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Sample records for plane strain problems

  1. Analysis of plane-plastic stress problems with axial symmetry in strain-hardening range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M H Lee

    1951-01-01

    A simple method is developed for solving plane-plastic-stress problems with axial symmetry in the strain-hardening range which is based on the deformation theory of plasticity employing the finite-strain concept. The equations defining the problems are first reduced to two simultaneous nonlinear differential equations involving two dependent variables: (a) the octahedral shear strain, and (b) a parameter indicating the ratio of principal stresses. By multiplying the load and dividing the radius by an arbitrary constant, it is possible to solve these problems without iteration for any value of the modified load. The constant is determined by the boundary condition. This method is applied to a circular membrane under pressure, a rotating disk without and with a central hole, and an infinite plate with a circular hole. Two materials, inconel x and 16-25-6, the octahedral shear stress-strain relations of which do not follow the power law, are used. Distributions of octahedral shear strain, as well as of principal stresses and strains, are obtained. These results are compared with the results of the same problems in the elastic range.

  2. Uniqueness of the interior plane strain time-harmonic viscoelastic inverse problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yixiao; Barbone, Paul E.; Harari, Isaac; Oberai, Assad A.

    2016-07-01

    Elasticity imaging has emerged as a promising medical imaging technique with applications in the detection, diagnosis and treatment monitoring of several types of disease. In elasticity imaging measured displacement fields are used to generate images of elastic parameters of tissue by solving an inverse problem. When the tissue excitation, and the resulting tissue motion is time-harmonic, elasticity imaging can be extended to image the viscoelastic properties of the tissue. This leads to an inverse problem for the complex-valued shear modulus at a given frequency. In this manuscript we have considered the uniqueness of this inverse problem for an incompressible, isotropic linear viscoelastic solid in a state of plane strain. For a single measured displacement field we conclude that the solution is infinite dimensional, and the data required to render it unique is determined by the measured strain field. In contrast, for two independent displacement fields such that the principal directions of the resulting strain fields are different, the space of possible solutions is eight dimensional, and given additional data, like the value of the shear modulus at four locations, or over a calibration region, we may determine the shear modulus everywhere. We have also considered simple analytical examples that verify these results and offer additional insights. The results derived in this paper may be used as guidelines by the practitioners of elasticity imaging in designing more robust and accurate imaging protocols.

  3. Plane-strain crack problems in microstructured solids governed by dipolar gradient elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourgiotis, P. A.; Georgiadis, H. G.

    2009-11-01

    The present study aims at determining the elastic stress and displacement fields around the tips of a finite-length crack in a microstructured solid under remotely applied plane-strain loading (mode I and II cases). The material microstructure is modeled through the Toupin-Mindlin generalized continuum theory of dipolar gradient elasticity. According to this theory, the strain-energy density assumes the form of a positive-definite function of the strain tensor (as in classical elasticity) and the gradient of the strain tensor (additional term). A simple but yet rigorous version of the theory is employed here by considering an isotropic linear expression of the elastic strain-energy density that involves only three material constants (the two Lamé constants and the so-called gradient coefficient). First, a near-tip asymptotic solution is obtained by the Knein-Williams technique. Then, we attack the complete boundary value problem in an effort to obtain a full-field solution. Hypersingular integral equations with a cubic singularity are formulated with the aid of the Fourier transform. These equations are solved by analytical considerations on Hadamard finite-part integrals and a numerical treatment. The results show significant departure from the predictions of standard fracture mechanics. In view of these results, it seems that the classical theory of elasticity is inadequate to analyze crack problems in microstructured materials. Indeed, the present results indicate that the stress distribution ahead of the crack tip exhibits a local maximum that is bounded. Therefore, this maximum value may serve as a measure of the critical stress level at which further advancement of the crack may occur. Also, in the vicinity of the crack tip, the crack-face displacement closes more smoothly as compared to the standard result and the strain field is bounded. Finally, the J-integral (energy release rate) in gradient elasticity was evaluated. A decrease of its value is noticed

  4. Approaches to accommodate noisy data in the direct solution of inverse problems in incompressible plane-strain elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Albocher, U.; Barbone, P.E.; Richards, M.S.; Oberai, A.A.; Harari, I.

    2014-01-01

    We apply the adjoint weighted equation method (AWE) to the direct solution of inverse problems of incompressible plane strain elasticity. We show that based on untreated noisy displacements, the reconstruction of the shear modulus can be very poor. We link this poor performance to loss of coercivity of the weak form when treating problems with discontinuous coefficients. We demonstrate that by smoothing the displacements and appending a regularization term to the AWE formulation, a dramatic improvement in the reconstruction can be achieved. With these improvements, the advantages of the AWE method as a direct solution approach can be extended to a wider range of problems. PMID:25383085

  5. Plane Strain Testing with Passive Restraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhnenko, Roman; Labuz, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    A plane strain condition for testing rock is developed through passive restraint in the form of a thick-walled cylinder. The so-called biaxial frame generates the intermediate principal stress that imposes a triaxial state of stress on a prismatic specimen. Major and minor principal stresses and corresponding strains are accurately measured, providing data to calculate the elastic (Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio), inelastic (dilatancy angle), and strength (friction angle and cohesion) parameters of the rock. Results of experiments conducted on Indiana limestone in plane strain compression are compared with the results of axisymmetric compression and extension. With proper system calibration, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are consistent among the tests. The plane strain apparatus enforces in-plane deformation with the three principal stresses at failure being different, and it allows one to determine the Paul-Mohr-Coulomb failure surface, which includes an intermediate stress effect.

  6. Turbulent Plane Wakes Subjected to Successive Strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    Six direct numerical simulations of turbulent time-evolving strained plane wakes have been examined to investigate the response of a wake to successive irrotational plane strains of opposite sign. The orientation of the applied strain field has been selected so that the flow is the time-developing analogue of a spatially developing wake evolving in the presence of either a favourable or an adverse streamwise pressure gradient. The magnitude of the applied strain rate a is constant in time t until the total strain e(sup at) reaches about four. At this point, a new simulation is begun with the sign of the applied strain being reversed (the original simulation is continued as well). When the total strain is reduced back to its original value of one, yet another simulation is begun with the sign of the strain being reversed again back to its original sign. This process is done for both initially "favourable" and initially "adverse" strains, providing simulations for each of these strain types from three different initial conditions. The evolution of the wake mean velocity deficit and width is found to be very similar for all the adversely strained cases, with both measures rapidly achieving exponential growth at the rate associated with the cross-stream expansive strain e(sup at). In the "favourably" strained cases, the wake widths approach a constant and the velocity deficits ultimately decay rapidly as e(sup -2at). Although all three of these cases do exhibit the same asymptotic exponential behaviour, the time required to achieve this is longer for the cases that have been previously adversely strained (by at approx. equals 1). These simulations confirm the generality of the conclusions drawn in Rogers (2002) regarding the response of plane wakes to strain. The evolution of strained wakes is not consistent with the predictions of classical self-similar analysis; a more general equilibrium similarity solution is required to describe the results. At least for the cases

  7. Measurement of in-plane strain with dual beam spatial phase-shift digital shearography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xin; Chen, Xu; Li, Junrui; Wang, Yonghong; Yang, Lianxiang

    2015-11-01

    Full-field in-plane strain measurement under dynamic loading by digital shearography remains a big challenge in practice. A phase measurement for in-plane strain information within one time frame has to be achieved to solve this problem. This paper presents a dual beam spatial phase-shift digital shearography system with the capacity to measure phase distribution corresponding to in-plane strain information within a single time frame. Two laser beams with different wavelengths are symmetrically arranged to illuminate the object under test, and two cameras with corresponding filters, which enable simultaneous recording of two shearograms, are utilized for data acquisition. The phase information from the recorded shearograms, which corresponds to the in-plane strain, is evaluated by the spatial phase-shift method. The spatial phase-shift shearography system realizes a measurement of the in-plane strain through the introduction of the spatial phase-shift technique, using one frame after the loading and one frame before loading. This paper presents the theory of the spatial phase-shift digital shearography for in-plane strain measurement and its derivation, experimental results, and the technique’s potential.

  8. Ultrafast vascular strain compounding using plane wave transmission.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H H G; Saris, A E C M; Vaka, N R; Nillesen, M M; de Korte, C L

    2014-03-01

    Deformations of the atherosclerotic vascular wall induced by the pulsating blood can be estimated using ultrasound strain imaging. Because these deformations indirectly provide information on mechanical plaque composition, strain imaging is a promising technique for differentiating between stable and vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. This paper first explains 1-D radial strain estimation as applied intravascularly in coronary arteries. Next, recent methods for noninvasive vascular strain estimation in a transverse imaging plane are discussed. Finally, a compounding technique that our group recently developed is explained. This technique combines motion estimates of subsequently acquired focused ultrasound images obtained at various insonification angles. However, because the artery moves and deforms during the multi-angle acquisition, errors are introduced when compounding. Recent advances in computational power have enabled plane wave ultrasound acquisition, which allows 100 times faster image acquisition and thus might resolve the motion artifacts. In this paper the performance of strain imaging using plane wave compounding is investigated using simulations of an artery with a vulnerable plaque and experimental data of a two-layered vessel phantom. The results show that plane wave compounding outperforms 0° focused strain imaging. For the simulations, the root mean squared error reduced by 66% and 50% for radial and circumferential strain, respectively. For the experiments, the elastographic signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (SNR(e) and CNR(e)) increased with 2.1 dB and 3.7 dB radially, and 5.6 dB and 16.2dB circumferentially. Because of the high frame rate, the plane wave compounding technique can even be further optimized and extended to 3D in future.

  9. The influence of strain rate and hydrogen on the plane-strain ductility of Zircaloy cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Link, T.M.; Motta, A.T.; Koss, D.A.

    1998-03-01

    The authors studied the ductility of unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding under loading conditions prototypical of those found in reactivity-initiated accidents (RIA), i.e.: near plane-strain deformation in the hoop direction (transverse to the cladding axis) at room temperature and 300 C and high strain rates. To conduct these studies, they developed a specimen configuration in which near plane-strain deformation is achieved in the gage section, and a testing methodology that allows one to determine both the limit strain at the onset of localized necking and the fracture strain. The experiments indicate that there is little effect of strain rate (10{sup {minus}3} to 10{sup 2} s{sup {minus}1}) on the ductility of unhydrided Zircaloy tubing deformed under near plane-strain conditions at either room temperature or 300 C. Preliminary experiments on cladding containing 190 ppm hydrogen show only a small loss of fracture strain but no clear effect on limit strain. The experiments also indicate that there is a significant loss of Zircaloy ductility when surface flaws are present in the form of thickness imperfections.

  10. I-V characteristics of in-plane and out-of-plane strained edge-hydrogenated armchair graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Cartamil-Bueno, S. J. E-mail: rbolivar@ugr.es; Rodríguez-Bolívar, S. E-mail: rbolivar@ugr.es

    2015-06-28

    The effects of tensile strain on the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of hydrogenated-edge armchair graphene nanoribbons are investigated by using DFT theory. The strain is introduced in two different ways related to the two types of systems studied in this work: in-plane strained systems (A) and out-of-plane strained systems due to bending (B). These two kinds of strain lead to make a distinction among three cases: in-plane strained systems with strained electrodes (A1) and with unstrained electrodes (A2), and out-of-plane homogeneously strained systems with unstrained, fixed electrodes (B). The systematic simulations to calculate the electronic transmission between two electrodes were focused on systems of 8 and 11 dimers in width. The results show that the differences between cases A2 and B are negligible, even though the strain mechanisms are different: in the plane case, the strain is uniaxial along its length; while in the bent case, the strain is caused by the arc deformation. Based on the study, a new type of nanoelectromechanical system solid state switching device is proposed.

  11. The growth and coalescence of ellipsoidal voids in plane strain under combined shear and tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheyvaerts, F.; Onck, P. R.; Tekogˇlu, C.; Pardoen, T.

    2011-02-01

    New extensions of a model for the growth and coalescence of ellipsoidal voids based on the Gurson formalism are proposed in order to treat problems involving shear and/or voids axis not necessarily aligned with the main loading direction, under plane strain loading conditions. These extensions are motivated and validated using 3D finite element void cell calculations with overall plane strain enforced in one direction. The starting point is the Gologanu model dealing with spheroidal void shape. A void rotation law based on homogenization theory is coupled to this damage model. The predictions of the model closely agree with the 3D cell calculations, capturing the effect of the initial void shape and orientation on the void rotation rate. An empirical correction is also introduced for the change of the void aspect ratio in the plane transverse to the main axis of the void departing from its initially circular shape. This correction is needed for an accurate prediction of the onset of coalescence. Next, a new approach is proposed to take strain hardening into account within the Thomason criterion for internal necking, avoiding the use of strain hardening-dependent fitting parameters. The coalescence criterion is generalized to any possible direction of the coalescence plane and void orientation. Finally, the model is supplemented by a mathematical description of the final drop of the stress carrying capacity during coalescence. The entire model is developed for plane strain conditions, setting the path to a 3D extension. After validation of the model, a parametric study addresses the effect of shear on the ductility of metallic alloys for a range of microstructural and flow parameters, under different stress states. In general, the presence of shear, for identical stress triaxiality, decreases the ductility, partly explaining recent experimental results obtained in the low stress triaxiality regime.

  12. Concurrent Monitoring of In-plane Strain and Out-of-plane Displacement of Tire Using Digital Image Correlation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraoka, Naoki; Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    In order to improve performance of anti lock brake system (ABS) and detect condition of road surface, intelligent tires that monitor strain of interior surface and rolling radius of tire are demanded. However, the high stiffness of an attached sensor like a strain gauge causes debonding of sensors from tire rubber. In the present study, noncontact concurrent monitoring method is proposed using digital image correlation method (DICM) and spotlight projection. In-plane strain and out-of-plane displacement (rolling radius) are calculated by using image processing with an image of interior surface of tire that is taken with a single CCD camera fixed on wheel rim. New monitoring system is applied to Al beam and commercially available radial tire. As a result, this monitoring system is proved to be able to measure in-plane strain and out-of-plane displacement with high accuracy, and confirmed to be effective for concurrent monitoring of tires.

  13. Strained layer superlattice focal plane array having a planar structure

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jin K; Carroll, Malcolm S; Gin, Aaron; Marsh, Phillip F; Young, Erik W; Cich, Michael J

    2012-10-23

    An infrared focal plane array (FPA) is disclosed which utilizes a strained-layer superlattice (SLS) formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5 epitaxially grown on a GaSb substrate. The FPA avoids the use of a mesa structure to isolate each photodetector element and instead uses impurity-doped regions formed in or about each photodetector for electrical isolation. This results in a substantially-planar structure in which the SLS is unbroken across the entire width of a 2-D array of the photodetector elements which are capped with an epitaxially-grown passivation layer to reduce or eliminate surface recombination. The FPA has applications for use in the wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m.

  14. Dislocation microstructures and strain-gradient plasticity with one active slip plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Sergio; Garroni, Adriana; Müller, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    We study dislocation networks in the plane using the vectorial phase-field model introduced by Ortiz and coworkers, in the limit of small lattice spacing. We show that, in a scaling regime where the total length of the dislocations is large, the phase field model reduces to a simpler model of the strain-gradient type. The limiting model contains a term describing the three-dimensional elastic energy and a strain-gradient term describing the energy of the geometrically necessary dislocations, characterized by the tangential gradient of the slip. The energy density appearing in the strain-gradient term is determined by the solution of a cell problem, which depends on the line tension energy of dislocations. In the case of cubic crystals with isotropic elasticity our model shows that complex microstructures may form in which dislocations with different Burgers vector and orientation react with each other to reduce the total self-energy.

  15. Characterization of network parameters for UHMWPE by plane strain compression.

    PubMed

    Abreu, E L; Ngo, H D; Bellare, A

    2014-04-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (PE) is used as a bearing material for total joint replacement prostheses since it is a tough, wear-resistant semicrystalline polymer. Despite its high resistance to wear, PE components have shown measureable wear in vivo, which can cause wear-particle induced osteolysis. Crosslinking of PE using ionizing radiation has been shown to increase wear resistance since both chemical crosslinks and physical entanglements provide high resistance to wear. Molecular characterization of crosslinked PEs is usually conducted using equilibrium swelling or by quantifying gel content. In this study, we compared crosslink densities and molecular weight between crosslinks derived from equilibrium swelling to those obtained by applying the Gaussian and Eight-Chain model to describe plane strain compression of the PE melt. The latter approach has the advantage of accounting for contributions of entanglements to the overall crosslink density, which solvent-based techniques largely neglect. As expected, the crosslink density calculated from model fitting increased monotonically with increase in radiation dose in a 0-200kGy dose range, with a corresponding monotonic decrease in molecular weight between crosslinks, but provided higher values of crosslink density and correspondingly lower values of molecular weight between crosslinks compared to the equilibrium swelling technique.

  16. Characterization of optical anisotropy in quantum wells under compressive anisotropic in-plane strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, Mark L.; Walters, Matthew; Diaz-Barriga, James; Rabinovich, W. S.

    2003-10-01

    Anisotropic in-plane strain in quantum wells leads to an optical polarization anisotropy that can be exploited for device applications. We have determined that for many anisotropic compressive strain cases, the dependence of the optical anisotropy is linear in the strain anisotropy. This result holds for a variety of well and barrier materials and widths and for various overall strain conditions. Further, the polarization anisotropy per strain anisotropy varies as the reciprocal of the energy separation of the relevant hole sub-bands. Hence, a general result for the polarization anisotropy per strain anisotropy is avialable for cases of compressive anisotropic in-plane strain.

  17. Evaluation of Instability Phenomena in Sands: Plane Strain Versus Triaxial Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alshibli, Khalid A.

    2001-01-01

    Extensive research was carried out in the 1950s on theories of plasticity to extend the concepts developed for metals to materials that failed according to the Mohr-Coulomb criterion. The new ideas made it possible to merge the two distinct concepts (strength and deformation techniques) into one that relies on better understanding of plasticity and resulted in a rapid growth in the field of constitutive modeling of soil behavior. At the same time advanced experimental apparatuses and laboratory procedures were developed to calibrate the models. However, most laboratory experiments on granular materials are performed under Conventional Triaxial Conditions (CTC) for the purposes of evaluating constitutive behavior and stability properties, whereas most geotechnical field problems are closer to the Plane Strain (PS) condition. The triaxial tests performed in most laboratories comprise a simplification over in situ states and allow easier and robust experimentation. Most landslide problems, failure of soils beneath shallow and deep foundations, and failure of retaining structures, are cases that can generally be considered as plane strain. Strength and deformation characteristics of granular materials loaded in plane strain may be considerably different from those observed in CTC. Most studies on sands were limited to evaluating the constitutive behavior and in some cases extended to briefly describing the associated instability phenomena. This paper presents the results of a series of PS and CTC experiments performed on fine uniform silica sand known as F-75 Ottawa sand. Advanced analysis techniques were used to study the instability phenomena, which yielded very accurate measurements of shear bands occurrences and patterns. Destructive thin-sectioning technique along with monitoring the specimen surface deformation was used in the PS experiments and Computed Tomography (CT) was used to investigate the progress of primary and secondary shear bands in specimens

  18. Self-tuning guidance applied to aeroassisted plane change problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarsu, Srigouri; Balakrishnan, S. N.

    Nonlinear self-tuning control methods are developed for use as feedback control laws for multivariable control for the atmospheric portion of aeroassisted maneuvers. A nonlinear generalized minimum variance control method and a nonlinear pole-placement method of self-tuning control are used to track the reference trajectories during this period. Flight dynamics equations are formulated in a special form for generating the self-tuned control. Numerical examples from a plane change reentry problems to illustrate the use of these methods are presented. Detailed analysis of the effects of the design parameters is given.

  19. Singular perturbation analysis of the atmospheric orbital plane change problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    A three-state model is presented for the aeroassisted orbital plane change problem. A further model order reduction to a single state model is examined using singular perturbation theory. The optimal solution for this single state model compares favorably with the exact numerical solution using a four-state model; however, a separate boundary layer solution is required to satisfy the terminal constraint on altitude. This, in general, involves the solution of a two-point boundary value problem, but for a two-state model. An approximation is introduced to obtain an analytical control solution for lift and bank angle. Included are numerical simulation results of a guidance law derived from this analysis, along with comparison to earlier work by other researchers.

  20. Problems and advances in monitoring horizontal strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caputo, M.

    1978-01-01

    The modern instrumentation is described for use in geodesy for the detection of the deformations of the crust of the earth. Problems are listed. Needs are discussed for the survey of the physical quantities of interest in geodesy, geology, geophysics, and engineering such as the strain invariants, the optimal network of baselines and the accuracy. An analytic method is also given for the computation of the effect of a source of dilatation in a spherical earth.

  1. Approximate analytical solution for the problem of an inclusion in a viscoelastic solid under finite strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingerman, K. M.; Shavyrin, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    The approximate analytical solution of a quasi-static plane problem of the theory of viscoelasticity is obtained under finite strains. This is the problem of the stress-strain state in an infinite body with circular viscoelastic inclusion. The perturbation technique, Laplace transform, and complex Kolosov-Muskhelishvili's potentials are used for the solution. The numerical results are presented. The nonlinear effects and the effects of viscosity are estimated.

  2. Influence of uniaxial, biaxial and plane strain pre-straining on the dynamic tensile properties of high strength sheet steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larour, P.; Verleysen, P.; Bleck, W.

    2006-08-01

    The influence of pre-straining and microstructure on the dynamic properties of car body high strength steels has been investigated at room temperature. The mechanical properties of a dual phase steel DP600, a TRIP steel TRIP700 and an austenitic steel AISI 301LN2B (1.4318) have been determined performing high speed servohydraulic and split-Hopkinson bar tensile tests in the strain rate range from 0.005s-1 up to 950s-1. The pre-straining modes and levels, respectively 10% uniaxial, 10% plane strain and 5% biaxial pre-straining, have been chosen in this investigation according to industrial use. 10% plane strain pre-straining brings the highest increase of yield and tensile strength values. 5% biaxial and 10% uniaxial pre-straining have similar effect on strength properties. The austenitic steel presents a pronounced minimum for tensile strength values at around 1/s. A combination of adiabatic heating and exothermic γ to α' transformation produces some significant softening effects in the austenitic steel grade.

  3. Autofrettage: Stress distribution under load and retained stresses after depressurization. A modified plane-strain case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avitzur, Boaz

    1993-04-01

    There is a long-standing interest in developing a capability to predict the distribution of retained stresses in thick-walled pressure vessels after the removal of an internal pressure--post autofrettage. The key to such a prediction is in the capacity to compute the stress distribution in a vessel while under externally imposed stress sufficient enough to cause at least partial plastic deformation. A good approximation of the stress distribution was developed by Mises in his 1913 plane-stress solution. The fact that such vessels are not representative of the plane-stress condition not withstanding, Mises recognized that his solution was mathematically restricted to a limited range of vessels' wall ratios. More recently, Avitzur offered a solution similar to that of Mises, but for a plane-strain condition. Depending on the material's Poisson's factor, Avitzur's solution is also mathematically applicable for a limited range of vessels' wall ratios only. The wall ratio, beyond which Avitzur's solution in plane-strain is not applicable, is a few times larger than that which limits Mises' solution in plane-stress. This work introduces a modification to Avitzur's solution in plane-strain, which makes its applicability unlimited.

  4. Tunable biaxial in-plane compressive strain in a Si nanomembrane transferred on a polyimide film

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Munho; Mi, Hongyi; Cho, Minkyu; Seo, Jung-Hun; Ma, Zhenqiang; Zhou, Weidong; Gong, Shaoqin

    2015-05-25

    A method of creating tunable and programmable biaxial compressive strain in silicon nanomembranes (Si NMs) transferred onto a Kapton{sup ®} HN polyimide film has been demonstrated. The programmable biaxial compressive strain (up to 0.54%) was generated utilizing a unique thermal property exhibited by the Kapton HN film, namely, it shrinks from its original size when exposed to elevated temperatures. The correlation between the strain and the annealing temperature was carefully investigated using Raman spectroscopy and high resolution X-ray diffraction. It was found that various amounts of compressive strains can be obtained by controlling the thermal annealing temperatures. In addition, a numerical model was used to evaluate the strain distribution in the Si NM. This technique provides a viable approach to forming in-plane compressive strain in NMs and offers a practical platform for further studies in strain engineering.

  5. Tunable biaxial in-plane compressive strain in a Si nanomembrane transferred on a polyimide film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Munho; Mi, Hongyi; Cho, Minkyu; Seo, Jung-Hun; Zhou, Weidong; Gong, Shaoqin; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2015-05-01

    A method of creating tunable and programmable biaxial compressive strain in silicon nanomembranes (Si NMs) transferred onto a Kapton® HN polyimide film has been demonstrated. The programmable biaxial compressive strain (up to 0.54%) was generated utilizing a unique thermal property exhibited by the Kapton HN film, namely, it shrinks from its original size when exposed to elevated temperatures. The correlation between the strain and the annealing temperature was carefully investigated using Raman spectroscopy and high resolution X-ray diffraction. It was found that various amounts of compressive strains can be obtained by controlling the thermal annealing temperatures. In addition, a numerical model was used to evaluate the strain distribution in the Si NM. This technique provides a viable approach to forming in-plane compressive strain in NMs and offers a practical platform for further studies in strain engineering.

  6. Thermal and structural analyses of variable thickness plane problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhibi; Kuzay, T.M.

    1995-07-01

    Finite difference formulations for variable thickness thermal analysis and variable thickness plane stress analysis are presented. In heat transfer analysis, radiation effects and temperature-dependent thermal conductivity are taken into account. While in thermal stress analysis, the thermal expansion coefficient is considered as temperature dependent. An application of the variable thickness window for synchrotron radiation beamline under very strong X-ray is provided.

  7. Engineering of optical polarization based on electronic band structures of A-plane ZnO layers under biaxial strains

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Hiroaki Tabata, Hitoshi; Hasuike, Noriyuki; Harima, Hiroshi

    2014-09-21

    In-plane anisotropic strains in A-plane layers on the electronic band structure of ZnO were investigated from the viewpoint of optical polarization anisotropy. Investigations utilizing k·p perturbation theory revealed that energy transitions and associated oscillation strengths were dependent on in-plane strains. The theoretical correlation between optical polarizations and in-plane strains was experimentally demonstrated using A-plane ZnO layers with different in-plane strains. Finally, optical polarization anisotropy and its implications for in-plane optical properties are discussed in relation to the energy shift between two orthogonal directions. Higher polarization rotations were obtained in an A-plane ZnO layer with in-plane biaxially compressive strains as compared to strain-free ZnO. This study provides detailed information concerning the role played by in-plane strains in optically polarized applications based on nonpolar ZnO in the ultra-violet region.

  8. A numerical method for determining the strain rate intensity factor under plane strain conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, S.; Kuo, C.-Y.; Jeng, Y.-R.

    2016-07-01

    Using the classical model of rigid perfectly plastic solids, the strain rate intensity factor has been previously introduced as the coefficient of the leading singular term in a series expansion of the equivalent strain rate in the vicinity of maximum friction surfaces. Since then, many strain rate intensity factors have been determined by means of analytical and semi-analytical solutions. However, no attempt has been made to develop a numerical method for calculating the strain rate intensity factor. This paper presents such a method for planar flow. The method is based on the theory of characteristics. First, the strain rate intensity factor is derived in characteristic coordinates. Then, a standard numerical slip-line technique is supplemented with a procedure to calculate the strain rate intensity factor. The distribution of the strain rate intensity factor along the friction surface in compression of a layer between two parallel plates is determined. A high accuracy of this numerical solution for the strain rate intensity factor is confirmed by comparison with an analytic solution. It is shown that the distribution of the strain rate intensity factor is in general discontinuous.

  9. Experimental and Analytical Investigations on Plane Strain Toughness for 7085 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuey, R. T.; Barlat, F.; Karabin, M. E.; Chakrabarti, D. J.

    2009-02-01

    Data are presented on plane strain fracture toughness, yield strength, and strain hardening for three orientations of samples from quarter-thickness ( t/4) and midthickness ( t/2) locations of alloy 7085 plates with different gages aged past peak strength with different 2nd step aging times (T7X). These data are fit to an expression adapted from Hahn and Rosenfield (1968), in which toughness is proportional to strain hardening, the square root of yield strength, and the square root of a critical strain ɛ c . Strain-hardening exponent n is replaced by an alternative measure, since the stress-strain data do not follow a power law. With increased overaging, the increase of strain hardening dominates the decrease of strength, such that toughness increases. The critical strain, which represents the influence of the microstructure on toughness, has no trend with overaging time. Constituents and grain boundary precipitates, thought to be the microstructural elements most differentiating alloy 7085 from alloy 7050, are quantified at t/4 and at t/2 on one plate. From this the greater critical strain at t/2 than at t/4 is mainly attributed to greater effective spacing of constituents. Critical strain is also greater with longitudinal loading and crack propagating in the long transverse direction, but definite understanding of this will require better anisotropic fracture mechanics and further microstructural characterization.

  10. The plane strain shear fracture of the advanced high strength steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Li

    2013-12-16

    The “shear fracture” which occurs at the high-curvature die radii in the sheet metal forming has been reported to remarkably limit the application of the advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in the automobile industry. However, this unusual fracture behavior generally cannot be predicted by the traditional forming limit diagram (FLD). In this research, a new experimental system was developed in order to simulate the shear fracture, especially at the plane strain state which is the most common state in the auto-industry and difficult to achieve in the lab due to sample size. Furthermore, the system has the capability to operate in a strain rate range from quasi-static state to the industrial forming state. One kinds of AHSS, Quenching-Partitioning (QP) steels have been performed in this test and the results show that the limiting fracture strain is related to the bending ratio and strain rate. The experimental data support that deformation-induced heating is an important cause of “shear fracture” phenomena for AHSS: a deformation-induced quasi-heating caused by smaller bending ratio and high strain rate produce a smaller limiting plane strain and lead a “shear fracture” in the component.

  11. Analytical solutions to general anti-plane shear problems in finite elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, David Yang

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a pure complementary energy variational method for solving a general anti-plane shear problem in finite elasticity. Based on the canonical duality-triality theory developed by the author, the nonlinear/nonconvex partial differential equations for the large deformation problem are converted into an algebraic equation in dual space, which can, in principle, be solved to obtain a complete set of stress solutions. Therefore, a general analytical solution form of the deformation is obtained subjected to a compatibility condition. Applications are illustrated by examples with both convex and nonconvex stored strain energies governed by quadratic-exponential and power-law material models, respectively. Results show that the nonconvex variational problem could have multiple solutions at each material point, the complementary gap function and the triality theory can be used to identify both global and local extremal solutions, while the popular convexity conditions (including rank-one condition) provide mainly local minimal criteria and the Legendre-Hadamard condition (i.e., the so-called strong ellipticity condition) does not guarantee uniqueness of solutions. This paper demonstrates again that the pure complementary energy principle and the triality theory play important roles in finite deformation theory and nonconvex analysis.

  12. Note: Optimization of piezoresistive response of pure carbon nanotubes networks as in-plane strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Yu; Chen, L.; Sammynaiken, R.; Lin, Y.; Zhang, W. J.

    2011-12-01

    The use of carbon nanotubes (CNT) for the application in in-plane strain detection is promising. In recent years, in-plane strain sensors constructed from CNT networks have been developed; however, few studied optimization of these sensors. In this paper, a study of the optimization of pure CNT networks in terms of piezoresistive response is reported. The so-called pure CNT networks are CNT networks free of surfactants. The performances of piezoresistive response are gauge factor (GF) and linearity. The variables are the number of layers of networks, concentration of CNT solution, and length of sonication time. As a result, the study concluded an optimal pure CNT networks sensor (GF: 2.59, linearity 0.98) with ten layers of networks, 0.8 mg/ml concentration, and 2 h of sonication time.

  13. The unique effect of in-plane anisotropic strain in the magnetization control by electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y. Y.; Wang, J.; Hu, F. X.; Liu, Y.; Kuang, H.; Wu, R. R.; Sun, J. R.; Shen, B. G.

    2016-05-01

    The electric field control of magnetization in both (100)- and (011)-Pr0.7Sr0.3MnO3/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3(PSMO/PMN-PT) heterostructures were investigated. It was found that the in-plane isotropic strain induced by electric field only slightly reduces the magnetization at low temperature in (100)-PSMO/PMN-PT film. On the other hand, for (011)-PSMO/PMN-PT film, the in-plane anisotropic strain results in in-plane anisotropic, nonvolatile change of magnetization at low-temperature. The magnetization, remanence and coercivity along in-plane [100] direction are suppressed by the electric field while the ones along [01-1] direction are enhanced, which is ascribed to the extra effective magnetic anisotropy induced by the electric field via anisotropic piezostrains. More interestingly, such anisotropic modulation behaviors are nonvolatile, demonstrating a memory effect.

  14. The Asteroid Identification Problem. II. Target Plane Confidence Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Andrea; Valsecchi, Giovanni B.

    1999-08-01

    The nominal orbit solution for an asteroid/comet resulting from a least squares fit to astrometric observations is surrounded by a region containing solutions equally compatible with the data, the confidence region. If the observed arc is not too short, and for an epoch close to the observations, the confidence region in the six-dimensional space of orbital elements is well approximated by an ellipsoid. This uncertainty of the orbital elements maps to a position uncertainty at close approach, which can be represented on a Modified Target Plane (MTP), a modification of the one used by Öpik. The MTP is orthogonal to the geocentric velocity at the closest approach point along the nominal orbit. In the linear approximation, the confidence ellipsoids are mapped on the MTP into concentric ellipses, computed by solving the variational equation. For an object observed at only one opposition, however, if the close approach is expected after many revolutions, the ellipses on the MTP become extremely elongated, therefore the linear approximation may fail, and the confidence boundaries on the MTP, by definition the nonlinear images of the confidence ellipsoids, may not be well approximated by the ellipses. In theory the Monte Carlo method by Muinonen and Bowell (1993, Icarus104, 255-279) can be used to compute the nonlinear confidence boundaries, but in practice the computational load is very heavy. We propose a new method to compute semilinear confidence boundaries on the MTP, based on the theory developed by Milani (1999, Icarus137, 269-292) to efficiently compute confidence boundaries for predicted observations. This method is a reasonable compromise between reliability and computational load, and can be used for real time risk assessment. These arguments can be applied to any small body approaching any planet, but in the case of a potentially hazardous object (PHO), either an asteroid or a comet whose orbit comes very close to that of the Earth, the application is most

  15. Finite Element Modeling of Plane Strain Toughness for 7085 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabin, M. E.; Barlat, F.; Shuey, R. T.

    2009-02-01

    In this work, the constitutive model for 7085-T7X (overaged) aluminum alloy plate samples with controlled microstructures was developed. Different lengths of 2nd step aging times produced samples with similar microstructure but different stress-strain curves ( i.e., different nanostructure). A conventional phenomenological strain-hardening law with no strain gradient effects was proposed to capture the peculiar hardening behavior of the material samples investigated in this work. The classical Gurson-Tvergaard potential, which includes the influence of void volume fraction (VVF) on the plastic flow behavior, as well as an extension proposed by Leblond et al.,[3] were considered. Unlike the former, the latter is able to account for the influence of strain hardening on the VVF growth. All the constitutive coefficients used in this work were based on experimental stress-strain curves obtained in uniaxial tension and on micromechanical modeling results of a void embedded in a matrix. These material models were used in finite element (FE) simulations of a compact tension (CT) specimen. An engineering criterion based on the instability of plastic flow at a crack tip was used for the determination of plane strain toughness K Ic . The influence of the microstructure was lumped into a single state variable, the initial void volume fraction. The simulation results showed that the strain-hardening behavior has a significant influence on K Ic .

  16. Scaling Behavior and Strain Dependence of In-Plane Elastic Properties of Graphene.

    PubMed

    Los, J H; Fasolino, A; Katsnelson, M I

    2016-01-01

    We show by atomistic simulations that, in the thermodynamic limit, the in-plane elastic moduli of graphene at finite temperature vanish with system size L as a power law L(-η(u)) with η(u)≃0.325, in agreement with the membrane theory. We provide explicit expressions for the size and strain dependence of graphene's elastic moduli, allowing comparison to experimental data. Our results explain the recently experimentally observed increase of the Young modulus by more than a factor of 2 for a tensile strain of only a few per mill. The difference of a factor of 2 between the measured asymptotic value of the Young modulus for tensilely strained systems and the value from ab initio calculations remains, however, unsolved. We also discuss the asymptotic behavior of the Poisson ratio, for which our simulations disagree with the predictions of the self-consistent screening approximation.

  17. Band gap modulation of transition-metal dichalcogenide MX2 nanosheets by in-plane strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xiangying; Ju, Weiwei; Zhang, Ruizhi; Guo, Chongfeng; Yong, Yongliang; Cui, Hongling; Li, Xiaohong

    2016-10-01

    The electronic properties of quasi-two-dimensional honeycomb structures of MX2 nanosheets (M=Mo, W and X=S, Se) subjected to in-plane biaxial strain have been investigated using first-principles calculations. We demonstrate that the band gap of MX2 nanosheets can be widely tuned by applying tensile or compressive strain, and these ultrathin materials undergo a universal reversible semiconductor-metal transition at a critical strain. Compared to WX2, MoX2 need a smaller critical tensile strain for the band gap close, and MSe2 need a smaller critical compressive strain than MS2. Taking bilayer MoS2 as an example, the variation of the band structures was studied and the semiconductor-metal transition involves a slightly different physical mechanism between tensile and compressive strain. The ability to tune the band gap of MX2 nanosheets in a controlled fashion over a wide range of energy opens up the possibility for its usage in a range of application.

  18. In-plane displacement and strain measurements using a camera phone and digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liping; Pan, Bing

    2014-05-01

    In-plane displacement and strain measurements of planar objects by processing the digital images captured by a camera phone using digital image correlation (DIC) are performed in this paper. As a convenient communication tool for everyday use, the principal advantages of a camera phone are its low cost, easy accessibility, and compactness. However, when used as a two-dimensional DIC system for mechanical metrology, the assumed imaging model of a camera phone may be slightly altered during the measurement process due to camera misalignment, imperfect loading, sample deformation, and temperature variations of the camera phone, which can produce appreciable errors in the measured displacements. In order to obtain accurate DIC measurements using a camera phone, the virtual displacements caused by these issues are first identified using an unstrained compensating specimen and then corrected by means of a parametric model. The proposed technique is first verified using in-plane translation and out-of-plane translation tests. Then, it is validated through a determination of the tensile strains and elastic properties of an aluminum specimen. Results of the present study show that accurate DIC measurements can be conducted using a common camera phone provided that an adequate correction is employed.

  19. Revision of Standard Method of Test for Plane Strain Fracture Toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, John L., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this grant is to revise ASTM Standard Method of Test E-399 for Plane Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials based on users' experience, and to harmonize the Method with international standards in the interest of U. S. competitive participation in the global marketplace. Rewriting and reformatting the Method are well along. Research laboratories here and abroad have been engaged in developing technical bases for the Method's novel revision items. Close liaison is being maintained with experts in the field here and abroad to ensure consensus agreement on all substantive matters in anticipation of an eventual circulation of the document for ASTM worldwide approval.

  20. The crack problem for a half plane stiffened by elastic cover plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1981-01-01

    An elastic half plane containing a crack and stiffened by a cover plate is discussed. The asymptotic nature of the stress state in the half plane around an end point of the stiffener to determine the likely orientation of a possible fracture initiation and growth was studied. The problem is formulated for an arbitrary oriented radial crack in a system of singular integral equations. For an internal crack and for an edge crack, the problem is solved and the stress intensity factors at the crack tips and the interface stress are calculated. A cracked half plane with two symmetrically located cover plates is also considered. It is concluded that the case of two stiffeners appears to be more severe than that of a single stiffener.

  1. Formation behavior of basal texture under the high temperature plane strain compression deformation in AZ80 magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Okayasu, K.; Fukutomi, H.

    2015-04-01

    The formation behavior of basal texture during high temperature deformation of AZ80 magnesium alloys in single phase was investigated by plane strain compression deformation. Three kinds of specimens with different initial textures were machined out from an extruded bar having a <101¯0> texture. Plane strain compression tests were conducted at temperatures of 623K and 723K and a strain rate of 5.0×10-2s-1, with a strain range of between - 0.4 and -1.0. After deformation, the specimens were immediately quenched in oil. Texture measurement was carried out on the compression planes by the Schulz reflection method using nickel filtered Cu Kα radiation. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements were also conducted in order to examine the spatial distribution of orientations. Three kinds of specimens named A, B and C were prepared from the same extruded bar. In the specimens A, B and C, {0001} was distributed preferentially parallel to ND, TD, and RD, respectively. After deformation, texture evaluation was conducted on the mid-plane section. At the plane strain compression deformation, peaks appeared in the true stress-true strain curves irrespective of the kinds of specimen used. It was found that the main components and the pole densities of the textures vary depending on deformation condition and initial texture. Six kinds of texture components were observed after deformation. The (0001)<101¯0> has formed regardless of the initial texture. There are two types of texture components; one exists before the deformation, and the other does not. Either types are considered to have stable orientations for plane strain compression. Also, the basal texture is composed of two crystal orientation components - (0001)<101¯0> and (0001)<112¯0>. When (0001) existed before deformation, an extremely sharp (0001) (compression plane) texture is formed.

  2. Periodic solutions of a perturbed Kepler problem in the plane: From existence to stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscaggin, Alberto; Ortega, Rafael

    2016-08-01

    The existence of elliptic periodic solutions of a perturbed Kepler problem is proved. The equations are in the plane and the perturbation depends periodically on time. The proof is based on a local description of the symplectic group in two degrees of freedom.

  3. From Number Lines to Graphs in the Coordinate Plane: Investigating Problem Solving across Mathematical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earnest, Darrell

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on students' problem-solving approaches across three representations--number lines, coordinate planes, and function graphs--the axes of which conventional mathematics treats in terms of consistent geometric and numeric coordinations. I consider these representations to be a part of a "hierarchical representational…

  4. Wiimote Experiments: 3-D Inclined Plane Problem for Reinforcing the Vector Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawam, Alae; Kouh, Minjoon

    2011-01-01

    In an introductory physics course where students first learn about vectors, they oftentimes struggle with the concept of vector addition and decomposition. For example, the classic physics problem involving a mass on an inclined plane requires the decomposition of the force of gravity into two directions that are parallel and perpendicular to the…

  5. Guidance analysis of the aeroglide plane change maneuver as a turning point problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracey, Christopher

    1989-01-01

    The development of guidance approximations for the atmospheric (aeroglide) portion of the minimum fuel, orbital plane change, trajectory optimization problem is described. Asymptotic methods are used to reduce the two point, boundary value, optimization problem to a turning point problem from the bank angle control. The turning point problem solution, which yields an approximate optimal control policy, is given in terms of parabolic cylinder functions, which are tabulated, and integral expressions, which must be numerically computed. Comparisons of the former, over their region of validity, with optimal control solutions show good qualitative agreement. Additional work and analysis is needed to compute the guidance approximation work.

  6. Spectral scattering operators in problems of wave diffraction by plane screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, L. N.; Prosvirnin, S. L.

    The operator method, a version of the semiinversion method used in the theory of diffraction, is examined with reference to two-dimensional stationary problems of electromagnetic wave diffraction by plane screens. Spectral scattering operators are derived for a series of periodic and nonperiodic structures. Practically important problems concerning the diffraction of wave beams, wave propagation in waveguide systems, and diffraction radiation are examined, and a detailed interpretation of results is presented.

  7. Investigation of flaw geometry and loading effects on plane strain fracture in metallic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, L. R.; Finger, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    The effects on fracture and flaw growth of weld-induced residual stresses, combined bending and tension stresses, and stress fields adjacent to circular holes in 2219-T87 aluminum and 5AI-2.5Sn(ELI) titanium alloys were evaluated. Static fracture tests were conducted in liquid nitrogen; fatigue tests were performed in room air, liquid nitrogen, and liquid hydrogen. Evaluation of results was based on linear elastic fracture mechanics concepts and was directed to improving existing methods of estimating minimum fracture strength and fatigue lives for pressurized structure in spacecraft and booster systems. Effects of specimen design in plane-strain fracture toughness testing were investigated. Four different specimen types were tested in room air, liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen environments using the aluminum and titanium alloys. Interferometry and holograph were used to measure crack-opening displacements in surface-flawed plexiglass test specimens. Comparisons were made between stress intensities calculated using displacement measurements, and approximate analytical solutions.

  8. Yield criteria for porous media in plane strain: second-order estimates versus numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, Joseph; Ponte Castañeda, Pedro

    2002-11-01

    This Note presents a comparison of some recently developed "second-order" homogenization estimates for two-dimensional, ideally plastic porous media subjected to plane strain conditions with corresponding yield analysis results using a new linearization technique and systematically optimized finite elements meshes. Good qualitative agreement is found between the second-order theory and the yield analysis results for the shape of the yield surfaces, which exhibit a corner on the hydrostatic axis, as well as for the dependence of the effective flow stress in shear on the porosity, which is found to be non-analytic in the dilute limit. Both of these features are inconsistent with the predictions of the standard Gurson model. To cite this article: J. Pastor, P. Ponte Castañeda, C. R. Mecanique 330 (2002) 741-747.

  9. Strained-layer superlattice focal plane array having a planar structure

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jin K.; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Gin, Aaron; Marsh, Phillip F.; Young, Erik W.; Cich, Michael J.

    2010-07-13

    An infrared focal plane array (FPA) is disclosed which utilizes a strained-layer superlattice (SLS) formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5 epitaxially grown on a GaSb substrate. The FPA avoids the use of a mesa structure to isolate each photodetector element and instead uses impurity-doped regions formed in or about each photodetector for electrical isolation. This results in a substantially-planar structure in which the SLS is unbroken across the entire width of a 2-D array of the photodetector elements which are capped with an epitaxially-grown passivation layer to reduce or eliminate surface recombination. The FPA has applications for use in the wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m.

  10. Infrared focal plane arrays based on dots in a well and strained layer superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we will review some of the recent progress that we have made on developing single pixel detectors and focal plane arrays based on dots-in-a-well (DWELL) heterostructure and Type II strained layer superlattice (SLS). The DWELL detector consists of an active region composed of InAs quantum dots embedded in InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells. By varying the thickness of the InGaAs well, the DWELL heterostructure allows for the manipulation of the operating wavelength and the nature of the transitions (bound-to-bound, bound-to-quasibound and bound-to-continuum) of the detector. Based on these principles, DWELL samples were grown using molecular beam epitaxy and fabricated into 320 x 256 focal plane arrays (FPAs) with Indium bumps using standard lithography at the University of New Mexico. The FPA evaluated was hybridized to an Indigo 9705 readout integrated circuit (ROIC). From this evaluation, we have reported the first two-color, co-located quantum dot based imaging system that can be used to take multicolor images using a single FPA. We have also been investigating the use of miniband transitions in Type II SLS to develop infrared detectors using PIN and nBn based designs.

  11. A constitutive framework for modelling thin incompressible viscoelastic materials under plane stress in the finite strain regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroon, M.

    2011-11-01

    Rubbers and soft biological tissues may undergo large deformations and are also viscoelastic. The formulation of constitutive models for these materials poses special challenges. In several applications, especially in biomechanics, these materials are also relatively thin, implying that in-plane stresses dominate and that plane stress may therefore be assumed. In the present paper, a constitutive model for viscoelastic materials in the finite strain regime and under the assumption of plane stress is proposed. It is assumed that the relaxation behaviour in the direction of plane stress can be treated separately, which makes it possible to formulate evolution laws for the plastic strains on explicit form at the same time as incompressibility is fulfilled. Experimental results from biomechanics (dynamic inflation of dog aorta) and rubber mechanics (biaxial stretching of rubber sheets) were used to assess the proposed model. The assessment clearly indicates that the model is fully able to predict the experimental outcome for these types of material.

  12. The elastostatic plane strain mode I crack tip stress and displacement fields in a generalized linear neo-Hookean elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begley, Matthew R.; Creton, Costantino; McMeeking, Robert M.

    2015-11-01

    A general asymptotic plane strain crack tip stress field is constructed for linear versions of neo-Hookean materials, which spans a wide variety of special cases including incompressible Mooney elastomers, the compressible Blatz-Ko elastomer, several cases of the Ogden constitutive law and a new result for a compressible linear neo-Hookean material. The nominal stress field has dominant terms that have a square root singularity with respect to the distance of material points from the crack tip in the undeformed reference configuration. At second order, there is a uniform tension parallel to the crack. The associated displacement field in plane strain at leading order has dependence proportional to the square root of the same coordinate. The relationship between the amplitude of the crack tip singularity (a stress intensity factor) and the plane strain energy release rate is outlined for the general linear material, with simplified relationships presented for notable special cases.

  13. Wireless Open-Circuit In-Plane Strain and Displacement Sensor Requiring No Electrical Connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A wireless in-plane strain and displacement sensor includes an electrical conductor fixedly coupled to a substrate subject to strain conditions. The electrical conductor is shaped between its ends for storage of an electric field and a magnetic field, and remains electrically unconnected to define an unconnected open-circuit having inductance and capacitance. In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field, the electrical conductor so-shaped resonates to generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses. The sensor also includes at least one electrically unconnected electrode having an end and a free portion extending from the end thereof. The end of each electrode is fixedly coupled to the substrate and the free portion thereof remains unencumbered and spaced apart from a portion of the electrical conductor so-shaped. More specifically, at least some of the free portion is disposed at a location lying within the magnetic field response generated by the electrical conductor. A motion guidance structure is slidingly engaged with each electrode's free portion in order to maintain each free portion parallel to the electrical conductor so-shaped.

  14. Investigating Plane Geometry Problem-Solving Strategies of Prospective Mathematics Teachers in Technology and Paper-and-Pencil Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyuncu, Ilhan; Akyuz, Didem; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate plane geometry problem-solving strategies of prospective mathematics teachers using dynamic geometry software (DGS) and paper-and-pencil (PPB) environments after receiving an instruction with GeoGebra (GGB). Four plane geometry problems were used in a multiple case study design to understand the solution strategies…

  15. CLFE2D: A generalized plane strain finite element program laminated composites subject to mechanical and hygrothermal loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buczek, M. B.; Gregory, M. A.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    CLFE2D is a two dimensional generalized plane strain finite element code, using a linear, four node, general quadrilateral, isoparametric element. The program is developed to calculate the displacements, strains, stresses, and strain energy densities in a finite width composite laminate. CLFE2D offers any combination of the following load types: nodal displacements, nodal forces, uniform normal strain, or hygrothermal. The program allows the user to input one set of three dimensional orthotropic material properties. The user can then specify the angle of material principal orientation for each element in the mesh. Output includes displacements, stresses, strains and strain densities at points selected by the user. An option is also available to plot the underformed and deformed finite element meshes.

  16. Mechanical stress measurement by an achromatic optical digital speckle pattern interferometry strain sensor with radial in-plane sensitivity: experimental comparison with electrical strain gauges.

    PubMed

    Viotti, Matias R; Albertazzi G, Armando; Kapp, Walter A

    2011-03-01

    This paper shows the optical setup of a radial in-plane digital speckle pattern interferometer which uses an axis-symmetrical diffractive optical element (DOE) to obtain double illumination. The application of the DOE gives in-plane sensitivity which only depends on the grating period of the DOE instead of the wavelength of the laser used as illumination source. A compact optical layout was built in order to have a portable optical strain sensor with a circular measurement area of about 5 mm in diameter. In order to compare its performance with electrical strain sensors (strain gauges), mechanical loading was generated by a four-point bending device and simultaneously monitored by the optical strain sensor and by two-element strain gauge rosettes. Several mechanical stress levels were measured showing a good agreement between both sensors. Results showed that the optical sensor could measure applied mechanical strains with a mean uncertainty of about 5% and 4% for the maximum and minimum principal strains, respectively. PMID:21364725

  17. Activating and optimizing MoS2 basal planes for hydrogen evolution through the formation of strained sulphur vacancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong; Tsai, Charlie; Koh, Ai Leen; Cai, Lili; Contryman, Alex W.; Fragapane, Alex H.; Zhao, Jiheng; Han, Hyun Soon; Manoharan, Hari C.; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Nørskov, Jens K.; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    As a promising non-precious catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER; refs ,,,,), molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) is known to contain active edge sites and an inert basal plane. Activating the MoS2 basal plane could further enhance its HER activity but is not often a strategy for doing so. Herein, we report the first activation and optimization of the basal plane of monolayer 2H-MoS2 for HER by introducing sulphur (S) vacancies and strain. Our theoretical and experimental results show that the S-vacancies are new catalytic sites in the basal plane, where gap states around the Fermi level allow hydrogen to bind directly to exposed Mo atoms. The hydrogen adsorption free energy (ΔGH) can be further manipulated by straining the surface with S-vacancies, which fine-tunes the catalytic activity. Proper combinations of S-vacancy and strain yield the optimal ΔGH = 0 eV, which allows us to achieve the highest intrinsic HER activity among molybdenum-sulphide-based catalysts.

  18. Coeval folding and boudinage under plane strain with the axis of no change perpendicular to the layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengong, M. Enama; Zulauf, G.

    2006-04-01

    Plane-strain coaxial deformation of a competent plasticine layer embedded in an incompetent plasticine matrix was carried out to improve our understanding about the evolution of folds and boudins if the layer is oriented perpendicular to the Y-axis of the finite strain ellipsoid. The rock analogues used were Beck’s green plasticine (matrix) and Beck’s black plasticine (competent layer), both of which are strain-rate softening modelling materials with a stress exponent n=ca. 8. The effective viscosity η of the matrix plasticine was changed by adding different amounts of oil to the original plasticine. At a strain rate dot e of 10-3 s-1 and a finite strain e of 10%, the effective viscosity of the matrix ranges from 1.2×106 to 7.2×106 Pa s. The effective viscosity of the competent layer has been determined as 4.2×107 Pa s. If the viscosity ratio is large (ca. 20) and the initial thickness of the competent layer is small, both folds and boudins develop simultaneously. Although the growth rate of the folds seems to be higher than the growth rate of the boudins, the wavelength of both structures is approximately the same as is suggested by analytical solutions. A further unexpected, but characteristic, aspect of the deformed competent layer is a significant increase in thickness, which can be used to distinguish plane-strain folds and boudins from constrictional folds and boudins.

  19. Dielectric tunability of vertically aligned ferroelectric-metal oxide nanocomposite films controlled by out-of-plane misfit strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huaping; Ma, Xuefu; Zhang, Zheng; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Jie; Chai, Guozhong

    2016-04-01

    A nonlinear thermodynamic model based on the vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) thin films of ferroelectric-metal oxide system has been developed to investigate the physical properties of the epitaxial Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) films containing vertical Sm2O3 (SmO) nanopillar arrays on the SrTiO3 substrate. The phase diagrams of out-of-plane lattice mismatch vs. volume fraction of SmO are calculated by minimizing the total free energy. It is found that the phase transformation and dielectric response of BST-SmO VAN systems are extremely dependent on the in-plane misfit strain, the out-of-plane lattice mismatch, the volume fraction of SmO phase, and the external electric field applied to the nanocomposite films at room temperature. In particular, the BST-SmO VAN systems exhibit higher dielectric properties than pure BST films. Giant dielectric response and maximum tunability are obtained near the lattice mismatch where the phase transition occurs. Under the in-plane misfit strain of umf=0.3 % and the out-of-plane lattice mismatch of u3=0.002 , the dielectric tunability can be dramatically enhanced to 90% with the increase of SmO volume fraction, which is well consistent with previous experimental results. This work represents an approach to further understand the dependence of physical properties on the lattice mismatch (in-plane and out-of-plane) and volume fraction, and to manipulate or optimize functionalities in the nanocomposite oxide thin films.

  20. Computation of forces acting on bodies in plane and axisymmetric cavitation flow problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, A. G.; Potapov, I. I.

    2016-02-01

    Plane and axisymmetric cavitation flow problems are considered using Riabouchinsky's scheme. The incoming flow is assumed to be irrotational and steady, and the fluid is assumed to be inviscid and incompressible. The flow problems are solved by applying the boundary element method with quadrature formulas without saturation. The free boundary is determined using a gradient descent technique based on Riabouchinsky's principle. The drag force acting on the cavitator is expressed in terms of the Riabouchinsky functional. As a result, for small cavitation numbers, the force is calculated with a fairly high accuracy. Dependences of the drag coefficient are investigated for variously shaped cavitators: a wedge, a cone, a circular arc, and a spherical segment.

  1. Effect of fiber volume fraction on the off-crack-plane fracture energy in strain-hardening engineered cementitious composites

    SciTech Connect

    Maalej, M.; Hashida, Toshiyuki; Li, V.C.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper, the results of an experimental study on the effect of fiber volume fraction on the off-crack-plane fracture energy in a strain-hardening engineered cementitious composite (ECC) are presented. Unlike the well-known quasi-brittle behavior of fiber-reinforced concrete, ECC exhibits quasi-ductile response by developing a large damage zone prior to fracture localization. In the damage zone, the material is microcracked but continues to strain-harden locally. The areal dimension of the damage zone has been observed to be on the order of 1,000 cm{sup 2} in double cantilever beam specimens. The energy absorption of the off-crack-plane inelastic deformation process has been measured to be more than 50% of the total fracture energy of up to 34 kJ/m{sup 2}. This magnitude of fracture energy is the highest ever reported for a fiber cementitious composite.

  2. The combined effect of frontal plane tibiofemoral knee angle and meniscectomy on the cartilage contact stresses and strains.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nicholas; Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid; Canavan, Paul K

    2009-11-01

    Abnormal tibiofemoral alignment can create loading conditions at the knee that may lead to the initiation and progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA). The degenerative changes of the articular cartilage may occur earlier and with greater severity in individuals with abnormal frontal plane tibiofemoral alignment who undergo a partial or total meniscectomy. In this investigation, subject specific 3D finite element knee models were created from magnetic resonance images of two female subjects to study the combined effect of frontal plane tibiofemoral alignment and total and partial meniscectomy on the stress and strain at the knee cartilage. Different amounts of medial and lateral meniscectomies were modeled and subject specific loading conditions were determined from motion analysis and force platform data during single-leg support. The results showed that the maximum stresses and strains occurred on the medial tibial cartilage after medial meniscectomy but a greater percentage change in the contact stresses and strains occurred in the lateral cartilage after lateral meniscectomy for both subjects due to the resultant greater load bearing role of the lateral meniscus. The results indicate that individual's frontal plane knee alignment and their unique local force distribution between the cartilage and meniscus play an important role in the biomechanical effects of total and partial meniscectomy.

  3. A wideband fast multipole boundary element method for half-space/plane-symmetric acoustic wave problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chang-Jun; Chen, Hai-Bo; Chen, Lei-Lei

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a novel wideband fast multipole boundary element approach to 3D half-space/plane-symmetric acoustic wave problems. The half-space fundamental solution is employed in the boundary integral equations so that the tree structure required in the fast multipole algorithm is constructed for the boundary elements in the real domain only. Moreover, a set of symmetric relations between the multipole expansion coefficients of the real and image domains are derived, and the half-space fundamental solution is modified for the purpose of applying such relations to avoid calculating, translating and saving the multipole/local expansion coefficients of the image domain. The wideband adaptive multilevel fast multipole algorithm associated with the iterative solver GMRES is employed so that the present method is accurate and efficient for both lowand high-frequency acoustic wave problems. As for exterior acoustic problems, the Burton-Miller method is adopted to tackle the fictitious eigenfrequency problem involved in the conventional boundary integral equation method. Details on the implementation of the present method are described, and numerical examples are given to demonstrate its accuracy and efficiency.

  4. First-principles study of nanometer-sharp domain walls in ferromagnetic Fe monolayers under in-plane strain.

    PubMed

    Shimada, T; Okuno, J; Ishii, Y; Kitamura, T

    2012-03-01

    We investigated a nanometer-sharp magnetic domain wall (DW) structure in a free-standing Fe(110) monolayer and studied the crucial role of in-plane strain using fully unconstrained noncollinear ab initio spin-density-functional theory calculations within the generalized gradient approximation. The DW width is calculated to be 0.86 nm. A precise vector-field description of the magnetization density revealed that a noncollinear character in the DW was spatially confined between atoms, whereas a collinear and high magnetization density was localized around each atom. In the rapid rotation of magnetic moments in the DW, we found an electron rearrangement from the d(zx) and d(x(2)-y(2)) states to the d(xy), d(yz) and d(z(2)) states due to a shift of band structures. Applied tensile and compressive in-plane strains both bring about narrower DWs in the monolayer except when the strain is small. The strain dependence of the DW width is discussed in terms of both exchange interaction and magnetocrystalline anisotropy. PMID:22322862

  5. Derivation of XBIEM Kernels for Anti-plane/In-plane Problems and Implementation in Anti-plane Rupture Simulation Crossing Bimaterial Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusakabe, T.; Kame, N.

    2015-12-01

    We develop an extended boundary integral equation method (XBIEM) to analyse dynamic behavior of rupture crossing a medium interface in 2D. Many faults often lie near medium interfaces in the Earth's heterogeneous crust consisting of various types of rocks. Some faults cross the interfaces, and the theoretical analysis of their dynamic behavior has been awaited. In the development, we focus on the extended parts of XBIEM in comparison to the conventional BIEM, and derive all the 2D displacement and stress kernels in response to a unit boundary traction in explicit discretized forms, which are the ingredients in the extension of BIEM. The final forms of kernels are compact and easy to evaluate numerically. They are implemented in simulating dynamic anti-plane rupture propagation across a bimaterial interface allowing secondary interfacial rupture. Our analysis shows a significant effect of an interfacial medium contrast on the control of dynamic rupture propagation.

  6. New many-body problems in the plane with periodic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Ullate, D.; Hone, A. N. W.; Sommacal, M.

    2004-02-01

    In this paper we discuss a family of toy models for many-body interactions including velocity-dependent forces. By generalizing a construction due to Calogero, we obtain a class of N-body problems in the plane which have periodic orbits for a large class of initial conditions. The two- and three-body cases (N=2, 3) are exactly solvable, with all solutions being periodic, and we present their explicit solutions. For Ngeq4 Painlevé analysis indicates that the system should not be integrable, and some periodic and non-periodic trajectories are calculated numerically. The construction can be generalized to a broad class of systems, and the mechanism which describes the transition to orbits with higher periods, and eventually to aperiodic or even chaotic orbits, could be present in more realistic models with a mixed phase space. This scenario is different from the onset of chaos by a sequence of Hopf bifurcations.

  7. Full in-plane strain tensor analysis using the microscale ring-core FIB milling and DIC approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunt, Alexander J. G.; Salvati, Enrico; Ma, Lifeng; Dolbyna, Igor P.; Neo, Tee K.; Korsunsky, Alexander M.

    2016-09-01

    Microscale Full In-plane Strain Tensor (FIST) analysis is crucial for improving understanding of residual stress and mechanical failure in many applications. This study outlines the first Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) based technique capable of performing precise, reliable and rapid quantification of this behaviour. The nature of semi-destructive FIB milling overcomes the main limitations of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) strain tensor quantification: unstrained lattice parameter estimates are not required, analysis is performed in within a precisely defined 3D microscale volume, both amorphous and crystalline materials can be studied and access to X-ray/neutron facilities is not required. The FIST FIB milling and DIC experimental technique is based on extending the ring-core milling geometry to quantify the strain variation with angle and therefore benefits from the excellent precision and simple analytical approach associated with this method. In this study in-plane strain analysis was performed on sample of commercial interest: a porcelain veneered Yttria Partially Stabilised Zirconia (YPSZ) dental prosthesis, and was compared with the results of XRD. The two methods sample different gauge volumes and mechanical states: approximately plane stress for ring-core milling, and a through-thickness average for XRD. We demonstrate using complex analysis methods and Finite Element (FE) modelling that valid comparisons can be drawn between these two stress states. Excellent agreement was obtained between principal stress orientation and magnitudes, leading to realistic residual stress estimates that agree well with the literature (σAv ≈ 460 MPa) . As a measure of validity of the matching approach we report the upper and lower bounds on the (101) interplanar spacing of YPSZ that are found to correspond to the range 2.9586 - 2.9596 Å , closely matching published values.

  8. Use of endochronic plasticity for multi-dimensional small and large strain problems

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, B J

    1980-04-01

    The endochronic plasticity theory was proposed in its general form by K.C. Valanis. An intrinsic time measure, which is a property of the material, is used in the theory. the explicit forms of the constitutive equation resemble closely those of the classical theory of linear viscoelasticity. Excellent agreement between the predicted and experimental results is obtained for some metallic and non-metallic materials for one dimensional cases. No reference on the use of endochronic plasticity consistent with the general theory proposed by Valanis is available in the open literature. In this report, the explicit constitutive equations are derived that are consistent with the general theory for one-dimensional (simple tension or compression), two-dimensional plane strain or stress and three-dimensional axisymmetric problems.

  9. In-plane anisotropy of electrical resistivity in strain-detwinned SrFe[subscript 2]As[subscript 2

    SciTech Connect

    Blomberg, E.C.; Tanatar, M.A.; Kreyssig, A.; Ni, N.; Thaler, A.; Hu, Rongwei; Bud’ko, S.L.; Canfield, P.C.; Goldman, A.I.; Prozorov, R.

    2011-12-09

    Intrinsic, in-plane anisotropy of electrical resistivity was studied on mechanically detwinned single crystals of SrFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} above and below the temperature of the coupled structural/magnetic transition, T{sub TO}. Resistivity is smaller for electrical current flow along the orthorhombic a{sub o} direction (direction of antiferromagnetically alternating magnetic moments) and is larger for transport along the b{sub o} direction (direction of ferromagnetic chains), which is similar to CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} compounds. A strongly first-order structural transition in SrFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} was confirmed by high-energy x-ray measurements, with the transition temperature and character unaffected by moderate strain. For small strain levels, which are just sufficient to detwin the sample, we find a negligible effect on the resistivity above T{sub TO}. With the increase of strain, the resistivity anisotropy starts to develop above T{sub TO}, clearly showing the relation of anisotropy to an anomalously strong response to strain. Our study suggests that electronic nematicity cannot be observed in the FeAs-based compounds in which the structural transition is strongly first order.

  10. Out-of-plane equilibria in the symmetric collinear restricted four-body problem with radiation pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arribas, M.; Abad, A.; Elipe, A.; Palacios, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a three dimensional case of the restricted four-body problem with radiation pressure is considered. The three primaries are supposed to be in a collinear central configuration where both masses and both radiation forces of peripheral bodies are equal. In addition to the analysis of the equilibria in the planar problem introduced in a previous paper by the authors, we present here a complete study of position and stability of the equilibrium points out of {Oxy} plane.

  11. An alternative treatment of the problem of image formation of an object through plane or spherical interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftaxias, K.; Londos, C. A.; Vallianatos, F.

    1990-08-01

    The problem of the virtual image of an object being itself in a different medium than that of the observer is discussed. In dealing with the above problem, plane or spherical refraction surfaces are replaced by lenses. By using this ``trick,'' one can first study the lens and then proceed to study images formed by an interface. This is the reverse of what most textbooks do. This analysis is simple and suitable for students of introductory physics courses.

  12. Solving ethanol production problems with genetically modified yeast strains

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Cavalheiro, A.; Monteiro, G.

    2013-01-01

    The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products) has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast. PMID:24516432

  13. Solving ethanol production problems with genetically modified yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Abreu-Cavalheiro, A; Monteiro, G

    2013-01-01

    The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products) has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast. PMID:24516432

  14. Solving ethanol production problems with genetically modified yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Abreu-Cavalheiro, A; Monteiro, G

    2013-01-01

    The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products) has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast.

  15. Analysis for the convergence problem of the plane-wave expansion method for photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Shen, Linfang; He, Sailing

    2002-05-01

    The convergence feature of two types of plane-wave expansion methods commonly used for photonic crystals is analyzed. It is shown that the reason for the slow convergence of these plane-wave expansion methods is not the slow convergence of the Fourier series for the permittivity profile of the photonic crystal but the inappropriate formulation of the eigenproblem. A new formulation of the eigenproblem is presented to improve the convergence in the one-dimensional case.

  16. The strain in the array is mainly in the plane (waves below ~1 Hz)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Pavlis, G.; Bodin, P.

    1999-01-01

    We compare geodetic and single-station methods of measuring dynamic deformations and characterize their causes in the frequency bands 0.5-1.0 Hz and 4.0-8.0 Hz. The geodetic approach utilizes data from small-aperture seismic arrays, applying techniques from geodesy. It requires relatively few assumptions and a priori information. The single-station method uses ground velocities recorded at isolated or single stations and assumes all the deformation is due to plane-wave propagation. It also requires knowledge of the azimuth and horizontal velocity of waves arriving at the recording station. Data employed come from a small-aperture, dense seismic array deployed in Geyokcha, Turkmenistan, and include seismograms recorded by broadband STS2 and short-period L28 sensors. Poor agreement between geodetic and single-station estimates in the 4.0-8.0 Hz passband indicates that the displacement field may vary nonlinearly with distance over distances of ~50 m. STS2 geodetic estimates provide a robust standard in the 0.5-1.0 Hz passband because they appear to be computationally stable and require fewer assumptions than single-station estimates. The agreement between STS2 geodetic estimates and single-station L28 estimates is surprisingly good for the S-wave and early surface waves, suggesting that the single-station analysis should be useful with commonly available data. These results indicate that, in the 0.5 to 1.0 Hz passband, the primary source of dynamic deformation is plane-wave propagation along great-circle source-receiver paths. For later arriving energy, the effects of scattering become important. The local structure beneath the array exerts a strong control on the geometry of the dynamic deformation, implying that it may be difficult to infer source characteristics of modern or paleoearthquakes from indicators of dynamic deformations. However, strong site control also suggests that the dynamic deformations may be predictable, which would be useful for engineering

  17. Development of a Plane Strain Tensile Geometry to Assess Shear Fracture in Dual Phase Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. D.; Matlock, D. K.; De Moor, E.; Speer, J. G.

    2014-10-01

    A geometrically modified sample capable of generating a triaxial stress state when tested on a standard uniaxial tensile frame was developed to replicate shear fractures observed during stretch bend tests and industrial sheet stamping operations. Seven commercially produced dual phase (DP) steels were tested using the geometrically modified sample, and the modified sample successfully produced shear fractures on a unique shear plane for all steels. For each steel, void densities were determined, based on metallographic analyses, as a function of imposed displacement. Microstructural properties of ferrite and martensite grain size, martensite volume fraction (MVF), retained austenite content, Vickers hardness, average nanoindentation hardness, average ferrite and martensite constituent hardness, and tensile properties were obtained in order to evaluate potential correlations with void data. A linear correlation was observed between Vickers hardness and the average nanoindentation hardness, verifying the ability of nanoindentation to produce data consistent with more traditional hardness measurement techniques. A linear relationship was observed between the number of voids present at 90% failure displacement and the martensite/ferrite hardness ratio, indicating that a decrease in relative hardness difference in a microstructure can suppress void formation, and potentially extend formability limits. The void population appeared independent of MVF, grain size, and tensile properties suggesting that constituent hardness may be a dominant parameter when considering suppression of void nucleation in DP steels.

  18. Behaviour of Cohesionless Soil Reinforced with Three Dimensional Inclusions Under Plane Strain Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harikumar, M.; Sankar, N.; Chandrakaran, S.

    2015-09-01

    Since 1969, when the concept of earth reinforcing was brought about by Henry Vidal, a large variety of materials such as steel bars, tire shreds, polypropylene, polyester, glass fibres, coir and jute fibres etc. have been widely added to soil mass randomly or in a regular, oriented manner. The conventional reinforcements in use were two dimensional or planar, in the form of strips with negligible widths or in the form of sheets. In this investigation, a novel concept of multi oriented plastic reinforcement (hexa-pods) is discussed. Direct shear tests were conducted on unreinforced and reinforced dry fine, medium and coarse sands. Detailed parametric studies with respect to the effective grain size of soil (d10), normal stress (σ) and the volume ratio of hexa-pods (Vr) were performed. It was noticed that addition of hexa-pods resulted in increase in the shear strength parameters viz. peak deviatoric stresses and increased angle of internal friction. The hexa-pods also changed the brittle behaviour of unreinforced sand samples to ductile ones. Although the peak shear stress did not show a considerable improvement, the angle of internal friction improved noticeably. Addition of a single layer of reinforcement along the shear plane also reduced the post peak loss of strength and changed the soil behavior from brittle to a ductile one.

  19. High-order integral equation methods for problems of scattering by bumps and cavities on half-planes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Arancibia, Carlos; Bruno, Oscar P

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents high-order integral equation methods for the evaluation of electromagnetic wave scattering by dielectric bumps and dielectric cavities on perfectly conducting or dielectric half-planes. In detail, the algorithms introduced in this paper apply to eight classical scattering problems, namely, scattering by a dielectric bump on a perfectly conducting or a dielectric half-plane, and scattering by a filled, overfilled, or void dielectric cavity on a perfectly conducting or a dielectric half-plane. In all cases field representations based on single-layer potentials for appropriately chosen Green functions are used. The numerical far fields and near fields exhibit excellent convergence as discretizations are refined-even at and around points where singular fields and infinite currents exist.

  20. Extreme strain rate and temperature dependence of the mechanical properties of nano silicon nitride thin layers in a basal plane under tension: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xuefeng; Wang, Hongjie; Wei, Yin; Wen, Jiangbo; Niu, Min; Jia, Shuhai

    2014-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to clarify the extreme strain rate and temperature dependence of the mechanical behaviors of nano silicon nitride thin layers in a basal plane under tension. It is found that fracture stresses show almost no change with increasing strain rate. However, fracture strains decrease gradually due to the appearance of additional N(2c)-Si bond breaking defects in the deformation process. With increasing loading temperature, there is a noticeable drop in fracture stress and fracture strain. In the low temperature range, roughness phases can be observed owing to a combination of factors such as configuration evolution and energy change.

  1. Influence of Drawbeads in Deep-Drawing of Plane-Strain Channel Sections: Experimental and FE Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, M. C.; Baptista, A. J.; Alves, J. L.; Menezes, L. F.; Green, D. E.; Ghaei, A.

    2007-05-01

    The main purpose of the "Numisheet'05 Benchmark♯3: Channel Draw/Cylindrical Cup" was to evaluate the forming characteristics of materials in multi-stage processes. The concept was to verify the strain fields achieved during the two stage forming process and also to test the ability of numerical models to predict both strain and stress fields. The first stage consisted of forming channel sections in an industrial-scale channel draw die. The material that flows through the drawbead and over the die radii into the channel sidewalls is prestrained by cyclic bending and unbending. The prestrained channel sidewalls are subsequently cut and subjected to near plane-strain Marciniak-style cup test. This study emphasizes the analysis of the first stage process, the Channel Draw, since accurate numerical results for the first stage forming and springback are essential to guarantee proper initial state variables for the subsequent stage simulation. Four different sheet materials were selected: mild steel AKDQ-HDG, high strength steel HSLA-HDG, dual phase steel DP600-HDG and an aluminium alloy AA6022-T43. The four sheet materials were formed in the same channel draw die, but with drawbead penetrations of 25%, 50% and 100%. This paper describes the testing and measurement procedures for the numerical simulation of these conditions with DD3IMP FE code. A comparison between experimental and numerical simulation results for the first stage is presented. The experimental results indicate that an increase in drawbead penetration is accompanied by a general decrease in springback, with both sidewall radius of curvature and the sidewall angle increasing with increasing drawbead penetration. An exception to this trend occurs at the shallowest bead penetration: the radius of curvature in the sidewall is larger than expected. The sequence of cyclic tension and compression is numerically studied for each drawbead penetration in order to investigate this phenomenon.

  2. Experimental and theoretical study of polarized photoluminescence caused by anisotropic strain relaxation in nonpolar a-plane textured ZnO grown by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Chih-Ming; Huang, Yu-En; Feng, Shih-Wei; Kou, Kuang-Yang; Chen, Chien-Hsun; Tu, Li-Wei

    2015-07-13

    Anisotropic strain relaxation and the resulting degree of polarization of photoluminescence (PL) in nonpolar a-plane textured ZnO are experimentally and theoretically studied. A thicker nonpolar a-plane textured ZnO film enhances the anisotropic in-plane strain relaxation, resulting in a larger degree of polarization of PL and better sample quality. Anisotropic in-plane strains, sample quality, and degree of polarization of PL in nonpolar a-plane ZnO are consequences of the degree of anisotropic in-plane strain relaxation. By the k·p perturbation approach, simulation results of the variation of the degree of polarization for the electronic transition upon anisotropic in-plane strain relaxation agree with experimental results.

  3. An exact plane-stress solution for a class of problems in orthotropic elasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erb, D. A.; Cooper, P. A.; Weisshaar, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    An exact solution for the stress field within a rectangular slab of orthotropic material is found using a two dimensional Fourier series formulation. The material is required to be in plane stress, with general stress boundary conditions, and the principle axes of the material must be parallel to the sides of the rectangle. Two load cases similar to those encountered in materials testing are investigated using the solution. The solution method has potential uses in stress analysis of composite structures.

  4. Adjustable magnetoelectric effect of self-assembled vertical multiferroic nanocomposite films by the in-plane misfit strain and ferromagnetic volume fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Huaping; Chai, Guozhong; Zhou, Ting; Zhang, Zheng; Kitamura, Takayuki; Zhou, Haomiao

    2014-03-21

    The strain-mediated magnetoelectric (ME) property of self-assembled vertical multiferroic nanocomposite films epitaxially grown on cubic substrates was calculated by a nonlinear thermodynamic theory combined with the elastic theory. The dependent relations of phase state of ferroelectric films with the in-plane misfit strain, out-of-plane misfit strain, temperature, and volume fraction of ferromagnetic phase were confirmed. The effects of in-plane misfit strain and ferromagnetic volume fraction on the polarization and dielectric constant of ferroelectric films at room temperature were elaborately analyzed for the vertical BaTiO{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and PbTiO{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite films. Our calculated results confirmed the relationship among ME effect and in-plane misfit strain and ferromagnetic volume fraction in the nanocomposite films. The ME voltage coefficients of vertical BaTiO{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and PbTiO{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite films displayed various maximums and abrupt points at special phases and phase transition boundaries. The ME voltage coefficients of lead-free BaTiO{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite films epitaxially grown on different substrates could reach a comparative value of ∼2 V·cm{sup −1}·Oe{sup −1} under the controllable in-plane misfit strain induced by substrate clamping. Our results provided an available method for the optimal design of vertical multiferroic nanocomposites with adjustable ME effect by optimizing the ferromagnetic volume fraction and substrate type.

  5. Effect of in-plane magnetic field and applied strain in quantum spin Hall systems: Application to InAs/GaSb quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lun-Hui; Xu, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Zhou, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the recent discovery of quantized spin Hall effect in InAs/GaSb quantum wells [Du, Knez, Sullivan, and Du, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 096802 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.096802], we theoretically study the effects of in-plane magnetic field and strain effect to the quantization of charge conductance by using Landauer-B ütikker formalism. Our theory predicts a robustness of the conductance quantization against the in-plane magnetic field up to a very high field of 20 T. We use a disordered hopping term to model the strain and show that the strain may help the quantization of the conductance. Relevance to the experiments will be discussed.

  6. Dynamics of restricted three and four vortices problem on the plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, J.; Boatto, S.; Vidal, C.

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of a test particle (a particle with zero vorticity) advected by the velocity field of N point-vortices with vorticities Γj, j = 1, …N, is considered. Making an analogy with similar studies in celestial mechanics, we call such a study a "restricted N-vortex problem" or (N + 1)-vortex problem. In particular, we study and characterize the global planar dynamics of some restricted 3 and 4-vortex problems, as a function of the vorticities Γj of the vortices.

  7. The role of convexity for solving some shortest path problems in plane without triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Phan Thanh; Hai, Nguyen Ngoc; Hoai, Tran Van

    2013-09-01

    Solving shortest path problems inside simple polygons is a very classical problem in motion planning. To date, it has usually relied on triangulation of the polygons. The question: "Can one devise a simple O(n) time algorithm for computing the shortest path between two points in a simple polygon (with n vertices), without resorting to a (complicated) linear-time triangulation algorithm?" raised by J. S. B. Mitchell in Handbook of Computational Geometry (J. Sack and J. Urrutia, eds., Elsevier Science B.V., 2000), is still open. The aim of this paper is to show that convexity contributes to the design of efficient algorithms for solving some versions of shortest path problems (namely, computing the convex hull of a finite set of points and convex rope on rays in 2D, computing approximate shortest path between two points inside a simple polygon) without triangulation on the entire polygons. New algorithms are implemented in C and numerical examples are presented.

  8. Two-dimensional metal-insulator transition and in-plane magnetoresistance in a high mobility strained Si quantum well.

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffler, F.; Muhlberger, M.; Lai, K. W.; Lyon, S.A.; Tsui, Daniel Chee; Pan, W. Y.

    2005-01-01

    The apparent metal-insulator transition is observed in a high-quality two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in the strained Si quantum well of a Si/Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} heterostructure with mobility {mu} = 1.9 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2}/V s at density n = 1.45 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. The critical density, at which the thermal coefficient of low T resistivity changes sign, is -0.32 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}, a very low value obtained in Si-based 2D systems. The in-plane magnetoresistivity {rho}(B{sub ip}) was measured in the density range, 0.35 x 10{sup 11} < n < 1.45 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}, where the 2DES shows the metallic-like behavior. It first increases and then saturates to a finite value {rho}(B{sub c}) for B{sub ip}>B{sub c} , with B{sub c} the full spin-polarization field. Surprisingly, {rho}(B{sub c})/{rho}(0)-1.8 for all the densities, even down to n = 0.35 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}, only 10% higher than n{sub c}. This is different from that in clean Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors, where the enhancement is strongly density dependent and {rho}(B{sub c})/{rho}(0) appears to diverge as n {yields} n{sub c}. Finally, we show that in the fully spin-polarized regime, dependent on the 2DES density, the temperature dependence of {rho}(B{sub ip}) can be either metallic-like or insulating.

  9. Plane Poiseuille-Couette problem in micro-electro-mechanical systems applications with gas-rarefaction effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cercignani, Carlo; Lampis, Maria; Lorenzani, Silvia

    2006-08-01

    Rarefied gas flows in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) devices, calculated from the linearized Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model equation [P. L. Bhatnagar, E. P. Gross, and M. Krook, Phys. Rev. 94, 511 (1954)], are studied in a wide range of Knudsen numbers. Both plane Poiseuille and Couette flows are investigated numerically by extending a finite difference technique first introduced by Cercignani and Daneri [J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3509 (1963)]. Moreover, a variational approach, applied to the integrodifferential form of the linearized Boltzmann equation [C. Cercignani, J. Stat. Phys. 1, 297 (1969)], is used to solve in a unified manner the plane Poiseuille-Couette problem by means of the computation of only one functional. General boundary conditions of Maxwell's type have been considered, assuming both symmetric and nonsymmetric molecular interaction between gas-solid interfaces, in order to take into account possible differences in the accommodation coefficients on the walls of MEMS devices. Based on the analysis presented in this paper, an accurate database valid in the entire Knudsen regime can be created for the Poiseuille-Couette problem, to be used in micromechanical applications.

  10. Plane transient contact problem for rough sliding bodies with wear and heat generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevtushenko, A. A.; Pauk, V. Jo.

    1994-04-01

    Experimental investigation corroborates the interdependence of processes and phenomena taking place in the contact of solids. Previous publications are concerned with simultaneous calculation of the microgeometry of surfaces of bodies, their wear and the heat due to friction in the contact zone in steady contact problems. In the present paper an analogous contact problem has been considered. The model employs the Archard law of wear, in which the rate of material removal is proportional to pressure and speed of sliding. Contact pressure and temperatures at the interface are found from the solution of two governing integral equations. Green's functions are used to investigate the stresses and temperatures inside the two elastic bodies for a variety of material combinations and operating conditions.

  11. Solving the problem of electromagnetic wave diffraction at a finite plane grating with small elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyurkchan, A. G.; Manenkov, S. A.

    2016-09-01

    Two approaches for solving the three-dimensional problem of wave diffraction at a finite grating consisting of bodies of revolution are proposed. An approximate solution is obtained for a grating with small elements. This solution is applied to consider gratings with a large number of elements. The coincidence of the results obtained by the two methods is shown. The reflection and transmission coefficients are compared for finite and infinite gratings.

  12. Social strain, couple dynamics and gender differences in gambling problems: evidence from Chinese married couples.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Nicole W T

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of the influence of couple dynamics on gender differences in gambling behavior remains meager. Building on general strain theory from the sociology of deviance and stress crossover theory from social psychology, we argue that the strain encountered by one partner in a social setting may affect his or her spouse. For instance, the wife of a man under more social strain may experience more strain in turn and thus be at a higher risk of developing disordered gambling than the wife of a man under less social strain. Using community survey data of 1620 Chinese married couples, we performed multilevel dyad analyses to address social strain and couple dynamics, in addition to their roles as predictors of gambling behavior in both spouses. This was a community survey of Hong Kong and therefore was not representative of China. Based on the DSM-IV screen, the rates of probable problem gambling and pathological gambling among male partners (12.8% vs. 2.5%) were twice those among female partners (5.2% vs. 0.3%). We also found that the social strain experienced by a male partner significantly predicted both his and his wife's likelihood of developing gambling problems. Although a female partner's exposure to social strain was a significant correlate of her gambling problem, it had no significant association with her husband's gambling behavior. These results suggest that the cross-spouse transference of social strain may be a gendered process. PMID:25452063

  13. Eshelby's problem of polygonal inclusions with polynomial eigenstrains in an anisotropic magneto-electro-elastic full plane

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y.-G.; Zou, W.-N.; Pan, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a closed-form solution for the arbitrary polygonal inclusion problem with polynomial eigenstrains of arbitrary order in an anisotropic magneto-electro-elastic full plane. The additional displacements or eigendisplacements, instead of the eigenstrains, are assumed to be a polynomial with general terms of order M+N. By virtue of the extended Stroh formulism, the induced fields are expressed in terms of a group of basic functions which involve boundary integrals of the inclusion domain. For the special case of polygonal inclusions, the boundary integrals are carried out explicitly, and their averages over the inclusion are also obtained. The induced fields under quadratic eigenstrains are mostly analysed in terms of figures and tables, as well as those under the linear and cubic eigenstrains. The connection between the present solution and the solution via the Green's function method is established and numerically verified. The singularity at the vertices of the arbitrary polygon is further analysed via the basic functions. The general solution and the numerical results for the constant, linear, quadratic and cubic eigenstrains presented in this paper enable us to investigate the features of the inclusion and inhomogeneity problem concerning polynomial eigenstrains in semiconductors and advanced composites, while the results can further serve as benchmarks for future analyses of Eshelby's inclusion problem. PMID:26345141

  14. Nuclear three-body problem in the complex energy plane: Complex-scaling Slater method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruppa, A. T.; Papadimitriou, G.; Nazarewicz, W.; Michel, N.

    2014-01-01

    parameter of the Tikhonov regularization. Conclusions: The combined suite of CS-Slater and GSM techniques has many attractive features when applied to nuclear problems involving weakly bound and unbound states. While both methods can describe energies, total widths, and wave functions of nuclear states, the CS-Slater method—if it can be applied—can provide additional information about partial energy widths associated with individual thresholds.

  15. Anisotropic strain relaxation and the resulting degree of polarization by one- and two-step growth in nonpolar a-plane GaN grown on r-sapphire substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Shih-Wei Chen, Yu-Yu; Lai, Chih-Ming; Tu, Li-Wei; Han, Jung

    2013-12-21

    Anisotropic strain relaxation and the resulting degree of polarization of the electronic transition in nonpolar a-plane GaN using one- and two-step growth are studied. By using two-step growth, a slower coalescence and a longer roughening-recovery process lead to larger anisotropic strain relaxation, a less striated surface, and lower densities of basal stacking fault (BSF) and prismatic stacking fault (PSF). It is suggested that anisotropic in-plane strains, surface striation, and BSF and PSF densities in nonpolar a-GaN are consequences of the rate of coalescence, the period of roughening-recovery process, and the degree of anisotropic strain relaxation. In addition, the two-step growth mode can enhance the degree of polarization of the electronic transition. The simulation results of the k⋅p perturbation approach show that the oscillator strength and degree of polarization of the electronic transition strongly depend on the in-plane strains upon anisotropic in-plane strain relaxation. The research results provide important information for optimized growth of nonpolar III-nitrides. By using two-step growth and by fabricating the devices on the high-quality nonpolar free-standing GaN substrates, high-efficiency nonpolar a-plane InGaN LEDs can be realized. Nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN LEDs can exhibit a strongly polarized light to improve the contrast, glare, eye discomfort and eye strain, and efficiency in display application.

  16. Planing of Watercraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Herbert

    1948-01-01

    The present report deals with the processes accompanying the planing of a planing boat or a seaplane on water . The study is largely based upon theoretical investigations; mathematical problems and proofs are not discussed. To analyze theoreticaly actual planing processes, giving due consideration to all aspects of the problem, is probably not possible. The theories therefore treat various simple limiting cases, which in their entirety give a picture of the planing processes and enable the interpretation of the experimental results. The discussion is concerned with the stationary planing attitude: the boat planes at a constant speed V on an originally smooth surface.

  17. Parental Strain, Mental Health Problems, and Parenting Practices: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Borre, Alicia; Kliewer, Wendy

    2014-10-01

    Although poor parenting practices place youth living in under resourced communities at heightened risk for adjustment difficulties, less is known about what influences parenting practices in those communities. The present study examines prospective linkages between three latent constructs: parental strain, mental health problems and parenting practices. Parental victimization by community violence and life stressors were indicative of parental strain; depressive, anxious, and hostile symptoms were indicators of parental mental health; and parental knowledge of their child's activities and child disclosure were indicators of parenting practices. Interviews were conducted annually for 3 waves with 316 female caregivers (92% African American) parenting youth in low-income inner-city communities. Structural equation modeling revealed that parental strain, assessed at Wave 1, predicted changes in mental health problems one year later, which in turn predicted parenting practices at Wave 3. These results suggest that parental strain can compromise a caregiver's ability to parent effectively by impacting their mental health. Opportunities for intervention include helping caregivers process trauma and mental health problems associated with parental strain.

  18. Thin Bio-Artificial Tissues in Plane Stress: The Relationship between Cell and Tissue Strain, and an Improved Constitutive Model

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, J. Pablo; Genin, Guy M.; Zahalak, George I.; Elson, Elliot L.

    2005-01-01

    Constitutive models are needed to relate the active and passive mechanical properties of cells to the overall mechanical response of bio-artificial tissues. The Zahalak model attempts to explicitly describe this link for a class of bio-artificial tissues. A fundamental assumption made by Zahalak is that cells stretch in perfect registry with a tissue. We show this assumption to be valid only for special cases, and we correct the Zahalak model accordingly. We focus on short-term and very long-term behavior, and therefore consider tissue constituents that are linear in their loading response (although not necessarily linear in unloading). In such cases, the average strain in a cell is related to the macroscopic tissue strain by a scalar we call the “strain factor”. We incorporate a model predicting the strain factor into the Zahalak model, and then reinterpret experiments reported by Zahalak and co-workers to determine the in situ stiffness of cells in a tissue construct. We find that, without the modification in this article, the Zahalak model can underpredict cell stiffness by an order of magnitude. PMID:15596492

  19. Orthorhombic fault fracture patterns and non-plane strain in a synthetic transfer zone during rifting: Lennard shelf, Canning basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John McL.; Nelson, E. P.; Hitzman, M.; Muccilli, P.; Hall, W. D. M.

    2007-06-01

    A complex series of faults occur within transfer zones normal to the WNW-trending rifted northern margin of the Canning basin (Western Australia). These zones controlled basinal fluid flow and the formation of some carbonate-hosted Mississippi Valley-type Zn-Pb deposits along the basin margin during Devonian to Carboniferous rifting. The study area has a regional fault geometry similar to a synthetic overlapping transfer zone. Surface and underground mapping in this transfer zone, combined with 3D modelling, indicate the faults and related extension fractures have an orthorhombic geometry. The orthorhombic fault-fracture mesh developed in response to three-dimensional non-plane strain in which the intermediate finite extension magnitude was non-zero. Pre-mineralisation marine calcite fill in the fault-fracture mesh indicates that it formed early in the deformation history. Later deformation that overprints the Zn-Pb mineralisation and fault-fracture mesh, was associated with a different maximum extension direction and this modified and reactivated the faults with both dip-slip and oblique-slip movement and tilting of earlier structures. The orthorhombic geometry is not observed at a regional scale (>10 × 10 km), indicating probable scale-dependant behaviour. This study indicates that this transfer zone developed either by (1) strain partitioning with synchronous strike-slip structures and adjacent zones of non-plane extension, or (2) by a component of non-plane extension sub-parallel to the basin margin followed by subsequent transtensional overprint of the system (preferred model). Synthetic overlapping transfer zones are inferred to be key regions where orthorhombic fault geometries may develop.

  20. A fast real time measurement system to track in and out of plane optical retardation/ birefringence, true stress, and true strain during biaxial stretching of polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakmak, M.; Hassan, M.; Unsal, E.; Martins, C.

    2012-12-01

    An instrumented and highly integrated biaxial stretching system was designed and constructed to obtain true stress, true strain, and optical behavior of polymeric films during biaxial stretching. With programmable drive motors, any form of temporally varying biaxial deformation profiles, including linear, exponential, logarithmic as well as cyclic, can be applied to a square-shaped films. This machine allows the investigation of mechano-optical behavior of films under profiles captured in industrial processes. To overcome the edge effects, the samples are painted with a dot pattern that is imaged using a high speed video capture system. This system accurately determines the locations of the each dot matrix in subsequent images acquired and calculates the true strains in both directions. The in-plane optical retardation is determined using spectral birefringence method that uses polarized white light and optical spectrometer in the optical train. This is carried out automatically at less than 10 nm in retardation resolution with the light beam passing through the symmetry center of the sample. Out of plane retardation is measured with an identical optical train tilted 45° to the plane of the film with its light beam going through the same spot on the sample as 0° beam. The true stress and birefringences are calculated with the determined instantaneous thickness of the film. With this system, the stress optical behavior of PET's is determined up to very large deformation levels at moderate to high deformation rates. Beyond the initial linear stress optical behavior, these films exhibit sudden positive deviation from linearity and this start of nonlinearity was directly associated with the stress induced crystallization.

  1. Effects of zonal harmonics on the out-of-plane equilibrium points in the generalized Robe's circular restricted three-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jagadish; Omale, Achonu Joseph

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the effects of the zonal harmonics on the out-of-plane equilibrium points of Robe's circular restricted three-body problem when the hydrostatic equilibrium shape of the first primary is an oblate spheroid, the shape of the second primary is an oblate spheroid with oblateness coefficients up to the second zonal harmonic, and the full buoyancy of the fluid is considered. It is observed that the size of the oblateness and the zonal harmonics affect the positions of the out-of-plane equilibrium points L6 and L7. It is also observed that these points within the possible region of motion are unstable.

  2. Strain effects on in-plane conductance of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Heui Hwang, Jin; Kwon, Sangku; Hun Kim, Jong; Young Park, Jeong; Park, Joonbum; Sung Kim, Jun; Lee, Jhinhwan; Lyeo, Ho-Ki

    2014-04-21

    We investigated the correlation between electrical transport and mechanical stress in a topological insulator, Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, using conductive probe atomic force microscopy in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. After directly measuring charge transport on the cleaved Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} surface, we found that the current density varied with applied load. Current mapping revealed a variation of the current on different terraces. The current density increased in the low-pressure regime and then decreased in the high-pressure regime. This variation of current density was explained in light of the combined effect of changes in the in-plane conductance due to spin–orbit coupling and hexagonal warping.

  3. Bonded half planes containing an arbitrarily oriented crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Aksogan, O.

    1973-01-01

    The plane elastostatic problem for two bonded half planes containing an arbitrarily oriented crack in the neighborhood of the interface is considered. Using Mellin transforms, the problem is formulated as a system of singular integral equations. The equations are solved for various crack orientations, material combinations, and external loads. The numerical results given include the stress intensity factors, tHe strain energy release rates, and tHe probable cleavage angles giving the direction of crack propagation.

  4. Evidence for non-plane strain flattening along the Moine thrust, Loch Srath nan Aisinnin, North-West Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strine, Matthew; Wojtal, Steven F.

    2004-10-01

    We report quartz c-axis patterns, grain-shape fabrics, and microstructures for 11 mylonitic quartzites and quartz-phyllosilicate schists from a transect across the Moine thrust at Loch Srath nan Aisinnin, North-West Scotland. In the footwall samples collected more than 42 m normal distance from the thrust surface, quartz c-axis textures indicate a general flattening strain (i.e. 0< k<1). Samples within 19 m normal distance of the thrust are completely recrystallized and exhibit asymmetric c-axis patterns. Recrystallized hanging wall fault rocks exhibit random c-axis patterns on the scale of a standard thin section. Relict footwall grains provide the closest approximation of finite strain; they have octahedral shear strains ( ɛs) between 1.10 and 1.47 and exhibit general flattening k-values (0.0524-0.659). The long axis of the mean relict grain shape trends parallel to the regional transport direction and plunges gently to the ESE. In contrast, recrystallized footwall grains have a mean grain shape with the longest axis oriented nearly perpendicular to the transport direction. Furthermore, these samples have grain shape k-value ranges from 0.157 to 0.295. Recrystallized hanging wall grain shapes exhibit the lowest octahedral shear 'strains' ( ɛs=0.532-0.733) and largest mean k-values (0.351-0.961) of this sample set. The long axes of the mean recrystallized hanging wall grain shapes are parallel to transport, similar to that of relict footwall grains. Unrecrystallized quartz overgrowths about opaque mineral grains suggest concurrent elongation in all directions within the mylonitic foliation and support the inference of general flattening deformation. The mylonitic foliation and penetrative lineation are consistent with a WNW shearing direction; however, both were folded during later deformation increments. Recrystallized grains in footwall quartzites suggest a 305-320° azimuth for the shearing direction. The best-fit π-axis of the poles to the foliation is 18

  5. On MTE-Model of Mathematics Teaching: Studying the Problems Related to a Plane Division Using the MTE-Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodroza-Pantic, O.; Matic-Kekic, Snezana; Jakovljev, Bogdanka; Markovic, Doko

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the didactically-methodological procedure named the MTE-model of mathematics teaching (Motivation test-Teaching-Examination test) is suggested and recommended when the teacher has subsequent lessons. This model is presented in detail through the processing of a nonstandard theme--the theme of decomposition of planes. Its efficiency…

  6. Heat strain in the Canadian Forces chemical defence clothing: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    McLellan, T M; Frim, J

    1994-12-01

    The Canadian Forces chemical defence protective clothing can induce an overwhelming strain on one's ability to regulate body temperature. Recently a number of investigations have been completed at the Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine that focused initially on understanding the interaction of metabolic rate, ambient temperature, and ambient vapour pressure on the severity of heat strain associated with wearing the protective clothing. This paper presents a summary of these initial studies together with an overview of different attempts to reduce heat strain during exercise in a hot environment. Factors such as improved aerobic fitness or a period of dry heat acclimation have little if any benefit on tolerance time while wearing the clothing during light or moderate exercise. The best solution to the problem of heat strain remains the use of microclimate conditioning (personal cooling), and these techniques have been successful for Naval and Air Force personnel. For our Land Forces, however, microclimate conditioning is not feasible until a lightweight high-energy power source is developed.

  7. Effect of frontal plane tibiofemoral angle on the stress and strain at the knee cartilage during the stance phase of gait.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nicholas H; Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid; Canavan, Paul K; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2010-12-01

    Subject-specific three-dimensional finite element models of the knee joint were created and used to study the effect of the frontal plane tibiofemoral angle on the stress and strain distribution in the knee cartilage during the stance phase of the gait cycle. Knee models of three subjects with different tibiofemoral angle and body weight were created based on magnetic resonance imaging of the knee. Loading and boundary conditions were determined from motion analysis and force platform data, in conjunction with the muscle-force reduction method. During the stance phase of walking, all subjects exhibited a valgus-varus-valgus knee moment pattern with the maximum compressive load and varus knee moment occurring at approximately 25% of the stance phase of the gait cycle. Our results demonstrated that the subject with varus alignment had the largest stresses at the medial compartment of the knee compared to the subjects with normal alignment and valgus alignment, suggesting that this subject might be most susceptible to developing medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA). In addition, the magnitude of stress and strain on the lateral cartilage of the subject with valgus alignment were found to be larger compared to subjects with normal alignment and varus alignment, suggesting that this subject might be most susceptible to developing lateral compartment knee OA.

  8. Problems Associated with Attaching Strain Gages to Titanium Alloy Ti-61-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, J. M.; Lemcoe, M. M.

    1977-01-01

    Weldable strain gages have shown excellent high temperature characteristics for supersonic cruise aircraft application. The spotwelding attachment method, however, has resulted in serious reductions in the fatigue life of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) fatigue specimens. The reduction is so severe that the use of weldable strain gages on operational aircraft must be prohibited. The cause of the fatigue problem is thought to be a combination of the microstructure changes in the material caused by spotwelding and the presence of the flange of the stain gage. Brazing, plating, and plasma spraying were investigated as substitutes for spotwelding. The attachment of a flangeless gage by plasma spraying provided the most improvement in the fatigue life of the titanium.

  9. Central potentials on spaces of constant curvature: The Kepler problem on the two-dimensional sphere S2 and the hyperbolic plane H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariñena, José F.; Rañada, Manuel F.; Santander, Mariano

    2005-05-01

    The Kepler problem is a dynamical system that is well defined not only on the Euclidean plane but also on the sphere and on the hyperbolic plane. First, the theory of central potentials on spaces of constant curvature is studied. All the mathematical expressions are presented using the curvature κ as a parameter, in such a way that they reduce to the appropriate property for the system on the sphere S2, or on the hyperbolic plane H2, when particularized for κ >0, or κ <0, respectively; in addition, the Euclidean case arises as the particular case κ =0. In the second part we study the main properties of the Kepler problem on spaces with curvature, we solve the equations and we obtain the explicit expressions of the orbits by using two different methods, first by direct integration and second by obtaining the κ-dependent version of the Binet's equation. The final part of the paper, that has a more geometric character, is devoted to the study of the theory of conics on spaces of constant curvature.

  10. Experiments with Planing Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sottorf, W

    1934-01-01

    A previous report discusses the experimental program of a systematic exploration of all questions connected with the planing problem as well as the first fundamental results of the investigation of a flat planing surface. The present report is limited to the conversion of the model test data to full scale.

  11. A new solution to the problem of scattering of a plane wave by a multilayer confocal spheroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farafonov, V. G.

    2013-03-01

    We have constructed a solution to the problem of scattering by a nonconfocal multilayer particle. The main difficulty was to join expansions constructed in two spheroidal systems on either side of each boundary. As a result of a detailed consideration of relations between scalar wave spheroidal and spherical functions, we have succeeded in finding a representation of the former in terms of the latter and vice versa. In the final form, the joining of solutions is described by only one matrix, which depends on coefficients of representations of angle spheroidal functions in terms of associated Legendre functions of the first kind. Since the problem has been solved using an approach that involves the method of extended boundary conditions, the dimension of the system for numerical determining unknown coefficients is equal to the number of terms that are taken into account in field expansions and does not depend on the number of particle layers. Previously performed numerical calculations for confocal particles have shown a very high efficiency of the algorithm not only for particles that are close to spheres in shape, but also for strongly prolate and strongly oblate spheroids. In addition, the algorithm makes it possible to calculate optical properties of particles that have dozens of layers.

  12. New plane shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, A.

    1994-12-31

    A classical problem in fluid dynamics is the study of the stability of plane Couette flow. This flow experimentally sustains turbulence for Reynolds numbers greater than 1440 {+-} 40. (The Reynolds number is based on channel width and wall velocity difference). Since plane Couette flow is linearly stable for all Reynolds numbers, obtaining non-trivial mathematical solutions to the plane Couette flow equations is difficult. However, M. Nagata finds a non-trivial number solution of the plane Couette flow equations at low Reynolds number. We confirm these solutions. We compute the minimum Reynolds number at which they exist. We study their stability. We also study the effect of a Coriolis force on plane Poiseuille flow.

  13. A simple laminate theory using the orthotropic viscoplasticity theory based on overstress. I - In-plane stress-strain relationships for metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krempl, Erhard; Hong, Bor Zen

    1989-01-01

    A macromechanics analysis is presented for the in-plane, anisotropic time-dependent behavior of metal matrix laminates. The small deformation, orthotropic viscoplasticity theory based on overstress represents lamina behavior in a modified simple laminate theory. Material functions and constants can be identified in principle from experiments with laminae. Orthotropic invariants can be repositories for tension-compression asymmetry and for linear elasticity in one direction while the other directions behave in a viscoplastic manner. Computer programs are generated and tested for either unidirectional or symmetric laminates under in-plane loading. Correlations with the experimental results on metal matrix composites are presented.

  14. Computational strategy for the solution of large strain nonlinear problems using the Wilkins explicit finite-difference approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, R.

    1980-01-01

    The STEALTH code system, which solves large strain, nonlinear continuum mechanics problems, was rigorously structured in both overall design and programming standards. The design is based on the theoretical elements of analysis while the programming standards attempt to establish a parallelism between physical theory, programming structure, and documentation. These features have made it easy to maintain, modify, and transport the codes. It has also guaranteed users a high level of quality control and quality assurance.

  15. Strain on the gastrocnemii and hamstrings affecting standing balance on an inclined plane in spastic cerebral palsy. A study using a geometric model.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, N; Mita, K; Watakabe, M; Akataki, K; Okagawa, T; Kimizuka, M

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an non-invasive method to determine whether strain on the gastrocnemii and hamstrings influences postural balance in spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Changes in alignment during standing posture with subjects positioned on a platform that was gradually inclined were measured in 10 normal children and 11 children with CP. The changes in postural alignment were plotted and geometric models used to determine the lines where the gastrocnemii and hamstrings were maximally stretched. In this way the relationship between postural alignment and the amount of strain on the gastrocnemii and hamstrings was investigated. On the inclined platform, which caused ankle joints to become dorsiflexed as the inclination angle increased, the gastrocnemii began to be strained and the hip joints began to be flexed (trunk bent forward) at the same time. In the children with CP, the gastrocnemii were more strained by smaller degrees of inclination. Furthermore, there was one child with CP whose hamstrings were also strained on the inclined platform. We confirmed that postural balance was affected by strain on the gastrocnemii and hamstrings.

  16. The Role of Personal and Job Resources in the Relationship between Psychosocial Job Demands, Mental Strain, and Health Problems.

    PubMed

    Mayerl, Hannes; Stolz, Erwin; Waxenegger, Anja; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Recent research highlights the importance of both job resources and personal resources in the job demands-resources model. However, the results of previous studies on how these resources are related to each other and how they operate in relation to the health-impairment process of the job demands-resources model are ambiguous. Thus, the authors tested an alternative model, considering job and personal resources to be domains of the same underlying factor and linking this factor to the health-impairment process. Survey data of two Austrian occupational samples (N 1 = 8657 and N 2 = 9536) were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). The results revealed that job and personal resources can be considered as indicators of a single resources factor which was negatively related to psychosocial job demands, mental strain, and health problems. Confirming previous studies, we further found that mental strain mediated the relationship between psychosocial job demands and health problems. Our findings suggest that interventions aimed at maintaining health in the context of work may take action on three levels: (1) the prevention of extensive job demands, (2) the reduction of work-related mental strain, and (3) the strengthening of resources. PMID:27582717

  17. The Role of Personal and Job Resources in the Relationship between Psychosocial Job Demands, Mental Strain, and Health Problems.

    PubMed

    Mayerl, Hannes; Stolz, Erwin; Waxenegger, Anja; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Recent research highlights the importance of both job resources and personal resources in the job demands-resources model. However, the results of previous studies on how these resources are related to each other and how they operate in relation to the health-impairment process of the job demands-resources model are ambiguous. Thus, the authors tested an alternative model, considering job and personal resources to be domains of the same underlying factor and linking this factor to the health-impairment process. Survey data of two Austrian occupational samples (N 1 = 8657 and N 2 = 9536) were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). The results revealed that job and personal resources can be considered as indicators of a single resources factor which was negatively related to psychosocial job demands, mental strain, and health problems. Confirming previous studies, we further found that mental strain mediated the relationship between psychosocial job demands and health problems. Our findings suggest that interventions aimed at maintaining health in the context of work may take action on three levels: (1) the prevention of extensive job demands, (2) the reduction of work-related mental strain, and (3) the strengthening of resources.

  18. The Role of Personal and Job Resources in the Relationship between Psychosocial Job Demands, Mental Strain, and Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Mayerl, Hannes; Stolz, Erwin; Waxenegger, Anja; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Recent research highlights the importance of both job resources and personal resources in the job demands-resources model. However, the results of previous studies on how these resources are related to each other and how they operate in relation to the health-impairment process of the job demands-resources model are ambiguous. Thus, the authors tested an alternative model, considering job and personal resources to be domains of the same underlying factor and linking this factor to the health-impairment process. Survey data of two Austrian occupational samples (N1 = 8657 and N2 = 9536) were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). The results revealed that job and personal resources can be considered as indicators of a single resources factor which was negatively related to psychosocial job demands, mental strain, and health problems. Confirming previous studies, we further found that mental strain mediated the relationship between psychosocial job demands and health problems. Our findings suggest that interventions aimed at maintaining health in the context of work may take action on three levels: (1) the prevention of extensive job demands, (2) the reduction of work-related mental strain, and (3) the strengthening of resources. PMID:27582717

  19. The nonconforming linear strain tetrahedron for a large deformation elasticity problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansbo, Peter; Larsson, Fredrik

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we investigate the performance of the nonconforming linear strain tetrahedron element introduced by Hansbo (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 200(9-12):1311-1316, 2011; J Numer Methods Eng 91(10):1105-1114, 2012). This approximation uses midpoints of edges on tetrahedra in three dimensions with either point continuity or mean continuity along edges of the tetrahedra. Since it contains (rotated) bilinear terms it performs substantially better than the standard constant strain element in bending. It also allows for under-integration in the form of one point Gauss integration of volumetric terms in near incompressible situations. We combine under-integration of the volumetric terms with houglass stabilization for the isochoric terms.

  20. Computational strain gradient crystal plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niordson, Christian F.; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    A numerical method for viscous strain gradient crystal plasticity theory is presented, which incorporates both energetic and dissipative gradient effects. The underlying minimum principles are discussed as well as convergence properties of the proposed finite element procedure. Three problems of plane crystal plasticity are studied: pure shear of a single crystal between rigid platens as well as plastic deformation around cylindrical voids in hexagonal close packed and face centered cubic crystals. Effective in-plane constitutive slip parameters for plane strain deformation of specifically oriented face centered cubic crystals are developed in terms of the crystallographic slip parameters. The effect on geometrically necessary dislocation structures introduced by plastic deformation is investigated as a function of the ratio of void radius to plasticity length scale.

  1. A microstructural lattice model for strain oriented problems: A combined Monte Carlo finite element technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, J.; Srolovitz, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    A specialized, microstructural lattice model, termed MCFET for combined Monte Carlo Finite Element Technique, was developed which simulates microstructural evolution in material systems where modulated phases occur and the directionality of the modulation is influenced by internal and external stresses. In this approach, the microstructure is discretized onto a fine lattice. Each element in the lattice is labelled in accordance with its microstructural identity. Diffusion of material at elevated temperatures is simulated by allowing exchanges of neighboring elements if the exchange lowers the total energy of the system. A Monte Carlo approach is used to select the exchange site while the change in energy associated with stress fields is computed using a finite element technique. The MCFET analysis was validated by comparing this approach with a closed form, analytical method for stress assisted, shape changes of a single particle in an infinite matrix. Sample MCFET analytical for multiparticle problems were also run and in general the resulting microstructural changes associated with the application of an external stress are similar to that observed in Ni-Al-Cr alloys at elevated temperature.

  2. MCFET - A MICROSTRUCTURAL LATTICE MODEL FOR STRAIN ORIENTED PROBLEMS: A COMBINED MONTE CARLO FINITE ELEMENT TECHNIQUE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, J.

    1994-01-01

    A specialized, microstructural lattice model, termed MCFET for combined Monte Carlo Finite Element Technique, has been developed to simulate microstructural evolution in material systems where modulated phases occur and the directionality of the modulation is influenced by internal and external stresses. Since many of the physical properties of materials are determined by microstructure, it is important to be able to predict and control microstructural development. MCFET uses a microstructural lattice model that can incorporate all relevant driving forces and kinetic considerations. Unlike molecular dynamics, this approach was developed specifically to predict macroscopic behavior, not atomistic behavior. In this approach, the microstructure is discretized into a fine lattice. Each element in the lattice is labeled in accordance with its microstructural identity. Diffusion of material at elevated temperatures is simulated by allowing exchanges of neighboring elements if the exchange lowers the total energy of the system. A Monte Carlo approach is used to select the exchange site while the change in energy associated with stress fields is computed using a finite element technique. The MCFET analysis has been validated by comparing this approach with a closed-form, analytical method for stress-assisted, shape changes of a single particle in an infinite matrix. Sample MCFET analyses for multiparticle problems have also been run and, in general, the resulting microstructural changes associated with the application of an external stress are similar to that observed in Ni-Al-Cr alloys at elevated temperatures. This program is written in FORTRAN for use on a 370 series IBM mainframe. It has been implemented on an IBM 370 running VM/SP and an IBM 3084 running MVS. It requires the IMSL math library and 220K of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium for this program is a 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tape in EBCDIC format.

  3. [Organizational problems of disaster victim identification in mass casualties as exemplified by Tu 154-M and Airbus A310 passenger plane crashes].

    PubMed

    Volkov, A V; Kolkutin, V V; Klevno, V A; Shkol'nikov, B V; Kornienko, I V

    2008-01-01

    Managerial experience is described that was gained during the large-scale work on victim identification following mass casualties in the Tu 154-M and Airbus A310 passenger plane crashes. The authors emphasize the necessity to set up a specialized agency of constant readiness meeting modern requirements for the implementation of a system of measures for personality identification. This agency must incorporate relevant departments of the Ministries of Health, Defense, and Emergency Situations as well as investigative authorities and other organizations. PMID:19048869

  4. Numerical calculation of thermo-mechanical problems at large strains based on complex step derivative approximation of tangent stiffness matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzani, Daniel; Gandhi, Ashutosh; Tanaka, Masato; Schröder, Jörg

    2015-05-01

    In this paper a robust approximation scheme for the numerical calculation of tangent stiffness matrices is presented in the context of nonlinear thermo-mechanical finite element problems and its performance is analyzed. The scheme extends the approach proposed in Kim et al. (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 200:403-413, 2011) and Tanaka et al. (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 269:454-470, 2014 and bases on applying the complex-step-derivative approximation to the linearizations of the weak forms of the balance of linear momentum and the balance of energy. By incorporating consistent perturbations along the imaginary axis to the displacement as well as thermal degrees of freedom, we demonstrate that numerical tangent stiffness matrices can be obtained with accuracy up to computer precision leading to quadratically converging schemes. The main advantage of this approach is that contrary to the classical forward difference scheme no round-off errors due to floating-point arithmetics exist within the calculation of the tangent stiffness. This enables arbitrarily small perturbation values and therefore leads to robust schemes even when choosing small values. An efficient algorithmic treatment is presented which enables a straightforward implementation of the method in any standard finite-element program. By means of thermo-elastic and thermo-elastoplastic boundary value problems at finite strains the performance of the proposed approach is analyzed.

  5. The role of dissipation and defect energy in variational formulations of problems in strain-gradient plasticity. Part 1: polycrystalline plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, B. D.

    2011-11-01

    A general set of flow laws and associated variational formulations are constructed for small-deformation rate-independent problems in strain-gradient plasticity. The framework is based on the thermodynamically consistent theory due to Gurtin and Anand (J Mech Phys Solids 53:1624-1649, 2005), and includes as variables a set of microstresses which have both energetic and dissipative components. The flow law is of associative type. It is expressed as a normality law with respect to a convex but otherwise arbitrary yield function, or equivalently in terms of the corresponding dissipation function. Two cases studied are, first, an extension of the classical Hill-Mises or J 2 flow law and second, a form written as a linear sum of the magnitudes of the plastic strain and strain gradient. This latter form is motivated by work of Evans and Hutchinson (Acta Mater 57:1675-1688, 2009) and Nix and Gao (J Mech Phys Solids 46:411-425, 1998), who show that it leads to superior correspondence with experimental results, at least for particular classes of problems. The corresponding yield function is obtained by a duality argument. The variational problem is based on the flow rule expressed in terms of the dissipation function, and the problem is formulated as a variational inequality in the displacement, plastic strain, and hardening parameter. Dissipative components of the microstresses, which are indeterminate, are absent from the formulation. Existence and uniqueness of solutions are investigated for the generalized Hill-Mises and linear-sum dissipation functions, and for various combinations of defect energy. The conditions for well-posedness of the problem depend critically on the choice of dissipation function, and on the presence or otherwise of a defect energy in the plastic strain or plastic strain gradient, and of internal-variable hardening.

  6. A Case for Plane-Strain during the Development of the Indo-Burma Fold-Thrust Belt in Tripura and Mizoram, Northeast India (23-24°N; 91-93°E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betka, P. M.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    , contractional structures that formed internally within the FTB are indicative of east-west horizontal shortening and plane strain. This result suggests that the dextral component of shear measured by geodetic data is primarily partitioned onto discrete right-lateral strike-slip faults such as the Churachandpur-Mao and Kabaw faults.

  7. Isolation and characterization of a potential paraffin-wax degrading thermophilic bacterial strain Geobacillus kaustophilus TERI NSM for application in oil wells with paraffin deposition problems.

    PubMed

    Sood, Nitu; Lal, Banwari

    2008-02-01

    Paraffin deposition problems, that have plagued the oil industry, are currently remediated by mechanical and chemical means. However, since these methods are problematic, a microbiological approach has been considered. The bacteria, required for the mitigation of paraffin deposition problems, should be able to survive the high temperatures of oil wells and degrade the paraffins under low oxygen and nutrient conditions while sparing the low carbon chain paraffins. In this study, a thermophilic paraffinic wax degrading bacterial strain was isolated from a soil sample contaminated with paraffinic crude oil. The selected strain, Geobacillus TERI NSM, could degrade 600mg of paraffinic wax as the sole carbon source in 1000ml minimal salts medium in 7d at 55 degrees C. This strain was identified as Geobacillus kaustophilus by fatty acid methyl esters analysis and 16S rRNA full gene sequencing. G. kaustophilus TERI NSM showed 97% degradation of eicosane, 85% degradation of pentacosane and 77% degradation of triacontane in 10d when used as the carbon source. The strain TERI NSM could also degrade the paraffins of crude oil collected from oil wells that had a history of paraffin deposition problems.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a potential paraffin-wax degrading thermophilic bacterial strain Geobacillus kaustophilus TERI NSM for application in oil wells with paraffin deposition problems.

    PubMed

    Sood, Nitu; Lal, Banwari

    2008-02-01

    Paraffin deposition problems, that have plagued the oil industry, are currently remediated by mechanical and chemical means. However, since these methods are problematic, a microbiological approach has been considered. The bacteria, required for the mitigation of paraffin deposition problems, should be able to survive the high temperatures of oil wells and degrade the paraffins under low oxygen and nutrient conditions while sparing the low carbon chain paraffins. In this study, a thermophilic paraffinic wax degrading bacterial strain was isolated from a soil sample contaminated with paraffinic crude oil. The selected strain, Geobacillus TERI NSM, could degrade 600mg of paraffinic wax as the sole carbon source in 1000ml minimal salts medium in 7d at 55 degrees C. This strain was identified as Geobacillus kaustophilus by fatty acid methyl esters analysis and 16S rRNA full gene sequencing. G. kaustophilus TERI NSM showed 97% degradation of eicosane, 85% degradation of pentacosane and 77% degradation of triacontane in 10d when used as the carbon source. The strain TERI NSM could also degrade the paraffins of crude oil collected from oil wells that had a history of paraffin deposition problems. PMID:17942139

  9. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains how our weather occurs, and why Solar radiation is responsible. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  10. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains what high and low pressure weather systems are, and how they form. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  11. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains what high and low pressure weather systems are, and how these affect weather patterns. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  12. The solar system's invariable plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souami, D.; Souchay, J.

    2012-07-01

    Context. The dynamics of solar system objects, such as dwarf planets and asteroids, has become a well-established field of celestial mechanics in the past thirty years, owing to the improvements that have been made in observational techniques and numerical studies. In general, the ecliptic is taken as the reference plane in these studies, although there is no dynamical reason for doing so. In contrast, the invariable plane as originally defined by Laplace, seems to be a far more natural choice. In this context, the latest study of this plane dates back to Burkhardt. Aims: We define and determine the orientation of the invariable plane of the solar system with respect to both the ICRF and the equinox-ecliptic of J2000.0, and evaluate the accuracy of our determination. Methods: Using the long-term numerical ephemerides DE405, DE406, and INPOP10a over their entire available time span, we computed the total angular momentum of the solar system, as well as the individual contribution to it made by each of the planets, the dwarf planets Pluto and Ceres, and the two asteroids Pallas and Vesta. We then deduced the orientation of the invariable plane from these ephemerides. Results: We update the previous results on the determination of the orientation of the invariable plane with more accurate data, and a more complete analysis of the problem, taking into account the effect of the dwarf planet (1) Ceres as well as two of the biggest asteroids, (4) Vesta and (2) Pallas. We show that the inclusion of these last three bodies significantly improves the accuracy of determination of the invariable plane, whose orientation over a 100 y interval does not vary more than 0.1 mas in inclination, and 0.3 mas in longitude of the ascending node. Moreover, we determine the individual contributions of each body to the total angular momentum of the solar system, as well as the inclination and longitude of the node with respect to this latter plane. Conclusions: Owing to the high accuracy

  13. The plane problem of the flapping wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnbaum, Walter

    1954-01-01

    In connection with an earlier report on the lifting vortex sheet which forms the basis of the following investigations this will show how the methods developed there are also suitable for dealing with the air forces for a wing with a circulation variable with time. The theory of a propulsive wing flapping up and down periodically in the manner of a bird's wing is developed. This study shows how the lift and its moment result as a function of the flapping motion, what thrust is attainable, and how high is the degree of efficiency of this flapping propulsion unit if the air friction is disregarded.

  14. Asymmetric quadrilateral shell elements for finite strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areias, P.; Dias-da-Costa, D.; Pires, E. B.; Van Goethem, N.

    2013-07-01

    Very good results in infinitesimal and finite strain analysis of shells are achieved by combining either the enhanced-metric technique or the selective-reduced integration for the in-plane shear energy and an assumed natural strain technique (ANS) in a non-symmetric Petrov-Galerkin arrangement which complies with the patch-test. A recovery of the original Wilson incompatible mode element is shown for the trial functions in the in-plane components. As a beneficial side-effect, Newton-Raphson convergence behavior for non-linear problems is improved with respect to symmetric formulations. Transverse-shear and in-plane patch tests are satisfied while distorted-mesh accuracy is higher than with symmetric formulations. Classical test functions with assumed-metric components are required for compatibility reasons. Verification tests are performed with advantageous comparisons being observed in all of them. Applications to large displacement elasticity and finite strain plasticity are shown with both low sensitivity to mesh distortion and (relatively) high accuracy. A equilibrium-consistent (and consistently linearized) updated-Lagrangian algorithm is proposed and tested. Concerning the time-step dependency, it was found that the consistent updated-Lagrangian algorithm is nearly time-step independent and can replace the multiplicative plasticity approach if only moderate elastic strains are present, as is the case of most metals.

  15. Direct Three-Dimensional Myocardial Strain Tensor Quantification and Tracking using zHARP★

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Elmoniem, Khaled Z.; Stuber, Matthias; Prince, Jerry L.

    2008-01-01

    Images of myocardial strain can be used to diagnose heart disease, plan and monitor treatment, and to learn about cardiac structure and function. Three-dimensional (3-D) strain is typically quantified using many magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained in two or three orthogonal planes. Problems with this approach include long scan times, image misregistration, and through-plane motion. This article presents a novel method for calculating cardiac 3-D strain using a stack of two or more images acquired in only one orientation. The zHARP pulse sequence encodes in-plane motion using MR tagging and out-of-plane motion using phase encoding, and has been previously shown to be capable of computing 3D displacement within a single image plane. Here, data from two adjacent image planes are combined to yield a 3-D strain tensor at each pixel; stacks of zHARP images can be used to derive stacked arrays of 3D strain tensors without imaging multiple orientations and without numerical interpolation. The performance and accuracy of the method is demonstrated in-vitro on a phantom and in-vivo in four healthy adult human subjects. PMID:18511332

  16. In plane oscillation of a bifilar pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichsen, Peter F.

    2016-11-01

    The line tensions, the horizontal and vertical accelerations as well as the period of large angle oscillations parallel to the plane of a bifilar suspension are presented and have been experimentally investigated using strain gauges and a smart phone. This system has a number of advantages over the simple pendulum for studying large angle oscillations, and for measuring the acceleration due to gravity.

  17. In-plane strain modulated magnetization and magnetoelectric effect in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3-BaTiO3 and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3-BaTiO3-BiFeO3 multilayer's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Virendra; Gaur, Anurag; Chaudhury, Ram Janay; Kumar, Dileep

    2016-10-01

    La0.7Sr0.3MnO3-BaTiO3(LSMO/BTO) and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3-BaTiO3-BiFeO3 (LSMO/BTO/BFO) multilayer thin films are deposited on STO (100) substrate by pulsed laser deposition. In-plane lattice mismatch induced strain is thoroughly investigated with the conclusion, that upper BTO layer of bilayer resides in high strained state, while upper BFO layer of trilayer remains under partially relaxed state. Significantly higher value (∼20) of dielectric constant is observed for LSMO/BTO bilayer in compliance with its higher (12.28 μC/cm2) in-plane strain induced interfacial polarization, which exceeds (2.06 μC/cm2), the observed value of polarization for LSMO/BTO/BFO trilayer. In LSMO/BTO bilayer, antiferromagnetic LSMO phase coexists due to the existence of strong tensile strain between the interfaces, which causes the reduction in value of saturation magnetization up to 50.76 emu/cm3 in comparison to 145.01 emu/cm3 for LSMO/BTO/BFO trilayer. The maximum value of linear magnetoelectric coefficient (α31) observed for LSMO/BTO bilayer is 24.77 mV/cm-Oe, which is higher in comparison to 19.54 mV/cm-Oe for LSMO/BTO/BFO trilayer, where the upper layer undergoes less strain in comparison to the bilayer.

  18. A Method for Measuring a Plane Angle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, George D.; Roberts, G. Gilbert

    1978-01-01

    Derivation of formulas and example problems for determining the size of a plane angle are given to help in drafting work. The authors state that a small hand calculator will provide greater accuracy in solving these problems than a protractor. (MF)

  19. Fourier plane imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, Daniel Peralta, Luis Grave de; Alharbi, Nouf; Alhusain, Mdhaoui; Bernussi, Ayrton A.

    2014-09-14

    We show how the image of an unresolved photonic crystal can be reconstructed using a single Fourier plane (FP) image obtained with a second camera that was added to a traditional compound microscope. We discuss how Fourier plane imaging microscopy is an application of a remarkable property of the obtained FP images: they contain more information about the photonic crystals than the images recorded by the camera commonly placed at the real plane of the microscope. We argue that the experimental results support the hypothesis that surface waves, contributing to enhanced resolution abilities, were optically excited in the studied photonic crystals.

  20. Attitude analysis in Flatland: The plane truth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuster, Malcolm D.

    1993-01-01

    Many results in attitude analysis are still meaningful when the attitude is restricted to rotations about a single axis. Such a picture corresponds to attitude analysis in the Euclidean plane. The present report formalizes the representation of attitude in the plane and applies it to some well-known problems. In particular, we study the connection of the 'additive' and 'multiplicative' formulations of the differential corrector for the quaternion in its two-dimensional setting.

  1. Plane elasto-plastic analysis of v-notched plate under bending by boundary integral equation method. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rzasnicki, W.

    1973-01-01

    A method of solution is presented, which, when applied to the elasto-plastic analysis of plates having a v-notch on one edge and subjected to pure bending, will produce stress and strain fields in much greater detail than presently available. Application of the boundary integral equation method results in two coupled Fredholm-type integral equations, subject to prescribed boundary conditions. These equations are replaced by a system of simultaneous algebraic equations and solved by a successive approximation method employing Prandtl-Reuss incremental plasticity relations. The method is first applied to number of elasto-static problems and the results compared with available solutions. Good agreement is obtained in all cases. The elasto-plastic analysis provides detailed stress and strain distributions for several cases of plates with various notch angles and notch depths. A strain hardening material is assumed and both plane strain and plane stress conditions are considered.

  2. Fixed sagittal plane imbalance.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jason W; Patel, Alpesh A

    2014-12-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To discuss the evaluation and management of fixed sagittal plane imbalance. Methods A comprehensive literature review was performed on the preoperative evaluation of patients with sagittal plane malalignment, as well as the surgical strategies to address sagittal plane deformity. Results Sagittal plane imbalance is often caused by de novo scoliosis or iatrogenic flat back deformity. Understanding the etiology and magnitude of sagittal malalignment is crucial in realignment planning. Objective parameters have been developed to guide surgeons in determining how much correction is needed to achieve favorable outcomes. Currently, the goals of surgery are to restore a sagittal vertical axis < 5 cm, pelvic tilt < 20 degrees, and lumbar lordosis equal to pelvic incidence ± 9 degrees. Conclusion Sagittal plane malalignment is an increasingly recognized cause of pain and disability. Treatment of sagittal plane imbalance varies according to the etiology, location, and severity of the deformity. Fixed sagittal malalignment often requires complex reconstructive procedures that include osteotomy correction. Reestablishing harmonious spinopelvic alignment is associated with significant improvement in health-related quality-of-life outcome measures and patient satisfaction.

  3. 2. VIEW SOUTH, INCLINE PLANE CAR, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH, INCLINE PLANE CAR, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  4. The invariable plane of the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souami, D.; Souchay, J.

    2012-04-01

    The invariable plane of the solar system is defined as the plane perpendicular to the total angular momentum of the system and passing through its centre of mass. The idea of using the invariable plane as a reference plane in the study of the dynamics of solar system bodies goes back at least to Laplace [3]. The latest study on this plane dates back to Burkhardt [2]. The aim of this work is to determine at best the orientation of the invariable plane with respect to both the ICRS and the equinox-ecliptic of J2000.0, and to evaluate the accuracy of its determination. Such a determination is of fundamental interest in the topic of solar system studies, as suggested by the WGCCRE 2009 [1] for the determination of planet's and satellites' rotational elements. Using the long-term numerical ephemerides DE405, DE406 [6] and INPOP10a[4] over their entire available time span, we compute the total angular momentum of the solar system, as well as the individual contribution of each planet. We then deduce the orientation of the invariable plane for each ephemeris, and establish their relative differences. Preliminary results can be found in [5]. Here we update them with more accurate data, and a more complete analysis of the problem, taking into account the effect of the dwarf planet (1) Ceres as well as two of the biggest asteroids, (4) Vesta and (2) Pallas. Moreover, we give the orbital elements (inclination, longitude of the ascending node) with respect to the invariable plane. As given its accuracy of determination, and its fundamental dynamical meaning, the invariable plane provides a permanent natural reference plane that should be used when studying solar system dynamics, instead of the ecliptic. Thus, we recommend referring to it when working on long-term dynamics.

  5. Impaired spatial performance in rats with retrosplenial lesions: importance of the spatial problem and the rat strain in identifying lesion effects in a swimming pool.

    PubMed

    Harker, K Troy; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2002-02-01

    Behavioral, electrophysiological, and anatomical evidence suggests that retrosplenial (RS) cortex (areas RSA and RSG) plays a role in spatial navigation. This conclusion has been questioned in recent work, suggesting that it is damage to the underlying cingulum bundle (CG) (areas CG and IG), and not RS, that disrupts spatial place learning (Aggleton et al., 2000). We revisited this issue by comparing Long-Evans rats, the strain used in studies that report RS deficits, to Dark Agouti rats, the strain in which no RS deficit has been reported. Rat groups with RS, RS + CG, or no lesion were tested on a place task in a swimming pool, a test of nonspatial and spatial learning, and a matching-to-place task, a relatively selective test of spatial learning. Long-Evans rats given RS and RS + CG lesions, either before or after training on the two tasks, were impaired on both tasks, a deficit not attributable to impaired visual acuity. Control Dark Agouti rats and RS Dark Agouti rats, although not different on the place task, were both significantly impaired relative to Long-Evans rats. The RS Dark Agouti group, however, was also impaired on the matching-to-place task. Thus, we show that RS cortex is part of an extended neural circuit involved in spatial behavior in both Long-Evans and Dark Agouti rats, but its role in the place task may be masked by an innate nonspatial deficit in Dark Agouti rats. The results are discussed in relation to the importance of assessing spatial learning with appropriate spatial tests, the problems of interpretation posed by rat strain differences, and the role of retrosplenial cortex in spatial behavior.

  6. Optical strain measuring techniques for high temperature tensile testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Hemann, John H.

    1987-01-01

    A number of optical techniques used for the analysis of in-plane displacements or strains are reviewed. The application would be for the high temperature, approximately 1430 C (2600 F), tensile testing of ceramic composites in an oxidizing atmosphere. General descriptions of the various techniques and specifics such as gauge lengths and sensitivities are noted. Also, possible problems with the use of each method in the given application are discussed.

  7. A Curved, Elastostatic Boundary Element for Plane Anisotropic Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S.; Klang, Eric C.

    2001-01-01

    The plane-stress equations of linear elasticity are used in conjunction with those of the boundary element method to develop a novel curved, quadratic boundary element applicable to structures composed of anisotropic materials in a state of plane stress or plane strain. The curved boundary element is developed to solve two-dimensional, elastostatic problems of arbitrary shape, connectivity, and material type. As a result of the anisotropy, complex variables are employed in the fundamental solution derivations for a concentrated unit-magnitude force in an infinite elastic anisotropic medium. Once known, the fundamental solutions are evaluated numerically by using the known displacement and traction boundary values in an integral formulation with Gaussian quadrature. All the integral equations of the boundary element method are evaluated using one of two methods: either regular Gaussian quadrature or a combination of regular and logarithmic Gaussian quadrature. The regular Gaussian quadrature is used to evaluate most of the integrals along the boundary, and the combined scheme is employed for integrals that are singular. Individual element contributions are assembled into the global matrices of the standard boundary element method, manipulated to form a system of linear equations, and the resulting system is solved. The interior displacements and stresses are found through a separate set of auxiliary equations that are derived using an Airy-type stress function in terms of complex variables. The capabilities and accuracy of this method are demonstrated for a laminated-composite plate with a central, elliptical cutout that is subjected to uniform tension along one of the straight edges of the plate. Comparison of the boundary element results for this problem with corresponding results from an analytical model show a difference of less than 1%.

  8. Axial Plane Optical Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tongcang; Ota, Sadao; Kim, Jeongmin; Wong, Zi Jing; Wang, Yuan; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    We present axial plane optical microscopy (APOM) that can, in contrast to conventional microscopy, directly image a sample's cross-section parallel to the optical axis of an objective lens without scanning. APOM combined with conventional microscopy simultaneously provides two orthogonal images of a 3D sample. More importantly, APOM uses only a single lens near the sample to achieve selective-plane illumination microscopy, as we demonstrated by three-dimensional (3D) imaging of fluorescent pollens and brain slices. This technique allows fast, high-contrast, and convenient 3D imaging of structures that are hundreds of microns beneath the surfaces of large biological tissues. PMID:25434770

  9. SNAP focal plane

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Kim, A.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Berkovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro,R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland, S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder,E.V.; Loken, S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation--visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star guiders--share one common focal plane.

  10. Axial Plane Optical Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tongcang; Ota, Sadao; Kim, Jeongmin; Wong, Zi Jing; Wang, Yuan; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-12-01

    We present axial plane optical microscopy (APOM) that can, in contrast to conventional microscopy, directly image a sample's cross-section parallel to the optical axis of an objective lens without scanning. APOM combined with conventional microscopy simultaneously provides two orthogonal images of a 3D sample. More importantly, APOM uses only a single lens near the sample to achieve selective-plane illumination microscopy, as we demonstrated by three-dimensional (3D) imaging of fluorescent pollens and brain slices. This technique allows fast, high-contrast, and convenient 3D imaging of structures that are hundreds of microns beneath the surfaces of large biological tissues.

  11. Out of plane analysis for composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, P. C.; Saff, C. R.; Sanger, Kenneth B.; Mahler, M. A.; Kan, Han Pin; Kautz, Edward F.

    1990-01-01

    Simple two dimensional analysis techniques were developed to aid in the design of strong joints for integrally stiffened/bonded composite structures subjected to out of plane loads. It was found that most out of plane failures were due to induced stresses arising from rapid changes in load path direction or geometry, induced stresses due to changes in geometry caused by buckling, or direct stresses produced by fuel pressure or bearing loads. While the analysis techniques were developed to address a great variety of out of plane loading conditions, they were primarily derived to address the conditions described above. The methods were developed and verified using existing element test data. The methods were demonstrated using the data from a test failure of a high strain wingbox that was designed, built, and tested under a previous program. Subsequently, a set of design guidelines were assembled to assist in the design of safe, strong integral composite structures using the analysis techniques developed.

  12. Ultrawide phononic band gap for combined in-plane and out-of-plane waves.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Osama R; Hussein, Mahmoud I

    2011-12-01

    We consider two-dimensional phononic crystals formed from silicon and voids, and present optimized unit-cell designs for (1) out-of-plane, (2) in-plane, and (3) combined out-of-plane and in-plane elastic wave propagation. To feasibly search through an excessively large design space (~10(40) possible realizations) we develop a specialized genetic algorithm and utilize it in conjunction with the reduced Bloch mode expansion method for fast band-structure calculations. Focusing on high-symmetry plain-strain square lattices, we report unit-cell designs exhibiting record values of normalized band-gap size for all three categories. For the case of combined polarizations, we reveal a design with a normalized band-gap size exceeding 60%.

  13. Carbon nanotube plane fastener

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirahara, Kaori; Ajioka, Shoichi; Nakayama, Yoshikazu

    2011-12-01

    We report a feature of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that arises when the surfaces of two vertically-aligned CNT brushes are pressed together. Adhesion between the CNTs creates a plane fastener-like device. Observations from scanning electron microscopy and measurements of adhesion properties indicate a device-dependence on CNT density and shape near the tip region. Among other applications, such fasteners have the potential to attach small components onto micron-sized electronic devices.

  14. The role of dissipation and defect energy in variational formulations of problems in strain-gradient plasticity. Part 2: single-crystal plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, B. D.

    2011-11-01

    Variational formulations are constructed for rate-independent problems in small-deformation single-crystal strain-gradient plasticity. The framework, based on that of Gurtin (J Mech Phys Solids 50: 5-32, 2002), makes use of the flow rule expressed in terms of the dissipation function. Provision is made for energetic and dissipative microstresses. Both recoverable and non-recoverable defect energies are incorporated into the variational framework. The recoverable energies include those that depend smoothly on the slip gradients, the Burgers tensor, or on the dislocation densities (Gurtin et al. J Mech Phys Solids 55:1853-1878, 2007), as well as an energy proposed by Ohno and Okumura (J Mech Phys Solids 55:1879-1898, 2007), which leads to excellent agreement with experimental results, and which is positively homogeneous and therefore not differentiable at zero slip gradient. Furthermore, the variational formulation accommodates a non-recoverable energy due to Ohno et al. (Int J Mod Phys B 22:5937-5942, 2008), which is also positively homogeneous, and a function of the accumulated dislocation density. Conditions for the existence and uniqueness of solutions are established for the various examples of defect energy, with or without the presence of hardening or slip resistance.

  15. Plane Couette-Poiseuille flow past a homogeneous poroelastic layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexiou, Terpsichori S.; Kapellos, George E.

    2013-07-01

    An analytical solution is presented for the problem of fully developed plane Couette-Poiseuille flow past a homogeneous, permeable poroelastic layer. Main novel feature of this work is that the compressibility, which is related to the action of the free-fluid pressure on the poroelastic layer, is taken into account. Therefore, the solid stress problem is two-dimensional, although the fluid flow problem remains one-dimensional in the limit of infinitesimal strain. The pressure-related compressibility affects strongly the distribution of the von Mises stress in the poroelastic layer by shifting the local maximum towards the high-pressure region of the channel. Furthermore, the established analytical solution is used to investigate some aspects of the mechanotransducing role of the endothelial surface layer. A compressible surface layer might serve as a "bumper'' by reducing the magnitude of the overall shearing force (viscous and elastic) acting on endothelial cells, as compared to the magnitude of the fluid shear force that would be exerted in its absence.

  16. Trajectory optimization for the National Aerospace Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this second phase research is to investigate the optimal ascent trajectory for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) from runway take-off to orbital insertion and address the unique problems associated with the hypersonic flight trajectory optimization. The trajectory optimization problem for an aerospace plane is a highly challenging problem because of the complexity involved. Previous work has been successful in obtaining sub-optimal trajectories by using energy-state approximation and time-scale decomposition techniques. But it is known that the energy-state approximation is not valid in certain portions of the trajectory. This research aims at employing full dynamics of the aerospace plane and emphasizing direct trajectory optimization methods. The major accomplishments of this research include the first-time development of an inverse dynamics approach in trajectory optimization which enables us to generate optimal trajectories for the aerospace plane efficiently and reliably, and general analytical solutions to constrained hypersonic trajectories that has wide application in trajectory optimization as well as in guidance and flight dynamics. Optimal trajectories in abort landing and ascent augmented with rocket propulsion and thrust vectoring control were also investigated. Motivated by this study, a new global trajectory optimization tool using continuous simulated annealing and a nonlinear predictive feedback guidance law have been under investigation and some promising results have been obtained, which may well lead to more significant development and application in the near future.

  17. Precession of a Spinning Ball Rolling down an Inclined Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2015-01-01

    A routine problem in an introductory physics course considers a rectangular block at rest on a plane inclined at angle a to the horizontal. In order for the block not to slide down the incline, the coefficient of sliding friction, µ, must be at least tan a. The situation is similar for the case of a ball rolling down an inclined plane. In order…

  18. Optimal plane change by low aerodynamic forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinh, Nguyen X.; Ma, Der-Ming

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the exact dimensionless equations of motion and the necessary conditions for the computation of the optimal trajectories of a hypervelocity vehicle flying through a nonrotating spherical planetary atmosphere. It is shown that there are two types of maneuvers with nearly identical plane change. In the hard maneuver, the vehicle is pulled down to low altitude for aerodyamic plane change before exit at the prescribed final speed. In the slow maneuver which is described in detail in this paper, the vehicle remains in orbital flight with a small incremental plane change during each passage through the perigee. This maneuver requires several revolutions, and the technique for computation is similar to that in the problem of contraction of orbit.

  19. The Three Planes of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Gloria

    1999-01-01

    Currently, the language sciences place together four different forms of mental activity on one plane of language, which results in confusion. This paper presents arguments from metaphysics, hermeneutics, and semiotics to demonstrate that there are actually three planes of language (a biologically-based information processing plane, a literal…

  20. The Aerodynamic Plane Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1924-01-01

    This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

  1. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, L.A.; Hermann, M.R.; Dane, C.B.; Tiszauer, D.H.

    1995-12-12

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 {micro}m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only about 1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power. 1 fig.

  2. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Dane, C. Brent; Tiszauer, Detlev H.

    1995-01-01

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 .mu.m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only .about.1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power.

  3. Explicit mixed strain-displacement finite elements for compressible and quasi-incompressible elasticity and plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervera, M.; Lafontaine, N.; Rossi, R.; Chiumenti, M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an explicit mixed finite element formulation to address compressible and quasi-incompressible problems in elasticity and plasticity. This implies that the numerical solution only involves diagonal systems of equations. The formulation uses independent and equal interpolation of displacements and strains, stabilized by variational subscales. A displacement sub-scale is introduced in order to stabilize the mean-stress field. Compared to the standard irreducible formulation, the proposed mixed formulation yields improved strain and stress fields. The paper investigates the effect of this enhancement on the accuracy in problems involving strain softening and localization leading to failure, using low order finite elements with linear continuous strain and displacement fields ( P1 P1 triangles in 2D and tetrahedra in 3D) in conjunction with associative frictional Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager plastic models. The performance of the strain/displacement formulation under compressible and nearly incompressible deformation patterns is assessed and compared to analytical solutions for plane stress and plane strain situations. Benchmark numerical examples show the capacity of the mixed formulation to predict correctly failure mechanisms with localized patterns of strain, virtually free from any dependence of the mesh directional bias. No auxiliary crack tracking technique is necessary.

  4. Mediational and Deviance Theories of Late High School Failure: Process Roles of Structural Strains, Academic Competence, and General versus Specific Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Abbott, Robert D.; Catalano, Richard F.; Hawkins, J. David; Battin-Pearson, Sara; Hill, Karl

    2002-01-01

    Understanding and preventing high school failure is a national priority. Structural strain and general deviance theories attempt to explain late high school failure. The authors tested the hypotheses that general (vs. specific) deviance and academic competence mediate the relationships between structural strain factors (gender, ethnicity, and…

  5. Plane impact response of PBX 9501 below 2 GPA

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, J.J.; Martinez, A.R.; Hixson, R.S.

    1998-12-31

    The plane impact response of PBX 9501 was measured below 2 GPa using a light-gas gun facility. Time-resolved wave profiles were obtained in a state of uniaxial strain for impact stresses between 0.3 to 1.2 GPa. The dynamic strength of PBX 9501 was measured at high strain rates in both compression and tension. The Hugoniot equation of state was measured.

  6. Plane and Coloured

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vajda, S.

    1969-01-01

    Discussed are some applications of Euler's Formula N plus F minus E equals Z, where N, F, and E are respectively the number of vertices, faces, and edges of a planar figure. In particular, the Four-Color Problem is proved for the special case of five countries. (CT)

  7. Plane Smoothers for Multiblock Grids: Computational Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llorente, Ignacio M.; Diskin, Boris; Melson, N. Duane

    1999-01-01

    Standard multigrid methods are not well suited for problems with anisotropic discrete operators, which can occur, for example, on grids that are stretched in order to resolve a boundary layer. One of the most efficient approaches to yield robust methods is the combination of standard coarsening with alternating-direction plane relaxation in the three dimensions. However, this approach may be difficult to implement in codes with multiblock structured grids because there may be no natural definition of global lines or planes. This inherent obstacle limits the range of an implicit smoother to only the portion of the computational domain in the current block. This report studies in detail, both numerically and analytically, the behavior of blockwise plane smoothers in order to provide guidance to engineers who use block-structured grids. The results obtained so far show alternating-direction plane smoothers to be very robust, even on multiblock grids. In common computational fluid dynamics multiblock simulations, where the number of subdomains crossed by the line of a strong anisotropy is low (up to four), textbook multigrid convergence rates can be obtained with a small overlap of cells between neighboring blocks.

  8. Surface deformation from a pressurized subsurface fracture: Problem description

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Pengcheng

    2014-09-15

    This document speci es a set of problems that entail the calculation of ground surface deformation caused by a pressurized subsurface fracture. The solid medium is assumed to be isotropic-homogeneous where linear elasticity applies. The e ects of the uid in the fracture is represented by a uniform pressure applied onto the two fracture walls. The fracture is assumed to be rectangular in shape and various dipping angles are considered. In addition to the full 3D solution, we reduce the 3D problem to a plane-strain geometry, so that 2D codes can participate in the comparison and results can be compared with those available in the literature.

  9. Enumeration of plane partitions with a restricted number of parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovenchak, A. A.

    2014-11-01

    We use the quantum statistical approach to estimate the number of restricted plane partitions of an integer n with the number of parts not exceeding some finite N. We use the analogy between this number theory problem and the enumeration of microstates of the ideal two-dimensional Bose gas. The numbers of restricted plane partitions calculated with the conjectured expression agree well with the exact values for n from 10 to 20.

  10. Plane-wave expansion of elliptic cylindrical functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, Carlo; Frezza, Fabrizio; Tedeschi, Nicola

    2015-08-01

    Elliptic Cylindrical Waves (ECW), defined as the product of an angular Mathieu function by its corresponding radial Mathieu function, occur in the solution of scattering problems involving two-dimensional structures with elliptic cross sections. In this paper, we explicitly derive the expansion of ECW, along a plane surface, in terms of homogeneous and evanescent plane waves, showing the accuracy of the numerical implementation of the formulas and discussing possible applications of the result.

  11. Trajectory optimization for the National Aerospace Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of this research is to develop an efficient and robust trajectory optimization tool for the optimal ascent problem of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). This report is organized in the following order to summarize the complete work: Section two states the formulation and models of the trajectory optimization problem. An inverse dynamics approach to the problem is introduced in Section three. Optimal trajectories corresponding to various conditions and performance parameters are presented in Section four. A midcourse nonlinear feedback controller is developed in Section five. Section six demonstrates the performance of the inverse dynamics approach and midcourse controller during disturbances. Section seven discusses rocket assisted ascent which may be beneficial when orbital altitude is high. Finally, Section eight recommends areas of future research.

  12. Traffic noise and the hyperbolic plane

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, G.W. Warnick, C.M.

    2010-04-15

    We consider the problem of sound propagation in a wind. We note that the rays, as in the absence of a wind, are given by Fermat's principle and show how to map them to the trajectories of a charged particle moving in a magnetic field on a curved space. For the specific case of sound propagating in a stratified atmosphere with a small wind speed, we show that the corresponding particle moves in a constant magnetic field on the hyperbolic plane. In this way, we give a simple 'straightedge and compass' method to estimate the intensity of sound upwind and downwind. We construct Mach envelopes for moving sources. Finally, we relate the problem to that of finding null geodesics in a squashed anti-de Sitter spacetime and discuss the SO(3,1)xR symmetry of the problem from this point of view.

  13. On a Minimum Problem in Smectic Elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Buonsanti, Michele; Giovine, Pasquale

    2008-07-08

    Smectic elastomers are layered materials exhibiting a solid-like elastic response along the layer normal and a rubbery one in the plane. Balance equations for smectic elastomers are derived from the general theory of continua with constrained microstructure. In this work we investigate a very simple minimum problem based on multi-well potentials where the microstructure is taken into account. The set of polymeric strains minimizing the elastic energy contains a one-parameter family of simple strain associated with a micro-variation of the degree of freedom. We develop the energy functional through two terms, the first one nematic and the second one considering the tilting phenomenon; after, by developing in the rubber elasticity framework, we minimize over the tilt rotation angle and extract the engineering stress.

  14. National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Artists concept of the X-30 aerospace plane flying through Earth's atmosphere on its way to low-Earth orbit. the experimental concept is part of the National Aero-Space Plane Program. The X-30 is planned to demonstrate the technology for airbreathing space launch and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Photograph and caption published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 117), by James Schultz.

  15. Finite element formulations for problems of large elastic-plastic deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmeeking, R. M.; Rice, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    An Eulerian finite element formulation is presented for problems of large elastic-plastic flow. The method is based on Hill's variational principle for incremental deformations, and is suited to isotropically hardening Prandtl-Reuss materials. The formulation is given in a manner which allows any conventional finite element program, for "small strain" elasticplastic analysis, to be simply and rigorously adapted to problems involving arbitrary amounts of deformation and arbitrary levels of stress in comparison to plastic deformation moduli. The method is applied to a necking bifurcation analysis of a bar in plane-strain tension. A unified general formulation of finite element equations, both Lagrangian and Eulerian, for large deformations, with arbitrary choice of the conjugate stress and strain measures, and a discussion is given of other proposed formulations for elastic-plastic finite element analysis at large strain.

  16. Finite-element formulations for problems of large elastic-plastic deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmeeking, R. M.; Rice, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An Eulerian finite element formulation is presented for problems of large elastic-plastic flow. The method is based on Hill's variational principle for incremental deformations, and is ideally suited to isotropically hardening Prandtl-Reuss materials. Further, the formulation is given in a manner which allows any conventional finite element program, for 'small strain' elastic-plastic analysis, to be simply and rigorously adapted to problems involving arbitrary amounts of deformation and arbitrary levels of stress in comparison to plastic deformation moduli. The method is applied to a necking bifurcation analysis of a bar in plane-strain tension. The paper closes with a unified general formulation of finite element equations, both Lagrangian and Eulerian, for large deformations, with arbitrary choice of the conjugate stress and strain measures. Further, a discussion is given of other proposed formulations for elastic-plastic finite element analysis at large strain, and the inadequacies of some of these are commented upon.

  17. A method of plane geometry primitive presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Anbo; Luo, Haibo; Chang, Zheng; Hui, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Point feature and line feature are basic elements in object feature sets, and they play an important role in object matching and recognition. On one hand, point feature is sensitive to noise; on the other hand, there are usually a huge number of point features in an image, which makes it complex for matching. Line feature includes straight line segment and curve. One difficulty in straight line segment matching is the uncertainty of endpoint location, the other is straight line segment fracture problem or short straight line segments joined to form long straight line segment. While for the curve, in addition to the above problems, there is another difficulty in how to quantitatively describe the shape difference between curves. Due to the problems of point feature and line feature, the robustness and accuracy of target description will be affected; in this case, a method of plane geometry primitive presentation is proposed to describe the significant structure of an object. Firstly, two types of primitives are constructed, they are intersecting line primitive and blob primitive. Secondly, a line segment detector (LSD) is applied to detect line segment, and then intersecting line primitive is extracted. Finally, robustness and accuracy of the plane geometry primitive presentation method is studied. This method has a good ability to obtain structural information of the object, even if there is rotation or scale change of the object in the image. Experimental results verify the robustness and accuracy of this method.

  18. Rigorous formulation for electromagnetic plane-wave scattering from a general-shaped groove in a perfectly conducting plane: comment.

    PubMed

    Skigin, Diana C; Depine, Ricardo A

    2008-05-01

    We show that the problem of scattering of an obliquely incident plane wave by a general-shaped groove engraved on a perfectly conducting plane, which was recently studied by Basha et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24, 1647 (2007)], was solved 11 years ago using the same formulation. This method was further extended to deal with a finite number of grooves and also with complex apertures including several nonlossy and lossy dielectrics, as well as real metals.

  19. Natural Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1997-01-01

    Logarithmic strain is the preferred measure of strain used by materials scientists, who typically refer to it as the "true strain." It was Nadai who gave it the name "natural strain," which seems more appropriate. This strain measure was proposed by Ludwik for the one-dimensional extension of a rod with length l. It was defined via the integral of dl/l to which Ludwik gave the name "effective specific strain." Today, it is after Hencky, who extended Ludwik's measure to three-dimensional analysis by defining logarithmic strains for the three principal directions.

  20. National Transonic Facility model and model support vibration problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Popernack, Thomas G., Jr.; Gloss, Blair B.

    1990-01-01

    Vibrations of models and model support system were encountered during testing in the National Transonic Facility. Model support system yaw plane vibrations have resulted in model strain gage balance design load limits being reached. These high levels of vibrations resulted in limited aerodynamic testing for several wind tunnel models. The yaw vibration problem was the subject of an intensive experimental and analytical investigation which identified the primary source of the yaw excitation and resulted in attenuation of the yaw oscillations to acceptable levels. This paper presents the principal results of analyses and experimental investigation of the yaw plane vibration problems. Also, an overview of plans for development and installation of a permanent model system dynamic and aeroelastic response measurement and monitoring system for the National Transonic Facility is presented.

  1. [Tail Plane Icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program initiated by NASA in 1997 has put greater emphasis in safety related research activities. Ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) has been identified by the NASA Lewis Icing Technology Branch as an important activity for aircraft safety related research. The ICTS phenomenon is characterized as a sudden, often uncontrollable aircraft nose- down pitching moment, which occurs due to increased angle-of-attack of the horizontal tailplane resulting in tailplane stall. Typically, this phenomenon occurs when lowering the flaps during final approach while operating in or recently departing from icing conditions. Ice formation on the tailplane leading edge can reduce tailplane angle-of-attack range and cause flow separation resulting in a significant reduction or complete loss of aircraft pitch control. In 1993, the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) and NASA embarked upon a four-year research program to address the problem of tailplane stall and to quantify the effect of tailplane ice accretion on aircraft performance and handling characteristics. The goals of this program, which was completed in March 1998, were to collect aerodynamic data for an aircraft tail with and without ice contamination and to develop analytical methods for predicting the effects of tailplane ice contamination. Extensive dry air and icing tunnel tests which resulted in a database of the aerodynamic effects associated with tailplane ice contamination. Although the FAA/NASA tailplane icing program generated some answers regarding ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) phenomena, NASA researchers have found many open questions that warrant further investigation into ICTS. In addition, several aircraft manufacturers have expressed interest in a second research program to expand the database to other tail configurations and to develop experimental and computational methodologies for evaluating the ICTS phenomenon. In 1998, the icing branch at NASA Lewis initiated a second

  2. Helicoidal plane of dental occlusion.

    PubMed

    Osborn, J W

    1982-03-01

    A helicoidal plane of postcanine occlusion has been patchily reported in many recent and fossil dentitions of man, and has been suggested as a taxonomic marker distinguishing between the dentitions of Homo and Australopithecines. The present paper describes the helicoidal plane in 19 out of 23 modern human (probably Indian) worn dentitions, in both gracile and robust Australopithecines and in extant anthropoids. It is suggested that tooth wear converts the plane of occlusion present in little-worn teeth, the Monson curve, into a helicoidal plane when 1) the diet is more abrasive, 2) the enamel is thinner and less abrasion resistant, and 3) a longer time separates the eruption of the three molar teeth in a jaw quadrant. A model demonstrates that during the power stroke of a chewing cycle the working side molars move in much the same direction whether the molar occlusal plan follows a Monson curve or a helicoidal plane. The difference is that in the former case the three molars work at the same time while in the latter case they work in sequence from anterior to posterior, thereby concentrating force on one tooth at a time. Because the occlusal plane changes during the life of individuals consuming an abrasive diet, the condition of most anthropoids and hominids, it is argued that the Monson curve has functional significance not because of its influence on occlusal relations and/or jaw movement but because the molar teeth are embedded in bone roughly perpendicular to it, a direction which resists tilting of the teeth during mastication. It is concluded that the helicoidal plane probably has little if any value as a taxonomic marker.

  3. Characterization of the KATRIN Focal Plane Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodine, Laura; Leber, Michelle; Myers, Allan; Tolich, Kazumi; Vandevender, Brent; Wall, Brandon

    2008-10-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) Experiment is a next generation tritium beta decay experiment designed to measure directly the electron neutrino mass with a sensitivity of 0.2 eV. In the experiment, electrons from tritium decay of a gaseous source are magnetically guided through analyzing solenoidal retarding electrostatic spectrometers and detected via a focal plane detector. The focal plane detector is a 90mm diameter, 500 micron thick monolithic silicon pin-diode array with 148 pixels. The diode contacts have a titanium nitride overlayer and are connected to preamplifiers via an array of spring-loaded pogo pins. This novel connection scheme minimizes backgrounds from radioactive materials near the detector, facilitates characterization and replacement of the detector wafer, but requires a unique mounting design. The force of the pins strains the silicon, possibly altering the detector properties and performance. Results on the mechanical, thermal and electrical performance of a prototype detector under stress from pogo pin readouts will be presented.

  4. Natural Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a consistent and thorough development of the strain and strain-rate measures affiliated with Hencky. Natural measures for strain and strain-rate, as I refer to them, are first expressed in terms of of the fundamental body-metric tensors of Lodge. These strain and strain-rate measures are mixed tensor fields. They are mapped from the body to space in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian configurations, and then transformed from general to Cartesian fields. There they are compared with the various strain and strain-rate measures found in the literature. A simple Cartesian description for Hencky strain-rate in the Lagrangian state is obtained.

  5. The Laplace Planes of Uranus and Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite orbits close to an oblate planet precess about its equatorial plane, while distant satellites precess around the plane of the planet's heliocentric orbit. In between, satellites in nearly circular orbits precess about a warped intermediate surface called the Laplace 'plane.' Herein we derive general formulas for locating the Laplace plane. Because Uranus and Pluto have high obliquities, their Laplace planes are severely warped. We present maps of these Laplace planes, of interest in telescopic searches for new satellites. The Laplace plane of the Solar System as a whole is similarly distorted, but comets in the inner Oort cloud precess too slowly to sense the Laplace plane.

  6. Stochastic Plane Stress Analysis with Elementary Stiffness Matrix Decomposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Er, G. K.; Wang, M. C.; Iu, V. P.; Kou, K. P.

    2010-05-01

    In this study, the efficient analytical method named elementary stiffness matrix decomposition (ESMD) method is further investigated and utilized for the moment evaluation of stochastic plane stress problems in comparison with the conventional perturbation method in stochastic finite element analysis. In order to evaluate the performance of this method, computer programs are written and some numerical results about stochastic plane stress problems are obtained. The numerical analysis shows that the computational efficiency is much increased and the computer EMS memory requirement can be much reduced by using ESMD method.

  7. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1988-03-08

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 4 figs.

  8. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, Stanley P.

    1988-01-01

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

  9. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1987-03-12

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Plane waves as tractor beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgács, Péter; Lukács, Árpád; Romańczukiewicz, Tomasz

    2013-12-01

    It is shown that in a large class of systems, plane waves act as tractor beams: i.e., an incident plane wave can exert a pulling force on the scatterer. The underlying physical mechanism for the pulling force is due to the sufficiently strong scattering of the incoming wave into another mode carrying more momentum, in which case excess momentum is created behind the scatterer. This tractor beam or negative radiation pressure (NRP) effect, is found to be generic in systems with multiple scattering channels. In a birefringent medium, electromagnetic plane waves incident on a thin plate exert NRP of the same order of magnitude as optical radiation pressure, while in artificial dielectrics (metamaterials), the magnitude of NRP can even be macroscopic. In two dimensions, we study various scattering situations on vortices, and NRP is shown to occur by the scattering of heavy baryons into light leptons off cosmic strings, and by neutron scattering off vortices in the XY model.

  11. Line Spring Model and Its Applications to Part-Through Crack Problems in Plates and Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Aksel, B.

    1986-01-01

    The line spring model is described and extended to cover the problem of interaction of multiple internal and surface cracks in plates and shells. The shape functions for various related crack geometries obtained from the plane strain solution and the results of some multiple crack problems are presented. The problems considered include coplanar surface cracks on the same or opposite sides of a plate, nonsymmetrically located coplanar internal elliptic cracks, and in a very limited way the surface and corner cracks in a plate of finite width and a surface crack in a cylindrical shell with fixed end.

  12. Plane waves in noncommutative fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, M. C. B.; Holender, L.; Santos, M. A.; Vancea, I. V.

    2013-08-01

    We study the dynamics of the noncommutative fluid in the Snyder space perturbatively at the first order in powers of the noncommutative parameter. The linearized noncommutative fluid dynamics is described by a system of coupled linear partial differential equations in which the variables are the fluid density and the fluid potentials. We show that these equations admit a set of solutions that are monochromatic plane waves for the fluid density and two of the potentials and a linear function for the third potential. The energy-momentum tensor of the plane waves is calculated.

  13. Space-Plane Spreadsheet Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, Dale

    1993-01-01

    Basic Hypersonic Data and Equations (HYPERDATA) spreadsheet computer program provides data gained from three analyses of performance of space plane. Equations used to perform analyses derived from Newton's second law of physics, derivation included. First analysis is parametric study of some basic factors affecting ability of space plane to reach orbit. Second includes calculation of thickness of spherical fuel tank. Third produces ratio between volume of fuel and total mass for each of various aircraft. HYPERDATA intended for use on Macintosh(R) series computers running Microsoft Excel 3.0.

  14. Affine Contractions on the Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, D.; Ozdemir, Y.; Ureyen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Contractions play a considerable role in the theory of fractals. However, it is not easy to find contractions which are not similitudes. In this study, it is shown by counter examples that an affine transformation of the plane carrying a given triangle onto another triangle may not be a contraction even if it contracts edges, heights or medians.…

  15. Plane stress problems using hysteretic rigid body spring network models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christos, Sofianos D.; Vlasis, Koumousis K.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a discrete numerical scheme is presented capable of modeling the hysteretic behavior of 2D structures. Rigid Body Spring Network (RBSN) models that were first proposed by Kawai (Nucl Eng Des 48(1):29-207, 1978) are extended to account for hysteretic elastoplastic behavior. Discretization is based on Voronoi tessellation, as proposed specifically for RBSN models to ensure uniformity. As a result, the structure is discretized into convex polygons that form the discrete rigid bodies of the model. These are connected with three zero length, i.e., single-node springs in the middle of their common facets. The springs follow the smooth hysteretic Bouc-Wen model which efficiently incorporates classical plasticity with no direct reference to a yield surface. Numerical results for both static and dynamic loadings are presented, which validate the proposed simplified spring-mass formulation. In addition, they verify the model's applicability on determining primarily the displacement field and plastic zones compared to the standard elastoplastic finite element method.

  16. Rapid near-optimal aerospace plane trajectory generation and guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Corban, J. E.; Markopoulos, N.

    1991-01-01

    Effort was directed toward the problems of the real time trajectory optimization and guidance law development for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) applications. In particular, singular perturbation methods were used to develop guidance algorithms suitable for onboard, real time implementation. The progress made in this research effort is reported.

  17. Straining Graphene Using Thin Film Shrinkage Methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical works suggest the possibility and usefulness of strain engineering of graphene by predicting remarkable properties, such as Dirac cone merging, bandgap opening and pseudo magnetic field generation. However, most of these predictions have not yet been confirmed because it is experimentally difficult to control the magnitude and type (e.g., uniaxial, biaxial, and so forth) of strain in graphene devices. Here we report two novel methods to apply strain without bending the substrate. We employ thin films of evaporated metal and organic insulator deposited on graphene, which shrink after electron beam irradiation or heat application. These methods make it possible to apply both biaxial strain and in-plane isotropic compressive strain in a well-controlled manner. Raman spectroscopy measurements show a clear splitting of the degenerate states of the G-band in the case of biaxial strain, and G-band blue shift without splitting in the case of in-plane isotropic compressive strain. In the case of biaxial strain application, we find out the ratio of the strain component perpendicular to the stretching direction is at least three times larger than what was previously observed, indicating that shrinkage of the metal or organic insulator deposited on graphene induces both tensile and compressive strain in this atomically thin material. Our studies present for the first time a viable way to apply strain to graphene without the need to bend the substrate. PMID:24490629

  18. Twisted sectors from plane partitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Shouvik; Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Li, Wei; Peng, Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Twisted sectors arise naturally in the bosonic higher spin CFTs at their free points, as well as in the associated symmetric orbifolds. We identify the coset representations of the twisted sector states using the description of W_{∞} representations in terms of plane partitions. We confirm these proposals by a microscopic null-vector analysis, and by matching the excitation spectrum of these representations with the orbifold prediction.

  19. A jumping cylinder on an inclined plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, R. W.; Hernández-Gómez, J. J.; Marquina, V.

    2012-09-01

    The problem of a cylinder of mass m and radius r, with its centre of mass out of the cylinder’s axis, rolling on an inclined plane that makes an angle α with respect to the horizontal, is analysed. The equation of motion is partially solved to obtain the site where the cylinder loses contact with the inclined plane (jumps). Several simplifications are made: the analysed system consists of an homogeneous disc with a one-dimensional straight line mass parallel to the disc axis at a distance y < r of the centre of the cylinder. To compare our results with experimental data, we use a styrofoam cylinder to which a long brass rod is embedded parallel to the disc axis at a distance y < r from it, so the centre of mass lies at a distance d from the centre of the cylinder. Then the disc rolls without slipping on a long wooden ramp inclined at 15°, 30° and 45° with respect to the horizontal. To determine the jumping site, the movements are recorded with a high-speed video camera (Casio EX ZR100) at 240 and 480 frames per second. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical predictions.

  20. Drag reduction at a plane wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    The objective is to determine by analytical means how drag on a plane wall may be modified favorably using a minimal amount of flow information - preferably only information at the wall. What quantities should be measured? How should that information be assimilated in order to arrive at effective control? As a prototypical problem, incompressible, viscous flow, governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, past a plane wall at which the no-slip condition was modified was considered. The streamwise and spanwise velocity components are required to be zero, but the normal component is to be specified according to some control law. The challenge is to choose the wall-normal velocity component based on flow conditions at the wall so that the mean drag is as small as possible. There can be no net mass flux through the wall, and the total available control energy is constrained. A turbulent flow is highly unsteady and has detailed spatial structure. The mean drag on the wall is the integral over the wall of the local shear forces exerted by the fluid, which is then averaged in time; it is a 'macroscopic' property of the flow. It is not obvious how unsteady boundary control is to be applied in order to modify the mean flow most effectively, especially in view of the non- self-adjoint nature of the governing equations. An approximate analytical solution to the suboptimal scheme is pursued.

  1. Object tracking based on bit-planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Zhao, Xiangmo; Liu, Ying; Li, Daxiang; Wu, Shiqian; Zhao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Visual object tracking is one of the most important components in computer vision. The main challenge for robust tracking is to handle illumination change, appearance modification, occlusion, motion blur, and pose variation. But in surveillance videos, factors such as low resolution, high levels of noise, and uneven illumination further increase the difficulty of tracking. To tackle this problem, an object tracking algorithm based on bit-planes is proposed. First, intensity and local binary pattern features represented by bit-planes are used to build two appearance models, respectively. Second, in the neighborhood of the estimated object location, a region that is most similar to the models is detected as the tracked object in the current frame. In the last step, the appearance models are updated with new tracking results in order to deal with environmental and object changes. Experimental results on several challenging video sequences demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. Additionally, our tracker is more robust to low resolution, uneven illumination, and noisy video sequences.

  2. Serial Back-Plane Technologies in Advanced Avionics Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnavas, Kosta

    2005-01-01

    Current back plane technologies such as VME, and current personal computer back planes such as PCI, are shared bus systems that can exhibit nondeterministic latencies. This means a card can take control of the bus and use resources indefinitely affecting the ability of other cards in the back plane to acquire the bus. This provides a real hit on the reliability of the system. Additionally, these parallel busses only have bandwidths in the 100s of megahertz range and EMI and noise effects get worse the higher the bandwidth goes. To provide scalable, fault-tolerant, advanced computing systems, more applicable to today s connected computing environment and to better meet the needs of future requirements for advanced space instruments and vehicles, serial back-plane technologies should be implemented in advanced avionics architectures. Serial backplane technologies eliminate the problem of one card getting the bus and never relinquishing it, or one minor problem on the backplane bringing the whole system down. Being serial instead of parallel improves the reliability by reducing many of the signal integrity issues associated with parallel back planes and thus significantly improves reliability. The increased speeds associated with a serial backplane are an added bonus.

  3. MIPAS focal-plane optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokhove, Henk; Smorenburg, C.; Visser, H.

    1993-11-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) has been selected by ESA for the ENVISAT-Mission, scheduled for launch in 1998. The instrument will measure the concentration of a number of atmospheric trace gases in the earth atmosphere in a spectral region from 4.15 - 14.6 micrometers . Within this region measurements are performed with high spectral resolution. The MIPAS optical system consists of scan mirrors, a telescope, a Michelson interferometer, an afocal reducer and a focal plane assembly. TNO Institute of Applied Physics is involved in the design and development of the afocal reducer and the focal plane assembly. The beam reducing optics of the afocal reducer consist of 2 concave and one convex mirror. Both the housing and the mirrors are made of aluminum to ensure temperature invariance. The optics of the focal plane assembly consist of aluminum mirrors, dichroic beamsplitters and Ge lenses in front of the detectors. The optical/mechanical design is developed to the level that phase C2/D activities can start.

  4. SETI in the Ecliptic Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn Henry, Richard; Kilston, S.; Shostak, S.

    2008-05-01

    The strong advantages of SETI searches in the ecliptic plane have been pointed out by Kilston, Shostak, and Henry (2008). In our poster we show one possible history of civilizations in the galaxy, from birth, through galactic colonization, up to death - and even beyond. Should this scenario be correct, the pattern suggests that the best hope for success in SETI is exploration of the possibility that there are a few extremely ancient but non-colonizing civilizations; civilizations that, aeons ago, detected the existence of Earth (oxygen, and hence life) and of its Moon (stabilizing Earth's rotation) via observations of transits of the Sun (hence, ecliptic, which is stable over millions of years [Laskar et al. 2004]), and have been beaming voluminous information in our direction ever since, in their faint hope (now realized) that a technological "receiving” species would appear. To maintain such a targeted broadcast would be extremely cheap for an advanced civilization. A search of a swath centered on our ecliptic plane should easily find such civilizations, if they exist. We hope to carry out such a search, using the Allen Telescope Array. http://henry.pha.jhu.edu/poster.SETI.pdf References: Kilston, Steven; Shostak, Seth; & Henry, Richard Conn; "Who's Looking at You, Kid?: SETI Advantages near the Ecliptic Plane," AbSciCon 2008, April 14-17, Santa Clara, CA.; Laskar, J., et al., A&A 428, 261, 2004 This work was supported by Maryland Space Grant Consortium.

  5. Multigroup Time-Independent Neutron Transport Code System for Plane or Spherical Geometry.

    1986-12-01

    Version 00 PALLAS-PL/SP solves multigroup time-independent one-dimensional neutron transport problems in plane or spherical geometry. The problems solved are subject to a variety of boundary conditions or a distributed source. General anisotropic scattering problems are treated for solving deep-penetration problems in which angle-dependent neutron spectra are calculated in detail.

  6. Material mechanical characterization method for multiple strains and strain rates

    DOEpatents

    Erdmand, III, Donald L.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Simunovic, Srdjan; Wang, Yanli

    2016-01-19

    A specimen for measuring a material under multiple strains and strain rates. The specimen including a body having first and second ends and a gage region disposed between the first and second ends, wherein the body has a central, longitudinal axis passing through the first and second ends. The gage region includes a first gage section and a second gage section, wherein the first gage section defines a first cross-sectional area that is defined by a first plane that extends through the first gage section and is perpendicular to the central, longitudinal axis. The second gage section defines a second cross-sectional area that is defined by a second plane that extends through the second gage section and is perpendicular to the central, longitudinal axis and wherein the first cross-sectional area is different in size than the second cross-sectional area.

  7. Interplay between nanometer-scale strain variations and externally applied strain in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbiest, G. J.; Stampfer, C.; Huber, S. E.; Andersen, M.; Reuter, K.

    2016-05-01

    We present a molecular modeling study analyzing nanometer-scale strain variations in graphene as a function of externally applied tensile strain. We consider two different mechanisms that could underlie nanometer-scale strain variations: static perturbations from lattice imperfections of an underlying substrate and thermal fluctuations. For both cases we observe a decrease in the out-of-plane atomic displacements with increasing strain, which is accompanied by an increase in the in-plane displacements. Reflecting the nonlinear elastic properties of graphene, both trends together yield a nonmonotonic variation of the total displacements with increasing tensile strain. This variation allows us to test the role of nanometer-scale strain variations in limiting the carrier mobility of high-quality graphene samples.

  8. Point-to-plane and plane-to-plane electrostatic charge injection atomization for insulating liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkawi, Ghazi

    An electrostatic charge injection atomizer was fabricated and used to introduce and study the electrostatic charge injection atomization methods for highly viscous vegetable oils and high conductivity low viscosity aviation fuel, JP8. The total, spray and leakage currents and spray breakup characteristics for these liquids were investigated and compared with Diesel fuel data. Jet breakup and spray atomization mechanism showed differences for vegetable oils and lower viscosity hydrocarbon fuels. For vegetable oils, a bending/spinning instability phenomenon was observed similar to the phenomenon found in liquid jets of high viscosity polymer solutions. The spray tip lengths and cone angles were presented qualitatively and quantitatively and correlated with the appropriate empirical formulas. The different stages of the breakup mechanisms for such oils, as a function of specific charges and flow rates, were discussed. In order to make this method of atomization more suitable for practical use in high flow rate applications, a blunt face electrode (plane-to-plane) was used as the charge emitter in place of a single pointed electrode (point-to-plane). This allowed the use of a multi-orifice emitter that maintained a specific charge with the flow rate increase which could not be achieved with the needle electrode. The effect of the nozzle geometry, liquid physical properties and applied bulk flow on the spray charge, total charge, maximum critical spray specific charge and electrical efficiency compared with the needle point-to-plane atomizer results was presented. Our investigation revealed that the electrical efficiency of the atomizer is dominated by the charge forced convection rate rather than charge transport by ion motilities and liquid motion by the electric field. As a result of the electric coulomb forces between the electrified jets, the multi-orifice atomizer provided a unique means of dispersing the fuel in a hollow cone with wide angles making the new

  9. Antiferromagnetic Ordering of Symmetry Breaking in Multiple Planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, A. G.; Canright, G. S.

    We present a multiplane model for the anyon problem. Anyons on different planes are coupled via a Coulomb-type interaction. We solve exactly finite clusters and show that the "antiferromagnetic" order of the chirality is favored for both attractive and repulsive interplane coupling. We also discuss a simple model that can be treated analytically and that has the same qualitative behavior as the exact results. Our results apply to the low density limit, in which finite currents exist in each plane. These currents also occur in the high temperature (nonsuperfluid) phase of the anyon system, and so our results should apply also to that regime.

  10. Strain Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    HITEC Corporation developed a strain gage application for DanteII, a mobile robot developed for NASA. The gage measured bending forces on the robot's legs and warned human controllers when acceptable forces were exceeded. HITEC further developed the technology for strain gage services in creating transducers out of "Indy" racing car suspension pushrods, NASCAR suspension components and components used in motion control.

  11. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-07-07

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

  12. An investigation of the accuracy of finite difference methods in the solution of linear elasticity problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauld, N. R., Jr.; Goree, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    The accuracy of the finite difference method in the solution of linear elasticity problems that involve either a stress discontinuity or a stress singularity is considered. Solutions to three elasticity problems are discussed in detail: a semi-infinite plane subjected to a uniform load over a portion of its boundary; a bimetallic plate under uniform tensile stress; and a long, midplane symmetric, fiber reinforced laminate subjected to uniform axial strain. Finite difference solutions to the three problems are compared with finite element solutions to corresponding problems. For the first problem a comparison with the exact solution is also made. The finite difference formulations for the three problems are based on second order finite difference formulas that provide for variable spacings in two perpendicular directions. Forward and backward difference formulas are used near boundaries where their use eliminates the need for fictitious grid points.

  13. Difference Between Strain and Sprain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Provided in this description of the differences between a strain (damage to the muscle or tendon) and a sprain (damage to the ligament) are definitions of mild, moderate, and severe (first, second, and third degree) strains and sprains. A final caution is given that these are two separate and distinct problems and should be treated as such. (DC)

  14. Cutting solid figures by plane - analytical solution and spreadsheet implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benacka, Jan

    2012-07-01

    In some secondary mathematics curricula, there is a topic called Stereometry that deals with investigating the position and finding the intersection, angle, and distance of lines and planes defined within a prism or pyramid. Coordinate system is not used. The metric tasks are solved using Pythagoras' theorem, trigonometric functions, and sine and cosine rules. The basic problem is to find the section of the figure by a plane that is defined by three points related to the figure. In this article, a formula is derived that gives the positions of the intersection points of such a plane and the figure edges, that is, the vertices of the section polygon. Spreadsheet implementations of the formula for cuboid and right rectangular pyramids are presented. The user can check his/her graphical solution, or proceed if he/she is not able to complete the section.

  15. Scattering by a groove in an impedance plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindiganavale, Sunil; Volakis, John L.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of two-dimensional scattering from a narrow groove in an impedance plane is presented. The groove is represented by a impedance surface and the problem reduces to that of scattering from an impedance strip in an otherwise uniform impedance plane. On the basis of this model, appropriate integral equations are constructed using a form of the impedance plane Green's functions involving rapidly convergent integrals. The integral equations are solved by introducing a single basis representation of the equivalent current on the narrow impedance insert. Both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations are treated. The resulting solution is validated by comparison with results from the standard boundary integral method (BIM) and a high frequency solution. It is found that the presented solution for narrow impedance inserts can be used in conjunction with the high frequency solution for the characterization of impedance inserts of any given width.

  16. Spectral analysis of wave motion in plane solids with boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, S. A.; Doyle, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    A spectral formulation is employed whereby in-plane stress waves are synthesized from the superposition of components at discrete frequencies and wavenumbers. The summations are performed using the fast Fourier transform and the Fourier series, respectively. Because the components are discrete, the solution to problems (over the entire field) with completely arbitrary loading, both in time and space, is made tractable. Waves generated from a line load acting on an infinite and semiinfinite plane are first considered. A cascade approach is then adopted for the treatment of these waves incident on a free, fixed, and elastic boundary. At each stage, the results are compared with those obtained from the available classical solutions and/or finite element results. These studies will form the basis for the investigation of in-plane stress waves in multiply layered media.

  17. Focal Plane Instrumentation of VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, T.; McKay, R.; Sleege, G.; Petry, D.

    VERITAS is a new atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope array to detect very high energy gamma rays above 100 GeV. The array is located in southern Arizona, USA, at an altitude of 1270m above see level. The array currently consists of four 12 m telescopes, structurally resembling the Davis-Cotton design of the Whipple 10 m telescope. The VERITAS focal plane instruments are equipped with high-resolution (499 pixels) fast photo-multiplier-tube (PMT) cameras covering a 3.5 degree field of view with 0.148 degree pixel separation. Light concentrators reduce the dead-space between PMTs to 25% and shield the PMTs from ambient light. The PMTs are connected to high-speed pre-amplifiers improving the signal to noise ratio and allow single photoelectron measurements in situ at operating voltage. Current monitor circuits in the focus box provide real-time monitoring of the anode currents for each pixel and ambient conditions of the focus box. A charge injection system installed in the focus box allows daytime testing of the trigger and data acquisition system by injecting pulses of variable amplitude and length into pre-amplifier stage. A detailed description of the VERITAS focal plane instruments will be given in this presentation.

  18. The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Jason; Aguirre, James; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Bradley, Eric Todd; Cyganowski, Claudia; Dowell, Darren; Drosback, Meredith; Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J., II; Ginsburg, Adam; Harvey, Paul; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schlingman, Wayne; Shirley, Yancy L.; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Walawender, Josh; Williams, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) is a 1.1 millimeter continuum survey of the northern Galactic Plane made with Bolocam and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The coverage totals 170 square degrees, comprised of a contiguous range from -10.5 deg is less than or equal to 90.5 deg, 0.5 deg is less than or equal to b is less than or equal to 0.5 deg, with extended coverage in b in selected regions, and four targeted regions in the outer Galaxy, including: IC1396, toward the Perseus arm at l is approximately 111 deg, W3/4/5, and Gem OB1. Depths of the maps range from 30 to 60 mJy beam (sup 1). Approximately 8,400 sources were detected and the maps and source catalog have been made publicly available. Millimeter-wave thermal dust emission reveals dense regions within molecular clouds, thus the BGPS serves as a database for studies of the dense interstellar medium and star formation within the Milky Way.

  19. Electronic structure and optic absorption of phosphorene under strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Houjian; Yang, Mou; Wang, Ruiqiang

    2016-07-01

    We studied the electronic structure and optic absorption of phosphorene (monolayer of black phosphorus) under strain. Strain was found to be a powerful tool for the band structure engineering. The in-plane strain in armchair or zigzag direction changes the effective mass components along both directions, while the vertical strain only has significant effect on the effective mass in the armchair direction. The band gap is narrowed by compressive in-plane strain and tensile vertical strain. Under certain strain configurations, the gap is closed and the energy band evolves to the semi-Dirac type: the dispersion is linear in the armchair direction and is gapless quadratic in the zigzag direction. The band-edge optic absorption is completely polarized along the armchair direction, and the polarization rate is reduced when the photon energy increases. Strain not only changes the absorption edge (the smallest photon energy for electron transition), but also the absorption polarization.

  20. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance myocardial motion tracking from a single image plane.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elmoniem, Khaled Z; Osman, Nael F; Prince, Jerry L; Stuber, Matthias

    2007-07-01

    Three-dimensional imaging for the quantification of myocardial motion is a key step in the evaluation of cardiac disease. A tagged magnetic resonance imaging method that automatically tracks myocardial displacement in three dimensions is presented. Unlike other techniques, this method tracks both in-plane and through-plane motion from a single image plane without affecting the duration of image acquisition. A small z-encoding gradient is subsequently added to the refocusing lobe of the slice-selection gradient pulse in a slice following CSPAMM acquisition. An opposite polarity z-encoding gradient is added to the orthogonal tag direction. The additional z-gradients encode the instantaneous through plane position of the slice. The vertical and horizontal tags are used to resolve in-plane motion, while the added z-gradients is used to resolve through-plane motion. Postprocessing automatically decodes the acquired data and tracks the three-dimensional displacement of every material point within the image plane for each cine frame. Experiments include both a phantom and in vivo human validation. These studies demonstrate that the simultaneous extraction of both in-plane and through-plane displacements and pathlines from tagged images is achievable. This capability should open up new avenues for the automatic quantification of cardiac motion and strain for scientific and clinical purposes.

  1. A uniform GTD analysis of the EM diffraction by a thin dielectric/ferrite half-plane and related configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojas, Roberto G.

    1985-01-01

    A uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) solution is developed for the problem of the diffraction by a thin dielectric/ferrite half plane when it is excited by a plane, cylindrical, or surface wave field. Both transverse electric and transverse magnetic cases are considered. The solution of this problem is synthesized from the solutions to the related problems of EM diffraction by configurations involving perfectly conducting electric and magnetic walls covered by a dielectric/ferrite half-plane of one half the thickness of the original half-plane.

  2. The in-plane shear properties of pultruded materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Baik-Soon

    1998-12-01

    This thesis presents the details for a new in-plane shear test method applicable to pultruded materials reinforced with continuous strand mat (CSM) and rovings. The loading system and the size of the specimen are different from those currently used in the ASTM D-5379 specification in order to reduce the effect of the inherent heterogeneity of the pultruded materials. Then, the performance of the ASTM D-5379 V-notched beam test fixture and that of the newly developed test fixture at the Georgia Institute of Technology will be discussed. The thesis also presents various predicted techniques for estimating the in-plane shear modulus of pultruded materials from the properties of the constituents. Finally, a third-order polynomial shear stress---shear strain (tau - gamma) equation is proposed for more accurate structural analysis of pultruded materials reinforced with rovings and continuous strand mats.

  3. Broken chiral symmetry on a null plane

    SciTech Connect

    Beane, Silas R.

    2013-10-15

    On a null-plane (light-front), all effects of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking are contained in the three Hamiltonians (dynamical Poincaré generators), while the vacuum state is a chiral invariant. This property is used to give a general proof of Goldstone’s theorem on a null-plane. Focusing on null-plane QCD with N degenerate flavors of light quarks, the chiral-symmetry breaking Hamiltonians are obtained, and the role of vacuum condensates is clarified. In particular, the null-plane Gell-Mann–Oakes–Renner formula is derived, and a general prescription is given for mapping all chiral-symmetry breaking QCD condensates to chiral-symmetry conserving null-plane QCD condensates. The utility of the null-plane description lies in the operator algebra that mixes the null-plane Hamiltonians and the chiral symmetry charges. It is demonstrated that in a certain non-trivial limit, the null-plane operator algebra reduces to the symmetry group SU(2N) of the constituent quark model. -- Highlights: •A proof (the first) of Goldstone’s theorem on a null-plane is given. •The puzzle of chiral-symmetry breaking condensates on a null-plane is solved. •The emergence of spin-flavor symmetries in null-plane QCD is demonstrated.

  4. A method for planar biaxial mechanical testing that includes in-plane shear.

    PubMed

    Sacks, M S

    1999-10-01

    A limitation in virtually all planar biaxial studies of soft tissues has been the inability to include the effects of in-plane shear. This is due to the inability of current mechanical testing devices to induce a state of in-plane shear, due to the added cost and complexity. In the current study, a straightforward method is presented for planar biaxial testing that induces a combined state of in-plane shear and normal strains. The method relies on rotation of the test specimen's material axes with respect to the device axes and on rotating carriages to allow the specimen to undergo in-plane shear freely. To demonstrate the method, five glutaraldehyde treated bovine pericardium specimens were prepared with their preferred fiber directions (defining the material axes) oriented at 45 deg to the device axes to induce a maximum shear state. The test protocol included a wide range of biaxial strain states, and the resulting biaxial data re-expressed in material axes coordinate system. The resulting biaxial data was then fit to the following strain energy function W: [equation: see text] where E'ij is the Green's strain tensor in the material axes coordinate system and c and Ai are constants. While W was able to fit the data very well, the constants A5 and A6 were found not to contribute significantly to the fit and were considered unnecessary to model the shear strain response. In conclusion, while not able to control the amount of shear strain independently or induce a state of pure shear, the method presented readily produces a state of simultaneous in-plane shear and normal strains. Further, the method is very general and can be applied to any anisotropic planar tissue that has identifiable material axes.

  5. Optimal focal-plane restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Park, Stephen K.

    1989-01-01

    Image restoration can be implemented efficiently by calculating the convolution of the digital image and a small kernel during image acquisition. Processing the image in the focal-plane in this way requires less computation than traditional Fourier-transform-based techniques such as the Wiener filter and constrained least-squares filter. Here, the values of the convolution kernel that yield the restoration with minimum expected mean-square error are determined using a frequency analysis of the end-to-end imaging system. This development accounts for constraints on the size and shape of the spatial kernel and all the components of the imaging system. Simulation results indicate the technique is effective and efficient.

  6. Functional Aesthetic Occlusal Plane (FAOP)

    PubMed Central

    Câmara, Carlos Alexandre; Martins, Renato Parsekian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: A reasonable exposure of incisors and gingival tissues is generally considered more attractive than excess or lack of exposure. A reasonable gingival exposure is considered to be around 0 to 2 mm when smiling and 2-4 mm exposure of the maxillary incisor edge when the lips are at rest. Objective: The aim of this paper is to present the Functional Aesthetic Occlusal Plane (FAOP), which aims to help in the diagnosis of the relationships established among molars, incisors and the upper lip. Conclusion: FAOP can complement an existing and established orthodontic treatment plan, facilitating the visualization of functional and aesthetic demands by giving a greater focus on the position of incisors in the relationship established among the incisors, molars and the upper lip stomion. PMID:27653271

  7. Growth of InxGa1-xN/GaN QW structures with high indium concentration on c-plane and m-plane surfaces by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jönen, H.; Rossow, U.; Langer, T.; Dräger, A.; Hoffmann, L.; Bremers, H.; Hangleiter, A.; Bertram, F.; Metzner, S.; Christen, J.

    2008-11-01

    GaN/GaN quantum well (QW) structures grown on c-plane and m-plane surfaces have been investigated intended for long wavelength light emitters. On c-plane GaN QWs reached indium concentrations of xIn⩾35% with good optical and structural quality. For QW thicknesses dQW⩽2 nm a fully strained layer structure is observed and the indium concentration is quite homogenous. Under the same growth conditions of the QW region we find similar or even slightly larger indium concentrations on m-plane surfaces. QWs of such high indium concentrations, however, are very sensitive to the growth conditions of the subsequent layers and we observe degradation such as indium outdiffusion or partial relaxation for high growth temperatures.

  8. Application of boundary integral equations to elastoplastic problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendelson, A.; Albers, L. U.

    1975-01-01

    The application of boundary integral equations to elastoplastic problems is reviewed. Details of the analysis as applied to torsion problems and to plane problems is discussed. Results are presented for the elastoplastic torsion of a square cross section bar and for the plane problem of notched beams. A comparison of different formulations as well as comparisons with experimental results are presented.

  9. Determining the pivotal plane of fluid lipid membranes in simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Deserno, Markus

    2015-10-01

    Each leaflet of a curved lipid membrane contains a surface at which the area strain vanishes, the so-called pivotal plane. Its distance z0 from the bilayer's midplane arises in numerous contexts, for instance the connection between monolayer and bilayer moduli, stress-profile moments, or area-difference elasticity theories. Here, we propose two precise methods for determining the location of the pivotal plane in computer simulations, both of which rely on monitoring the lipid imbalance across a curved bilayer. The first method considers the ratio of lipid number between the two leaflets of cylindrical or spherical vesicles; it hence requires lipid flip-flop for equilibration. The second method looks at the leaflet difference across local sections cut out from a buckled membrane; this observable equilibrates even in the absence of flip-flop. We apply our methods to two different coarse-grained lipid models, the generic three-bead solvent-free Cooke model and a ten-bead representation of dimyristoylphosphocholine with the explicit solvent MARTINI model. The Cooke model is amenable to both methods and gives results that agree at the percent level. Using it, we also show that the pivotal plane moves outward as lipid curvature becomes more positive. The MARTINI model can only be analyzed with the buckling method; the obtained value z0 = 0.850(11) nm lies about 0.4 nm inwards of the glycerol backbone and is hence unexpectedly small. We attribute this to limitations of the coarse-grained description, suggesting that the location of the pivotal plane might be a good indicator for how well lipid models capture the microscopic origins of curvature elasticity. Finally, we also show that the pivotal plane position itself moves as the membrane is bent. The leading correction is linear in curvature, dependent on the Poisson ratio, and can matter when analyzing experimental results obtained from highly curved inverse hexagonal phases.

  10. Realizing in-plane surface diffraction by x-ray multiple-beam diffraction with large incidence angle

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xian-Rong Gog, Thomas; Assoufid, Lahsen; Peng, Ru-Wen; Siddons, D. P.

    2014-11-03

    Based on rigorous dynamical-theory calculations, we demonstrate the principle of an x-ray multiple-beam diffraction (MBD) scheme that overcomes the long-lasting difficulties of high-resolution in-plane diffraction from crystal surfaces. This scheme only utilizes symmetric reflection geometry with large incident angles but activates the out-of-plane and in-plane diffraction processes simultaneously and separately in the continuous MBD planes. The in-plane diffraction is realized by detoured MBD, where the intermediate diffracted waves propagate parallel to the surface, which corresponds to an absolute Bragg surface diffraction configuration that is extremely sensitive to surface structures. A series of MBD diffraction and imaging techniques may be developed from this principle to study surface/interface (misfit) strains, lateral nanostructures, and phase transitions of a wide range of (pseudo)cubic crystal structures, including ultrathin epitaxial films and multilayers, quantum dots, strain-engineered semiconductor or (multi)ferroic materials, etc.

  11. On the propagation of plane waves above an impedance surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhong, F. H.; Vanmoorhem, W. K.

    1990-01-01

    The propagation of grazing incidence plane waves along a finite impedance boundary is investigated. A solution of the semi-infinite problem, where a harmonic motion, parallel to the boundary, is imposed along a line perpendicular to the boundary, is obtained. This solution consists of quasiplane waves, waves moving parallel to the boundary with amplitude and phase variations perpendicular to the boundary. Several approximations to the full solution are considered.

  12. Structures technology applications for the National AeroSpace Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, T. E.

    1992-01-01

    The National AeroSpace Plane (NASP) presents a unique set of very complex structural problems that challenge our computational capabilities. Complex analyses are required in the conceptual design phase to achieve sufficient accuracy to address the extreme load conditions and to adequately evaluate vehicle weight. The computational capability must be available to perform these analyses in a rapid manner to accommodate the design process.

  13. Parametrics of submarine dynamic stability in the vertical plane

    SciTech Connect

    Papoulias, F.A.; Papanikolaou, S.

    1996-12-31

    The problem of dynamic stability of submersible vehicles in the dive plane is examined utilizing bifurcation techniques. The primary mechanism of loss of stability is identified in the form of generic Hopf bifurcations to periodic solutions. Stability of the resulting limit cycles is established using center manifold approximations and integral averaging. Parametric studies are performed with varying vehicle geometric properties. The methods described in this work could lead to techniques resulting in enlargement of the submerged operational envelope of a vehicle.

  14. FLAPS (Fatigue Life Analysis Programs): Computer Programs to Predict Cyclic Life Using the Total Strain Version of Strainrange Partitioning and Other Life Prediction Methods. Users' Manual and Example Problems, Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arya, Vinod K.; Halford, Gary R. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This manual presents computer programs FLAPS for characterizing and predicting fatigue and creep-fatigue resistance of metallic materials in the high-temperature, long-life regime for isothermal and nonisothermal fatigue. The programs use the Total Strain version of Strainrange Partitioning (TS-SRP), and several other life prediction methods described in this manual. The user should be thoroughly familiar with the TS-SRP and these life prediction methods before attempting to use any of these programs. Improper understanding can lead to incorrect use of the method and erroneous life predictions. An extensive database has also been developed in a parallel effort. The database is probably the largest source of high-temperature, creep-fatigue test data available in the public domain and can be used with other life-prediction methods as well. This users' manual, software, and database are all in the public domain and can be obtained by contacting the author. The Compact Disk (CD) accompanying this manual contains an executable file for the FLAPS program, two datasets required for the example problems in the manual, and the creep-fatigue data in a format compatible with these programs.

  15. Plane shock wave studies of Westerly granite and Nugget sandstone

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.B.; Anderson, G.D.

    1980-12-01

    Plane shock wave experiments were performed by using a light-gas gun on dry and water-saturated Westerly granite and dry Nugget sandstone. Changes in the slopes of the shock velocity versus particle velocity curves at 2 to 3 GPa and 1 to 2 GPa for dry granite and for dry sandstone, respectively, are attributed to the onset of pore collapse. However, there is little apparent loss of shear strength in either dry rock over the stress range of the experiments (i.e., 9.3 GPa in Westerly granite and 9.2 GPa in Nugget sandstone). Agreement between the shock wave data and quasistatic, uniaxial strain data for the dry rock implies the absence of rate-dependence in uniaxial strain. The shock data on saturated granite agree well with those for dry granite, thus suggesting there was no loss in shear strength as a result of pore pressure buildup.

  16. A Collaborative Knowledge Plane for Autonomic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbaye, Maïssa; Krief, Francine

    Autonomic networking aims to give network components self-managing capabilities. Several autonomic architectures have been proposed. Each of these architectures includes sort of a knowledge plane which is very important to mimic an autonomic behavior. Knowledge plane has a central role for self-functions by providing suitable knowledge to equipment and needs to learn new strategies for more accuracy.However, defining knowledge plane's architecture is still a challenge for researchers. Specially, defining the way cognitive supports interact each other in knowledge plane and implementing them. Decision making process depends on these interactions between reasoning and learning parts of knowledge plane. In this paper we propose a knowledge plane's architecture based on machine learning (inductive logic programming) paradigm and situated view to deal with distributed environment. This architecture is focused on two self-functions that include all other self-functions: self-adaptation and self-organization. Study cases are given and implemented.

  17. Duel-Plane Optical Disdrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsky, B. E.; Eichinger, W. E.

    2011-12-01

    Acquiring better drop-size distributions of rainfall will improve our understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall. In order to fully capture the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall, a robust, calibration free, low-cost instrument that provides an accurate drop-size distribution is required. Therefore, The University of Iowa Lidar Group has developed and built a new duel-plane optical disdrometer that meets these criteria. Two sheets of laser light, vertically spaced by 1 cm are produced by two 670nm laser beams passing through a collecting lens and culminating lens, respectively. The two sheets of laser light then pass through a convex lens located 20 cm from the lasers that focuses the light on a photo detector. A computer reads in and stores the voltages at 10 kHz. The velocity, diameter, shape and drop-size distribution of raindrops are extracted from the voltage measurements. Rainfall data collected in Iowa City, IA tested our disdrometer's robustness and accuracy of providing drop-size distributions. Our distrometer is advantageous because it is simple, low-cost, and requires no calibration.

  18. Radioactivity in the galactic plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walraven, G. D.; Haymes, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports the detection of a large concentration of interstellar radioactivity during balloon-altitude measurements of gamma-ray energy spectra in the band between 0.02 and 12.27 MeV from galactic and extragalactic sources. Enhanced counting rates were observed in three directions towards the plane of the Galaxy; a power-law energy spectrum is computed for one of these directions (designated B 10). A large statistical deviation from the power law in a 1.0-FWHM interval centered near 1.16 MeV is discussed, and the existence of a nuclear gamma-ray line at 1.15 MeV in B 10 is postulated. It is suggested that Ca-44, which emits gamma radiation at 1.156 MeV following the decay of radioactive Sc-44, is a likely candidate for this line, noting that Sc-44 arises from Ti-44 according to explosive models of supernova nucleosynthesis. The 1.16-MeV line flux inferred from the present data is shown to equal the predicted flux for a supernova at a distance of approximately 3 kpc and an age not exceeding about 100 years.

  19. Galactic plane gamma-radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Ogelman, H. B.; Tumer, T.; Ozel, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of the SAS 2 data together with the COS B results shows that the distribution of galactic gamma-radiation has several similarities to that of other large-scale tracers of galactic structure. The radiation is primarily confined to a thin disc which exhibits offsets from b = 0 degrees similar to warping at radio frequencies. The principal distinction of the gamma-radiation is a stronger contrast in intensity between the region from 310 to 45 degrees in longitude and the regions away from the center that can be attributed to a variation in cosmic-ray density as a function of position in Galaxy. The diffuse galactic gamma-ray energy spectrum shows no significant variation in direction, and the spectrum seen along the plane is the same as that for the galactic component of the gamma-radiation at high altitudes. The uniformity of the galactic gamma-ray spectrum, the smooth decrease in intensity as a function of altitude, and the absence of any galactic gamma-ray sources at high altitudes indicate a diffuse origin for bulk of the galactic gamma-radiation rather than a collection of localized sources.

  20. Harmonic plane wave propagation in gyroelectric media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillion, Pierre

    2006-05-01

    We analyse the behaviour of harmonic plane waves in unbounded gyroelectric media once the refractive index in the direction of propagation is known from the Fresnel equation. We get, for the electric and magnetic fields, analytical expressions simple enough to use in a plane wave spectrum representation of more structured electromagnetic fields in these media. We also discuss the reflection and refraction of harmonic plane waves at the boundary between an isotropic medium and a gyroelectric material.

  1. Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, E. H. T.; Kalish, R.; Kulik, J.; Kauffmann, Y.; Lifshitz, Y.

    2011-03-21

    Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes can be deposited by applying energetic carbon bombardment. The present work shows the possibility of structuring graphitic planes perpendicular to the substrate in following two distinct ways: (i) applying sufficiently large carbon energies for deposition at room temperature (E>10 keV), (ii) utilizing much lower energies for deposition at elevated substrate temperatures (T>200 deg. C). High resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to probe the graphitic planes. The alignment achieved at elevated temperatures does not depend on the deposition angle. The data provides insight into the mechanisms leading to the growth of oriented graphitic planes under different conditions.

  2. Plane wave spectrum of electromagnetic beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doicu, A.; Wriedt, T.

    1997-02-01

    A plane wave spectrum method of Gaussian beams can be derived by using Davis' approximations for the vector potential. An equivalent vector potential is introduced by considering the inverse Fourier transform of the spectrum function of the original vector potential in a given plane. The electromagnetic field, which corresponds to the equivalent vector potential, satisfies Maxwell's equations and can be written as a sum of plane waves. The beam shape coefficients, or the expansion coefficients in terms of regular spherical vector wave functions, are expressed as simple integrals. This version of the plane wave spectrum method offers the possibility to compute higher-order corrections for Gaussian beams.

  3. Simple Numerical Simulation of Strain Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, H.

    2002-01-01

    By adopting the basic principle of the reflection (and transmission) of a plane polarized electromagnetic wave incident normal to a stack of films of alternating refractive index, a simple numerical code was written to simulate the maximum reflectivity (transmittivity) of a fiber optic Bragg grating corresponding to various non-uniform strain conditions including photo-elastic effect in certain cases.

  4. Autonomous Real-Time Interventional Scan Plane Control With a 3-D Shape-Sensing Needle

    PubMed Central

    Plata, Juan Camilo; Holbrook, Andrew B.; Park, Yong-Lae; Pauly, Kim Butts; Daniel, Bruce L.; Cutkosky, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates real-time scan plane control dependent on three-dimensional needle bending, as measured from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible optical strain sensors. A biopsy needle with embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors to measure surface strains is used to estimate its full 3-D shape and control the imaging plane of an MR scanner in real-time, based on the needle’s estimated profile. The needle and scanner coordinate frames are registered to each other via miniature radio-frequency (RF) tracking coils, and the scan planes autonomously track the needle as it is deflected, keeping its tip in view. A 3-D needle annotation is superimposed over MR-images presented in a 3-D environment with the scanner’s frame of reference. Scan planes calculated based on the FBG sensors successfully follow the tip of the needle. Experiments using the FBG sensors and RF coils to track the needle shape and location in real-time had an average root mean square error of 4.2 mm when comparing the estimated shape to the needle profile as seen in high resolution MR images. This positional variance is less than the image artifact caused by the needle in high resolution SPGR (spoiled gradient recalled) images. Optical fiber strain sensors can estimate a needle’s profile in real-time and be used for MRI scan plane control to potentially enable faster and more accurate physician response. PMID:24968093

  5. Large-sized out-of-plane stretchable electrodes based on poly-dimethylsiloxane substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Namsun; Lee, Jongho; Kim, Sohee

    2014-12-15

    This paper describes a reliable fabrication method of stretchable electrodes based on poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. The electrode traces and pads were formed in out-of-plane structures to improve the flexibility and stretchability of the electrode array. The suspended traces and pads were attached to the PDMS substrate via parylene posts that were located nearby the traces and under the pads. As only conventional micro-electro-mechanical systems techniques were used, the out-of-plane electrode arrays were clearly fabricated at wafer level with high yield and reliability. Also, bi-layer out-of-plane electrodes were formed through additional fabrication steps in addition to mono-layer out-of-plane electrodes. The mechanical characteristics such as the stretchability, flexibility, and foldability of the fabricated electrodes were evaluated, resulting in stable electrical connection of the metal traces with up to 32.4% strain and up to 360° twist angle over 25 mm. The durability in stretched condition was validated by cyclic stretch test with 10% and 20% strain, resulting in electrical disconnection at 8600 cycles when subjected to 20% strain. From these results, it is concluded that the proposed fabrication method produced highly reliable, out-of-plane and stretchable electrodes, which would be used in various flexible and stretchable electronics applications.

  6. Inverse scattering in the presence of a reflecting plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solimene, Raffaele; Maisto, Maria Antonia; Pierri, Rocco

    2016-02-01

    The role played by a reflecting plane embedded in the host medium in inverse scattering problems is dealt with for a scalar two dimensional configuration. To accomplish such a task, analytical arguments are developed to estimate the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the relevant scattering operator. This allows us to gather quantitative measures of the information that can be conveyed back from data to the unknown, to determine the so-called number of degrees of freedom (NDF) and to estimate the achievable resolution. The analysis highlights that the presence of reflections or scattering positively impacts the inverse scattering problem.

  7. An approximate atmospheric guidance law for aeroassisted plane change maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speyer, Jason L.; Crues, Edwin Z.

    An approximate optimal guidance law for the aeroassisted plane change problem is presented which is based upon an expansion of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation with respect to the small parameter of Breakwell et al. (1985). The present law maximizes the final velocity of the reentry vehicle while meeting terminal constraints on altitude, flight path angle, and heading angle. The integrable zeroth-order solution found when the small parameter is set to zero corresponds to a solution of the problem where the aerodynamic forces dominate the inertial forces. Higher order solutions in the expansion are obtained from the solution of linear partial differential equations requiring only quadrature integration.

  8. An approximate atmospheric guidance law for aeroassisted plane change maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speyer, Jason L.; Crues, Edwin Z.

    1988-01-01

    An approximate optimal guidance law for the aeroassisted plane change problem is presented which is based upon an expansion of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation with respect to the small parameter of Breakwell et al. (1985). The present law maximizes the final velocity of the reentry vehicle while meeting terminal constraints on altitude, flight path angle, and heading angle. The integrable zeroth-order solution found when the small parameter is set to zero corresponds to a solution of the problem where the aerodynamic forces dominate the inertial forces. Higher order solutions in the expansion are obtained from the solution of linear partial differential equations requiring only quadrature integration.

  9. Conceptual design on H-2 Orbiting Plane (HOPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    An overview of the results of the studies on technical problems concerning the following subjects related to the HOPE (H-2 Orbiting Plane) is presented: (1) technical problems on system design, aerodynamic design, thermal structure design, thermal control system design, and guidance and control system design; (2) studies on designs for the system, aerodynamic characteristics, thermal structure, actuator system, thermal control system, payload support system, and guidance and control system; (3) studies on operational concepts and overall operation system; and (4) study of development program.

  10. Free in-plane vibration analysis of rectangular plates by the method of superposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorman, D. J.

    2004-05-01

    The superposition method is introduced as a means for obtaining analytical-type solutions for free in-plane vibration of rectangular plates. The governing differential equations and boundary conditions are expressed in dimensionless form. The problem of free in-plane vibration of the completely free rectangular plate is resolved for illustrative purposes. Convergence is found to be rapid and excellent agreement between computed results and those obtained by previous authors utilizing the Rayleigh-Ritz energy method is obtained. It is pointed out that following procedures analogous to those utilized in resolving lateral plate vibration problems, in-plane free vibration problems related to point supported plates, plates with in-plane elastic boundary support, etc., are now amenable to solution by this method.

  11. An efficient numerical method for predicting the evolution of internal variables and springback in bending under tension at large strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Sergei; Jeng, Yeau-Ren

    2013-12-01

    Quite a general elastic/plastic material model including evolution equations for internal variables is adopted to predict the distribution of material properties and springback in plane strain bending under tension at large strains. A transformation equation to connect Lagrangian and Eulerian coordinates is used to reduce the original boundary value problem to a system of hyperbolic equations. This system is then solved by the method of characteristics combined with a finite difference scheme. In a particular case of elastic/plastic hardening materials (in this case the only internal variable is the equivalent plastic strain) an analytic solution is available in the literature. Using this solution it is demonstrated that the accuracy of the numerical method is very high.

  12. A Cool Tool for Deicing Planes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Nicknamed the "ice zapper," the Electro Expulsive Separation System (EESS) is an aircraft ice removal system that "pulverizes ice and removes layers of ice as thin as frost or as thick as an inch of glaze," according to the principle inventor of the technology. Patented by NASA's Ames Research Center, the EESS consists of layers of conductors encased in materials that are bonded directly to the airframe structure. When ice accumulates on the aircraft, an electric current is sent through the conductors, causing them to pulse. Even though the conductors move less than a twenty-thousandth of an inch in just a millisecond, the movement is sufficient to pulverize the ice. It is this highly accelerated motion that shatters the ice into particles the size of table salt; too small to be harmful to the aircraft. When compared with other systems in use, such as thermal deicers and pneumatic boots, the ice zapper does very well. Thermal deicers are fairly common, although they use an enormous amount of energy and present the possibility of ice refreezing. Pneumatic boots are not always effective because they require an inflation device that is unable to work until a quarter inch of ice has accumulated. With both systems, the ice that is loosened may still be large enough to cause problems for the plane once dislodged.

  13. Hybrid inflation in the complex plane

    SciTech Connect

    Buchmüller, W.; Domcke, V.; Schmitz, K. E-mail: valerie.domcke@sissa.it E-mail: kai.schmitz@ipmu.jp

    2014-07-01

    Supersymmetric hybrid inflation is an exquisite framework to connect inflationary cosmology to particle physics at the scale of grand unification. Ending in a phase transition associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking, it can naturally explain the generation of entropy, matter and dark matter. Coupling F-term hybrid inflation to soft supersymmetry breaking distorts the rotational invariance in the complex inflaton plane — an important fact, which has been neglected in all previous studies. Based on the δ N formalism, we analyze the cosmological perturbations for the first time in the full two-field model, also taking into account the fast-roll dynamics at and after the end of inflation. As a consequence of the two-field nature of hybrid inflation, the predictions for the primordial fluctuations depend not only on the parameters of the Lagrangian, but are eventually fixed by the choice of the inflationary trajectory. Recognizing hybrid inflation as a two-field model resolves two shortcomings often times attributed to it: the fine-tuning problem of the initial conditions is greatly relaxed and a spectral index in accordance with the PLANCK data can be achieved in a large part of the parameter space without the aid of supergravity corrections. Our analysis can be easily generalized to other (including large-field) scenarios of inflation in which soft supersymmetry breaking transforms an initially single-field model into a multi-field model.

  14. Theoretical study of stress concentrations at circular holes and inclusions in strain hardening materials.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, W. C.

    1972-01-01

    Nonlinear boundary value problems of an infinite elastic-plastic plate with a circular hole subjected to pure tension and pure shear at infinity are solved by a method involving Fourier series and finite difference. On the basis of these solutions, the validity of Neuber's relationship between the stress and strain concentration factors for the plane stress problems is examined and a generalized Stowell formula for the stress concentration factor is proposed for problems in which the applied loading may be pure shear as well as pure tension and, furthermore, other stress states. By the same method of solution, the stress distributions around a rigid circular cylindrical inclusion embedded in an infinite rigid-plastic matrix subjected to uniform transverse pure shear and tension are obtained.

  15. A parallel trajectory optimization tool for aerospace plane guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Psiaki, Mark L.; Park, Kihong

    1991-01-01

    A parallel trajectory optimization algorithm is being developed. One possible mission is to provide real-time, on-line guidance for the National Aerospace Plane. The algorithm solves a discrete-time problem via the augmented Lagrangian nonlinear programming algorithm. The algorithm exploits the dynamic programming structure of the problem to achieve parallelism in calculating cost functions, gradients, constraints, Jacobians, Hessian approximations, search directions, and merit functions. Special additions to the augmented Lagrangian algorithm achieve robust convergence, achieve (almost) superlinear local convergence, and deal with constraint curvature efficiency. The algorithm can handle control and state inequality constraints such as angle-of-attack and dynamic pressure constraints. Portions of the algorithm have been tested. The nonlinear programming core algorithm performs well on a variety of static test problems and on an orbit transfer problem. The parallel search direction algorithm can reduce wall clock time by a factor of 10 for this part of the computation task.

  16. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    ScienceCinema

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2016-07-12

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  17. Aero-space plane figures of merit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James L.; Martin, John G.

    1992-01-01

    The design environment of the aerospace plane is variable rich, intricately networked and sensitivity intensive. To achieve a viable design necessitates addressing three principal elements: knowledge of the 'figures of merit' and their relationships, the synthesis procedure, and the synergistic integration of advanced technologies across the discipline spectrum. This paper focuses on the 'figures of merit' that create the design of an aerospace plane.

  18. Slipping and Rolling on an Inclined Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ([mu]). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is…

  19. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    SciTech Connect

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2013-07-08

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  20. Extracting oblique planes from serial CT sections.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, M L; Glenn, W V; Azaawi, Y M

    1980-10-01

    Although geometric principles describing planes oblique to an orthogonal image data set are well understood, no implementation has been offered for their practical specification, extraction, and display in a clinical environment. Fast image generation and ease of user specification-requisite credentials for successful clinical implementations-are handicapped by the large volume of data to process. Other difficulties further complicate an interactive solution. Once oblique planes are generated, their orientation is often difficult to perceive without visual cues that aid their registration with standard image formats. In addition, Moire patterns introduced by digital aliasing often currupt resultant views. In this paper, techniques are outlined for simplifying oblique plane specification, a methodology is presented for image construction, and an interactive approach is illustrated to register images for such general view planes. Finally, digital aliasing of oblique planes is discussed, and a solution is given for this application.

  1. High temperature strain measurement with a resistance strain gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Fichtel, ED; Mcdaniel, Amos

    1993-01-01

    A PdCr based electrical resistance strain gage was demonstrated in the laboratory to be a viable sensor candidate for static strain measurement at high temperatures. However, difficulties were encountered while transferring the sensor to field applications. This paper is therefore prepared for recognition and resolution of the problems likely to be encountered with PdCr strain gages in field applications. Errors caused by the measurement system, installation technique and lead wire attachment are discussed. The limitations and some considerations related to the temperature compensation technique used for this gage are also addressed.

  2. High Temperature Capacitive Strain Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wnuk, Stephen P., Jr.; Wnuk, Stephen P., III; Wnuk, V. P.

    1990-01-01

    Capacitive strain gages designed for measurements in wind tunnels to 2000 F were built and evaluated. Two design approaches were followed. One approach was based on fixed capacitor plates with a movable ground plane inserted between the plates to effect differential capacitive output with strain. The second approach was based on movable capacitor plates suspended between sapphire bearings, housed in a rugged body, and arranged to operate as a differential capacitor. A sapphire bearing gage (1/4 in. diameter x 1 in. in size) was built with a range of 50,000 and a resolution of 200 microstrain. Apparent strain on Rene' 41 was less than + or - 1000 microstrain from room temperature to 2000 F. Three gage models were built from the Ground Plane Differential concept. The first was 1/4 in. square by 1/32 in. high and useable to 700 F. The second was 1/2 in. square by 1/16 in. high and useable to 1440 F. The third, also 1/2 in. square by 1/16 in. high was expected to operate in the 1600 to 2000 F range, but was not tested because time and funding ended.

  3. Study the Z-Plane Strip Capacitance

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, H.; Swain, S.; /SLAC

    2005-12-15

    The BaBaR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is currently undergoing an upgrade to improve its muon and neutral hadron detection system. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) that had been used till now have deteriorated in performance over the past few years and are being replaced by Limited Streamer Tube (LSTs). Each layer of the system consists of a set of up to 10 streamer tube modules which provide one coordinate ({phi} coordinate) and a single ''Z-plane'' which provides the Z coordinate of the hit. The large area Z-planes (up to 12m{sup 2}) are 1mm thick and contain 96 copper strips that detect the induced charge from avalanches created in the streamer tube wires. All the Z-planes needed for the upgrade have already been constructed, but only a third of the planes were installed last summer. After installing the 24 Z-planes last year, it was learned that 0.7% of the strips were dead when put inside the detector. This was mainly due to the delicate solder joint between the read-out cable and the strip, and since it is difficult to access or replace the Z-planes inside the detector, it is very important to perform various tests to make sure that the Z-planes will be efficient and effective in the long term. We measure the capacitance between the copper strips and the ground plane, and compare it to the theoretical value that we expect. Instead of measuring the capacitance channel by channel, which would be a very tedious job, we developed a more effective method of measuring the capacitance. Since all the Z-planes were built at SLAC, we also built a smaller 46 cm by 30 cm Z-plane with 12 strips just to see how they were constructed and to gain a better understanding about the solder joints.

  4. Strain engineered barium strontium titanate for tunable thin film resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Khassaf, H.; Khakpash, N.; Sun, F.; Sbrockey, N. M.; Tompa, G. S.; Kalkur, T. S.; Alpay, S. P.

    2014-05-19

    Piezoelectric properties of epitaxial (001) barium strontium titanate (BST) films are computed as functions of composition, misfit strain, and temperature using a non-linear thermodynamic model. Results show that through adjusting in-plane strains, a highly adaptive rhombohedral ferroelectric phase can be stabilized at room temperature with outstanding piezoelectric response exceeding those of lead based piezoceramics. Furthermore, by adjusting the composition and the in-plane misfit, an electrically tunable piezoelectric response can be obtained in the paraelectric state. These findings indicate that strain engineered BST films can be utilized in the development of electrically tunable and switchable surface and bulk acoustic wave resonators.

  5. New mitral annular force transducer optimized to distinguish annular segments and multi-plane forces.

    PubMed

    Skov, Søren Nielsen; Røpcke, Diana Mathilde; Ilkjær, Christine; Rasmussen, Jonas; Tjørnild, Marcell Juan; Jimenez, Jorge H; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Nygaard, Hans; Nielsen, Sten Lyager; Jensen, Morten Olgaard

    2016-03-21

    Limited knowledge exists about the forces acting on mitral valve annuloplasty repair devices. The aim of this study was to develop a new mitral annular force transducer to measure the forces acting on clinically used mitral valve annuloplasty devices. The design of an X-shaped transducer in the present study was optimized for simultaneous in- and out-of-plane force measurements. Each arm was mounted with strain gauges on four circumferential elements to measure out-of-plane forces, and the central parts of the X-arms were mounted with two strain gauges to measure in-plane forces. A dedicated calibration setup was developed to calibrate isolated forces with tension and compression for in- and out-of-plane measurements. With this setup, it was possible with linear equations to isolate and distinguish measured forces between the two planes and minimize transducer arm crosstalk. An in-vitro test was performed to verify the crosstalk elimination method and the assumptions behind it. The force transducer was implanted and evaluated in an 80kg porcine in-vivo model. Following crosstalk elimination, in-plane systolic force accumulation was found to be in average 4.0±0.1N and the out-of-plane annular segments experienced an average force of 1.4±0.4N. Directions of the systolic out-of-plane forces indicated movements towards a saddle shaped annulus, and the transducer was able to measure independent directional forces in individual annular segments. Further measurements with the new transducer coupled with clinical annuloplasty rings will provide a detailed insight into the biomechanical dynamics of these devices.

  6. Sadovskii vortex in strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freilich, Daniel; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    Sadovskii vortices are patches of fluid with uniform vorticity surrounded by a vortex sheet. They were first constructed as models for wakes behind bluff objects. We investigate the Sadovskii vortex in a straining field and examine limiting cases to validate our computational method. One limit is the patch vortex in strain (Moore & Saffman, Aircraft wake turbulence and its detection 1971), where there is no vortex sheet. We solve this as a free-boundary problem, and show that a simple method using the Biot-Savart law quickly gives solutions for stable shapes. When used for the more elongated (stronger straining field) situations, the method also leads to new vortex shapes. In the hollow vortex case, where there is no vortex patch and the circulation is entirely due to the vortex sheet (Llewellyn Smith and Crowdy, J. Fluid Mech. 691 2012), we use the Birkhoff-Rott equation to calculate the velocity of the fluid on the vortex boundary. The combination of these two methods can then be used to calculate the shape and velocity field of the Sadovksii vortex in strain.

  7. Plane-wave spectrum approach for tilted waveguides.

    PubMed

    Einziger, P D; Salzman, J

    1988-12-01

    Scattering of guided modes from an abruptly terminated waveguide is analyzed through an integral-equation formulation. First the boundary-value problem for a plane-stratified waveguide with arbitrary profile is reduced to a canonical system of surface integral equations. A Born-type iterative procedure is then employed to obtain a tractable solution of the scattering field at the termination. The specific choice of a tilted planar termination renders an explicit closed-form expression for the first Born approximation, represented by the plane-wave spectrum of the incident modal field modified by the appropriate Fresnel coefficient. Thus previous ad hoc formulations can be recovered as limiting cases of the suggested rigorous expansion scheme.

  8. An interferometric strain-displacement measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, William N., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A system for measuring the relative in-plane displacement over a gage length as short as 100 micrometers is described. Two closely spaced indentations are placed in a reflective specimen surface with a Vickers microhardness tester. Interference fringes are generated when they are illuminated with a He-Ne laser. As the distance between the indentations expands or contracts with applied load, the fringes move. This motion is monitored with a minicomputer-controlled system using linear diode arrays as sensors. Characteristics of the system are: (1) gage length ranging from 50 to 500 micrometers, but 100 micrometers is typical; (2) least-count resolution of approximately 0.0025 micrometer; and (3) sampling rate of 13 points per second. In addition, the measurement technique is non-contacting and non-reinforcing. It is useful for strain measurements over small gage lengths and for crack opening displacement measurements near crack tips. This report is a detailed description of a new system recently installed in the Mechanisms of Materials Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center. The intent is to enable a prospective user to evaluate the applicability of the system to a particular problem and assemble one if needed.

  9. Determination of the occlusal plane using a custom-made occlusal plane analyzer: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Bedia, Sumit V; Dange, Shankar P; Khalikar, Arun N

    2007-11-01

    In fixed prosthodontic procedures, when it has been determined that restoration of all or most of the posterior teeth is necessary, the use of the Broderick occlusal plane analyzer provides an easy and practical method to determine an occlusal plane that will fulfill esthetic and functional occlusion requirements. However, several manufacturers of semiadjustable articulators offer no such occlusal plane analyzers for use with these instruments. This article demonstrates the use of a custom-made Broderick occlusal plane analyzer with a semiadjustable articulator to determine the correct curve of Spee for the occlusal plane.

  10. Evidence for residual elastic strain in deformed natural quartz

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Tamura,Nobumichi; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

    2009-01-30

    Residual elastic strain in naturally deformed, quartz-containing rocks can be measured quantitatively in a petrographic thin section with high spatial resolution using Laue microdiffraction with white synchrotron x-rays. The measurements with a resolution of one micrometer allow the quantitative determination of the deviatoric strain tensor as a function of position within the crystal investigated. The observed equivalent strain values of 800-1200 microstrains represent a lower bound of the actual preserved residual strain in the rock, since the stress component perpendicular to the cut sample surface plane is released. The measured equivalent strain translates into an equivalent stress in the order of {approx} 50 MPa.

  11. A half plane and a strip with an arbitrarily located crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Arin, K.

    1973-01-01

    A technique is presented for dealing with the problem of an elastic domain containing an arbitrarily oriented internal crack. The problem is formulated as a system of integral equations for a fictitious layer of body forces imbedded in the plane along a closed smooth curve encircling the original domain. The problems of a half plane with a crack in the neighborhood of its free boundary and of an infinite strip containing a symmetrically located internal crack with an arbitrary orientation are considered as examples. In each case the stress intensity factors are computed and are given as functions of the crack angle.

  12. The lateral plane delivers higher dose than the frontal plane in biplane cardiac catheterization systems.

    PubMed

    Aldoss, Osamah; Patel, Sonali; Harris, Kyle; Divekar, Abhay

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study is to compare radiation dose between the frontal and lateral planes in a biplane cardiac catheterization laboratory. Tube angulation progressively increases patient and operator radiation dose in single-plane cardiac catheterization laboratories. This retrospective study captured biplane radiation dose in a pediatric cardiac catheterization laboratory between April 2010 and January 2014. Raw and time-indexed fluoroscopic, cineangiographic and total (fluoroscopic + cineangiographic) air kerma (AK, mGy) and kerma area product (PKA, µGym(2)/Kg) for each plane were compared. Data for 716 patients were analyzed: 408 (56.98 %) were male, the median age was 4.86 years, and the median weight was 17.35 kg. Although median beam-on time (minutes) was 4.2 times greater in the frontal plane, there was no difference in raw median total PKA between the two planes. However, when indexed to beam-on time, the lateral plane had a higher median-indexed fluoroscopic (0.75 vs. 1.70), cineangiographic (16.03 vs. 24.92), and total (1.43 vs. 5.15) PKA (p < 0.0001). The median time-indexed total PKA in the lateral plane is 3.6 times the frontal plane. This is the first report showing that the lateral plane delivers a higher dose than the frontal plane per unit time. Operators should consciously reduce the lateral plane beam-on time and incorporate this practice in radiation reduction protocols.

  13. Advanced approaches to focal plane integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. D.; Smith, E. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Both visible and infrared focal plane assemblies have common architectural driving parameters which guide their design approaches. The key drivers for advanced focal plane assemblies (FPA) are: the detector type and performance required; the number of detector chips; the packaging density; and the geometry. The impact of these drivers is seen to determine the engineering compromises necessary to establish FPA design approach. Several new designs are discussed which show a range of applications from single detector assemblies to monolithic detector chips with on-chip signal processing. The main objective of many advanced designs is to integrate the focal plane components in order to reduce power and reduce the number of interconnections.

  14. Streptococcus anginosus infections: crossing tissue planes.

    PubMed

    Sunwoo, Bernie Y; Miller, Wallace T

    2014-10-01

    Streptococcus anginosus has long been recognized to cause invasive pyogenic infections. This holds true for thoracic infections where S. anginosus has a propensity for abscess and empyema formation. Early diagnosis is important given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with thoracic S. anginosus infections. Yet, distinguishing thoracic S. anginosus clinically is difficult. We present three cases of thoracic S. anginosus that demonstrated radiographic extension across tissue planes, including the interlobar fissure, diaphragm, and chest wall. Few infectious etiologies are known to cross tissue planes. Accordingly, we propose S. anginosus be considered among the differential diagnosis of potential infectious etiologies causing radiographic extension across tissue planes.

  15. Crystallographic tilt and in-plane anisotropies of an a-plane InGaN/GaN layered structure grown by MOCVD on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. F.; Liu, W.; Guo, S.; Chi, D. Z.

    2016-03-01

    High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) was used to investigate the crystallographic tilts and structural anisotropies in epitaxial nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer. The substrate had an unintentional miscut of 0.14° towards its [-4 2 2 3] axis. However, HRXRD revealed a tilt of 0.26° (0.20°) between the ZnO (GaN) (11-20) and the Al2O3 (1-102) atomic planes, with the (11-20) axis of ZnO (GaN) tilted towards its c-axis, which has a difference of 163° in azimuth from that of the substrate’s miscut. Excess broadenings in the GaN/ZnO (11-20) rocking curves (RCs) were observed along its c-axis. Specific analyses revealed that partial dislocations and anisotropic in-plane strains, rather than surface-related effects, wafer curvature or stacking faults, are the dominant factors for the structural anisotropy. The orientation of the partial dislocations is most likely affected by the miscut of the substrate, e.g. via tilting of the misfit dislocation gliding planes created during island coalescences. Their Burgers vector components in the growth direction, in turn, gave rise to crystallographic tilts in the same direction as that of the excess RC-broadenings.

  16. Complex space monofilar approximation of diffraction currents on a conducting half plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindell, I. V.

    1987-01-01

    Simple approximation of diffraction surface currents on a conducting half plane, due to an incoming plane wave, is obtained with a line current (monofile) in complex space. When compared to an approximating current at the edge, the diffraction pattern is seen to improve by an order of magnitude for a minimal increase of computation effort. Thus, the inconvient Fresnel integral functions can be avoided for quick calculations of diffracted fields and the accuracy is good in other directions than along the half plane. The method can be applied to general problems involving planar metal edges.

  17. Plane-wave analysis of solar acoustic-gravity waves: A (slightly) new approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogart, Richard S.; Sa, L. A. D.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Haber, Deborah A.; Toomre, Juri; Hill, Frank

    1995-01-01

    The plane-wave decomposition of the acoustic-gravity wave effects observed in the photosphere provides a computationally efficient technique that probes the structure of the upper convective zone and boundary. In this region, the flat sun approximation is considered as being reasonably accurate. A technique to be used for the systematic plane-wave analysis of Michelson Doppler imager data, as part of the solar oscillations investigation, is described. Estimates of sensitivity are presented, and the effects of using different planar mappings are discussed. The technique is compared with previous approaches to the three dimensional plane-wave problem.

  18. Three-dimensional Allan fault plane analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, K.S.; Taylor, D.R.; Schnell, R.T.

    1994-12-31

    Allan fault-plane analysis is a useful tool for determining hydrocarbon migration paths and the location of possible traps. While initially developed for Gulf coast deltaic and interdeltaic environments, fault-plane analysis has been successfully applied in many other geologic settings. Where the geology involves several intersecting faults and greater complexity, many two-dimensional displays are required in the investigation and it becomes increasingly difficult to accurately visualize both fault relationships and migration routes. Three-dimensional geospatial fault and structure modeling using computer techniques, however, facilitates both visualization and understanding and extends fault-plane analysis into much more complex situations. When a model is viewed in three dimensions, the strata on both sides of a fault can be seen simultaneously while the true structural character of one or more fault surfaces is preserved. Three-dimensional analysis improves the speed and accuracy of the fault plane methodology.

  19. Magnetic domain pattern asymmetry in (Ga, Mn)As/(Ga,In)As with in-plane anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera Diez, L.; Rapp, C.; Schoch, W.; Limmer, W.; Gourdon, C.; Jeudy, V.; Honolka, J.; Kern, K.

    2012-04-01

    Appropriate adjustment of the tensile strain in (Ga, Mn)As/(Ga,In)As films allows for the coexistence of in-plane magnetic anisotropy, typical of compressively strained (Ga, Mn)As/GaAs films, and the so-called cross-hatch dislocation pattern seeded at the (Ga,In)As/GaAs interface. Kerr microscopy reveals a close correlation between the in-plane magnetic domain and dislocation patterns, absent in compressively strained materials. Moreover, the magnetic domain pattern presents a strong asymmetry in the size and number of domains for applied fields along the easy [11¯0] and hard [110] directions which is attributed to different domain wall nucleation/propagation energies. This strong influence of the dislocation lines in the domain wall propagation/nucleation provides a lithography-free route to the effective trapping of domain walls in magneto-transport devices based on (Ga, Mn)As with in-plane anisotropy.

  20. The Anisotropic Kepler Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broucke, R.

    The author studies a version of the Kepler problem in the plane, where the constant of gravity G is assumed to have different values for the x-equation and the y-equation, in accordance with several previous studies by Gutzwiller, Devaney, Casasayas, Llibre and Belbruno. This problem is a somewhat unusual dynamical system because of several properties. The author first describes the different formulations and equations of motion that were used by different authors. He also discusses the properties of the collision manifold, following the approach of McGehee. This allows one to classify the flow near the origin.

  1. Deep plane facelifting for facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Neil; Adam, Stewart

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the facial plastic surgeon with anatomical and embryologic evidence to support the use of the deep plane technique for optimal treatment of facial aging. A detailed description of the procedure is provided to allow safe and consistent performance. Insights into anatomical landmarks, technical nuances, and alternative approaches for facial variations are presented. The following points will be further elucidated in the article. The platysma muscle/submuscular aponeurotic system/galea are the continuous superficial cervical fascia encompassing the majority of facial fat, and this superficial soft tissue envelope is poorly anchored to the face. The deep cervical fascia binds the structural aspects of the face and covers the facial nerve and buccal fat pad. Facial aging is mainly due to gravity's long-term effects on the superficial soft tissue envelope, with more subtle effects on the deeper structural compartments. The deep plane is the embryologic cleavage plane between these fascial layers, and is the logical place for facial dissection. The deep plane allows access to the buccal fat pad for treatment of jowling. Soft tissue mobilization is maximized in deep plane dissections and requires careful hairline planning. Flap advancement creates tension only at the fascia level allowing natural, tension-free skin closure, and long-lasting outcomes. The deep plane advancement flap is well vascularized and resistant to complications.

  2. Plane-wave fluorescence tomography with adaptive finite elements.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Amit; Bangerth, Wolfgang; Hwang, Kildong; Rasmussen, John; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2006-01-15

    We present three-dimensional fluorescence yield tomography of a tissue phantom in a noncontact reflectance imaging setup. The method employs planar illumination with modulated light and frequency domain fluorescence measurements made on the illumination plane. An adaptive finite-element algorithm is used to handle the ill-posed and computationally demanding inverse image reconstruction problem. Tomographic images of fluorescent targets buried at 1-2 cm depths from the illumination surface demonstrate the feasibility of fluorescence tomography from reflectance tomography in clinically relevant tissue volumes.

  3. Numerical errors of diffraction computing using plane wave spectrum decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozacki, Tomasz

    2008-09-01

    In the paper the numerical determination of diffraction patterns using plane wave spectrum decomposition (PWS) is investigated. The simple formula for sampling selection for error-free numerical computation is proposed and its applicability is discussed. The usage of this formula presents practical difficulty for some diffraction problems due to required large memory load. A new multi-Fourier transform PWS (MPWS) method is elaborated which overcomes memory requirement of the PWS method. The performances of the PWS and MPWS methods are verified through extensive numerical simulations.

  4. Decoding the matrix: Coincident membranes on the plane wave

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Mints, Aleksey L.

    2006-03-15

    At the core of nonperturbative theories of quantum gravity lies the holographic encoding of bulk data in large matrices. At present this mapping is poorly understood. The plane wave matrix model provides a laboratory for isolating aspects of this problem in a controlled setting. At large boosts, configurations of concentric membranes become superselection sectors, whose exact spectra are known. From the bulk point of view, one expects product states of individual membranes to be contained within the full spectrum. However, for non-BPS states this inclusion relation is obscured by Gauss law constraints. Its validity rests on nontrivial relations in representation theory, which we identify and verify by explicit computation.

  5. Multi-scale finite element modeling of strain localization in geomaterials with strong discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Timothy Yu

    2002-01-01

    Geomaterials such as soils and rocks undergo strain localization during various loading conditions. Strain localization manifests itself in the form of a shear band, a narrow zone of intense straining. It is now generally recognized that these localized deformations lead to an accelerated softening response and influence the response of structures at or near failure. In order to accurately predict the behavior of geotechnical structures, the effects of strain localization must be included in any model developed. In this thesis, a multi-scale Finite Element (FE) model has been developed that captures the macro- and micro-field deformation patterns present during strain localization. The FE model uses a strong discontinuity approach where a jump in the displacement field is assumed. The onset of strain localization is detected using bifurcation theory that checks when the governing equations lose ellipticity. Two types of bifurcation, continuous and discontinuous are considered. Precise conditions for plane strain loading conditions are reported for each type of bifurcation. Post-localization behavior is governed by the traction relations on the band. Different plasticity models such as Mohr-Coulomb, Drucker-Prager and a Modified Mohr-Coulomb yield were implemented together with cohesion softening and cutoff for the post-localization behavior. The FE model is implemented into a FORTRAN code SPIN2D-LOC using enhanced constant strain triangular (CST) elements. The model is formulated using standard Galerkin finite element method, applicable to problems under undrained conditions and small deformation theory. A band-tracing algorithm is implemented to track the propagation of the shear band. To validate the model, several simulations are performed from simple compression test of soft rock to simulation of a full-scale geosynthetic reinforced soil wall model undergoing strain localization. Results from both standard and enhanced FE method are included for comparison. The

  6. Mixed boundary conditions for FFT-based homogenization at finite strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabel, Matthias; Fliegener, Sascha; Schneider, Matti

    2016-02-01

    In this article we introduce a Lippmann-Schwinger formulation for the unit cell problem of periodic homogenization of elasticity at finite strains incorporating arbitrary mixed boundary conditions. Such problems occur frequently, for instance when validating computational results with tensile tests, where the deformation gradient in loading direction is fixed, as is the stress in the corresponding orthogonal plane. Previous Lippmann-Schwinger formulations involving mixed boundary can only describe tensile tests where the vector of applied force is proportional to a coordinate direction. Utilizing suitable orthogonal projectors we develop a Lippmann-Schwinger framework for arbitrary mixed boundary conditions. The resulting fixed point and Newton-Krylov algorithms preserve the positive characteristics of existing FFT-algorithms. We demonstrate the power of the proposed methods with a series of numerical examples, including continuous fiber reinforced laminates and a complex nonwoven structure of a long fiber reinforced thermoplastic, resulting in a speed-up of some computations by a factor of 1000.

  7. Double plane wave reverse time migration with plane wave Green's function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.; Sen, M. K.; Stoffa, P. L.

    2015-12-01

    Reverse time migration (RTM) is effective in obtaining complex subsurface structures from seismic data. By solving the two-way wave equation, RTM can use entire wavefield for imaging. Although powerful computer are becoming available, the conventional pre-stack shot gather RTM is still computationally expensive. Solving forward and backward wavefield propagation for each source location and shot gather is extremely time consuming, especially for large seismic datasets. We present an efficient, accurate and flexible plane wave RTM in the frequency domain where we utilize a compressed plane wave dataset, known as the double plane wave (DPW) dataset. Provided with densely sampled seismic dataset, shot gathers can be decomposed into source and receiver plane wave components with minimal artifacts. The DPW RTM is derived under the Born approximation and utilizes frequency domain plane wave Green's function for imaging. Time dips in the shot profiles can help to estimate the range of plane wave components present in shot gathers. Therefore, a limited number of plane wave Green's functions are needed for imaging. Plane wave Green's functions can be used for imaging both source and receiver plane waves. Source and receiver reciprocity can be used for imaging plane wave components at no cost and save half of the computation time. As a result, the computational burden for migration is substantially reduced. Plane wave components can be migrated independently to recover specific targets with given dips, and ray parameter common image gathers (CIGs) can be generated after migration directly. The ray parameter CIGs can be used to justify the correctness of velocity models. Subsurface anisotropy effects can also be included in our imaging condition, provided with plane wave Green's functions in the anisotropic media.

  8. Biomechanical differences between incline and plane hopping.

    PubMed

    Kannas, Theodoros M; Kellis, Eleftherios; Amiridis, Ioannis G

    2011-12-01

    Kannas, TM, Kellis, E, and Amiridis, IG. Biomechanical differences between incline and plane hopping. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3334-3341, 2011-The need for the generation of higher joint power output during performance of dynamic activities led us to investigate the force-length relationship of the plantar flexors during consecutive stretch-shortening cycles of hopping. The hypothesis of this study was that hopping (consecutive jumps with the knee as straight as possible) on an inclined (15°) surface might lead to a better jumping performance compared with hopping on a plane surface (0°). Twelve active men performed 3 sets of 10 consecutive hops on both an incline and plane surface. Ground reaction forces; ankle and knee joint kinematics; electromyographic (EMG) activity from the medial gastrocnemius (MG), soleus (Sol) and tibialis anterior (TA); and architectural data from the MG were recorded. The results showed that participants jumped significantly higher (p < 0.05) when hopping on an inclined surface (30.32 ± 8.18 cm) compared with hopping on a plane surface (27.52 ± 4.97 cm). No differences in temporal characteristics between the 2 types of jumps were observed. Incline hopping induced significantly greater ankle dorsiflexion and knee extension at takeoff compared with plane hopping (p < 0.05). The fascicle length of the MG was greater at initial contact with the ground during incline hopping (p < 0.05). Moreover, the EMG activities of Sol and TA during the propulsion phase were significantly higher during incline compared with that during plane hopping (p < 0.05). It does not seem unreasonable to suggest that, if the aim of hopping plyometrics is to improve plantar flexor explosivity, incline hopping might be a more effective exercise than hopping on a plane surface.

  9. On the theory of unsteady planing and the motion of a wing with vortex separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedov, L

    1940-01-01

    The disturbance imparted to water by a planing body give rise to a wave form of motion on the free surface, the length of the waves increasing indefinitely with increase in the Froude number and being directly proportional to the latter in the case of the plane or two-dimensional problem. At large Froude numbers the effect of the weight shows up to any appreciable extent only at some distance from the body, so that the flow near the body can be considered as part of a flow of an infinitely extending weightless fluid. This paper is a consideration of these characteristics as well as a formulation of the planing problem and its relation to the problem of a thin wing.

  10. Generalized plane-wave expansion of cylindrical functions in lossy media convergent in the whole complex plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frezza, F.; Schettini, G.; Tedeschi, N.

    2011-08-01

    Electromagnetic scattering by buried objects may involve a plane-wave expansion of the related fields, which depends on the objects' geometry. Furthermore, involved media in realistic cases are lossy, which requires the analytic continuation of formulae known for the lossless cases, due to the complex nature of the wave vectors. This problem has been covered in a previous paper, but the expression found still does not converge in some areas of space. In this paper, a new, convergent, expression of the spectrum of cylindrical functions in lossy media is analytically computed and its convergence limits are discussed.

  11. INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR BRIDGE BETWEEN PLANING MILL AND CAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR BRIDGE BETWEEN PLANING MILL AND CAR MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD PLANING MILL. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Planing Mill, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  12. Exhumation by gravitational sliding up an inclined plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podladchikov, Yury; Schmalholz, Stefan; Burg, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Gravity causes sliding down an inclined plane if pressure is near lithostatic. If metamorphic pressures are lithostatic pressures, the approximation is inconsistent with pressure-temperature exhumation histories of thrust nappes stacked during compression to form the thickened crust of mountain belts. Overthickened mountain roots and foreland basin-type sedimentation accompanying the downward movement component of the Moho require significant non-lithostatic pressure perturbations within the mountain belts. Relaxation of the subsequent pressure gradients can be achieved by nappe-like thrusting up an inclined plane recording near isothermal decompression and carrying young sediments to high altitudes. We present results of fully dynamic numerical modelling documenting feasibility of this process. Neither thrusting, nor large weakness zones nor S-point-type boundary conditions are kinematically prescribed in our models. Thrusting emerges spontaneously as an instability, strain localization process that may follow preexisting lithological layering or thermal gradients and able to form new zones of weakness by shear heating mechanism. The non-prescribed nature of our modeled deformation modes makes them feasible, even probable as a leading response to continental shortening. In that case, non lithostatic pressure 'cycle' is an alternative or a complement to the classical Wilson cycle invoked alone to explain elevated occurrences of deep-water sediments.

  13. The surface and through crack problems in layered orthotropic plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, Fazil; Wu, Binghua

    1991-01-01

    An analytical method is developed for a relatively accurate calculation of Stress Intensity Factors in a laminated orthotropic plate containing a through or part-through crack. The laminated plate is assumed to be under bending or membrane loading and the mode 1 problem is considered. First three transverse shear deformation plate theories (Mindlin's displacement based first-order theory, Reissner's stress-based first-order theory, and a simple-higher order theory due to Reddy) are reviewed and examined for homogeneous, laminated and heterogeneous orthotropic plates. Based on a general linear laminated plate theory, a method by which the stress intensity factors can be obtained in orthotropic laminated and heterogeneous plates with a through crack is developed. Examples are given for both symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated plates and the effects of various material properties on the stress intensity factors are studied. In order to implement the line-spring model which is used later to study the surface crack problem, the corresponding plane elasticity problem of a two-bonded orthotropic plated containing a crack perpendicular to the interface is also considered. Three different crack profiles: an internal crack, an edge crack, and a crack terminating at the interface are considered. The effect of the different material combinations, geometries, and material orthotropy on the stress intensity factors and on the power of stress singularity for a crack terminating at the interface is fully examined. The Line Spring model of Rice and Levy is used for the part-through crack problem. The surface crack is assumed to lie in one of the two-layered laminated orthotropic plates due to the limitation of the available plane strain results. All problems considered are of the mixed boundary value type and are reduced to Cauchy type of singular integral equations which are then solved numerically.

  14. Strain-assisted current-induced magnetization reversal in magnetic tunnel junctions: A micromagnetic study with phase-field microelasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H. B.; Hu, J. M.; Yang, T. N.; Chen, L. Q.; Ma, X. Q.

    2014-09-22

    Effect of substrate misfit strain on current-induced in-plane magnetization reversal in CoFeB-MgO based magnetic tunnel junctions is investigated by combining micromagnetic simulations with phase-field microelasticity theory. It is found that the critical current density for in-plane magnetization reversal decreases dramatically with an increasing substrate strain, since the effective elastic field can drag the magnetization to one of the four in-plane diagonal directions. A potential strain-assisted multilevel bit spin transfer magnetization switching device using substrate misfit strain is also proposed.

  15. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  16. Combinatorial Intricacies of Labeled Fano Planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saniga, Metod

    2016-08-01

    Given a seven-element set $X = \\{1,2,3,4,5,6,7\\}$, there are 30 ways to define a Fano plane on it. Let us call a line of such Fano plane, that is to say an unordered triple from $X$, ordinary or defective according as the sum of two smaller integers from the triple is or is not equal to the remaining one, respectively. A point of the labeled Fano plane is said to be of order $s$, $0 \\leq s \\leq 3$, if there are $s$ {\\it defective} lines passing through it. With such structural refinement in mind, the 30 Fano planes are shown to fall into eight distinct types. Out of the total of 35 lines, nine ordinary lines are of five different kinds, whereas the remaining 26 defective lines yield as many as ten distinct types. It is shown, in particular, that no labeled Fano plane can have all points of zeroth order, or feature just one point of order two. A connection with prominent configurations in Steiner triple systems is also pointed out.

  17. A Viewpoint on the Quantity "Plane Angle"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Properties of the quantity "plane angle" are explored under the hypothesis that it is a dimensional quantity. The exploration proceeds especially with respect to the physical concept, its mathematical treatment, vector concepts, measurement theory, units of related quantities, engineering pragmatism, and SI. An attempt is made to bring these different relations into a rational, logical and consistent framework, and thus to justify the hypothesis. Various types of vectorial quantities are recognized, and their properties described with an outline of the necessary algebraic manipulations. The concept of plane angle is amplified, and its interdependence with the circular arc is explored. The resulting units of plane angle form a class of similar scales of measurement. Consequences of the confirmed hypothesis are developed for mathematical expressions involving trigonometric functions, rotational volumes and areas, mathematical limits, differentiation and series expansion. Consequences for mechanical rotational quantities are developed, with proposals for revisions to a number of expressions for derived units within SI. A revised definition for the quantity "plane angle" is stated to take account of the developed insights. There is a clear need to reconsider the status of plane angle and some other quantities within the international framework of SI.

  18. Focal Plane Metrology for the LSST Camera

    SciTech Connect

    A Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Hale, Layton; Kim, Peter; Lee, Eric; Perl, Martin; Schindler, Rafe; Takacs, Peter; Thurston, Timothy; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5{sup o}) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 {micro}m P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at the operating temperature (T {approx} -100 C) and over the operational elevation angle range. We briefly describe the hierarchical design approach for the LSST Camera focal plane and the baseline design for assembling the flat focal plane at room temperature. Preliminary results of gravity load and thermal distortion calculations are provided, and early metrological verification of candidate materials under cold thermal conditions are presented. A detailed, generalized method for stitching together sparse metrology data originating from differential, non-contact metrological data acquisition spanning multiple (non-continuous) sensor surfaces making up the focal plane, is described and demonstrated. Finally, we describe some in situ alignment verification alternatives, some of which may be integrated into the camera's focal plane.

  19. GLAMER - II. Multiple-plane gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkova, Margarita; Metcalf, R. Benton; Giocoli, Carlo

    2014-12-01

    We present an extension to multiple planes of the gravitational lensing code GLAMER. The method entails projecting the mass in the observed light-cone on to a discrete number of lens planes and inverse ray-shooting from the image to the source plane. The mass on each plane can be represented as haloes, simulation particles, a projected mass map extracted form a numerical simulation or any combination of these. The image finding is done in a source-oriented fashion, where only regions of interest are iteratively refined on an initially coarse image plane grid. The calculations are performed in parallel on shared memory machines. The code is able to handle different types of analytic haloes (NFW, NSIE, power law, etc.), haloes extracted from numerical simulations and clusters constructed from semi-analytic models (MOKA). Likewise, there are several different options for modelling the source(s) which can be distributed throughout the light-cone. The distribution of matter in the light-cone can be either taken from a pre-existing N-body numerical simulations, from halo catalogues, or are generated from an analytic mass function. We present several tests of the code and demonstrate some of its applications such as generating mock images of galaxy and galaxy cluster lenses.

  20. Statistical framework for the utilization of simultaneous pupil plane and focal plane telemetry for exoplanet imaging. I. Accounting for aberrations in multiple planes.

    PubMed

    Frazin, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    A new generation of telescopes with mirror diameters of 20 m or more, called extremely large telescopes (ELTs), has the potential to provide unprecedented imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanetary systems, if the difficulties in achieving the extremely high dynamic range required to differentiate the planetary signal from the star can be overcome to a sufficient degree. Fully utilizing the potential of ELTs for exoplanet imaging will likely require simultaneous and self-consistent determination of both the planetary image and the unknown aberrations in multiple planes of the optical system, using statistical inference based on the wavefront sensor and science camera data streams. This approach promises to overcome the most important systematic errors inherent in the various schemes based on differential imaging, such as angular differential imaging and spectral differential imaging. This paper is the first in a series on this subject, in which a formalism is established for the exoplanet imaging problem, setting the stage for the statistical inference methods to follow in the future. Every effort has been made to be rigorous and complete, so that validity of approximations to be made later can be assessed. Here, the polarimetric image is expressed in terms of aberrations in the various planes of a polarizing telescope with an adaptive optics system. Further, it is shown that current methods that utilize focal plane sensing to correct the speckle field, e.g., electric field conjugation, rely on the tacit assumption that aberrations on multiple optical surfaces can be represented as aberration on a single optical surface, ultimately limiting their potential effectiveness for ground-based astronomy. PMID:27140784

  1. Statistical framework for the utilization of simultaneous pupil plane and focal plane telemetry for exoplanet imaging. I. Accounting for aberrations in multiple planes.

    PubMed

    Frazin, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    A new generation of telescopes with mirror diameters of 20 m or more, called extremely large telescopes (ELTs), has the potential to provide unprecedented imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanetary systems, if the difficulties in achieving the extremely high dynamic range required to differentiate the planetary signal from the star can be overcome to a sufficient degree. Fully utilizing the potential of ELTs for exoplanet imaging will likely require simultaneous and self-consistent determination of both the planetary image and the unknown aberrations in multiple planes of the optical system, using statistical inference based on the wavefront sensor and science camera data streams. This approach promises to overcome the most important systematic errors inherent in the various schemes based on differential imaging, such as angular differential imaging and spectral differential imaging. This paper is the first in a series on this subject, in which a formalism is established for the exoplanet imaging problem, setting the stage for the statistical inference methods to follow in the future. Every effort has been made to be rigorous and complete, so that validity of approximations to be made later can be assessed. Here, the polarimetric image is expressed in terms of aberrations in the various planes of a polarizing telescope with an adaptive optics system. Further, it is shown that current methods that utilize focal plane sensing to correct the speckle field, e.g., electric field conjugation, rely on the tacit assumption that aberrations on multiple optical surfaces can be represented as aberration on a single optical surface, ultimately limiting their potential effectiveness for ground-based astronomy.

  2. Statistical framework for the utilization of simultaneous pupil plane and focal plane telemetry for exoplanet imaging I Accounting for aberrations in multiple planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazin, Richard A.

    2016-04-01

    A new generation of telescopes with mirror diameters of 20 m or more, called extremely large telescopes (ELTs) has the potential to provide unprecedented imaging and spectroscopy of exo-planetary systems, if the difficulties in achieving the extremely high dynamic range required to differentiate the planetary signal from the star can be overcome to a sufficient degree. Fully utilizing the potential of ELTs for exoplanet imaging will likely require simultaneous and self-consistent determination of both the planetary image and the unknown aberrations in multiple planes of the optical system, using statistical inference based on the wavefront sensor and science camera data streams. This approach promises to overcome the most important systematic errors inherent in the various schemes based on differential imaging, such as ADI and SDI. This paper is the first in a series on this subject, in which a formalism is established for the exoplanet imaging problem, setting the stage for the statistical inference methods to follow in the future. Every effort has been made to be rigorous and complete, so that validity of approximations to be made later can be assessed. Here, the polarimetric image is expressed in terms of aberrations in the various planes of a polarizing telescope with an adaptive optics system. Further, it is shown that current methods that utilize focal plane sensing to correct the speckle field, e.g., electric field conjugation, rely on the tacit assumption that aberrations on multiple optical surfaces can be represented as aberration on a single optical surface, ultimately limiting their potential effectiveness for ground-based astronomy.

  3. High temperature strain gage apparent strain compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Harlan K.; Moore, T. C., Sr.

    1992-01-01

    Once an installed strain gage is connected to a strain indicating device and the instrument is balanced, a subsequent change in temperature of the gage installation will generally produce a resistance change in the gage. This purely temperature-induced resistance will be registered by the indicating device as a strain and is referred to as 'apparent strain' to distinguish it from strain due to applied stress. One desirable technique for apparent strain compensation is to employ two identical gages with identical mounting procedures which are connected with a 'half bridge' configuration where gages see the same thermal environment but only one experiences a mechanical strain input. Their connection in adjacent arms of the bridge will then balance the thermally induced apparent strains and, in principle, only the mechanical strain remains. Two approaches that implement this technique are discussed.

  4. High-strain composites and dual-matrix composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqueda Jimenez, Ignacio

    another finite element model that simulated a homogenized rod under axial compression. A statistical representation of the fiber angles was implemented in the model. The presence of fiber angles increased the longitudinal shear stiffness of the material, resulting in a higher strength in compression. The simulations showed a large increase of the strength in compression for lower values of the standard deviation of the fiber angle, and a slight decrease of strength in compression for lower values of the mean fiber angle. The strength observed in the experiments was achieved with the minimum local angle standard deviation observed in the CFRS rods, whereas the shear stiffness measured in torsion tests was achieved with the overall fiber angle distribution observed in the CFRS rods. High strain composites exhibit good bending capabilities, but they tend to be soft out-of-plane. To achieve a higher out-of-plane stiffness, the concept of dual-matrix composites is introduced. Dual-matrix composites are foldable composites which are soft in the crease regions and stiff elsewhere. Previous attempts to fabricate continuous dual-matrix fiber composite shells had limited performance due to excessive resin flow and matrix mixing. An alternative method, presented in this thesis uses UV-cure silicone and fiberglass to avoid these problems. Preliminary experiments on the effect of folding on the out-of-plane stiffness are presented. An application to a conical log-periodic antenna for CubeSats is proposed, using origami-inspired stowing schemes, that allow a conical dual-matrix composite shell to reach very high compaction ratios.

  5. Experimental and theoretical strain distributions for stationary and growing cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerberich, W. W.; Davidson, D. L.; Kaczorowski, M.

    E XPERIMENTAL strain distributions are determined very near the crack tip in Fe-3wt.%Si single crystals. Both in situ stereoimaging and electron channeling techniques give reasonably reproducible distributions. By growing fatigue cracks on a {100} cleavage plane, the singularity strengths have been determined for both growing and stationary cracks under relatively plane stress and plane strain conditions. This has allowed a comparison to existing theoretical models. It is shown that the HRR singularity (Hutchinson, Rice and Rosengren, 1968) for stationary cracks is very good to within I μm of the crack tip and a hardening model for the growing crack (gao and hwang, Advances in Fracture Research, edited by D. Francois. 5th Int. Conf. on Fracture, Cannes, France, 2, 669, 1981) is surprisingly good. Other issues such as fracture criteria are discussed since strains greater than unity were measured at the crack tip in this relatively brittle material.

  6. Exact solution for scalar diffraction between tilted and translated planes using impulse functions over a surface.

    PubMed

    Onural, Levent

    2011-03-01

    The diffraction relation between a plane and another plane that is both tilted and translated with respect to the first one is revisited. The derivation of the result becomes easier when the impulse function over a surface is used as a tool. Such an approach converts the original 2D problem to an intermediate 3D problem and thus allows utilization of easy-to-interpret Fourier transform properties due to rotation and translation. An exact solution for the scalar monochromatic propagating waves case when the propagation direction is restricted to be in the forward direction is presented. PMID:21383808

  7. Minimum-fuel aerodynamic orbital plane change maneuvers. [for Space Shuttle Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joosten, B. K.; Pierson, B. L.

    1981-01-01

    Several minimum-fuel, aerodynamically controlled, orbital plane change problems are formulated and solved as optimal control problems. A gradient projection algorithm is used to iteratively modify both the control functions, angle of attack and bank angle, and two control parameters to obtain the optimal trajectory. The atmospheric flight profile is combined with two Keplerian (two-body vacuum flight) arcs so that a complete orbit-to-orbit analysis results. The vehicle used in this investigation is the Space Transportation System Shuttle Orbiter. The effects of heat load constraint level and plane change angle are analysed.

  8. Electromagnetic diffraction by plane reflection diffraction gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bocker, R. P.; Marathay, A. S.

    1972-01-01

    A plane wave theory was developed to study electromagnetic diffraction by plane reflection diffraction gratings of infinite extent. A computer program was written to calculate the energy distribution in the various orders of diffraction for the cases when the electric or magnetic field vectors are parallel to the grating grooves. Within the region of validity of this theory, results were in excellent agreement with those in the literature. Energy conservation checks were also made to determine the region of validity of the plane wave theory. The computer program was flexible enough to analyze any grating profile that could be described by a single value function f(x). Within the region of validity the program could be used with confidence. The computer program was used to investigate the polarization and blaze properties of the diffraction grating.

  9. Solid-state curved focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

  10. Turbulent boundary layers over nonstationary plane boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roper, A. T.

    1976-01-01

    Methods of predicting integral parameters and skin-friction coefficients of turbulent boundary layers developing over moving-ground-planes are evaluated using test information from three different wind tunnel facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center. These data include test information from the VSTOL tunnel which is presented for the first time. The three methods evaluated were: (1) relative integral parameter method, (2) relative power law method, and (3) modified law of the wall method. Methods (1) and (2) can be used to predict moving-ground-plane shape factors with an expected accuracy of + or - 10%. They may also be used to predict moving-ground-plane displacement and momentum thicknesses with lower expected accuracy. This decrease in accuracy can be traced to the failure of approximations upon which these methods are based to prove universal when compared with VSTOL tunnel test results.

  11. A miniature robotic plane meteorological sounding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shuqing; Chen, Hongbin; Wang, Gai; Pan, Yi; Li, Qiang

    2004-12-01

    This article presents a miniature robotic plane meteorological sounding system (RPMSS), which consists of three major subsystems: a miniature robotic plane, an air-borne meteorological sounding and flight control system, and a ground-based system. Take-off and landing of the miniature aircraft are guided by radio control, and the flight of the robotic plane along a pre-designed trajectory is automatically piloted by an onboard navigation system. The observed meteorological data as well as all flight information are sent back in real time to the ground, then displayed and recorded by the ground-based computer. The ground-based subsystem can also transmit instructions to the air-borne control subsystem. Good system performance has been demonstrated by more than 300 hours of flight for atmospheric sounding.

  12. Are rotating planes of satellite galaxies ubiquitous?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, John I.; Cooper, Michael C.; Bullock, James S.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2015-11-01

    We compare the dynamics of satellite galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to simple models in order to test the hypothesis that a large fraction of satellites corotate in coherent planes. We confirm the previously reported excess of corotating satellite pairs located near diametric opposition with respect to their host, but show that this signal is unlikely to be due to rotating discs (or planes) of satellites. In particular, no overabundance of corotating satellites pairs is observed within ˜20°-50° of direct opposition, as would be expected for planar distributions inclined relative to the line of sight. Instead, the excess corotation for satellite pairs within ˜10° of opposition is consistent with random noise associated with undersampling of an underlying isotropic velocity distribution. Based upon the observed dynamics of the luminous satellite population, we conclude that at most 10 per cent of isolated hosts harbour corotating satellite planes (as traced by bright satellites).

  13. Real-time multiple plane area detection using a self-organizing map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Teng, Zhu; Kang, Dong-Joong

    2012-01-01

    Plane detection in 3-D space is a core function of the autonomous mobile robot. A representative technique for plane detection is the Hough transform method. The Hough transform is robust to noise and makes accurate plane detection possible. However, a common problem in methods based on the Hough transform is that too much time is required to calculate parameters, which adds computational cost and memory requirements for parameter voting to find the distribution of mixed multiple planes in the parameter space. Furthermore, real-time processing for sequential image sequences is challenging, because the whole process must be repetitively performed for the next detection. We extend the conventional self-organizing map by introducing a real-time clustering method and by detecting multiple planes through the creation, extinction, renewal, and merging of plane parameter data, which are input sequentially. The proposed method is also based on reliable plane detection through a planarity evaluation during data sampling. The results of experiments conducted under various conditions with an unmanned vehicle demonstrate that the proposed method is more accurate and faster than conventional methods.

  14. Flow of granular materials down an inclined plane

    SciTech Connect

    Gudhe, R.; Rajagopal, K.R.; Massoudi, M.; Chi, R.

    1993-05-01

    The mechanics of flowing granular materials such as coal, sand, fossil-fuel energy recovery, metal ores, etc., and their flow characteristics have received considerable attention in recent years because it has relevance to several technological problems. In a number of instances these materials are also heated prior to processing, or cooled after processing. The governing equations for the flow of granular materials taking into account the heat transfer mechanism are derived using the continuum model proposed by Rajagopal and Massoudi (1990). For a fully developed flow of granular materials down an inclined plane, these equations reduce to a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. The resulting boundary value problem is solved numerically and the results are presented. For a special case, it is possible to obtain an analytic solution; this is given in the Appendix A of this report.

  15. Source localization using rational approximation on plane sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, M.; Leblond, J.; Marmorat, J.-P.; Papadopoulo, T.

    2012-05-01

    In functional neuroimaging, a crucial problem is to localize active sources within the brain non-invasively, from knowledge of electromagnetic measurements outside the head. Identification of point sources from boundary measurements is an ill-posed inverse problem. In the case of electroencephalography (EEG), measurements are only available at electrode positions, the number of sources is not known in advance and the medium within the head is inhomogeneous. This paper presents a new method for EEG source localization, based on rational approximation techniques in the complex plane. The method is used in the context of a nested sphere head model, in combination with a cortical mapping procedure. Results on simulated data prove the applicability of the method in the context of realistic measurement configurations.

  16. Nonuniformity compensation for IR focal plane array sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswarlu, Ronda; Er, Meng H.; Gan, Yu H.; Fong, Yew C.

    1997-08-01

    Recent reports indicate that cooled and uncooled IR focal plane array sensors are progressing to a field-worthy level for commercial and defense applications. They offer higher sensitivity, amenability to signal processing and mechanical simplicity. However these sensors contain large detector-to- detector dark current (offset) and responsivity (gain) variations. These variations result in a severe problem called fixed pattern noise that can mask/distort the image obtained from the sensor. The correction process is generally termed as nonuniformity compensation. Conventional two-point compensation techniques are accurate enough, but require built-in controllable temperature references along with mechanical and electro-optical shutters. Therefore this compensation technique detracts the mechanical simplicity of using IR focal plane arrays. Scene-based nonuniformity techniques dispenses with the requirement of temperature references and shutters, but are not accurate enough for certain applications. This paper discusses two-point and scene-based nonuniformity compensation algorithms and proposes an empirical formula to automatically calculate the scene constants, which is an essential step towards practical applications. This paper reports the analyzed results of testing the algorithms on a number of IR images. A practical problem of 'artifacts' which arise when using scene-based nonuniformity compensation is also discussed. A common hardware scheme to implement both the algorithms is also presented in this paper.

  17. Note: A novel integrated microforce measurement system for plane-plane contact research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, W.; Rostoucher, D.; Gauthier, M.

    2010-11-01

    The evaluation of plane-plane contact force has become a big issue in micro-/nano research, for example in microassembly. However with the lack of effective experimental equipments, the research on plane-plane contact has been limited to theoretical formulations or virtual simulation. In this paper, a microforce sensor and precision parallel robot integrated system is proposed for the microforce measurement of plane-plane contact. In the proposed system, the two objects are fixed on the parallel robot end-platform and the microforce sensor probe tip, respectively, and the high precision robot system is employed to provide six degree-of-freedom motions between both objects. So it is convenient for the microforce measurement between the planar objects with different orientations. As a significant application, the proposed system is utilized for measurements of pull-off force between planar objects, in which the validation of the system is demonstrated in practice. The proposed microforce measurement system is generic, which can be extended to a variety of microforce measurements in plane-plane contact.

  18. Hybrid Extrinsic Silicon Focal Plane Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommerrenig, D. H.; Meinhardt, T.; Lowe, J.

    1981-02-01

    Large-area focal planes require mechanical assembly techniques which must be compatible with optical alignment, minimum deadspace, and cryogenic requirements in order to achieve optimum performance. Hybrid extrinsic silicon has been found particularly suitable for such an application. It will be shown that by choosing a large-area extrinsic silicon detector array which is hybrid-mated to a multiplicity of multiplexers a very cost-effective and high-density focal plane module can be assembled. Other advantages of this approach are inherent optical alignment and excellent performance.

  19. Trajectory optimization for the national aerospace plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1993-01-01

    During the past six months the research objectives outlined in the last semi-annual report were accomplished. Specifically, these are: three-dimensional (3-D) fuel-optimal ascent trajectory of the aerospace plane and the effects of thrust vectoring control (TVC) on the fuel consumption and trajectory shaping were investigated; the maximum abort landing area (footprint) was studied; preliminary assessment of simultaneous design of the ascent trajectory and the vehicle configuration for the aerospace plane was also conducted. The work accomplished in the reporting period is summarized.

  20. Horizons and plane waves: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund

    2003-11-06

    We review the attempts to construct black hole/string solutions in asymptotically plane wave spacetimes. First, we demonstrate that geometries admitting a covariantly constant null Killing vector cannot admit event horizons, which implies that pp-waves can't describe black holes. However, relaxing the symmetry requirements allows us to generate solutions which do possess regular event horizons while retaining the requisite asymptotic properties. In particular, we present two solution generating techniques and use them to construct asymptotically plane wave black string/brane geometries.

  1. Computer Model Of Focal Plane Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thvedt, Tom A.; Willoughby, Charles T.; Salcido, Michael M.; Dereniak, Eustace L.

    1987-11-01

    This paper presents a computer program for simulation of an infrared focal plane array. Standard equations are used to support a menu driven program developed for an IBM personal computer. The terms and equations for each section are presented and samples of actual screen displays of a currently available device are also included. The program is intended to provide the user with a better capability to understand and to study the tradeoffs of fabrication parameters versus the focal plane array performance (i.e. CTE, both spatial and temporal dynamic range, MTF, and noise) used for an optical sensor system analysis. Only surface channel devices are considered in the simulation.

  2. Magnetization process in holmium: easy axis spin reorientation induced by the magnetostrictive basal plane distortion.

    PubMed

    Benito, L; Ciria, M; de la Fuente, C; Arnaudas, J I; Ward, R C C; Wells, M R

    2005-06-10

    We report on the change of the easy axis direction in holmium, from the a to the b axis, under the application of a magnetic field in the basal plane. This spin reorientation is observed by measuring the magnetic torque in Ho(n)/Lu(15) superlattices (n and 15 are the number of atomic planes in the Ho and Lu blocks). We also observe that, at the field H0 and temperature at which the reorientation occurs, both axes are easy directions. Based on the fact that the field H0 depends on n in the same way as the field-induced magnetoelastic distortion does, we propose that this spin reorientation originates from the strong field-induced magnetoelastic deformation within the basal plane. The modulation of the alpha strains with sixfold symmetry originates a 12-fold term in the magnetic anisotropy energy.

  3. Effect of strain on thermoelectric power of suspended graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidya, R. G.; Sankeshwar, N. S. Mulimani, B. G.

    2013-12-04

    Thermoelectric power, S, of suspended graphene in the presence of strain is investigated. The electrons are considered to be scattered by in-plane and flexural phonons. The dominant contribution to S of non-strained and strained suspended graphene (SG) is found to be from the phonon drag component, S{sub g} for T < 90K. For T > 150 K contribution from diffusion thermopower becomes important. The effect of strain is found to be suppress S{sub d} and to alter its behavior, the effect being larger at higher temperatures.

  4. On motion of fluid in boundary layer near line of intersection of two planes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loitsianskii, L G; Bolshakov, V P

    1951-01-01

    In the paper "The Mutual Interference of Boundary Layers," the authors investigated the problem of the interference of two planes intersecting at right angles on the boundary layers formed by the motion of fluid along the line of intersection of these planes. In the present paper, the results of the preceding one are generalized to the case of planes intersecting at any angle. The motion of a fluid in an angle less than 180 degrees is discussed and the enlargement of the boundary layers near the line of intersection of the planes, the limits of the interference effects of the boundary layers, and the corrections on the drag are determined. All computations are conducted by the Karman-Pohlhausen method for laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The results are reduced to tabulated form.

  5. High-order exact solutions for pseudo-plane ideal flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Che

    2016-08-01

    A steady pseudo-plane ideal flow (PIF) model is derived from the 3D Euler equations under Boussinesq approximation. The model is solved analytically to yield high-degree polynomial exact solutions. Unlike quadratic flows, the cubic and quartic solutions display reduced geometry in the form of straightline jet, circular vortex, and multipolar strain field. The high-order circular-vortex solutions are vertically aligned and even the non-aligned multipolar strain-field solutions display vertical concentricity. Such geometry reduction is explained by an analytical theorem stating that only straightline jet and circular vortex have functional solutions to the PIF model.

  6. Geobacteraceae strains and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lovley, Derek R.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Yi, Hana

    2015-07-07

    Embodiments of the present invention provide a method of producing genetically modified strains of electricigenic microbes that are specifically adapted for the production of electrical current in microbial fuel cells, as well as strains produced by such methods and fuel cells using such strains. In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides genetically modified strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and methods of using such strains.

  7. Laser speckle strain and deformation sensor using linear array image cross-correlation method for specifically arranged triple-beam triple-camera configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarrafzadeh-Khoee, Adel K. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides a method of triple-beam and triple-sensor in a laser speckle strain/deformation measurement system. The triple-beam/triple-camera configuration combined with sequential timing of laser beam shutters is capable of providing indications of surface strain and structure deformations. The strain and deformation quantities, the four variables of surface strain, in-plane displacement, out-of-plane displacement and tilt, are determined in closed form solutions.

  8. Quad-plane stereoscopic PIV for fine-scale structure measurements in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naka, Y.; Tomita, K.; Shimura, M.; Fukushima, N.; Tanahashi, M.; Miyauchi, T.

    2016-05-01

    The fine-scale structure in turbulence is investigated by quad-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (QPSPIV). The quad-plane consists of two each of different polarizations and wavelengths, and it provides three velocity components at four independent parallel planes. Measurements have been undertaken in the developed region of a turbulent round jet with a spatial resolution sufficient to capture the small-scale structures. The advantage of the QPSPIV is presented in terms of the spectral response in the evaluation of the out-of-plane velocity gradient. The full velocity gradient tensor is computed with a fourth-order finite difference scheme in the out-of-plane direction as well as the in-plane directions. The turbulence quantities, such as the vorticity components, the energy dissipation rate and the second and third invariants of the velocity gradient tensor, are computed according to their faithful definitions. The coherent fine-scale eddies are extracted from the present QPSPIV data. The probability density functions of the diameter and the maximum azimuthal velocity of the extracted eddies exhibit their peak at approximately 8η and 1.5u_k, respectively, where η and u_k are the Kolmogorov length and velocity. These values agree well with the data in the literature. The phase-averaged distributions of turbulence quantities around the coherent fine-scale eddy indicate an apparent elliptic feature around the axis. Furthermore, the state of the strain rate exerting the eddy is quantified from the phase-averaged distributions of eigenvalues of the strain rate tensor and the alignment of the corresponding eigenvectors against the axis. The present study gives a solid experimental support of the coherent fine-scale structures in turbulence, and the technique can be applied to various flow fields and to the higher Reynolds number condition.

  9. Strain analysis and strain path modelling in the Loch Tollie gneisses, Gairloch, NW Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odling, N. E.

    A quantitative structural analysis is presented for the Loch Tullie gneisses of the Lewisian complex outcropping at Gairloch. The gneisses and the dykes they contain are folded into a large antiformal structure known as the Tollic Antiform. Quartz aggregates in quartzo-feldspathic gneisses have been used as finite strain markers in eleven specimens across the antiform. Two models, using rotational strain (simple shear) and irrotational strain (pure shear), are used to reconstruct the strain path. Results show that only the rotational strain model satisfies the strain data and the field evidence, and indicates a steeply northeast (75°) dipping shear plane and moderately northwest (55°) plunging shear direction, with a southwest-side-down sense of shear. A strain profile is constructed for the Tollie gneisses using the model and the attitude of gneissose layering. This shows increasing shear strain to the southwest to a maximum gamma value of approximately 8. The strain profile indicates a horizontal dextral displacement of 4.7 km and a vertical displacement of 6.8 km for the Tollie gneisses. The Tollie Antiform thus lies on the northeast margin of a large-scale shear zone, the main zone of deformation of which can be traced southwestwards some 4 km. Such a shear zone presents a major tectonic boundary within the Lewisian of northwest Scotland.

  10. Deep-Plane Lipoabdominoplasty in East Asians

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jun-Young; Hong, Yoon Gi; Sim, Hyung Bo; Sun, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to develop a new surgical technique by combining traditional abdominoplasty with liposuction. This combination of operations permits simpler and more accurate management of various abdominal deformities. In lipoabdominoplasty, the combination of techniques is of paramount concern. Herein, we introduce a new combination of liposuction and abdominoplasty using deep-plane flap sliding to maximize the benefits of both techniques. Methods Deep-plane lipoabdominoplasty was performed in 143 patients between January 2007 and May 2014. We applied extensive liposuction on the entire abdomen followed by a sliding flap through the deep plane after repairing the diastasis recti. The abdominal wound closure was completed with repair of Scarpa's fascia. Results The average amount of liposuction aspirate was 1,400 mL (700–3,100 mL), and the size of the average excised skin ellipse was 21.78×12.81 cm (from 15×10 to 25×15 cm). There were no major complications such as deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. We encountered 22 cases of minor complications: one wound infection, one case of skin necrosis, two cases of undercorrection, nine hypertrophic scars, and nine seromas. These complications were solved by conservative management or simple revision. Conclusions The use of deep-plane lipoabdominoplasty can correct abdominal deformities more effectively and with fewer complications than traditional abdominoplasty. PMID:27462568

  11. Selective plane illumination microscopy on a chip.

    PubMed

    Paiè, Petra; Bragheri, Francesca; Bassi, Andrea; Osellame, Roberto

    2016-04-26

    Selective plane illumination microscopy can image biological samples at a high spatiotemporal resolution. Complex sample preparation and system alignment normally limit the throughput of the method. Using femtosecond laser micromachining, we created an integrated optofluidic device that allows obtaining continuous flow imaging, three-dimensional reconstruction and high-throughput analysis of large multicellular spheroids at a subcellular resolution.

  12. Dual band QWIP focal plane array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Choi, Kwong Kit (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) that provides two-color image sensing. Two different quantum wells are configured to absorb two different wavelengths. The QWIPs are arrayed in a focal plane array (FPA). The two-color QWIPs are selected for readout by selective electrical contact with the two different QWIPs or by the use of two different wavelength sensitive gratings.

  13. MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.

    1999-06-17

    The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

  14. Simple Harmonic Motion in Harmonic Plane Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benumof, Reuben

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the distribution of kinetic and potential energy in transverse and longitudinal waves and examines the transmission of power and momentum. This discussion is intended to aid in understanding the simple harmonic motion of a particle involved in the propagation of a harmonic mechanical plane wave. (HM)

  15. Large Format Multicolor QWIP Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soibel, A.; Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Ting, D. Z.; Hill, C. J.; Nguyen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) multicolor focal plane array (FPA) cameras are essential for many DoD and NASA applications including Earth and planetary remote sensing. In this paper we summarize our recent development of large format multicolor QWIP FPA that cover MWIR and LWIR bands.

  16. Towards Dualband Megapixel QWIP Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Rafol, S. B.; Salazar, D.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.

    2006-01-01

    Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024 x 1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDT) of 17 mK at a 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEDT of 13 mK at a 70 K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In addition, we have demonstrated MWIR and LWIR pixel co-registered simultaneously readable dualband QWIP focal plane arrays. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NEDT, uniformity, operability, and modulation transfer functions of the 1024 x 1024 pixel arrays and the progress of dualband QWIP focal plane array development work.

  17. Microscale out-of-plane anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A microscale out-of-plane thermal sensor. A resistive heater is suspended over a substrate by supports raised with respect to the substrate to provide a clearance underneath the resistive heater for fluid flow. A preferred fabrication process for the thermal sensor uses surface micromachining and a three-dimensional assembly to raise the supports and lift the resistive heater over the substrate.

  18. Thermal strain measurement in sol-gel lead zirconate titanate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berfield, T. A.; Carroll, J. F.; Payne, D. A.; Sottos, N. R.

    2009-12-01

    A fluorescence-based digital image correlation (DIC) technique is used to characterize the in-plane strain development of blanket sol-gel derived lead zirconate titanate thin films deposited on platinized silicon substrates. The in-plane strain is also measured within film line features patterned via a mediated octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODS) monolayer. The results indicate that the selective film failure induced by the mediated ODS layer succeeds in slightly reducing the in-plane strain transverse to the line feature direction (˜25% lower), while remaining nearly the same as the blanket film case in the direction parallel to the line direction. Additional in-plane stress estimates from wafer curvature measurements for the two film configurations (blanket and ODS patterned) were consistent with the DIC measured strain results.

  19. Muscle strain treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  20. Muscle strain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  1. Anomalous thickness-dependent strain states and strain-tunable magnetization in Zn-doped ferrite epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. J.; Yang, M. M.; Luo, Z. L.; Hu, C. S.; Bao, J.; Huang, H. L.; Zhang, S.; Wang, J. W.; Li, P. S.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, Y. G.; Chen, X. C.; Pan, G. Q.; Jiang, T.; Liu, Y. K.; Li, X. G.; Gao, C.

    2014-05-01

    A series of ZnxFe3-xO4 (ZFO, x = 0.4) thin films were epitaxially deposited on single-crystal (001)-SrTiO3 (STO) substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The anomalous thickness-dependent strain states of ZFO films were found, i.e., a tensile in-plane strain exists in the thinner ZFO film and which monotonously turns into compressive in the thicker films. Considering the lattice constant of bulk ZFO is bigger than that of STO, this strain state cannot be explained in the conventional framework of lattice-mismatch-induced strain in the hetero-epitaxial system. This unusual phenomenon is proposed to be closely related to the Volmer-Weber film growth mode in the thinner films and incorporation of the interstitial atoms into the island's boundaries during subsequent epitaxial growth of the thicker films. The ZFO/STO epitaxial film is found in the nature of magnetic semiconductor by transport measurements. The in-plane magnetization of the ZFO/STO films is found to increase as the in-plane compressive strain develops, which is further proved in the (001)-ZFO/PMN-PT film where the film strain state can be in situ controlled with applied electric field. This compressive-strain-enhanced magnetization can be attributed to the strain-mediated electric-field-induced in-plane magnetic anisotropy field enhancement. The above results indicate that strain engineering on magnetic oxide semiconductor ZFO films is promising for novel oxide-electronic devices.

  2. Anomalous thickness-dependent strain states and strain-tunable magnetization in Zn-doped ferrite epitaxial films

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y. J.; Bao, J.; Gao, C. E-mail: cgao@ustc.edu.cn; Yang, M. M.; Luo, Z. L. E-mail: cgao@ustc.edu.cn; Hu, C. S.; Chen, X. C.; Pan, G. Q.; Huang, H. L.; Zhang, S.; Wang, J. W.; Li, P. S.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, Y. G.; Jiang, T.; Liu, Y. K.; Li, X. G.

    2014-05-07

    A series of Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 3−x}O{sub 4} (ZFO, x = 0.4) thin films were epitaxially deposited on single-crystal (001)-SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The anomalous thickness-dependent strain states of ZFO films were found, i.e., a tensile in-plane strain exists in the thinner ZFO film and which monotonously turns into compressive in the thicker films. Considering the lattice constant of bulk ZFO is bigger than that of STO, this strain state cannot be explained in the conventional framework of lattice-mismatch-induced strain in the hetero-epitaxial system. This unusual phenomenon is proposed to be closely related to the Volmer-Weber film growth mode in the thinner films and incorporation of the interstitial atoms into the island's boundaries during subsequent epitaxial growth of the thicker films. The ZFO/STO epitaxial film is found in the nature of magnetic semiconductor by transport measurements. The in-plane magnetization of the ZFO/STO films is found to increase as the in-plane compressive strain develops, which is further proved in the (001)-ZFO/PMN-PT film where the film strain state can be in situ controlled with applied electric field. This compressive-strain-enhanced magnetization can be attributed to the strain-mediated electric-field-induced in-plane magnetic anisotropy field enhancement. The above results indicate that strain engineering on magnetic oxide semiconductor ZFO films is promising for novel oxide-electronic devices.

  3. Multifocal planes head-mounted displays.

    PubMed

    Rolland, J P; Krueger, M W; Goon, A

    2000-07-01

    Stereoscopic head-mounted displays (HMD's) provide an effective capability to create dynamic virtual environments. For a user of such environments, virtual objects would be displayed ideally at the appropriate distances, and natural concordant accommodation and convergence would be provided. Under such image display conditions, the user perceives these objects as if they were objects in a real environment. Current HMD technology requires convergent eye movements. However, it is currently limited by fixed visual accommodation, which is inconsistent with real-world vision. A prototype multiplanar volumetric projection display based on a stack of laminated planes was built for medical visualization as discussed in a paper presented at a 1999 Advanced Research Projects Agency workshop (Sullivan, Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, Va., 1999). We show how such technology can be engineered to create a set of virtual planes appropriately configured in visual space to suppress conflicts of convergence and accommodation in HMD's. Although some scanning mechanism could be employed to create a set of desirable planes from a two-dimensional conventional display, multiplanar technology accomplishes such function with no moving parts. Based on optical principles and human vision, we present a comprehensive investigation of the engineering specification of multiplanar technology for integration in HMD's. Using selected human visual acuity and stereoacuity criteria, we show that the display requires at most 27 equally spaced planes, which is within the capability of current research and development display devices, located within a maximal 26-mm-wide stack. We further show that the necessary in-plane resolution is of the order of 5 microm.

  4. Determining the ice-binding planes of antifreeze proteins by fluorescence-based ice plane affinity.

    PubMed

    Basu, Koli; Garnham, Christopher P; Nishimiya, Yoshiyuki; Tsuda, Sakae; Braslavsky, Ido; Davies, Peter

    2014-01-15

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are expressed in a variety of cold-hardy organisms to prevent or slow internal ice growth. AFPs bind to specific planes of ice through their ice-binding surfaces. Fluorescence-based ice plane affinity (FIPA) analysis is a modified technique used to determine the ice planes to which the AFPs bind. FIPA is based on the original ice-etching method for determining AFP-bound ice-planes. It produces clearer images in a shortened experimental time. In FIPA analysis, AFPs are fluorescently labeled with a chimeric tag or a covalent dye then slowly incorporated into a macroscopic single ice crystal, which has been preformed into a hemisphere and oriented to determine the a- and c-axes. The AFP-bound ice hemisphere is imaged under UV light to visualize AFP-bound planes using filters to block out nonspecific light. Fluorescent labeling of the AFPs allows real-time monitoring of AFP adsorption into ice. The labels have been found not to influence the planes to which AFPs bind. FIPA analysis also introduces the option to bind more than one differently tagged AFP on the same single ice crystal to help differentiate their binding planes. These applications of FIPA are helping to advance our understanding of how AFPs bind to ice to halt its growth and why many AFP-producing organisms express multiple AFP isoforms.

  5. Determining the Ice-binding Planes of Antifreeze Proteins by Fluorescence-based Ice Plane Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Koli; Garnham, Christopher P.; Nishimiya, Yoshiyuki; Tsuda, Sakae; Braslavsky, Ido; Davies, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are expressed in a variety of cold-hardy organisms to prevent or slow internal ice growth. AFPs bind to specific planes of ice through their ice-binding surfaces. Fluorescence-based ice plane affinity (FIPA) analysis is a modified technique used to determine the ice planes to which the AFPs bind. FIPA is based on the original ice-etching method for determining AFP-bound ice-planes. It produces clearer images in a shortened experimental time. In FIPA analysis, AFPs are fluorescently labeled with a chimeric tag or a covalent dye then slowly incorporated into a macroscopic single ice crystal, which has been preformed into a hemisphere and oriented to determine the a- and c-axes. The AFP-bound ice hemisphere is imaged under UV light to visualize AFP-bound planes using filters to block out nonspecific light. Fluorescent labeling of the AFPs allows real-time monitoring of AFP adsorption into ice. The labels have been found not to influence the planes to which AFPs bind. FIPA analysis also introduces the option to bind more than one differently tagged AFP on the same single ice crystal to help differentiate their binding planes. These applications of FIPA are helping to advance our understanding of how AFPs bind to ice to halt its growth and why many AFP-producing organisms express multiple AFP isoforms. PMID:24457629

  6. Strain measurements of Ge epilayers on Si by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.; Fernando, N.; Medina, A. A.; Nelson, C. M.; Zollner, S.; Xu, S. C.; Menendez, J.; Kouvetakis, J.

    2014-03-01

    Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we determined the strain of a Ge epilayer grown on a Si (100) substrate. This strain depends on the sample temperature and arises because of the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between Si and Ge. It can be calculated since the thermal expansion coefficients of Si and Ge are known very precisely, if we assume that the Ge epilayer was fully relaxed at the growth temperature, leading to an increase in strain as the temperature decreases. We calculate in-plane tensile strain values of 0.12% at 300 K or 0.19% at 77K for our Ge on Si layer, that compares favorably with an in-plane strain of 0.11% derived from shifts of the Ge lattice reflection at 300 K by x-ray diffraction. This temperature-dependent strain affects the energies of the E1 and E1+Delta1 critical points of the Ge epilayer, which can be measured very precisely using spectroscopic ellipsometry from 77 to 800 K.From the difference in the critical point energies between our Ge epilayers on Si and bulk Ge (up to 20 meV), we can calculate the strain from the known elastic constants and deformation potentials. The strain determined from ellipsometry agrees well with the strain calculated from the temperature-dependent thermal expansion coefficient. This work was supported by AFOSR, Award Number FA9550-13-1-0022.

  7. Multi-metric strain estimation at unmeasured locations of plate structures using augmented Kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, Dyan; Jo, Hongki; Khodabandeloo, Babak

    2016-04-01

    A gusset plate is a structural element that is commonly used to provide moment connections between steel members. Despite their importance, the performance of gusset plates in field structures can be poorly understood making them susceptible to failure. A well-known example is the catastrophic collapse of the I-35W Bridge in Minneapolis, MN on August 1, 2007 caused by a gusset plate failure. To prevent this type of failure, it is necessary to better predict and understand the stress and strain distribution in a plate element during field conditions. This work approaches the problem by using a numerical model combined with a linear recursive state estimation algorithm, known as the Kalman Filter, to update the model-based prediction with real time measurements taken on the structure. The finite element model was developed using the Mindlin plate theory which incorporates bending and shear deformations of the plate in the out-of-plane direction. The strain responses at arbitrary locations are estimated throughout the plate, including unmeasured locations, using limited sensor information and in the presence of noise and model errors. The results show how the different combinations of sensor data impact strain estimation accuracy under various loading conditions. The different combinations considered are: strain only, acceleration only, and acceleration and strain. The numerical studies demonstrate that the most accurate estimations are provided with the multi-metric combination of acceleration and strain. This opens future paths of development for force estimation, finding stress concentrations and buckling prediction in plate elements and potential expansion to shell elements.

  8. Network of flexible capacitive strain gauges for the reconstruction of surface strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jingzhe; Song, Chunhui; Saleem, Hussam S.; Downey, Austin; Laflamme, Simon

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring of surface strain on mesosurfaces is a difficult task, often impeded by the lack of scalability of conventional sensing systems. A solution is to deploy large networks of flexible strain gauges, a type of large area electronics. The authors have recently proposed a soft elastomeric capacitor (SEC) as an economical skin-type solution for large-scale deployment onto mesosurfaces. The sensing principle is based on a measurable change in the sensor’s capacitance upon strain. In this paper, we study the performance of the sensor at reconstructing surface strain map and deflection shapes. A particular feature of the sensor is that it measures surface strain additively, because it is not utilized within a Wheatstone bridge configuration. An algorithm is proposed to decompose the additive in-plane strain measurements from the SEC into principal components. The algorithm consists of assuming a polynomial shape function, and deriving the strain based on Kirchhoff plate theory. A least-squares estimator (LSE) is used to minimize the error between the assumed model and the SEC signals after the enforcement of boundary conditions. Numerical simulations are conducted on a symmetric rectangular cantilever thin plate under symmetric and asymmetric static loads to demonstrate the accuracy and real-time applicability of the algorithm. The performance of the algorithm is further examined on an asymmetric cantilever laminated thin plate constituted with orthotropic materials mimicking a wind turbine blade, and subjected to a non-stationary wind load. Results from simulations show good performance of the algorithm at reconstructing the surface strain maps for both in-plane principal strain components, and that it can be applied in real time. However, its performance can be improved by strengthening assumptions on boundary conditions. The algorithm exhibits robustness in performance with respect to load and noise in signals, except when most of the sensors’ signals are

  9. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Balance Problems About Balance Problems Have you ever felt dizzy, lightheaded, or ... dizziness problem during the past year. Why Good Balance is Important Having good balance means being able ...

  10. Structural anisotropic properties of a-plane GaN epilayers grown on r-plane sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Lotsari, A.; Kehagias, Th.; Katsikini, M.; Arvanitidis, J.; Ves, S.; Komninou, Ph.; Dimitrakopulos, G. P.; Tsiakatouras, G.; Tsagaraki, K.; Georgakilas, A.; Christofilos, D.

    2014-06-07

    Heteroepitaxial non-polar III-Nitride layers may exhibit extensive anisotropy in the surface morphology and the epilayer microstructure along distinct in-plane directions. The structural anisotropy, evidenced by the “M”-shape dependence of the (112{sup ¯}0) x-ray rocking curve widths on the beam azimuth angle, was studied by combining transmission electron microscopy observations, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy in a-plane GaN epilayers grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). The structural anisotropic behavior was attributed quantitatively to the high dislocation densities, particularly the Frank-Shockley partial dislocations that delimit the I{sub 1} intrinsic basal stacking faults, and to the concomitant plastic strain relaxation. On the other hand, isotropic samples exhibited lower dislocation densities and a biaxial residual stress state. For PAMBE growth, the anisotropy was correlated to N-rich (or Ga-poor) conditions on the surface during growth, that result in formation of asymmetric a-plane GaN grains elongated along the c-axis. Such conditions enhance the anisotropy of gallium diffusion on the surface and reduce the GaN nucleation rate.

  11. Evidence concerning crack-tip constraint and strain-rate effects in fracture-toughness testing

    SciTech Connect

    Merkle, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The procedures for measuring the plane strain fracture toughness, K/sub Ic/, of metals were originally developed for relatively high yield strength materials, the toughnesses of which were not affected by stain rate. The application of these procedures to lower yield strength and higher toughness structural and pressure vessel steels have since revealed a perplexing combination of problems involving the effects of geometry, stable crack growth and strain rate on the measured values of toughness. Only the geometric problems were encountered in the development of the procedures for measuring K/sub Ic/. For fracture in the linear elastic range of the load-displacement curve, these problems were overcome by specifying specimen dimensions sufficiently large with respect of the plastic zone size at fracture. However, in the case of structural and pressure vessel steels, it is not always possible to test specimens large enough for fracture to occur prior to general yielding. Therefore, in these cases, the effects of large-scale yielding prior to fracture cannot be avoided, but since they presently have no analytical explanation they are being treated empirically.

  12. Influence of strain rate on the orientation dependence of microstructure in nickel single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, X. H.; Zhang, H. W.; Huang, X.; Hansen, N.; Lu, K.

    2016-02-01

    The deformation microstructures of nickel single crystals (99.945 wt.%) during dynamic plastic deformation and quasi-static compression to a true strain of 0.20 were comparatively investigated. The deformation microstructures are orientation dependent, forming cell structure, slip plane aligned or not slip plane aligned extended boundaries. It is found that the orientation spread decreases, remains unchanged and becomes enhanced when loading along <0 0 1>, <0 1 1> and <1 1 1>, respectively, as strain rate increases.

  13. Imaging longitudinal cardiac strain on short-axis images using 3D HARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, Nael F.; Sampath, Smita; Prince, Jerry L.

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents a new method for measuring longitudinal strain of the heart using harmonic phase magnetic resonance imaging (HARP-MRI). The heart is tagged using 1-1 SPAMM at end-diastole with tagging surfaces parallel to the imaging plane. Two image sequences are acquired for a short-axis slice with two different encodings in the direction orthogonal to the imaging plane. A method to compute a sequence of longitudinal strain estimates from this data is described.

  14. Varied line spacing plane holographic grating recorded by using uniform line spacing plane gratings.

    PubMed

    Qing, Ling; Gang, Wu; Bin, Liu; Qiuping, Wang

    2006-07-20

    Uniform line spacing plane gratings are introduced into a recording system to generate aspherical wavefronts for recording varied line spacing plane holographic gratings. Analytical expressions of groove parameters are derived to the fourth order. A ray-tracing validation algorithm is provided based on Fermat's principle and a local search method. The recording parameters are optimized to record a varied line spacing plane holographic grating with the aid of derived analytical expressions. A design example demonstrates the exactness of the analytical expressions and the superiority of recording optics with auxiliary gratings. PMID:16826244

  15. Free oscillations of an H-plane waveguide T-joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rud', L. A.

    1988-10-01

    The natural frequencies and fields of the free oscillations of a T-joint of rectangular waveguides in the H-plane are analyzed on the basis of a rigorous solution of the spectral boundary value problem. The relationship between the spectral and resonant characteristics of the joint is established.

  16. The use of the plane wave fluid-structure interaction loading approximation in NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    The Plane Wave Approximation (PWA) is widely used in finite element analysis to implement the loading generated by an underwater shock wave. The method required to implement the PWA in NASTRAN is presented along with example problems. A theoretical background is provided and the limitations of the PWA are discussed.

  17. Ray invariants, plane wave spectra, and adiabatic modes for tapered dielectric waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, J. M.; Felsen, L. B.

    1984-10-01

    In nonseparable problems resulting from the analysis of wave propagation in longitudinally varying waveguides, such as a wedge-shaped taper, singularities appear in both ray and coupled mode treatments at the local normal mode cutoff transition. A uniformization of the local normal (adiabatic) mode is proposed, using plane wave spectra, which effectively resolves this difficulty.

  18. Polar flexoelectric in-plane and out-of-plane switching in bent core nematic mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elamain, Omaima; Hegde, Gurumurthy; Komitov, Lachezar

    2016-07-01

    Polar electro-optic response, arising from the coupling between an applied in-plane and out-of-plane dc electric field, respectively, and the flexoelectric polarization of bent core nematic liquid crystal mixtures with hybrid alignment is studied in conventional sandwich cells with homeotropic anchoring at one of the cell substrates and planar at the other. Such a hybrid alignment, however, results in a splay/bend elastic deformation of the nematic giving rise of a flexoelectric polarization. It was found that a pronounced polar electro-optic response, both in-plane and out of plane, took place in the bent core nematic mixtures at very low voltages due to the high flexoelectric polarization in these mixtures, compared with the one observed in calamitic liquid crystals.

  19. In-plane vibrations of a rectangular plate: Plane wave expansion modelling and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arreola-Lucas, A.; Franco-Villafañe, J. A.; Báez, G.; Méndez-Sánchez, R. A.

    2015-04-01

    Theoretical and experimental results for in-plane vibrations of a uniform rectangular plate with free boundary conditions are obtained. The experimental setup uses electromagnetic-acoustic transducers and a vector network analyzer. The theoretical calculations were obtained using the plane wave expansion method applied to the in-plane thin plate vibration theory. The agreement between theory and experiment is excellent for the lower 95 modes covering a very wide frequency range from DC to 20 kHz. Some measured normal-mode wave amplitudes were compared with the theoretical predictions; very good agreement was observed. The excellent agreement of the classical theory of in-plane vibrations confirms its reliability up to very high frequencies

  20. Plane Wave Diffraction by a Finite Plate with Impedance Boundary Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nawaz, Rab; Ayub, Muhammad; Javaid, Akmal

    2014-01-01

    In this study we have examined a plane wave diffraction problem by a finite plate having different impedance boundaries. The Fourier transforms were used to reduce the governing problem into simultaneous Wiener-Hopf equations which are then solved using the standard Wiener-Hopf procedure. Afterwards the separated and interacted fields were developed asymptotically by using inverse Fourier transform and the modified stationary phase method. Detailed graphical analysis was also made for various physical parameters we were interested in. PMID:24755624

  1. Exact solutions of incompressible potential flows induced by a horizontal flat plate near a plane wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qianxi; Zhuang, Lixian; Tong, Binggang

    1992-12-01

    Yih (1974) obtained the first-order analytical solution to the problem of a falling plate in extreme ground effect. Tuck (1980) gave a similar approximate solution for the failing plate still having horizontal velocity. In this paper, both the exact solution of the complex velocity induced by a horizontal flat plate moving vertically near a plane wall and the pseudosteady approximate solution to the same problem for the plate still having horizontal velocity are obtained together using the theory of elliptical functions.

  2. In-plane vibration analysis of annular plates with arbitrary boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xianjie; Shi, Dongyan; Qin, Zhengrong; Wang, Qingshan

    2014-01-01

    In comparison with the out-of-plane vibrations of annular plates, far less attention has been paid to the in-plane vibrations which may also play a vital important role in affecting the sound radiation from and power flows in a built-up structure. In this investigation, a generalized Fourier series method is proposed for the in-plane vibration analysis of annular plates with arbitrary boundary conditions along each of its edges. Regardless of the boundary conditions, the in-plane displacement fields are invariantly expressed as a new form of trigonometric series expansions with a drastically improved convergence as compared with the conventional Fourier series. All the unknown expansion coefficients are treated as the generalized coordinates and determined using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. Unlike most of the existing studies, the presented method can be readily and universally applied to a wide spectrum of in-plane vibration problems involving different boundary conditions, varying material, and geometric properties with no need of modifying the basic functions or adapting solution procedures. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of the current solution for predicting the in-plane vibration characteristics of annular plates subjected to different boundary conditions.

  3. In-Plane Vibration Analysis of Annular Plates with Arbitrary Boundary Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhengrong; Wang, Qingshan

    2014-01-01

    In comparison with the out-of-plane vibrations of annular plates, far less attention has been paid to the in-plane vibrations which may also play a vital important role in affecting the sound radiation from and power flows in a built-up structure. In this investigation, a generalized Fourier series method is proposed for the in-plane vibration analysis of annular plates with arbitrary boundary conditions along each of its edges. Regardless of the boundary conditions, the in-plane displacement fields are invariantly expressed as a new form of trigonometric series expansions with a drastically improved convergence as compared with the conventional Fourier series. All the unknown expansion coefficients are treated as the generalized coordinates and determined using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. Unlike most of the existing studies, the presented method can be readily and universally applied to a wide spectrum of in-plane vibration problems involving different boundary conditions, varying material, and geometric properties with no need of modifying the basic functions or adapting solution procedures. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of the current solution for predicting the in-plane vibration characteristics of annular plates subjected to different boundary conditions. PMID:24688416

  4. Tails of plane wave spacetimes: Wave-wave scattering in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harte, Abraham I.

    2013-10-01

    One of the most important characteristics of light in flat spacetime is that it satisfies Huygens’ principle: Initial data for the vacuum Maxwell equations evolve sharply along null (and not timelike) geodesics. In flat spacetime, there are no tails which linger behind expanding wavefronts. Tails generically do exist, however, if the background spacetime is curved. The only nonflat vacuum geometries where electromagnetic fields satisfy Huygens’ principle are known to be those associated with gravitational plane waves. This paper investigates whether perturbations to the plane wave geometry itself also propagate without tails. First-order perturbations to all locally constructed curvature scalars are indeed found to satisfy Huygens’ principles. Despite this, gravitational tails do exist. Locally, they can only perturb one plane wave spacetime into another plane wave spacetime. A weak localized beam of gravitational radiation passing through an arbitrarily strong plane wave therefore leaves behind only a slight perturbation to the waveform of the background plane wave. The planar symmetry of that wave cannot be disturbed by any linear tail. These results are obtained by first deriving the retarded Green function for Lorenz-gauge metric perturbations and then analyzing its consequences for generic initial-value problems.

  5. Magnetotransport potentials for anisotropic thin films with stripline and ground plane contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yang; Grayson, M.

    2015-01-01

    Superlattice layers in infrared emitters and detectors can be highly anisotropic in their electrical properties, and proper characterization of their in-plane and cross-plane transport can reveal information about the band structure, doping density, impurities, and carrier lifetimes. This work introduces numerical simulation methods for the potential distribution in an anisotropic resistive layer representing a suplerlattice, using both and non-conformal and conformal mapping to simplify the calculation of the potential int he presence of a magnetic field. A shingle strip-line contact is modeled atop the resistive superlattrive layer of interest, which, in turn, contact with a highly conducting back-plane and magnetic field-dependent Neumann boundary conditions at the floating front-plane. To increase cpomputational efficiency, non-conformal an conformal mapping are combined to transform the problem of an intractable infinitely wide anisotropic thin-film smaple to calculable, finite isotropic rectangular shape. The potential calculations introduced here should prove useful for deducing the full conductivity tensor of the superlattice region, including in-plane, cross-plane, and transverse conductivity tensor components.

  6. Intraoperative tracking of aortic valve plane

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Duc Long Hung; Garreau, Mireille; Auffret, Vincent; Le Breton, Hervé; Verhoye, Jean-Philippe; Haigron, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to track the aortic valve plane in intra-operative fluoroscopic images in order to optimize and secure Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) procedure. This paper is focused on the issue of aortic valve calcifications tracking in fluoroscopic images. We propose a new method based on the Tracking-Learning-Detection approach, applied to the aortic valve calcifications in order to determine the position of the aortic valve plane in intra-operative TAVI images. This main contribution concerns the improvement of object detection by updating the recursive tracker in which all features are tracked jointly. The approach has been evaluated on four patient databases, providing an absolute mean displacement error less than 10 pixels ≈ 2mm). Its suitability for the TAVI procedure has been analyzed. PMID:24110703

  7. The national aero-space plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendez, Bruce

    1988-01-01

    The National Aerospace Plane is an extremely versatile and adaptable aircraft. It can be developed into an Orient Express that would dramatically improve trade with countries in Asia and elsewhere: a commuter transport to ferry men and materials to space, an advanced tactical fighter or bomber, and an unparalleled high altitude spy-plane to observe troubled spots all over the globe. Utilizing the technology developed by this pilot program, it will be possible to quickly and easily get to low Earth orbit, go halfway around the world in a fraction of the time it previously took, and lead the world in the development of advanced technology to improve our lives and the lives of many others.

  8. A conceptual study of Japan's rocket plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibato, Yoji; Fukushima, Yukio; Miwada, Makoto

    1989-10-01

    NASDA's H-II Orbiting Plane, designated 'HOPE', is an unmanned winged vehicle that is to be launched as the upper stage of the H-II rocket. HOPE is currently in its conceptual development stage, and is expected to become operational at the end of the 1990s. As payloads increase, HOPE will be lofted atop launch vehicles that add solid-rocket boosters or more powerful LH2/LOX liquid-fueled rocket lower stages to the H-II baseline; HOPE payloads 1.5-3 times greater than those typical of the H-II baseline will then become possible. A preliminary design projection is made for a next-generation, reusable 'rocket-plane'.

  9. The Focal Plane Package for Solar B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Title, A.; Tsuneta, S.

    The Focal Plane Package (FPP) of the JAXA Solar B Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) combines an advanced version of Stokes Polarimeter, a tunable birefringent filter, and a set of narrow spectral filters. The Stokes Polarimeter and the filter systems can operate simultaneously allowing the construction of precise vector magnetograms and images in a range of spectral lines. Both the Stokes Polarimeter and the filter systems have controllable fields of view and cadence. A local correlation tracker in the FFP operates a high speed tip-tilt mirror to stabilize the image in all focal planes. The time sequences of precise vector magnetic maps uncompromised by seeing will enable new understanding of how flux emerges through and disappears from the solar surface. The tunable filter can measure the flows in the atmosphere from the lower photosphere through the Chromosphere enabling new insights in the magneto-hydrodynamics of magnetic evolution.

  10. Image-plane processing of visual information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Shannon's theory of information is used to optimize the optical design of sensor-array imaging systems which use neighborhood image-plane signal processing for enhancing edges and compressing dynamic range during image formation. The resultant edge-enhancement, or band-pass-filter, response is found to be very similar to that of human vision. Comparisons of traits in human vision with results from information theory suggest that: (1) Image-plane processing, like preprocessing in human vision, can improve visual information acquisition for pattern recognition when resolving power, sensitivity, and dynamic range are constrained. Improvements include reduced sensitivity to changes in lighter levels, reduced signal dynamic range, reduced data transmission and processing, and reduced aliasing and photosensor noise degradation. (2) Information content can be an appropriate figure of merit for optimizing the optical design of imaging systems when visual information is acquired for pattern recognition. The design trade-offs involve spatial response, sensitivity, and sampling interval.

  11. Improvements of the Focal Plane of SASSYER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crump, Danielle; Heinz, Andreas; Winkler, Ryan; Frank, Daniel; Qian, Jing; Fetea, Mirela

    2007-10-01

    The Small Angle Separator System at Yale for Evaporation Residues (SASSYER) at Yale University is a gas-filled recoil separator, specializing in the investigation of the production and the structure of nuclei heavier than ^208Pb. New instrumentation for the focal plane of SASSYER under development at WNSL at Yale will replace the previous equipment with a compact chamber for double-sided silicon detectors (DSSD). Here we are reporting on improvements of the focal plane of SASSYER, including DSSD electronics, a detector cooling system, and ion optics tests. MUX-16 boards from MESYTEC, 16 channel multiplexed amplifiers, were tested and quantified. An alcohol cooling system, related to the DSSD, was characterized. The ion optics tests extracted effective magnetic rigidities of the separator. Results of the tests will be presented. This work was supported by the NSF grant PHY 0555665, Jeffress Fund J-809, and USDOE grant DE-FG02-91ER-40609.

  12. Split-field pupil plane determination apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Salmon, Joseph T.

    1996-01-01

    A split-field pupil plane determination apparatus (10) having a wedge assembly (16) with a first glass wedge (18) and a second glass wedge (20) positioned to divide a laser beam (12) into a first laser beam half (22) and a second laser beam half (24) which diverge away from the wedge assembly (16). A wire mask (26) is positioned immediately after the wedge assembly (16) in the path of the laser beam halves (22, 24) such that a shadow thereof is cast as a first shadow half (30) and a second shadow half (32) at the input to a relay telescope (14). The relay telescope (14) causes the laser beam halves (22, 24) to converge such that the first shadow half (30) of the wire mask (26) is aligned with the second shadow half (32) at any subsequent pupil plane (34).

  13. Strings in plane wave backgrounds reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Jofre, O.; Nunez, C. Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires )

    1994-10-15

    String theory in an exact plane wave background is explored. The four-tachyon scattering amplitude is constructed. The spectrum of states found from the poles in the factorization turns out to be equivalent to that of the theory in flat space-time. The massless vertex operator is obtained from the residue of the first order pole. It exhibits nontrivial modifications with respect to the flat space case.

  14. The Kepler photometer focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argabright, V. S.; VanCleve, J. E.; Bachtell, E. E.; Hegge, M. J.; McArthur, S. P.; Dumont, F. C.; Rudeen, A. C.; Pullen, J. L.; Teusch, D. A.; Tennant, D. S.; Atcheson, P. D.

    2008-07-01

    The Kepler instrument is designed to detect Earth size planets in the "habitable zone" orbiting 9plane array resulting in ~13° diameter FOV, so that greater than 100,000 suitable stars in the FOV are continuously monitored over a three and a half year mission. Detection of planetary transits is made possible through 20 ppm differential photometry using pixel data from a focal plane array specifically developed for Kepler. The Kepler focal plane array is suspended above the primary mirror and consists of twenty one 2K x 2K Science CCD modules mounted on a curved Invar substrate with four output taps per module. Four fine guidance sensor (FGS) CCD modules are mounted to the corners of the Invar substrate to gather additional pointing information for the Attitude Control System in order to attain the required <2.5 milli-pixel pointing accuracy. A space staring radiator and a closed loop thermal control system maintains the CCD module temperatures at -85°C with <10mK thermal stability. Low noise electronics reads out both the Science and FGS CCD modules at a 3 MHz pixel rate. In order to achieve a 4-sigma detection of an Earth-sized planet orbiting a 12th magnitude Sun-like star, the overall noise budget allocates 150 e- to the read noise of each Science CCD module output. This paper discusses key elements of the Kepler focal plane array design, development, characterization and performance results.

  15. Dynamic response of a plane-symmetrical exothermic reaction center.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. W.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    1972-01-01

    ?sger,An analysis of the dynamic behavior of an idealized, plane-symmetrical exothermic reaction center is presented. The conservation equations for the reaction center are combined and yield a single integral equation expressing a nonlinear transfer function of the system for which the input is provided by a given time profile of the heat released per unit mass while the output gives the pressure pulse it generates under the restriction of plane-symmetrical motion. The solution is governed by a Daumk]hler number. For a given form of the exothermic power pulse profile, the dynamic behavior of the system is completely specified in terms of only this Daumk]hler number and the heat of reaction per unit mass of the combustible medium. Specific solutions are worked out for a set of typical elementary power pulse profiles, and the practical significance of the results is illustrated by their application to the problem of transition to detonation in an explosive gas.

  16. The analysis of plane discontinuities in offset cylindrical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Homentcovschi, Dorel; Miles, Ronald N

    2015-06-01

    This paper applies the re-expansion method for analyzing the effects on the sound field due to planar discontinuities at the junction of two offset circular acoustic waveguides. The normal modes in the two waveguides are expanded at the junction plane into a system of functions accounting for velocity singularities at the corner points. As the new expansion has a high convergence order, only a few terms have to be considered for obtaining the solution of most practical problems. This paper gives the equivalent impedance accounting for nonplanar waves into a plane-wave analysis. The last section of the paper applies the re-expansion technique to the case of two offset pipes (step discontinuity) and to that of an offset aperture in a cylindrical pipe (diaphragm-type discontinuity). The plots of the discontinuity inductance, characterized by Karal's factor, are quite similar but the values in the second case are 1.5-2 times larger, showing that the diaphragm-type discontinuity excites much more nonplanar evanescent modes than the step discontinuity.

  17. Maximum orbit plane change with heat-transfer-rate considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Hull, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    Two aerodynamic maneuvers are considered for maximizing the plane change of a circular orbit: gliding flight with a maximum thrust segment to regain lost energy (aeroglide) and constant altitude cruise with the thrust being used to cancel the drag and maintain a high energy level (aerocruise). In both cases, the stagnation heating rate is limited. For aeroglide, the controls are the angle of attack, the bank angle, the time at which the burn begins, and the length of the burn. For aerocruise, the maneuver is divided into three segments: descent, cruise, and ascent. During descent the thrust is zero, and the controls are the angle of attack and the bank angle. During cruise, the only control is the assumed-constant angle of attack. During ascent, a maximum thrust segment is used to restore lost energy, and the controls are the angle of attack and bank angle. The optimization problems are solved with a nonlinear programming code known as GRG2. Numerical results for the Maneuverable Re-entry Research Vehicle with a heating-rate limit of 100 Btu/ft(2)-s show that aerocruise gives a maximum plane change of 2 deg, which is only 1 deg larger than that of aeroglide. On the other hand, even though aerocruise requires two thrust levels, the cruise characteristics of constant altitude, velocity, thrust, and angle of attack are easy to control.

  18. The implementation of holography in the plane wave matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mints, Aleksey Leonidovich

    It is expected that at the core of nonperturbative theories of quantum gravity, such as M-theory, lies the realization of the holographic principle, in the sense that a holographic theory should contain one binary degree of freedom per Planck area. Present understanding of such theories requires the holographic encoding of bulk data in large matrices. Currently this mapping is poorly understood. The plane wave matrix model provides a laboratory for isolating aspects of this problem in a controlled setting. At large boosts, configurations of concentric membranes become superselection sectors, whose exact spectra are known. From the bulk point of view one expects product states of individual membranes to be contained within the full spectrum. However, for non-BPS states this inclusion relation is obscured by Gauss law constraints. Its validity rests on nontrivial relations in representation theory, which we identify and verify by explicit computation. Beyond the decoding and partial identification of selected states in large matrices, one would like to get a better understanding of the holographic state counting of these degrees of freedom, i.e., entropy. Contrary to the naive expectation of holography realized in terms of the covariant entropy bound, we present evidence that it is the Bekenstein entropy bound, which is related to area differences, that is manifest in the plane wave matrix model. If holography is implemented in this way, we predict crossover behavior at strong coupling when the energy exceeds N2 in units of the mass scale.

  19. Distance-redshift relation in plane symmetric universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamek, Julian; Di Dio, Enea; Durrer, Ruth; Kunz, Martin

    2014-03-01

    Distance measurements are usually thought to probe the "background" metric of the Universe, but in reality the presence of perturbations will lead to deviations from the result expected in an exactly homogeneous and isotropic universe. At least in principle the presence of perturbations could even explain the observed distance-redshift relation without the need for dark energy. In this paper we reinvestigate a toy model where perturbations are plane symmetric, and for which exact solutions are known in the fluid limit. However, if perturbations are large, shell crossing occurs and the fluid approximation breaks down. This prevents the study of the most interesting cases. Here we use a general-relativistic N-body simulation that does not suffer from this problem and which allows us to go beyond previous works. We show that even for very large plane symmetric perturbations we are not able to mimic the observed distance-redshift relation. We also discuss how the synchronous comoving gauge breaks down when shell crossing occurs, while metric perturbations in the longitudinal gauge remain small. For this reason the longitudinal (Newtonian) gauge appears superior for relativistic N-body simulations of large-scale structure formation.

  20. Strain tunable ferroelectric and dielectric properties of BaZrO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yajun; Liu, Man; Shimada, Takahiro; Kitamura, Takayuki; Wang, Jie

    2014-06-14

    The crucial role of epitaxial (in-plane) strain on the structural, electronic, energetic, ferroelectric, and dielectric properties of BaZrO{sub 3} (BZO) is investigated using density-functional theory calculations. We demonstrate that the BZO crystal subjected to a critical compressive (or tensile) strain exhibits non-trivial spontaneous polarization that is higher than that of well-known ferroelectrics BaTiO{sub 3}, while the BZO crystal is essentially paraelectric in the absence of strain. The electronic structure and Born-effective-charge analyses elucidate that the strain-induced paraelectric-to-ferroelectric transition is driven by the orbital hybridization of d-p electrons between zirconium and oxygen. Through the strain-induced paraelectric-to-ferroelectric phase transition, the dielectric response of BZO is significantly enhanced by the in-plane strain. The tensile strain increases the in-plane dielectric constant by a factor of seven with respect to that without the strain, while the compression tends to enhance the out-of-plane dielectric response. Therefore, strain engineering makes BZO an important electromechanical material due to the diversity in ferroelectric and dielectric properties.

  1. WIPP Benchmark calculations with the large strain SPECTROM codes

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; DeVries, K.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides calculational results from the updated Lagrangian structural finite-element programs SPECTROM-32 and SPECTROM-333 for the purpose of qualifying these codes to perform analyses of structural situations in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Results are presented for the Second WIPP Benchmark (Benchmark II) Problems and for a simplified heated room problem used in a parallel design calculation study. The Benchmark II problems consist of an isothermal room problem and a heated room problem. The stratigraphy involves 27 distinct geologic layers including ten clay seams of which four are modeled as frictionless sliding interfaces. The analyses of the Benchmark II problems consider a 10-year simulation period. The evaluation of nine structural codes used in the Benchmark II problems shows that inclusion of finite-strain effects is not as significant as observed for the simplified heated room problem, and a variety of finite-strain and small-strain formulations produced similar results. The simplified heated room problem provides stratigraphic complexity equivalent to the Benchmark II problems but neglects sliding along the clay seams. The simplified heated problem does, however, provide a calculational check case where the small strain-formulation produced room closures about 20 percent greater than those obtained using finite-strain formulations. A discussion is given of each of the solved problems, and the computational results are compared with available published results. In general, the results of the two SPECTROM large strain codes compare favorably with results from other codes used to solve the problems.

  2. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  3. The European Galactic Plane Surveys: EGAPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groot, P. J.; Drew, J.; Greimel, R.; Gaensicke, B.; Knigge, C.; Irwin, M.; Mampaso, A.; Augusteijn, T.; Morales-Rueda, L.; Barlow, M.; Iphas Collaboration; Uvex Collaboration; Vphas+ Collaboration

    2006-08-01

    Introduction: The European Galactic Plane Surveys (EGAPS) will for the first time ever map the complete galactic plane (10x360 degrees) down to 21st magnitude in u', g', r', i' and H-alpha and partly in He I 5875. It will complete a database of ~1 billion objects. The aim of EGAPS is to study populations of short-lived stellar and binary phases in our Galaxy and combine these population studies with stellar and binary evolutionary codes to vastly improve our understanding of crucial phases of stellar evolution. Target populations include Wolf-Rayet stars, planetary nebulae, white dwarfs (in binaries), cataclysmic variables and other mass-transferring binaries. Methods: EGAPS is using the INT+WFC on La Palma for the Northern Hemisphere and will use the VST+Omegacam in the Southern Hemisphere. Results: The Northern red survey (IPHAS, using r', i', and Halpha) has started in 2003 and is currently 70% complete. The northern blue survey (UVEX; u',g',r' and HeI) has started in June 2006. Results include the detection of a number of rare planetary nebulae, cataclysmic variables, red-dwarf white dwarf binaries in clusters, a possible AM CVn candidate, and a deep photometric and spectroscopic investigation of the Cyg X region. Discussion: EGAPS will revolutionize the field of galactic stellar astrophysics by completing the first ever digital, multicolour survey of the Galactic Plane.

  4. Hamiltonian maps in the complex plane

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J.M.; Percival, I.C.

    1981-01-01

    Following Arnol'd's proof of the KAM theorem, an analogy with the vertical pendulum, and some general arguments concerning maps in the complex plane, detailed calculations are presented and illustrated graphically for the standard map at the golden mean frequency. The functional dependence of the coordinate q on the canonical angle variable theta is analytically continued into the complex theta-plane, where natural boundaries are found at constant absolute values of Im theta. The boundaries represent the appearance of chaotic motion in the complex plane. Two independent numerical methods based on Fourier analysis in the angle variable were used, one based on a variation-annihilation method and the other on a double expansion. The results were further checked by direct solution of the complex equations of motion. The numerically simpler, but intrinsically complex, semipendulum and semistandard map are also studied. We conjecture that natural boundaries appear in the analogous analytic continuation of the invariant tori or KAM surfaces of general nonintegrable systems.

  5. Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armas, Jay; Blau, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid, suggesting that these two families of black holes are connected. We also show that minimal surfaces embedded in spheres rather than Euclidean space can be used to construct static compact horizons in asymptotically de Sitter space-times.

  6. Locomotion of granulocytes on an inclined plane.

    PubMed

    Doroszewski, J; Lewandowska, K; Wierzbicki, W

    1986-01-01

    The paper presents a quantitative study of the trajectories of rat granulocytes (PMNs) migrating on a glass surface inclined at various angles, i.e. under the action of gravitational force component parallel to the plane. The action of the force of the order of 5 X 10(-13) N (component parallel to the plane inclined at 80 degrees) accompanied by the decrease of a gravitational component perpendicular to the surface does not disrupt the adhesion contact of migrating PMNs with the serum coated glass surface. Under the action of the external force parallel to the surface, the PMNs exhibit a tendency to migrate in the direction of the force vector and the angles between elementary segments (steps) of cell trajectories are smaller in comparison with migration on a horizontal plane (0 degrees inclination). It has been found that the mean velocity of motion of PMNs locomoting on a steep slope (70 degrees and 80 degrees) is greater in comparison with the migration velocity on a horizontal surface. The increase of velocity concerns not only cells migrating in the downward direction, but also those which move upwards. Possible mechanisms of the influence of external force on direction and rate of migration of granulocytes are discussed, namely modification of adhesion force, stimulation of cell motile activity, individual variability of cell adhesive and migration properties, shortening of transient locomotory adhesions.

  7. Linearized motion estimation for articulated planes.

    PubMed

    Datta, Ankur; Sheikh, Yaser; Kanade, Takeo

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we describe the explicit application of articulation constraints for estimating the motion of a system of articulated planes. We relate articulations to the relative homography between planes and show that these articulations translate into linearized equality constraints on a linear least-squares system, which can be solved efficiently using a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker system. The articulation constraints can be applied for both gradient-based and feature-based motion estimation algorithms and to illustrate this, we describe a gradient-based motion estimation algorithm for an affine camera and a feature-based motion estimation algorithm for a projective camera that explicitly enforces articulation constraints. We show that explicit application of articulation constraints leads to numerically stable estimates of motion. The simultaneous computation of motion estimates for all of the articulated planes in a scene allows us to handle scene areas where there is limited texture information and areas that leave the field of view. Our results demonstrate the wide applicability of the algorithm in a variety of challenging real-world cases such as human body tracking, motion estimation of rigid, piecewise planar scenes, and motion estimation of triangulated meshes.

  8. Restoring Aperture Profile At Sample Plane

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J L; Hackel, R P; Lungershausen, A W

    2003-08-03

    Off-line conditioning of full-size optics for the National Ignition Facility required a beam delivery system to allow conditioning lasers to rapidly raster scan samples while achieving several technical goals. The main purpose of the optical system designed was to reconstruct at the sample plane the flat beam profile found at the laser aperture with significant reductions in beam wander to improve scan times. Another design goal was the ability to vary the beam size at the sample to scan at different fluences while utilizing all of the laser power and minimizing processing time. An optical solution was developed using commercial off-the-shelf lenses. The system incorporates a six meter relay telescope and two sets of focusing optics. The spacing of the focusing optics is changed to allow the fluence on the sample to vary from 2 to 14 Joules per square centimeter in discrete steps. More importantly, these optics use the special properties of image relaying to image the aperture plane onto the sample to form a pupil relay with a beam profile corresponding almost exactly to the flat profile found at the aperture. A flat beam profile speeds scanning by providing a uniform intensity across a larger area on the sample. The relayed pupil plane is more stable with regards to jitter and beam wander. Image relaying also reduces other perturbations from diffraction, scatter, and focus conditions. Image relaying, laser conditioning, and the optical system designed to accomplish the stated goals are discussed.

  9. Infrared fiber optic focal plane dispersers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Far infrared transmissive fiber optics as a component in the design of integrated far infrared focal plane array utilization is discussed. A tightly packed bundle of fibers is placed at the focal plane, where an array of infrared detectors would normally reside, and then fanned out in two or three dimensions to individual detectors. Subsequently, the detectors are multiplexed by cryogenic electronics for relay of the data. A second possible application is frequency up-conversion (v sub 1 + v sub 2 = v sub 3), which takes advantage of the nonlinear optical index of refraction of certain infrared transmissive materials in fiber form. Again, a fiber bundle is utilized as above, but now a laser of frequency v sub 1 is mixed with the incoming radiation of frequency v sub 1 within the nonlinear fiber material. The sum, v sub 2 is then detected by near infrared or visible detectors which are more sensitive than those available at v sub 2. Due to the geometrical size limitations of detectors such as photomultipliers, the focal plane dispersal technique is advantageous for imaging up-conversion.

  10. Acoustic-structure interaction problems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Love, E.; Taylor, R.L.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare and evaluate different numerical methods for solving problems of interaction between elastic solids and acoustic fluids. In particular, we concentrate our efforts on solution techniques involving the finite element method. To that end, in Chapter 2 we discuss different options for analysis of infinite fluids. In particular, the method of mesh trunction and the use of radiation elements and the use of infinite elements are discussed. Also discussed is the analysis of scattering from rigid boundaries. Chapter 3 is a brief discussion of finite element formulations for elastic solids. We review the development, of two dimensional plane strain elements and one dimensional plate and shell elements. In Chapter 4, there is a discussion of the method used to couple the solid and the fluid. We give examples for solution of scattering of pressure waves from thin elastic shell structures. Chapter 5 is a brief conclusion of results and includes recommendations for the best methods of solution and additional research.

  11. A plane stress finite element model for elastic-plastic mode I/II crack growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Mark Anthony

    A finite element program has been developed to perform quasi-static, elastic-plastic crack growth simulations. The model provides a general framework for mixed-mode I/II elastic-plastic fracture analysis using small strain assumptions and plane stress, plane strain, and axisymmetric finite elements. Cracks are modeled explicitly in the mesh. As the cracks propagate, automatic remeshing algorithms delete the mesh local to the crack tip, extend the crack, and build a new mesh around the new tip. State variable mapping algorithms transfer stresses and displacements from the old mesh to the new mesh. The von Mises material model is implemented in the context of a non-linear Newton solution scheme. The fracture criterion is the critical crack tip opening displacement, and crack direction is predicted by the maximum tensile stress criterion at the crack tip. The implementation can accommodate multiple curving and interacting cracks. An additional fracture algorithm based on nodal release can be used to simulate fracture along a horizontal plane of symmetry. A core of plane strain elements can be used with the nodal release algorithm to simulate the triaxial state of stress near the crack tip. Verification and validation studies compare analysis results with experimental data and published three-dimensional analysis results. Fracture predictions using nodal release for compact tension, middle-crack tension, and multi-site damage test specimens produced accurate results for residual strength and link-up loads. Curving crack predictions using remeshing/mapping were compared with experimental data for an Arcan mixed-mode specimen. Loading angles from 0 degrees to 90 degrees were analyzed. The maximum tensile stress criterion was able to predict the crack direction and path for all loading angles in which the material failed in tension. Residual strength was also accurately predicted for these cases.

  12. High strain rate properties of unidirectional composites, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I. M.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental methods were developed for testing and characterization of composite materials at strain rates ranging from quasi-static to over 500 s(sup -1). Three materials were characterized, two graphite/epoxies and a graphite/S-glass/epoxy. Properties were obtained by testing thin rings 10.16 cm (4 in.) in diameter, 2.54 cm (1 in.) wide, and six to eight plies thick under internal pressure. Unidirectional 0 degree, 90 degree, and 10 degree off-axis rings were tested to obtain longitudinal, transverse, and in-plane shear properties. In the dynamic tests internal pressure was applied explosively through a liquid and the pressure was measured with a calibrated steel ring. Strains in the calibration and specimen rings were recorded with a digital processing oscilloscope. The data were processed and the equation of motion solved numerically by the mini-computer attached to the oscilloscope. Results were obtained and plotted in the form of dynamic stress-strain curves. Longitudinal properties which are governed by the fibers do not vary much with strain rate with only a moderate (up to 20 percent) increase in modulus. Transverse modulus and strength increase sharply with strain rate reaching values up to three times the static values. The in-plane shear modulus and shear strength increase noticeably with strain rate by up to approximately 65 percent. In all cases ultimate strains do not vary significantly with strain rates.

  13. Strong reduction of the coercivity by a surface acoustic wave in an out-of-plane magnetized epilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevenard, L.; Camara, I. S.; Prieur, J.-Y.; Rovillain, P.; Lemaître, A.; Gourdon, C.; Duquesne, J.-Y.

    2016-04-01

    Inverse magnetostriction is the effect by which magnetization can be changed upon application of stress/strain. A strain modulation may be created electrically by exciting interdigitated transducers to generate surface acoustic waves (SAWs). Hence SAWs appear as a possible route towards induction-free undulatory magnetic data manipulation. Here we demonstrate experimentally on an out-of-plane magnetostrictive layer a reduction of the coercive field of up to 60 % by a SAW, over millimetric distances. A simple model shows that this spectacular effect can be partly explained by the periodic lowering of the strain-dependent domain nucleation energy by the SAW. This proof of concept was done on (Ga,Mn)(As,P), a magnetic semiconductor in which the out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy can be made very weak by epitaxial growth; it should guide material engineering for all-acoustic magnetization switching.

  14. Superlattice strain gage

    DOEpatents

    Noel, B.W.; Smith, D.L.; Sinha, D.N.

    1988-06-28

    A strain gage comprising a strained-layer superlattice crystal exhibiting piezoelectric properties is described. A substrate upon which such a strained-layer superlattice crystal has been deposited is attached to an element to be monitored for strain. A light source is focused on the superlattice crystal and the light reflected from, passed through, or emitted from the crystal is gathered and compared with previously obtained optical property data to determine the strain in the element. 8 figs.

  15. Superlattice strain gage

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.; Smith, Darryl L.; Sinha, Dipen N.

    1990-01-01

    A strain gage comprising a strained-layer superlattice crystal exhibiting piezoelectric properties is described. A substrate upon which such a strained-layer superlattice crystal has been deposited is attached to an element to be monitored for strain. A light source is focused on the superlattice crystal and the light reflected from, passed through, or emitted from the crystal is gathered and compared with previously obtained optical property data to determine the strain in the element.

  16. Dislocation Core Structure and Peierls Stress of B2-Based AlSc in {110} Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. R.; Wu, X. Z.; Zhang, T.; Tian, Y. X.; Yan, Z. X.; Zhu, H. Z.

    2016-10-01

    The core structure and Peierls stress of <100>, <110>, and <111> dislocations in {110} plane of B2-based AlSc (B2-AlSc) have been investigated using improved dislocation equations combined with the generalized stacking fault (GSF) energy. The truncated approximation method is utilized to construct the dissociated and undissociated dislocations in AlSc, then the effects of dislocation angles on the elastic strain energy and misfit energy are presented. Specifically, with increasing dislocation angle, the misfit energy, elastic strain energy, and total energy, and their corresponding stresses, decrease on the <100>{110} and <110>{110} slip systems. However, for <111>{110} dislocation, all energies and corresponding stresses exhibit the relationship 0° > 54.7° > 35.3° > 90°. The misfit energy is always smaller than the elastic strain energy, even by one or two orders of magnitude, and their phases are always opposite.

  17. On the linear stability of compressible plane Couette flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, Peter W.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

    1991-01-01

    The linear stability of compressible plane Couette flow is investigated. The correct and proper basic velocity and temperature distributions are perturbed by a small amplitude normal mode disturbance. The full small amplitude disturbance equations are solved numerically at finite Reynolds numbers, and the inviscid limit of these equations is then investigated in some detail. It is found that instability can occur, although the stability characteristics of the flow are quite different from unbounded flows. The effects of viscosity are also calculated, asymptotically, and shown to have a stabilizing role in all the cases investigated. Exceptional regimes to the problem occur when the wavespeed of the disturbances approaches the velocity of either of the walls, and these regimes are also analyzed in some detail. Finally, the effect of imposing radiation-type boundary conditions on the upper (moving) wall (in place of impermeability) is investigated, and shown to yield results common to both bounded and unbounded flows.

  18. Optimal control of aeroassisted plane change maneuver using feedback expansions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishne, D.; Speyer, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    A guidance law for an aeroassisted plane change maneuver is developed by an asymptotic expansion technique using a small parameter which essentially represents the ratio of the inertial forces to the atmospheric forces. This guidance law minimizes the energy loss while meeting terminal constraints on the altitude, flight path angle, and heading angle. By neglecting the inertial forces, the resulting optimization problem is integrable and can be determined in closed form. This zeroth-order solution is the first term in an asymptotic series solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. The remaining terms are determined from the solution of a first-order, linear partial differential equation whose solution requires only quadrature integration. Our initial results in using this guidance scheme are encouraging.

  19. Contextual phase estimation from two-plane intensity measurements.

    PubMed

    Deepak, V Joshua; Ivan, J Solomon

    2016-06-01

    In this work we construct examples of paraxial light fields whose intensities defined at all points in space do not have a corresponding cross-spectrally pure field amplitude reproducing the same set of transported intensities at all transverse planes. Nevertheless, two spatially separated transverse plane intensities as drawn from these examples are shown to have a corresponding cross-spectrally pure field amplitude, which, through paraxial free propagation between these two planes, reproduces the drawn transverse plane intensities. And the phase associated with such a field amplitude at a given transverse plane is found to be contextual, and intrinsically dependent on the pairing plane. PMID:27409450

  20. Effect of Orientation and Strain Rate on Crush Strength of Cellulose Fiberboard Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.C.

    2001-01-10

    Cane fiberboard is widely used as the impact absorption and thermal insulation material in overpacks for radioactive materials packages. The study described here investigated the properties of cane fiberboard assemblies under conditions important to radioactive materials packaging applications. Tests were performed for loading perpendicular and parallel to the planes of the fiberboard sheets for both slow and impact strain rates. Specimens loaded parallel to the plane of the fiberboard typically fail by buckling and consequently are less stiff than those loaded perpendicular to the plane of the fiberboard sheets. Specimens subjected to impact loading appear stiffer than those tested at slow strain rates.

  1. Nonlinear equations for dynamics of pretwisted beams undergoing small strains and large rotations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Nonlinear beam kinematics are developed and applied to the dynamic analysis of a pretwisted, rotating beam element. The common practice of assuming moderate rotations caused by structural deformation in geometric nonlinear analyses of rotating beams was abandoned in the present analysis. The kinematic relations that described the orientation of the cross section during deformation are simplified by systematically ignoring the extensional strain compared to unity in those relations. Open cross section effects such as warping rigidity and dynamics are ignored, but other influences of warp are retained. The beam cross section is not allowed to deform in its own plane. Various means of implementation are discussed, including a finite element formulation. Numerical results obtained for nonlinear static problems show remarkable agreement with experiment.

  2. Support plane method applied to ground objects recognition using modelled SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherdev, Denis A.; Fursov, Vladimir A.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the object recognition problem was solved using support plane method. The modelled SAR images were used as features vectors in the recognition algorithm. Radar signal backscattering of objects in different observing poses is presented in SAR images. For real time simulation, we used simple mixture model of Lambertian-specular reflectivity. To this end, an algorithm of ray tracing is extended for simulating SAR images of 3D man-made models. The suggested algorithm of support plane is very effective in objects recognition using SAR images and RCS diagrams.

  3. The dynamics of a body with an axisymmetric base sliding on a rough plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Alexey V.; Erdakova, Nadezhda N.; Ivanova, Tatiana B.; Mamaev, Ivan S.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we investigate the dynamics of a body with a flat base sliding on a horizontal and inclined rough plane under the assumption of linear pressure distribution of the body on the plane as the simplest dynamically consistent friction model. For analysis we use the descriptive function method similar to the methods used in the problems of Hamiltonian dynamics with one degree of freedom and allowing a qualitative analysis of the system to be made without explicit integration of equations of motion. In addition, we give a systematic review of the well-known experimental and theoretical results in this area.

  4. Walking Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... daily activities, get around, and exercise. Having a problem with walking can make daily life more difficult. ... walk is called your gait. A variety of problems can cause an abnormal gait and lead to ...

  5. Breathing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... re not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from a stuffy nose or hard exercise. ... emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties. So can problems with your trachea or bronchi, which are part ...

  6. Joint Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... ankles and toes. Other types of arthritis include gout or pseudogout. Sometimes, there is a mechanical problem ... for more information on osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gout. How Common are Joint Problems? Osteoarthritis, which affects ...

  7. Characterization of M-plane GaN thin films grown on misoriented γ-LiAlO2 (100) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Chiao; Lo, Ikai; Wang, Ying-Chieh; Yang, Chen-Chi; Hu, Chia-Hsuan; Chou, Mitch M. C.; Schaadt, D. M.

    2016-09-01

    M-plane GaN thin films were grown on 11° misoriented γ-LiAlO2 substrates without peeling off or cracking by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Because of anisotropic growth kinetics, which leads to an anisotropic compressive in-plane strain in the M-plane GaN films, the surface presents a rough morphology with worse crystal quality. The crystal quality of sample was optimally improved, XRD rocking curve FWHM of which is about 900 arcsec, by raising growth temperature to 800 °C with proper Ga/N flux ratio. As the crystal quality was improved, the polarization ratio decreased from the unity (less than 0.8) which could be attributed to the effect of exciton localization due to the partial increased in-plane strain.

  8. Conjugate gradient determination of optimal plane changes for a class of three-impulse transfers between noncoplanar circular orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    A particular type of three-impulse transfer between two circular orbits is analyzed. The possibility of three plane changes is recognized, and the problem is to optimally distribute these plane changes to minimize the sum of the individual impulses. Numerical difficulties and their solution are discussed. Numerical results obtained from a conjugate gradient technique are presented for both the case where the individual plane changes are unconstrained and for the case where they are constrained. Possibly not unexpectedly, multiple minima are found. The techniques presented could be extended to the finite burn case, but primarily the contents are addressed to preliminary mission design and vehicle sizing.

  9. Friction in unconforming grain contacts as a mechanism for tensorial stress strain hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshin, V.; Van Den Abeele, K.

    2007-04-01

    Materials composed of consolidated grains and/or containing internal contacts are widespread in everyday life (e.g. rocks, geomaterials, concretes, slates, ceramics, composites, etc.). For any simulation of the elastic behavior of this class of solids, be it in seismology, in NDT, or in the modeling of building constructions, the stress-strain constitutive equations are indispensable. Since the most common loading patterns in nature considerably deviate from simple uniaxial compression, the problem of tensorial stress-strain representation arises. In simple loading cases it may be sufficient to use a phenomenological constitutive model. However, in a more general case, phenomenological approaches encounter serious difficulties due to the high number of unknown parameters and the complexity of the model itself. Simplification of the phenomenology can help only partly, since it may require artificial assumptions. For instance, is it enough just to link the volumetric stress to the volumetric strain, or do we have to include shear components as well, and if yes, in what form? We therefore propose a physical tensorial stress-strain model, based on the consideration of plane cracks with friction. To do this, we combine known relations for normal displacements of crack faces given by contact mechanics, the classical Amonton's law of dry friction for lateral displacements, and the equations of elasticity theory for a collection of non-interacting cracks with given orientation. The major advantages of this model consist in the full tensorial representation, the realistic stress-strain curves for uniaxial stress compression and quantitative comparison with experimental data, and a profound account for hysteretic memory effects.

  10. Angular-dependent Raman study of a- and s-plane InN

    SciTech Connect

    Filintoglou, K.; Katsikini, M. Arvanitidis, J.; Lotsari, A.; Dimitrakopulos, G. P.; Vouroutzis, N.; Ves, S.; Christofilos, D.; Kourouklis, G. A.; Ajagunna, A. O.; Georgakilas, A.; Zoumakis, N.

    2015-02-21

    Angular-dependent polarized Raman spectroscopy was utilized to study nonpolar a-plane (11{sup ¯}20) and semipolar s-plane (101{sup ¯}1) InN epilayers. The intensity dependence of the Raman peaks assigned to the vibrational modes A{sub 1}(TO), E{sub 1}(TO), and E{sub 2}{sup h} on the angle ψ that corresponds to rotation around the growth axis, is very well reproduced by using expressions taking into account the corresponding Raman tensors and the experimental geometry, providing thus a reliable technique towards assessing the sample quality. The s- and a-plane InN epilayers grown on nitridated r-plane sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) exhibit good crystalline quality as deduced from the excellent fitting of the experimental angle-dependent peak intensities to the theoretical expressions as well as from the small width of the Raman peaks. On the contrary, in the case of the s-plane epilayer grown on non-nitridated r-plane sapphire, fitting of the angular dependence is much worse and can be modeled only by considering the presence of two structural modifications, rotated so as their c-axes are almost perpendicular to each other. Although the presence of the second variant is verified by transmission electron and atomic force microscopies, angular dependent Raman spectroscopy offers a non-destructive and quick way for its quantification. Rapid thermal annealing of this sample did not affect the angular dependence of the peak intensities. The shift of the E{sub 1}(TO) and E{sub 2}{sup h} Raman peaks was used for the estimation of the strain state of the samples.

  11. Electronic, mechanical and dielectric properties of silicane under tensile strain

    SciTech Connect

    Jamdagni, Pooja Sharma, Munish; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Kumar, Ashok; Thakur, Anil

    2015-05-15

    The electronic, mechanical and dielectric properties of fully hydrogenated silicene i.e. silicane in stable configuration are studied by means of density functional theory based calculations. The band gap of silicane monolayer can be flexibly reduced to zero when subjected to bi-axial tensile strain, leading to semi-conducting to metallic transition, whereas the static dielectric constant for in-plane polarization increases monotonically with increasing strain. Also the EEL function show the red shift in resonance peak with tensile strain. Our results offer useful insight for the application of silicane monolayer in nano-optical and electronics devices.

  12. Electronic, mechanical and dielectric properties of silicane under tensile strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamdagni, Pooja; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Munish; Thakur, Anil; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2015-05-01

    The electronic, mechanical and dielectric properties of fully hydrogenated silicene i.e. silicane in stable configuration are studied by means of density functional theory based calculations. The band gap of silicane monolayer can be flexibly reduced to zero when subjected to bi-axial tensile strain, leading to semi-conducting to metallic transition, whereas the static dielectric constant for in-plane polarization increases monotonically with increasing strain. Also the EEL function show the red shift in resonance peak with tensile strain. Our results offer useful insight for the application of silicane monolayer in nano-optical and electronics devices.

  13. Soft metal constructs for large strain sensor membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud, Hadrien O.; Teixidor, Joan; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2015-03-01

    Thin gold films on silicone display large reversible change in electrical resistance upon stretching. Eutectic liquid metal conductors maintain bulk metal conductivity, even upon extensive elongation. When integrated together, the soft metals enable multidirectional, large strain sensor skin. Their fabrication process combines thermal evaporation of thin gold film patterns through stencil mask with microplotting of eutectic gallium indium microwires, and packaging in silicone rubber. Using three-element rectangular rosettes, we demonstrate a sensor skin that can reliably and locally quantify the plane strain vector in surfaces subject to stretch (up to 50% strain) and indentation. This hybrid technology will find applications in soft robotics, prosthetics and wearable health monitoring systems.

  14. Solving Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Norman; Lindelow, John

    Chapter 12 in a volume on school leadership, this chapter cites the work of several authorities concerning problem-solving or decision-making techniques based on the belief that group problem-solving effort is preferable to individual effort. The first technique, force-field analysis, is described as a means of dissecting complex problems into…

  15. Controlling the Electronic Structures and Properties of in-Plane Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides Quantum Wells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Dai, Ying; Niu, Chengwang; Huang, Baibiao

    2015-01-01

    In-plane transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) quantum wells have been studied on the basis of first-principles density functional calculations to reveal how to control the electronic structures and the properties. In collection of quantum confinement, strain and intrinsic electric field, TMD quantum wells offer a diverse of exciting new physics. The band gap can be continuously reduced ascribed to the potential drop over the embedded TMD and the strain substantially affects the band gap nature. The true type-II alignment forms due to the coherent lattice and strong interface coupling suggesting the effective separation and collection of excitons. Interestingly, two-dimensional quantum wells of in-plane TMD can enrich the photoluminescence properties of TMD materials. The intrinsic electric polarization enhances the spin-orbital coupling and demonstrates the possibility to achieve topological insulator state and valleytronics in TMD quantum wells. In-plane TMD quantum wells have opened up new possibilities of applications in next-generation devices at nanoscale. PMID:26616013

  16. Structural Anisotropy and Optical Properties of Nonpolar a-Plane GaN Epitaxial Layers.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yong Gon; Shin, Sun Hye; Kim, Doo Soo; Yoon, Hyung-Do; Hwang, Sung-Min; Baik, Kwang Hyeon

    2015-10-01

    In-plane structural anisotropy is characteristic of nonpolar (1120) a-plane GaN (a-GaN) films grown on r-plane sapphire substrates. The anisotropic peak broadenings of X-ray rocking curves (XRCs) are clearly observed with M- or W-shaped dependence on the azimuth angles. We investigated the optical properties of both M- and W-shaped a-GaN samples with room and low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The W-shaped a-GaN film showed higher PL intensity and more compressive strain compared to the M-shaped a-GaN film, whereas the XRC peak widths of the M-shaped a-GaN film on the azimuth angles are lower than those of W-shaped specimens, indicating that better crystalline quality was obtained. We speculate that the PL intensity and strain state of a-GaN layers may be more influenced by the crystallinity of a specific crystal orientation or direction, especially along the m-axis as opposed to the c-axis. This occurrence is most likely due to anisotropic defect distributions, resulting from differences in dangling bond densities of (0001) and {1-100} facets.

  17. National aero-space plane: Flight mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mciver, Duncan E.; Morrell, Frederick R.

    1990-01-01

    The current status and plans of the U.S. National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program are reviewed. The goal of the program is to develop technology for single stage, hypersonic vehicles which use airbreathing propulsion to fly directly to orbit. The program features an X-30 flight research vehicle to explore altitude-speed regimes not amenable to ground testing. The decision to build the X-30 is now scheduled for 1993, with the first flight in the late 1990's. The flight mechanics, controls, flight management, and flight test considerations for the X-30 are discussed.

  18. Fraunhofer plane analysis of particle field holograms.

    PubMed

    Ewan, B C

    1980-04-15

    Using the recently developed Fraunhofer plane particle size analyzer, comparisons have been made between direct and holographically recorded particle field measurements. The usefulness of the combination is discussed in terms of the considerable time factor gain in hologram analysis and the improvement in time resolution of the instrument to that of pulsed lasers. The time resolution is demonstrated by the observation of the time development of the particle size distribution associated with a fuel injector during and after the few milliseconds of nozzle opening.

  19. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  20. Black Plane Solutions and Localized Gravitational Energy

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We explore the issue of gravitational energy localization for static plane-symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations in 3+1 dimensions with asymptotic anti-de Sitter behavior. We apply three different energy-momentum complexes, the Einstein, Landau-Lifshitz, and Møller prescriptions, to the metric representing this category of solutions and determine the energy distribution for each. We find that the three prescriptions offer identical energy distributions, suggesting their utility for this type of model. PMID:27347499

  1. Optimal multiple-pass aeroassisted plane change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinh, Nguyen X.; Ma, Der-Ming

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the exact dimensionless equation of motion and the necessary conditions for the computation of the optimal trajectories of a hypervelocity vehicle flying through a non-rotating spherical planetary atmosphere. Numerical solution is then presented for the case when the vehicle makes several passages through the atmosphere near the perigee of its orbit. While the orbit is slowly contracting, aerodynamic maneuver is performed to obtain the maximum plane change. Several plots were presented to show the optimal variations of the lift coefficient and the bank angle and the various elements of the orbit.

  2. National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tank, Ming H.

    1991-01-01

    A program to develop the technology for reusable airbreathing hypersonic/transatmospheric vehicles is addressed. Information on the following topics is presented in viewgraph form: (1) the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program schedule; (2) the NASP program organization; (3) competitive strategy; (4) propulsion options; (5) wind tunnel data available for NASP; (6) ground track of envelope expansion; and (7) altitude vs. Mach number. A NASP/Space Shuttle comparison, NASP configuration matrix, and the propulsion concept of a high speed scramjet are also briefly addressed.

  3. Braiding patterns on an inclined plane.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Keith; Putkaradze, Vakhtang; Vorobieff, Peter

    2004-07-01

    A jet of fluid flowing down a partially wetting, inclined plane usually meanders but--by maintaining a constant flow rate--meandering can be suppressed, leading to the emergence of a beautiful braided structure. Here we show that this flow pattern can be explained by the interplay between surface tension, which tends to narrow the jet, and fluid inertia, which drives the jet to widen. These observations dispel misconceptions about the relationship between braiding and meandering that have persisted for over 20 years.

  4. Optimizing snake locomotion on an inclined plane.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolin; Osborne, Matthew T; Alben, Silas

    2014-01-01

    We develop a model to study the locomotion of snakes on inclined planes. We determine numerically which snake motions are optimal for two retrograde traveling-wave body shapes, triangular and sinusoidal waves, across a wide range of frictional parameters and incline angles. In the regime of large transverse friction coefficients, we find power-law scalings for the optimal wave amplitudes and corresponding costs of locomotion. We give an asymptotic analysis to show that the optimal snake motions are traveling waves with amplitudes given by the same scaling laws found in the numerics.

  5. Focal-plane architectures and signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayadev, T. S.

    1991-11-01

    This paper discusses the relationship of focal plane architectures and signal processing functions currently used in infrared sensors. It then discusses the development of an algorithm derived from the models developed by biologists to explain the functions of insect eyes and the hardware realization of this algorithm using commercially available silicon chips. The conclusion of this study is that there are important lessons to be learned from the architecture of biological sensors, which may lead to new techniques in electro-optic sensor design.

  6. 1. VIEW WEST SOUTHWEST, UPPER STATION. INCLINE PLANE TRACK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW WEST SOUTHWEST, UPPER STATION. INCLINE PLANE TRACK AND LOWER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  7. 5. VIEW SOUTHWEST, LOWER STATION FRONT, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SOUTHWEST, LOWER STATION FRONT, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  8. 129. HEAD OF PLANE 12 EAST AT HIGH ST. IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. HEAD OF PLANE 12 EAST AT HIGH ST. IN NEWARK. FLUME AND POWER HOUSE ARE IN RIGHT HAND SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH. THIS IS THE LAST DOUBLE TRACKED PLANE ON THE MORRIS CANAL. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  9. 3. INCLINE PLANE CAR INTERIOR, UPPER COMPARTMENT. Monongahela Incline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INCLINE PLANE CAR INTERIOR, UPPER COMPARTMENT. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  10. 4. VIEW SOUTHWEST, LOWER STATION FRONT, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SOUTHWEST, LOWER STATION FRONT, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 10. LOWER STATION, FIRST FLOOR, INCLINE PLANE TRCK LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. LOWER STATION, FIRST FLOOR, INCLINE PLANE TRCK LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST, UPPER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  12. PLANING MILL, FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTH. THE LARGE DEVICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLANING MILL, FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTH. THE LARGE DEVICE IS A WHEEL BORING MACHINE USED DURING THE TIME THIS AREA WAS A WHEEL SHOP. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Planing Mill, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  13. 55. LOOKING EAST FROM HEAD OF PLANE 2 EAST. POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. LOOKING EAST FROM HEAD OF PLANE 2 EAST. POWER HOUSE AND FLUME VISIBLE TO RIGHT, TAILRACE RUNNING THROUGH CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. CRADLE TO INCLINED PLANE 3 EAST IS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND TO LEFT. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  14. 5. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM TOP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM TOP OF ABUTMENT, FILL CONFIGURATION - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  15. 6. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM MIDSLOPE VICINITY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM MID-SLOPE VICINITY, CUT CONFIGURATION - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  16. 2. VIEW SOUTH, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON WEST SIDE OF PA ROUTE 56 - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  17. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON WEST SIDE OF PA ROUTE 56 - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  18. Strain-modulated antiferromagnetic spin orientation and exchange coupling in Fe/CoO(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, J.; Li, Q.; Li, J. X.; Ding, Z.; Wu, Y. Z.; Hua, C. Y.; Huang, M. J.; Lin, H.-J.; Hu, Z.; Won, C.

    2014-05-21

    The effect of CoO spin orientation on exchange coupling was investigated in single-crystalline Fe/CoO/MnO/MgO(001) systems. An antiferromagnetic CoO spin reorientation transition from the in-plane direction to the out-of-plane direction was found to be associated with the in-plane strain transition in CoO film from compression to expansion. The induced uniaxial anisotropies by exchange coupling at the Fe/CoO interface are significantly stronger for the in-plane CoO spin orientation than for the out-of-plane CoO spin orientation. Our study provides a way to modify the exchange coupling in the ferromagnetic (FM)/antiferromagnetic (AFM) bilayer by modulating the strain in the AFM film.

  19. A new optical system for the determination of deformations and strains: calibration characteristics and experimental results.

    PubMed

    Derwin, K A; Soslowsky, L J; Green, W D; Elder, S H

    1994-10-01

    Many types of optical strain measurement systems have been used for the determination of deformations and strains in soft biological tissues. The purpose of this investigation is to report a new optical strain measurement system developed in our laboratory which offers distinct advantages over systems developed in the past. Our optical strain system has demonstrated excellent performance in calibration and experimental tests. Calibration tests illustrate the system's accuracy to 0.05% strain at 3.52% strain and 0.18% strain at 11.74% strain. Further, this system can measure strains to within 2% measurement error for strains in a 0-11.74% range when 100 microns increments of motion are used for calibration. The resolution of our system appears to be at least as good as the linear micrometer (2 microns) used as a calibrating standard. Errors in strain measurement due to whole specimen rotation or translation are quantified. Rotations about an in-plane axis perpendicular to the direction of strain and translations in/out of the plane of focus result in the largest sources of error. Finally, in an in vitro biomechanical study of the rabbit Achilles tendon, experimental failure strains are 4.3 +/- 0.9% using this system. PMID:7962015

  20. Valley polarization in graphene with out-of-plane deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Dawei; Sandler, Nancy

    At low energy, the energy dispersion of graphene shows a conical valley structure with the conduction and valence bands touching at the Dirac points. The existence of two inequivalent Dirac points in the Brillouin zone, thus two valleys, suggests they may be used as new degrees of freedom to carry information. Several schemes based on different mechanisms have been advanced to achieve valley separation in this material, however the proposed setups remain challenging for experimental observation. In this work we investigate graphene with out-of-plane deformations- one of the most naturally occurring and practically realizable settings, as a candidate system to produce valley polarization. Local strains produced by the deformations serve as scattering potentials for electronic states. A second-order Born approximation calculation based on the continuum model reveals the existence of valley polarization and its dependence on the geometrical parameters of the deformations. We characterize the efficiency of valley filtering for different geometries and energies and discuss their implementation in currently available experimental setups. Work supported by NSF-DMR 1508325.

  1. Fabrication of Out-of-Plane Electrodes for ACEO Pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senousy, Yehya; Harnett, Cindy

    2012-02-01

    This abstract reports the fabrication process of a novel AC Electrosmosis (ACEO) pump with out of plane asymmetric interdigitated electrodes. A self-folding technique is used to fabricate the electrodes, that depends on the strain mismatch between the tensile stressed film (metal layer) and the compressive stress film (oxidized silicon layer). The electrodes roll up with a well-defined radius of curvature in the range of 100-200 microns. Two different electrical signals are connected to alternating electrodes using an insulating silicon nitride barrier that allows circuits to cross over each other without shorting. Electroosmotic micropumps are essential for low-cost, power-efficient microfluidic lab-on-chip devices used in diverse application such as analytical probes, drug delivery systems and surgical tools. ACEO pumps have been developed to address the drawbacks of the DCEO pumps such as the faradic reaction and gas bubbles. The original ACEO microfluidic pump was created with planar arrays of asymmetric interdigitated electrodes at the bottom of the channel. This rolled-up tube design improves on the planar design by including the channel walls and ceiling in the active pumping surface area of the device.

  2. Geometric reconstruction using tracked ultrasound strain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pheiffer, Thomas S.; Simpson, Amber L.; Ondrake, Janet E.; Miga, Michael I.

    2013-03-01

    The accurate identification of tumor margins during neurosurgery is a primary concern for the surgeon in order to maximize resection of malignant tissue while preserving normal function. The use of preoperative imaging for guidance is standard of care, but tumor margins are not always clear even when contrast agents are used, and so margins are often determined intraoperatively by visual and tactile feedback. Ultrasound strain imaging creates a quantitative representation of tissue stiffness which can be used in real-time. The information offered by strain imaging can be placed within a conventional image-guidance workflow by tracking the ultrasound probe and calibrating the image plane, which facilitates interpretation of the data by placing it within a common coordinate space with preoperative imaging. Tumor geometry in strain imaging is then directly comparable to the geometry in preoperative imaging. This paper presents a tracked ultrasound strain imaging system capable of co-registering with preoperative tomograms and also of reconstructing a 3D surface using the border of the strain lesion. In a preliminary study using four phantoms with subsurface tumors, tracked strain imaging was registered to preoperative image volumes and then tumor surfaces were reconstructed using contours extracted from strain image slices. The volumes of the phantom tumors reconstructed from tracked strain imaging were approximately between 1.5 to 2.4 cm3, which was similar to the CT volumes of 1.0 to 2.3 cm3. Future work will be done to robustly characterize the reconstruction accuracy of the system.

  3. Creating effective focus cues in multi-plane 3D displays

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, Sowmya; Akeley, Kurt; Banks, Martin S.

    2011-01-01

    Focus cues are incorrect in conventional stereoscopic displays. This causes a dissociation of vergence and accommodation, which leads to visual fatigue and perceptual distortions. Multi-plane displays can minimize these problems by creating nearly correct focus cues. But to create the appearance of continuous depth in a multi-plane display, one needs to use depth-weighted blending: i.e., distribute light intensity between adjacent planes. Akeley et al. [ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 804 (2004)] and Liu and Hua [Opt. Express 18, 11562 (2009)] described rather different rules for depth-weighted blending. We examined the effectiveness of those and other rules using a model of a typical human eye and biologically plausible metrics for image quality. We find that the linear blending rule proposed by Akeley and colleagues [ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 804 (2004)] is the best solution for natural stimuli. PMID:21997103

  4. Two charges on plane in a magnetic field: III. He{sup +} ion

    SciTech Connect

    Escobar-Ruiz, M.A.

    2014-12-15

    The He{sup +} ion on a plane subject to a constant magnetic field B perpendicular to the plane is considered taking into account the finite nuclear mass. Factorization of eigenfunctions permits to reduce the four-dimensional problem to three-dimensional one. The ground state energy of the composite system is calculated in a wide range of magnetic fields from B=0.01 up to B=100a.u. and center-of-mass Pseudomomentum K from 0 to 1000 a.u. using a variational approach. The accuracy of calculations for B=0.1a.u. is cross-checked in Lagrange-mesh method and not less than five significant figures are reproduced in energy. Similarly to the case of moving neutral system on the plane a phenomenon of a sharp change of energy behavior as a function of K for a certain critical K{sub c} but a fixed magnetic field occurs.

  5. A Possibility of the Aeromagnetic Survey by a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Ant-Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, M.

    2004-12-01

    Magnetic surveys by helicopters and airplanes are a useful technique to estimate the geological structure under the ice sheets in Antarctica. However, it is not easy to employ this due to the transportation of the planes, logistic supports, security, and financial problems. Members of Ant-Plane Project have investigated the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV, Ant-Plane) for the solution of the problems. Recently the aeromagnetic survey is verified by a model airplane navigated by GPS and a magneto-resistant (MR) magnetometer. The airplane (Ant-Plane) consists of 2m wing length, 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 85cc gasoline engine, GPS navigation system by microcomputer and radio telemeter system. The total weight is 15kg including 2 litter fuels, the MR magnetometer, a video camera and an emergency parachute. The speed is 130 km/h and maximum height is 2000m. The magnetometer system consists of a 3- component MR magnetometer, GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, number of satellite and time are recorded in every second during 3 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown heading of the plane. November 2003 we succeeded the magnetic survey by the Ant-Plane at the slope of Sakurajima Volcano, Kyushu, Japan. The plane rotated 9 times along the programmed route of about 4x1 km, total flight distance of 80 km, keeping the altitude of 700 m. Consequently we obtained almost similar field variation on the route. The maximum deviation of each course was less than 100 m. Therefore, we concluded that the aeromagnetic survey in the relatively large anomaly areas can be performed by Ant-Plane with the MR magnetometer system. Finally the plane flew up 1400m with a video camera to take the photo of active volcano Sakurajima (1117m). It succeeded to take photos of craters through steam from the volcano.

  6. 63. CANAL BOAT IN CRADLE AT TOP OF PLANE. TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. CANAL BOAT IN CRADLE AT TOP OF PLANE. TO PASS OVER THE SUMMIT (THE HUMP OF LAND AT THE TOP OF PLANE TO HOLD BACK THE WATER AT THAT LEVEL), THE BOATS HAVE SEEN HINGED AND TWO CRADLES ARE USED TO CARRY THE BOAT UP THE PLANE. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  7. Plane Transformations in a Complex Setting II: Isometries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Picard, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the second part of a study of plane transformations using a complex setting. The first part was devoted to homotheties and translations, now attention is turned towards plane isometries. The group theoretic properties of plane isometries are easy to derive and images of classical geometrical objects by these transformations are…

  8. 1. LOOKING TOWARD PLANE 9 WEST. BASIN HAS BEEN DRAINED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING TOWARD PLANE 9 WEST. BASIN HAS BEEN DRAINED AND SLOPE OF PLANE 9 IS VISIBLE BETWEEN ROW OF TREES IN BACKGROUND. STONEWORK ON LEFT IS ABUTMENT TO BRIDGE THAT CROSSED OVER THE CANAL. - Morris Canal, Inclined Plane 9 West, Port Warren, Warren County, NJ

  9. Light propagation analysis using a translated plane angular spectrum method with the oblique plane wave incidence.

    PubMed

    Son, Hyeon-ho; Oh, Kyunghwan

    2015-05-01

    A novel angular spectrum method was proposed to numerically analyze off-axis free-space light propagation on a translated plane to an arbitrary angle. Utilizing a shifted angular spectrum method based on an oblique incident plane wave assumption, a generalized light propagation formulation was obtained in a wide range of both tilt angles and sampling intervals, which overcame the limitations of prior attempts. A detailed comparison of the proposed angular spectrum method with prior methods is numerically presented for diffractive optics and computer-generated holograms. The validity of the proposed method was confirmed experimentally by reconstructing a digital holographic image using a spatial light modulator.

  10. The orientation of Listing's Plane in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew H; Haslwanter, Thomas

    2007-11-01

    The orientation of Listing's Plane (LP) was examined under one-g and zero-g conditions during parabolic flight. Ten healthy subjects participated in the experiment. In zero-g the orientation of LP was consistently altered. LP elevation was tilted backwards by approx. 10 degrees (p=0.003). The azimuth angles of the left and right eyes also diverged in zero-g, with a statistically significant change (p=0.04) in the vergence angle between 6.1 degrees and 11.8 degrees . A discernible dissociation in torsional eye position was also observed, which proved to be statistically significant (p=0.03). The thickness of LP was found to be of the order of 1 degrees , and was not significantly altered by the transitions between one-g and zero-g. Additional control experiments involving repeated measurements of LP under normal laboratory conditions demonstrated that the parameters of LP remain stable in the individual. The parabolic flight results demonstrate that in contrast to re-orientation in the one-g gravitational field, the elimination of gravity represents a qualitative change for the vestibular and oculomotor systems. It appears that given the lack of voluntary control of ocular torsion, the tonic otolith afferences are instrumental in the stabilisation of torsional eye position and consequently of Listing's Plane. The observed torsional divergence also provides support for the so-called otolith asymmetry hypothesis.

  11. Trajectory optimization for the National aerospace plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1993-01-01

    While continuing the application of the inverse dynamics approach in obtaining the optimal numerical solutions, the research during the past six months has been focused on the formulation and derivation of closed-form solutions for constrained hypersonic flight trajectories. Since it was found in the research of the first year that a dominant portion of the optimal ascent trajectory of the aerospace plane is constrained by dynamic pressure and heating constraints, the application of the analytical solutions significantly enhances the efficiency in trajectory optimization, provides a better insight to understanding of the trajectory and conceivably has great potential in guidance of the vehicle. Work of this period has been reported in four technical papers. Two of the papers were presented in the AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference (Hilton Head, SC, August, 1992) and Fourth International Aerospace Planes Conference (Orlando, FL, December, 1992). The other two papers have been accepted for publication by Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, and will appear in 1993. This report briefly summarizes the work done in the past six months and work currently underway.

  12. Burnett description for plane Poiseuille flow.

    PubMed

    Uribe, F J; Garcia, A L

    1999-10-01

    Two recent works have shown that at small Knudsen number (K) the pressure and temperature profiles in plane Poiseuille flow exhibit a different qualitative behavior from the profiles obtained by the Navier-Stokes equations. Tij and Santos [J. Stat. Phys. 76, 1399 (1994)] used the Bhatnagar-Gross-Kook model to show that the temperature profile is bimodal and the pressure profile is nonconstant. Malek-Mansour, Baras, and Garcia [Physica A 240, 255 (1997)] qualitatively confirmed these predictions in computer experiments using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC). In this paper we compare the DSMC measurements of hydrodynamic variables and non-equilibrium fluxes with numerical solutions of the Burnett equations. Given that they are in better agreement with molecular-dynamics simulations [E. Salomons and M. Mareschal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 269 (1992)] of strong shock waves than Navier-Stokes [F. J. Uribe, R. M. Velasco, and L. S. García-Colín, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2044 (1998)], and that they are second order in Knudsen number suggests that the Burnett equations may provide a better description for large K. We find that for plane Poiseuille flow the Burnett equations do not predict the bimodal temperature profile but do recover many of the other anomalous features (e.g., nonconstant pressure and nonzero parallel heat flux).

  13. Burnett description for plane Poiseuille flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, F. J.; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    1999-10-01

    Two recent works have shown that at small Knudsen number (K) the pressure and temperature profiles in plane Poiseuille flow exhibit a different qualitative behavior from the profiles obtained by the Navier-Stokes equations. Tij and Santos [J. Stat. Phys. 76, 1399 (1994)] used the Bhatnagar-Gross-Kook model to show that the temperature profile is bimodal and the pressure profile is nonconstant. Malek-Mansour, Baras, and Garcia [Physica A 240, 255 (1997)] qualitatively confirmed these predictions in computer experiments using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC). In this paper we compare the DSMC measurements of hydrodynamic variables and non-equilibrium fluxes with numerical solutions of the Burnett equations. Given that they are in better agreement with molecular-dynamics simulations [E. Salomons and M. Mareschal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 269 (1992)] of strong shock waves than Navier-Stokes [F. J. Uribe, R. M. Velasco, and L. S. García-Colín, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2044 (1998)], and that they are second order in Knudsen number suggests that the Burnett equations may provide a better description for large K. We find that for plane Poiseuille flow the Burnett equations do not predict the bimodal temperature profile but do recover many of the other anomalous features (e.g., nonconstant pressure and nonzero parallel heat flux).

  14. Target plane imager for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, C.D.; Bliss, E.S.; Jones, W.A.; Seppala, L.G.

    1985-01-30

    The Nova laser, completed in December 1984 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is being used to conduct inertial confinement fusion experiments. It is capable of focusing more than 100 kJ of energy on small fusion targets. This paper discusses an optical system called the target plane imager that is used during the beam alignment phase of these experiments. The TPI includes a three meter long periscope with a wide field of view, F/3 objective. The telescope relays images of the target focal plane to viewing optics and a video sensor located outside the target chamber. Operation of the system is possible at three wavelengths: 1.05..mu.., 0.527..mu.., and 0.351..mu... These are the three wavelengths at which the ten Nova laser beams can irradiate targets. Both nearfield and farfield images of the ten beams can be viewed with the TPI. This instrument is used to properly align the laser to the target before each target irradiation.

  15. Waveguide Metacouplers for In-Plane Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pors, Anders; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-06-01

    The state of polarization (SOP) is an inherent property of the vectorial nature of light and a crucial parameter in a wide range of remote sensing applications. Nevertheless, the SOP is rather cumbersome to probe experimentally, as conventional detectors respond only to the intensity of the light, hence losing the phase information between orthogonal vector components. In this work, we propose a type of polarimeter that is compact and well suited for in-plane optical circuitry while allowing for immediate determination of the SOP through simultaneous retrieval of the associated Stokes parameters. The polarimeter is based on plasmonic phase-gradient birefringent metasurfaces that facilitate normal incident light to launch in-plane photonic-waveguide modes propagating in six predefined directions with the coupling efficiencies providing a direct measure of the incident SOP. The functionality and accuracy of the polarimeter, which essentially is an all-polarization-sensitive waveguide metacoupler, is confirmed through full-wave simulations at the operation wavelength of 1.55 μ m .

  16. Polymer Thin Film Buckling: Wrinkling and Strain Localizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebata, Yuri; Croll, Andrew B.; Crosby, Alfred J.

    2011-03-01

    Out of plane deformations of thin films are observed in everyday life, e.g. wrinkled aging human skin or folded fabrics. Recently, these deformations are being pursued for fabricating unique patterned surfaces. In this study, the transition from wrinkling, a low-strain buckling behavior, to localized deformations such as fold and delamination, is investigated for polystyrene films with thickness ranging from 5nm to 180nm. The thin films are attached to a uniaxially strained polydimethysiloxane substrate and the strain is released incrementally to apply increasing compressive strain to the attached film. The wavelength and the amplitude of local out-of-plane deformation are measured as global compression is increased to distinguish between wrinkling, folding, and delamination. The transition from wrinkling to strain localizing events is observed by tracking the statistics of amplitude distribution sampled across a large lateral area. A critical strain map is constructed to denote the strain regimes at which wrinkle, fold, and delamination occur. NSF-DMR 0907219.

  17. Recrystallization of plane strain compressed Al-1 wt.% Mn alloy single crystals of typical unstable orientations.

    PubMed

    Bijak, M; Paul, H; Driver, J H

    2010-03-01

    A systematic study of crystal lattice reorientation in early stages of recrystallization has been carried out to correlate the orientations of recrystallization nuclei with the deformation microtexture and with slip systems. Microstructure and texture of Al-1 wt.% Mn single crystals of unstable initial orientations of {112}111, {100}001 and {001}110 have been examined by high-resolution field-emission gun scanning electron microscope local orientation measurements. All single crystals were channel-die deformed at room temperature and then annealed for a short time. It was shown that often observed presence of the 112 directions as rotation axes in the formation of new nuclei orientation directly suggested a close link with the deformation process.

  18. Compression under conditions of the plane-strain state of composite powdered materials

    SciTech Connect

    Leshchinskii, V.M.; Blokhin, A.G.; Ermolaeva, I.E.

    1995-03-01

    The deviator part of the stress tensor has a key effect on the compaction of a highly-porous powdered material. The composition of the powder mixture promotes strengthening processes in the plastic phase. The nature of the macroscopic behavior of the composite powdered mixture is affected substantially by the reinforcement of contacts between particles.

  19. C-shaped specimen plane strain fracture toughness tests. [metallic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzard, R. T.; Fisher, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    Test equipment, procedures, and data obtained in the evaluation of C-shaped specimens are presented. Observations reported on include: specimen preparation and dimensional measurement; modifications to the standard ASTM E 399 displacement gage, which permit punch mark gage point engagement; and a measurement device for determining the interior and exterior radii of ring segments. Load displacement ratios were determined experimentally which agreed with analytically determined coefficients for three different gage lengths on the inner surfaces of radially-cracked ring segments.

  20. Stress intensity factors in bonded half planes containing inclined cracks and subjected to antiplane shear loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassani, J. L.; Erdogan, F.

    1978-01-01

    The antiplane shear problem for two bonded dissimilar half planes containing a semi-infinite crack or two arbitrarily located collinear cracks was considered. For the semi-infinite crack the problem was solved for a concentrated wedge load and the stress intensity factor and the angular distribution of stresses were calculated. For finite cracks the problem was reduced to a pair of integral equations. Numerical results were obtained for cracks fully imbedded in a homogeneous medium, one crack tip touching the interface, and a crack crossing the interface for various crack angles.

  1. An inverse dynamics approach to trajectory optimization and guidance for an aerospace plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1992-01-01

    The optimal ascent problem for an aerospace planes is formulated as an optimal inverse dynamic problem. Both minimum-fuel and minimax type of performance indices are considered. Some important features of the optimal trajectory and controls are used to construct a nonlinear feedback midcourse controller, which not only greatly simplifies the difficult constrained optimization problem and yields improved solutions, but is also suited for onboard implementation. Robust ascent guidance is obtained by using combination of feedback compensation and onboard generation of control through the inverse dynamics approach. Accurate orbital insertion can be achieved with near-optimal control of the rocket through inverse dynamics even in the presence of disturbances.

  2. Pauli equation on noncommutative plane and the Seiberg-Witten map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halder, Aslam; Gangopadhyay, Sunandan

    2016-04-01

    We study the Pauli equation in noncommutative (NC) two-dimensional plane which exhibits the supersymmetry (SUSY) algebra when the gyro-magnetic ratio is 2. The significance of the Seiberg-Witten (SW) map in this context is discussed and its effect in the problem is incorporated to all orders in 𝜃. We map the NC problem to an equivalent commutative problem by using a set of generalized Bopp-shift transformations containing a scaling parameter. The energy spectrum of the NC Pauli Hamiltonian is obtained and found to be 𝜃 corrected which is valid to all orders in 𝜃.

  3. Stress intensity factors in bonded half planes containing inclined cracks and subjected to antiplane shear loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassani, J. L.; Erdogan, F.

    1979-01-01

    The antiplane shear problem for two bonded dissimilar half planes containing a semi-infinite crack or two arbitrarily located collinear cracks is considered. For the semi-infinite crack the problem is solved for a concentrated wedge load and the stress intensity factor and the angular distribution of stresses are calculated. For finite cracks the problem is reduced to a pair of integral equations. Numerical results are obtained for cracks fully imbedded in a homogeneous medium, one crack tip touching the interface, and a crack crossing the interface for various crack angles.

  4. Strain induced modification in phonon dispersion curves of monolayer boron pnictides

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Prafulla K. E-mail: prafullaj@yahoo.com; Soni, Himadri R.

    2014-01-14

    In the frame work of density functional theory, the biaxial strain induced phonon dispersion curves of monolayer boron pnictides (BX, X = N, P, As, and Sb) have been investigated. The electron-ion interactions have been modelled using ultrasoft pseudopotentials while exchange-correlation energies have been approximated by the method of local density approximation in the parameterization of Perdew-Zunger. The longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonon modes of boron pnictide sheets show linear dependency on wave vector k{sup →} while out of plane mode varies as k{sup 2}. The in-plane longitudinal and out of plane transverse optical modes in boron nitride displaying significant dispersion similar to graphene. We have analyzed the biaxial strain dependent behaviour of out of plane acoustic phonon mode which is linked to ripple for four BX sheets using a model equation with shell elasticity theory. The strain induces the hardening of this mode with tendency to become more linear with increase in strain percentage. The strain induced hardening of out of plane acoustic phonon mode indicates the absence of rippling in these compounds. Our band structure calculations for both unstrained and strained 2D h-BX are consistent with previous calculations.

  5. Strain induced modification in phonon dispersion curves of monolayer boron pnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Prafulla K.; Soni, Himadri R.

    2014-01-01

    In the frame work of density functional theory, the biaxial strain induced phonon dispersion curves of monolayer boron pnictides (BX, X = N, P, As, and Sb) have been investigated. The electron-ion interactions have been modelled using ultrasoft pseudopotentials while exchange-correlation energies have been approximated by the method of local density approximation in the parameterization of Perdew-Zunger. The longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonon modes of boron pnictide sheets show linear dependency on wave vector k→ while out of plane mode varies as k2. The in-plane longitudinal and out of plane transverse optical modes in boron nitride displaying significant dispersion similar to graphene. We have analyzed the biaxial strain dependent behaviour of out of plane acoustic phonon mode which is linked to ripple for four BX sheets using a model equation with shell elasticity theory. The strain induces the hardening of this mode with tendency to become more linear with increase in strain percentage. The strain induced hardening of out of plane acoustic phonon mode indicates the absence of rippling in these compounds. Our band structure calculations for both unstrained and strained 2D h-BX are consistent with previous calculations.

  6. High contrast imaging through adaptive transmittance control in the focal plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Rastegar, Jahangir; Feng, Dake

    2016-05-01

    High contrast imaging, in the presence of a bright background, is a challenging problem encountered in diverse applications ranging from the daily chore of driving into a sun-drenched scene to in vivo use of biomedical imaging in various types of keyhole surgeries. Imaging in the presence of bright sources saturates the vision system, resulting in loss of scene fidelity, corresponding to low image contrast and reduced resolution. The problem is exacerbated in retro-reflective imaging systems where the light sources illuminating the object are unavoidably strong, typically masking the object features. This manuscript presents a novel theoretical framework, based on nonlinear analysis and adaptive focal plane transmittance, to selectively remove object domain sources of background light from the image plane, resulting in local and global increases in image contrast. The background signal can either be of a global specular nature, giving rise to parallel illumination from the entire object surface or can be represented by a mosaic of randomly orientated, small specular surfaces. The latter is more representative of real world practical imaging systems. Thus, the background signal comprises of groups of oblique rays corresponding to distributions of the mosaic surfaces. Through the imaging system, light from group of like surfaces, converges to a localized spot in the focal plane of the lens and then diverges to cast a localized bright spot in the image plane. Thus, transmittance of a spatial light modulator, positioned in the focal plane, can be adaptively controlled to block a particular source of background light. Consequently, the image plane intensity is entirely due to the object features. Experimental image data is presented to verify the efficacy of the methodology.

  7. Tidal friction in the Earth-Moon system and Laplace planes: Darwin redux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2016-03-01

    The dynamical evolution of the Earth-Moon system due to tidal friction is treated here. George H. Darwin used Laplace planes (also called proper planes) in his study of tidal evolution. The Laplace plane approach is adapted here to the formalisms of W.M. Kaula and P. Goldreich. Like Darwin, the approach assumes a three-body problem: Earth, Moon, and Sun, where the Moon and Sun are point-masses. The tidal potential is written in terms of the Laplace plane angles. The resulting secular equations of motion can be easily integrated numerically assuming the Moon is in a circular orbit about the Earth and the Earth is in a circular orbit about the Sun. For Earth-Moon distances greater than ∼10 Earth radii, the Earth's approximate tidal response can be characterized with a single parameter, which is a ratio: a Love number times the sine of a lag angle divided by another such product. For low parameter values it can be shown that Darwin's low-viscosity molten Earth, M. Ross's and G. Schubert's model of an Earth near melting, and Goldreich's equal tidal lag angles must all give similar histories. For higher parameter values, as perhaps has been the case at times with the ocean tides, the Earth's obliquity may have decreased slightly instead of increased once the Moon's orbit evolved further than 50 Earth radii from the Earth, with possible implications for climate. This is contrast to the other tidal friction models mentioned, which have the obliquity always increasing with time. As for the Moon, its orbit is presently tilted to its Laplace plane by 5.2°. The equations do not allow the Moon to evolve out of its Laplace plane by tidal friction alone, so that if it was originally in its Laplace plane, the tilt arose with the addition of other mechanisms, such as resonance passages.

  8. Tidal Friction in the Earth-Moon System and Laplace Planes: Darwin Redux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David P.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamical evolution of the Earth-Moon system due to tidal friction is treated here. George H. Darwin used Laplace planes (also called proper planes) in his study of tidal evolution. The Laplace plane approach is adapted here to the formalisms of W.M. Kaula and P. Goldreich. Like Darwin, the approach assumes a three-body problem: Earth, Moon, and Sun, where the Moon and Sun are point-masses. The tidal potential is written in terms of the Laplace plane angles. The resulting secular equations of motion can be easily integrated numerically assuming the Moon is in a circular orbit about the Earth and the Earth is in a circular orbit about the Sun. For Earth-Moon distances greater than 10 Earth radii, the Earth's approximate tidal response can be characterized with a single parameter, which is a ratio: a Love number times the sine of a lag angle divided by another such product. For low parameter values it can be shown that Darwin's low-viscosity molten Earth, M. Ross's and G. Schubert's model of an Earth near melting, and Goldreich's equal tidal lag angles must all give similar histories. For higher parameter values, as perhaps has been the case at times with the ocean tides, the Earth's obliquity may have decreased slightly instead of increased once the Moon's orbit evolved further than 50 Earth radii from the Earth, with possible implications for climate. This is contrast to the other tidal friction models mentioned, which have the obliquity always increasing with time. As for the Moon, its orbit is presently tilted to its Laplace plane by 5.2deg. The equations do not allow the Moon to evolve out of its Laplace plane by tidal friction alone, so that if it was originally in its Laplace plane, the tilt arose with the addition of other mechanisms, such as resonance passages.

  9. Modeling the in-plane tension failure of composite plates

    SciTech Connect

    Trinh, K.V.

    1997-11-01

    This study developed a modeling method to predict the final failure load of laminated composite plates which may contain cutouts and are subjected to quasi-static in-plane tensile loads. This study focused on overcoming numerical problems often encountered in analyses that exhibit significant stable damage growth in the composite materials. To keep the computational cost at a reasonable level, the modeling method uses a quasi-static solution procedure to solve composite plate problems with quasi-static load. The numerical problems in the quasi-static analyses are nonconvergence problems caused by the discontinuous material behavior from brittle fiber failure. This study adds artificial damping to the material model to suppress the discontinuous material behavior. The artificial damping essentially changes the material behavior, and could adversely change the final failure load prediction. Thus, a selective scheme for adding the damping was developed to minimize adverse damping effects. In addition, this modeling method uses multiple analyses at different levels of artificial damping to determine damping effects on the failure load prediction. Fracture strength experimental data for small coupons with small cutouts and large panels with larger cutouts available in the literature were selected and used to verify failure predictions of the developed modeling method. Results show that, without the artificial damping treatment, progressive damage analyses reasonably predicted the fracture strength of the small coupons, but severely underpredicted the fracture strength of the large panels. With the artificial damping treatment, the analyses predicted the failure load of both the small coupons and the large panels reasonably well.

  10. Rolling motion of an elastic cylinder induced by elastic strain gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Chen, Shaohua

    2014-10-01

    Recent experiment shows that an elastic strain gradient field can be utilized to transport spherical particles on a stretchable substrate by rolling, inspired by which a generalized plane-strain Johnson-Kendall-Roberts model is developed in this paper in order to verify possible rolling of an elastic cylinder adhering on an elastic substrate subject to a strain gradient. With the help of contact mechanics, closed form solutions of interface tractions, stress intensity factors, and corresponding energy release rates in the plane-strain contact model are obtained, based on which a possible rolling motion of an elastic cylinder induced by strain gradients is found and the criterion for the initiation of rolling is established. The theoretical prediction is consistent well with the existing experimental observation. The result should be helpful for understanding biological transport mechanisms through muscle contractions and the design of transport systems with strain gradient.

  11. A Bridge between Two Important Problems in Optics and Electrostatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capelli, R.; Pozzi, G.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown how the same physically appealing method can be applied to find analytic solutions for two difficult and apparently unrelated problems in optics and electrostatics. They are: (i) the diffraction of a plane wave at a perfectly conducting thin half-plane and (ii) the electrostatic field associated with a parallel array of stripes held at…

  12. Scanning X-ray strain microscopy of inhomogeneously strained Ge micro-bridges

    PubMed Central

    Etzelstorfer, Tanja; Süess, Martin J.; Schiefler, Gustav L.; Jacques, Vincent L. R.; Carbone, Dina; Chrastina, Daniel; Isella, Giovanni; Spolenak, Ralph; Stangl, Julian; Sigg, Hans; Diaz, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Strained semiconductors are ubiquitous in microelectronics and microelectromechanical systems, where high local stress levels can either be detrimental for their integrity or enhance their performance. Consequently, local probes for elastic strain are essential in analyzing such devices. Here, a scanning X-ray sub-microprobe experiment for the direct measurement of deformation over large areas in single-crystal thin films with a spatial resolution close to the focused X-ray beam size is presented. By scanning regions of interest of several tens of micrometers at different rocking angles of the sample in the vicinity of two Bragg reflections, reciprocal space is effectively mapped in three dimensions at each scanning position, obtaining the bending, as well as the in-plane and out-of-plane strain components. Highly strained large-area Ge structures with applications in optoelectronics are used to demonstrate the potential of this technique and the results are compared with finite-element-method models for validation. PMID:24365924

  13. Automatic extraction of the mid-sagittal plane using an ICP variant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fieten, Lorenz; Eschweiler, Jörg; de la Fuente, Matías; Gravius, Sascha; Radermacher, Klaus

    2008-03-01

    Precise knowledge of the mid-sagittal plane is important for the assessment and correction of several deformities. Furthermore, the mid-sagittal plane can be used for the definition of standardized coordinate systems such as pelvis or skull coordinate systems. A popular approach for mid-sagittal plane computation is based on the selection of anatomical landmarks located either directly on the plane or symmetrically to it. However, the manual selection of landmarks is a tedious, time-consuming and error-prone task, which requires great care. In order to overcome this drawback, previously it was suggested to use the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm: After an initial mirroring of the data points on a default mirror plane, the mirrored data points should be registered iteratively to the model points using rigid transforms. Finally, a reflection transform approximating the cumulative transform could be extracted. In this work, we present an ICP variant for the iterative optimization of the reflection parameters. It is based on a closed-form solution to the least-squares problem of matching data points to model points using a reflection. In experiments on CT pelvis and skull datasets our method showed a better ability to match homologous areas.

  14. Learning-based scan plane identification from fetal head ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Annangi, Pavan; Gupta, Mithun; Yu, Bing; Padfield, Dirk; Banerjee, Jyotirmoy; Krishnan, Kajoli

    2012-03-01

    Acquisition of a clinically acceptable scan plane is a pre-requisite for ultrasonic measurement of anatomical features from B-mode images. In obstetric ultrasound, measurement of gestational age predictors, such as biparietal diameter and head circumference, is performed at the level of the thalami and cavum septum pelucidi. In an accurate scan plane, the head can be modeled as an ellipse, the thalami looks like a butterfly, the cavum appears like an empty box and the falx is a straight line along the major axis of a symmetric ellipse inclined either parallel to or at small angles to the probe surface. Arriving at the correct probe placement on the mother's belly to obtain an accurate scan plane is a task of considerable challenge especially for a new user of ultrasound. In this work, we present a novel automated learning-based algorithm to identify an acceptable fetal head scan plane. We divide the problem into cranium detection and a template matching to capture the composite "butterfly" structure present inside the head, which mimics the visual cues used by an expert. The algorithm uses the stateof- the-art Active Appearance Models techniques from the image processing and computer vision literature and tie them to presence or absence of the inclusions within the head to automatically compute a score to represent the goodness of a scan plane. This automated technique can be potentially used to train and aid new users of ultrasound.

  15. Out-of-plane behavior of hollow clay tile walls infilled between steel frames

    SciTech Connect

    Butala, M.B.; Jones, W.D.; Beavers, J.E.

    1991-08-16

    Several buildings at Y-12 Plant rely on unreinforced hollow clay tile walls (HCTW) infilled between unbraced, non-moment resisting steel frames to resist natural phenomena forces, seismic and wind. One critical building relies on moment resisting steel frames in one direction while relying on unreinforced HCTWs infilled between the columns in the orthogonal direction to resist these forces. The HCTWs must act as shear walls while maintaining out-of-plane lateral stability. In assessing the safety of these buildings to seismic forces, several models to study the in- and out-of-plane effects were made and analyzed. The study of the moment resisting steel framed building indicated that bending stresses in the walls were induced by building drift and not by inertial forces per se. The discovery of this phenomenon was some what of a surprise in that the analysis performed is not typically used in design of these structures. The study indicated that the walls began to crack at their interface with the foundation at a low ``g`` level and that horizontal cracking at different elevations continued until the walls exhibited little bending resistance. This paper presents results of the study for out-of-plane behavior of unreinforced HCTWs infilled between adjacent moment resisting steel frames and discusses the problems of assessing the in-plane behavior given the horizontal cracks induced by building drift in the out-of-plane direction.

  16. Sprains and Strains

    MedlinePlus

    ... happens. A strain is a stretched or torn muscle or tendon. Tendons are tissues that connect muscle to bone. Twisting or pulling these tissues can ... suddenly or develop over time. Back and hamstring muscle strains are common. Many people get strains playing ...

  17. Hydrodynamic Properties of Planing Surfaces and Flying Boats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolov, N. A.

    1950-01-01

    The study of the hydrodynamic properties of planing bottom of flying boats and seaplane floats is at the present time based exclusively on the curves of towing tests conducted in tanks. In order to provide a rational basis for the test procedure in tanks and practical design data, a theoretical study must be made of the flow at the step and relations derived that show not only qualitatively but quantitatively the inter-relations of the various factors involved. The general solution of the problem of the development of hydrodynamic forces during the motion of the seaplane float or flying boat is very difficult for it is necessary to give a three-dimensional solution, which does not always permit reducing the analysis to the form of workable computation formulas. On the other had, the problem is complicated by the fact that the object of the analysis is concerned with two fluid mediums, namely, air and water, which have a surface of density discontinuity between them. The theoretical and experimental investigations on the hydrodynamics of a ship cannot be completely carried over to the design of floats and flying-boat hulls, because of the difference in the shape of the contour lines of the bodies, and, because of the entirely different flow conditions from the hydrodynamic viewpoint.

  18. Film flow of a suspension down an inclined plane.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofan; Pozrikidis, C

    2003-05-15

    A method is developed for simulating the film flow of a suspension of rigid particles with arbitrary shapes down an inclined plane in the limit of vanishing Reynolds number. The problem is formulated in terms of a system of integral equations of the first and second kind for the free-surface velocity and the traction distribution along the particle surfaces involving the a priori unknown particle linear velocity of translation and angular velocity of rotation about designated centres. The problem statement is completed by introducing scalar constraints that specify the force and torque exerted on the individual particles. A boundary-element method is implemented for solving the governing equations for the case of a two-dimensional periodic suspension. The system of linear equations arising from numerical discretization is solved using a preconditioner based on a particle-cluster iterative method recently developed by Pozrikidis (2000 Engng Analysis Bound. Elem. 25, 19-30). Numerical investigations show that the generalized minimal residual (GMRES) method with this preconditioner is significantly more efficient than the plain GMRES method used routinely in boundary-element implementations. Extensive numerical simulations for solitary particles and random suspensions illustrate the effect of the particle shape, size and aspect ratio in semi-finite shear flow, and the effect of free-surface deformability in film flow.

  19. Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo Manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgartner, Eric; Robinson, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo (HIPS) manipulation is a method of processing image data, and of controlling a robotic manipulator arm in response to the data, that enables the manipulator arm to place an end-effector (an instrument or tool) precisely with respect to a target (see figure). Unlike other stereoscopic machine-vision-based methods of controlling robots, this method is robust in the face of calibration errors and changes in calibration during operation. In this method, a stereoscopic pair of cameras on the robot first acquires images of the manipulator at a set of predefined poses. The image data are processed to obtain image-plane coordinates of known visible features of the end-effector. Next, there is computed an initial calibration in the form of a mapping between (1) the image-plane coordinates and (2) the nominal three-dimensional coordinates of the noted end-effector features in a reference frame fixed to the main robot body at the base of the manipulator. The nominal three-dimensional coordinates are obtained by use of the nominal forward kinematics of the manipulator arm that is, calculated by use of the currently measured manipulator joint angles and previously measured lengths of manipulator arm segments under the assumption that the arm segments are rigid, that the arm lengths are constant, and that there is no backlash. It is understood from the outset that these nominal three-dimensional coordinates are likely to contain possibly significant calibration errors, but the effects of the errors are progressively reduced, as described next. As the end-effector is moved toward the target, the calibration is updated repeatedly by use of data from newly acquired images of the end-effector and of the corresponding nominal coordinates in the manipulator reference frame. By use of the updated calibration, the coordinates of the target are computed in manipulator-reference-frame coordinates and then used to the necessary manipulator joint angles to position

  20. Eta Carinae: Orientation of The Orbital Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, T. R.; Nielsen, K. E.; Ivarsson, S.; Corcoran, M. F.; Verner, E.; Hillier, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence continues to build that Eta Carinae is a massive binary system with a hidden hot companion in a highly elliptical orbit. We present imaging and spectroscopic evidence that provide clues to the orientation of the orbital plane. The circumstellar ejecta, known as the Homunculus and Little Homunculus, are hourglass-shaped structures, one encapsulated within the other, tilted at about 45 degrees from the sky plane. A disk region lies between the bipolar lobes. Based upon their velocities and proper motions, Weigelt blobs B, C and D, very bright emission clumps 0.1 to 0.3" Northwest from Eta Carinae, lie in the disk. UV flux from the hot companion, Eta Car B, photoexcites the Weigelt blobs. Other clumps form a complete chain around the star, but are not significantly photoexcited. The strontium filament, a 'neutral' emission structure, lies in the same general direction as the Weigelt blobs and exhibits peculiar properties indicative that much mid-UV, but no hydrogen-ionizing radiation impinges on this structure. It is shielded by singly-ionized iron. P Cygni absorptions in Fe I I lines, seen directly in line of sight from Eta Carinae, are absent in the stellar light scattered by the Weigelt blobs. Rather than a strong absorption extending to -600 km/s, a low velocity absorption feature extends from -40 to -150 km/s. No absorbing Fe II exists between Eta Carinae and Weigelt D, but the outer reaches of the wind are intercepted in line of sight from Weigelt D to the observer. This indicates that the UV radiation is constrained by the dominating wind of Eta Car A to a small cavity carved out by the weaker wind of Eta Car B. Since the high excitation nebular lines are seen in the Weigelt blobs at most phases, the cavity, and hence the major axis of the highly elliptical orbit, must lie in the general direction of the Weigelt blobs. The evidence is compelling that the orbital major axis of Eta Carinae is projected at -45 degrees position angle on the sky. Moreover

  1. Comparative analysis of methods for modeling the penetration and plane-parallel motion of conical projectiles in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhenov, V. G.; Bragov, A. M.; Konstantinov, A. Yu.; Kotov, V. L.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the accuracy of known and new modeling methods using the hypothesis of local and plane sections for solution of problems of the impact and plane-parallel motion of conical bodies at an angle to the free surface of the half-space occupied by elastoplastic soil. The parameters of the local interaction model that is quadratic in velocity are determined by solving the one-dimensional problem of the expansion of a spherical cavity. Axisymmetric problems for each of the meridional section are solved simultaneously neglecting mass and momentum transfer in the circumferential direction and using an approach based on the hypothesis of plane sections. The dynamic and kinematic parameters of oblique penetration obtained using modified models are compared with the results of computer simulation in a three-dimensional formulation. The results obtained with regard to the contact stress distribution along the generator of the pointed cone are in satisfactory agreement.

  2. Basal-plane dislocations in bilayer graphene - Peculiarities in a quasi-2D material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    Dislocations represent one of the most fascinating and fundamental concepts in materials science. First and foremost, they are the main carriers of plastic deformation in crystalline materials. Furthermore, they can strongly alter the local electronic or optical properties of semiconductors and ionic crystals. In layered crystals like graphite dislocation movement is restricted to the basal plane. Thus, those basal-plane dislocations cannot escape enabling their confinement in between only two atomic layers of the material. So-called bilayer graphene is the thinnest imaginable quasi-2D crystal to explore the nature and behavior of dislocations under such extreme boundary conditions. Robust graphene membranes derived from epitaxial graphene on SiC provide an ideal platform for their investigation. The presentation will give an insight in the direct observation of basal-plane partial dislocations by transmission electron microscopy and their detailed investigation by diffraction contrast analysis and atomistic simulations. The investigation reveals striking size effects. First, the absence of stacking fault energy, a unique property of bilayer graphene, leads to a characteristic dislocation pattern, which corresponds to an alternating AB <--> BA change of the stacking order. Most importantly, our experiments in combination with atomistic simulations reveal a pronounced buckling of the bilayer graphene membrane, which directly results from accommodation of strain. In fact, the buckling completely changes the strain state of the bilayer graphene and is of key importance for its electronic/spin transport properties. Due to the high degree of disorder in our quasi-2D material it is one of the very few examples for a perfect linear magnetoresistance, i.e. the linear dependency of the in-plane electrical resistance on a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the graphene sheet up to field strengths of more than 60 T. This research is financed by the German Research

  3. Study of magnetic domain evolution in an auxetic plane of Galfenol using Kerr microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunath, Ganesh; Flatau, Alison B.

    2015-05-01

    Galfenol (FexGa100-x), a magnetostrictive alloy (3/2λ 110-400 ppm) of Iron and Gallium exhibits an in-plane auxetic response in the ⟨110⟩ crystallographic direction. Negative Poisson's ratios have been observed in response to application of stress fields, where values of as low as -0.7 have been reported for compositions of greater than roughly 20% Ga [Zhang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 108(2), 023513 (2010)] and in response to application of magnetic fields, where values of as low as -2.5 have been reported to be expected for compositions of less than roughly 20% Ga [G. Raghunath and A. B. Flatau, IEEE Trans. Magn. (in press)]. Several models have been proposed to understand these two distinct phenomena. Galfenol samples with less than 20% Ga also exhibit an unusual response to an increasing magnetic field applied along the ⟨110⟩ direction. The longitudinal strain which increases initially with applied field experiences a dip (until ˜10 mT) before increasing again to reach saturation. The transverse strain increases and reaches a maximum value (at the same field of ˜10 mT) and then drops from the maximum by 5%-10% as magnetic saturation is approached [G. Raghunath and A. B. Flatau, IEEE Trans. Magn. (in press)].This work deals with discussing the evolution of magnetic domains in a 16 at. % Ga single crystal Galfenol sample when subjected to magnetic fields in the ⟨110⟩ direction in the (100) plane. The magnetic domains on the surface of mechanically polished Galfenol samples were imaged using Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect microscopy. Simultaneously, the strains along the longitudinal and transverse ⟨110⟩ directions were recorded using a bi-directional strain gauge rosette mounted on the unpolished bottom surface of the planar samples. The energy from the applied magnetic field is expected to grow the ⟨110⟩ oriented domains at the expense of domains oriented along all other directions. But since the plane has an easy ⟨100⟩ axis, we expect the

  4. Minimum energy-loss guidance for aero-assisted orbital plane change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, D. G.; Giltner, J. M.; Speyer, J. L.; Mapar, J.

    1984-01-01

    Minimum energy-loss guidance for the aero-assisted plane change of an orbiting vehicle is developed and applied to the plane change of a circular orbit. First, trajectories which minimize the fuel required to change the orbital plane are computed for a realistic vehicle. From these trajectories, it is observed that the fuel weight is minimized if the velocity at exit from the atmosphere is maximized. Next, for the atmospheric turn, approximate optimal controls (angle of attack and bank angle) which maximize the exit velocity are derived. Finally, the minimum-fuel problem is resolved using optimal guidance for the atmospheric part of the trajectory, and the optimization problem reduces to a one-dimensional parameter minimization. Successful plane changes up to 40 deg are demonstrated. Optimal guidance requires up to 14 percent more fuel than the 'true' optimum but only 50 percent of the fuel required by the single-impulse maneuver. Finally, the guidance law developed here is implementable because only algebraic manipulations are required.

  5. An approach for studying the longitudinal interaction of an underexpanded gas jet with a plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipnitskii, Iu. M.; Rodionov, A. V.

    1983-01-01

    Consideration is given to the flow of an axisymmetric jet of an ideal gas with a constant adiabatic exponent onto a plane plate in vacuum oriented parallel to the jet axis. Here, the xy plane of the xyz Cartesian coordinate system is the plane of the plate; the x axis lies in the symmetry plane and is directed along the flow direction of the jet, and the z axis passes through the center of the end of the nozzle. The governing parameters of the problem are the distance from the jet axis to the plate, the adiabatic exponent of the gas, the Mach number at the edge of the nozzle, and the half-angle of the conical nozzle. A simplified numerical solution of the problem is carried out. In the initial cross section, the flow parameters of the unperturbed jet are adopted as initial values (the flow parameters at points on the surface of the plate being found from the relations at the oblique shock). The initial cross section is selected as close as possible to the exit section of the nozzle on the condition that the flow remain supersonic after the turn. The calculations are performed by means of the MacCormack method (Kutler et al., 1973) with a smoothing step introduced to reduce the oscillations in the solution near strong discontinuities.

  6. The primal sagittal plane of the head: a new concept.

    PubMed

    Gateno, J; Jajoo, A; Nicol, M; Xia, J J

    2016-03-01

    To assess facial form, one has to determine the size, position, orientation, shape, and symmetry of the different facial units. Many of these assessments require a frame of reference. The customary coordinate system used for these assessments is the 'standard anatomical frame of reference', a three-dimensional Cartesian system made by three planes: the sagittal, the axial, and the coronal. Constructing the sagittal plane seems simple, but because of universal facial asymmetry, it is complicated. Depending on the method one selects, one can build hundreds of different planes, never knowing which one is correct. This conundrum can be solved by estimating the sagittal plane a patient would have had if his or her face had developed symmetrically. We call this the 'primal sagittal plane'. To estimate this plane we have developed a mathematical algorithm called LAGER (Landmark Geometric Routine). In this paper, we explain the concept of the primal sagittal plane and present the structure of the LAGER algorithm.

  7. Unsteady granular flows down an inclined plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parez, Stanislav; Aharonov, Einat; Toussaint, Renaud

    2016-04-01

    The continuum description of granular flows is still a challenge despite their importance in many geophysical and industrial applications. We extend previous works, which have explored steady flow properties, by focusing on unsteady flows accelerating or decelerating down an inclined plane in the simple shear configuration. We solve the flow kinematics analytically, including predictions of evolving velocity and stress profiles and the duration of the transient stage. The solution shows why and how granular materials reach steady flow on slopes steeper than the angle of repose and how they decelerate on shallower slopes. The model might facilitate development of natural hazard assessment and may be modified in the future to explore unsteady granular flows in different configurations.

  8. Magnetic measurements with atomic-plane resolution.

    PubMed

    Rusz, Ján; Muto, Shunsuke; Spiegelberg, Jakob; Adam, Roman; Tatsumi, Kazuyoshi; Bürgler, Daniel E; Oppeneer, Peter M; Schneider, Claus M

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of magnetic nanotechnologies calls for experimental techniques capable of providing magnetic information with subnanometre spatial resolution. Available probes of magnetism either detect only surface properties, such as spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy, magnetic force microscopy or spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy, or they are bulk probes with limited spatial resolution or quantitativeness, such as X-ray magnetic circular dichroism or classical electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD). Atomic resolution EMCD methods have been proposed, although not yet experimentally realized. Here, we demonstrate an EMCD technique with an atomic size electron probe utilizing a probe-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope in its standard operation mode. The crucial element of the method is a ramp in the phase of the electron beam wavefunction, introduced by a controlled beam displacement. We detect EMCD signals with atomic-plane resolution, thereby bringing near-atomic resolution magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy to hundreds of laboratories worldwide. PMID:27578421

  9. Optics in a nonlinear gravitational plane wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harte, Abraham I.

    2015-09-01

    Gravitational waves can act like gravitational lenses, affecting the observed positions, brightnesses, and redshifts of distant objects. Exact expressions for such effects are derived here in general relativity, allowing for arbitrarily-moving sources and observers in the presence of plane-symmetric gravitational waves. At least for freely falling sources and observers, it is shown that the commonly-used predictions of linear perturbation theory can be generically overshadowed by nonlinear effects; even for very weak gravitational waves, higher-order perturbative corrections involve secularly-growing terms which cannot necessarily be neglected when considering observations of sufficiently distant sources. Even on more moderate scales where linear effects remain at least marginally dominant, nonlinear corrections are qualitatively different from their linear counterparts. There is a sense in which they can, for example, mimic the existence of a third type of gravitational wave polarization.

  10. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    DOEpatents

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  11. Measurements of turbulent inclined plane dual jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. S.; Lin, Y. F.; Sheu, M. J.

    1993-11-01

    Measurements of mean velocities, flow direction, velocity fluctuations and Reynolds shear stress were made with a split film probe of hot wire anemometer to investigate the interactions created by two air jets issuing from two identical plane inclined nozzles. The reverse flow was detected by using the split film probe and observed by flow visualization. Experimental results with an inclined angle of 9° are presented in the paper. Some experimental results with an inclined angle of 27° are presented to investigate the effect of inclination on the flow field. Mean velocities approach self-preservation in both the converging region and the combining region. Velocity fluctuations and Reynolds shear stress approach self-preservation in the combining region only. The spreads of jet and the square of the decay of maximum mean velocity increase linearly as the distance from the nozzle exit increases.

  12. Crisis bifurcations in plane Poiseuille flow.

    PubMed

    Zammert, Stefan; Eckhardt, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Many shear flows follow a route to turbulence that has striking similarities to bifurcation scenarios in low-dimensional dynamical systems. Among the bifurcations that appear, crisis bifurcations are important because they cause global transitions between open and closed attractors, or indicate drastic increases in the range of the state space that is covered by the dynamics. We here study exterior and interior crisis bifurcations in direct numerical simulations of transitional plane Poiseuille flow in a mirror-symmetric subspace. We trace the state space dynamics from the appearance of the first three-dimensional exact coherent structures to the transition from an attractor to a chaotic saddle in an exterior crisis. For intermediate Reynolds numbers, the attractor undergoes several interior crises, in which new states appear and intermittent behavior can be observed. The bifurcations contribute to increasing the complexity of the dynamics and to a more dense coverage of state space.

  13. Magnetic measurements with atomic-plane resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusz, Ján; Muto, Shunsuke; Spiegelberg, Jakob; Adam, Roman; Tatsumi, Kazuyoshi; Bürgler, Daniel E.; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Schneider, Claus M.

    2016-08-01

    Rapid development of magnetic nanotechnologies calls for experimental techniques capable of providing magnetic information with subnanometre spatial resolution. Available probes of magnetism either detect only surface properties, such as spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy, magnetic force microscopy or spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy, or they are bulk probes with limited spatial resolution or quantitativeness, such as X-ray magnetic circular dichroism or classical electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD). Atomic resolution EMCD methods have been proposed, although not yet experimentally realized. Here, we demonstrate an EMCD technique with an atomic size electron probe utilizing a probe-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope in its standard operation mode. The crucial element of the method is a ramp in the phase of the electron beam wavefunction, introduced by a controlled beam displacement. We detect EMCD signals with atomic-plane resolution, thereby bringing near-atomic resolution magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy to hundreds of laboratories worldwide.

  14. Polarization of almost-plane waves.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, C J

    2000-02-01

    The general polarization behavior of almost-plane waves, in which the electric field varies slowly over a circular pupil, is considered, on the basis of an axial Hertz potential treatment and expansion in Zernike polynomials. The resultant modes of a circular aperture are compared with the well-known waveguide (or optical fiber) modes and Gaussian beam modes. The wave can be decomposed into partial waves of electric and magnetic types. The modes for a square pupil are also considered. The particular application of the effect on polarization of focusing the waves is discussed. Another application discussed is the Fresnel reflection from a dielectric interface, it being shown that the Fresnel reflection alters the relative strength of the electric and magnetic components.

  15. Unsteady granular flows down an inclined plane.

    PubMed

    Parez, Stanislav; Aharonov, Einat; Toussaint, Renaud

    2016-04-01

    The continuum description of granular flows is still a challenge despite their importance in many geophysical and industrial applications. We extend previous works, which have explored steady flow properties, by focusing on unsteady flows accelerating or decelerating down an inclined plane in the simple shear configuration. We solve the flow kinematics analytically, including predictions of evolving velocity and stress profiles and the duration of the transient stage. The solution shows why and how granular materials reach steady flow on slopes steeper than the angle of repose and how they decelerate on shallower slopes. The model might facilitate development of natural hazard assessment and may be modified in the future to explore unsteady granular flows in different configurations. PMID:27176375

  16. Plane mixing layer vortical structure kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leboeuf, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the current project was to experimentally investigate the structure and dynamics of the streamwise vorticity in a plane mixing layer. The first part of this research program was intended to clarify whether the observed decrease in mean streamwise vorticity in the far-field of mixing layers is due primarily to the 'smearing' caused by vortex meander or to diffusion. Two-point velocity correlation measurements have been used to show that there is little spanwise meander of the large-scale streamwise vortical structure. The correlation measurements also indicate a large degree of transverse meander of the streamwise vorticity which is not surprising since the streamwise vorticity exists in the inclined braid region between the spanwise vortex core regions. The streamwise convection of the braid region thereby introduces an apparent transverse meander into measurements using stationary probes. These results corroborated with estimated secondary velocity profiles in which the streamwise vorticity produces a signature which was tracked in time.

  17. Hypersonic characteristics of an advanced aerospace plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccandless, R. S.; Cruz, C. I.

    1985-01-01

    A series of hypersonic wind-tunnel tests have been conducted in the NASA Langley Hypersonic Facilities Complex to obtain the static longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced aerospace plane. Data were obtained at 0 to 20 deg angles of attack and -3 to 3 deg angles of sideslip at Mach numbers of 6 and 10 in air and 20 in helium. Results show that stable trim capability exists at angles of attack near maximum lift-drag ratio (L/D). Both performance and stability exhibited some Mach number dependency. The vehicle was longitudinally unstable at low angles of attack but stable at angles of attack near and above maximum L/D. It was directionally unstable with positive dihedral effect. The rudder showed an inability to provide lateral-directional control, and removing the vertical tail resulted in increased directional instability. Analytical predictions of the static longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients gave relatively good comparisons with the experimental data.

  18. Magnetic measurements with atomic-plane resolution

    PubMed Central

    Rusz, Ján; Muto, Shunsuke; Spiegelberg, Jakob; Adam, Roman; Tatsumi, Kazuyoshi; Bürgler, Daniel E.; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Schneider, Claus M.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of magnetic nanotechnologies calls for experimental techniques capable of providing magnetic information with subnanometre spatial resolution. Available probes of magnetism either detect only surface properties, such as spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy, magnetic force microscopy or spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy, or they are bulk probes with limited spatial resolution or quantitativeness, such as X-ray magnetic circular dichroism or classical electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD). Atomic resolution EMCD methods have been proposed, although not yet experimentally realized. Here, we demonstrate an EMCD technique with an atomic size electron probe utilizing a probe-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope in its standard operation mode. The crucial element of the method is a ramp in the phase of the electron beam wavefunction, introduced by a controlled beam displacement. We detect EMCD signals with atomic-plane resolution, thereby bringing near-atomic resolution magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy to hundreds of laboratories worldwide. PMID:27578421

  19. Unsteady granular flows down an inclined plane.

    PubMed

    Parez, Stanislav; Aharonov, Einat; Toussaint, Renaud

    2016-04-01

    The continuum description of granular flows is still a challenge despite their importance in many geophysical and industrial applications. We extend previous works, which have explored steady flow properties, by focusing on unsteady flows accelerating or decelerating down an inclined plane in the simple shear configuration. We solve the flow kinematics analytically, including predictions of evolving velocity and stress profiles and the duration of the transient stage. The solution shows why and how granular materials reach steady flow on slopes steeper than the angle of repose and how they decelerate on shallower slopes. The model might facilitate development of natural hazard assessment and may be modified in the future to explore unsteady granular flows in different configurations.

  20. Hubble Views Saturn Ring-Plane Crossing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This sequence of images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope documents a rare astronomical alignment -- Saturn's magnificent ring system turned edge-on. This occurs when the Earth passes through Saturn's ring plane, as it does approximately every 15 years.

    These pictures were taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on 22 May 1995, when Saturn was at a distance of 919 million miles (1.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. At Saturn, Hubble can see details as small as 450 miles (725 km) across. In each image, the dark band across Saturn is the ring shadow cast by the Sun which is still 2.7 degrees above Saturn's ring plane. The box around the western portion of the rings (to the right of Saturn) in each image indicates the area in which the faint light from the rings has been multiplied through image processing (by a factor of 25) to make the rings more visible.

    [Top] -

    This image was taken while the Earth was above the lit face of the rings. The moons Tethys and Dione are visible to the east (left) of Saturn; Janus is the bright spot near the center of the ring portion in the box, and Pandora is faintly visible just inside the left edge of this box. Saturn's atmosphere shows remarkable detail: multiple banding in both the northern and southern hemispheres, wispy structure at the north edge of the equatorial zone, and a bright area above the ring shadow that is caused by sunlight scattered off the rings onto the atmosphere. There is evidence of a faint polar haze over the north pole of Saturn and a fainter haze over the south.

    [Center] -

    This image was taken close to the time of ring-plane crossing. The rings are 75% fainter than in the top image, though they do not disappear completely because the vertical face of the rings still reflects sunlight when the rings are edge-on. Rhea is visible to the east of Saturn, Enceladus is the bright satellite in the rings to the west, and Janus is the fainter blip to its right. Pandora is just to the left of