful, good-quality 2D (B-scans) and 4D images were obtained in 16/20 eyes (80%). In these eyes, multiple diabetic retinopathy complications could be imaged. Swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography provided surgical guidance, e.g., in identifying dissection planes under fibrovascular membranes, and in determining residual membranes and traction that would benefit from additional peeling. In 4/20 eyes (20%), acceptable images were captured, but they were not useful due to high tractional retinal detachment elevation which was challenging for imaging. Swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography can provide important guidance during surgery for proliferative diabetic retinopathy complications through intraoperative identification of different complications and facilitation of intraoperative decision making.

  12. PPV-Based Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles as a Versatile Bioimaging Probe: A Closer Look at the Inherent Optical Properties and Nanoparticle-Cell Interactions.

    PubMed

    Peters, Martijn; Zaquen, Neomy; D'Olieslaeger, Lien; Bové, Hannelore; Vanderzande, Dirk; Hellings, Niels; Junkers, Thomas; Ethirajan, Anitha

    2016-08-08

    Conjugated polymers have attracted significant interest in the bioimaging field due to their excellent optical properties and biocompatibility. Tailor-made poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) conjugated polymer nanoparticles (NPs) are in here described. Two different nanoparticle systems using poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethoxyoctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV) and a functional statistical copolymer 2-(5'-methoxycarbonylpentyloxy)-5-methoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene (CPM-MDMO-PPV), containing ester groups on the alkoxy side chains, were synthesized by combining miniemulsion and solvent evaporation processes. The hydrolysis of ester groups into carboxylic acid groups on the CPM-MDMO-PPV NPs surface allows for biomolecule conjugation. The NPs exhibited excellent optical properties with a high fluorescent brightness and photostability. The NPs were in vitro tested as potential fluorescent nanoprobes for studying cell populations within the central nervous system. The cell studies demonstrated biocompatibility and surface charge dependent cellular uptake of the NPs. This study highlights that PPV-derivative based particles are a promising bioimaging probe and can cater potential applications in the field of nanomedicine.

  13. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling versus no peeling for idiopathic full-thickness macular hole.

    PubMed

    Spiteri Cornish, Kurt; Lois, Noemi; Scott, Neil W; Burr, Jennifer; Cook, Jonathan; Boachie, Charles; Tadayoni, Ramin; la Cour, Morten; Christensen, Ulrik; Kwok, Alvin K H

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling improves anatomic and functional outcomes of full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) surgery when compared with the no-peeling technique. Systematic review and individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis undertaken under the auspices of the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Patients with idiopathic stage 2, 3, and 4 FTMH undergoing vitrectomy with or without ILM peeling. Macular hole surgery, including vitrectomy and gas endotamponade with or without ILM peeling. Primary outcome was best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCdVA) at 6 months postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were BCdVA at 3 and 12 months; best-corrected near visual acuity (BCnVA) at 3, 6, and 12 months; primary (after a single surgery) and final (after >1 surgery) macular hole closure; need for additional surgical interventions; intraoperative and postoperative complications; patient-reported outcomes (PROs) (EuroQol-5D and Vision Function Questionnaire-25 scores at 6 months); and cost-effectiveness. Four RCTs were identified and included in the review. All RCTs were included in the meta-analysis; IPD were obtained from 3 of the 4 RCTs. No evidence of a difference in BCdVA at 6 months was detected (mean difference, -0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.12 to 0.03; P=0.27); however, there was evidence of a difference in BCdVA at 3 months favoring ILM peeling (mean difference, -0.09; 95% CI, -0.17 to-0.02; P=0.02). There was evidence of an effect favoring ILM peeling with regard to primary (odds ratio [OR], 9.27; 95% CI, 4.98-17.24; P<0.00001) and final macular hole closure (OR, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.63-9.75; P=0.02) and less requirement for additional surgery (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.05-0.23; P<0.00001), with no evidence of a difference between groups with regard to intraoperative or postoperative complications or PROs. The ILM peeling was found to be highly cost-effective. Available evidence

  14. Selection of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube with Narrow Diameter Distribution by Using a PPE PPV Copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Kelly A; Chen, Yusheng; Malkovskiy, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    Electronic and mechanic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are uniquely dependent on the tube's chiralities and diameters. Isolation of different type SWNTs remains one of the fundamental and challenging issues in nanotube science. Herein, we demonstrate that SWNTs can be effectively enriched to a narrow diameter range by sequential treatment of the HiPco sample with nitric acid and a {pi}-conjugated copolymer poly(phenyleneethynylene) (PPE)-co-poly(phenylenevinylene) (PPV). On the basis of Raman, fluorescence, and microscopic evidence, the nitric acid is found to selectively remove the SWNTs of small diameter. The polymer not only effectively dispersed carbon nanotubes but also exhibited a goodmore » selectivity toward a few SWNTs. The reported approach thus offers a new methodology to isolate SWNTs, which has the potential to operate in a relatively large scale.« less

  15. Seasonal variability in somatic and reproductive investment of the bivalve Scrobicularia plana (da Costa, 1778) along a latitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Sílvia; Cardoso, Joana F. M. F.; Carvalho, Célia; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C.; van der Veer, Henk W.

    2011-03-01

    Monthly investment in soma and gonads in the bivalve Scrobicularia plana is described for three populations along its distributional range: Minho estuary, Portugal; Westerschelde estuary, The Netherlands and Buvika estuary, Norway. Seasonal cycles in body mass (BMI), somatic mass (SMI) and gonadal mass (GMI) indices were observed for all populations. In Portugal, BMI and SMI peaked in mid-autumn, while in The Netherlands both indices were at their highest in mid-spring. Norway showed a different pattern with two distinct peaks: one in mid-autumn and a second peak in spring. GMI reached maximum values in July in Portugal and Netherlands and in June in Norway. Overall, mean BMI and SMI were lower in Portugal while mean GMI was lower in Norway. The spawning period lasted the whole summer in Portugal, but was shorter (only two months) in The Netherlands and Norway. The reproductive investment in The Netherlands was significantly higher than in Portugal and Norway, with the lowest values being observed in Norway. Differences in annual cycles between populations were attributed to environmental factors, namely temperature and food availability. Temperature seems important in shaping the reproductive pattern with more northern populations showing shorter reproductive periods starting later in the year, and a lower reproductive output. In addition, winter water temperatures can explain the lower mean body and somatic mass values observed in Portugal. Food availability influenced the physiological performance of the species with peaks in somatic mass coinciding with phytoplankton blooms. This relation between physiological performance and environmental factors influences S. plana distribution, densities and even survival, with natural consequences on its commercial importance.

  16. An ecotoxic risk assessment of residue materials produced by the plasma pyrolysis/vitrification (PP/V) process.

    PubMed

    Lapa, N; Santos, Oliveira J F; Camacho, S L; Circeo, L J

    2002-01-01

    Plasma is the fourth state of matter, following the three states of solid, liquid and gas. Experience has amply demonstrated that solids exposed to the oxygen-deficient plasma flame are converted to liquid, and liquid exposed to the same flame is converted to gas. A low amount of vitrified solid residue material usually remains at the end of this process. Plasma pyrolysis/vitrification (PP/V) has been demonstrated as a safe, efficient, cost-effective technology for the treatment of wastes, including hazardous wastes. Besides the low amounts of gaseous byproducts that PP/V produces, the solid vitrified residue presents a low leachability of pollutants. Studies have been performed in many countries in order to assess the leachability of chemical substances. But from the results of identified studies, none has reported results on the ecotoxicological properties of the leachates. The aim of this study was to contribute to the assessment of ecotoxic risk of four different vitrified materials. Vitrified samples of contaminated soils, municipal solid wastes, and incinerator bottom ashes were submitted to the European leaching pre-standard test number prEN 12457-2. The leachates were analyzed for 22 chemical parameters. The biological characterization comprised the assessment of bioluminescence inhibition of Photobacterium phosphoreum bacterium, growth inhibition of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata algae and the germination inhibition of Lactuca sativa vegetable. The chemical and ecotoxicological results were analyzed according to the French proposal of Criteria on the Evaluation Methods of Waste Toxicity (CEMWT) and a Toxicity Classification System (TCS). The chemical and ecotoxicological results indicated a low leachability of pollutants and a low toxicity level of leachates. All samples studied were as below the TCS class 1 level (no significant toxicity observed) and as non-ecotoxic for CEMWT. Therefore, the environmental ecotoxic risk of the analyzed vitrified samples

  17. INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING-DEPENDENT RETINAL STRUCTURAL CHANGES AFTER VITRECTOMY IN RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Toshio; Tachibana, Takashi; Notomi, Shoji; Koyanagi, Yoshito; Murakami, Yusuke; Takeda, Atsunobu; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Shigeo; Enaida, Hiroshi; Murata, Toshinori; Sakamoto, Taiji; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2018-03-01

    To examine retinal changes after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, we used 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography (3D-OCT) in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment cases. The 68 eyes from 67 patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment were studied, including 35 detached macula cases (51%) and 33 attached macula cases. Internal limiting membrane peeling was performed with fine forceps after brilliant blue G staining. The 3D-OCT images were obtained with volume-rendering technologies from cross-sectional OCT images. The 3D-OCT detected 45 eyes (66%) with ILM peeling-dependent retinal changes, including dissociated optic nerve fiber layer appearance, dimple sign, temporal macular thinning, ILM peeling area thinning, or forceps-related retinal thinning. The ILM peeled area was detectable in only 9 eyes with 3D-OCT, whereas it was undetectable in other 59 eyes. The dissociated optic nerve fiber layer appearance was detected in 8 of the total cases (12%), and dimple signs were observed in 14 cases (21%). Forceps-related thinning was also noted in eight cases (24%) of attached macula cases and in four cases (11%) of detached macula cases. No postoperative macular pucker was noted in the observational period. The 3D-OCT clearly revealed spatial and time-dependent retinal changes after ILM peeling. The changes occurred in 2 months and remained thereafter.

  18. Fluidics comparison between dual pneumatic and spring return high-speed vitrectomy systems.

    PubMed

    Brant Fernandes, Rodrigo A; Diniz, Bruno; Falabella, Paulo; Ribeiro, Ramiro; Teixeira, Anderson G; Magalhães, Octaviano; Moraes, Nilva; Maia, Andre; Farah, Michel E; Maia, Mauricio; Humayun, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    To compare the water and vitreous flow rates and duty cycle (DC) between two ultrahigh-speed vitrectomy systems: pneumatic with spring return (SR) and dual pneumatic (DP) probes. The flow rate was calculated using a high-sampling precision balance that measured the mass of water and vitreous removed from a vial by a vitreous cutter. Frame-by-frame analysis of a high-speed video of the cutter was used to determine the DC. Three cutters of each gauge (20, 23, and 25 G) were tested with an SR and a DP system using the standard DC setting (biased open) at 0 (water only), 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, and 5,000 cuts per minute (CPM) with aspiration levels of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 mm Hg. The DC was slightly higher with the SR system using most parameters and gauges although without statistical significance. The water flow rate was somewhat higher with the SR system, except for 25 G with 4,000 and 5,000 CPM. The vitreous flow rate was similar using most parameters, with the SR system showing higher flows at lower cut rates (1,000-3,000 CPM). SR and DP systems produced similar water and vitreous flow rates. Additional studies in human eyes are necessary to confirm these findings. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. PREDICTIVE FACTORS OF SURGICAL OUTCOMES IN VITRECTOMY FOR MYOPIC TRACTION MACULOPATHY.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Kyoko; Kataoka, Keiko; Takeuchi, Jun; Ito, Yasuki; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-11-07

    To assess predictive factors and surgical outcomes for myopic traction maculopathy. This retrospective observational case study enrolled 73 patients who underwent vitrectomy for myopic traction maculopathy. The 79 eyes obtained from our study sample were divided into 4 types: retinoschisis, lamellar macular hole (lamellar MH), foveal retinal detachment (FRD), and FRD + lamellar MH, or into 2 types according to the presence of FRD preoperatively. Dependent variables of interest were age, sex, pre- and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 6 months, and axial length. All the four types showed moderately strong-to-strong positive correlations with pre- and postoperative BCVA (retinochisisi: r = 0.61; lamellar MH: r = 0.62; FRD: r = 0.51; FRD + lamellar MH; r = 0.83). Preoperative BCVA was associated with postoperative BCVA (P < 0.0001), but age, axial length, and the types of preoperative foveal status were not. Eyes with FRD had significantly worse pre- and postoperative BCVA than eyes without FRD (P = 0.036 and P = 0.046, respectively). Postoperative full-thickness macular holes developed in 5.1% of cases and in all types but retinoschisis. Preoperative visual acuity and the presence of FRD should be considered for surgical indication of myopic traction maculopathy.

  20. VITRECTOMY FOR MACULAR DISORDERS ASSOCIATED WITH LAMELLAR MACULAR HOLE EPIRETINAL PROLIFERATION.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Seok; Merlau, Daniel J; Chang, Stanley

    2018-04-01

    To compare the surgical outcome of a lamellar macular hole (LMH) depending on lamellar hole-associated epiretinal proliferation (LHEP) and full-thickness macular hole. This is a retrospective chart review. Thirty-three patients were enrolled for this study. The patients were divided into three groups depending on the type of macular hole and presence of LHEP. Group 1 had epiretinal membranes with LMH without LHEP, Group 2 had LMH with LHEP, and Group 3 had full-thickness macular hole with LHEP. The best-corrected visual acuity was recorded and optical coherence tomography scans were obtained. Preoperative best-corrected visual acuity showed no significant difference between groups (P = 0.968). Final visual acuity of Group 1 was better than that of Group 2 (P = 0.009). Group 1 showed less postoperative ellipsoid zone disruption compared with Group 2 (P = 0.010), and the duration of LHEP to surgery had no significant correlation with postoperative visual acuity (P = 0.629). Lamellar macular hole with LHEP showed poorer visual outcomes compared with those with highly reflective epiretinal membranes. Lamellar macular hole with LHEP showed a greater chance of ellipsoid zone disruption. These findings may explain the wide variability of visual outcomes previously reported after vitrectomy for LMH.

  1. SPONTANEOUS CLOSURE OF A MACULAR HOLE AFTER FOUR FAILED VITRECTOMIES IN THE SETTING OF NF-1.

    PubMed

    Wannamaker, Kendall W; Sharpe, Robert A; Kylstra, Jan A

    2018-01-01

    To present the case of a patient who developed spontaneous closure of an idiopathic macular hole after four failed attempts at surgical closure. This is a retrospective case review of the medical record of a single patient. No statistical analysis was performed. The patient is a 71-year-old white woman with neurofibromatosis Type 1 who presented to the retina clinic of one of the authors. The patient underwent four vitrectomies with long acting gas by two surgeons over the course of 2 years. After each surgery, the hole either did not close or it closed and then reopened within 1 year. Five months after the last surgery (1 year after the hole last reopened), the patient presented with improved vision and spontaneous closure of the macular hole. The hole has remained closed since then. This case demonstrates that spontaneous closure of a macular hole, associated with excellent visual recovery, can occur after multiple surgical failures. We propose that enhanced scar formation due to neurofibromatosis Type 1 was responsible for both the numerous failures following initially successful surgery (centrifugal traction) and for the spontaneous closure (centripetal traction).

  2. Intravitreal gas injection without vitrectomy for macular detachment associated with an optic disk pit.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hideo; Shimoda, Yukitoshi; Fukuchi, Mariko; Kashima, Tomoyuki; Mayuzumi, Hideyasu; Shinohara, Yoichiro; Kishi, Shoji

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes after gas tamponade without vitrectomy for retinal detachment associated with an optic disk pit using optical coherence tomography. Intravitreal gas injection was performed on 8 consecutive patients (mean age, 35.0 years; range, 15-74 years) with unilateral macular detachment associated with an optic disk pit. A 0.3-mL injection of 100% sulfur hexafluoride 6 gas was carried out without an anterior chamber tap. Patients treated with gas injection were instructed to remain facedown for 5 days. Complete retinal reattachment after only gas tamponade was achieved in four out of eight eyes. The mean number of gas injections was 1.8. The mean best-corrected visual acuity before and after the treatment with gas tamponade was approximately 30/100 and 20/20, respectively. The period required for reattachment after final gas treatment was 12 months. There were no incidences of recurrence after complete reattachment by gas tamponade in any of the cases during the 94-month average follow-up period (range, 64-132 months). Gas tamponade appears to be an effective alternative method for macular detachment associated with an optic disk pit, even though the mechanisms of optic disk pit maculopathy are still unknown.

  3. Comparison of attraction capabilities associated with high-speed, dual-pneumatic vitrectomy probes.

    PubMed

    Dugel, Pravin U; Abulon, Dina J K; Dimalanta, Ramon

    2015-05-01

    To measure membrane attraction capabilities of enhanced 27-gauge, enhanced 25-gauge, and 23-gauge vitrectomy probes under various parameters. A membrane-on-cantilever apparatus was used to measure membrane attraction for enhanced 27-, enhanced 25-, and 23-gauge UltraVit probes (n = 6 for each). The following parameters were evaluated: effects of cut rates and duty cycles on membrane attraction distances, and flow rates and vacuum levels required to attract a membrane at a fixed distance. The enhanced 27-gauge probe had the shortest attraction distance across all cutting speeds and duty cycles. To attract a membrane at a fixed distance, increasing vacuum was necessary with higher cutting rates and smaller probe gauges but flow rate remained relatively constant. The biased open duty cycle was associated with a longer attraction distance than 50/50 or biased closed modes. The shorter membrane attraction distance of the enhanced 27-gauge probe versus 23-gauge and enhanced 25-gauge probes may permit greater membrane dissection precision while providing improved access to small tissue planes. Equivalent fluid flow capabilities of the 27-gauge probe compared with the 23-gauge and 25-gauge probes may provide efficient aspiration. Surgeon selection of duty cycle modes may improve intraoperative fluid control and expand the cutter utility as a multifunctional tool.

  4. Miyake-Apple view of inner side of sclerotomy during microincision vitrectomy surgery.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Makoto; Ota, Ichiro; Taniuchi, Shutaro; Nagamoto, Toshiyuki; Miyake, Kensaku; Hirakata, Akito

    2011-08-01

    To examine the inner surface of the sclerotomy during microincision vitrectomy surgery by Miyake-Apple view. The anterior half of porcine eyes was attached to a transparent acrylic plate with cyanoacrylate glue. Then, either a 23-gauge or a 25-gauge trocar-cannula was inserted through the sclera obliquely. The inner surface of the entrance site was observed posteriorly by Miyake-Apple view. These images were compared with the endoscopic view of two patients who underwent vitreous surgery for an epiretinal membrane. When the trocar-cannula was inserted obliquely, the Miyake-Apple view showed that the ciliary epithelium at the sclerotomy site was stretched. When the trocar-cannula was inserted vertically, the ciliary epithelium was folded, and the folds remained even after the trocar was removed. Vitreous strands were seen incarcerated into the sclerotomy site. In human eyes, a folding of the ciliary epithelium was not clearly seen with the endoscopic view but the incarcerated vitreous was seen. The Miyake-Apple view provided a precise, in vivo, observation of the inner surface of the entry site. It disclosed the morphological stress on the ciliary epithelium by the sclerotomy. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  5. The effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23 (PPV23) in the general population of 50 years of age and older: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kraicer-Melamed, Hannah; O'Donnell, Shauna; Quach, Caroline

    2016-03-18

    Two pneumococcal vaccines currently exist and have been recommended for the prevention of pneumococcal infection in adults 65 years of age and older: the 23-valent polysaccharide (PPV23) and the conjugate 13-valent (PCV13) vaccine. To evaluate and summarize the results from all studies reporting on the vaccine effectiveness of PPV23 in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in individuals over the age of 50. Systematic database searches were completed in PubMed, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Cochrane. Google Scholar and hand searches of seminal articles and past systematic reviews were employed. Studies were included if they independently evaluated the effect of PPV23 on IPD and/or CAP in adults (50+). Data extraction and quality assessment were both completed independently by two researchers. Quality was assessed using the National Advisory Committee on Immunization methodology for quality assessment. All conflicts were resolved by consensus. The vaccine effectiveness for PPV23 in preventing IPD was 50% (95% CI: 21%-69%) for cohort studies and 54% (95% CI: 32%-69%) for case-control studies. The VE estimates for CAP were 4% (95% CI: -26%-26%) for trials, 17% (95% CI: -26%-45%) for cohort studies, and 7% (95% CI: -10%-21%) for case-control studies. The vaccine effectiveness of PPV23 in preventing IPD and all-cause CAP was consistent with past systematic reviews and similar to the estimates that were reported in the CAPiTA trial evaluating the vaccine effectiveness of PCV13. Consistent benefits were also reported across ecological studies and reports of surveillance data for the general population 50 years and older. The results suggests that the current practice of vaccinating the adults 65 years of age and older with PPV23 would have similar benefits to PCV13 in preventing potential cases of all-serotype IPD and all-cause CAP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Management of nucleus loss into the vitreous: long term follow up in 63 patients

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Aroca, Pedro; Fernández-Ballart, Juan; Méndez-Marín, Isabel; Salvat-Serra, Merce; Baget-Bernaldiz, Marc; Buil-Calvo, Jose A

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of present study is to determine the long-term results of patients who undergo pars plana vitrectomy after retained nucleus into the vitreous. Setting: Service of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitari St Joan, Reus (Barcelona), Spain. Methods: Retrospective, noncomparative, consecutive case series. Medical records were reviewed of all patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy for retained nucleus into the vitreous after complicated cataract surgery, over a 9-year period between August 1, 1997 and July 31, 2005. Result: The incidence of retained lens fragments was 0.57% (63 patients), the postoperative visual acuity was higher than 20/40 in 59.60% and fell to 48.93% by the end of the study, and was related to the presence of CME and retinal detachment. The CME appeared in 31.91% of the patients and was related to preoperative uveitis an corneal edema. In the group of patients on whom the vitrectomy was performed at the time of cataract complication, visual acuity was higher than 20/40 in 77.77%, and no one developed secondary glaucoma or uveitis. Conclusion: Being retrospective, our study was not result conclusive. Despite the initial good results of these patients after PPV surgery, follow-up should be accurate and over a long period of time in order to minimize postoperative complications such as retinal detachment, retinal breaks, secondary glaucoma and CME. PMID:19668529

  7. Effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection at the end of vitrectomy for vitreous haemorrhage related to proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Yoshihiro; Shimura, Masahiko; Katome, Takashi; Someya, Hideaki; Sugimoto, Masahiko; Hirano, Takao; Sakamoto, Taiji; Gozawa, Makoto; Matsumura, Takehiro; Inatani, Masaru

    2018-01-17

    To investigate whether intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) combined with vitrectomy prevents postoperative inflammation in patients with vitreous haemorrhage (VH) due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). This prospective, multicentre, randomised study conducted at seven sites in Japan enrolled patients diagnosed as having VH following PDR. Patients underwent vitrectomy with (IVTA+VIT group) or without (VIT group) IVTA at the end of the surgery. Anterior flare intensity (AFI), central retinal thickness (CRT), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured before and at 3 days, 1 week, 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery and compared. Number of patients who completed 6 months of follow-up was 40 and 41 in VIT group and IVTA+VIT group, respectively. AFI was significantly higher in the VIT group than in the IVTA+VIT group at 3 days (P=0.033), 1 week (P=0.019) and 1 month (P=0.037). There were no significant differences in CRT, BCVA and IOP between the groups through the observational periods. In the cases with macular oedema >350 µm of CRT at 3 days, CRT was significantly lower in the IVTA+VIT group than in the VIT group at 1 month (P=0.041). IVTA combined with vitrectomy and cataract surgery contributed to inhibit the postoperative inflammation in patients with VH due to PDR. The effect of IVTA in the reduction of diabetic macular oedema may be limited to the early stage after surgery. UMIN000020376, Post-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. A comparative study of tissue glue and vicryl suture for conjunctival and scleral closure in conventional 20-gauge vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Batman, C; Ozdamar, Y; Mutevelli, S; Sonmez, K; Zilelioglu, G; Karakaya, J

    2009-06-01

    To describe the use of tissue glue to close scleral and conjunctival wounds, and to compare the clinical outcomes using tissue glue and vicryl suture for closing these areas in conventional 20-gauge (G) vitrectomy. Thirty eyes of 30 patients were included in this study. The indications for vitreoretinal surgery were diabetic vitreous haemorrhage with severe vitreoretinal traction in 10 eyes, retinal detachment and proliferative vitreoretinopathy in 14 eyes, and vitreous opacity in 6 eyes. Tissue glue (Tisseel, Baxter AG Industries, Vienna, Austria) was used to attach scleral and conjunctival wounds in 15 eyes and vicryl sutures in 15 eyes. The patients were allotted into two subgroups as tissue glue group (TG) and vicryl suture group (VG). The sclerotomy sites were evaluated with ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) postoperatively in TG. Follow-up period was 2 months. The groups were statistically compared for ocular signs and symptoms by Mann-Whitney U-test. No scleral wound leakage and conjunctival reattachment were observed at the end of the surgical procedure and during the follow-up period. No adverse effects were seen in TG. Abnormal fibrous ingrowth was not detected at the sclerotomy sites by means of UBM in TG. Patient comfort was significantly higher in TG than VG (P<0.05). Tissue glue has no adverse effects on ocular tissue and can be used as a substitute for suture materials, and the use of tissue glue decreases patient symptoms during the postoperative period after 20-G vitrectomy. Tissue glue can enable to perform sutureless surgery in the conventional 20-G vitrectomy.

  9. Refractive Outcomes of Three-Port Lens-Sparing Vitrectomy for Retinopathy of Prematurity (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Holz, Eric R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To study the refractive outcomes of 3-port lens-sparing vitrectomy (LSV) for subtotal retinal detachments due to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Lens-sparing vitrectomy may provide superior refractive outcomes by limiting induced myopia of prematurity. Methods: This is a retrospective, consecutive, nonrandomized, comparative (paired eye) study. Entrance criteria were previous complete ablative laser for threshold ROP in both eyes, followed by LSV in one eye for stage 4A traction retinal detachment. Both eyes then maintained complete retinal attachment. Main outcome variables were cycloplegic refraction, keratometry, and biometric values for axial length, lens thickness, and anterior chamber depth. Results: Nine patients met inclusion criteria. Lens-sparing vitrectomy eyes were significantly less myopic than control eyes (−6.78 D vs −10.33 D, P < .005). The reduction in myopia in LSV eyes was predominantly due to increased anterior chamber depth (3.81 mm ± 0.217 vs 2.96 mm ± 0.232, P < .005). There was a minor contribution from reduced corneal power in LSV eyes (43.89 D ± 0.253 vs 44.20 D ± 0.265, P < .005). There was a minor negative impact from increased lens thickness in LSV eyes (3.85 ± 0.32 mm vs 3.74 ± 0.31, P < .005). There was no significant difference in axial length or lens power between the LSV and control groups. Conclusions: The data demonstrate that infant eyes undergoing 3-port LSV for stage 4A ROP develop less myopia than fellow eyes treated with laser alone. The difference is due to posterior displacement of the lens-iris diaphragm with a smaller contribution from reduced corneal power. The reduction in myopia may improve functional outcomes following 3-port LSV for stage 4A ROP. PMID:20126504

  10. Variation in the vitreoretinal configuration of Stage 4 retinopathy of prematurity in photocoagulated and treatment naive eyes undergoing vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gadkari, Salil Sharad; Deshpande, Madan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to document the difference in the vitreoretinal configuration of Stage 4 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in photocoagulated and treatment naive eyes undergoing vitrectomy and to correlate it with surgical complexity. Methods: Consecutive eyes posted for vitrectomy with Stage 4 ROP were documented preoperatively using a RetCam for the presence of peripheral traction (PT), presence of central traction just outside the arcades, and presence of traction extending to the lens. A note was made of the following intraoperative events: lensectomy, intraoperative bleeding, and iatrogenic breaks. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for analysis. Results: From a total of 46 eyes, 16 and 30 eyes were from the treated and treatment naive group, respectively. More eyes in the treated group had central (P < 0.0001) and lenticular traction (P = 0.022). More eyes in the untreated group had PT (P < 0.0001). A significant number of eyes without photocoagulation needed lensectomy (P = 0.042), and no difference in intraoperative bleeding (P = 0.94) was demonstrable. Iatrogenic retinotomy occurred in three eyes, all naive. Notably, age at surgery was more in the untreated group (P = 0.00008). Conclusion: Vasoproliferative activity in all retinopathies occurs at the junction of the ischemic and nonischemic retina. In the natural course of ROP, this takes place peripherally, at the ridge. In photocoagulated eyes, this junction is displaced posteriorly due to peripheral ablation. Treated eyes manifested with posterior proliferative changes and were more amenable to lens-sparing vitrectomy. Naive eyes were older when they underwent surgery to relieve PT with greater chances of lensectomy and iatrogenic breaks. PMID:28905829

  11. Ready4Work "In Brief": Update on Outcomes; Reentry May Be Critical for States, Cities. P/PV In Brief. Issue 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Chelsea; McClanahan, Wendy S.

    2007-01-01

    This issue of "P/PV In Brief" provides updated data from the Ready4Work prisoner reentry initiative, with a focus on the prison crisis occurring in many cities and states. While much more research is needed to understand the true, long-term impact of prisoner reentry initiatives, outcomes from Ready4Work were extremely promising in terms of…

  12. Clinical features and prognosis of eyeball rupture: eye injury vitrectomy study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kang; Wang, Chang-guan; Hu, Yun-tao; Yao, Yi; Jiang, Yan-rong; Shen, Li-jun; Pang, Xiu-qin; Nie, Hong-ping; Ma, Zhi-zhong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to delineate clinical characteristics, surgical interventions, anatomic and visual outcomes of ruptured eye balls after trauma, and establish the prognostic indicators, which can assist clinicians in making correct surgical decisions during globe exploration for ruptured eyes. The study design used was a multicentre prospective cohort study, including six university-affiliated tertiary hospitals. We selected 242 cases of ruptured globe from the Eye Injury Vitrectomy Study database, until 31 December 2012. All selected cases underwent vitreoretinal surgery, enucleation or evisceration, and were followed up for at least 6 months. Age, visual acuity (VA) after injury, ocular trauma zone, time to surgery, corneal laceration, scleral wound, extrusion of iris or lens, ciliary body damage, intraocular haemorrhage, retinal detachment or defect, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and choroidal damage were the predisposing factors evaluated by logistic regression models. We compared the pre-surgical indicators between cases of anatomically restored eyes with VA of 4/200 or better, or eyes with initial no light perception restored light perception or better, and cases of VA worse than 4/200, silicone oil-sustained eyes, phthisis or enucleation. Nearly 40% of cases with ruptured globe were anatomically restored through vitreoretinal surgery. The closed-funnel retinal detachment or extensive retinal loss (odds ratio [OR] = 3.38, P = 0.026), PVR-C (OR = 3.45, P = 0.008), and choroidal damage (OR = 4.20, P = 0.004) were correlated with poor outcomes. The closed-funnel retinal detachment or extensive retinal loss, PVR-C, and choroidal damage are the risk factors for unfavourable outcomes in globe ruptures. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  13. Early vitrectomy effective for bilateral combined anterior and posterior persistent fetal vasculature syndrome.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Mark K; Drenser, Kimberly A; Capone, Antonio; Trese, Michael T

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to review our surgical experience with patients with bilateral combined anterior and posterior persistent fetal vasculature syndrome (PFVS). We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients seen in our tertiary care pediatric retinal practice from 1988 to 2008 with a potential diagnosis of bilateral PFVS with posterior involvement. Clinical diagnosis required the presence of either bilateral persistent hyaloidal stalk tissue with retinal involvement or bilateral dense retrolental fibrovascular plaques (usually with no posterior view preoperatively) without a family history or genetic testing consistent with Norrie disease or familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Chart review showed 22 vitrectomized patients with clinical findings consistent with bilateral PFVS with posterior involvement who did not have a family history or genetic testing consistent with Norrie disease or familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. All 22 of these patients with posterior retinal involvement also had anterior findings and thus can be classified as combined anterior and posterior PFVS. Of the 13 patients with visual acuity follow-up data, 9 patients (69%) maintained at least light perception vision in at least 1 eye at last follow-up. Of the 28 operated eyes in 16 patients with follow-up data, 3 eyes (11%) were phthisical at last follow-up. Children with bilateral PFVS with posterior retinal involvement have a dismal visual prognosis if left unoperated. In this relatively large series of a rare condition, we find that vitrectomy with or without lensectomy is beneficial in bilateral combined anterior and posterior PFVS in two regards: maintenance or restoration of vision and avoidance of phthisis bulbi.

  14. Systematic review of economic evaluations of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) in individuals 60 years of age or older.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Alvaro Mitsunori; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; Mainardi, Giulia Marcelino; Freitas, Angela Carvalho; Itria, Alexander; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho

    2018-05-03

    To systematically review the economic evaluations of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) in adults aged ≥60 years to inform the development of local studies through the discussion of parameters and assumptions that influence the results of the analyses. We searched the MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica, Cochrane Library, Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), Brazilian Regional Library of Medicine, National Health Service Economic Evaluation, and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination-as well as the Scopus citation index and the Web of Science for full economic evaluations of PPV23 published up to March 2016. Two independent reviewers screened the articles for relevance and extracted the data. Main study characteristics and methods (clinical and epidemiological data, cost and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were extracted and compared. Costs were updated to 2016 international dollars. Twenty-seven studies published from 1980 to 2016 were reviewed. Most studies were conducted in Europe and the USA; three studies were conducted in Latin America (Brazil, 2; Colombia, 1). In addition to the scenario comparing the vaccination with the PPV23 to non-vaccination, three studies also compared PPV23 to pneumococcal conjugate 13-valent vaccine (PCV13). All studies used static models. Most used a lifetime (44.4%) or 5-6 year's time horizon (33.3%). Only three studies considered herd protection from children immunization with PCV13 in the model. Most studies considered PPV23 cost-effective (less than US$50,000 per LYG or QALY) and sometimes cost-saving (results ranging from cost-saving to US$84,636/QALY). The estimates of disease burden, the efficacy/effectiveness of PPV23, and the effects of herd protection from childhood immunization had most influence on the results. Well-designed cost-effectiveness studies of PPV23 that represent the current epidemiological scenario and reduce uncertainty related to efficacy

  15. [Pharmaological vitreolysis with ocriplasmin as a treatment option for symptomatic focal vitreomacular traction with or without macular holes (≤400 μm) compared to tranconjunctival vitrectomy].

    PubMed

    Maier, M; Abraham, S; Frank, C; Lohmann, C P; Feucht, N

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the resolution rate in patients with symptomatic vitreomacular traction (VMT) ≤ 1500 μm with or without macular holes ≤ 400 μm after therapy with intravitreal ocriplasmin (Jetrea®) injections in a clinical setting in comparison to transconjunctival vitrectomy. We examined 21 eyes of 21 consecutive patients with vitreomacular traction with or without macular holes who underwent intravitreal injection of 0.1 ml ocriplasmin and we retrospectively reviewed 18 eyes of 18 patients with VMT with or without FTMH who underwent 23-gauge vitrectomy. Vitreomacular traction resolved in 15 of 21 eyes treated with ocriplasmin after 6 month (71 %) compared to 100 % of eyes treated by vitrectomy. Of the 5 eyes that initially presented FTMH with VMT in the ocriplasmin group, 2 were closed 1 month after ocriplasmin treatment. The remaining 3 had vitrectomy and closed thereafter. Best corrected visual acuity was 0.38 ± 0.23 LogMAR at baseline, improving to 0.34 ± 0.24 LogMAR at 6 months after ocriplasmin treatment. Best corrected visual acuity in the vitrectomy group improved from 0.55 ± 0.29 LogMAR before operation to 0.53 ± 0.51 LogMAR 6 months postoperatively. Foveal thickness was 355.95 ± 114.53 μm at baseline, reducing to 277.77 ± 40.26 μm at 6 months after ocriplasmin treatment. Foveal thickness of eyes that underwent vitrectomy was 494.61 ± 126.02 μm at baseline, decreasing to 330.2 ± 88.85 μm 6 months postoperatively. When traction is ≤ 1500 μm, enzymatic vitreolysis with ocriplasmin is a therapeutic option. In the presence of VMT >1500 μm or ERM, surgical treatment with vitrectomy is associated with better outcomes. In small macular holes with VMT and in the absence of ERM, enzymatic vitreolysis with ocriplasmin is an option. In cases of holes >400 μm, or in the absence of evident VMT, or in the presence of ERM, vitrectomy is the first choice.

  16. Management of Chronic Hypotony following Bilateral Uveitis in a Patient Treated with Pembrolizumab for Cutaneous Metastatic Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gerard; Lorigan, Paul; Heimann, Heinrich; Hovan, Marta

    2018-04-19

    To describe the presentation and management of severe ocular adverse events following treatment with pembrolizumab for cutaneous metastatic melanoma. Interventional case report. A 73-year-old Caucasian man receiving pembrolizumab treatment for metastatic melanoma presented with panuveitis and subsequent profound hypotony, choroidal effusions, and optic disk swelling bilaterally. Oral prednisolone controlled intraocular inflammation. However, bilateral hypotony persisted which was managed over a 12-month period with ocular viscoelastic device injections into the anterior chamber of both eyes. There was also phacoemulsification with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and silicone oil (SO) tamponade performed on the left eye only. Intraocular pressure (IOP) stabilized (>6 mmHg) with best-corrected visual acuity of 6/60. We report a severe adverse event from pembrolizumab therapy resulting in uveitis and persistent hypotony. Repeat injections of high viscosity OVD achieved an increase in IOP up to 12 months. This technique may be a useful adjuvant or alternative to PPV and SO.

  17. The impacts of pharmaceutical drugs under ocean acidification: New data on single and combined long-term effects of carbamazepine on Scrobicularia plana.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Rosa; Almeida, Ângela; Calisto, Vânia; Velez, Cátia; Moreira, Anthony; Schneider, Rudolf J; Esteves, Valdemar I; Wrona, Frederick J; Figueira, Etelvina; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2016-01-15

    Ocean acidification and increasing discharges of pharmaceutical contaminants into aquatic systems are among key and/or emerging drivers of environmental change affecting marine ecosystems. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that ocean acidification can have direct and indirect impacts on marine organisms although combined effects with other stressors, namely with pharmaceuticals, have received very little attention to date. The present study aimed to evaluate the impacts of the pharmaceutical drug Carbamazepine and pH 7.1, acting alone and in combination, on the clam Scrobicularia plana. For this, a long-term exposure (28 days)was conducted and a set of oxidative stress markers was investigated. The results obtained showed that S. plana was able to develop mechanisms to prevent oxidative damage when under low pH for a long period, presenting higher survival when exposed to this stressor compared to CBZ or the combination of CBZ with pH 7.1. Furthermore, the toxicity of CBZ on S. plana was synergistically increased under ocean acidification conditions (CBZ + pH 7.1): specimens survival was reduced and oxidative stress was enhanced when compared to single exposures. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that ocean acidification will act to increase the toxicity of CBZ to marine organisms,which has clear implications for coastal benthic ecosystems suffering chronic pollution from pharmaceutical drugs.

  18. Surgical Versus Medical Treatment for Diabetic Macular Edema: A Review

    PubMed Central

    CRIM, Nicolás; VELEZ-MONTOYA, Raúl; MORALES-CANTON, Virgilio

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to compare the results of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, an alternative therapeutic strategy, with those of medical treatment for chronic macular edema. We conducted a review of the literature on the microscopic, anatomical, and functional reasons for performing PPV with ILM peeling in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). We searched the PubMed database for articles published between 2000 and 2017. We used the medical subject heading “vitrectomy diabetic macular edema” and the keywords “diabetic macular edema”, “internal limiting membrane peeling”, “pars plana vitrectomy”, “diabetic retinopathy”, and “optical coherence tomography”. Analysis of the literature revealed that cytokines, vascular endothelial growth factor, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) play a unique role in DME. The vitreous cavity serves as a physiological reservoir for all inflammatory molecules. AGE receptors are localized at the footplates of Müller cells and the external limiting membrane (ELM). The footplates of Müller cells are in contact with the ILM, which suggests that they might be responsible for the structural damage (i.e., thickening) observed in the ILM of patients with DME. Therefore, PPV could allow a reduction of cytokines and pro-inflammatory molecules from the vitreous cavity. ILM peeling could eliminate not only the physical traction of a thickened structure, but also the natural reservoir of AGEs, ROS, and inflammatory molecules. PPV with ILM peeling is a surgical option that should be considered when treating patients with chronic DME. PMID:29560368

  19. Comparison of the effects of 23-gauge and 25-gauge microincision vitrectomy blade designs on incision architecture.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Makoto; Abulon, Dina Joy K; Hirakata, Akito

    2014-01-01

    To compare the effects of different 23- and 25-gauge microincision vitrectomy trocar cannula entry systems on incision architecture. We tested one ridged microvitreoretinal (MVR), one non-ridged MVR, one pointed beveled, and one round-tipped beveled blade (n=10 per blade design per incision type). Each blade's straight and oblique incision architecture was assessed in a silicone disc simulating the sclera. Wound leakage under pressure and endoscopic observations were conducted on sclerotomy sites of isolated porcine eyes (n=4 per blade design) after simulated vitrectomy. Differences in blade design created distinct incision architecture. Incisions were linear with the ridged MVR blade, flattened "M-shaped" with the non-ridged MVR blade, asymmetrical chevron-shaped with the pointed beveled blade, and curved with the round-tipped beveled blade. With the exception of oblique entry incision thickness, both MVR blade designs created thinner incisions than the beveled blades at entry and exit sites. Only the ridged MVR blade created incisions with no leakage. Vitreous incarceration was observed with all trocar cannula systems. Wound closure in porcine eyes was similar with all blades despite differences in incision architecture. Wound leakage occurred at low to moderate infusion pressures with most blades; no wound leakage was observed with ridged MVR blades.

  20. Comparison of the effects of 23-gauge and 25-gauge microincision vitrectomy blade designs on incision architecture

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Makoto; Abulon, Dina Joy K; Hirakata, Akito

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effects of different 23- and 25-gauge microincision vitrectomy trocar cannula entry systems on incision architecture. Methods We tested one ridged microvitreoretinal (MVR), one non-ridged MVR, one pointed beveled, and one round-tipped beveled blade (n=10 per blade design per incision type). Each blade’s straight and oblique incision architecture was assessed in a silicone disc simulating the sclera. Wound leakage under pressure and endoscopic observations were conducted on sclerotomy sites of isolated porcine eyes (n=4 per blade design) after simulated vitrectomy. Results Differences in blade design created distinct incision architecture. Incisions were linear with the ridged MVR blade, flattened “M-shaped” with the non-ridged MVR blade, asymmetrical chevron-shaped with the pointed beveled blade, and curved with the round-tipped beveled blade. With the exception of oblique entry incision thickness, both MVR blade designs created thinner incisions than the beveled blades at entry and exit sites. Only the ridged MVR blade created incisions with no leakage. Vitreous incarceration was observed with all trocar cannula systems. Conclusion Wound closure in porcine eyes was similar with all blades despite differences in incision architecture. Wound leakage occurred at low to moderate infusion pressures with most blades; no wound leakage was observed with ridged MVR blades. PMID:25429201

  1. The Combination of Trypan Blue and Brilliant Blue G-Assisted Vitrectomy for Macular Pucker: Histopathological Findings.

    PubMed

    Tognetto, Daniele; De Giacinto, Chiara; D'Aloisio, Rossella; Papagno, Claudia; Pastore, Marco; Zweyer, Marina

    2018-01-01

    To report on the combined use of trypan blue (TB) and brilliant blue G (BBG) for staining the epiretinal membrane (ERM) and internal limiting membrane (ILM) during vitrectomy and to describe the histopathological findings. 10 surgical specimens were removed from 10 eyes with macular pucker during vitrectomy using a commercially available combination of TB and BBG for ERM and ILM staining and peeling. Specimens were evaluated using light and transmission electron microscopy. In all cases the combination of TB and BBG was useful for identifying and delineating ERM and ILM. No complications related to the use of the dye were observed during or after surgery. Glial cells were present in all specimens. Hyalocytes were observed in 6 cases and myofibroblasts in 3 of them. In 7 cases native vitreous collagen fibrils were found on the ILM, while in 5 specimens newly formed collagen was present. No clinical evidence of toxicity was observed during the 3-month follow-up. The combined use of TB and BBG appeared to be very useful intraoperatively to improve the visualization of ERM and ILM, thus facilitating their complete removal. Anatomical and histopathological findings demonstrated the safety and the efficacy of this vital dye. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Eragrostis plana Nees as a novel eco-friendly adsorbent for removal of crystal violet from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Filho, Augusto Cezar D; Mazzocato, Ana C; Dotto, Guilherme L; Thue, Pascal S; Pavan, Flávio A

    2017-08-01

    Eragrostis plana Nees (EPN) was used as new and eco-friendly adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet dye (CV) from aqueous solution. Specific surface area (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), point of zero charge (pH PZC ), and modified Boehm titration method were used to characterize the EPN material. The effects of initial pH of solution, adsorbent mass, contact time and initial dye concentration, and temperature were studied in batch adsorption mode. Kinetic data were evaluated by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The result exhibited that pseudo-second-order model well described the adsorption kinetics of CV onto EPN. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Sips isotherm models were used for analysis of the isothermal data. The equilibrium data of adsorption of CV onto EPN was better fitted with the Sips isotherm. Based on the Sips isotherm model, the maximum adsorption capacity was 76.20 ± 1.20 mg g -1 at 333 K. A high desorption of CV from EPN was obtained using 1.00 mol L -1 of CH 3 COOH as eluent. The thermodynamic data indicated that the adsorption was spontaneous, endothermic, and physical process. EPN can be used as alternative adsorbent to remove CV from aqueous solution.

  3. COMPLETE RESOLUTION OF LARGE RETINAL FOLD AFTER TRANSECTION OF RETROLENTAL MEMBRANE DURING LENS-SPARING VITRECTOMY FOR RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY: A 15-YEAR FOLLOW-UP.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Benjamin J; Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Trese, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    To describe the long-term anatomical and visual outcomes of a patient with retinopathy of prematurity characterized by a prominent retinal fold adherent to the posterior lens capsule, treated by lens-sparing vitrectomy with surgical transection of the retrolental membrane. A premature infant was born at a gestational age of 25 weeks and birthweight of 636 g. She developed threshold retinopathy of prematurity bilaterally and was subsequently treated with laser ablative therapy. The left eye responded favorably, with regression of neovascularization; however, the right eye progressed to Stage 4A with a prominent retinal fold adherent to the posterior lens capsule. The patient underwent lens-sparing vitrectomy with dissection of the retrolental membrane at postmenstrual age of 44 weeks. At 15-year follow-up, the patient has maintained a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/60 and, of note, demonstrated complete resolution of the previous retinal fold. Surgical treatment for retinopathy of prematurity was considerably advanced by the introduction of lens-sparing vitrectomy techniques; however, cases developing retrolental membranes often persisted with poor visual outcomes, and lensectomy is conventionally performed. However, in select cases of Stage 4A retinopathy of prematurity, careful transection of retrolental membranes during lens-sparing vitrectomy using the appropriate technique may provide very good anatomical and visual outcomes.

  4. Comparison of endoscopic-assisted and temporary keratoprosthesis-assisted vitrectomy in combat ocular trauma: experience at a tertiary eye center in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ayyildiz, Onder; Hakan Durukan, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study was performed to compare the functional and anatomical results of endoscopic-assisted and temporary keratoprosthesis (TKP)-assisted vitrectomy in patients with combat ocular trauma (COT). Methods The medical records of 14 severely injured eyes of 12 patients who underwent endoscopy or TKP implantation in combination with vitreoretinal surgery from 2007 to 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. The patients' ocular history and functional and anatomic anterior and posterior segment results were analyzed. Results Eight eyes (57%) underwent TKP-assisted vitrectomy and six eyes (43%) underwent endoscopic vitrectomy. The most common cause of COT was detonation of improvised explosive devices (72%), and the most common type of injury was an intraocular foreign body (50%). The median time from trauma to surgery and the median surgical time were significantly shorter in the endoscopy than TKP group. The postoperative functional and anatomical results were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions TKP-assisted vitrectomy should be performed in eyes requiring extensive bimanual surgery. In such cases, a corneal graft must be preserved for the TKP at the end of the surgery. Endoscopy shortens the surgical time and can reduce the complication rate.

  5. Retinal thickness after vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling for macular hole and epiretinal membrane

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Kazuyuki; Ogino, Nobuchika; Furukawa, Mariko; Hangai, Masanori; Kazama, Shigeyasu; Nishigaki, Shirou; Larson, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine the retinal thickness (RT), after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, for an idiopathic macular hole (MH) or an epiretinal membrane (ERM). Also, to investigate the effect of a dissociated optic nerve fiber layer (DONFL) appearance on RT. Methods A non-randomized, retrospective chart review was performed for 159 patients who had successful closure of a MH, with (n = 148), or without (n = 11), ILM peeling. Also studied were 117 patients who had successful removal of an ERM, with (n = 104), or without (n = 13), ILM peeling. The RT of the nine Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study areas was measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). In the MH-with-ILM peeling and ERM-with-ILM peeling groups, the RT of the operated eyes was compared to the corresponding areas of normal fellow eyes. The inner temporal/inner nasal ratio (TNR) was used to assess the effect of ILM peeling on RT. The effects of DONFL appearance on RT were evaluated in only the MH-with-ILM peeling group. Results In the MH-with-ILM peeling group, the central, inner nasal, and outer nasal areas of the retina of operated eyes were significantly thicker than the corresponding areas of normal fellow eyes. In addition, the inner temporal, outer temporal, and inner superior retina was significantly thinner than in the corresponding areas of normal fellow eyes. Similar findings were observed regardless of the presence of a DONFL appearance. In the ERM-with-ILM peeling group, the retina of operated eyes was significantly thicker in all areas, except the inner and outer temporal areas. In the MH-with-ILM peeling group, the TNR was 0.86 in operated eyes, and 0.96 in fellow eyes (P < 0.001). In the ERM-with-ILM peeling group, the TNR was 0.84 in operated eyes, and 0.95 in fellow eyes (P < 0.001). TNR in operated eyes of the MH-without-ILM peeling group was 0.98, which was significantly greater than that of the MH-with-ILM peeling group (P < 0

  6. Management of Symptomatic Floaters: Current Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices Among Vitreoretinal Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael N; Rahimy, Ehsan; Ho, Allen C; Garg, Sunir J

    2015-09-01

    To assess the current attitudes, beliefs, and practice patterns among vitreoretinal surgeons when dealing with symptomatic floaters in patients with otherwise healthy eyes. A cross-sectional, Internet-based anonymous survey of 10 questions was distributed via email to vitreoretinal specialists practicing in the United States. The survey response rate was 6.1% (159 of 2,600). Forty of 159 respondents (25%) reported they would perform pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) to reduce symptomatic floaters, and 110 of 159 (69%) had previously performed PPV for this indication. When compared to those unlikely to intervene for symptomatic floaters, 33 of 40 (83%) of those likely to intervene performed more than 100 vitrectomy surgical cases annually (P<.05). Between those that had and had not performed PPV for symptomatic floaters in the past, statistically significant differences were observed regarding the likelihood to perform PPV for symptomatic floaters in the future (35% vs. 4%; P<.0001) and tendency to elect a procedure if the surgeon's own vision were impacted by symptomatic floaters (55% vs. 8%; P<.001). When compared to those likely to perform surgery for symptomatic floaters, those unlikely to intervene identified three statistically significant barriers: the surgical risks involved with PPV (28% vs. 86%; P<.001), unrealistic patient expectations (25% vs 58%; P<.001), and the possibility of ridicule from the local retina community (10% vs. 32%; P<.01). Vitreoretinal specialists are more likely to intervene for symptomatic floaters if they have previously done so and if they perform more than 100 surgical cases per year. The major barriers preventing physicians from performing an intervention for floaters are standard risks associated with PPV, the fear of unreasonable patient expectations, and the possibility of ridicule within the local retina community. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Photophysics of conjugated polymers: interplay between Förster energy migration and defect concentration in shaping a photochemical funnel in PPV.

    PubMed

    Saini, Sangeeta; Bagchi, Biman

    2010-07-21

    Recent single molecule experiments have suggested the existence of a photochemical funnel in the photophysics of conjugated polymers, like poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyl)oxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV). The funnel is believed to be a consequence of the presence of conformational or chemical defects along the polymer chain and efficient non-radiative energy transfer among different chromophore segments. Here we address the effect of the excitation energy dynamics on the photophysics of PPV. The PPV chain is modeled as a polymer with the length distribution of chromophores given either by a Gaussian or by a Poisson distribution. We observe that the Poisson distribution of the segment lengths explains the photophysics of PPV better than the Gaussian distribution. A recently proposed version of an extended 'particle-in-a-box' model is used to calculate the exciton energies and the transition dipole moments of the chromophores, and a master equation to describe the excitation energy transfer among different chromophores. The rate of energy transfer is assumed to be given here, as a first approximation, by the well-known Förster expression. The observed excitation population dynamics confirms the photochemical funneling of excitation energy from shorter to longer chromophores of the polymer chain. The time scale of spectral shift and energy transfer for our model polymer, with realistic values of optical parameters, is in the range of 200-300 ps. We find that the excitation energy may not always migrate towards the longest chromophore segments in the polymer chain as the efficiency of energy transfer between chromophores depends on the separation distance between the two and their relative orientation.

  8. Manipulation of ZnO composition affecting electrical properties of MEH-PPV: ZnO nanocomposite thin film via spin coating for OLEDs application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, N. E. A.; Shariffudin, S. S.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Recent investigations of the promising materials for optoelectronic have been demonstrated by introducing n-type inorganic material into conjugated polymer. Morphology, optical and electrical of nanocomposites thin films based on poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanotetrapods with various ZnO composition (0 wt% to 0.4 wt%) have been investigated. The MEH-PPV: ZnO nanocomposite thin film was deposited using spin-coating method. Surface morphology was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy and shows the uniform dispersion of MEH-PPV and ZnO phases for sample deposited at 0.2 wt%. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra shows the visible emission intensities increased when the ZnO composition increased. The current-voltage (I-V) measurement shows the highest conductivity of nanocomposite thin film deposited at 0.2 wt% of ZnO is 7.40 × 10-1 S. cm-1. This study will provide better performance and suitable for optoelectronic device especially OLEDs application.

  9. [Efficiency of vitrectomy in diabetic macular edema and morphometry of surgically removed of the internal limiting membrane].

    PubMed

    Kalvoda, Jan; Dusková, J; Kovarík, Z; Kubena, A; Kalvodová, B

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of vitrectomy with peeling of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) in eyes with diffuse and/or cystoid nontractional diabetic macular edema (ME) refractory to macular laser photocoagulation. Histopathologic and morphometric analysis of the ILM in diabetic eyes was performed. Thickness of the ILM was correlated with the level of glykosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and other clinical factors. The prospective study involved 56 eyes of 52 diabetic patients with a mean age of 63 +/- 7.6 years. Vitrectomy with trypan blue-assisted ILM peeling was performed in standard way. Mean follow-up period was 8.7 months (range 3 - 19 months). The ILM was fixed immediately after peeling in 2.5% glutaraldehyde and submitted for electron microscopic evaluation. The ILM was photographed in standard magnification (x 5000) with the scale of 1 microm in the shot. Statistical analysis of the postoperative visual acuity (VA) in the study group of 56 eyes proved a general improvement with prevalence of the resulted VA in intervals 0.1-0.2 and 0.5-1.0 related to ETDRS chart. The VA was improved by at least 2 lines in 29 eyes of 56 eyes (51.8%), one line in 6 eyes (10.7%) and remained unchanged in 11 eyes (19.6%). The postoperative VA deteriorated by one line in 2 eyes (3.6%) and at least 2 lines in 8 eyes (14.3%). Morphometric analysis demonstrated a significant thickening of the ILM in all eyes with a mean thickness of the ILM 3.61 +/- 1.22 micro m. It was found that a higher thickness of the ILM is related to elevated HbA1c by both types of diabetes mellitus (DM) (p = 0.040). We also found significant dependence of ILM thickness in relation to duration of DM by comparison of men and women (p = 0.026) and significant correlation between ILM thickness and the age of diabetic patients related to their gender (p = 0.029). Vitrectomy with peeling of the ILM in eyes with chronic diffuse and/or cystoid nontractional diabetic ME mildly improves the VA and extends a hope for

  10. Biochemical and behavioural responses of the endobenthic bivalve Scrobicularia plana to silver nanoparticles in seawater and microalgal food.

    PubMed

    Buffet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Pan, Jin-Fen; Poirier, Laurence; Amiard-Triquet, Claude; Amiard, Jean-Claude; Gaudin, Pierre; Risso-de Faverney, Christine; Guibbolini, Marielle; Gilliland, Douglas; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2013-03-01

    Because of their bactericidal effects, Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have promising industrial development but could lead to potential ecological risks. The aim of this study was to examine the uptake and effect of silver (soluble or as lactate Ag NPs of 40 nm) at low concentrations (10 μg L(-1)) in the endobenthic bivalve Scrobicularia plana exposed, for 14 days, directly (water) or via the diet (microalgae). The stability of Ag NPs in seawater was examined using dynamic light scattering. Release of soluble Ag from Ag NPs in the experimental media was quantified by using diffusive gradient in thin film. Bioaccumulation of Ag in bivalves was measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Behavioural and biochemical biomarkers were determined in bivalves. Aggregation of Ag NPs and the release of soluble Ag from Ag NPs were observed in the experimental media. For both forms of Ag, bioaccumulation was much more important for waterborne than for dietary exposure. The response of oxidative stress biomarkers (catalase, glutathion S-transferase, superoxide dismutase) was more important after dietary than waterborne exposure to Ag (soluble and NPs). These defences were relatively efficient since they led to a lack of response of damage biomarkers. Burrowing was not affected for bivalves exposed directly or through the diet to both Ag forms but feeding behaviour was impaired after 10 days of dietary exposure. Since no differences of responses to Ag either soluble or nanoparticulate were observed, it seems that labile Ag released from Ag NPs was mainly responsible for toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effectiveness of the 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPV23) against Pneumococcal Disease in the Elderly: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Falkenhorst, Gerhard; Remschmidt, Cornelius; Harder, Thomas; Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Wichmann, Ole; Bogdan, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Routine vaccination of elderly people against pneumococcal diseases is recommended in many countries. National guidelines differ, recommending either the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23), the 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) or both. Considering the ongoing debate on the effectiveness of PPV23, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of the vaccine efficacy/effectiveness (VE) of PPV23 against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumococcal pneumonia in adults aged ≥60 years living in industrialized countries. We searched for pertinent clinical trials and observational studies in databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. We assessed the risk of bias of individual studies using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool for randomized controlled trials and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for observational studies. We rated the overall quality of the evidence by GRADE criteria. We performed meta-analyses of studies grouped by outcome and study design using random-effects models. We applied a sensitivity analysis excluding studies with high risk of bias. We identified 17 eligible studies. Pooled VE against IPD (by any serotype) was 73% (95%CI: 10-92%) in four clinical trials, 45% (95%CI: 15-65%) in three cohort studies, and 59% (95%CI: 35-74%) in three case-control studies. After excluding studies with high risk of bias, pooled VE against pneumococcal pneumonia (by any serotype) was 64% (95%CI: 35-80%) in two clinical trials and 48% (95%CI: 25-63%) in two cohort studies. Higher VE estimates in trials (follow-up ~2.5 years) than in observational studies (follow-up ~5 years) may indicate waning protection. Unlike previous meta-analyses, we excluded two trials with high risk of bias regarding the outcome pneumococcal pneumonia, because diagnosis was based on serologic methods with insufficient specificity. Our meta-analysis revealed significant VE of PPV23 against both IPD

  12. A live-attenuated chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine is transmitted to contact pigs but is not upregulated by concurrent infection with porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and is efficacious in a PCV2b-PRRSV-PPV challenge model.

    PubMed

    Opriessnig, T; Shen, H G; Pal, N; Ramamoorthy, S; Huang, Y W; Lager, K M; Beach, N M; Halbur, P G; Meng, X J

    2011-08-01

    The live chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine with the capsid gene of the emerging subtype 2b cloned in the genomic backbone of the nonpathogenic PCV1 is attenuated in vivo and induces protective immunity against PCV2. To further determine the safety and efficacy of this experimental vaccine, we tested for evidence of pig-to-pig transmission by commingling nonvaccinated and vaccinated pigs, determined potential upregulation by simultaneous vaccination and infection with porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and determined vaccine efficacy by challenging pigs 4 weeks after vaccination with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV. Forty-six 21-day-old, PCV2-naïve pigs were randomly assigned to one of six groups. Twenty-nine of 46 pigs were challenged with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV at day 28, 8/46 remained nonvaccinated and nonchallenged and served as negative controls, and 9/46 remained nonchallenged and served as vaccination controls. All animals were necropsied at day 49. PCV1-PCV2 viremia was detected in nonvaccinated contact pigs commingled with vaccinated pigs, indicating pig-to-pig transmission; however, PCV1-PCV2 DNA levels remained low in all vaccinated and contact pigs regardless of concurrent infection. Finally, vaccination 28 days before challenge resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) decreased amounts of PCV2 in tissues and sera and significantly (P < 0.05) reduced macroscopic and microscopic lesions. The results of this study indicate that the experimental live-attenuated chimeric PCV2 vaccine, although transmissible to contact pigs, remains attenuated in pigs concurrently infected with PRRSV and PPV and induces protective immunity against PCV2b when it is administered 28 days before PCV2 exposure.

  13. A Live-Attenuated Chimeric Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Vaccine Is Transmitted to Contact Pigs but Is Not Upregulated by Concurrent Infection with Porcine Parvovirus (PPV) and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) and Is Efficacious in a PCV2b-PRRSV-PPV Challenge Model▿

    PubMed Central

    Opriessnig, T.; Shen, H. G.; Pal, N.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Huang, Y. W.; Lager, K. M.; Beach, N. M.; Halbur, P. G.; Meng, X. J.

    2011-01-01

    The live chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine with the capsid gene of the emerging subtype 2b cloned in the genomic backbone of the nonpathogenic PCV1 is attenuated in vivo and induces protective immunity against PCV2. To further determine the safety and efficacy of this experimental vaccine, we tested for evidence of pig-to-pig transmission by commingling nonvaccinated and vaccinated pigs, determined potential upregulation by simultaneous vaccination and infection with porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and determined vaccine efficacy by challenging pigs 4 weeks after vaccination with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV. Forty-six 21-day-old, PCV2-naïve pigs were randomly assigned to one of six groups. Twenty-nine of 46 pigs were challenged with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV at day 28, 8/46 remained nonvaccinated and nonchallenged and served as negative controls, and 9/46 remained nonchallenged and served as vaccination controls. All animals were necropsied at day 49. PCV1-PCV2 viremia was detected in nonvaccinated contact pigs commingled with vaccinated pigs, indicating pig-to-pig transmission; however, PCV1-PCV2 DNA levels remained low in all vaccinated and contact pigs regardless of concurrent infection. Finally, vaccination 28 days before challenge resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) decreased amounts of PCV2 in tissues and sera and significantly (P < 0.05) reduced macroscopic and microscopic lesions. The results of this study indicate that the experimental live-attenuated chimeric PCV2 vaccine, although transmissible to contact pigs, remains attenuated in pigs concurrently infected with PRRSV and PPV and induces protective immunity against PCV2b when it is administered 28 days before PCV2 exposure. PMID:21653745

  14. Inverted polymer solar cell based on MEH-PPV/PC61BM coupled with ZnO nanoparticles as electron transport layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, A. M. S.; El-Sheikh, S. M.; Harraz, Farid A.; Ebrahim, S.; Soliman, M.; Hafez, H. S.; Ibrahim, I. A.; Abdel-Mottaleb, M. S. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the use of annealed sol-gel derived ZnO nanoparticles acting as electron transport layer (ETL) in inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs). We have examined the photovoltaic performance of devices based on poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV):(6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) blend system employing the ZnO nanoparticles as an ETL with CuI as hole transport layer (HTL) in comparison to the case of using the conventional HTL of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonate) sulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS). The effect of the presence of another layer of ZnO macrospheres attached to the ZnO nanoparticles is also investigated. The highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) value of 1.35% was achieved for device: ITO/ZnO nanoparticles/MEH-PPV:PC61BM/CuI/Ag, which is 275% more the value obtained when CuI was replaced by PEDOT:PSS. The comprehensive analyses on structural and optical characteristics including SEM, XRD, FTIR, PL and UV-vis spectroscopy indicated that the use of the ZnO nanoparticles alone as ETL, together with the CuI as HTL could effectively reduce trap-assisted recombination and charge accumulation at the interface, which is beneficial for the enhanced device performance.

  15. Protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led school-based intervention to increase the physical activity of adolescent girls (PLAN-A).

    PubMed

    Sebire, Simon J; Edwards, Mark J; Campbell, Rona; Jago, Russell; Kipping, Ruth; Banfield, Kathryn; Tomkinson, Keeley; Garfield, Kirsty; Lyons, Ronan A; Simon, Joanne; Blair, Peter S; Hollingworth, William

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity levels are low amongst adolescent girls, and this population faces specific barriers to being active. Peer influences on health behaviours are important in adolescence and peer-led interventions might hold promise to change behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of Peer-Led physical Activity iNtervention for Adolescent girls (PLAN-A), a peer-led intervention aimed at increasing adolescent girls' physical activity levels. A two-arm cluster randomised feasibility trial will be conducted in six secondary schools (intervention n  = 4; control n  = 2) with year 8 (12-13 years old) girls. The intervention will operate at a year group level and consist of year 8 girls nominating influential peers within their year group to become peer-supporters. Approximately 15 % of the cohort will receive 3 days of training about physical activity and interpersonal communication skills. Peer-supporters will then informally diffuse messages about physical activity amongst their friends for 10 weeks. Data will be collected at baseline (time 0 (T0)), immediately after the intervention (time 1 (T1)) and 12 months after baseline measures (time 2 (T2)). In this feasibility trial, the primary interest is in the recruitment of schools and participants (both year 8 girls and peer-supporters), delivery and receipt of the intervention, data provision rates and identifying the cost categories for future economic analysis. Physical activity will be assessed using 7-day accelerometry, with the likely primary outcome in a fully-powered trial being daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Participants will also complete psychosocial questionnaires at each time point: assessing motivation, self-esteem and peer physical activity norms. Data analysis will be largely descriptive and focus on recruitment, attendance and data provision rates. The findings will inform the sample size required for a

  16. Effects of aromatherapy massage on face-down posture-related pain after vitrectomy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Naho; Munesada, Minako; Yamada, Noriko; Suzuki, Haruka; Futohashi, Ayano; Shigeeda, Takashi; Kato, Satoshi; Nishigaki, Masakazu

    2014-06-01

    Postoperative face-down posturing (FDP) is recommended to optimize the effects of intraocular gas tamponade after vitrectomy. However, patients undergoing FDP usually experience physical and psychological burdens. This 3-armed, randomized, single-center trial investigated the effects of aromatherapy on FDP-related physical pain. Sixty-three patients under FDP were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups: aromatherapy massage with essential oil (AT), oil massage without essential oil (OT), and a control group. The AT and OT groups received 10 minutes of massage by ward nurses trained by an aromatherapist, while the control group received usual care. Outcomes were assessed as short-term (pre- to post-intervention) and long-term (first to third postoperative day) changes in physical pain in five body regions using face-scale. The AT and OT groups both revealed similar short-term pain reductions after intervention, compared with the control group. Regarding long-term effects, neither group experienced significant effects until the second day. Significantly more pain reduction compared with usual care occurred on the third day, mainly in the AT group, though there were few significant differences between the AT and OT groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that simple oil massage is an effective strategy for immediate pain reduction in patients undergoing FDP, while aromatherapy may have a long-term effect on pain reduction. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Surgical solution to vitreous floaters visual problem].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sanz, F; Velarde, J I; Casuso, P; Fernández-Cotero, J N

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the role of 25 gauge pars-plana vitrectomy (25G-PPV), after a careful patient selection, when we find highly annoying vitreous floaters and to question if this is an ethical therapeutic option. A retrospective study of eight eyes (seven patients) aged 58+/-14 years old (range 42-78) high myopes and pseudophakes who underwent 25G-PPV. Clinical data and visual acuity were studied at six to twelve months follow-up. Health-related functioning and quality of life was measured with the 39-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-39). No complications were observed. All patients were satisfied. Safety at third month was 100% and 37.5% improved one or more lines of visual acuity. Vitreous floaters can be often undervaluated by ophthalmologists, resulting in no intervention. Conventional 20 gauge PPV after a carefully examination can be an effective option for some authors. 25G-PPV incorporates also advantages as the early recovery, with little complications in pseudophakic eyes.

  18. Drying temperature effects on electrical and optical properties of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Azhar, N. E. A., E-mail: najwaezira@yahoo.com; Affendi, I. H. H., E-mail: irmahidayanti.halim@gmail.com; Shafura, A. K., E-mail: shafura@ymail.com

    Temperature effects on electrical and optical properties of a representative semiconducting polymer, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV), has recently attracted much attention. The MEH-PPV thin films were deposited at different drying temperature (anneal temperature) using spin-coating technique. The spin coating technique was used to produce uniform film onto large area. The MEH-PPV was dissolved in toluene solution to exhibits different optical and electrical properties. The absorption coefficient and bandgap was measured using UV-Visible-NIR (UV-VIS-NIR). The bandgap of MEH-PPV was effect by the thickness of thin films. For electrical properties, two-point probe was used to characterize the current-voltage measurement. The current-voltage measurement showsmore » that the MEH-PPV thin films become more conductive at high temperature. This study will provide better performance and suitable for optoelectronic device especially OLEDs applications.« less

  19. Improvement in the luminous efficiency of MEH-PPV based light emitting diodes using zinc oxide nanorods grown by the electrochemical deposition technique on ITO substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rohini B.; Kumar, Jitender; Madhwal, Devinder; Singh, Inderpreet; Kaur, I.; Bhardwaj, L. M.; Nagpal, S.; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Mathur, P. C.

    2011-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods grown by the electrochemical technique have been used to enhance the luminance of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexoxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV)-based polymer light-emitting diodes. The luminance of the device with ZnO nanorods is found to increase by more than two times as compared with the device without ZnO nanorods. The diameter of the nanorods used in device fabrication was ~145 nm. The size of the nanorods was estimated from field emission scanning electron microscope images. Optical and structural characterizations of the nanorods were also performed by using absorption, photoluminescence and x-ray diffraction, confirming the formation of ZnO nanorods.

  20. Effects of inorganic nitrogen sources on the production of PP-V [(10Z)-12-carboxyl-monascorubramine] and the Expression of the nitrate assimilation gene cluster by Penicillium sp. AZ.

    PubMed

    Arai, Teppei; Umemura, Sara; Ota, Tamaki; Ogihara, Jun; Kato, Jun; Kasumi, Takafumi

    2012-01-01

    A fungal strain, Penicillium sp. AZ, produced the azaphilone Monascus pigment homolog when cultured in a medium composed of soluble starch, ammonium nitrate, yeast extract, and citrate buffer, pH 5.0. One of the typical features of violet pigment PP-V [(10Z)-12-carboxyl-monascorubramine] is that pyranoid oxygen is replaced with nitrogen. In this study, we found that ammonia and nitrate nitrogen are available for PP-V biosynthesis, and that ammonia nitrogen was much more effective than nitrate nitrogen. Further, we isolated nitrate assimilation gene cluster, niaD, niiA, and crnA, and analyzed the expression of these genes. The expression levels of all these genes increased with sodium nitrate addition to the culture medium. The results obtained here strongly suggest that Penicillium sp. AZ produced PP-V using nitrate in the form of ammonium reduced from nitrate through a bioprocess assimilatory reaction.

  1. X-rays sensing properties of MEH-PPV, Alq₃ and additive components: a new organic dosimeter as a candidate for minimizing the risk of accidents of patients undergoing radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Schimitberger, T; Ferreira, G R; Akcelrud, L C; Saraiva, M F; Bianchi, R F

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report our experimental design in searching a smart and easy-to-read dosimeter used to detect 6 MV X-rays for improving patient safety in radiation oncology. The device was based on an organic emissive solutions of poly(2-methoxy-5(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV), aluminum-tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq₃) and additive components which were characterized by UV-Vis absorption, photoluminescence and CIE color coordinate diagram. The optical properties of MEH-PPV/Alq₃ solutions have been examined as function of radiation dose over the range of 0-100 Gy. It has shown that MEH-PPV/Alq₃ solutions are specifically sensitive to X-rays, since the effect of radiation on this organic system is strongly correlated with the efficient spectral overlap between Alq₃ emission and the absorption of degraded MEH-PPV, which alters the color and photoemission of MEH-PPV/Alq₃ mixtures from red to yellow, and then to green. The rate of this change is more sensitive when MEH-PPV/Alq₃ is irradiated in the presence of benzoyl peroxide than when in the presence of hindered phenolic stabilizers, respectively, an accelerator and an inhibitor to activate or inhibit free radical formation. This gives rise to optimize the response curve of the dosimeter. It is clear from the experimental results that organic emissive semiconductors have potential to be used as dedicated and low-cost dosimeters to provide an independent check of beam output of a linear accelerator and therefore to give patients the opportunity to have information on the dose prescription or equipment-related problems a few minutes before being exposed to radiation. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intraocular cysts of toxoplasma gondii in patients with necrotizing retinitis following periocular/intraocular triamcinolone injection.

    PubMed

    Nijhawan, Raje; Bansal, Reema; Gupta, Nalini; Beke, Nikhil; Kulkarni, Pandurang; Gupta, Amod

    2013-10-01

    To report the detection of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in intraocular aspirates of patients with necrotizing retinitis following periocular/intraocular corticosteroid injection. Case report. Two patients (2 eyes) with widespread necrotizing retinitis in a steroid-exposed eye posed a diagnostic challenge and underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Intraocular samples (vitreous fluid, retinal tissue, and subretinal aspirate in case 1, and vitreous fluid in case 2) were subjected to cytological examination. The subretinal aspirate (case 1) revealed encysted bradyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii. Vitreous fluid (case 2) tested positive for anti-toxoplasma antibodies and the smear showed encysted forms of Toxoplasma gondii on cytology. CONCLUSION. Toxoplasma gondii cysts were detected in eyes with necrotizing retinitis that developed secondary to injudicious use of corticosteroids.

  3. Chronic Traumatic Giant Macular Hole Repair with Autologous Platelets.

    PubMed

    Coca, Mircea; Makkouk, Fuad; Picciani, Renata; Godley, Bernard; Elkeeb, Ahmed

    2017-01-05

    We report on the closure of a chronic posttraumatic giant macular hole. The patient presented with decreased vision in the left eye following blunt trauma 20 years prior. His dilated fundus examination revealed a 3000 um base-diameter full thickness macular hole. Surgical repair was performed with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), internal limiting membrane peeling and autologous platelet concentrate (APC) injected over the macular hole. At one month follow-up, the macular hole had closed on exam and optical coherence tomography (OCT), and the patient reported subjective visual improvement. To our knowledge, this report presents the first case of a chronic giant macular hole successfully closed after undergoing surgery with adjuvant platelets therapy.

  4. Osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis for end-stage cornea blindness.

    PubMed

    Wong, H S; Then, K Y; Ramli, R

    2011-10-01

    We report the first case of Osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) who successfully underwent surgery in Malaysia following a grade 4 (severe) chemical injury in both eyes in 2006. The patient's left eye was eviscerated and his right eye underwent penetrating keratoplasty. However, the corneal graft failed and became opaque. His right eye could only perceive light. The OOKP was offered to him hoping to recover some functional vision. He underwent a 2-stage surgery to implant the OOKP into his right eye. However, 2 months post-operation, he developed vitreous haemorrhage. A successful pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) was performed via the limited view through the lens. He attained a final visual acuity of 6/60 (N36). He was able to mobilize more independently, feed, dress himself and read large print.

  5. Chronic Traumatic Giant Macular Hole Repair with Autologous Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Makkouk, Fuad; Picciani, Renata; Godley, Bernard; Elkeeb, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    We report on the closure of a chronic posttraumatic giant macular hole. The patient presented with decreased vision in the left eye following blunt trauma 20 years prior. His dilated fundus examination revealed a 3000 um base-diameter full thickness macular hole. Surgical repair was performed with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), internal limiting membrane peeling and autologous platelet concentrate (APC) injected over the macular hole. At one month follow-up, the macular hole had closed on exam and optical coherence tomography (OCT), and the patient reported subjective visual improvement. To our knowledge, this report presents the first case of a chronic giant macular hole successfully closed after undergoing surgery with adjuvant platelets therapy. PMID:28168133

  6. Remission of Intermediate Uveitis: Incidence and Predictive Factors.

    PubMed

    Kempen, John H; Gewaily, Dina Y; Newcomb, Craig W; Liesegang, Teresa L; Kaçmaz, R Oktay; Levy-Clarke, Grace A; Nussenblatt, Robert B; Rosenbaum, James T; Sen, H Nida; Suhler, Eric B; Thorne, Jennifer E; Foster, C Stephen; Jabs, Douglas A; Payal, Abhishek; Fitzgerald, Tonetta D

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the incidence of remission among patients with intermediate uveitis; to identify factors potentially predictive of remission. Retrospective cohort study. Involved eyes of patients with primary noninfectious intermediate uveitis at 4 academic ocular inflammation subspecialty practices, followed sufficiently long to meet the remission outcome definition, were studied retrospectively by standardized chart review data. Remission of intermediate uveitis was defined as a lack of inflammatory activity at ≥2 visits spanning ≥90 days in the absence of any corticosteroid or immunosuppressant medications. Factors potentially predictive of intermediate uveitis remission were evaluated using survival analysis. Among 849 eyes (of 510 patients) with intermediate uveitis followed over 1934 eye-years, the incidence of intermediate uveitis remission was 8.6/100 eye-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.4-10.1). Factors predictive of disease remission included prior pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) (hazard ratio [HR] [vs no PPV] = 2.39; 95% CI, 1.42-4.00), diagnosis of intermediate uveitis within the last year (HR [vs diagnosis >5 years ago] =3.82; 95% CI, 1.91-7.63), age ≥45 years (HR [vs age <45 years] = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.03-3.11), female sex (HR = 1.61; 95% CI, 1.04-2.49), and Hispanic race/ethnicity (HR [vs white race] = 2.81; 95% CI, 1.23-6.41). Presence/absence of a systemic inflammatory disease, laterality of uveitis, and smoking status were not associated with differential incidence. Our results suggest that intermediate uveitis is a chronic disease with an overall low rate of remission. Recently diagnosed patients and older, female, and Hispanic patients were more likely to remit. With regard to management, pars plana vitrectomy was associated with increased probability of remission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Remission of Intermediate Uveitis: Incidence and Predictive Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kempen, John H.; Gewaily, Dina Y.; Newcomb, Craig W.; Liesegang, Teresa L.; Kaçmaz, R. Oktay; Levy-Clarke, Grace A.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Sen, H. Nida; Suhler, Eric B.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Foster, C. Stephen; Jabs, Douglas A.; Payal, Abhishek; Fitzgerald, Tonetta D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the incidence of remission among patients with intermediate uveitis; to identify factors potentially predictive of remission. Design Retrospective cohort study. Methods Involved eyes of patients with primary non-infectious intermediate uveitis at 4 academic ocular inflammation subspecialty practices, followed sufficiently long to meet the remission outcome definition, were studied retrospectively by standardized chart review data. Remission of intermediate uveitis was defined as a lack of inflammatory activity at ≥2 visits spanning ≥90 days in the absence of any corticosteroid or immunosuppressant medications. Factors potentially predictive of intermediate uveitis remission were evaluated using survival analysis. Results Among 849 eyes (of 510 patients) with intermediate uveitis followed over 1,934 eye-years, the incidence of intermediate uveitis remission was 8.6/100 eye-years (95% confidence interval (CI), 7.4–10.1). Factors predictive of disease remission included prior pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) (HR (vs. no PPV)=2.39; 95% CI, 1.42–4.00), diagnosis of intermediate uveitis within the last year (vs. diagnosis >5 years ago)=3.82; 95% CI, 1.91–7.63), age ≥45 years (HR (vs. age <45 years)=1.79; 95% CI, 1.03–3.11), female sex (HR=1.61; 95% CI, 1.04–2.49), and Hispanic race/ethnicity (HR (vs. white race)=2.81; 95% CI, 1.23–6.41). Presence/absence of a systemic inflammatory disease, laterality of uveitis, and smoking status were not associated with differential incidence. Conclusions Our results suggest that intermediate uveitis is a chronic disease with an overall low rate of remission. Recently diagnosed cases, and older, female and Hispanic cases were more likely to remit. With regards to management, pars plana vitrectomy was associated with increased probability of remission. PMID:26772874

  8. [Posterior vitrectomy with gas endotamponade and retinal laser therapy in treatment of patients with macular complications of the optic disc pit].

    PubMed

    Cywiński, Adam; Kałużny, Jakub; Ferda, Daniela; Piwońska-Lobermajer, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Retrospective evaluation of functional and anatomical treatment outcomes in patients with macular cornplications of optic disc pit. 9 patients (eyes) underwent central posterior vitrectomy in conjunction with posterior vitreous detachment, retinal laser therapy to the optic disc pit area and endotamponade with expansile gas. It was followed by the patient's forced positioning (recommended for a few days especially at night), which ended the treatment protocol. Improved anatomical relationships, accompanied by functional improvement were achieved in each reported case. The resolution of macular lesions was slow, lasting even for several months. Too long delay in performing the surgery (over 5 months since the onset of visual impairment) was associated with the development of retinal complications, mainly macular hole formation, most likely caused by the long-term ischemia. The central posterior vitrectomy combined with posterior vitreous detachment, laser therapy, andd expansile gas tamponade offers good outcomes in patients with retinal complications of optic disc pit. Surgery performed shortly after the onset of visual dysfunction gives the best functional outcomes. Restoration of normal anatomical relationships is a long-term process. In some cases, though, these abnormalities may not resolve completely.

  9. Vision development over an extended follow-up period in babies after successful vitrectomy for stage 4b retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Gadkari, Salil; Kamdar, Rushita; Kulkarni, Sucheta; Deshpande, Madan; Taras, Sudhir

    2015-05-01

    To demonstrate improvement in the vision of babies after successful vitrectomy for stage 4b retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) over an extended period of time. This was an observational prospective case series. Eight babies who had undergone successful vitrectomy in either their only seeing eye (or both eyes) with stage 4b ROP were followed up post-operatively for a period of 80 weeks or more. Vision with Teller acuity chart, refraction, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy, and documentation with RetCam was done at each visit. Vision of the (only/better) seeing operated eye with corrective glasses was graded for the purpose of statistical evaluation. Paired t test was performed to compare the vision prior to 30 weeks and at or after 80 weeks. Statistically significant improvement in vision was noted at or after 80 weeks as compared to the vision recorded before 30 weeks (p = 0.0062). Unlike in adult intraocular surgeries where stable visual acuity is reached well before 30 weeks, continuing improvement at 80 weeks and beyond is noted. Gradual restoration of the retinal architecture and plasticity of the infant's developing brain are thought to be responsible.

  10. An implantation of multifocal lenses LS-313 MF30, Mplus and MplusX models, during and after posterior vitrectomy in patients treated for various diseases of the retina.

    PubMed

    Cywinski, Adam; Piwonska-Lobermajer, Anna; Penter, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    A retrospective analysis of visual function and postoperative complaints in patients after posterior vitrectomy and multifocal Mplus or MplusX intraocular lens implantation. 14 patients (14 eyes) were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent posterior vitrectomy due to underlying retinal pathologies. A combined procedure of phacovitrectomy was performed in some patients, whereas others underwent a separate cataract extraction as a second stage of treatment. The Mplus or MplusX intraocular lenses were implanted in all cases and the postoperative visual function and patient complaints were analysed. Multifocal lens explantation was not necessary in any case. Good uncorrected distance and near visual acuity was achieved in most cases. When implanted prior to vitrectomy, the intraocular lenses did not limit the view into the posterior segment, so precise manipulations within the macula and peripheral retina were feasible. The right choice between Mplus and MplusX minimises the rate of postoperative complaints. Conslusions: The multifocal Mplus and MplusX intraocular lenses offer a good alternative for patients who need posterior vitrectomy and still want to achieve good uncorrected distance and near visual acuity.

  11. Evaluation of the vitreous microbial contamination rate in office-based three-port microincision vitrectomy surgery using Retrector technology.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Flavio A; Qian, Cynthia X; Sapieha, Przemyslaw

    2014-05-01

    To perform a microbiological contamination analysis of the vitreous during office-based micro-incision vitrectomy surgery (MIVS) assessing whether the bacteria detected correlated with patient's ocular conjunctival flora. This is a prospective, interventional, nonrandomized case series of patients undergoing office-based MIVS, anti-VEGF, and dexamethasone intravitreal injections (triple therapy) for the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic macular edema (DME).All patients were operated at a small procedure room in an ambulatory clinic of the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Conjunctival samples were done before placing the sclerotomies. The MIVS was done with a 23-gauge retractable vitrector, a 27-gauge infusion line, and a 29-gauge chandelier. Undiluted and diluted vitreous were collected for aerobic, anaerobic and fungal cultures. Outcomes measured were bacterial species identification within samples collected from the conjunctiva and the vitreous. Thirty-seven patients (37 eyes) were recruited and completed over 17 months of follow-up. Twenty-eight had wet AMD and nine had DME. There were 13 men and 24 women, with a mean age of 78 years. Eighteen patients (46%) had culture positive conjunctival flora. Twenty-six bacterial colonies were tabulated in total from the conjunctival swabs. All bacteria detected were gram-positive bacteria (100%), most commonly: Staphylococcus epidermitis in 11 (42%) and Corynebacterium sp. in 6 (23%). Only 1/18 patients had more than 3 species isolated, 6/18 patients had 2 species and 11/18 patients had 1 species identified on the conjunctival swab. Only 1 of the 37 undiluted midvitreous samples was culture positive, equating to a contamination rate of 2.7%. None of the diluted vitreous samples were culture positive. All cultures were negative for fungus. No serious postoperative complications occurred, including bacterial endophthalmitis, choroidal detachment, and

  12. On better estimating and normalizing the relationship between clinical parameters: comparing respiratory modulations in the photoplethysmogram and blood pressure signal (DPOP versus PPV).

    PubMed

    Addison, Paul S; Wang, Rui; Uribe, Alberto A; Bergese, Sergio D

    2015-01-01

    DPOP (ΔPOP or Delta-POP) is a noninvasive parameter which measures the strength of respiratory modulations present in the pulse oximeter waveform. It has been proposed as a noninvasive alternative to pulse pressure variation (PPV) used in the prediction of the response to volume expansion in hypovolemic patients. We considered a number of simple techniques for better determining the underlying relationship between the two parameters. It was shown numerically that baseline-induced signal errors were asymmetric in nature, which corresponded to observation, and we proposed a method which combines a least-median-of-squares estimator with the requirement that the relationship passes through the origin (the LMSO method). We further developed a method of normalization of the parameters through rescaling DPOP using the inverse gradient of the linear fitted relationship. We propose that this normalization method (LMSO-N) is applicable to the matching of a wide range of clinical parameters. It is also generally applicable to the self-normalizing of parameters whose behaviour may change slightly due to algorithmic improvements.

  13. On Better Estimating and Normalizing the Relationship between Clinical Parameters: Comparing Respiratory Modulations in the Photoplethysmogram and Blood Pressure Signal (DPOP versus PPV)

    PubMed Central

    Addison, Paul S.; Wang, Rui; Uribe, Alberto A.; Bergese, Sergio D.

    2015-01-01

    DPOP (ΔPOP or Delta-POP) is a noninvasive parameter which measures the strength of respiratory modulations present in the pulse oximeter waveform. It has been proposed as a noninvasive alternative to pulse pressure variation (PPV) used in the prediction of the response to volume expansion in hypovolemic patients. We considered a number of simple techniques for better determining the underlying relationship between the two parameters. It was shown numerically that baseline-induced signal errors were asymmetric in nature, which corresponded to observation, and we proposed a method which combines a least-median-of-squares estimator with the requirement that the relationship passes through the origin (the LMSO method). We further developed a method of normalization of the parameters through rescaling DPOP using the inverse gradient of the linear fitted relationship. We propose that this normalization method (LMSO-N) is applicable to the matching of a wide range of clinical parameters. It is also generally applicable to the self-normalizing of parameters whose behaviour may change slightly due to algorithmic improvements. PMID:25691912

  14. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling versus inverted internal limiting membrane flap technique for macular hole-induced retinal detachment: a systematic review of literature and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Ling-Lin; Lu, Yu-Jie; Han, Meng-Yao; Yu, Ai-Hua; Cai, Xiao-Jun

    2017-11-28

    To evaluate the effects on vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling versus vitrectomy with inverted internal limiting membrane flap technique for macular hole-induced retinal detachment (MHRD). Pubmed, Cochrane Library, and Embase were systematically searched for studies that compared ILM peeling with inverted ILM flap technique for macular hole-induced retinal detachment. The primary outcomes are the rate of retinal reattachment and the rate of macular hole closure 6 months later after initial surgery, the secondary outcome is the postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) 6 months later after initial surgery. Four studies that included 98 eyes were selected. All the included studies were retrospective comparative studies. The preoperative best-corrected visual acuity was equal between ILM peeling and inverted ILM flap technique groups. It was indicated that the rate of retinal reattachment (odds ratio (OR) = 0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.03 to 0.69; P = 0.02) and macular hole closure (OR = 0.06, 95% CI:0.02 to 0.19; P < 0.00001) after initial surgery was higher in the group of vitrectomy with inverted ILM flap technique than that in the group of vitrectomy with ILM peeling. However, there was no statistically significant difference in postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (mean difference (MD) 0.18 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution; 95% CI -0.06 to 0.43 ; P = 0.14) between the two surgery groups. Compared with ILM peeling, vitrectomy with inverted ILM flap technique resulted significantly higher of the rate of retinal reattachment and macular hole closure, but seemed does not improve postoperative best-corrected visual acuity.

  15. United Kingdom National Ophthalmology Database study of vitreoretinal surgery: report 3, retinal detachment.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Timothy L; Donachie, Paul H J; Sallam, Ahmed; Sparrow, John M; Johnston, Robert L

    2014-03-01

    To describe rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD) surgery. National Ophthalmology Database study. A total of 3403 eyes from 3321 patients undergoing primary RD surgery. Participating centers prospectively collected clinical data using a single electronic medical record system, with automatic extraction of anonymized data to a national database, from 2002 to 2010. Description of the primary procedures performed, intraoperative complication rate, and proportion of eyes undergoing subsequent RD or cataract surgery. We undertook an exploratory analysis of change in visual acuity (VA) using the data available. Of 3403 operations, 2693 (79.1%) were pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), 413 (12.1%) were retinopexy with a scleral buckle (SB), and 297 (8.7%) were PPV with an SB (PPV-SB). For PPV and PPV-SB, 18.8% were with hexafluoroethane, 12.1% were with perfluoropropane, 43.1% were with sulfahexafluoride, 1.8% were with air, 17.9% were with silicone oil, and 10.7% were with cataract surgery. Within 1 year of vitrectomy, 52.1% of phakic eyes had undergone cataract surgery. For all RD operations combined (and excluding cataract surgery complications), 5.1% had 1 or more intraoperative complication, 13.0% underwent further RD surgery, and 8.3% had silicone oil in situ at last review. The RD reoperation rate was 13.3%, 12.3%, and 14.5% for PPV, SB, and PPV-SB, respectively. For 961 eyes with a baseline and final VA measurement, the median presenting logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution VA improved from 1.0 to 0.5 (20/200-20/63) after a median follow-up of 0.6 years. These results may help vitreoretinal surgeons to benchmark their intraoperative complication rate and reoperation rate and to compare their surgical techniques with their peers'. They suggest that the benefits of RD surgery greatly outweigh the risks. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy of non-fovea-sparing ILM peeling for symptomatic myopic foveoschisis with and without macular hole.

    PubMed

    Al-Badawi, Amer Hamad; Abdelhakim, Mohamad Amr Salah Eddin; Macky, Tamer Ahmed; Mortada, Hassan Aly

    2018-04-30

    To study anatomical and visual outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with non-fovea-sparing (entire) internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in eyes with myopic foveoschisis (MF). Prospective interventional case series of eyes undergoing PPV with entire ILM peeling for symptomatic MF. Preoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD - OCT) epiretinal membrane, anomalous posterior vitreous detachment, vitreoschisis and postoperative changes in SD-OCT central foveal thickness (CFT), ellipsoid zone defect, foveal detachment (FD), macular hole (MH) diameter (if present) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR). This study included 21 eyes (21 patients) with mean age 60.4±13.1, 15 females (71.4%). All patients achieved complete postoperative reattachment by SD-OCT (no FD) 6 months post vitrectomy, with no iatrogenic intraoperative or postoperative MH, and with significant improvement in final BCVA from 1.6±0.30 to1.0±0.2 logMAR, and in CFT from 918.2±311.4 to182.3±33.1 µm. Patients were subdivided into subgroup A: 11 eyes without MH; and subgroup B: 10 eyes with MH, the latter had significant improvement in MH diameter (p=0.005). Preoperative BCVA was a significant risk factor for visual gain, while preoperative FD and CFT were significant for CFT change. Vitrectomy with non-fovea-sparing (entire) ILM peeling resulted in a significant functional and anatomical improvement in eyes with MF with/without MH with no reported complications. Results are comparable to fovea-sparing ILM peeling. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Outcomes of microscope-integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography-guided center-sparing internal limiting membrane peeling for myopic traction maculopathy: a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Atul; Ravani, Raghav; Mehta, Aditi; Simakurthy, Sriram; Dhull, Chirakshi

    2017-07-04

    To evaluate the outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with microscope-integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography (I-OCT)-guided traction removal and center-sparing internal limiting membrane (cs-ILM) peeling. Nine eyes with myopic traction maculopathy as diagnosed on SD-OCT underwent PPV with I-OCT-guided cs-ILM peeling and were evaluated prospectively for resolution of central macular thickness (CMT) and improvement in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and complications, if any, were noted. All patients were followed up for more than 9 months. Resolution of the macular retinoschisis was seen in all nine eyes on SD-OCT. At 36 weeks, there was a significant improvement in mean BCVA from the preoperative BCVA (P = 0.0089) along with a reduction in the CMT from 569.77 ± 263.19 to 166.0 ± 43.91 um (P = 0.0039). None of the eyes showed worsening of BCVA or development of full-thickness macular hole in the intraoperative or follow-up period. PPV with I-OCT-guided cs-ILM peeling helps in complete removal of traction, resolution of retinoschisis and good functional recovery with low intraoperative and postoperative complications.

  18. The Incidence of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Complications in Macular Surgery After Prophylactic Preoperative Laser Retinopexy

    PubMed Central

    Tosi, Gian Marco; Esposti, Pierluigi; Romeo, Napoleone; Marigliani, Davide; Cevenini, Gabriele; Massimo, Patrizio; Nuti, Elisabetta; Esposti, Giulia; Ripandelli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics of intraoperative retinal breaks (RBs) and postoperative retinal detachment (RRD) in patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for macular disorders, who were treated preoperatively with prophylactic peripheral laser retinopexy. This observational cohort study comprised of 254 patients who underwent macular surgery and were preoperatively subjected to prophylactic laser retinopexy anterior to the equator. The main outcome measures were the incidence and characteristics of intraoperative RBs and postoperative RRD. Intraoperative RBs occurred in 14 patients (5.5%). Ten patients presented a sclerotomy-related RB (3.9%) and 4 patients a nonsclerotomy-related RB (1.6%). Two patients showed postoperative RRD (0.7%). Neither of the 2 patients with postoperative RRD was macula-off at presentation: one of them was successfully operated on with scleral buckling and the other was managed by observation alone. A significantly increased risk for the intraoperative development of sclerotomy-related RB was found in 20-gauge PPV compared with 23/25-gauge PPV. Preoperative prophylactic peripheral laser retinopexy does not guarantee the prevention of intraopertaive RBs or postoperative RRD. However, it might prevent the involvement of the macula when RRD occurs postoperatively. PMID:27057893

  19. Robot-assisted intraocular surgery: development of the IRISS and feasibility studies in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Rahimy, E; Wilson, J; Tsao, T-C; Schwartz, S; Hubschman, J-P

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to develop a novel robotic surgical platform, the IRISS (Intraocular Robotic Interventional and Surgical System), capable of performing both anterior and posterior segment intraocular surgery, and assess its performance in terms of range of motion, speed of motion, accuracy, and overall capacities. Patients and methods To test the feasibility of performing ‘bimanual' intraocular surgical tasks using the IRISS, we defined four steps out of typical anterior (phacoemulsification) and posterior (pars plana vitrectomy (PPV)) segment surgery. Selected phacoemulsification steps included construction of a continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis and cortex removal in infusion–aspiration (I/A) mode. Vitrectomy steps consisted of performing a core PPV, followed by aspiration of the posterior hyaloid with the vitreous cutter to induce a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) assisted with triamcinolone, and simulation of the microcannulation of a temporal retinal vein. For each evaluation, the duration and the successful completion of the task with or without complications or involuntary events was assessed. Results Intraocular procedures were successfully performed on 16 porcine eyes. Four eyes underwent creation of a round, curvilinear anterior capsulorhexis without radialization. Four eyes had I/A of lens cortical material completed without posterior capsular tear. Four eyes completed 23-gauge PPV followed by successful PVD induction without any complications. Finally, simulation of microcannulation of a temporal retinal vein was successfully achieved in four eyes without any retinal tears/perforations noted. Conclusion Robotic-assisted intraocular surgery with the IRISS may be technically feasible in humans. Further studies are pending to improve this particular surgical platform. PMID:23722720

  20. Update to a protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led school-based intervention to increase the physical activity of adolescent girls (PLAN-A).

    PubMed

    Sebire, Simon J; Edwards, Mark J; Campbell, Rona; Jago, Russell; Kipping, Ruth; Banfield, Kathryn; Kadir, Bryar; Garfield, Kirsty; Lyons, Ronan A; Blair, Peter S; Hollingworth, William

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity levels are low amongst adolescent girls, and this population faces specific barriers to being active. Peer influences on health behaviours are important in adolescence, and peer-led interventions might hold promise to change behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of Peer-Led physical Activity iNtervention for Adolescent girls (PLAN-A), a peer-led intervention aimed at increasing adolescent girls' physical activity levels. In addition, this paper describes an update that has been made to the protocol for the PLAN-A feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial. A two-arm cluster randomised feasibility trial will be conducted in six secondary schools (intervention n  = 4; control n  = 2) with year 8 (12-13 years old) girls. The intervention will operate at a year group level and consist of year 8 girls nominating influential peers within their year group to become peer supporters. Approximately 15% of the cohort will receive 3 days of training about physical activity and interpersonal communication skills. Peer supporters will then informally diffuse messages about physical activity amongst their friends for 10 weeks. Data will be collected at baseline (time 0 (T0)), immediately after the intervention (time 1 (T1)) and 12 months after baseline measures (time 2 (T2)). In this feasibility trial, the primary interest is in the recruitment of schools and participants (both year 8 girls and peer supporters), delivery and receipt of the intervention, data provision rates and identifying the cost categories for future economic analysis. Physical activity will be assessed using 7-day accelerometry, with the likely primary outcome in a fully powered trial being daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Participants will also complete psychosocial questionnaires at each time point: assessing motivation, self-esteem and peer physical activity norms. Data analysis will be

  1. Retinal detachment following endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Nelsen, P T; Marcus, D A; Bovino, J A

    1985-08-01

    Fifty-five consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of bacterial endophthalmitis were reviewed. All patients were treated with systemic, periocular, topical, and intravitreal antibiotics. In addition, 33 of the patients underwent a pars plana vitrectomy. Nine retinal detachments occurred within six months of initial diagnosis. The higher frequency of retinal detachment in the vitrectomy group (21%) as compared to those patients managed without vitrectomy (9%) may be explained by a combination of surgical complications and the increased severity of endophthalmitis in the vitrectomy group. The two patients who developed retinal detachment during vitrectomy surgery rapidly progressed to no light perception. Conversely, the repair of retinal detachments diagnosed postoperatively had a good prognosis.

  2. [Drusen characteristics after internal limiting membrane peeling].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, F; Jenisch, T; Helbig, H; Gamulescu, M A

    2015-05-01

    There are some reports showing isolated cases of drusen regression after pars plana vitrectomy (ppV) with peeling of the internal limiting membrane (iLM). Drusen characteristics after iLM peeling was investigated in this study. The data of 527 patients who had received iLM peeling between 2004 and 2012 were retrospectively collected and those patients with retinal drusen were selected for the study. Fundus photographs before and after vitrectomy due to a macular hole or epiretinal gliosis were compared and drusen arrangement in the peeling site was analyzed. The aim of the study was to show whether there was drusen regression 2-5 months after surgery. Out of the 527 patients 11 showed central macular drusen, 4 with confluent large drusen (> 63 µm diameter) and 7 with small hard drusen (≤ 63 µm diameter). One patient showed drusen regression after iLM peeling without any changes in the other eye and all other patients showed no differences in the drusen findings (n = 6) or even some additional drusen (n = 4) without drusen alterations in the other eye. The results of this study could not confirm some reports showing drusen regression after iLM peeling in the peeling site in general and there was only one single case of central drusen regression.

  3. Iodine 125 Brachytherapy With Vitrectomy and Silicone Oil in the Treatment of Uveal Melanoma: 1-to-1 Matched Case-Control Series

    SciTech Connect

    McCannel, Tara A., E-mail: TMcCannel@jsei.ucla.edu; McCannel, Colin A.

    Purpose: We initially reported the radiation-attenuating effect of silicone oil 1000 centistokes for iodine 125. The purpose of this report was to compare the clinical outcomes in case patients who had iodine 125 brachytherapy with vitrectomy and silicone oil 1000 centistokes with the outcomes in matched control patients who underwent brachytherapy alone. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with uveal melanoma who were treated with iodine 125 plaque brachytherapy and vitrectomy with silicone oil with minimum 1-year follow-up were included. Control patients who underwent brachytherapy alone were matched for tumor size, location, and sex. Baseline patient and tumor characteristics and tumor response tomore » radiation, final visual acuity, macular status, central macular thickness by ocular coherence tomography (OCT), cataract progression, and metastasis at last follow-up visit were compared. Surgical complications were also determined. Results: Twenty case patients met the inclusion criteria. The average follow-up time was 22.1 months in case patients and 19.4 months in control patients. The final logMAR vision was 0.81 in case patients and 1.1 in control patients (P=.071); 8 case patients and 16 control patients had abnormal macular findings (P=.011); and the average central macular thickness by OCT was 293.2 μm in case patients and 408.5 μm in control patients (P=.016). Eleven case patients (55%) and 1 control patient (5%) had required cataract surgery at last follow-up (P=.002). Four patients in the case group and 1 patient in the control group experienced metastasis (P=.18). Among the cases, intraoperative retinal tear occurred in 3 patients; total serous retinal detachment and macular hole developed in 1 case patient each. There was no case of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, treatment failure, or local tumor dissemination in case patients or control patients. Conclusions: With up to 3 years of clinical follow-up, silicone oil during

  4. Charge transfer in the weak driving force limit in blends of MDMO-PPV and dithienylthiazolo[5,4-d]thiazoles towards organic photovoltaics with high V(OC).

    PubMed

    Nevil, Nissy; Ling, Yun; Van Mierloo, Sarah; Kesters, Jurgen; Piersimoni, Fortunato; Adriaensens, Peter; Lutsen, Laurence; Vanderzande, Dirk; Manca, Jean; Maes, Wouter; Van Doorslaer, Sabine; Goovaerts, Etienne

    2012-12-05

    A series of three 5'-aryl-2,5-dithienylthiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole (DTTzTz) semiconducting molecules with different aryl substituents has been investigated as alternative acceptor materials in combination with the donor polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MDMO-PPV) in order to evaluate the photoinduced charge transfer (CT) efficiency in the resulting blends, designed towards possible application in organic photovoltaics. Photoluminescence quenching together with polaron detection by electron paramagnetic resonance and photoinduced absorption (PIA) demonstrate an increasing charge transfer efficiency when the DTTzTz substituents are varied from thien-2-yl to 4-trifluoromethylphenyl and 4-cyanophenyl groups, correlating well with the increasing acceptor strength in this series of molecules. In line with this observation, there is a decrease in the effective optical bandgap relative to pure MDMO-PPV that becomes more pronounced along this series of acceptor compounds, reaching 0.12 eV in the blend with 4-CN-Ph-DTTzTz. Intermolecular interactions between the blend components lead to lower energy transitions which are found to contribute significantly to the device external quantum efficiency. The high V(OC) reached in devices based on MDMO-PPV:4-CN-Ph-DTTzTz blends meets the expectations for such a donor:acceptor combination. However, thermal activation of charge carrier recombination occurs because of the weak driving force for charge transfer, as shown by time-dependent PIA measurements, and this is suggested as a cause for the observed low photovoltaic performance.

  5. [Verruca planae Chinese medicine treatment].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-Ming

    2008-08-01

    Flat wart on the effectiveness of TCM treatment. Outpatients will be by the "People's Republic of China Chinese medicine industry standards, TCM diagnosis of dermatological diseases efficacy standards, Chen Hou State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1994-06-28 approved, 1995-01-01 implementation". Randomly divided into two groups. Treatment and control groups. Treatment groups treated with Chinese herbs. The control group were treated with WM. Since the preparation of the unification formula ointment, cuboiling method. Chinese herbal medicine preparation by my hospital room Producer. 5 g pre pack, after treatment for 30 days, clinical observation. The group of Chinese medicine is better than western medicine (86.7% vs 71.7% , P < 0.05). Chinese medicine has some effect flat wart.

  6. High infusion pressure in conjunction with vitreous surgery alters the morphology and function of the retina of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Minami, Masahiro; Oku, Hidehiro; Okuno, Takashi; Fukuhara, Masayuki; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    2007-09-01

    To investigate the effects of high infusion pressure in conjunction with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) on retinal morphology and function in rabbits. Pars plana vitrectomy was performed under urethane (0.8 mg/kg) anaesthesia in the right eye of albino rabbits following phacoemulsification and aspiration (PEA). The left eyes were not touched. After PEA, the animals were divided into two groups. In six eyes, intraocular pressure (IOP) was increased to 80 mmHg for 30 mins (high-pressure group) and in five eyes IOP was maintained at 40 mmHg for 30 mins (low-pressure group). The IOPs were regulated by the height of the bottle of balanced salt solution (BSS) and monitored with a pressure transducer. After the pressure elevation, vitreous fluid was collected to measure the glutamate concentration. Then, PPV was performed for 15 mins in both groups under an infusion pressure of 40 mmHg. In five additional rabbits, PEA alone was performed in the right eye, and vitreous fluid was collected (PEA group). Functional alterations were assessed by recording visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and electroretinograms (ERGs). Ten days after the IOP changes, the animals were killed with intravenous pentobarbital sodium and the eyes were prepared for histological analysis. Damage to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) was quantified by counting the number of cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). The contralateral eyes in the high-pressure group served as controls (n = 6). The mean implicit time (IT) of the VEPs in the high-pressure group was significantly longer than that before the IOP elevation, by 114-124% (p < 0.05, paired t-test), and also than that of control eyes (p < 0.05, anova followed by t-test). No significant changes in the VEPs were detected in either the low-pressure group or the PEA group. There were significantly fewer cells in the GCL in the high-pressure group (24.7/mm) than in the control animals (41.4/mm; p < 0.05, Dunnett's test). The number of cells in the GCL in the low

  7. Comparisons of foveal thickness and slope after macular hole surgery with and without internal limiting membrane peeling

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Kouichi; Sato, Atsuko; Senda, Nami; Fukui, Emi

    2018-01-01

    Background We have shown that the foveal contour was asymmetrical after idiopathic macular hole (MH) closure by pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these morphological changes differ in eyes after PPV without ILM peeling. Methods Ten eyes of 10 patients that underwent PPV without ILM peeling and 12 eyes of 11 patients with ILM peeling were studied. The MH in all eyes was <400 µm in diameter. Six months after the PPV, the macular thickness and foveal slope around the closed MH were determined by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The thickness of the ganglion cell complex was measured by another spectral-domain optical coherence tomography instrument >6 months after the surgery. Results The mean parafoveal retinal thickness in the non-peeled group was 367.1 µm in the nasal (N), 353.0 µm in the temporal (T), 366.9 µm in the superior (S), and 357.3 µm in the inferior (I) sectors. The T, S, and I sectors were significantly thicker than the corresponding sectors in the ILM peeled group (p=0.0008, 0.003, and 0.03, respectively). The mean ganglion cell complex was thicker not only in the N sector but also in the T sector in the non-peeled group. The mean retinal slopes in the non-peeled group (N, 40.2°; T, 37.6°; S, 41.2°; I, 39.5°) were flatter than those in the peeled group (N, 52.3°; T, 43.6°; S, 50.8°; I, 51.9°; p=0.009, 0.09, 0.008, and 0.017, respectively). Conclusion The symmetrical fovea after MH surgery in the non-ILM peeled eyes indicates that the asymmetrical fovea after ILM peeling was probably due to the ILM peeling. PMID:29588571

  8. Comparisons of foveal thickness and slope after macular hole surgery with and without internal limiting membrane peeling.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kouichi; Sato, Atsuko; Senda, Nami; Fukui, Emi

    2018-01-01

    We have shown that the foveal contour was asymmetrical after idiopathic macular hole (MH) closure by pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these morphological changes differ in eyes after PPV without ILM peeling. Ten eyes of 10 patients that underwent PPV without ILM peeling and 12 eyes of 11 patients with ILM peeling were studied. The MH in all eyes was <400 µm in diameter. Six months after the PPV, the macular thickness and foveal slope around the closed MH were determined by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The thickness of the ganglion cell complex was measured by another spectral-domain optical coherence tomography instrument >6 months after the surgery. The mean parafoveal retinal thickness in the non-peeled group was 367.1 µm in the nasal (N), 353.0 µm in the temporal (T), 366.9 µm in the superior (S), and 357.3 µm in the inferior (I) sectors. The T, S, and I sectors were significantly thicker than the corresponding sectors in the ILM peeled group ( p =0.0008, 0.003, and 0.03, respectively). The mean ganglion cell complex was thicker not only in the N sector but also in the T sector in the non-peeled group. The mean retinal slopes in the non-peeled group (N, 40.2°; T, 37.6°; S, 41.2°; I, 39.5°) were flatter than those in the peeled group (N, 52.3°; T, 43.6°; S, 50.8°; I, 51.9°; p =0.009, 0.09, 0.008, and 0.017, respectively). The symmetrical fovea after MH surgery in the non-ILM peeled eyes indicates that the asymmetrical fovea after ILM peeling was probably due to the ILM peeling.

  9. INDUCTION OF MACULAR DETACHMENT FOR THE TREATMENT OF PERSISTENT OR RECURRENT IDIOPATHIC MACULAR HOLES.

    PubMed

    Szigiato, Andrei-Alexandru; Gilani, Fatimah; Walsh, Mark K; Mandelcorn, Efrem D; Muni, Rajeev H

    2016-09-01

    To analyze the efficacy of induced macular detachment for the treatment of persistent or recurrent idiopathic macular holes after treatment with one or more standard pars plana vitrectomies (PPVs) with internal limiting membrane peeling. This study is a retrospective consecutive case series of 10 patients who underwent a PPV with subretinal balanced salt solution injection from 2011 to 2014 to treat persistent or recurrent idiopathic macular holes. All patients had previously undergone PPV with internal limiting membrane peeling. Visual acuity, ocular examination findings, and optical coherence tomographic images were reviewed preoperatively and postoperatively to assess the anatomical and visual outcomes of this procedure. Nine of the 10 patients who underwent the procedure had closure of their macular holes postoperatively (90%) and remained closed 6 months postoperatively. Most patients reported a subjective visual improvement. A mean objective visual improvement of 16 letters (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study, 0.324 logMAR) was seen between preoperative and 6-month postoperative assessments of all patients (pre = 1.490, post = 1.166; P = 0.022). Subgroup analysis of patients with successful closure revealed 20 letters of improvement (0.398 logMAR) in visual acuity (pre = 1.491, post = 1.093; P = 0.004). There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. In eyes with persistent or recurrent idiopathic macular holes after standard PPV with internal limiting membrane peeling, repeat PPV with subretinal balanced salt solution injection to create a macular detachment may be a viable surgical treatment option. Our results show improved anatomical and visual outcomes postoperatively that compare favorably to other case series describing various surgical treatments for these challenging cases.

  10. Evaluation of secondary surgery to enlarge the peeling of the internal limiting membrane following the failed surgery of idiopathic macular holes.

    PubMed

    Che, Xin; He, Fanglin; Lu, Linna; Zhu, Dongqing; Xu, Xiaofang; Song, Xin; Fan, Xianqun; Wang, Zhiliang

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical results of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) combined with the surgical enlargement of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in patients who had previously undergone failed idiopathic macular hole (IMH) surgery. In the study, 134 eyes from 130 IMH patients who had received PPV combined with ILM peeling surgery (2 disk diameters) were analyzed. Within this cohort, 14 eyes had IMHs that were not closed, of which 13 eyes underwent a second surgery involving enlargement of the ILM peeling. The extent of the ILM peeling was increased to the vascular arcades of the posterior fundus in the secondary surgery. Of the 13 eyes that underwent secondary surgery, five were in stage III and nine were in stage IV. The second surgery successfully achieved IMH closure in 61.5% (8/13) of the eyes. The IMH was completely closed following surgery and the logMAR vision increased from 0.98 to 0.84 (P=0.013) in the 8 successfully treated cases. The surgical enlargement of ILM peeling closed the IMHs and improved vision in the majority of patients. In addition, the procedures were safe. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that enlargement of ILM peeling may be an effective therapy for patients who have previously undergone the failed surgical correction of an IMH.

  11. Internal limiting membrane flap transposition for surgical repair of macular holes in primary surgery and in persistent macular holes.

    PubMed

    Leisser, Christoph; Hirnschall, Nino; Döller, Birgit; Varsits, Ralph; Ullrich, Marlies; Kefer, Katharina; Findl, Oliver

    2018-03-01

    Classical or temporal internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap transposition with air or gas tamponade are current trends with the potential to improve surgical results, especially in cases with large macular holes. A prospective case series included patients with idiopathic macular holes or persistent macular holes after 23-G pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and ILM peeling with gas tamponade. In all patients, 23-G PPV and ILM peeling with ILM flap transposition with gas tamponade and postoperative face-down position was performed. In 7 of 9 eyes, temporal ILM flap transposition combined with pedicle ILM flap could be successfully performed and macular holes were closed in all eyes after surgery. The remaining 2 eyes were converted to pedicle ILM flap transposition with macular hole closure after surgery. Three eyes were scheduled as pedicle ILM flap transposition due to previous ILM peeling. In 2 of these eyes, the macular hole could be closed with pedicle ILM flap transposition. In 3 eyes, free ILM flap transposition was performed and in 2 of these eyes macular hole could be closed after surgery, whereas in 1 eye a second surgery, performed as pedicle ILM flap transposition, was performed and led to successful macular hole closure. Use of ILM flaps in surgical repair of macular hole surgery is a new option of treatment with excellent results independent of the diameter of macular holes. For patients with persistent macular holes, pedicle ILM flap transposition or free ILM flap transposition are surgical options.

  12. Long-Term Observation of Triplex Surgery for Cataract after Phakic 6H Implantation for Super High Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Wang, Xiaoying; Lu, Yi; Zheng, Tianyu; Zhou, Xingtao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze the safety, effectiveness, and stability of triplex surgery for phakic 6H anterior chamber phakic intraocular lens explantation and phacoemulsification with in-the-bag IOL implantation for super high myopia in long-term observations. Methods. This retrospective case series evaluated 16 eyes of 10 patients who underwent triplex surgery. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), endothelial cell density (ECD), and associated adverse events were evaluated. Results. The mean follow-up time after the triplex surgery was 46 ± 14 months. The mean logMAR BCVA was significantly improved after triplex surgery (P = 0.047). One eye developed endophthalmitis five days postoperatively and underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Five eyes with preoperative severe endothelial cell loss developed corneal decompensation and underwent keratoplasty at a mean time of 9.4 ± 2.6 months after the triplex surgery. One eye had graft failure and underwent a second keratoplasty. The eye developed rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and underwent PPV with silicone oil 18 months later. ECD before the triplex surgery was not significantly different compared with that at last follow-up (P = 0.495) apart from these five eyes. Three eyes (18.8%) developed posterior capsule opacification. Conclusions. Triplex surgery was safe and effective for phakic 6H related complicated cataracts. Early extraction before severe ECD loss is recommended. PMID:27190642

  13. Comparison of commercial and experimental porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines using a triple challenge with PCV2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and porcine parvovirus (PPV).

    PubMed

    Shen, H G; Beach, N M; Huang, Y W; Halbur, P G; Meng, X J; Opriessnig, T

    2010-08-23

    The efficacies of commercial porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines and a live PCV1-2a chimeric vaccine were compared in conventional, PCV2-positive piglets using a PCV2-porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-porcine parvovirus (PPV) coinfection challenge model. Seventy-three, 2-week-old pigs were randomized into seven groups including five vaccinated and two control groups. Pigs in the vaccinated groups were vaccinated at 3 weeks (one dose) or at 3 and 6 weeks (two dose) of age. All vaccine regimens tested were effective in reducing naturally occurring PCV2 viremia at 16 weeks of age and after PCV2 challenge, demonstrating the capability of the products to induce a lasting protective immunity despite the presence of PCV2 viremia at the time of vaccination. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Surgical management of retinal diseases: proliferative diabetic retinopathy and traction retinal detachment.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Iñigo, Yousef J; Acabá, Luis A; Berrocal, Maria H

    2014-01-01

    Current indications for pars plana vitrectomy in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) include vitreous hemorrhage, tractional retinal detachment (TRD), combined tractional and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (CTRRD), diabetic macular edema associated with posterior hyaloidal traction, and anterior segment neovascularization with media opacities. This chapter will review the indications, surgical objectives, adjunctive pharmacotherapy, microincision surgical techniques, and outcomes of diabetic vitrectomy for PDR, TRD, and CTRRD. With the availability of new microincision vitrectomy technology, wide-angle microscope viewing systems, and pharmacologic agents, vitrectomy can improve visual acuity and achieve long-term anatomic stability in eyes with severe complications from PDR. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. [Treatment of macular hematoma complicating AMD by vitrectomy, subretinal r-TPA injection, intravitreal injection of bevacizumab combined with gas tamponade: Report of 4 cases].

    PubMed

    Abboud, M; Benzerroug, M; Milazzo, S

    2017-02-01

    The occurrence of a subretinal hematoma in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a serious complication that can impact the visual prognosis with a poor functional recovery. The management of this complication remains controversial. Several therapeutic methods have been described. We report the results of four patients treated with a protocol combining: vitrectomy, subretinal injection of r-TPA 0.025mg/0.3ml, intravitreal injection of 0.05ml of bevacizumab and retinal tamponade with 20% SF6 gas. Our series consists of four patients with a submacular hematoma complicating AMD, included in succession between October 2013 and October 2014 and treated with the same treatment protocol and by the same surgeon. All patients underwent surgery within eight days after the onset of the macular hematoma. Patients with a consultation period longer than eight days did not undergo this treatment. Face down postoperative positioning was then carried out for seven days by the patients. We observed a shift in the macular hematoma in the four patients, which allowed the identification of secondary neovascularization responsible for the bleeding. The visual acuity improved in three patients from hand motion (HM) preoperatively to 2/10 at one month postoperatively. One patient maintained visual acuity 1/20 during the entire follow-up despite almost complete resorption of the subretinal hematoma. These visual acuities were stable at 6 months postoperatively. Macular subretinal hematoma can cause severe visual loss by several mechanisms. The blood accumulates between the neurosensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium, which causes a toxic effect on the surrounding tissues, thus resulting in a loss of photoreceptors and cellular destruction in the pigment epithelium and choriocapillaris, evolving into a fibroglial scar. The therapeutic evaluation of this protocol in our series of four patients gives a favorable result. We observed an improvement in visual acuity in 3/4 of

  16. Vitreous humor thermodynamics during phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Villanueva, Guillermo; Kon-Jara, Veronica; Harasawa, Mariana; Cervantes-Coste, Guadalupe; Ochoa-Contreras, Daniel; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio; Guerrero-Naranjo, José Luis; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Landers, Maurice B

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine baseline vitreous humor temperature during a combined phacoemulsification and pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) procedure; to determine what is the temperature variation during phacoemulsification; and to compare vitreous temperature to sublingual temperature. The methods used are prospective, interventional and comparative study. Patients with a diagnosis of cataract and vitreous hemorrhage, programed for a combined procedure of phacoemulsification and PPV, were included. Patients were excluded if posterior capsular rupture existed during the anterior segment procedure. A thermoprobe was inserted through a PPV trocar. Measurement of the vitreous temperature was obtained at baseline and throughout phacoemulsification, at the end of every surgical step, and every 5 min. Sublingual temperature was measured with the same probe at the end of the surgery. Room temperature was registered. Seventeen eyes of 17 patients were included. Mean sublingual temperature was 36.5 °C (standard deviation [σ] 0.26 °C). Mean total vitreous temperature was 31.47 °C (σ 2.1 °C). Mean baseline vitreous temperature was 33.04 °C (σ 0.99 °C). Comparison of sublingual temperature with baseline vitreous temperature resulted in a significant difference (t test P < 0.000. 95 % confidence interval 2.93-3.98). Temperature measured by surgical step and surgical time presented a significant decrease in temperature from baseline (Kruskal-Wallis P < 0.000, P = 0.003, respectively). Vitreous humor is significantly hypothermic when compared to sublingual temperature. Vitreous temperature decreases significantly during phacoemulsification.

  17. Successful displacement of a traumatic submacular hemorrhage in a 13-year-old boy treated by vitrectomy, subretinal injection of tissue plasminogen activator and intravitreal air tamponade: a case report.

    PubMed

    Doi, Shinichiro; Kimura, Shuhei; Morizane, Yuki; Shiode, Yusuke; Hosokawa, Mio; Hirano, Masayuki; Hosogi, Mika; Fujiwara, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Shiraga, Fumio

    2015-08-07

    The natural course of submacular hemorrhage resulting from traumatic choroidal rupture generally has a poor outcome unless treated. The intravitreal injection of gas only or gas with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) has been reported to be effective, but has also been reported to induce severe complications such as retinal detachment and vitreous hemorrhage. Recently, we reported a safe and effective procedure for treating submacular hemorrhage due to polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) with a low dose of rt-PA. Here we report the application of this procedure to a case of traumatic submacular hemorrhage in a 13-year-old boy, which achieved a good visual outcome. A 13-year-old Japanese boy presented with a thick submacular hemorrhage in his left eye as a result of blunt trauma from being hit by a sinker. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was assessed as only able to perceive hand motions. We carried out a vitrectomy, subretinal injection of 4,000 IU rt-PA (6.9 μg) and air tamponade. The day after surgery, most of the submacular hemorrhage had moved to the inferior periphery. One month after the surgery, we observed cataract formation, thin remnants of the submacular hemorrhage and juxtafoveal choroidal rupture. We carried out cataract surgery and injected bevacizumab intravitreally to prevent the development of choroidal neovascularization. Two months after the second surgery, the submacular hemorrhage had totally disappeared and the patient had a BCVA of 20/40. Vitrectomy, subretinal injection of rt-PA, and intravitreal air tamponade may be a promising strategy for treating traumatic submacular hemorrhage in young patients.

  18. Midline sclerotomy approach for intraocular foreign body removal in phakic eyes using endoilluminator: A novel technique

    PubMed Central

    Ravani, Raghav; Chawla, Rohan; Azad, Shorya Vardhan; Gupta, Yogita; Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Atul

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to describe the removal of retained intraocular foreign body (RIOFB) by bimanual pars plana vitrectomy through midline sclerotomy in phakic patients. Technique: Four eyes with RIOFB and clear lens underwent microincision vitrectomy surgery. A chandelier illumination was placed through one of the existing ports. The foreign body (FB) was localized by direct visualization (intravitreal) or indentation (pars plana), stabilized using an intraocular magnet/FB forceps introduced through a midline sclerotomy and freed of vitreous from all sides using a vitrectomy cutter through the other port bimanually, reoriented along their long axis and extracted through the midline sclerotomy. Results: All four FBs were removed successfully without slippage or damage to the clear lens. Conclusion: Chandelier illumination-assisted removal of FB through midline sclerotomy helps in easier localization, stabilization and removal, avoiding lens touch even in anteriorly located FBs such as at pars plana. PMID:29676316

  19. Evaluating Mentoring Programs. P/PV Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jean Baldwin

    2009-01-01

    This methodological brief is designed to provide both program operators and researchers with practical advice about how to assess a program's implementation and impact. Adapted from an article that first appeared in "The Handbook of Youth Mentoring" (DuBois and Karcher, ed. 2005), the brief focuses on the evaluation of mentoring programs, but the…

  20. Risk factors for postoperative intraretinal cystoid changes after peeling of idiopathic epiretinal membranes among patients randomized for balanced salt solution and air-tamponade.

    PubMed

    Leisser, Christoph; Hirnschall, Nino; Hackl, Christoph; Döller, Birgit; Varsits, Ralph; Ullrich, Marlies; Kefer, Katharina; Karl, Rigal; Findl, Oliver

    2018-02-20

    Epiretinal membranes (ERM) are macular disorders leading to loss of vision and metamorphopsia. Vitrectomy with membrane peeling displays the gold standard of care. Aim of this study was to assess risk factors for postoperative intraretinal cystoid changes in a study population randomized for balanced salt solution and air-tamponade at the end of surgery. A prospective randomized study, including 69 eyes with idiopathic ERM. Standard 23-gauge three-port pars plana vitrectomy with membrane peeling, using intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT), was performed. Randomization for BSS and air-tamponade was performed prior to surgery. Best-corrected visual acuity improved from 32.9 letters to 45.1 letters 3 months after surgery. Presence of preoperative intraretinal cystoid changes was found to be the only risk factor for presence of postoperative intraretinal cystoid changes 3 months after surgery (p = 0.01; odds ratio: 8.0). Other possible risk factors such as combined phacoemulsification with 23G-ppv and membrane peeling (p = 0.16; odds ratio: 2.4), intraoperative subfoveal hyporeflective zones (p = 0.23; odds ratio: 2.6), age over 70 years (p = 0.29; odds ratio: 0.5) and air-tamponade (p = 0.59; odds ratio: 1.5) were not found to be significant. There is strong evidence that preoperative intraretinal cystoid changes lead to smaller benefit from surgery. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Visual and anatomical outcome of macular hole surgery at a tertiary healthcare facility.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Komalta; Tahir, Muhammad Ali; Cheema, Alyscia

    2017-01-01

    To assess visual and anatomical outcome of full thickness macular hole (FTMH) surgery with ILM peeling using brilliant blue G dye. Thirty patients who had clinically evident macular hole were selected. Pre-operative Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was done. In all cases vitrectomy was performed via 23guage 3 ports pars plana (3PPV) vitrectomy system and Brilliant blue G dye, 0.5ml dye was injected over macula which resulted in light blue stain of ILM and peeling was performed around hole in circular motion and after gas fluid exchange gas tamponade with SF6 was done. Final visual and anatomical outcome was measured as postoperative BCVA and postoperative OCT at three months respectively. Descriptive statistics were computed. Paired t-test was applied. P value≤0.05 were considered as significant. There were 12 male and 18 female patients. The mean age was 57.40±4.76 years. The mean size of macular hole was 452.20±242.33μm. The mean duration of symptoms was 16.73±13.49 weeks. Mean pre operative BCVA was 1.30±0.73 log MAR and post operative was 0.51±0.23 log MAR. Mean increased BCVA was found to be 0.22±0.13 log MAR. Primary closure of hole was achieved in 29(96.7%). Significant mean difference was found in pre operative and post operative BCVA. Brilliant blue G exhibits sufficient staining qualities and safety profile to peel ILM in the management of full thickness macular hole with significant visual and anatomical improvement.

  2. Surgical approach and optic coherence tomographic evaluation of optic disc anomaly in association with serous macular detachment.

    PubMed

    Güven, Dilek; Balcıoğlu, Nihal; Türker, Cağrı; Baydar, Yasemin; Sendül, Yekta

    2013-12-01

    Serous macular detachment (SMD) may accompany optic disc pit (ODP) and cause visual loss if untreated. We want to present different therapeutic approaches and interesting optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in three consecutive cases. In this case series, two patients with SMD and one patient with partial macular detachment and inferior retinal detachment accompanying ODP were evaluated before and after surgical intervention clinically and by spectral-domain OCT. The patients were 44 (case 1), 22 (case 2) and 24 (case 3) years old. Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) + silicone oil + laser, PPV + sulfur hexafluoride gas (SF6) + laser and pneumatic retinopexy were applied, respectively. The patients were followed for 18, 15 and 14 months. Preoperative best-corrected visual acuities (BCVAs) were 5/100, 7/10 and counting fingers at 1 m. Vision improved in all cases with resolution of subretinal fluid. Final BCVAs were 3/10, 10/10 and 1/10, respectively. OCT images revealed optic disc anomaly details and changes after surgical intervention, photoreceptor outer segment alterations at the detached area and macular surface changes. Surgical intervention should be tailored individually in cases with SMD. OCT is efficient for in vivo evaluation of this pathological condition and anatomical outcomes of surgery.

  3. Integrated assessment of future potential global change scenarios and their hydrological impacts in coastal aquifers - a new tool to analyse management alternatives in the Plana Oropesa-Torreblanca aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido-Velazquez, David; Renau-Pruñonosa, Arianna; Llopis-Albert, Carlos; Morell, Ignacio; Collados-Lara, Antonio-Juan; Senent-Aparicio, Javier; Baena-Ruiz, Leticia

    2018-05-01

    Any change in the components of the water balance in a coastal aquifer, whether natural or anthropogenic, can alter the freshwater-salt water equilibrium. In this sense climate change (CC) and land use and land cover (LULC) change might significantly influence the availability of groundwater resources in the future. These coastal systems demand an integrated analysis of quantity and quality issues to obtain an appropriate assessment of hydrological impacts using density-dependent flow solutions. The aim of this work is to perform an integrated analysis of future potential global change (GC) scenarios and their hydrological impacts in a coastal aquifer, the Plana Oropesa-Torreblanca aquifer. It is a Mediterranean aquifer that extends over 75 km2 in which important historical LULC changes have been produced and are planned for the future. Future CC scenarios will be defined by using an equi-feasible and non-feasible ensemble of projections based on the results of a multi-criteria analysis of the series generated from several regional climatic models with different downscaling approaches. The hydrological impacts of these CC scenarios combined with future LULC scenarios will be assessed with a chain of models defined by a sequential coupling of rainfall-recharge models, crop irrigation requirements and irrigation return models (for the aquifer and its neighbours that feed it), and a density-dependent aquifer approach. This chain of models, calibrated using the available historical data, allow testing of the conceptual approximation of the aquifer behaviour. They are also fed with series representatives of potential global change scenarios in order to perform a sensitivity analysis regarding future scenarios of rainfall recharge, lateral flows coming from the hydraulically connected neighbouring aquifer, agricultural recharge (taking into account expected future LULC changes) and sea level rise (SLR). The proposed analysis is valuable for improving our knowledge about

  4. Perfluorocarbon liquid migration into the subarachnoid space in a patient with morning glory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naseripour, Masood; Ghasempour, Adel; Falavarjani, Khalil Ghasemi; Sanjari, Mostafa Sultan; Yousefi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    To report a case of perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL) migration into the subarachnoid space at the time of vitreoretinal surgery in a patient with morning glory syndrome associated retinal detachment. A 9-year-old girl underwent pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection for retinal detachment associated with morning glory syndrome. PFCL was used for retinal stabilization before endolaser photocoagulation. The retina detached, and repeated vitrectomy and silicone oil injection was performed. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed PFCL in the subarachnoid space. The migration of perfluorocarbon into the subarachnoid space is a rare complication of vitrectomy in patients with morning glory syndrome.

  5. SUCCESSFUL CLOSURE OF FULL-THICKNESS MACULAR HOLES SECONDARY TO MACULAR VITELLIFORM LESIONS.

    PubMed

    Galvin, Justin C; Chua, Brian E; Fung, Adrian T

    2017-03-22

    To describe the first reported cases of full-thickness macular holes secondary to vitelliform lesions that were successfully closed with vitrectomy surgery and gas tamponade. Two female patients developed visual loss secondary to bilateral vitelliform lesions and associated full-thickness macular holes. The patients underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane peeling, and 26% sulfur hexafluoride gas, followed by 3 days of face-down positioning. In both patients, the macular holes remain closed 3 and 25 months postoperatively. Vitrectomy surgery with gas tamponade may successfully close full-thickness macular holes secondary to macular vitelliform lesions.

  6. [Urgent retinal detachment management by the National Health System of Spain. Project Retina 2].

    PubMed

    Rojas, J; Fernández, I; Pastor, J C; Gómez-Ulla, F; Piñero, A

    2007-05-01

    To identify problems in the urgent management of retinal detachments (RD) in hospitals of the Spanish National Health System (NHS). A questionnaire was submitted confidentially to the heads of Ophthalmic Departments of 217 hospitals of the NHS to obtain information on the management of urgent RD during the last year. Data was stored in a Microsoft Access database and statistically analyzed by Excel and Statgraphics. Qualitative variables were analyzed by Chi-Square and Fisher exact tests and quantitative variables by the Kruskall-Wallis test. A global response rate of 54.8% was achieved with higher participation of the Teaching Hospitals (TH). District Hospital and non-Teaching Hospital responses were similar and grouped as non-TH. Eighteen percent of centers, mostly non-TH, had no ophthalmologist on duty. Thirty-six percent had a vitreoretinal specialist on call. Eighty percent of centres admitted to have problems handling urgent RD during weekends. Twenty-four had no ophthalmic surgical theatre available. Fifty percent referred to have problems having an anaesthesiologist available and only 22% had ophthalmic trained personnel (nurses) available. Sixty-four percent of centres performed pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and 77% of those were able to perform an urgent PPV. Ninety percent admitted that a patient with a macula-threatening RD occurring at the beginning of the week-end would not be treated until at least 24 hours had elapsed, although 84% considered this to be inadequate. Despite the methodological problems and bias of this questionnaire, we did identify several important problems in the management of urgent RD by NHS hospitals. The data obtained provides useful information to enable the quality of the NHS care of RD to be improved, particularly that available at the week-end.

  7. Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Retinal Necrosis: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Schoenberger, Scott D; Kim, Stephen J; Thorne, Jennifer E; Mruthyunjaya, Prithvi; Yeh, Steven; Bakri, Sophie J; Ehlers, Justis P

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the available evidence in peer-reviewed publications about the diagnosis and treatment of acute retinal necrosis (ARN). Literature searches of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were last conducted on July 27, 2016. The searches identified 216 unique citations, and 49 articles of possible clinical relevance were reviewed in full text. Of these 49 articles, 27 were deemed sufficiently relevant or of interest, and they were rated according to strength of evidence. An additional 6 articles were identified from the reference lists of these articles and included. All 33 studies were retrospective. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of aqueous or vitreous humor was positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella zoster virus (VZV) in 79% to 100% of cases of suspected ARN. Aqueous and vitreous specimens are both sensitive and specific. There is level II and III evidence supporting the use of intravenous and oral antiviral therapy for the treatment of ARN. Data suggest that equivalent plasma drug levels of acyclovir can be achieved after administration of oral valacyclovir or intravenous acyclovir. There is level II and III evidence suggesting that the combination of intravitreal foscarnet and systemic antiviral therapy may have greater therapeutic efficacy than systemic therapy alone. The effectiveness of prophylactic laser or early pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) in preventing retinal detachment (RD) remains unclear. Polymerase chain reaction testing of ocular fluid is useful in supporting a clinical diagnosis of ARN, but treatment should not be delayed while awaiting PCR results. Initial oral or intravenous antiviral therapy is effective in treating ARN. The adjunctive use of intravitreal foscarnet may be more effective than systemic therapy alone. The role of prophylactic laser retinopexy or early PPV is unknown at this time. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Retinal Detachment After Laser In Situ Keratomileusis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rashaed, Saba; Al-Halafi, Ali M

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report characteristics and outcome of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients who presented with RRD after myopic LASIK over a 10-year period. Results: Fourteen eyes were identified with RRD. Of these, two of 6112 LASIK procedures were from our center. The mean age of patients with RRD was 35.43 years. The mean interval of RRD after LASIK was 37.71 months (range, 4 months to 10 years). The macula was involved in eight eyes and spared in six eyes. Retinal breaks included a macular hole in two eyes, and giant tear in two eyes. Multiple breaks (>2 breaks) occurred in 6 cases. Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) was performed in 3 (21.4%) eyes, a scleral buckle (SB) was performed in 4 (28.5%) eyes and 7 (50%) eyes underwent combined PPV and SB. Mean follow-up was 15.18 months (range, 1 month to 7 years). The retina was successfully attached in all cases. The final visual acuity was 20/40 or better in 7 (50%) eyes, 20/40 to 20/60 in 4 (28.5%) eyes, and 20/200 or less in 3 (21.4%) eyes. Poor visual outcome was secondary to proliferative vitreoretinopathy, epiretinal membrane, macular scar and amblyopia. Conclusion: The prevalence of RRD after LASIK was low at our institute. Anatomical and visual outcomes were acceptable in eyes that were managed promptly. Although there is no cause-effect relationship between LASIK and RRD, a dilated fundus examination is highly recommended before and after LASIK for myopia. PMID:21887078

  9. Streptococcus endophthalmitis outbreak after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab: one-year outcomes and investigative results.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Roger A; Flynn, Harry W; Miller, Darlene; Gonzalez, Serafin; Isom, Ryan F

    2013-07-01

    To report the 1-year clinical outcomes of an outbreak of Streptococcus endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab, including visual acuity outcomes, microbiological testing, and compound pharmacy investigations by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrospective consecutive case series. Twelve eyes of 12 patients who developed endophthalmitis after receiving intravitreal bevacizumab prepared by a single compounding pharmacy. Medical records of patients were reviewed; phenotypic and DNA analyses were performed on microbes cultured from patients and from unused syringes. An inspection report by the FDA based on site visits to the pharmacy that prepared the bevacizumab syringes was summarized. Visual acuity, interventions received, time to intervention, microbiological consistency, and FDA inspection findings. Between July 5 and 8, 2011, 12 patients developed endophthalmitis after intravitreal bevacizumab from syringes prepared by a single compounding pharmacy. All patients received initial vitreous tap and injection, and 8 patients (67%) subsequently underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). After 12 months follow-up, outcomes have been poor. Seven patients (58%) required evisceration or enucleation, and only 1 patient regained pre-injection visual acuity. Molecular testing using real-time polymerase chain reaction, partial sequencing of the groEL gene, and multilocus sequencing of 7 housekeeping genes confirmed the presence of a common strain of Streptococcus mitis/oralis in vitreous specimens and 7 unused syringes prepared by the compounding pharmacy at the same time. An FDA investigation of the compounding pharmacy noted deviations from standard sterile technique, inconsistent documentation, and inadequate testing of equipment required for safe preparation of medications. In this outbreak of endophthalmitis, outcomes have been generally poor, and PPV did not improve visual results at 1-year follow-up. Molecular testing confirmed a common strain

  10. Streptococcus Endophthalmitis Outbreak after Intravitreal Injection of Bevacizumab: One-year Outcomes and Investigative Results

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Roger A.; Flynn, Harry W.; Miller, Darlene; Gonzalez, Serafin; Isom, Ryan F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report the one-year clinical outcomes of an outbreak of Streptococcus endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab, including visual acuity outcomes, microbiological testing and compound pharmacy investigations by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Design Retrospective consecutive case series. Participants 12 eyes of 12 patients who developed endophthalmitis after receiving intravitreal bevacizumab prepared by a single compounding pharmacy. Methods Medical records of patients were reviewed; phenotypic and DNA analyses were performed on microbes cultured from patients and from unused syringes. An inspection report by the FDA based on site-visits to the pharmacy that prepared the bevacizumab syringes was summarized. Main Outcome Measures Visual acuity, interventions received, time-to-intervention; microbiological consistency; FDA inspection findings. Results Between July 5 and July 8, 2011, 12 patients developed endophthalmitis after intravitreal bevacizumab from syringes prepared by a single compounding pharmacy. All patients received initial vitreous tap and injection, and eight (67%) subsequently underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). After twelve months follow-up, outcomes have been poor: 7 patients (58%) required evisceration or enucleation, and only one patient regained pre-injection visual acuity. Molecular testing using real time polymerase chain reaction, partial sequencing of the groEL gene, and multilocus sequencing of 7 housekeeping genes confirmed the presence of a common strain of Streptococcus mitis/oralis in vitreous specimens and seven unused syringes prepared by the compounding pharmacy at the same time. An FDA investigation of the compounding pharmacy noted deviations from standard sterile technique, inconsistent documentation, and inadequate testing of equipment required for safe preparation of medications. Conclusions In this outbreak of endophthalmitis, outcomes have been generally poor and PPV did not improve

  11. Protecting the retinal pigment epithelium during macular hole surgery.

    PubMed

    Olson, Jeffrey L; On, Alexander V; Mandava, Naresh

    2005-12-01

    Herein a new surgical technique used during pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling for macular hole surgery is reported. Perfluorocarbon liquid is used to tamponade the macular hole in order to prevent indocyanine green contact with the retinal pigment epithelium.

  12. Early surgical managment of penetrating ocular injuries involving the posterior segment.

    PubMed

    Michels, R G

    1976-09-01

    Pars plana vitrectomy technic can be used in the early management of certain penetrating ocular injuries involving the posterior segment, including selected intraocular foreign bodies. This study reports the results of ten consecutive cases of intraocular foreign bodies in the posterior segment treated by a combination of vitrectomy (including lensectomy when necessary) and foreign-body extraction with forceps. The foreign body was successfully removed in nine of ten eyes, and nine of ten eyes were salvaged. This favorable experience using early vitreous surgery suggests that the vitrectomy technic can be used in other penetrating injuries involving the posterior segment that are not associated with intraocular foreign bodies. Possible indications for early vitrectomy are presented, including cases with a poor prognosis when managed by conventional methods.

  13. Posterior subtenon triamcinolone acetonide in gas-filled eyes as an adjunctive treatment for complicated proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yongeun; Kang, Seungbum; Park, Young-Hoon

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of adjunctive subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in gas-filled eyes after vitrectomy for complicated proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). This nonrandomized comparative study included 27 patients (27 eyes) who underwent pars plana vitrectomy and gas tamponade for treatment of PDR with tractional or combined tractional-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and who received subtenon injection of TA (40 mg) at the end of surgery. The study group was compared with the control group (29 eyes), which was matched with the study group for preoperative and intraoperative parameters, but underwent pars plana vitrectomy and gas tamponade without a subtenon injection of TA. Retinal reattachments without reoperation were achieved in 25 eyes (92.6%) and 26 eyes (89.7%) at 6 months (p = 1.000) in the study and control groups, respectively. The study group and the control group did not differ significantly in the frequency of postoperative proliferative vitreoretinopathy, retinal redetachment rate, reoperation rate, macular pucker formation, postoperative vitreous hemorrhage, gain in visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and intraocular inflammation (p > 0.05). The clinical results of pars plana vitrectomy for complicated PDR are not improved significantly by an adjunctive subtenon TA injection in gas-filled eyes.

  14. Intraocular foreign-body hazard during vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Bovino, J A; Marcus, D F

    1982-03-01

    We noted two instances of forceps-induced fragmentation of the bar used for scleral plug storage during vitreous surgery. The silicone bar material was adherent to the plug in both cases. Because this represents a significant intraocular foreign body hazard, the scleral plug should be carefully inspected before insertion.

  15. Sensitivity, Specificity, PPV, and NPV for Predictive Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Simon, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Molecularly targeted cancer drugs are often developed with companion diagnostics that attempt to identify which patients will have better outcome on the new drug than the control regimen. Such predictive biomarkers are playing an increasingly important role in precision oncology. For diagnostic tests, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive are usually used as performance measures. This paper discusses these indices for predictive biomarkers, provides methods for their calculation with survival or response endpoints, and describes assumptions involved in their use. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Sensitivity, Specificity, PPV, and NPV for Predictive Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Molecularly targeted cancer drugs are often developed with companion diagnostics that attempt to identify which patients will have better outcome on the new drug than the control regimen. Such predictive biomarkers are playing an increasingly important role in precision oncology. For diagnostic tests, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive are usually used as performance measures. This paper discusses these indices for predictive biomarkers, provides methods for their calculation with survival or response endpoints, and describes assumptions involved in their use. PMID:26109105

  17. Making the Most of Volunteers. P/PV Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Furano, Kathryn

    An examination of hundreds of studies on the use of volunteers in mentoring programs, service programs, and local community change initiatives highlight the importance of screening, training, and volunteer management. Each year, more than 90 million Americans contribute more than 20 billion volunteer hours. Personal benefits of volunteering…

  18. A PCV2 vaccine based on genotype 2b is more effective than a 2a-based vaccine to protect against PCV2b or combined PCV2a/2b viremia in pigs with concurrent PCV2, PRRSV and PPV infection.

    PubMed

    Opriessnig, Tanja; O'Neill, Kevin; Gerber, Priscilla F; de Castro, Alessandra M M G; Gimenéz-Lirola, Luis G; Beach, Nathan M; Zhou, Lei; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Wang, Chong; Halbur, Patrick G

    2013-01-07

    The predominant genotype of porcine circovirus (PCV) in the pig population today is PCV2b yet PCV2a-based commercial vaccines are considered effective in protecting against porcine circovirus associated disease. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of PCV2a- and PCV2b-based vaccines to control PCV2b viremia in a challenge model that mimics the U.S. field situation. Sixty-three pigs were randomly assigned to one of eight groups. Sixteen pigs were vaccinated with an experimental live-attenuated chimeric PCV1-2a vaccine based on genotype 2a and another 16 pigs with a chimeric PCV1-2b vaccine based on genotype 2b. Challenge was done 28 days post vaccination (dpv) using PCV2b (or a combination of PCV2a and PCV2b), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and porcine parvovirus (PPV) to mimic what commonly occurs in the field. The experiment was terminated 21 days post challenge (dpc) or 49dpv. Pigs vaccinated with the chimeric PCV1-2b vaccine had significantly higher levels of PCV1-2b viremia and shedding of the PCV1-2b vaccine virus in feces and nasal secretions but also a more robust humoral immune response as evidenced by significantly higher ELISA S/P ratios compared to the PCV1-2a vaccination. Regardless of challenge, the PCV1-2b vaccination significantly reduced the prevalence and amount of PCV2 viremia compared to the PCV1-2a vaccination. Interestingly, in the non-vaccinated pigs concurrent PCV2a infection resulted in clinical disease and increased macroscopic lung lesions compared to pigs challenged with PCV2b alone, further supporting the idea that concurrent PCV2a/PCV2b infection is necessary for optimal PCV2 replication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Delayed fungal endophthalmitis secondary to Curvularia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kunyong; Almeida, David R P; Chin, Eric K; Mahajan, Vinit B

    2016-10-01

    To describe a case of fungal endophthalmitis secondary to Curvularia after cataract surgery. This case showed delayed and recalcitrant fungal endophthalmitis secondary to Curvularia despite treatment with pars plana vitrectomy, intravitreal antifungal therapy, and systemic antifungals. Curvularia -associated endophthalmitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of delayed post-cataract endophthalmitis, especially in tropical or subtropical geographical areas. Awareness and early identification, timely removal of the nidi of sequestration, and prolonged antifungal treatments are important for the eradication of Curvularia -associated endophthalmitis.

  20. Management of giant retinal tear and retinal detachment in a patient with active toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nathan L; Sridhar, Jayanth; Flynn, Harry W

    2018-06-01

    To describe the management of a giant retinal tear with retinal detachment in a patient with active toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis. While receiving systemic medications for toxoplasmosis, the patient underwent scleral buckling, pars plana vitrectomy, and C3F8 gas tamponade without removal of the lens. At last follow-up, best corrected visual acuity was 20/20 with an attached retina and the toxoplasmosis lesion was inactive. and Importance: Using modern surgical techniques, anatomic and clinical success is possible during active retinochoroiditis.

  1. Comparative effect of topical diclofenac and topical dexamethasone on anterior chamber flare and postoperative pain following rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery.

    PubMed

    Ben Yahia, Salim; Kahloun, Rim; Abroug, Nesrine; Kaibi, Imene; Laadhari, Ghassen; Jelliti, Bechir; Khairallah, Moncef

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of topical diclofenac and topical dexamethasone on anterior chamber flare and postoperative pain following rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) surgery. This prospective study included 40 eyes of 40 patients treated for RRD. Twenty-eight patients underwent scleral buckling and 12 patients underwent 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). For each surgical procedure, patients were postoperatively randomly divided into two groups: the first group received topical dexamethasone phosphate 0.1 % four times daily for 28 days; the second group received topical diclofenac sodium 0.1 % three times daily for 28 days. The inflammatory reaction in the anterior chamber was measured with laser flare photometry preoperatively and 1, 7, 14, 28, and 90 days postoperatively. Pain level was evaluated with Scott's visual analog scale at day 1, 7, 14, and 28 postoperatively. For patients treated with scleral buckling, there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding mean aqueous flare at day 1 (p = 0.096), day 7 (p = 0.435), day 14 (p = 0.510), day 28 (p = 0.583), and day 90 (p = 0.423). The group who received diclofenac had significantly lower pain score at days 7, 14, and 28 (p = 0.048, p = 0.017, and p = 0.028, respectively). For patients treated with PPV, there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding mean aqueous flare at day 1 (p = 0.400), day 7 (p = 0.728), day 14 (p = 0.843), day 28 (p = 0.939), and day 90 (p = 0.568). Patients who received diclofenac had significantly lower pain score at days 7, 14, and 28 (p = 0.032, p = 0.030, and p = 0.023, respectively). Topical diclofenac seems to be as potent as topical dexamethasone in managing postoperative inflammatory response induced by surgery for RRD with better analgesic effect. Both of them are consequences of blood-aqueous barrier and blood-retinal barrier breakdown.

  2. Multiple methods of surgical treatment combined with primary IOL implantation on traumatic lens subluxation/dislocation in patients with secondary glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Bi, Chun-Chao; Lei, Chun-Ling; Sun, Wen-Tao; Wang, Shan-Shan; Dong, Xiao-Juan

    2014-01-01

    AIM To describe clinical findings and complications from cases of traumatic lens subluxation/dislocation in patients with secondary glaucoma, and discuss the multiple treating methods of operation combined with primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. METHODS Non-comparative retrospective observational case series. Participants: 30 cases (30 eyes) of lens subluxation/dislocation in patients with secondary glaucoma were investigated which accepted the surgical treatment by author in the Ophthalmology of Xi'an No.4 Hospital from 2007 to 2011. According to the different situations of lens subluxation/dislocation, various surgical procedures were performed such as crystalline lens phacoemulsification, crystalline lens phacoemulsification combined anterior vitrectomy, intracapsular cataract extraction combined anterior vitrectomy, lensectomy combined anterior vitrectomy though peripheral transparent cornea incision, pars plana lensectomy combined pars plana vitrectomy, and intravitreal cavity crystalline lens phacofragmentation combined pars plana vitrectomy. And whether to implement trabeculectomy depended on the different situations of secondary glaucoma. The posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC-IOLs) were implanted in the capsular-bag or trassclerally sutured in the sulus decided by whether the capsular were present. Main outcome measures: visual acuity, intraocular pressure, the situation of intraocular lens and complications after the operations. RESULTS The follow-up time was 11-36mo (21.4±7.13). Postoperative visual acuity of all eyes were improved; 28 cases maintained IOP below 21 mm Hg; 2 cases had slightly IOL subluxation, 4 cases had slightly tilted lens optical area; 1 case had postoperative choroidal detachment; 4 cases had postoperative corneal edema more than 1wk, but eventually recovered transparent; 2 cases had mild postoperative vitreous hemorrhage, and absorbed 4wk later. There was no postoperative retinal detachment, IOL dislocation, and

  3. Clinically undetected retinal breaks causing retinal detachment: A review of options for management.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepak; Ching, Jared; Tornambe, Paul E

    2017-08-12

    The successful detection of retinal breaks is a critical step in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery in order to prevent persistent/recurrent retinal detachments. Not all retinal breaks causing retinal detachments are obvious. Retinal breaks may be obscured by opacities that are either anterior segment related, lens related, or posterior segment related. Rules to identify breaks based on subretinal fluid configuration are more difficult to apply in pseudophakic, aphakic, and scleral buckle encircled eyes-and in eyes with repeat detachments and those with proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Exudative detachments exhibit characteristic features and must be ruled out. A thorough clinical examination preoperatively is important even if a vitrectomy is planned. We review the incidence and causes of undetected breaks, along with preoperative/clinical issues that may hinder break detection. We review the literature with respect to investigative approaches and techniques that are available to the vitreoretinal surgeon when primary breaks remain clinically undetected during the preoperative examination. We broadly divide the surgical approaches into ones where the surgeon utilizes techniques to pursue actively a search for breaks versus adopting a purely speculative approach. Advantages and disadvantages of various techniques are appraised. Intuitively one might argue that an encircling scleral buckle combined with vitrectomy would give higher single operation success than pars plana vitrectomy alone because "undetected" retinal breaks would be addressed by a 360° plombage. We could not confirm this concept. Newer techniques, such as pars plana vitrectomy augmented with dye extrusion or endoscopic-assisted pars plana vitrectomy, show encouraging results. Technological advances such as intraoperative optical coherence tomography will also help to broaden the vitreoretinal surgeon's armamentarium. At this time, there is no gold standard in terms of the recommended

  4. A classification system of intraocular lens dislocation sites under operating microscopy, and the surgical techniques and outcomes of exchange surgery.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ken; Ogawa, Soichiro; Manabe, Shin-Ichi; Hirata, Akira; Yoshimura, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the recent status of intraocular lens (IOL) dislocation according to a classification system based on vertical dislocation position, as well as the surgical techniques and outcomes of IOL exchange surgery. The medical records of 230 eyes from 214 consecutive patients who experienced IOL dislocation and underwent exchange surgery between 2006 and 2014 were reviewed. Vertical dislocation sites observed preoperatively under operating microscopy were examined, along with the surgical techniques and outcomes of IOL exchange. Dislocation sites included (1) the anterior chamber (12.2 %), (2) pseudophakodonesis (19.1 %), (3) the anterior vitreous cavity (47.4 %), (4) trap door-like dislocation (dangling in the peripheral vitreous cavity; 16.1 %), and (5) the retinal surface (5.2 %). The IOL retained in the anterior segment was moved onto the iris by pulling it up through the limbal side ports with an anterior vitrectomy (67.8 %), or by pushing it up from the pars plana with an anterior vitrectomy (26.5 %), while the IOL dropped on the retina was lifting it up from the retina after pars plana vitrectomy (5.7 %). Mean uncorrected and distance-corrected visual acuity significantly improved postoperatively (p < 0.0001). Major complications included a marked elevation in intraocular pressure (7.8 %), pupillary capture (6.5 %), and vitreous hemorrhage (2.6 %). Based on the classification system, approximately 95 % of dislocated IOLs were retained in the anterior segment, and these IOLs were exchanged using an anterior approach through limbal incisions with an anterior vitrectomy. Visual acuity improved significantly, and serious complications were uncommon, probably because the IOL exchange techniques were standardized and simplified without pars plana vitrectomy.

  5. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RETINAL REATTACHMENT SURGERY WITH OR WITHOUT INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING TO PREVENT POSTOPERATIVE MACULAR PUCKER.

    PubMed

    Forlini, Matteo; Date, Purva; Ferrari, Luisa Micelli; Lorusso, Massimo; Lecce, Gabriella; Verdina, Tommaso; Neri, Giovanni; Benatti, Caterina; Rossini, Paolo; Bratu, Adriana; DʼEliseo, Domenico; Ferrari, Tommaso Micelli; Cavallini, Gian Maria

    2017-07-18

    To determine whether internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling during pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment reduces the incidence of epiretinal membrane (ERM) formation. In this retrospective study, preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data from all eyes undergoing pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment between January 2007 and December 2013 was analyzed. All cases with at least 1-year of follow-up were included. Data collection included vision, intraoperative complications, occurrence of ERM, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography characteristics. The OCTs were retrieved for all eyes and were graded by a single masked grader. Out of 159 eyes recruited, ILM peeling was done in 78 eyes (49%). Overall occurrence of ERM was 20%. Seven eyes (9%) in ILM peeling group and 25 eyes in the non-ILM peeling group (31%) showed ERM (P = 0.001). Postoperative vision was significantly better in eyes that had ILM peeling (0.48 ± 0.4 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [20/63] vs. 0.77 ± 0.6 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [20/125], P = 0.003). In multivariable models adjusting for type of tamponade, ILM peeling reduced the likelihood of ERM formation by 75% (P = 0.01). Internal limiting membrane peeling during pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment significantly reduces ERM formation in the postoperative period and is associated with better visual and anatomical outcomes.

  6. ILM peeling in nontractional diabetic macular edema: review and metanalysis.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, M; dell'Omo, R; Morescalchi, F; Semeraro, F; Gambicorti, E; Cacciatore, F; Chiosi, F; Costagliola, C

    2017-10-31

    To evaluate the effect of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling during vitrectomy for nontractional diabetic macular edema. PUBMED, MEDLINE and CENTRAL were reviewed using the following terms (or combination of terms): diabetic macular edema, nontractional diabetic macular edema, internal limiting membrane peeling, vitrectomy, Müller cells. Randomized and nonrandomized studies were included. The eligible studies compared anatomical and functional outcomes of vitrectomy with or without ILM peeling for tractional and nontractional diabetic macular edema. Postoperative best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness were considered, respectively, the primary and secondary outcomes. Meta-analysis on mean differences between vitrectomy with and without ILM peeling was performed using inverse variance method in random effects. Four studies with 672 patients were eligible for analysis. No significant difference was found between postoperative best-corrected visual acuity or best-corrected visual acuity change of ILM peeling group compared with nonpeeling group. There was no significant difference in postoperative central macular thickness and central macular thickness reduction between the two groups. The visual acuity outcomes in patients affected by nontractional diabetic macular edema using pars plana vitrectomy with ILM peeling versus no ILM peeling were not significantly different. A larger prospective and randomized study would be necessary.

  7. Anatomical and functional outcomes of retinectomies in retinal detachments complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Adhi, Mohammad Idrees; Siyal, Nisar; Aziz, Sumbul

    2017-01-01

    To study anatomical and functional outcomes of retinectomies in rhegmatogenous retinal detachments complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy. This is a retrospective interventional consecutive case series of eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachments complicated by advanced proliferative vitreoretinopathy and managed by relaxing retinectomy over a period of seventeen years. Three-port pars plana vitrectomy included core vitrectomy and removal of all epi-retinal membranes. On failure to flatten, retina was cut and excised. Basal vitrectomy and removal of anterior flap of retina then followed. Silicone oil was used as temponade in majority of cases. The dependent variables were anatomical and functional outcomes. The statistical analysis was performed on SPSS 21. Series included 370 eyes of 337 patients. Mean follow up was 39 months. Scleral explant was used in 90(24.39%) cases. Two hundred and nine (56.49%) eyes were operated with trans conjunctival sutureless vitrectomy technique. Procedure was bilateral in 33 patients (09.79%). Retina attached in 311(84.05%) eyes after initial surgery. Final re-attachment after one or more surgeries was achieved in 344(92.97%) eyes. Two hundred and eleven (57.02%) cases achieved visual acuity of 6/60 or better. Relaxing retinectomies have good and encouraging anatomical and functional outcomes. This surgery can be effectively carried out with trans conjunctival sutureless vitrectomy technique.

  8. Operating microscope light-induced phototoxic maculopathy after transscleral sutured posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation.

    PubMed

    Kweon, Eui Yong; Ahn, Min; Lee, Dong Wook; You, In Cheon; Kim, Min Jung; Cho, Nam Chun

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the features of operating microscope light-induced retinal phototoxic maculopathy after transscleral sutured posterior chamber intraocular lens (TSS PC-IOL) implantation. The charts of 118 patients who underwent TSS PC-IOL implantation surgery at Chonbuk National University Hospital (Jeonju, Korea) between March 1999 and February 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Fourteen patients underwent combined 3-port pars plana vitrectomy and TSS PC-IOL implantation (vitrectomy group), and 104 patients underwent TSS PC-IOL implantation only (nonvitrectomy group). All surgeries were performed under the same coaxial illuminated microscope. All diagnoses were confirmed through careful fundus examination and fluorescein angiography (FA). Diagnoses of retinal phototoxic maculopathy were established in 10 (8.47%) of 118 TSS PC-IOL implantation cases. Phototoxic maculopathy occurred more frequently in the vitrectomy group than in the nonvitrectomy group (6/14 versus 4/104, respectively; P < 0.001, chi-square = 24.21). Affected patients reported decreased vision and were found to have coarse alterations of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). In 5 of the phototoxic maculopathy cases (50%), the visual acuity was 20/200 or worse. Operating microscope light-induced retinal phototoxic maculopathy can occur more frequently after TSS PC-IOL implantation than after casual cataract surgery, especially when TSS PC-IOL is combined with vitrectomy surgery. Surgeons should take precautions to prevent retinal phototoxicity after TSS PC-IOL implantation and vitrectomy.

  9. Short-Acting Gas Tamponade with Strict Face-Down Posturing for the Treatment of Idiopathic Macular Hole.

    PubMed

    Gotzaridis, Stratos; Liazos, Efstathios; Petrou, Petros; Georgalas, Ilias

    2017-01-01

    A retrospective consecutive case series to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 25 gauge pars plana vitrectomy, ILM peeling, 20% SF 6 gas tamponade and strict posturing for the treatment of idiopathic full-thickness macular holes. We report the results of 106 consecutive eyes that underwent standard 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy, brilliant peel-assisted internal limiting membrane peel, fluid:gas exchange with 20% SF 6 and strict posturing for one week. All patients were followed up at one week, one month, three months, and nine months postoperatively. Biomicroscopy at day 1 and biomicroscopy and OCT at week 1, months 1, 3, and 9 were used to assess macular hole status postoperatively. Pre- and postoperative logMAR visual acuity was compared. The macular hole was closed in 102/106 eyes postoperatively (96.2%). Four eyes showed unclosed macular holes and underwent additional SF 6 intravitreal injection and strict posturing for 10 days. All macular holes were eventually closed without the need of a second surgical procedure. Mean visual acuity improved from 0.63 logMAR preoperatively to 0.39 logMAR postoperatively. One case of retinal toxicity was reported due to accidental intravitreal injection of antibiotic. 25-gauge vitrectomy, ILM peel, and short-acting gas tamponade are highly effective for the treatment of macular holes. Additional intravitreal gas injection followed by strict posturing seems to be a simple and effective treatment for unclosed holes.

  10. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachments associated to Stickler syndrome in a tertiary eye care center in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alshahrani, Saeed T; Ghazi, Nicola G; Al-Rashaed, Saba

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the clinical findings and outcomes of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in Stickler syndrome on affected and fellow eyes that underwent prophylactic retinopexy. Chart review of 70 eyes (62 patients). Incidence of RRD, postoperative visual acuity, and risk factors were evaluated. Twenty-two patients (35%) had RRD in the fellow eye, 37% of the eyes had cataract, 93% had macular detachment, 50% had proliferative vitreoretinopathy, and 41% had posterior vitreous detachment. Success rates were: 60% of patients after scleral buckling; 57.1% after pars plana vitrectomy; and 75% after combined scleral buckling and pars plana vitrectomy. Sixty-one (93.8%) of patients had successful surgery (including second surgery). Silicone oil tamponade was significantly associated with final anatomic outcome, with a protective odds ratio of 0.11 (P=0.027). Visual acuity improved in 54% of eyes and decreased in 5%. Statistically significant associations were present for eyes with final visual acuity ≥20/200, and total retinal detachment (P<0.001); preoperative cataract (P=0.023); and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (P<0.001). RRD developed in 16/44 eyes despite laser prophylaxis. Prophylactic retinopexy was not beneficial for Stickler syndrome patients. Success of primary surgery for RRD remains low. The primary surgery should be vitrectomy combined with scleral buckling and silicone oil tamponade.

  11. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling versus vitrectomy with no peeling for idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH).

    PubMed

    Spiteri Cornish, Kurt; Lois, Noemi; Scott, Neil; Burr, Jennifer; Cook, Jonathan; Boachie, Charles; Tadayoni, Ramin; la Cour, Morten; Christensen, Ulrik; Kwok, Alvin

    2013-06-05

    Several observational studies have suggested the potential benefit of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling to treat idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH). However, no strong evidence is available on the potential benefit(s) of this surgical manoeuvre and uncertainty remains among vitreoretinal surgeons about the indication for peeling the ILM, whether to use it in all cases or in long-standing and/or larger holes.  To determine whether ILM peeling improves anatomical and functional outcomes of macular hole surgery compared with the no-peeling technique and to investigate the impact of different parameters such as presenting vision, stage/size of the hole and duration of symptoms in the success of the surgery. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE, (January 1950 to February 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to February 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to February 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We searched the reference lists of included studies for any additional studies not identified by the electronic searches. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 28 February 2013.We searched reference lists of the studies included in the review for information about other studies on ILM peeling in macular hole surgery. We searched Proceedings for the following conferences up to February 2013: American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO), Annual Meeting of the American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS), Annual Meeting of the Retina Society, Congress of the Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology (APAO), European Association for Vision and Eye Research (EVER) Annual Congress, European Vitreoretinal Society (EVRS) Annual Meeting, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) Meeting, International Vitreoretinal Meeting, and World Ophthalmology Congress. Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing ILM peeling with the no-peeling counterpart were included. Two review authors (KSC and NL) independently assessed the titles and abstracts of all RCTs identified by electronic and manual searches.We obtained Individual patient data (IPD) from three of the four identified eligible trials. The fourth identified RCT had only been published in abstract form and no IPD were available; we included data from this published abstract for one outcome (macular hole closure).The primary outcome was distance visual acuity at six months. Secondary outcomes included distance and near  visual acuity at three and 12 months postoperatively, near visual acuity at six months postoperatively, primary (after a single surgery) and final (following more than one surgery) macular hole closure, need for additional surgical interventions, vision-related quality of life and intraoperative and postoperative complications.We performed meta-analysis using standard techniques (the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR) for binary outcomes, mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes) using a fixed-effect model. For two outcomes we also used the IPD to perform adjusted analyses using regression methods. We identified and included four RCTs; these were conducted in Denmark, France, Hong Kong and the United Kingdom/Republic of Ireland and randomised 47, 80, 49 and 141 participants respectively.There was no evidence of a difference in the primary outcome (distance visual acuity at six months), nor in distance visual acuity at 12 months between randomised groups. However, there was evidence of improved best corrected distance visual acuity in the ILM peeling group at three months (WMD -0.09, 95% CI -0.17 to -0.02). We found no evidence for a difference in near vision between groups at any of the time points investigated.Overall, more participants in the ILM peeling group than in the no-peeling group had primary macular hole closure (OR 9.27, 95% CI 4.98 to 17.24); this held true when results were stratified by the stage of the macular hole. There was also evidence that those in the ILM peeling group were more likely to have final macular hole closure (OR 3.99, 95% CI 1.63 to 9.75). Fewer participants required further surgery in the ILM peeling group than in the no-peeling group (OR 0.11, 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.23).Rates of intraoperative and postoperative complications were similar in both groups.Based on the results of one study, there was no evidence that total VFQ-25 or EQ-5D scores differed between the groups at six months.  Based on this same study, ILM peeling is highly likely to be cost-effective. Although we found no evidence of a benefit of ILM peeling in terms of the primary outcome (visual acuity at six months), ILM peeling appears to be superior to its no-peeling counterpart as it offers more favourable cost effectiveness by increasing the likelihood of primary anatomical closure and subsequently decreasing the likelihood of further surgery, with no differences in unwanted side-effects compared with no peeling. 

  12. Endogenous Aspergillus endophthalmitis. Clinical features and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Weishaar, P D; Flynn, H W; Murray, T G; Davis, J L; Barr, C C; Gross, J G; Mein, C E; McLean, W C; Killian, J H

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated the clinical features and treatment outcomes in patients with endogenous Aspergillus endophthalmitis. The study design was a multicenter retrospective chart review. Ten patients (12 eyes) with culture-proven endogenous Aspergillus endophthalmitis treated by 1 of the authors were studied. Intravitreous amphotericin B injection, pars plana vitrectomy, systemic amphotericin B therapy, and oral anti-fungal therapy were performed. Elimination of endogenous Aspergillus endophthalmitis and Snellen visual acuity, best corrected, were measured. All patients had a 1- to 3-day history of pain and marked loss of visual acuity in the involved eyes. Varying degrees of vitritis was present in all 12 eyes. In 8 of 12 eyes, a central macular chorioretinal inflammatory lesion was present. Four patients (six eyes) had associated pulmonary diseases and were receiving concurrent steroid therapy. One of these patients with chronic asthma also was abusing intravenous drugs. Overall, six patients (six eyes) had a history of intravenous drug abuse, whereas a seventh patient (one eye) was suspected of abusing intravenous drugs. Blood cultures and echocardiograms were negative for systemic aspergillosis. Management consisted of a pars plana vitrectomy in 10 of 12 eyes. Intravitreous amphotericin B was administered in 11 of 12 eyes. Systemic amphotericin B therapy was used in eight patients. One patient was treated with oral antifungal agents. In three eyes without central macular involvement, final visual acuities were 20/25 to 20/200. In eight eyes with initial central macular involvement, final visual acuities were 20/400 in three eyes and 5/200 or less in four eyes. Two painful eyes with marked inflammation, hypotony, and retinal detachment were enucleated. Endogenous Aspergillus endophthalmitis usually has an acute onset of intraocular inflammation and often has a characteristic chorioretinal lesion located in the macula. Although treatment with pars plana vitrectomy

  13. Repair of Traumatic Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Combined with Congenital Falciform Retinal Detachment.

    PubMed

    Mano, Fukutaro; Chang, Kuo-Chung; Mano, Tomiya

    2018-01-01

    To report a case of surgical repair of traumatic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment combined with congenital falciform retinal detachment (FRD). A retrospective case report. A 36-year-old man with traumatic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment complicating a previously known FRD was successfully treated despite residual FRD following pars plana lensectomy, vitrectomy, and encircling scleral buckling. His best corrected visual acuity improved from hand motion at 50 cm to 20/1,000. We concluded that the root of the FRD is susceptible to trauma because of the contraction of fibrovascular tissue. The early intervention of modern vitrectomy to traumatic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment complicating a previously known FRD is an important consideration for enhanced quality of care and optimal patient outcomes.

  14. Repair of Traumatic Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Combined with Congenital Falciform Retinal Detachment

    PubMed Central

    Mano, Fukutaro; Chang, Kuo-Chung; Mano, Tomiya

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of surgical repair of traumatic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment combined with congenital falciform retinal detachment (FRD). Methods A retrospective case report. Results A 36-year-old man with traumatic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment complicating a previously known FRD was successfully treated despite residual FRD following pars plana lensectomy, vitrectomy, and encircling scleral buckling. His best corrected visual acuity improved from hand motion at 50 cm to 20/1,000. Conclusion We concluded that the root of the FRD is susceptible to trauma because of the contraction of fibrovascular tissue. The early intervention of modern vitrectomy to traumatic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment complicating a previously known FRD is an important consideration for enhanced quality of care and optimal patient outcomes. PMID:29643782

  15. Equine recurrent uveitis: the European viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Spiess, B M

    2010-03-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) has always been and still is an important disease with a significant impact on the horse industry in Europe, with a prevalence of 8-10%. The need to understand and manage the disease has spurred the development of veterinary ophthalmology in general, although the aetiology of the disease remains the subject of intense discussion. It is most probably an autoimmune disease triggered, at least in Europe, in the majority of cases by Leptospira spp. The therapy of ERU has evolved over the centuries from various methods of bloodletting to rational medical therapy using mydriatics and steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, to surgical therapies, such as vitrectomy or implantation of cyclosporin-releasing devices. In Europe, pars plana vitrectomy in horses testing positive for Leptospira spp. appears to be the most successful form of therapy at the present time.

  16. Irido-lenticular abscess as the initial sign of Candida albicans endogenous endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Braich, Puneet S; Chang, Jonathan S; Albini, Thomas A; Schefler, Amy C

    2011-12-08

    A-33-year-old man presented with 9 days of conjunctival erythema, pain, and worsening vision in the left eye. Anterior segment examination was significant for a well-defined, cream-colored iridociliary mass. Ultrasound biomicroscopy demonstrated an iris lesion with ciliary body and lenticular involvement. The authors performed a pars plana vitrectomy and lensectomy with an iris biopsy. Culture of the vitreous cassette and iris mass yielded a diagnosis of Candida albicans endophthalmitis. Clinicians encountering an iris nodule with lenticular involvement, even in an immunocompetent adult, are urged to consider a diagnosis of an endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to C. albicans. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Traumatic anterior dislocation of the crystalline lens and its surgical management.

    PubMed

    Srećković, Sunčica; Janićijević Petrović, Mirjana; Jovanović, Svetlana; Paunović, Svetlana; Sarenac, Tatjana

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports a case of a 57-year old female who had sustained a blunt ocular trauma resulting in anterior dislocation of the crystalline lens and acute painful visual loss in the left eye. The patient was managed with anterior chamber intracapsular phacoemulsification through a small anterior capsulotomy, pars plana vitrectomy, and surgical iridotomy. Aphakia was corrected by a contact lens. Two months after the surgery, the best corrected visual acuity was 0.9 in the left eye. The vision and retina remained stable in her follow-up examination 1 year later. Anterior dislocation of the crystalline lens can cause severe complications so that dislocated lens should be removed immediately.

  18. Retinal detachment caused by Arruga suture scleral intrusion. Treatment.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vicente, J L; Rueda-Rueda, T; González-García, M L; López-Herrero, F; Sánchez-Vicente, P; Castilla-Lázpita, A

    2015-10-01

    We present the case of an 81-year-old man with retinal detachment caused by intrusion of an Arruga suture. The encircling buckle was located in the sub-retinal space and caused retinal breaks with retinal detachment A pars plana vitrectomy was performed along with intraocular cutting of the Arruga suture with retinal re-attachment. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Macular hole-associated retinal detachment in Best vitelliform dystrophy: Series of two cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Ruchir; Kumar, Vinod; Ravani, Raghav; Dubey, Devashish; Chandra, Parijat; Kumar, Atul

    2018-01-01

    Two eyes of 2 patients with macular hole-associated retinal detachment in clinically diagnosed vitelliruptive stage of Best vitelliform dystrophy were surgically managed by 25-gauge sutureless pars plana vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling with inverted ILM flap, and short-acting (SF6) gas tamponade. The patients were assessed with respect to best-corrected visual acuity, color fundus photographs, shortwave fundus autofluorescence, and swept source optical coherence tomography. Surgical intervention led to Type 1 closure of macular hole, resolution of retinal detachment, and improvement in vision in both patients. PMID:29676326

  20. [Pay attention to the complexity of cataract surgery of no vitreous eyes].

    PubMed

    Bao, Y Z

    2017-04-11

    With wide-spread performance of pars plana vitrectomy, cataract surgeries with no vitreous are getting more and more. This kind of surgery has great difference between individuals and it lacks randomized large sample clinical trial. Surgical strategy decision was basically relied on the surgeon's personal experience. We should fully aware the individual and common characteristics of no vitreous cataract surgery. Surgical time should be carefully decided. Complete ocular examination, evaluation, design of cataract surgical procedure and appropriate intra-ocular lens selection are needed. We must pay highly attention on the cataract surgery of no vitreous eyes. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 241-243) .

  1. Diabetic Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Gundogan, Fatih C; Yolcu, Umit; Akay, Fahrettin; Ilhan, Abdullah; Ozge, Gokhan; Uzun, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME), one the most prevalent causes of visual loss in industrialized countries, may be diagnosed at any stage of diabetic retinopathy. The diagnosis, treatment, and follow up of DME have become straightforward with recent developments in fundus imaging, such as optical coherence tomography. Laser photocoagulation, intravitreal injections, and pars plana vitrectomy surgery are the current treatment modalities; however, the positive effects of currently available intravitreally injected agents are temporary. At this point, further treatment choices are needed for a permanent effect. The articles published between 1985-2015 years on major databases were searched and most appropriate 40 papers were used to write this review article.

  2. Retinal detachment 7 years after prophylactic schisis cavity excision in juvenile X-linked retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Sobrin, Lucia; Berrocal, Audina M; Murray, Timothy G

    2003-01-01

    A 7-year-old boy with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis developed a retinal detachment at the site of previous prophylactic excision of a schisis cavity. The patient underwent a scleral buckle procedure, pars plana vitrectomy, membrane peel, and silicone oil injection with successful reattachment. At last follow-up, the visual acuity was 20/400 and the retina was attached. Prophylactic excision of a schisis cavity may be complicated by retinal detachment several years after the surgery. Given the favorable natural history of schisis cavities in X-linked juvenile retinoschisis, the decision to perform prophylactic excision should be undertaken cautiously after full consideration of the potential complications.

  3. Management of dislocated intraocular lenses with iris suture.

    PubMed

    Faria, Mun Y; Ferreira, Nuno P; Canastro, Mario

    2017-01-19

    Subluxated or malpositioned intraocular lenses (IOLs) and inadequate capsular support is a challenge for every ophthalmic surgeon. Iris suture of an IOL seems to be an easy technique for the management of dislocated 3-piece IOL, allowing the IOL to be placed behind the iris, far from the trabecular meshwork and corneal endothelium. The purpose of this study is to assess the results of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and iris suture of dislocated 3-piece acrylic IOLs. In this retrospective, nonrandomized, interventional case consecutive study, of a total of 103 dislocated IOLs, 36 eyes were considered for analysis. All 36 eyes had subluxated or totally luxated 3-piece IOL and underwent iris suture at the Ophthalmology Department of Santa Maria Hospital-North Lisbon Hospital Center, Portugal, from January 2011 until November 2015. All patients underwent 3-port 23-G PPV. The optic zone of the dislocated IOL was placed anterior to the iris with the haptics behind, in the posterior chamber. Haptics were sutured to iris followed by placement of the optics behind iris plane. Postoperative measures included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), IOL position, intraocular pressure, pigment dispersion, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, and development of macular edema. A total of 36 eyes of 36 patients were included. All underwent successful iris fixation of dislocated 3-piece IOL. Mean overall follow-up was 15.9 months (range 3-58 months). At presentation, 16 eyes (44.4%) had a luxated IOL and 20 eyes (55.6%) a subluxated IOL. As underlying cause, 17 eyes (47.2%) had a history of complicated cataract surgery, 5 eyes (13.9%) had a traumatic dislocation of the IOL, and 6 eyes (16.7%) had a previous vitreoretinal surgery. A total of 8 eyes (22.2%) had late spontaneous IOL dislocation after uneventful cataract surgery. The mean preoperative BCVA was 1.09 ± 0.70 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) units and mean postoperative BCVA was 0.48 ± 0.58 of log

  4. The Policy Climate for Early Adolescent Initiatives. P/PV Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gary

    The general reluctance to use public policy to confront social concerns has increased over the past 20 years. This document discusses how America arrived at this view of public social policy. Mentoring and after-school programs are examined to help explain specific opportunities and limits likely to make up the social policy climate for early…

  5. Simulations of fluorescence solvatochromism in substituted PPV oligomers from excited state molecular dynamics with implicit solvent

    DOE PAGES

    Bjorgaard, J. A.; Nelson, T.; Kalinin, K.; ...

    2015-04-28

    In this study, an efficient method of treating solvent effects in excited state molecular dynamics (ESMD) is implemented and tested by exploring the solvatochromic effects in substituted p-phenylene vinylene oligomers. A continuum solvent model is used which has very little computational overhead. This allows simulations of ESMD with solvent effects on the scale of hundreds of picoseconds for systems of up to hundreds of atoms. At these time scales, solvatochromic shifts in fluoresence spectra can be described. Solvatochromic shifts in absorption and fluorescence spectra from ESMD are compared with time-dependent density functional theory calculations and experiments.

  6. Assistive and Autonomous Breast Ultrasound Screening: Improving PPV and Reducing RSI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    imaging with quantitative elastography. Major objectives achieved in this period included development of a research platform including a compliant...This report details our first year of research activity on technologies that support sonographer-supervised robotic systems for breast ultrasound

  7. Evidence for porcine parvovirus type 4 (PPV4) in Brazilian swine herds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction Porcine bocaviruses were recently identified among swine co-infected with PCV2 (2,3) and suffering an acute-onset disease of high mortality in the United States, in pigs with PMWS in Sweden (1), and in pigs with reproductive and neurological disease in China (4). Parvoviruses are smal...

  8. HOLE-DOOR SIGN: A Novel Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Feature Predicting Macular Hole Closure.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Yadav, Bhupendra

    2017-08-08

    To describe a novel intraoperative finding during pars plana vitrectomy for macular hole using operating microscope-integrated spectral domain optical coherence tomography that predicts the closure of macular hole. Twenty-five eyes of 25 patients with macular hole, who underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy over a period of 16 months at a tertiary eye care center by a single surgeon, were recruited in this retrospective interventional study. All eyes were assessed with intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography before and after internal limiting membrane peeling. The patients were assessed in terms of best-corrected visual acuity, preoperative minimal hole diameter, and type of hole closure. After the internal limiting membrane was peeled, vertical pillars of tissue were seen at the edges of hole projecting into the vitreous cavity. This appearance was similar to that of an open door over the macular hole and was termed "hole-door sign." Hole-door sign was seen in 15 of 25 eyes (60%). All the eyes with hole-door sign had Type-1 closure of macular hole (100%), whereas only 6 of 10 eyes (60%) without hole-door sign had Type-1 closure of the macular hole. Hole-door sign is a novel intraoperative finding that predicts postoperative Type-1 closure of macular hole. This may add to the utility of intraoperative optical coherence tomography in clinical practice.

  9. Outcome of Full-Thickness Macular Hole Surgery in Choroideremia.

    PubMed

    Talib, Mays; Koetsier, Leonoor S; MacLaren, Robert E; Boon, Camiel J F

    2017-07-21

    The development of a macular hole is relatively common in retinal dystrophies eligible for gene therapy such as choroideremia. However, the subretinal delivery of gene therapy requires an uninterrupted retina to allow dispersion of the viral vector. A macular hole may thus hinder effective gene therapy. Little is known about the outcome of macular hole surgery and its possible beneficial and/or adverse effects on retinal function in patients with choroideremia. We describe a case of a unilateral full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) in a 45year-old choroideremia patient (c.1349_1349+2dup mutation in CHM gene) and its management. Pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and 20% SF₆ gas tamponade was performed, and subsequent FTMH closure was confirmed at 4 weeks, 3 months and 5 months postoperatively. No postoperative adverse events occurred, and fixation stability improved on microperimetry from respectively 11% and 44% of fixation points located within a 1° and 2° radius, preoperatively, to 94% and 100% postoperatively. This case underlines that pars plana vitrectomy with ILM peeling and gas tamponade can successfully close a FTMH in choroideremia patients, with subsequent structural and functional improvement. Macular hole closure may be important for patients to be eligible for future submacular gene therapy.

  10. Calcification of Hydrophilic Acrylic Intraocular Lenses With a Hydrophobic Surface: Laboratory Analysis of 6 Cases.

    PubMed

    Gartaganis, Sotirios P; Prahs, Philipp; Lazari, Eftichia D; Gartaganis, Panos S; Helbig, Horst; Koutsoukos, Petros G

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the nature and characteristic features of deposits causing opacification of intraocular lenses (IOLs) based on the examination of clinical findings using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Retrospective, observational case series. This is a multicenter study of 6 hydrophilic acrylic IOLs (Lentis LS-502-1; Oculentis GmbH, Berlin, Germany) with a hydrophobic surface that were explanted from 5 patients because of opacification. Three patients had an uncomplicated phacoemulsification. One patient underwent combined phacoemulsification and pars plana vitrectomy for retinal detachment and later silicone oil endotamponade owing to redetachment. The last patient had a pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil instillation combined with phacoemulsification for tractive retinal detachment and diabetic retinopathy. The explanted lenses were submitted to our laboratory and were examined by SEM and EDX in order to identify the morphologic features and the composition of the deposits. SEM and EDX analyses confirmed the presence of calcific deposits in the interior of the opacified hydrophilic IOLs, with a pattern showing the formation of lumps on the surface. The lumps were due to subsurface formation of calcium phosphate crystalline deposits. The crystallite clusters seemed to diffuse from the IOL interior to the surface. We demonstrated the calcification pattern of the hydrophilic IOL (Lentis LS-502-1) with a hydrophobic surface. Although hydrophilic acrylic lenses have a hydrophobic surface, the development of calcification is a possible threat initiating from the hydrophilic subsurface of the IOLs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Generalized seizures and transient contralateral hemiparesis following retrobulbar anesthesia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dettoraki, Maria; Dimitropoulou, Chrisafoula; Nomikarios, Nikolaos; Moschos, Marilita M; Brοuzas, Dimitrios

    2015-07-28

    Retrobulbar block is a local anesthetic technique widely used for intraocular surgery. Although retrobulbar anesthesia is considered to be relatively safe, a number of serious adverse events have been reported. To our knowledge, immediate onset of generalized seizures with contralateral hemiparesis after retrobulbar anesthesia has not been reported. A 62-year-old Caucasian healthy male with a right eye retinal detachment was admitted for pars plana vitrectomy. During retrobulbar anesthesia with ropivacaine and before needle withdrawal, the patient developed twitching of the face which rapidly progressed to generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Arterial oxygen saturation decreased to 75 %. Chin lift was performed and 100 % oxygen was administrated via face mask, which increased saturation to 99 %. Midazolam 2 mg was administrated intravenously to control seizures. After cessation of seizures, left-sided hemiparesis was evident. Brain computed tomography and electroencephalogram were normal 3 h later. The patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy under general anesthesia 4 days later. Serious complications of local anesthesia for ophthalmic surgery are uncommon. We present a case in which generalized tonic-clonic seizures developed during retrobulbar anesthesia, followed by transient contralateral hemiparesis. The early onset of seizures indicated intra-arterial injection of the anesthetic. Our case suggested the need for close monitoring during the performance of retrobulbar anesthesia and the presence of well-trained personnel for early recognition and immediate management of the complications.

  12. The Survivor Benefit Plan--A Military Retiree’s Decision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Phosphr’ase GGTP Globulin lIOL BUN Total Bilirubin LOH Cholesterol T-Cell SubsetIHiV4" Creatinine SGOT Albumin Triglycerides "in states where approved Uric...security assistance program management in the Yemen Arab Republic. His assignments have taken him to Illinois, California, Montana, Alabama, Georgia...1,651 ($2,000 less the Ist $349) $165.10 TOTAL SBP COST 70 MAXIMUM COVERAGE: $173.83 6 (NOTE: This report focuses on taking full SBP benefits. However

  13. Discontinuities in the shallow Martian crust at Lunae, Syria, and Sinai Plana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, P.A.; Golombek, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed photoclinometric profiles across 125 erosional features and 141 grabens in the western equatorial region of Mars indicate the presence of three discontinuities within the shallow crust, at depths of 0.3, 0.6 km, 1 km, and 2-3 km. The shallowest discontinuity corresponds to thickness estimates for the ridged plains unit in this region, and thus the discontinuity probably is the contact between a sequence of layered rock making up this unit and the underlying megaregolith. The 1-km discontinuity is reflected in the base levels of erosion of all the features studied, and it may correspond to the base of the proposed layer of ground ice. Model calculations show that graben-bounding faults consistently intersect at the mechanical discontinuity at about 1 km depth. This discontinuity may represent an interface between ice-laden and dry regolith, ice-laden and water-laden regolith, or pristine and cemented regolith. A correlation between wall valley head depth and local thickness of the faulted layer suggests that the 1-km discontinuity also controlled the depth of the heads of sapping canyons. The third discontinuity, at a depth of 2-3 km, corresponds to the proposed base of the Martian megaregolith and is probably the interface between overlying, ejected breccia and in situ, fractured basement rocks. -from Authors

  14. Radiological threat assessment and the Federal Response Plan--a gap analysis.

    PubMed

    Conklin, W Craig; Liotta, Philip L

    2005-11-01

    The ability of the federal government to effectively and efficiently respond to nuclear or radiological terrorist attacks has been the subject of intense discussion and analysis for many years. Because of recent terrorist activities and intelligence information, there is strong sentiment that it is not a question of if, but when, a radiological or nuclear terrorist attack will occur. As a result, there is considerable concern that the federal government may not be adequately prepared to respond to an attack involving a radiological dispersal device or improvised nuclear device. In response to these concerns, federal departments and agencies have initiated actions to develop a better understanding of the magnitude of the radiological/nuclear terrorist threat, assess the ability of the federal government to support state and local responses to such attacks, and improve the Nation's ability to prepare for, respond to, and recover from these types of attacks. In an era of limited fiscal growth and competing priorities, the federal government will have to enhance its collaboration with state and local governments, the private sector, and academia to ensure that the Nation is capable of responding to a terrorist attack involving radioactive or nuclear material.

  15. INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING VERSUS INVERTED FLAP TECHNIQUE FOR TREATMENT OF FULL-THICKNESS MACULAR HOLES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY IN A LARGE SERIES OF PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Stanislao; Tartaro, Ruggero; Barca, Francesco; Caporossi, Tomaso; Bacherini, Daniela; Giansanti, Fabrizio

    2017-12-08

    The inverted flap (IF) technique has recently been introduced in macular hole (MH) surgery. The IF technique has shown an increase of the success rate in the case of large MHs and in MHs associated with high myopia. This study reports the anatomical and functional results in a large series of patients affected by MH treated using pars plana vitrectomy and gas tamponade combined with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling or IF. This is a retrospective, consecutive, nonrandomized comparative study of patients affected by idiopathic or myopic MH treated using small-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (25- or 23-gauge) between January 2011 and May 2016. The patients were divided into two groups according to the ILM removal technique (complete removal vs. IF). A subgroup analysis was performed according to the MH diameter (MH < 400 µm and MH ≥ 400 µm), axial length (AL < 26 mm and AL ≥ 26 mm), and the presence of chorioretinal atrophy in the macular area (present or absent). We included 620 eyes of 570 patients affected by an MH, 300 patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy and ILM peeling and 320 patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy and IF. Overall, 84.94% of the patients had complete anatomical success characterized by MH closure after the operation. In particular, among the patients who underwent only ILM peeling the closure rate was 78.75%; among the patients who underwent the IF technique, it was 91.93% (P = 0.001); and among the patients affected by full-thickness MH ≥400 µm, success was achieved in 95.6% of the cases in the IF group and in 78.6% in the ILM peeling group (P = 0.001); among the patients with an axial length ≥26 mm, success was achieved in 88.4% of the cases in the IF group and in 38.9% in the ILM peeling group (P = 0.001). Average preoperative best-corrected visual acuity was 0.77 (SD = 0.32) logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (20/118 Snellen) in the peeling group and 0.74 (SD = 0.33) logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution

  16. [Maculopathy in case of the pit of the disc].

    PubMed

    Kolár, P

    2005-09-01

    The pit of the disc is a congenital anomaly of the optic nerve disc. The prevalence is 1/11 000 patients. On the affected side, the optic disc is in 85% of cases larger than the disc of the other healthy eye. The pit of the disc is very often associated with the presence of the cilioretinal artery. Maculopathy in congenital pit of the optic nerve disc was described in the early 30's of the last century by Calhoun. The average age of the patients is roughly 30 years of age (20-40 years). The complementary examination method, which may help to clarify anatomical conditions of the macular region, is the optical coherence tomography. The defect of the optic disc of different depth caused by the pit and maculopathy caused by retinoschisis communicating with the temporal rim of the disc are found. This case report refers to a 29 years old man with disturbing relative central scotoma and decreased vision for one month in his right eye, who underwent classical three-ports pars plana vitrectomy with expansive gas tamponade. On the basis of differential diagnosis discretion, the temporally localized pit of the disc accompanied by maculopathy due to retonoschisis was detemined. The surgical treatment by means of three-ports pars plana vitrectomy and peeling of the inner limiting membrane with expansive gas tamponade restored in our patient the physiological macular structure followed by improvement of the best-corrected visual acuity. No complications were noticed during the surgery or after it as well. Among the differential diagnoses, it is necessary to eliminate other possible causes of maculopathy in young patients as well as other congenital anomalies of the optic disc, which may be related to the maculopathy. Maculopathy following the pit of the optic nerve disc represents relatively rare diagnostic entity. According to the literature, the natural course of this disease results in very low final best-corrected visual acuity, often worse than 5/50 (0,1 or 20/200). The

  17. Retinal Layers Measurements following Silicone Oil Tamponade for Retinal Detachment Surgery.

    PubMed

    Jurišić, Darija; Geber, Mia Zorić; Ćavar, Ivan; Utrobičić, Dobrila Karlica

    2017-12-19

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of silicone oil on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment who underwent vitreoretinal surgery. The study included 47 patients (eyes), who underwent a pars plana vitrectomy with the silicone oil tamponade. The control group included unoperated eye of all participants. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used for the measurements of peripapilar and macular RNFL thickness. The average peripapillary RNFL thickness was significantly higher in the silicone oil filled eyes during endotamponade and after its removal. The eyes with elevated IOP had less thickening of the RNFL in comparison to the eyes with normal IOP. Central macular thickness and macular volume were decreased in the silicone oil filled eyes in comparison to the control eyes. In conclusion, silicone oil caused peripapilar RNFL thickening in the vitrectomized eyes during endotamponade and after silicone oil removal.

  18. Lens-induced astigmatism after perforating scleral injury.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Klaus; Moradi, Said; Rudolph, Guenther; Boergen, Klaus Peter

    2002-10-01

    Within 6 weeks of a penetrating scleral injury that included vitreous prolapse, a 6-year-old boy developed lenticular astigmatism with a regular component of 5.5 diopters (D). Visible indentational folds in the posterior lens capsule, caused by anterior vitreous fibers and anterior hyaloid, were presumed to be the origin of the astigmatism. Because of decreased visual acuity and the suspicion of early amblyopia, a pars plana vitrectomy with removal of the anterior hyaloid and the critical anterior vitreous fibers was performed. Dense fibrotic tissue between the lens equator and the site of the original scleral perforation limited reduction of the preoperative astigmatism to 4.0 D. However, the striae-like lenticular deformation disappeared completely, and full visual acuity was restored. During the 12-month follow-up, the lens remained clear

  19. Delayed-onset streptococcus pyogenes endophthalmitis following Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Zerrin; Kapran, Ziya; Bayraktar, Sükrü; Acar, Nur; Unver, Yaprak Banu; Gök, Kemran

    2005-01-01

    To report a case of delayed-onset Streptococcus pyogenes endophthalmitis following implantation of an Ahmed glaucoma valve. A 10-year-old patient presented with acute endophthalmitis 1 year after Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. The conjunctiva and Tenon's capsule over the valve plate had been penetrated by one of the polypropylene fixation sutures. The valve was removed, and pars plana vitrectomy was performed. Vitreous specimens and removal of the discharge over the plate revealed Streptococcus pyogenes. This is the first documented case of Streptococcus pyogenes endophthalmitis following Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. We think the conjunctival buttonhole caused by the polypropylene suture provided an entry site for the infection. (c) Japanese Ophthalmological Society 2005.

  20. Management of iatrogenic crystalline lens injury occurred during intravitreal injection.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Gurkan; Gunay, Betul Onal; Unlu, Cihan; Gunay, Murat; Ergin, Ahmet

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the approach to management of iatrogenic crystalline lens injury occurred during intravitreal injection (IVI). The patients who were managed operatively or followed-up without intervention after the iatrogenic lens injury due to IVI were included in the study. Capsular breaks remained either quiescent or resulted in cataract formation in the patients with inadvertent crystalline lens capsule damage. Phacoemulsification surgery was performed in patients with cataract formation with lower fluidic settings. A total of 9 cases included in the study. Seven cases underwent phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. Two cases remained as quiescent lens injury during the follow-up. In 2 cases, dislocation of lens fragments occurred during phacoemulsification where pars plana vitrectomy was performed at the same session. After iatrogenic crystalline lens injury, capsular damage could remain quiescent or progress to cataract formation. Although phacoemulsification surgery can be performed with appropriate parameters, lens fragment dislocation can be observed in cases with traumatic lens damage secondary to IVI.

  1. [Ocular toxocariasis--case report].

    PubMed

    Moraru, Andreea; Panfil, Madălina; Totolici, Geanina; Brănişteanu, Daniel; Costin, Dănut; Schmitzer, Speranţa

    2014-01-01

    Ocular Toxocariasis is a parasitosis caused by Toxocara catis/canis larvae localized in the eye. The most frequent clinical manifestations are the central retinal granuloma, peripheral retinal granuloma and chronic endophthalmitis. Secondary complications due to the presence of parasite in the posterior segment of the eye may have significant consequences on visual function. We present the case of a 23 years old patient, admitted for progressive decrease of the right eye BCVA during the last 6 months. After performing clinical examination and serological tests we established the diagnosis of ocular Toxocariasis. The patient presented a particular form of the disease consisting in the presence of both a central retinal granuloma and a peripheral one. We performed 23G pars plana vitrectomy and membrane peeling. VA improved as soon as the first month after surgery.

  2. INTRAOCULAR LENS SCAFFOLD TO PREVENT INTRAOCULAR FOREIGN BODY SLIPPAGE.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Amar; Ashok Kumar, Dhivya; Agarwal, Athiya

    2017-01-01

    To report the application of intraocular lens (IOL) scaffold technique in intraocular foreign body (IOFB) removal. Patient with IOFB in posterior segment is included. The IOFB is retrieved from the posterior segment (pars plana vitrectomy and exteriorization of the IOFB from the retinal surface using an intravitreal forceps via the posterior capsulotomy) and placed on the iris. A three-piece posterior chamber IOL is placed in the sulcus via the clear corneal incision. IOFB is then removed from the anterior chamber over the IOL by forceps. Metallic IOFB of 4 mm × 3 mm has been retrieved by IOL scaffold technique after rescuing it from the posterior segment. There has been no drop or slip of IOFB in the vitreous during removal. Posterior chamber IOL served as scaffold during IOFB removal from anterior chamber. The IOL scaffold maneuver has shown to prevent slippage by acting as a barrier between the IOFB and the vitreous.

  3. Management of orbital emphysema secondary to rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair with hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Iniesta-Sanchez, Dante L; Romero-Caballero, Fatima; Aguirre-Alvarado, Adriana; Rebollo-Hurtado, Victoria; Velez-Montoya, Raul

    2016-04-01

    To describe the case of orbital subcutaneous emphysema who was successfully treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Case report. Retrospective analysis of medical records and computer tomography images. A 40 years-old female, with retinal detachment who was seen at the emergency department, two weeks after undergoing a combined procedure of pars plana vitrectomy, scleral buckle and Sulfur hexafluoride tamponade. The patient complained of pain, decrease eye movement and edema of the upper eyelid. Clinical examination revealed periorbital crepitus. She was treated immediately with soft tissue decompression with small-gauge needle. Orbital emphysema recurred quickly, indicating possible gas trapped in the soft tissue. Using the US NAVY decompression protocol we were able to achieve fast clinical improvement. The protocol was repeated in several occasions until complete resolution. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is an effective treatment for orbital and periorbital emphysema, due to its property of helping accelerate N 2 elimination from adipose tissue.

  4. Micropulse laser for persistent optic disc pit maculopathy. A case report.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Lara, Carlos Andrés; Crim, Nicolás; García-Aguirre, Gerardo; Lule, Ismael Ávila; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio

    2018-06-01

    Optic disc pits (ODP) are rare and congenital anomalies of the optic disc, sometimes remaining asymptomatic. However, serous macular detachment or optic disc maculopathy is the most common complication, causing significant visual deterioration, without a current consensus about treatment. We describe a case of ODP maculopathy that was treated successfully with micropulse laser. A patient with ODP maculopathy remained with macular serous detachment after nine months of follow up after pars plana vitrectomy. Subthreshold micropulse laser was used to treat macular serous detachment, achieving a significant improvement in central macular thickness after one session. Subthreshold micropulse laser is designed to stimulate the retinal pigment epithelium without damage to the photoreceptors, resulting in absorption of subretinal and intraretinal fluid. Macular serous detachment in patients with ODP requires a prompt diagnosis and treatment to avoid damage to photoreceptors. Subthreshold micropulse laser is a potential treatment for eyes with ODP and macular serous detachment complication.

  5. Eye health care in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kocur, Ivo; Kuchynka, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of eye health care in the Czech Republic as of 1998 was performed. A questionnaire was used to obtain information from all 59 in-patient eye departments. The number of ophthalmologists per 1 million inhabitants was 95. The number of cataract operations per 1 million inhabitants was 4,209: phaco-emulsification (36,926 surgeries, 85.2%), extracapsular extraction (6,094 surgeries, 14.1%) and intracapsular extraction (90 surgeries, 0.2%). Intra-ocular lenses were implanted in 99% of cases; 404 corneal transplantations and 1,220 operations for retinal detachment were performed. The number of pars plana vitrectomies for diabetic eye complications was 661. Selected regional clinical centres should be equipped and preferred by health insurance companies to provide comprehensive eye health care services and training. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. New Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches for Preventing the Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Gun; Roh, Young-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a severe sight-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Retinal laser photocoagulation, antivascular endothelial growth factors, steroid therapy, and pars plana vitrectomy are now used extensively to treat advanced stages of diabetic retinopathy. Currently, diagnostic devices like ultrawide field fundus fluorescein angiography and the improvement of optical coherence tomography have provided quicker and more precise diagnosis of early diabetic retinopathy. Thus, treatment protocols have been modified accordingly. Various types of lasers, including the subthreshold micropulse laser and RPE-targeting laser, and selective targeted photocoagulation may be future alternatives to conventional retinal photocoagulation, with fewer complications. The new developed intravitreal medications and implants have provided more therapeutic options, with promising results. PMID:26881240

  7. A Sticky Situation.

    PubMed

    Weng, Christina Y; Khimani, Karima S; Foroozan, Rod; Gospe, Sidney M; Bhatti, M Tariq

    2018-04-26

    An 81-year-old man with bilateral progressively blurry vision and optic disc swelling was referred for evaluation. Examination and ancillary testing confirmed a diagnosis of bilateral vitreopapillary traction (VPT) accompanied by unilateral tractional retinoschisis in the right eye. Pars plana vitrectomy was performed to release the traction in both eyes. Visual acuity improved in the right eye and stabilized in the left eye. Retinoschisis in the right eye resolved. The visual field improved in both eyes, although the left eye demonstrated a persistent hemifield defect likely attributable to a prior optic neuropathy. Distinguishing VPT optic neuropathy (VPTON) from nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Endophthalmitis caused by Staphylococcus hominis and two different colonies of Staphylococcus haemolyticus after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Wong, Robert W; Rhodes, Kyle M

    2015-01-01

    To describe a case of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery caused by Staphylococcus hominis and two separate colony types of Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Retrospective chart review including ophthalmic examination, intraocular biopsy and cultures, and anterior segment photography. A patient presented with endophthalmitis 1 month after cataract surgery. The patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy with vitreous fluid, aqueous fluid, and lens capsule biopsy with injection of intravitreal antimicrobials with full resolution of the infection. Cultures isolated grew S. hominis and two different colonies of S. haemolyticus, all sensitive to vancomycin. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of endophthalmitis due to lens capsule seeding from three different types of bacteria, S. hominis and two different colony types of S. haemolyticus. Prompt diagnosis and treatment can be associated with good visual outcomes.

  9. CASE REPORT OF SEVERE PROLIFERATIVE RETINOPATHY IN A PATIENT WITH CONGENITAL LIPODYSTROPHY.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Boris; Jaouni, Tareq

    2017-08-21

    A case report of a patient with severe proliferative retinopathy due to congenital lipodystrophy. We reviewed the medical history, imaging, and surgical procedures of a 25-year-old woman with a history of congenital lipodystrophy, presenting with bilateral combined tractional and exudative retinal detachment, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, and extreme dislipidemia. The patient underwent retinal detachment repair surgery both eyes. On the last follow-up, both retinae were flat, and visual acuity had improved in the right eye to J3 for near and finger counting 3 m for distance. Surgery combining pars plana vitrectomy and scleral bucking successfully flattened both retinae and significantly improved visual acuity in one eye in this case of bilateral retinal detachment with combined tractional and exudative components in a patient with congenital lipodystrophy. Surgical control of retinal complications is thus possible, provided there is adequate control of the underlying risk factors.

  10. Vitreoretinal surgery in advanced coats disease.

    PubMed

    Ozdamar, Yasemin; Berker, Nilufer; Batman, Cosar; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    To report the outcomes of vitreoretinal surgery for a patient with total retinal detachment and a subretinal nodule associated with Coats disease (CD). A 20-year-old woman stage 3B CD underwent vitreoretinal surgery with triamcinolone acetonide-assisted pars plana vitrectomy, limited retinotomy, removal of the subretinal nodule and membrane, endolaser photocoagulation, and silicone oil tamponade. The surgical outcomes were observed. Retinal attachment was achieved after vitreoretinal surgery, removal of the subretinal membrane, and endoresection of the subretinal fibrous nodule. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred due to the surgical technique. The retina remained attached during the postoperative follow-up period of 6 months. Vitreoretinal surgery is an effective surgical technique that provides successful reattachment of the retina and enables endoresection of the subretinal fibrous nodule in eyes with advanced CD. It also prevents the devastating intraocular complications leading to enucleation.

  11. Intravitreal Phacoemulsification Using Torsional Handpiece for Retained Lens Fragments.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Takkar, Brijesh

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the results of intravitreal phacoemulsification with torsional hand piece in eyes with posteriorly dislocated lens fragments. In this prospective, interventional case series, 15 eyes with retained lens fragments following phacoemulsification were included. All patients underwent standard three-port pars plana vitrectomy and intravitreal phacoemulsification using sleeveless, torsional hand piece (OZiL™, Alcon's Infiniti Vision System). Patients were followed up for a minimum of six months to evaluate the visual outcomes and complications. The preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ranged from light perception to 0.3. No complications such as thermal burns of the scleral wound, retinal damage due to flying lens fragments, or difficult lens aspiration occurred during intravitreal phacoemulsification. Mean post-operative BCVA at the final follow-up was 0.5. Two eyes developed cystoid macular edema, which was managed medically. No retinal detachment was noted. Intravitreal phacoemulsification using torsional hand piece is a safe and effective alternative to conventional longitudinal phacofragmentation.

  12. Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support to treat suspected venous air embolism with cardiac arrest during open eye surgery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seokyung; Nam, Bokyung; Soh, Sarah; Koo, Bon-Nyeo

    2014-11-01

    We report a case of possible venous air embolism (VAE) during trans pars plana vitrectomy with air-fluid exchange of the vitreous cavity. Shortly after initiation of air-fluid exchange, decreases in end-tidal CO2, oxygen saturation, and blood pressure were observed. The patient rapidly progressed to cardiac arrest unresponsive to cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and recovered after the application of percutaneous cardiopulmonary support. Prompt termination of air infusion is needed when VAE is suspected during air-fluid exchange, and extracorporeal life support should be considered in fatal cases. Although the incidence is rare the possibility of VAE during ophthalmic surgery clearly exists, and therefore awareness and vigilant monitoring seem critical.

  13. A 9 year-old girl with herpes simplex virus type 2 acute retinal necrosis treated with intravitreal foscarnet.

    PubMed

    King, John; Chung, Mina; DiLoreto, David A

    2007-01-01

    A 9-year-old girl presented with a 2-week history of redness in the left eye. Examination revealed vitritis, retinal whitening, vasculitis, and optic nerve head edema. Polymerase chain reaction testing of the aqueous fluid revealed herpes simplex virus type 2. The retinitis was controlled with intravenous acyclovir and intravitreal foscarnet. The clinical course was complicated by retinal neovascularization and vitreous hemorrhage, which was treated by pars plana vitrectomy and endolaser. While there are few case reports of herpes simplex virus type 2 retinitis in children, this one is unique for the following reasons: it is the first reported case of herpes simplex virus type 2 retinitis in a child less than 10 years old without a previous history of neonatal infection or central nervous system involvement; no other children have been reported to have been treated with intravitreal foscarnet; and retinal neovascularization complicated the recovery.

  14. Fulminant Ocular Toxoplasmosis: The Hazards of Corticosteroid Monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Oray, Merih; Ozdal, Pinar Cakar; Cebeci, Zafer; Kir, Nur; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur

    2016-12-01

    To describe fulminant toxoplasma retinochoroiditis induced by corticosteroid monotherapy. Clinical records of nine patients were reviewed. All patients (five female, four male; aged 15-64 years) had been misdiagnosed as unilateral non-infectious uveitis and given systemic and/or local corticosteroid injections elsewhere. Mean disease duration before referral was 105.6 ± 71 (45-240) days. Visual acuity at presentation was <20/200 in six eyes. Average lesion size was 6.6 disc areas in eight eyes and all four quadrants were involved in one. Toxoplasma DNA was detected in eight tested eyes. Mean duration of anti-toxoplasmic therapy was 92.5 ± 37.1 days. Three eyes developed rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Four patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy. Final visual acuity was <20/200 in five eyes. Iatrogenic immunosuppression due to initial misdiagnosis may lead to an aggressive course and serious complications of ocular toxoplasmosis, a potentially self-limiting infection.

  15. Branch retinal artery occlusion post-penetrating globe injury with intraocular foreign body.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Manish; Chaudhary, Pranita; Jain, Ashish

    2018-01-01

    Intraocular foreign body (IOFB) in cases of penetrating eye injury accounts for an important indication of vitreoretinal intervention following ocular trauma. Vascular occlusion as a complication of IOFB is rare. Here we present a case of a 34-year-old male with post-traumatic cataract and an intraocular metallic foreign body (IOFB) lodged in the superficial layers of the retina inferotemporal to the disc, causing an inferotemporal branch retinal artery occlusion. The case was managed by lensectomy with pars plana vitrectomy and IOFB removal followed by a second procedure of secondary IOL implantation. Final best-corrected visual acuity improved to 6/24. This case highlights an unusual sequelae following penetrating ocular trauma.

  16. Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Gundogan, Fatih C.; Yolcu, Umit; Akay, Fahrettin; Ilhan, Abdullah; Ozge, Gokhan; Uzun, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME), one the most prevalent causes of visual loss in industrialized countries, may be diagnosed at any stage of diabetic retinopathy. The diagnosis, treatment, and follow up of DME have become straightforward with recent developments in fundus imaging, such as optical coherence tomography. Laser photocoagulation, intravitreal injections, and pars plana vitrectomy surgery are the current treatment modalities; however, the positive effects of currently available intravitreally injected agents are temporary. At this point, further treatment choices are needed for a permanent effect. Sources of data selection: The articles published between 1985-2015 years on major databases were searched and most appropriate 40 papers were used to write this review article. PMID:27182271

  17. Double Internal Limiting Membrane Insertion for Macular Hole-Associated Retinal Detachment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, San-Ni

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To describe a modified technique of internal limiting membrane (ILM) insertion for macular hole- (MH-) associated retinal detachment (RD) in highly myopic eyes. Methods Nine eyes underwent pars plana vitrectomy, cortical vitreous removal, and fovea-sparing ILM peeling. Double ILM insertion into the hole was performed with inverted perifoveal ILM and a free ILM flap followed by air-fluid exchange. Results Two of the 9 eyes had perifoveal ILM partially torn after cortical vitreous or epiretinal removal. All eyes had the ILM plug stabilized within the MH after double ILM insertion. Postoperatively, MH was sealed with the retina reattached in all the eyes. Conclusion Double ILM insertion may further secure the ILM flap in place in the eyes with MH-associated RD, especially in cases in which insufficient perifoveal ILM was left. This trial is registered with the clinical registration number Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03174639. PMID:28845304

  18. Serratia marcescens endophthalmitis after pterygium surgery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yi, Myeong Yeon; Chung, Jin Kwon; Choi, Kyung Seek

    2017-11-02

    To report a case of Serratia marcescens endophthalmitis after pterygium surgery using the bare sclera technique with mitomycin C (MMC). A 69-year-old male patient underwent pterygium excision surgery using the bare sclera technique and 0.02% MMC. The patient presented with decreased visual acuity and pain from the day after the operation. Trans pars plana vitrectomy was performed and intravitreal antibiotics were administered. Cultures from the aqueous humor and intraocular lens were all positive for S. marcescens, which was sensitive to an empiric antibiotic regimen. The best corrected distant visual acuity, 1 month after treatment, was a finger count/50 cm, but the retinal layer structure and the vasculature were relatively well preserved. This is the first reported case of S. marcescens endophthalmitis after pterygium surgery. Endophthalmitis caused by S. marcescens has a devastating visual prognosis and may show a high clinical risk-benefit ratio for the application of MMC in pterygium surgery.

  19. A unique case of phaeohyphomycosis subretinal abscess in a patient with arthropathy and lung pathology.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Bryan J; Partridge, David; Sheard, Richard M; Rennie, Ian G; Mudhar, Hardeep Singh

    2013-12-01

    A 67-year-old former gold miner with rheumatoid arthritis, treated with steroids and methotrexate, presented to eye casualty with a painful right eye. Examination revealed an anterior uveitis and despite an initial response to topical steroids, the intraocular inflammation worsened with anterior and posterior uveitis development. Re-examination showed a white mass in the peripheral nasal retina initially suspected of being active Toxoplasmosis infection and anti-toxoplasmosis treatment commenced. After improvement and tapering of this treatment, the intraocular inflammation reoccurred. Cytopathological examination of a pars plana vitrectomy obtained vitreous sample that showed a non-diagnostic non-infectious chronic vitritis. The vitreoretinal surgeons elected to do a direct biopsy of the white subretinal mass in the peripheral nasal area. This revealed, quite unexpectedly, an abscess containing pigmented phaeohyphomycosis fungi. This case report documents the multidisciplinary approach that assisted in clinching a final diagnosis and the role of sub-retinal biopsy in this unprecedented scenario.

  20. A unique case of phaeohyphomycosis subretinal abscess in a patient with arthropathy and lung pathology

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Bryan J.; Partridge, David; Sheard, Richard M; Rennie, Ian G; Mudhar, Hardeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    A 67-year-old former gold miner with rheumatoid arthritis, treated with steroids and methotrexate, presented to eye casualty with a painful right eye. Examination revealed an anterior uveitis and despite an initial response to topical steroids, the intraocular inflammation worsened with anterior and posterior uveitis development. Re-examination showed a white mass in the peripheral nasal retina initially suspected of being active Toxoplasmosis infection and anti-toxoplasmosis treatment commenced. After improvement and tapering of this treatment, the intraocular inflammation reoccurred. Cytopathological examination of a pars plana vitrectomy obtained vitreous sample that showed a non-diagnostic non-infectious chronic vitritis. The vitreoretinal surgeons elected to do a direct biopsy of the white subretinal mass in the peripheral nasal area. This revealed, quite unexpectedly, an abscess containing pigmented phaeohyphomycosis fungi. This case report documents the multidisciplinary approach that assisted in clinching a final diagnosis and the role of sub-retinal biopsy in this unprecedented scenario. PMID:24413827

  1. Vitreoretinal surgery without schisis cavity excision for the management of juvenile X linked retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    García-Arumí, J; Corcóstegui, I A; Navarro, R; Zapata, M A; Berrocal, M H

    2008-11-01

    Juvenile X linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is a congenital X linked recessive retinal disorder characterised by cystic maculopathy and peripheral schisis. This study presents the case of an 8-month-old boy with a documented positive family history of XLRS, with a large retinoschisis cavity affecting the macula, first in the left eye and 1 year later in the right eye. The patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy in both eyes using 23-G instruments, posterior hyaloid dissection, a small retinotomy, fluid drainage with a 42-G cannula, infrared diode laser and silicone oil as internal tamponade. The anatomical and functional outcomes at 3 years following the first surgery are described. To the authors' knowledge, there is no previously reported experience with this technique in patients with XLRS.

  2. Efficacy of vitrectomy and epiretinal membrane peeling in eyes with dry age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Mason, John O; Patel, Shyam A

    2015-01-01

    To study the efficacy of epiretinal membrane (ERM) peeling in eyes with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We retrospectively analyzed patient charts on 17 eyes (16 patients) that underwent ERM peeling with a concurrent diagnosis of dry AMD. Eyes with concurrent dry AMD and with a good preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (better than or equal to 20/50) had a statistically significant mean BCVA improvement at 6 months after ERM peeling. There was a statistical increase in mean BCVA from 20/95 to 20/56 in dry AMD eyes, and no eyes showed worsening in BCVA at 6 months or at most recent follow-up. Five/seventeen (29.4%) eyes had cataract formation or progression. There were no other complications, reoperations, or reoccurrences. ERM peeling in eyes with dry AMD may show significant improvement, especially in eyes with good preoperative BCVA. The procedure is relatively safe with low complications and reoccurrences.

  3. Evaluation of hyaloid-retinal relationship during triamcinolone-assisted vitrectomy for primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Dheepak; Takkar, Brijesh; Venkatesh, Pradeep; Chawla, Rohan; Temkar, Shreyas; Azad, Shorya Vardhan; Vohra, Rajpal

    2018-03-01

    To determine hyaloid-retinal relationship in primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment during vitreous surgery. This is a prospective, interventional study of patients (n = 72) undergoing triamcinolone-assisted 25G vitreous surgery for primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Hyaloid-retinal relationship was noted intraoperatively to identify regions and patterns of firm attachment and was classified into subgroups. Analysis was done to determine association between hyaloid-retinal relationship patterns and preoperative findings: posterior vitreous detachment, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, type of retinal tear, the presence of peripheral degenerations, and postoperative outcomes. Three patterns of hyaloid-retinal relationship were identified: type1 (complete absence of posterior vitreous detachment (21%)), type 2 (incomplete posterior vitreous detachment (47%)) and type 3 (complete posterior vitreous detachment (32%)). Posterior vitreous detachment in some form was present in 84% of the cases with retinal tears as the causative break but none of the cases with retinal holes (p < 0.001). None of the cases with vitreoretinal degeneration had complete posterior vitreous detachment (p = 0.001). 69% of proliferative vitreoretinopathy-C cases had type 1 hyaloid-retinal relationship as compared to 11% cases with no proliferative vitreoretinopathy (p < 0.001). Proliferative vitreoretinopathy-related anatomical failure was seen in 7.5%, and 80% of these eyes with recurrent RD had type 1 hyaloid-retinal relationship (p<0.001). Nearly half the patients diagnosed as complete posterior vitreous detachment preoperatively were found to have incomplete posterior vitreous detachment intraoperatively. Majority of the cases with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment have some form of strong vitreoretinal adhesion. Hyaloid-retinal relationship varies with types of retinal breaks, retinal degeneration, and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Intraoperative hyaloid-retinal relationship is frequently different from that assessed before surgery and the proposed classification may improve surgical decision making and prognostication.

  4. Visualizing Macular Structures During Membrane Peeling Surgery With an Intraoperative Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Device.

    PubMed

    Leisser, Christoph; Hackl, Christoph; Hirnschall, Nino; Luft, Nikolaus; Döller, Birgit; Draschl, Petra; Rigal, Karl; Findl, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the quality of intraoperative visualization of the posterior hyaloid, epiretinal membrane (ERM), inner limiting membrane (ILM), and hyporeflective subfoveal zone with a commercially available, microscope-integrated spectral-domain OCT setup (mi-SD-OCT) (Rescan 700; Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Germany). Twenty patients prospectively scheduled for pars plana vitrectomy with membrane peeling due to an idiopathic ERM were included. Standard 23-gauge, three-port pars plana vitrectomy with membrane peeling and staining of the ERM with a trypan blue-based chromovitrectomy dye was performed in all cases. Intraoperative SD-OCT was performed before and after peeling and visualization of the posterior hyaloid, ERM, ILM, and presence of subfoveal hyporeflective zones were examined. OCT follow-ups were performed 2 days and 3 months after surgery. The study was approved by the local ethics committee of the city of Vienna. Successful intraoperative visualization of ERM by mi-SD-OCT was possible in all cases. The posterior hyaloid and ILM could not be seen in the mi-SD-OCT scans, whereas an intraoperative subfoveal hyporeflective zone presented in 35% of cases. In 12.5% an independent subfoveal hyporeflective zone presented postoperatively. Visual acuity improved in 93.8% of patients after surgery. mi-SD-OCT appears to be a valuable tool for intraoperative visualization of the ERM and offers immediate visualization of retinal anatomy during peeling. Therefore, it adds to the understanding of intraoperative traumatic changes due to the peeling procedure. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Transconjunctival drainage of serous and hemorrhagic choroidal detachment.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Flávio A; Kickinger, Mônica C; Li, Gisèle; Prado, Renata F; Regis, Luiz Gustavo T

    2012-02-01

    To describe a novel surgical technique for drainage of bullous serous and hemorrhagic choroidal detachments. A prospective, consecutive case series of 6 eyes with serous and/or hemorrhagic choroidal detachments secondary to intraocular surgery was documented to evaluate the feasibility of using the 25-gauge and 20-gauge transconjunctival trocar/cannula systems to drain choroidal detachments. Two eyes had expulsive hemorrhagic choroidal detachments and 4 eyes had serous choroidal detachments after glaucoma surgeries. A 25-gauge infusion line was placed in the anterior chamber. A 20-gauge (in eyes with hemorrhagic choroidal detachments) or a 25-gauge (in eyes with serous detachments) trocar/cannula system was inserted into the suprachoroidal space 7.0 mm from limbus. After drainage, the cannulas were removed and no sutures were placed. Pars plana vitrectomy was performed only in eyes with concomitant pathology that demanded the additional procedure. The primary outcome measure was presence of choroidal detachment at 1 week, 2 weeks, and 1 month postoperatively. Secondary outcome measures were visual acuity at 6 months and intraocular pressure at 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Drainage of hemorrhagic choroidal detachments resulted in resolution of the detachments by 1 month postoperatively. In eyes with serous detachments, resolution was achieved by 1 week postdrainage. In both groups, intraocular pressure increased to at least 10 mmHg by postoperative Week 1. The visual acuity improved in all eyes. No complications related to the transconjunctival technique were noted. Transconjunctival drainage of serous and hemorrhagic choroidal detachments seems to be a feasible and simple surgical option with minimal scleral and conjunctival damage. Pars plana vitrectomy may not be necessary when draining choroidal detachments in this manner.

  6. THE ASSOCIATION OF EPIRETINAL MEMBRANE WITH MACULAR HOLE FORMATION AFTER RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT REPAIR.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Rahul N; Wykoff, Charles C; Bansal, Alok S; Akiyama, Kunihiko; Palmer, James D; Chen, Eric; Chang, Louis K; Major, James C; Wu, Chengqing; Wang, Rui; Croft, Daniel E; Wong, Tien P

    2017-06-01

    To describe the clinical and optical coherence tomography findings associated with the development of full-thickness macular holes after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) repair. Retrospective, interventional case series. All patients who developed full-thickness macular holes after successful RRD repair from 3 clinical practices were reviewed. All cases of combined/simultaneous full-thickness macular hole and RRD were excluded. The main outcome measure was the presence of an epiretinal membrane at time of diagnosis of macular hole. Twenty-five full-thickness macular holes were diagnosed after successful retinal detachment repair. Surgical approach to RRD repair included pneumatic retinopexy (6, 24%), scleral buckle alone (5, 20%), pars plana vitrectomy only (8, 32%), and combined scleral buckle and pars plana vitrectomy (6, 24%). The preceding RRD involved the macula in 19 patients (76%) before the formation of the macular hole. The median time to full-thickness macular hole diagnosis after RRD repair was 63 days (range, 4-4,080 days). An epiretinal membrane was present in all 25 (100%) macular holes. Two macular holes (8%) spontaneously closed, whereas the other 23 (92%) were successfully closed with a single surgical procedure. Mean visual acuity improved by approximately 5 lines to 20/72 (range, 20/20 to counting fingers at 1 foot) from 20/240 (range, 20/30 to hand motions) after macular hole repair (P < 0.0001). Full-thickness macular hole formation can occur after all types of RRD repair and is associated with an epiretinal membrane. The epiretinal membrane may play a role in the pathogenesis of secondary macular hole formation after RRD repair.

  7. Correction of irregular and induced regular corneal astigmatism with toric IOL after posterior segment surgery: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kolozsvári, Bence L; Losonczy, Gergely; Pásztor, Dorottya; Fodor, Mariann

    2017-01-13

    Toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation can be an effective method for correcting corneal astigmatism in patients with vitreoretinal diseases and cataract. Our purpose is to report the outcome of toric IOL implantation in two cases - a patient with scleral-buckle-induced regular corneal astigmatism and a patient with keratoconus following pars plana vitrectomy. As far as we are aware, there are no reported cases of toric IOL implantation in a vitrectomized eye with keratoconus nor of toric IOL implantation in patients with scleral-buckle-induced regular corneal astigmatism. Two patients with myopia and high corneal astigmatism underwent cataract operation with toric IOL implantation after posterior segment surgery. Myopia and high astigmatism (>2.5 diopter) were caused by previous scleral buckling in one case and by keratoconus in the other case. Pre- and postoperative examinations during the follow-up of included uncorrected and spectacle corrected distance visual acuity (UCDVA/CDVA), automated kerato-refractometry (Topcon), Pentacam HR, IOL Master (Zeiss) axial length measurements and fundus optical coherence tomography (Zeiss). One year postoperatively, the UCDVA and CDVA were 20/25 and 20/20 in both cases, respectively. The absolute residual refractive astigmatism was 1.0 and 0.75 Diopters, respectively. The IOL rotation was within 3° in both eyes, therefore IOL repositioning was not necessary. Complications were not observed in our cases. These cases demonstrate that toric IOL implantation is a predictable and safe method for the correction of high corneal astigmatism in complicated cases with different origins. Irregular corneal astigmatism in keratoconus or scleral-buckle-induced regular astigmatisms can be equally well corrected with the use of toric IOL during cataract surgery. Previous scleral buckling or pars plana vitrectomy seem to have no impact on the success of the toric IOL implantation, even in keratoconus. IOL rotational stability and

  8. INFECTIOUS ENDOPHTHALMITIS AFTER GLAUCOMA DRAINAGE IMPLANT SURGERY: Clinical Features, Microbial Spectrum, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Cindy X; Moster, Marlene R; Khan, M Ali; Chiang, Allen; Garg, Sunir J; Dai, Yang; Waisbourd, Michael

    2017-06-01

    To report the clinical features, microbial spectrum, and treatment outcomes of endophthalmitis after glaucoma drainage implant (GDI) surgery. Records of patients diagnosed with endophthalmitis after GDI surgery were reviewed. Data on clinical course, microbiological laboratory results, and treatment were analyzed. Of 1,891 eyes that underwent GDI surgery, 14 eyes (0.7%) developed endophthalmitis. The mean time interval between GDI surgery and diagnosis of endophthalmitis was 2.6 ± 3.2 years (median, 1.3 years; range, 11 days-11.4 years). For initial treatment, 13/14 eyes underwent vitreous tap and injection of intravitreal antibiotics and 1/14 eyes underwent primary pars plana vitrectomy. Three additional eyes underwent pars plana vitrectomy because of deteriorating clinical course. Glaucoma drainage implant erosion was present in 9/14 eyes. All 9 eroded GDIs were surgically removed within a mean of 9 ± 5 days (range 2-29 days) after diagnosis of endophthalmitis. Overall, mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity worsened from 0.7 ± 0.7 (Snellen equivalent 20/100) at baseline to 1.6 ± 1.1 (Snellen equivalent 20/800) at final follow-up (P = 0.005). Mean duration between the onset of symptoms and presentation was significantly longer in patients with decreased final best-corrected visual acuity (>2 Snellen lines) compared to patients with stable final best-corrected visual acuity (6.8 vs. 1.0 days; P = 0.005). Glaucoma drainage implant-related endophthalmitis is rare and often associated with GDI erosion. Patients who presented earlier after the onset of symptoms had better final visual outcomes. Prompt evaluation and treatment is required, often with removal of the eroded GDI.

  9. Twenty-nine-gauge dual-chandelier retroillumination for the non-open-sky continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis in the penetrating keratoplasty triple procedure.

    PubMed

    Yokokura, Shunji; Hariya, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Wataru; Meguro, Yasuhiko; Nishida, Kohji; Nakazawa, Toru

    2017-03-01

    We describe a technique for the penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) triple procedure that uses 29-gauge dual-chandelier illumination during creation of a non-open-sky continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC). The chandeliers are inserted through the pars plana into the vitreous cavity through the bulbar conjunctiva at the 3 o'clock and 9 o'clock positions. We compared this approach with that of a core vitrectomy, in which a single 25-gauge port is inserted into the vitreous cavity transconjunctivally through the upper temporal pars plana. The area of halation around the corneal opacity was significantly smaller in the 29-gauge group than in the 25-gauge group. The reduction in halation improved visibility of the anterior capsule and enabled the surgeon to perform CCC with greater safety. The 29-gauge chandelier system was more suitable than the 25-gauge chandelier system for the non-open-sky CCC component of the PKP triple procedure. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Simplified ab externo fixation technique to treat late dislocation of scleral-sutured polymethyl methacrylate intraocular lenses

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, J; Zhao, P-q

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We report a simplified ab externo scleral fixation technique to manage the late dislocation of scleral-sutured polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) intraocular lenses (IOLs) in the absence of capsule support. Materials and methods The technique was performed on five eyes of five patients. Symmetrical scleral pocket tunnels without conjunctival peritomy were created. An anterior vitrectomy via a limbal approach with an anterior chamber infusion or a 3-port pars plana vitrectomy was performed to rescue the dislocated IOL. A long straight suture needle and 23-gauge vitreoretinal forceps were used to conveniently reposition the IOL and loop sutures through the IOL positioning eyelets without externalizing IOL haptics. The outside suture knots were buried under the roof of the scleral tunnels. Results The patients were followed for 5–14 months after surgery. All the operated eyes quickly recovered with negligible corneal endothelial cell loss and mild inflammation. Visual acuity improvement and IOL centration were achieved in all eyes with no major complications. Conclusion The simplified ab externo scleral fixation technique offers an effective and minimally invasive surgical alternative to salvage dislocated previously scleral-sutured PMMA IOLs. PMID:26795420

  11. The Effect of Altitude on Intraocular Pressure in Vitrectomized Eyes with Sulfur Hexafluoride Tamponade by the Friedenwald Method: Rabbit Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Fromow-Guerra, Jans; Solís-Vivanco, Adriana; Perez-Reguera, Adriana; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Meza-de Regil, Armando; Papa-Oliva, Gabriela; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the change in intraocular pressure after a road trip, in eyes with different levels of filling with gas tamponade. Five rabbit eyes were subject to pars plana vitrectomy and gas tamponade (filling percentage: 25%, 50%, and 100% of nonexpansile SF6, 100% saline solution, and 100% room air). A sixth eye was injected with 0.35 cc of undiluted SF6 without vitrectomy. Guided by global positioning system, they were driven to the highest point of the highway connecting Mexico City with Puebla city and back, stopping every 300 m to assess intraocular pressure. The rabbit's scleral rigidity and estimation for human eyes were done by using the Friedenwald nomogram. Maximum altitude was 3209 m (Δ949 m). There were significant differences in intraocular pressure on the rabbit eyes filled with SF6 at 100%, 50%, 25%, and 100% room air. Per every 100 m of altitude rise, the intraocular pressure increased by 1.53, 1.0046, 0.971, and 0.97 mmHg, respectively. Using the human Friedenwald rigidity coefficient, the human eye estimate for intraocular pressure change was 2.1, 1.8, 1.4, and 1.1 mmHg per every 100 m of attitude rise. Altitude changes have a significant impact on intraocular pressure. The final effect depends on the percentage of vitreous cavity fill and scleral rigidity. PMID:27957500

  12. The Effect of Altitude on Intraocular Pressure in Vitrectomized Eyes with Sulfur Hexafluoride Tamponade by the Friedenwald Method: Rabbit Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Fromow-Guerra, Jans; Solís-Vivanco, Adriana; Velez-Montoya, Raul; Perez-Reguera, Adriana; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Meza-de Regil, Armando; Papa-Oliva, Gabriela; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the change in intraocular pressure after a road trip, in eyes with different levels of filling with gas tamponade. Five rabbit eyes were subject to pars plana vitrectomy and gas tamponade (filling percentage: 25%, 50%, and 100% of nonexpansile SF 6 , 100% saline solution, and 100% room air). A sixth eye was injected with 0.35 cc of undiluted SF 6 without vitrectomy. Guided by global positioning system, they were driven to the highest point of the highway connecting Mexico City with Puebla city and back, stopping every 300 m to assess intraocular pressure. The rabbit's scleral rigidity and estimation for human eyes were done by using the Friedenwald nomogram. Maximum altitude was 3209 m (Δ949 m). There were significant differences in intraocular pressure on the rabbit eyes filled with SF 6 at 100%, 50%, 25%, and 100% room air. Per every 100 m of altitude rise, the intraocular pressure increased by 1.53, 1.0046, 0.971, and 0.97 mmHg, respectively. Using the human Friedenwald rigidity coefficient, the human eye estimate for intraocular pressure change was 2.1, 1.8, 1.4, and 1.1 mmHg per every 100 m of attitude rise. Altitude changes have a significant impact on intraocular pressure. The final effect depends on the percentage of vitreous cavity fill and scleral rigidity.

  13. Macular detachment associated with an optic pit: optical coherence tomography patterns and surgical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Skaat, Alon; Moroz, Iris; Moisseiev, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    To describe the different optical coherence tomography (OCT) patterns in macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit and their long-term evolution following vitrectomy.
 The data of 5 patients (9-43 years of age) with unilateral macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit, who had at least 1 year of follow-up, were compiled. Pars plana vitrectomy combined with gas tamponade was performed as the primary procedure in all patients. The OCT scans, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and anatomic outcomes were documented.
 Two main OCT patterns were identified: a multilayer schisis pattern and a serous detachment pattern. Patients with multilayer schisis pattern were older and demonstrated worse mean preoperative (20/160) and postoperative (20/50) BCVA compared to serous detachment pattern patients (20/30 and 20/20, respectively). An average of 2.3 procedures per patient was needed in the multilayer schisis pattern compared to just one procedure in the serous detachment pattern. In 3 patients, additional pneumatic retinopexy was performed with full resolution of the subretinal fluid achieved.
 Two distinct OCT patterns were observed in eyes with macular detachments with an optic pit, with different clinical features and prognoses. Excellent final visual acuity was obtained in all eyes, including those that required several surgical procedures.

  14. Rapid Cataract Progression after Nd:YAG Vitreolysis for Vitreous Floaters: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Sun, I-Ting; Lee, Tsung-Han; Chen, Chih-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of rapid cataract progression after Nd:YAG vitreolysis for vitreous floaters. A 55-year-old man presented with acute onset of blurred vision following Nd:YAG vitreolysis for symptomatic floaters in the left eye. His initial best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/1,000 in the left eye. Ocular examinations showed frost-like opacities of the lens and a suspected break of the posterior capsule in the left eye. There were no detectable retinal lesions. Cataract surgery was then arranged. Posterior capsular rupture and vitreous loss occurred during surgery, which required a subsequent pars plana vitrectomy. After the surgery, BCVA in the left eye gradually improved to 20/20 and was maintained during a 1-year follow-up period. Crystalline lens injuries and rapid cataract progression may occur following Nd:YAG vitreolysis. While dealing with this type of complicated cataract, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of posterior lens capsule rupture during surgery and the need for combined vitrectomy.

  15. Rapid Cataract Progression after Nd:YAG Vitreolysis for Vitreous Floaters: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sun, I-Ting; Lee, Tsung-Han; Chen, Chih-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We report a case of rapid cataract progression after Nd:YAG vitreolysis for vitreous floaters. Case Report A 55-year-old man presented with acute onset of blurred vision following Nd:YAG vitreolysis for symptomatic floaters in the left eye. His initial best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/1,000 in the left eye. Ocular examinations showed frost-like opacities of the lens and a suspected break of the posterior capsule in the left eye. There were no detectable retinal lesions. Cataract surgery was then arranged. Posterior capsular rupture and vitreous loss occurred during surgery, which required a subsequent pars plana vitrectomy. After the surgery, BCVA in the left eye gradually improved to 20/20 and was maintained during a 1-year follow-up period. Conclusion Crystalline lens injuries and rapid cataract progression may occur following Nd:YAG vitreolysis. While dealing with this type of complicated cataract, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of posterior lens capsule rupture during surgery and the need for combined vitrectomy. PMID:28626418

  16. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PENTOSIDINE ACCUMULATION IN THE HUMAN VITREOUS.

    PubMed

    van Deemter, Marielle; Bank, Ruud A; Vehof, Jelle; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Los, Leonoor I

    2017-04-01

    To explore factors associated with pentosidine accumulation in the human vitreous. Vitreous samples were obtained during trans pars plana vitrectomy for macular hole or rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Patient characteristics included age, gender, and diabetes mellitus. Ocular characteristics included pseudophakia, posterior vitreous detachment, and presence of intraocular fibrosis (epiretinal membrane, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, or both). Pentosidine concentration as a measure of accumulation of advanced glycation end products was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Pentosidine concentrations were measured in 222 vitrectomy samples (118 female and 104 male patients [median age 66 years], treated for macular hole [n = 105] or rhegmatogenous retinal detachment [n = 117]). Pentosidine was found to accumulate significantly with age (P < 0.001). After correction for age, a multivariable linear regression model revealed significantly higher pentosidine values in eyes with intraocular fibrosis (P = 0.001), in phakic as compared with pseudophakic eyes (P = 0.02), and in the absence of a complete posterior vitreous detachment (P = 0.018). The authors found no association with diabetes mellitus or gender. This study confirmed an age-related pentosidine accumulation in the vitreous and found new factors relating to pentosidine levels. Findings support the hypothesis of enzyme-induced vitreous liquefaction and the hypothesis of pentosidine as a pro-fibrotic factor.

  17. Simplified ab externo fixation technique to treat late dislocation of scleral-sutured polymethyl methacrylate intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Lyu, J; Zhao, P-Q

    2016-05-01

    PurposeWe report a simplified ab externo scleral fixation technique to manage the late dislocation of scleral-sutured polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) intraocular lenses (IOLs) in the absence of capsule support.Materials and methodsThe technique was performed on five eyes of five patients. Symmetrical scleral pocket tunnels without conjunctival peritomy were created. An anterior vitrectomy via a limbal approach with an anterior chamber infusion or a 3-port pars plana vitrectomy was performed to rescue the dislocated IOL. A long straight suture needle and 23-gauge vitreoretinal forceps were used to conveniently reposition the IOL and loop sutures through the IOL positioning eyelets without externalizing IOL haptics. The outside suture knots were buried under the roof of the scleral tunnels.ResultsThe patients were followed for 5-14 months after surgery. All the operated eyes quickly recovered with negligible corneal endothelial cell loss and mild inflammation. Visual acuity improvement and IOL centration were achieved in all eyes with no major complications.ConclusionThe simplified ab externo scleral fixation technique offers an effective and minimally invasive surgical alternative to salvage dislocated previously scleral-sutured PMMA IOLs.

  18. Strategy for the Management of Macular Edema in Retinal Vein Occlusion: The European VitreoRetinal Society Macular Edema Study

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, Ron A.; Parnes, Aaron J.; Bopp, Silvia; Saad Othman, Ihab; Ducournau, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the efficacy of different therapies in the treatment of macular edema associated with retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Design. This is a nonrandomized, multicenter collaborative study. Participants. 86 retina specialists from 29 countries provided clinical information, including choice of treatment and outcome, on 2,603 patients with macular edema including 738 cases of RVO. Methods. Reported data included the type and number of treatments performed, visual acuities, and other clinical and diagnostic findings. Main Outcome Measures. The mean increase in visual acuity and mean number of treatments performed. Results. 358 cases of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and 380 cases of branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) were included in this investigation. Taking all RVO cases together, pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling alone resulted in an improvement in vision greater than other therapies. Those treated with intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injection alone showed the second greatest improvement in vision. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant alone and intravitreal triamcinolone alone both resulted in modest visual gains. Conclusions. In the treatment of macular edema in RVO, vitrectomy with ILM peeling may achieve visual improvement and may be a good option for certain cases. Anti-VEGF injection is the most effective of the nonsurgical treatments. PMID:25705695

  19. Strategy for the management of macular edema in retinal vein occlusion: the European VitreoRetinal Society macular edema study.

    PubMed

    Adelman, Ron A; Parnes, Aaron J; Bopp, Silvia; Saad Othman, Ihab; Ducournau, Didier

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of different therapies in the treatment of macular edema associated with retinal vein occlusion (RVO). This is a nonrandomized, multicenter collaborative study. 86 retina specialists from 29 countries provided clinical information, including choice of treatment and outcome, on 2,603 patients with macular edema including 738 cases of RVO. Reported data included the type and number of treatments performed, visual acuities, and other clinical and diagnostic findings. The mean increase in visual acuity and mean number of treatments performed. 358 cases of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and 380 cases of branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) were included in this investigation. Taking all RVO cases together, pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling alone resulted in an improvement in vision greater than other therapies. Those treated with intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injection alone showed the second greatest improvement in vision. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant alone and intravitreal triamcinolone alone both resulted in modest visual gains. In the treatment of macular edema in RVO, vitrectomy with ILM peeling may achieve visual improvement and may be a good option for certain cases. Anti-VEGF injection is the most effective of the nonsurgical treatments.

  20. The Action Plan--a new instrument to collect data on interventions in secondary prevention in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hüsler, Gebhard; Werlen, Egon; Rehm, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    It is difficult to draw causal conclusions about the effectiveness of secondary prevention programs for adolescents at risk, when the programs use a variety of different interventions. The Action Plan is an instrument that is designed to make collection of such data possible. This allows calculating different kinds of intervention patterns for each participant and program, which, in combination with outcome measures, gives an estimate of successful vs. less successful interventions. The study compared intervention patterns from 12 different sites in a national intervention program in Switzerland. The program, called supra-f (www.supra-f.ch), started in 1999 and will end in 2005. Results are presented from the ongoing study with approximately 600 adolescents. We calculated effect sizes (ES) to compare interventions with outcome measures. Effect sizes (ES) are presented on well being, coping, self-esteem, delinquency, and substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, cannabis) in relation to intervention packages, risk groups (low, moderate, high), and age (two groups: 11-15 and 16-20 years of age) using data collected from 1999-2002.

  1. HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan--a regional programme of measures for the marine environment based on the Ecosystem Approach.

    PubMed

    Backer, Hermanni; Leppänen, Juha-Markku; Brusendorff, Anne Christine; Forsius, Kaj; Stankiewicz, Monika; Mehtonen, Jukka; Pyhälä, Minna; Laamanen, Maria; Paulomäki, Hanna; Vlasov, Nikolay; Haaranen, Tarja

    2010-05-01

    The Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) Baltic Sea Action Plan, adopted by the coastal countries of the Baltic Sea and the European Community in November 2007, is a regional intergovernmental programme of measures for the protection and management of the marine environment explicitly based on the Ecosystem Approach. The Action Plan is structured around a set of Ecological Objectives used to define indicators and targets, including effect-based nutrient input ceilings, and to monitor implementation. The Action Plan strongly links Baltic marine environmental concerns to important socio-economic fields such as agriculture and fisheries and promotes cross-sectoral tools including marine spatial planning. Due to complementarities with the European Union (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive, the Action Plan is in essence a pilot for this process without neglecting the important role of the Russian Federation - the only Baltic coastal country not a member of the EU. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Outcomes Associated With Concurrent Iris-Sutured Intraocular Lens Placement and Subluxated Crystalline Lens Extraction.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Scott F; Soiberman, Uri; Gehlbach, Peter L; Murakami, Peter N; Stark, Walter J

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a novel surgical technique, to our knowledge, for the management of subluxated crystalline lenses involving preplacement of an iris-sutured posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL) before pars plana vitrectomy and lensectomy. To investigate the outcomes of eyes with subluxated crystalline lenses, predominantly a result of Marfan syndrome (14 eyes [58%]) or trauma (5 eyes [21%]), that underwent pars plana vitrectomy and lensectomy with placement of an iris-sutured PCIOL. We performed a retrospective, noncomparative case series of 24 eyes from 17 consecutive adult patients with surgically treated subluxated crystalline lenses presenting to the Wilmer Eye Institute at Johns Hopkins Hospital from October 6, 2006, through May 1, 2013. The mean (SD) postoperative follow-up was 24.4 (20.5) months for eyes with at least 6 months of follow-up (last date, October 13, 2014). We performed the analysis from January 21, 2014, through January 3, 2015. Improvement in best-corrected visual acuity using an automated Snellen chart and induction of astigmatism for eyes with at least 6 months of follow-up (n = 18) and IOL stability during follow-up for all eyes (n = 24). The mean (SD) age at surgery was 49.4 (10.7 [range, 29-67]) years. We found an improvement in mean (SD [95% CI]) best-corrected visual acuity from 0.66 (0.71 [0.30-1.02]) logMAR preoperatively (Snellen equivalent, approximately 20/90; range, 20/30 to hand motions) to 0.07 (0.11 [95% CI, 0.01-0.12]) logMAR postoperatively (Snellen equivalent, approximately 20/23; range, 20/15 to 20/50). We found little change in astigmatism postoperatively (mean change, -0.1 [95% CI, -0.5 to 0.13] diopters). Postoperative complications included retinal detachment (1 eye [4%]), retained cortical fragment (1 [4%]), cystoid macular edema (2 [8%]), and IOL subluxation (3 [13%]) owing to haptic slippage within 3 months of the procedure. The overall probability of successfully achieving placement of a centered iris

  3. Prophylactic chorioretinectomy for eye injuries with high proliferative-vitreoretinopathy risk.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Ferenc; Schrader, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    With its incidence exceeding 60%, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) remains the most important pathology responsible for loss of vision, even the eyeball, after certain types of severe trauma. In this article, we present results obtained using our novel surgical technique, prophylactic chorioretinectomy (PCR), to prevent the development of PVR. Data on severely injured eyes at high risk for PVR [rupture, posterior laceration, deep-impact intraocular foreign body (IOFB) trauma, perforating injury] were collected prospectively. All eyes underwent vitrectomy (PPV) by PCR within 100 hr of the trauma. Eyes were excluded if they presented with endophthalmitis or if the reconstructive surgery was performed outside this time frame. Forty eyes of 40 consecutive patients were analyzed; full follow-up information was obtained for all of them. The injury was rupture in 27%, penetrating in 15%, (deep-impact) IOFB in 35%, and perforating in 23%. PPV-PCR was performed during primary (wound closure) surgery in 59% of cases. All eyes had at least minimal vitreous hemorrhage, and none had a true posterior vitreous detachment. At the time of PPV, 30% of the eyes had a retinal detachment. Sixteen percent developed PVR, but none from the site of the PCR procedure. In 20%, silicone oil remained in the eye at the last follow-up. The visual acuity improved in 93% of eyes and worsened in none; the improvement was mostly due to surgical clearing of the media opacity. In this subgroup of eyes with severe open-globe trauma, over 60% are expected to develop PVR. PPV/PCR performed within 100 hr reduced the PVR risk significantly, so currently it remains the best option for the surgeon. Clin. Anat. 31:28-38, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Intravitreal Autologous Platelet Concentrate Injection as an Adjunct of Vitrectomy for the Treatment of Refractory Macular Holes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-03-06

    Macular Hole With High Myopia (Spherical Equivalent ≤ -6.0 Diopters) or,; Large Size Macular Hole (Diameter > 600 Microns) or; Recurred or Failed Macular Hole From Previous Surgery; or Chronic Macular Hole (Symptom Duration > 6 Months)

  5. Effect of administration of 200,000 IU of vitamin A to women within 24 hrs after delivery on response to PPV administered to the newborn.

    PubMed

    Bhaskaram, P; Balakrishna, N

    1998-03-01

    To explore the effect of maternal supplementation of vitamin A on the immune response to oral polio vaccine in breastfed infants. Randomized controlled trial. Hospital based. One hundred mothers having uncomplicated deliveries randomly received either 200,000 IU vitamin A orally (Experimental) or placebo (Control). All the newborns were given a dose of oral polio vaccine within 72 hours after birth and were breastfed. Type specific neutralizing antibodies to polio viruses in test sera diluted from 1:4 to 1:512 and serum retinol levels were determined from the cord blood and at the age of 6 weeks. Breast milk retinol levels were determined at 3, 10, 30, 45 and 90 days of lactation. Seroconversion to OPV and geometric means of antibody titers to the three types of polio viruses were comparable between the groups of infants belonging to the experimental and control mothers. Breast milk retinol levels were significantly higher in the experimental group upto 45-90 days of lactation. Majority of the infants at birth had serum retinol levels < 15 micrograms/dl which improved significantly by 6 weeks irrespective of the maternal supplementation status. Maternal vitamin A supplementation soon after delivery improves vitamin A intakes of breastfed infants during the first 3 months and has no interference with the seroconversion to a neonatal dose of OPV. OPV administered to newborn in turn has no adverse effect on the vitamin A status of the breastfed infants.

  6. An insight into the mechanism of charge transfer properties of hybrid organic (MEH-PPV): Inorganic (TiO{sub 2}) nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Tanu, E-mail: chemtanu9@gmail.com; Tiwari, Sangeeta, E-mail: stiwari2@amity.edu; Mehta, Aarti, E-mail: aks302117@gmail.com

    2016-04-13

    Now a days, inorganic nanoparticles are gaining importance and are potential candidate in different organic electronic device application like (LEDs, PVs) due to their novel properties and confinement in Nano-dimensions. {sup [1,} {sup 2]} In the present work, we have compared the properties of titanium di oxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by using two different chemical routes aqueous and ethanol respectively. These synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) for phase confirmation. It was observed that synthesized nanoparticles are in anatase phase for both preparation routes. Morphological information was collected by scanning electron microscopymore » (SEM) which confirms that particles are almost spherical in shape and distributed uniformly which is further ensured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique was also used for further confirmation of size distribution of as-synthesized nanoparticles. Optical properties were also investigated by photoluminescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy and calculated bandgap was found to be in the range of 3.3-3.5eV for TiO{sub 2} (aq/eth) nanoparticles. The increase in bandgap values with respect to bulk (3.2 eV) confirms that as- synthesized nanoparticles are confined in nanodimensions. As synthesized nanoparticles were interacted with MEHPPV polymer (donor) matrix to make their respective MEHPPV: TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites and to confirm the charge transfer mechanism from polymer to nanoparticles. It can be observed from photoluminescence (PL) quenching experiments that continuous quenching obtained for respective nanocomposites confirms better charge transfer from polymer to inorganic TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles respectively. Because of, better quenching and simultaneously enhanced charge transfer of respective nanocomposites, ensures that these nanocomposites are greatly applicable for photovoltaics (PVs) especially in Hybrid Solar cells (HSCs).« less

  7. Comparative prospective study of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments in phakic or pseudophakic patients with high myopia.

    PubMed

    Bernheim, Diane; Rouberol, Frederic; Palombi, Karine; Albrieux, Magali; Romanet, Jean-Paul; Chiquet, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    To compare the anatomical and functional results of primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in highly myopic phakic or pseudophakic eyes. This prospective 2-center study included 191 consecutive eyes (151 phakic and 40 pseudophakic eyes) from a prospective cohort of 835 patients (IRB #5891, between 2004 and 2008). Baseline and follow-up data were systematically recorded at presentation, 1 month, and 6 months or more after surgery. On final examination, two groups were considered based on the need for one or more surgeries to achieve retinal reapplication. End points were primary reattachment rate at the 6-month visit, final anatomical success rate, postoperative visual acuity, and intraoperative and postoperative complications. Pseudophakic eyes differed from phakic eyes in age (60.8 ± 10.4 vs. 49.9 ± 12.3, P < 0.001), smaller pupil dilation (8.0 ± 1.5 vs. 8.5 ± 1.2 mm, P = 0.02), fewer retinal tears seen preoperatively (1.5 ± 1.6 vs. 2.2 ± 2.2, P = 0.06), more frequent use of pars plana vitrectomy (80% vs. 28.5%, P < 0.001), and higher single reattachment rate (92.5% vs. 80.7%). Visual acuity was greater than or equal to 20/40 in 54% of cases with single retinal detachment surgery and 44% of cases with multiple surgeries. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only 3 independent variables were significantly predictive of good final visual acuity (20/40): initial visual acuity (<20/400, odds ratio = 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.51; P = 0.002), axial length (odds ratio = 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.75, P < 0.001), and pars plana vitrectomy (odds ratio = 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.71, P = 0.004). This prospective study showed similar baseline retinal detachment characteristics of high myopic phakic or pseudophakic eyes, suggesting that high myopia was the main pathogenic factor in both groups. Although high myopic eye presents anatomical characteristics that could favor surgical morbidity, these recent prospective data

  8. CLOSING MACULAR HOLES WITH "MACULAR PLUG" WITHOUT GAS TAMPONADE AND POSTOPERATIVE POSTURING.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Meena; Benjamin, Preethi; Chakrabarti, Keya; Chakrabarti, Arup

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the surgical results of macular hole surgery without gas tamponade or postoperative posturing in patients with Stage 3 and Stage 4 macular holes with ≥500 μm mean base diameter. Retrospective interventional case series. Twenty-six patients with Stage 3 and Stage 4 macular holes. Twenty-six eyes of 26 patients with Stage 3 and Stage 4 macular holes and a mean base diameter of 892.8 ± 349 μm underwent pars plana 23-gauge vitrectomy with broad internal limiting membrane peel (ILM peel), inverted ILM flap repositioning (ILMR), and use of autologous gluconated blood clumps as a macular plug to close the macular hole. No fluid-air exchange, endotamponade, or postoperative posturing was used. The subjects were followed up for 12 months. The anatomical outcome of the procedure was evaluated by fundus examination and optical coherence tomography. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography was used to study the restoration of the outer retinal layer integrity in the postoperative period. The preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuities in logMAR units were compared to evaluate functional outcome. Macular hole closure and best-corrected visual acuity before and after surgery. Twenty-six patients with mean age 62.8 ± 7.3 years, preoperative median best-corrected visual acuity 6/60 (1.0 logMAR units), and a mean base diameter of 892.8 ± 349 μm underwent surgery to close macular holes without gas tamponade or postoperative posturing. Twenty patients (76.9%) were phakic. Twenty eyes (76.92%) had Stage 3 macular holes and 6 eyes (23.10%) had Stage 4 macular holes. After a single surgery, hole closure was achieved in 100% of eyes. The median best-corrected visual acuity improved from 6/60 (1.0 logMAR units) to 6/18 (0.50 logMAR units) (P < 0.001). Three patients needed cataract surgery at 12-month follow-up. No major intraoperative or postoperative complications were observed. Twenty-three-gauge pars plana vitrectomy combined with broad ILM

  9. Retinal endoilluminator toxicity of xenon and light-emitting diode (LED) light source: rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Bahri; Dinç, Erdem; Yilmaz, S Necat; Altiparmak, U Emrah; Yülek, Fatma; Ertekin, Sevda; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Yakın, Mehmet

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluates retinal toxicity due to endoillumination with the light-emitting diode (LED) light source in comparison to endoillumination with xenon light source. Twenty-five eyes of 14 New Zealand pigmented rabbits were used in the study. The LED light (Omesis Medical Systems, Turkey) group was composed of 7 right eyes, while the other 7 right eyes constituted the xenon group (420 nm filter, 357mW/cm(2)) (Bright Star; DORC, Zuidland, Netherlands). Eleven untreated left eyes composed the control group. Twenty gauge pars plana incision 1.5 mm behind the limbus was performed in the right eyes. Twenty gauge bullet type fiberoptic endoilluminator was inserted into the eye from the incision without any pars plana vitrectomy. Fiberoptic endoilluminator was placed in such a way that it was directed toward visual streak of the rabbit retina with a 5 mm distance to retinal surface. Endoillumination was then applied for 20 min with a maximum light intensity for LED and xenon light. In left control eyes, no surgical procedure and no endoillumination were performed. One week after the endoillumination procedure, both eyes of the rabbits were enucleated following electroretinography. Sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin to evaluate morphologic changes. Retina tissues were assessed by active caspase-3 staining. There was no difference in the shape of the waveforms recorded in the eyes endoilluminated with LED light and xenon light sources compared to control eyes both before and after endoillumination application (p > 0.05). Microscopic evaluation of the retinas with hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated that all study groups have normal histologic properties similar to control group. No apoptosis positive cells were found within all sections in all groups. When the LED light source is used with maximum power and limited duration for endoillumination in rabbit eyes it does not produce phototoxic effects that may be detectable by electrophysiology

  10. Reading ability and retinal sensitivity after surgery for macular hole and macular pucker.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Ezio; Virgili, Gianni; Tollot, Luigina; Del Borrello, Michele; Menchini, Ugo; Zemella, Marco

    2009-09-01

    To assess whether reading ability and microperimetry improve as demonstrated for visual acuity after surgery for macular hole and macular pucker. Fifty-nine consecutive patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy for macular pucker (n = 41) or full-thickness macular holes (n = 18). Functional assessment was made at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery and included far visual acuity (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study charts), retinal sensitivity using the microperimeter (MP1, Nidek Technologies, Padova, Italy), and reading ability (MNRead charts). An improvement was recorded both for macular holes and puckers not only for visual acuity, but also for reading acuity and mean central retinal sensitivity (P < 0.01 for the overall comparisons between baseline and follow-up values). Maximum reading speed was already good at baseline both for puckers and holes overall, and a significant mean improvement was recorded only in patients with macular hole at 6 and 12 months (P < 0.01). Although eyes with macular holes had worse baseline visual function compared with puckers (P < 0.01 for all measures of visual function except for reading speed), they recovered to similar levels thanks to greater improvement (P < 0.05 for the difference in improvement during follow-up between puckers and holes for all measures of visual function). No differences were found among indocyanine green or trypan blue staining compared with no staining for internal limiting membrane removal based on all outcome measures (P > 0.05 for the overall difference of visual function improvement during follow-up). The improvement found for visual acuity after vitrectomy for macular hole and pucker also regards retinal sensitivity and reading ability for up to 12 months. This is reassuring concerning the benefits for the patients, and this shows that visual acuity is a valid functional measure for investigating the efficacy of macular surgery.

  11. Aqueous and vitreous penetration of linezolid and levofloxacin after oral administration.

    PubMed

    George, Jomy M; Fiscella, Richard; Blair, Michael; Rodvold, Keith; Ulanski, Lawrence; Stokes, John; Blair, Norman; Pontiggia, Laura

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the time course of drug concentrations achieved in aqueous (AQ), vitreous (V), and serum (S) compartments after oral administration of linezolid and levofloxacin. Randomized, clinical trial. Clinical practice. Sixteen patients (16 eyes) undergoing vitrectomy who had not had a prior pars plana vitrectomy in the study eye were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups. AQ, V, and S samples were obtained from all subjects after single concomitant doses of linezolid 600 mg and levofloxacin 750 mg between 1 and 12 h before the procedure: group A = 1-3 h; group B = 3-6 h; group C = 6-9 h; group D = 9-12 h. AQ, V, and S concentrations of linezolid and levofloxacin. Overall mean concentrations ± standard deviation (μg/mL) achieved by linezolid in AQ, V, and S compartments were 3.32 ± 2.06, 2.98 ± 1.87, and 7.91 ± 3.94, respectively. Overall mean concentrations ±standard deviation (μg/mL) achieved by levofloxacin in AQ, V, and S compartments were 2.19 ± 1.92, 1.95 ± 1.27, and 7.38 ± 3.47, respectively. Single concomitant doses of linezolid and levofloxacin achieved AQ and V concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of common ocular gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens up to 12 h after administration. The combination of linezolid and levofloxacin represents a viable option for the prophylaxis and management of endophthalmitis.

  12. Stereoscopic three-dimensional images of an anatomical dissection of the eyeball and orbit for educational purposes.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Toshihiko; Takeda, Yoshimasa; Ohtsuka, Aiji

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a series of stereoscopic anatomical images of the eye and orbit for use in the curricula of medical schools and residency programs in ophthalmology and other specialties. Layer-by-layer dissection of the eyelid, eyeball, and orbit of a cadaver was performed by an ophthalmologist. A stereoscopic camera system was used to capture a series of anatomical views that were scanned in a panoramic three-dimensional manner around the center of the lid fissure. The images could be rotated 360 degrees in the frontal plane and the angle of views could be tilted up to 90 degrees along the anteroposterior axis perpendicular to the frontal plane around the 360 degrees. The skin, orbicularis oculi muscle, and upper and lower tarsus were sequentially observed. The upper and lower eyelids were removed to expose the bulbar conjunctiva and to insert three 25-gauge trocars for vitrectomy at the location of the pars plana. The cornea was cut at the limbus, and the lens with mature cataract was dislocated. The sclera was cut to observe the trocars from inside the eyeball. The sclera was further cut to visualize the superior oblique muscle with the trochlea and the inferior oblique muscle. The eyeball was dissected completely to observe the optic nerve and the ophthalmic artery. The thin bones of the medial and inferior orbital wall were cracked with a forceps to expose the ethmoid and maxillary sinus, respectively. In conclusion, the serial dissection images visualized aspects of the local anatomy specific to various procedures, including the levator muscle and tarsus for blepharoptosis surgery, 25-gauge trocars as viewed from inside the eye globe for vitrectomy, the oblique muscles for strabismus surgery, and the thin medial and inferior orbital bony walls for orbital bone fractures.

  13. Feasibility study on retinal vascular bypass surgery in isolated arterially perfused caprine eye model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y; Wu, W; Zhang, X; Fan, W; Shen, L

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the feasibility of bypassing occluded segments of retinal venous main vessels in isolated, arterially perfused caprine eyes via the closed-sky vitrectomy approach using keratoprosthesis. Methods Isolated caprine eyes were used in this study. For each eye, the retinal vessel was perfused by Krebs solution via ophthalmic artery, and pars plana vitrectomy was performed using temporary keratoprosthesis. All retinal micro-vascular maneuvers were performed in a closed-sky eyeball. The main retinal vein was blocked by endodiathermy at the site of the vessel's first branching. Two openings, several millimeters apart, were created by vascular punctures in both the main vein and its branch vein wall straddling the induced occluded segment. Catheterization was achieved using a flexible polyimide tube, with each end inserted into the vessel wall opening. A sealed connection between the vessel and the tube was obtained by endodiathermy. Bypass of the occluded retinal vein segment was thus achieved, and the patency of this vascular bypass was confirmed by intravascular staining. Results Puncturing, catheterization, and endodiathermy were viable by closed-sky approach using keratoprosthesis. Bypassing of the occluded retinal main vein segment was accomplished with the combination of these maneuvers. Good results were obtained in 23 of 38 (60%) caprine eyes. Conclusions This study demonstrated that bypassing the occluded segment of retinal main vein can be successfully performed in a closed-sky eyeball model of isolated, arterially perfused caprine eye. This early work indicated that the more advanced retinal vascular bypass surgery in in vivo eye may be feasible in the future. PMID:21921946

  14. Clinical Efficacy of Simulated Vitreoretinal Surgery to Prepare Surgeons for the Upcoming Intervention in the Operating Room

    PubMed Central

    Deuchler, Svenja; Wagner, Clemens; Singh, Pankaj; Müller, Michael; Al-Dwairi, Rami; Benjilali, Rachid; Schill, Markus; Ackermann, Hanns; Bon, Dimitra; Kohnen, Thomas; Schoene, Benjamin; Koss, Michael; Koch, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of the virtual reality training simulator Eyesi to prepare surgeons for performing pars plana vitrectomies and its potential to predict the surgeons’ performance. Methods In a preparation phase, four participating vitreoretinal surgeons performed repeated simulator training with predefined tasks. If a surgeon was assigned to perform a vitrectomy for the management of complex retinal detachment after a surgical break of at least 60 hours it was randomly decided whether a warmup training on the simulator was required (n = 9) or not (n = 12). Performance at the simulator was measured using the built-in scoring metrics. The surgical performance was determined by two blinded observers who analyzed the video-recorded interventions. One of them repeated the analysis to check for intra-observer consistency. The surgical performance of the interventions with and without simulator training was compared. In addition, for the surgeries with simulator training, the simulator performance was compared to the performance in the operating room. Results Comparing each surgeon’s performance with and without warmup trainingshowed a significant effect of warmup training onto the final outcome in the operating room. For the surgeries that were preceeded by the warmup procedure, the performance at the simulator was compared with the operating room performance. We found that there is a significant relation. The governing factor of low scores in the simulator were iatrogenic retinal holes, bleedings and lens damage. Surgeons who caused minor damage in the simulation also performed well in the operating room. Conclusions Despite the large variation of conditions, the effect of a warmup training as well as a relation between the performance at the simulator and in the operating room was found with statistical significance. Simulator training is able to serve as a warmup to increase the average performance. PMID:26964040

  15. Adrenomedullin and leptin levels in diabetic retinopathy and retinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Er, Hamdi; Doğanay, Selim; Ozerol, Elif; Yürekli, Muhittin

    2005-01-01

    Proliferative and vascular retinal diseases are important cause of irreversible blindness. Consistent features of these diseases are endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis. Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a multifunctional vasorelaxant peptide. Leptin is a recently discovered metabolic peptide that regulates energy metabolism in human. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the possible roles of adrenomedullin and leptin in the pathophysiology of diabetic and proliferative diseases. Ten patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (57.1 years, 5 female and 5 male) and 8 patients (51 years, 5 female and 3 male) with other retinal diseases including macular hole and epiretinal membrane were included in this study. All the patients had undergone pars plana vitrectomy for complications of the diseases. Vitreous samples were collected by vitreous tap during the vitrectomy. Adrenomedullin analysis was made by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Leptin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Body mass index (BMI) [weight (kg)/height (m2)] was calculated for each group. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistics. The age, gender ratio and BMI were not substantially different between the two groups. The mean vitreous adrenomedullin levels (63.9+/-7.1 pmol/l) were significantly higher (p<0.05) in group I than in group II (34.25+/-3.0 pmol/l). Leptin levels in vitreous (4.54+/-1.6 ng/ml) were also significantly higher (p<0.05) in patients with diabetic retinopathy than in those without diabetes (1.83+/-0.5 ng/ml). Increased adrenomedullin and leptin levels in vitreous humor might be a possible newly associated factor in the course of vascular and proliferative retinal diseases. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (pNIPAM): a reversible bioadhesive for sclerotomy closure.

    PubMed

    Lima, Luiz H; Morales, Yael; Cabral, Thiago

    2016-01-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of poly- N -isopropylacrylamide, a thermoresponsive adhesive, for sutureless sclerotomy closure in rabbits. Eight rabbits were randomized into three groups: short-term acute, mid-term chronic, and long-term chronic studies. A corresponding control group in which the scleral wounds were sutured by 6-0 vicryl sutures was assigned for each study group. A 20-gauge sclerotomy was performed following a core vitrectomy and 0.1 mL of 50 % liquid poly- N -isopropylacrylamide was applied to the scleral wounds. Before the polymer application, the scleral surface was raised above 32 °C using a halogen bulb lamp. Follow-up exams included color external and fundus photography, fundus fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and electroretinography. After the last follow-up assessment, the rabbits were sacrificed and histopathological studies on the scleral incision sites were performed. Scleral wound healing was observed in the long-term chronic study rabbits. Histological studies were able to identify poly- N -isopropylacrylamide polymer at the sclerotomy site in the mid-term chronic study rabbits. Besides iatrogenic cataracts due to mechanical instrument touch in 2 rabbits, no other ocular abnormalities were identified in any of the eyes in the perioperative setting or during the follow-up period. Cornea, retina, and vitreous remained unaffected, and no abnormal inflammatory reaction or endophthalmitis was noticed in the 3 study groups. Filtering blebs indicative of leakage through the sclerotomies were not observed during the follow-up period. Poly- N -isopropylacrylamide may provide effective in vitro scleral adhesion above 32 °C. Clinical studies are required to evaluate its utility in patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy.

  17. Supra choroidal buckling in managing myopic vitreoretinal interface disorders: 1-year data.

    PubMed

    El Rayes, Ehab N

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of supra choroidal buckling procedure using a supra choroidal catheter, as a new approach in treating myopic vitreomacular interface disorders specially in difficult cases of myopic traction maculopathy with or without macular hole retinal detachment in posterior staphyloma depending on the concept of indenting the choroid only, from a 1-year data study. A newly developed supra choroidal catheter was used to deliver stabilized, cross-linked, long-acting hyaluronic acid as a filler in the supra choroidal space in the area of the staphyloma forming a choroidal indenting effect. Before the injection, pars plana vitrectomy was performed without internal limiting membrane peeling to avoid the risk of break of the roof of foveal detachment in case of foveoschisis. This indentation was used to treat 11 patients with myopic foveoschisis and 12 patients with myopic macular hole retinal detachment, 5 of whom had failed primary repair by vitrectomy before inclusion in this trial. Clinical and optical coherence tomographic evaluations of these patients were performed over 1-year follow-up. Retinal layer restoration was achieved in all 11 eyes with myopic foveoschisis. This was gradual over a period of 2 to 6 weeks postoperatively. No recurrence over the 12-month follow-up was observed. Visual acuity improved by 1 line or more in 9 eyes (81.8%). Of the 12 eyes, 10 with macular hole detachment (83%) showed closure of the holes in association with the resolution of the detachment; 2 eyes showed resolution of the detachment and flatting of the edge of the holes but with incomplete closure on optical coherence tomography. Eight eyes (66.6%) showed improvement in visual acuity by 1 or more lines with no recurrence of retinal detachment over the 12-month follow-up period. The indentation effect was sufficient over the 12-month follow-up period. The indentation effect achieved by supra choroidal approach can be used as a method of managing myopic foveoschisis

  18. Optimizing the structure and function of the 50-plus radiology organizations, part 2: a unified strategic plan-a summary of the 2011 Intersociety Conference.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Gerald D

    2012-05-01

    The member organizations of the Intersociety Conference have agreed that radiology would benefit from consolidation and collaboration of the 50-plus radiology organizations. At this year's annual meeting, the participants concluded that the educational and research missions of the organizations would benefit from the creation of a unified strategic plan that addressed the coordination of annual meetings, online educational materials, research infrastructure, and the creation of a direct relationship between the research initiatives of the organizations and the patient advocacy groups of the Academy of Radiology Research. The socioeconomic mission of the organizations would be enhanced through the creation of a formal communication network with the ACR, and certification could be enhanced by the orchestration of the creation of educational materials related to the maintenance of certification. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Optical Coherence Tomography for Retinal Surgery: Perioperative Analysis to Real-Time Four-Dimensional Image-Guided Surgery.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Shen, Liangbo; Seider, Michael I; Izatt, Joseph A; Toth, Cynthia A

    2016-07-01

    Magnification of the surgical field using the operating microscope facilitated profound innovations in retinal surgery in the 1970s, such as pars plana vitrectomy. Although surgical instrumentation and illumination techniques are continually developing, the operating microscope for vitreoretinal procedures has remained essentially unchanged and currently limits the surgeon's depth perception and assessment of subtle microanatomy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized clinical management of retinal pathology, and its introduction into the operating suite may have a similar impact on surgical visualization and treatment. In this article, we review the evolution of OCT for retinal surgery, from perioperative analysis to live volumetric (four-dimensional, 4D) image-guided surgery. We begin by briefly addressing the benefits and limitations of the operating microscope, the progression of OCT technology, and OCT applications in clinical/perioperative retinal imaging. Next, we review intraoperative OCT (iOCT) applications using handheld probes during surgical pauses, two-dimensional (2D) microscope-integrated OCT (MIOCT) of live surgery, and volumetric MIOCT of live surgery. The iOCT discussion focuses on technological advancements, applications during human retinal surgery, translational difficulties and limitations, and future directions.

  20. Multiple extrafoveal macular holes following internal limiting membrane peeling.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Nazimul; Mitra, Sandip

    2018-01-01

    Internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling has been the standard of treatment for macular holes. Besides, causing retinal nerve fiber layer surface abnormality, postoperative extrafoveal multiple retinal holes is a rare phenomenon following ILM peeling. We report an unusual complication of eight extrafoveal macular holes occurring following ILM peeling. A 60-year-old male presented with complaints of decreased and distorted vision in the right eye. He was diagnosed as having epiretinal membrane with lamellar macular hole. He underwent 23G pars plana vitrectomy, brilliant blue assisted ILM peeling and fluid gas exchange. Intraoperatively, ILM was found to be adherent to the underlying neurosensory retina. One month after cataract surgery, he underwent YAG capsulotomy in the right eye. He complained of visual distortion. His fundus evaluation in the right eye showed multiple (eight) extrafoveal retinal holes temporal to the macula clustered together. This case demonstrated that peeling of ILM, especially when it is adherent to the underlying neurosensory retina, may cause unwanted mechanical trauma to the inner retina. Glial apoptosis and neuronal degeneration may presumably play a role in delayed appearance of multiple (eight) extrafoveal macular holes, which has not been reported earlier.

  1. Tomographic Structural Changes of Retinal Layers after Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Macular Hole Surgery.

    PubMed

    Faria, Mun Yueh; Ferreira, Nuno P; Cristóvao, Diana M; Mano, Sofia; Sousa, David Cordeiro; Monteiro-Grillo, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    To highlight tomographic structural changes of retinal layers after internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in macular hole surgery. Nonrandomized prospective, interventional study in 38 eyes (34 patients) subjected to pars plana vitrectomy and ILM peeling for idiopathic macular hole. Retinal layers were assessed in nasal and temporal regions before and 6 months after surgery using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Total retinal thickness increased in the nasal region and decreased in the temporal region. The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), and inner plexiform layer (IPL) showed thinning on both nasal and temporal sides of the fovea. The thickness of the outer plexiform layer (OPL) increased. The outer nuclear layer (ONL) and outer retinal layers (ORL) increased in thickness after surgery in both nasal and temporal regions. ILM peeling is associated with important alterations in the inner retinal layer architecture, with thinning of the RNFL-GCL-IPL complex and thickening of OPL, ONL, and ORL. These structural alterations can help explain functional outcome and could give indications regarding the extent of ILM peeling, even though peeling seems important for higher rate of hole closure. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING IN MACULAR HOLE SURGERY; WHY, WHEN, AND HOW?

    PubMed

    Chatziralli, Irini P; Theodossiadis, Panagiotis G; Steel, David H W

    2018-05-01

    To review the current rationale for internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in macular hole (MH) surgery and to discuss the evidence base behind why, when, and how surgeons peel the ILM. Review of the current literature. Pars plana vitrectomy is an effective treatment for idiopathic MH, and peeling of the ILM has been shown to improve closure rates and to prevent postoperative reopening. However, some authors argue against ILM peeling because it results in a number of changes in retinal structure and function and may not be necessary in all cases. Furthermore, the extent of ILM peeling optimally performed and the most favorable techniques to remove the ILM are uncertain. Several technique variations including ILM flaps, ILM scraping, and foveal sparing ILM peeling have been described as alternatives to conventional peeling in specific clinical scenarios. Internal limiting membrane peeling improves MH closure rates but can have several consequences on retinal structure and function. Adjuvants to aid peeling, instrumentation, technique, and experience may all alter the outcome. Hole size and other variables are important in assessing the requirement for peeling and potentially its extent. A variety of evolving alternatives to conventional peeling may improve outcomes and need further study.

  3. Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity in the United States: 1997 through 2005.

    PubMed

    Lad, Eleonora M; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Morton, John M; Moshfeghi, Darius M

    2009-09-01

    To determine the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) based on a national database and to identify baseline characteristics, demographic information, comorbidities, and surgical interventions. Retrospective study based on the National Inpatient Sample from 1997 through 2005. The National Inpatient Sample was queried for all newborn infants with and without ROP. Multivariate logistic regression was used to predict risk factors for ROP. Thirty-four million live births were recorded during the study period. The total ROP incidence was 0.17% overall and 15.58% for premature infants with length of stay of more than 28 days. Our results conclusively demonstrated the importance of low birth weight as a risk for ROP development in infants with length of stay of more than 28 days, as well as association with respiratory conditions, fetal hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, and blood transfer. An interesting finding was the protective effect conferred by hypoxia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and hemolytic disease of the newborn. Infants with ROP had a higher incidence of undergoing laser photocoagulation therapy, pars plana vitrectomy, and scleral buckle surgery. The current study represents a large, retrospective analysis of newborns with ROP. The multivariate analysis emphasizes the role of birth weight in extended-stay infants, as well as respiratory conditions, fetal hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, and blood transfer.

  4. Genomic characterization of a persistent rubella virus from a case of Fuch' uveitis syndrome in a 73 year old man.

    PubMed

    Abernathy, Emily; Peairs, Randall R; Chen, Min-hsin; Icenogle, Joseph; Namdari, Hassan

    2015-08-01

    Many cases of Fuchs' uveitis have been associated with persistent rubella virus infection. A 73-year-old male patient with typical Fuchs' Uveitis Syndrome (FUS) first experienced heterochromia of the left eye at the age fourteen, when rubella was endemic in the US. The purposes of this report are to describe the patient's FUS clinical presentations and to characterize the virus detected in the vitreous fluid. The patient underwent a therapeutic pars plana vitrectomy in May 2013. A real-time RT-PCR assay for rubella virus was performed on the vitreous fluid by Focus Diagnostics. Additional real-time RT-PCR assays for rubella virus detection and RT-PCR assays for generation of templates for sequencing were performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The results from Focus Diagnostics were positive for rubella virus RNA. Real-time RT-PCR assays at CDC were also positive for rubella virus. A rubella virus sequence of 739 nucleotides was determined and phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus was the sole member of a new phylogenetic group when compared to reference virus sequences. While FUS remains a clinical diagnosis, findings in this case support the association between rubella virus and the disease. Phylogenetic analysis provided evidence that this rubella virus was likely a previously undetected genotype which is no longer circulating. Since the patient had rubella prior to 1955, this sequence is from the earliest rubella virus yet characterized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of Temperature Changes in Vitreoretinal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Mario R.; Romano, Vito; Mauro, Alessandro; Angi, Martina; Costagliola, Ciro; Ambrosone, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies on temperature control in biology and medicine have found the temperature as a new instrument in healthcare. In this manuscript, we reviewed the effects of temperature and its potential role in pars plana vitrectomy. We also examined the relationship between intraocular pressure, viscosity, and temperature in order to determine the best balance to manipulate the tamponades during the surgery. Methods A literature review was performed to identify potentially relevant studies on intraocular temperature. Physics equations were applied to explain the described effects of temperature changes on the behavior of the endotamponades commonly used during vitreoretinal surgery. We also generated an operating diagram on the pressure–temperature plane for the values of both vapor–liquid equilibrium and intraocular pressure. Results The rapid circulation of fluid in the vitreous cavity reduces the heat produced by the retinal and choroidal surface, bringing the temperature toward room temperature (22°C, deep hypothermia). Temperature increases with endolaser treatment, air infusion, and the presence of silicone oil. The variations in temperature during vitreoretinal surgery are clinically significant, as the rheology of tamponades can be better manipulated by modulating intraocular pressure and temperature. Conclusions During vitreoretinal surgery, the intraocular temperature showed rapid and significant fluctuations at different steps of the surgical procedure inside the vitreous cavity. Temperature control can modulate the rheology of tamponades. Translational Relevance Intraoperative temperature control can improve neuroprotection during vitreoretinal surgery, induce the vaporization of perfluorcarbon liquid, and change the shear viscosity of silicone oil. PMID:26929884

  6. Automobile air bags: friend or foe? A case of air bag-associated ocular trauma and a related literature review.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Kristin S; Fanciullo, Lisa M

    2005-07-01

    Although air bags are placed in automobiles to act as safety devices, they have been shown to carry a risk of injury themselves. Ocular injury, in particular, can often be a direct consequence of air bag deployment. A case of ocular air bag injury is presented. A discussion and review of the current literature on this issue follows. A 63-year-old man was transferred to our clinic after sustaining injuries related to a motor vehicle accident, during which the automobile's air bag was deployed. Initial examination revealed many signs of blunt ocular trauma of the O.D., including iridodialysis, dislocated lens with traumatic cataract, and traumatic/inflammatory glaucoma. Initial B-scan showed an attached retina O.D. One month later, the patient underwent an attempted pars plana vitrectomy with lensectomy, iris repair, and insertion of an anterior chamber intraocular lens. Complications arose during the procedure, and a total retinal detachment developed. Resultant acuity is no light perception O.D. Although ocular morbidity can be a direct consequence of air bag deployment, most eye injuries are minimal, and seem to be outweighed by the benefits of air bags. Drivers, as well as passengers, can minimize associated injuries by adhering to specific safety guidelines. This, as well as continual modification and improvement in air bag design, will maximize the safety of air bags and decrease the incidence of vision-threatening ocular injury caused by air bag deployment.

  7. Optical Coherence Tomography for Retinal Surgery: Perioperative Analysis to Real-Time Four-Dimensional Image-Guided Surgery