Iterative diagonalization in augmented plane wave based methods in electronic structure calculations
Blaha, P.; Laskowski, R.; Schwarz, K.
2010-01-20
Due to the increased computer power and advanced algorithms, quantum mechanical calculations based on Density Functional Theory are more and more widely used to solve real materials science problems. In this context large nonlinear generalized eigenvalue problems must be solved repeatedly to calculate the electronic ground state of a solid or molecule. Due to the nonlinear nature of this problem, an iterative solution of the eigenvalue problem can be more efficient provided it does not disturb the convergence of the self-consistent-field problem. The blocked Davidson method is one of the widely used and efficient schemes for that purpose, but its performance depends critically on the preconditioning, i.e. the procedure to improve the search space for an accurate solution. For more diagonally dominated problems, which appear typically for plane wave based pseudopotential calculations, the inverse of the diagonal of (H - ES) is used. However, for the more efficient 'augmented plane wave + local-orbitals' basis set this preconditioning is not sufficient due to large off-diagonal terms caused by the local orbitals. We propose a new preconditioner based on the inverse of (H - {lambda}S) and demonstrate its efficiency for real applications using both, a sequential and a parallel implementation of this algorithm into our WIEN2k code.
The Riccati transfer matrix method. [for computerized structural analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horner, G. C.; Pilkey, W. D.
1977-01-01
The Riccati transfer matrix method is a new technique for analyzing structural members. This new technique makes use of an existing large catalog of transfer matrices for various structural members such as rotating shafts. The numerical instability encountered when calculating high resonant frequencies, static response of a flexible member on a stiff foundation, or the response of a long member by the transfer matrix method is eliminated by the Riccati transfer matrix method. The computational time and storage requirements of the Riccati transfer matrix method are about half the values for the transfer matrix method. A rotating shaft analysis demonstrates the numerical accuracy of the method.
Modified transfer matrix method for asymmetric rotor-bearing systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Yuan; Lee, An-Chen; Shih, Yuan-Pin
1994-07-01
A modified transfer matrix method (MTMM) is developed to analyze rotor-bearing systems with an asymmetric shaft and asymmetric disks. The rotating shaft is modeled by a Rayleigh-Euler beam considering the effects of the rotary inertia and gyroscopic moments. Specifically, a transfer matrix of the asymmetric shaft segments is derived in a continuous-system sense to give accurate solutions. The harmonic balance method is incorporated in the transfer matrix equations, so that steady-state responses of synchronous and superharmonic whirls can be determined. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.
Transfer-matrix methods and results for directed percolation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben-Avraham, D.; Bidaux, R.; Schulman, L. S.
1991-06-01
For directed percolation, the second nontrivial eigenvalue of the transfer matrix is shown to have its maximum at pc. Using this, we obtain for (1+1)-dimensional directed site percolation pc=0.706 522+/-0.000 005, which agrees within 10-3 with other results, but is nevertheless significantly (in terms of quoted uncertainties) different from them. We also relate other quantities to the transfer-matrix spectrum and eigenfunctions.
Transfer matrix method for multibody systems for piezoelectric stack actuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Wei; Chen, Gangli; Bian, Leixiang; Rui, Xiaoting
2014-09-01
In order to achieve a large displacement output from a piezoelectric actuator, we realized the piezoelectric stack actuator (PSA) by mechanically layering/stacking multi-chip piezoelectric wafers in a series and electrically connecting the electrodes in parallel. In this paper, in order to accurately model the hysteresis and the dynamic characteristics of a PSA, the transfer matrix method for multibody systems (MSTMM) was adopted to describe the dynamic characteristics, and the Bouc-Wen hysteresis operator was used to represent the hysteresis. The vibration characteristics of a PSA and a piezo-actuated positioning mechanism (PPM) are derived and analyzed by the MSTMM; then, the dynamic responses of the PSA and the PPM are calculated. The experimental results show that the new method can accurately portray the hysteresis and the dynamic characteristics of a PSA and a PPM. On one hand, if we use this method to model the dynamic response of the PSA and the PPM, the PSA can be considered as a flexible body, as opposed to a mass-spring-damper system, which is in better agreement with the actual condition. On the other hand, the global dynamics equation is not needed for the study of system dynamics, and the dynamics equation has a small-sized matrix and a higher computational speed. Therefore, this method gives a broad range of possibilities for model-based controller design.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Tianyun; Zhao, Chongbin; Duan, Yunling
2012-08-01
This paper presents a systematic and efficient method, namely the generalized transfer matrix method, for evaluating the dispersion curves and eigenfunctions of surface waves in multilayered azimuthally anisotropic half-space. Apart from avoiding the well-known numerical difficulties associated with the existing Thomson-Haskell method, the generalized transfer matrix method possesses the robust determination of independent polarization vectors by using the singular value decomposition (SVD) approach, the explicit inversion of the 6 × 6 eigencolumn matrix without any resort to numerical inversion and the efficient computation of eigenfunctions for layered azimuthally anisotropic media. By means of straightforward transformations, the generalized transfer matrix method leads to a twofold recursive algorithm: (1) for the recursive computation of phase velocities it starts from the bottom half-space to the top layer and (2) for the recursive solution of eigenfunctions it starts from the top layer to the bottom half-space. While keeping the simplicity of the Thomson-Haskell transfer matrix method, the generalized transfer matrix method is of unconditional stability and computational efficiency. The related numerical examples demonstrate that the generalized transfer matrix method is a powerful and robust tool for simulating the propagation of elastic surface waves in the layered azimuthally anisotropic half-space.
Vibration analysis of pipelines with arbitrary branches by absorbing transfer matrix method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Gongmin; Li, Shuaijun; Li, Yanhua; Chen, Hao
2013-11-01
Branched pipes of arbitrary shapes are prevalent in pipe systems. Considering fluid-structure interaction (FSI), an absorbing transfer matrix method in frequency domain for fluid-filled pipelines with any branched pipes is proposed in this paper. A dominant chain of pipeline would be selected, and the point transfer matrix of each junction on the dominant chain would be determined. Here, the point transfer matrix, representing the influence of branched pipes at the junction on the dominant pipeline, was "absorbed" by the dominant chain. Based on these, with transfer matrixes of other elements, the fluid and structure dynamics problem could be solved following the chain transfer matrix method process. Several numerical examples with different constraints are presented to illustrate the application of the proposed method. Moreover, the experiment of cross-shaped pipes with various boundary conditions was carried out. And results from the present approach were validated by measured and numerical data. Then, the forced vibrations of branched pipes were analyzed by considering the effects of various parameters, which shows the fluid pressure and vibrations can be optimized by changing the branch angles and positions. Through these examples, it is shown that the proposed method is efficient and can be used to calculate branched pipes of any shape.
A Synthetic Approach to the Transfer Matrix Method in Classical and Quantum Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pujol, O.; Perez, J. P.
2007-01-01
The aim of this paper is to propose a synthetic approach to the transfer matrix method in classical and quantum physics. This method is an efficient tool to deal with complicated physical systems of practical importance in geometrical light or charged particle optics, classical electronics, mechanics, electromagnetics and quantum physics. Teaching…
Free vibration characteristics of multiple load path blades by the transfer matrix method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murthy, V. R.; Joshi, Arun M.
1986-01-01
The determination of free vibrational characteristics is basic to any dynamic design, and these characteristics can form the basis for aeroelastic stability analyses. Conventional helicopter blades are typically idealized as single-load-path blades, and the transfer matrix method is well suited to analyze such blades. Several current helicopter dynamic programs employ transfer matrices to analyze the rotor blades. In this paper, however, the transfer matrix method is extended to treat multiple-load-path blades, without resorting to an equivalent single-load-path approximation. With such an extension, these current rotor dynamic programs which employ the transfer matrix method can be modified with relative ease to account for the multiple load paths. Unlike the conventional blades, the multiple-load-path blades require the introduction of the axial degree-of-freedom into the solution process to account for the differential axial displacements of the different load paths. The transfer matrix formulation is validated through comparison with the finite-element solutions.
A synthetic approach to the transfer matrix method in classical and quantum physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pujol, O.; Pérez, J. P.
2007-07-01
The aim of this paper is to propose a synthetic approach to the transfer matrix method in classical and quantum physics. This method is an efficient tool to deal with complicated physical systems of practical importance in geometrical light or charged particle optics, classical electronics, mechanics, electromagnetics and quantum physics. Teaching would benefit by using the abcd-matrix which in addition is easy to implement on a personal computer.
Modeling of wave propagation in drill strings using vibration transfer matrix methods.
Han, Je-Heon; Kim, Yong-Joe; Karkoub, Mansour
2013-09-01
In order to understand critical vibration of a drill bit such as stick-slip and bit-bounce and their wave propagation characteristics through a drill string system, it is critical to model the torsional, longitudinal, and flexural waves generated by the drill bit vibration. Here, a modeling method based on a vibration transfer matrix between two sets of structural wave variables at the ends of a constant cross-sectional, hollow, circular pipe is proposed. For a drill string system with multiple pipe sections, the total vibration transfer matrix is calculated by multiplying all individual matrices, each is obtained for an individual pipe section. Since drill string systems are typically extremely long, conventional numerical analysis methods such as a finite element method (FEM) require a large number of meshes, which makes it computationally inefficient to analyze these drill string systems numerically. The proposed "analytical" vibration transfer matrix method requires significantly low computational resources. For the validation of the proposed method, experimental and numerical data are obtained from laboratory experiments and FEM analyses conducted by using a commercial FEM package, ANSYS. It is shown that the modeling results obtained by using the proposed method are well matched with the experimental and numerical results. PMID:23967925
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamal, Ayman; Giurgiutiu, Victor
2014-03-01
This paper discusses combined transfer matrix method (TMM) with stiffness matrix method (SMM) for obtaining a stable solution for dispersion curves of Lamb wave propagation in non-isotropic layers. TMM developed by Thomson and Haskell experiences numerical deficiency at high frequency thickness simulations. SMM was proposed by different researchers to solve the instability issue of TMM. This study shows that stable SMM is good at high frequencies, and TMM needs to be combined with SMM to obtain stable and robust behavior over the frequency range. Numerical simulations of dispersion curves are presented for wave propagation in orthotropic unidirectional fiber composites and cross ply composites. The paper ends with conclusions and future work.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diwaker; Chakraborty, Aniruddha
2015-12-01
In the present work we have reported a simple exact analytical solution to the curve crossing problem of two linear diabatic potentials by transfer matrix method. Our problem assumes the crossing of two linear diabatic potentials which are coupled to each other by an arbitrary coupling (in contrast to linear potentials in the vicinity of crossing points) and for numerical calculation purposes this arbitrary coupling is taken as Gaussian coupling which is further expressed as a collection of Dirac delta functions. Further we calculated the transition probability from one diabatic potential to another by the use of this method.
Percolation conductivity of Penrose tiling by the transfer-matrix Monte Carlo method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babalievski, Filip V.
1992-03-01
A generalization of the Derrida and Vannimenus transfer-matrix Monte Carlo method has been applied to calculations of the percolation conductivity in a Penrose tiling. Strips with a length~10 4 and widths from 3 to 19 have been used. Disregarding the differences for smaller strip widths (up to 7), the results show that the percolative conductivity of a Penrose tiling has a value very close to that of a square lattice. The estimate for the percolation transport exponent once more confirms the universality conjecture for the 0-1 distribution of resistors.
Optimization on microlattice materials for sound absorption by an integrated transfer matrix method.
Cai, Xiaobing; Yang, Jun; Hu, Gengkai
2015-04-01
Materials with well-defined microlattice structures are superlight, stable, and thus bear great potential in sound absorption. An integrated transfer matrix method (TMM) is proposed to evaluate the sound absorbing efficiency of these lattice materials, in which a massive number of micropores are densely placed. A comparison between integrated TMM and conventional TMM reveals that the proposed approach offers better predictions on sound absorption of microlattice. This approach is then employed to optimize the microlattice material to determine the best pore and porosity that lead to maximum absorbing efficiency capability and minimum required thickness to attain a target sound absorption. PMID:25920886
Transfer matrix method-based approach to study the bi-gyrotropic magnetic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamani, Mehdi; Hajesmaeili, Hamidreza Nezhad; Zandi, Mohammad Hossein
2016-08-01
Optical and magneto-optical (MO) responses in magnetic multilayer systems are calculated by transfer matrix method (TMM). In a bi-gyrotropic medium, electric permittivity (ε) and magnetic permeability (μ) coefficients are in the form of non-diagonal tensors, synchronously, which their non-diagonal elements refer to the existence of anisotropy in such medium. In the present study, in addition to present a TMM based-approach for bi-gyrotropic medium, numerical simulations for studying the amount of optical and MO parameters of the bi-gyrotropic Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) material, in both transmission and reflection configurations, have been done.
A dynamic model of mobile concrete pump boom based on discrete time transfer matrix method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Wu; Wu, Yunxin; Zhang, Zhaowei
2013-12-01
Mobile concrete pump boom is typical multibody large-scale motion manipulator. Due to posture constantly change in working process, kinematic rule and dynamic characteristic are difficult to solve. A dynamics model of a mobile concrete pump boom is established based on discrete time transfer matrix method (DTTMM). The boom system is divided into sub-structure A and substructure B. Sub-structure A is composed by the 1st boom and hydraulic actuator as well as the support. And substructure B is consists of the other three booms and corresponding hydraulic actuators. In the model, the booms and links are regarded as rigid elements and the hydraulic cylinders are equivalent to spring-damper. The booms are driven by the controllable hydraulic actuators. The overall dynamic equation and transfer matrix of the model can be assembled by sub-structures A and B. To get a precise result, step size and integration parameters are studied then. Next the tip displacement is calculated and compared with the result of ADAMS software. The displacement and rotation angle curves of the proposed method fit well with the ADAMS model. Besides it is convenient in modeling and saves time. So it is suitable for mobile concrete pump boom real-time monitoring and dynamic analysis. All of these provide reference to boom optimize and engineering application of such mechanisms.
A revised version of the transfer matrix method to analyze one-dimensional structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nitzsche, F.
1983-01-01
A new and general method to analyze both free and forced vibration characteristics of one-dimensional structures is discussed in this paper. This scheme links for the first time the classical transfer matrix method with the recently developed integrating matrix technique to integrate systems of differential equations. Two alternative approaches to the problem are presented. The first is based upon the lumped parameter model to account for the inertia properties of the structure. The second releases that constraint allowing a more precise description of the physical system. The free vibration of a straight uniform beam under different support conditions is analyzed to test the accuracy of the two models. Finally some results for the free vibration of a 12th order system representing a curved, rotating beam prove that the present method is conveniently extended to more complicated structural dynamics problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jun, Oh-Sung; Kim, Paul Y.
1994-02-01
The influence coefficients for undamped flexible rotors are analytically derived and then compared and discussed for various damping coefficients. The concept of the transfer matrix method is partially adapted in the formulation. Single-disk and single cylinder rotor models are used for one- and two-plane balancing models, respectively. The gyroscopic effect of the disk or cylinder, which has been included in the formulation, is proved important through a simplified example rotor model. Taking the gyroscopic effect into account when calculating the influence coefficient is especially important near the resonant and antiresonant frequencies of the rotor. The simplified model also shows that an increase in damping reduces the sharpness of magnitude curve of influence coefficients and smoothens the change of phase at around the resonant and antiresonant frequencies.
Autocorrelations from the transfer-matrix density-matrix renormalization-group method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naef, F.; Wang, X.; Zotos, X.; von der Linden, W.
1999-07-01
Extending the transfer-matrix density-matrix renormalization-group algorithm, we are able to calculate imaginary time spin autocorrelations with high accuracy (absolute error <10-6) over a wide temperature range (0<βJ<20). After analytic continuation using the rules of probability theory along with the entropic prior (MaxEnt), we obtain real frequency spectra for the XY model, the isotropic Heisenberg, and the gapped Heisenberg-Ising model. Available exact results in some limits allow for a critical evaluation of the quality of answers expected from this procedure. We find that high-precision data are still insufficient for resolving specific line shapes such as low-frequency divergences. However, the method is appropriate for identifying low-temperature gaps and peak positions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbas, Laith K.; Zhou, Qinbo; Hendy, Hossam; Rui, Xiaoting
2015-08-01
The analysis of natural vibration characteristics has become one of important steps of the manufacture and dynamic design in the aerospace industry. This paper presents a new scenario called virtual cutting in the context of the transfer matrix method of linear multibody systems closed-loop topology for computing the free vibration characteristics of elastically coupled flexible launch vehicle boosters. In this approach, the coupled system is idealized as a triple-beam system-like structure coupled by linear translational springs, where a non-uniform free-free Euler-Bernoulli beam is used. A large thrust-to-weight ratio leads to large axial accelerations that result in an axial inertia load distribution from nose to tail. Consequently, it causes the development of significant compressive forces along the length of the launch vehicle. Therefore, it is important to take into account this effect in the transverse vibration model. This scenario does not need the global dynamics equations of a system, and it has high computational efficiency and low memory requirements. The validity of the presented scenario is achieved through comparison to other approaches published in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rousselet, Benoit; Gibiat, Vincent; Guilain, Stéphane; Lefebvre, Alain
2014-12-01
A new method for measuring acoustic transfer matrixes with flow has been developed. It is based on two-load technique. Great improvements were obtained on specific calibration of the connections. We present here the calibration principles and validation. Measurements of basic resonating systems, first without flow then with flow up to Mach 0.2 clearly validated the accuracy of the technique, even under extreme flow conditions. This technique was developed to allow the determination of the acoustic behavior of an automotive engine intake line, comprising a compressor. Measurements of the transfer matrix of an automotive compressor are presented without flow then under realistic engine conditions. The results obtained are compared to those of a basic acoustic model of the compressor.
Plane wave based selfconsistent solution of the GW Dyson equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lin-Wang; Cao, Huawei
We have developed a selfconsistent procedure to calculate the full Dyson equation based on plane wave basis set. The whole formalism is based on the Greens function matrix of the plane wave G-vector. There is no truncation of the conduction band when the dielectric function is calculated. The Dyson equation is the variational minimum solution of the total energy in terms of the Greens function. The calculation uses the ''space-time'' method, with special algorithm for imaginary time integration and Fourier transformation. We have tested isolated molecules and periodic systems. The effects of selfconsistency compared to the G0W0 results will be presented. We will also discuss some special techniques used in the k-point summation for the periodic system. Massive parallelization is used to carry out such calculations. This work is supported by the Director, SC/BES/MSED of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, through the Material Theory program at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Quantum propagation and confinement in 1D systems using the transfer-matrix method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pujol, Olivier; Carles, Robert; Pérez, José-Philippe
2014-05-01
The aim of this article is to provide some Matlab scripts to the teaching community in quantum physics. The scripts are based on the transfer-matrix formalism and offer a very efficient and versatile tool to solve problems of a physical object (electron, proton, neutron, etc) with one-dimensional (1D) stationary potential energy. Resonant tunnelling through a multiple-barrier or confinement in wells of various shapes is particularly analysed. The results are quantitatively discussed with semiconductor heterostructures, harmonic and anharmonic molecular vibrations, or neutrons in a gravity field. Scripts and other examples (hydrogen-like ions and transmission by a smooth variation of potential energy) are available freely at http://www-loa.univ-lille1.fr/˜pujol in three languages: English, French and Spanish.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gray, Carl E., Jr.
1988-01-01
Using the Newtonian method, the equations of motion are developed for the coupled bending-torsion steady-state response of beams rotating at constant angular velocity in a fixed plane. The resulting equations are valid to first order strain-displacement relationships for a long beam with all other nonlinear terms retained. In addition, the equations are valid for beams with the mass centroidal axis offset (eccentric) from the elastic axis, nonuniform mass and section properties, and variable twist. The solution of these coupled, nonlinear, nonhomogeneous, differential equations is obtained by modifying a Hunter linear second-order transfer-matrix solution procedure to solve the nonlinear differential equations and programming the solution for a desk-top personal computer. The modified transfer-matrix method was verified by comparing the solution for a rotating beam with a geometric, nonlinear, finite-element computer code solution; and for a simple rotating beam problem, the modified method demonstrated a significant advantage over the finite-element solution in accuracy, ease of solution, and actual computer processing time required to effect a solution.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shen, Ji-Yao; Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.
1994-01-01
It is beneficial to use a distributed parameter model for large space structures because the approach minimizes the number of model parameters. Holzer's transfer matrix method provides a useful means to simplify and standardize the procedure for solving the system of partial differential equations. Any large space structures can be broken down into sub-structures with simple elastic and dynamical properties. For each single element, such as beam, tether, or rigid body, we can derive the corresponding transfer matrix. Combining these elements' matrices enables the solution of the global system equations. The characteristics equation can then be formed by satisfying the appropriate boundary conditions. Then natural frequencies and mode shapes can be determined by searching the roots of the characteristic equation at frequencies within the range of interest. This paper applies this methodology, and the maximum likelihood estimation method, to refine the modal characteristics of the NASA Mini-Mast Truss by successively matching the theoretical response to the test data of the truss. The method is being applied to more complex configurations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemieux, M.-A.; Tremblay, A.-M. S.
1987-07-01
It is shown that various numerical methods to compute densities of states, projected densities of states (relevant for light scattering spectra), electrical or elastic properties of disordered media can all be considered as special cases of a general approach to these problems. This approach is based on a recursive evaluation of a generating function which in appropriate limits reduces, for example, to the approach based on the negative-eigenvalue theorem or to Gaussian elimination optimized for symmetric sparse matrices. The approach is simple and systematic. It also leads to an alternate proof of the negative-eigenvalue theorem. The general formalism and various special cases are discussed in detail. Comparisons with other methods such as the transfer-matrix, conjugate-gradient, and Haydock-Lanczos methods are provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Xiuhui; Deng, Zichen; Yin, Guansheng
2014-12-01
The thermal properties for the multi-re-entrant honeycomb are investigated, where the hexagon and re-entrant topologies are applied for comparison. A compact model was adopted for the local heat transfer rate and pressure drop estimations while the total heat transfer rate was analyzed using the transfer matrix method. A thermal performance index was specified to characterize a good heat exchange medium that can transfer more heat at the expense of lower pressure loss. Numerical results reveal better thermal performances of multi-re-entrant honeycombs over hexagon and re-entrant topologies, attributed to the presence of added base walls. Auxetic effect introduced in multi-re-entrant honeycomb generally provides enhanced out-of-plane thermal conductivity and increased total heat transfer efficiency due to higher surface area density.
Gurin, Péter; Varga, Szabolcs
2015-06-14
We extend the transfer matrix method of one-dimensional hard core fluids placed between confining walls for that case where the particles can pass each other and at most two layers can form. We derive an eigenvalue equation for a quasi-one-dimensional system of hard squares confined between two parallel walls, where the pore width is between σ and 3σ (σ is the side length of the square). The exact equation of state and the nearest neighbor distribution functions show three different structures: a fluid phase with one layer, a fluid phase with two layers, and a solid-like structure where the fluid layers are strongly correlated. The structural transition between differently ordered fluids develops continuously with increasing density, i.e., no thermodynamic phase transition occurs. The high density structure of the system consists of clusters with two layers which are broken with particles staying in the middle of the pore.
The three-measurement two-calibration method for measuring the transfer matrix.
Rodriguez, S; Gibiat, V; Lefebvre, A; Guilain, Stephane
2011-05-01
Extensive use of transfer matrices (TMs) is made in determining the acoustic properties of a duct and in in-duct acoustic propagation models in the automotive industry and for musical acoustics purposes. The experimental apparatuses of classical TM measurement methods feature two measurement heads. Two microphones are flush with the walls of each head. The pressure signals are processed following the transfer function method constructed on an analytical model of acoustic propagation in measurement heads. The present paper aims at presenting a measurement method based on a three-microphone experimental apparatus and on its acoustic calibration through two reference measurements: the three-measurement two-calibration method for measuring the TM (3M2C-TM). Two microphones are flush with the measurement head walls and one is in the cap closing one side of the measured duct. 3M2C-TM proved essential for an accurate measurement of the four TM elements of two different ducts: a cylindrical duct and an expansion chamber. PMID:21568409
Anzaldo-Meneses, A.; Pereyra, P. . E-mail: ppereyra@correo.azc.uam.mx
2007-09-15
Based on the Sylvester and Frobenius theorems, we drastically enhance the feasibility of the transfer-matrix approach to deal with problems involving a large number of propagating and interfering modes, which require the solution of coupled differential equations and the evaluation of functions of matrix variables. We report closed formulas for the spectral decomposition of this type of functions. As specific example, besides the calculation of simple and well-known 1D one channel transfer matrices, we derive the multi-channel transfer matrix for an electron gas in the presence of a transverse electric field.
Suhendi, Endi; Syariati, Rifki; Noor, Fatimah A.; Khairurrijal; Kurniasih, Neny
2014-03-24
We modeled a tunneling current in a p-n junction based on armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) by using an Airy function approach (AFA) and a transfer matrix method (TMM). We used β-type AGNRs, in which its band gap energy and electron effective mass depends on its width as given by the extended Huckel theory. It was shown that the tunneling currents evaluated by employing the AFA are the same as those obtained under the TMM. Moreover, the calculated tunneling current was proportional to the voltage bias and inversely with temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pingbo, An; Li, Wang; Hongxi, Lu; Zhiguo, Yu; Lei, Liu; Xin, Xi; Lixia, Zhao; Junxi, Wang; Jinmin, Li
2016-06-01
The internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of the light-emitting diodes can be calculated by the ratio of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) and the light extraction efficiency (LEE). The EQE can be measured experimentally, but the LEE is difficult to calculate due to the complicated LED structures. In this work, a model was established to calculate the LEE by combining the transfer matrix formalism and an in-plane ray tracing method. With the calculated LEE, the IQE was determined and made a good agreement with that obtained by the ABC model and temperature-dependent photoluminescence method. The proposed method makes the determination of the IQE more practical and conventional. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos.11574306, 61334009), the China International Science and Technology Cooperation Program (No. 2014DFG62280), and the National High Technology Program of China (No. 2015AA03A101).
Cozza, Dario; Ruiz, Carmen M; Duché, David; Giraldo, Sergio; Saucedo, Edgardo; Simon, Jean Jacques; Escoubas, Ludovic
2016-09-01
The fast and computationally inexpensive Modified Transfer Matrix Method (MTM) is employed to simulate the optical response of kesterite Cu_{2}ZnSnSe_{4} solar cells. This method can partially take into account the scattering effects due to roughness at the interfaces between the layers of the stack. We analyzed the optical behavior of the whole cell structure by varying the thickness of the TCO layer (iZnO + ITO) between 50 and 1200 nm and the buffer CdS layer between 0 and 100 nm. We propose optimal combinations of the TCO/CdS thicknesses that can locally maximize the device photocurrent. We provide experimental data that qualitatively confirm our theoretical predictions. PMID:27607723
Bonfiglio, Paolo; Pompoli, Francesco; Lionti, Riccardo
2016-04-01
The transfer matrix method is a well-established prediction tool for the simulation of sound transmission loss and the sound absorption coefficient of flat multilayer systems. Much research has been dedicated to enhancing the accuracy of the method by introducing a finite size effect of the structure to be simulated. The aim of this paper is to present a reduced-order integral formulation to predict radiation efficiency and radiation impedance for a panel with equal lateral dimensions. The results are presented and discussed for different materials in terms of radiation efficiency, sound transmission loss, and the sound absorption coefficient. Finally, the application of the proposed methodology for rectangular multilayer systems is also investigated and validated against experimental data. PMID:27106325
Transfer matrix representation for periodic planar media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parrinello, A.; Ghiringhelli, G. L.
2016-06-01
Sound transmission through infinite planar media characterized by in-plane periodicity is faced by exploiting the free wave propagation on the related unit cells. An appropriate through-thickness transfer matrix, relating a proper set of variables describing the acoustic field at the two external surfaces of the medium, is derived by manipulating the dynamic stiffness matrix related to a finite element model of the unit cell. The adoption of finite element models avoids analytical modeling or the simplification on geometry or materials. The obtained matrix is then used in a transfer matrix method context, making it possible to combine the periodic medium with layers of different nature and to treat both hard-wall and semi-infinite fluid termination conditions. A finite sequence of identical sub-layers through the thickness of the medium can be handled within the transfer matrix method, significantly decreasing the computational burden. Transfer matrices obtained by means of the proposed method are compared with analytical or equivalent models, in terms of sound transmission through barriers of different nature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amadon, B.; Lechermann, F.; Georges, A.; Jollet, F.; Wehling, T. O.; Lichtenstein, A. I.
2008-05-01
The description of realistic strongly correlated systems has recently advanced through the combination of density functional theory in the local density approximation (LDA) and dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). This LDA+DMFT method is able to treat both strongly correlated insulators and metals. Several interfaces between LDA and DMFT have been used, such as ( Nth order) linear muffin-tin orbitals or maximally localized Wannier functions. Such schemes are, however, either complex in use or additional simplifications are often performed (i.e., the atomic sphere approximation). We present an alternative implementation of LDA+DMFT , which keeps the precision of the Wannier implementation, but which is lighter. It relies on the projection of localized orbitals onto a restricted set of Kohn-Sham states to define the correlated subspace. The method is implemented within the projector augmented wave and within the mixed-basis pseudopotential frameworks. This opens the way to electronic structure calculations within LDA+DMFT for more complex structures with the precision of an all-electron method. We present an application to two correlated systems, namely, SrVO3 and β -NiS (a charge-transfer material), including ligand states in the basis set. The results are compared to calculations done with maximally localized Wannier functions, and the physical features appearing in the orbitally resolved spectral functions are discussed.
Propagation of aberrated wavefronts using a ray transfer matrix.
Raasch, Thomas W
2014-05-01
A ray transfer matrix is used to calculate the propagation of aberrated wavefronts across a homogeneous refractive index. The wavefront is represented by local surface normals, i.e., by a ray bundle, and the propagation is accomplished by transferring those rays across the space. Wavefront shape is generated from the slopes and positions of the collection of rays. Calculation methods are developed for the paraxial case, for higher-order expansions, and for the exact tangent case. A numerical example is used to compare results between an analytical method and the methods developed here. PMID:24979628
Oriented polymers: A transfer matrix calculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koo, W. M.
1995-11-01
Based on transfer matrix techniques and finite-size scaling, we study the oriented polymer (self-avoiding walk) with nearest neighbor interaction. In the repulsive regime, various critical exponents are computed and compared with exact values predicted recently. The polymer is also found to undergo a spiral transition for sufficiently strong attractive interaction. The fractal dimension of the polymer is computed in the repulsive and attractive regimes and at the spiral transition point. The later is found to be different from that at the collapse transition of the ordinary self-avoiding walk.
Transfer-matrix approach for modulated structures with defects
Kostyrko, T.; Institute of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, ulica Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan,
2000-07-15
We consider scattering of electrons by defects in a periodically modulated, quasi-one-dimensional structure, within a tight-binding model. Combining a transfer matrix method and a Green function method we derive a formula for a Landauer conductance and show its equivalence to the result of Kubo linear response theory. We obtain explicitly unperturbed lattice Green functions from their equations of motion, using the transfer matrices. We apply the presented formalism in computations of the conductance of several multiband modulated structures with defects: (a) carbon nanotubes (b) two-dimensional (2D) superlattice (c) modulated leads with 1D wire in the tunneling regime. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Transfer matrix for treating stratified media including birefringent crystals.
Essinger-Hileman, Thomas
2013-01-10
Birefringent crystals are extensively used to manipulate polarized light. The generalized transfer matrix developed allows efficient calculation of the full polarization state of light transmitted through and reflected by a stack of arbitrarily many discrete layers of isotropic and birefringent materials at any frequency and angle of incidence. The matrix of a uniaxial birefringent crystal with arbitrary rotation is calculated, along with its reduction to the matrix of an isotropic medium. This method is of great practical importance where tight control of systematic effects is needed in optical systems employing birefringent crystals, one example being wave plates used by cosmic microwave background polarimetry with wide field-of-view telescopes. PMID:23314637
Quaternion Formalism for the Intrinsic Transfer Matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cretu, Nicolae; Pop, Mihail Ioan; Boer, Attila
A quaternion formulation is applied to the intrinsic transfer matrix for longitudinal elastic wave propagation through a multilayer medium in order to find the spectral response of a sonic crystal. Resonance conditions and the band structure of the crystal are obtained. The presence of a defect is also analysed. The analysis is carried out theoretically and through simulations. A coupled oscillators model is used to validate the obtained results from a phenomenological point of view. Experimental measurements are carried out for some periodic multilayer arrangements and they are correlated with theory. The obtained spectral response and band structure are essential in characterising the sonic crystal and also in optimising its structure in order to obtain specific passbands and stopbands. The adaptedness of the quaternion formulation to periodic structures and to the inclusion of defects is considered.
The transfer matrix approach to circular graphene quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chau Nguyen, H.; Nguyen, Nhung T. T.; Nguyen, V. Lien
2016-07-01
We adapt the transfer matrix (T-matrix) method originally designed for one-dimensional quantum mechanical problems to solve the circularly symmetric two-dimensional problem of graphene quantum dots. Similar to one-dimensional problems, we show that the generalized T-matrix contains rich information about the physical properties of these quantum dots. In particular, it is shown that the spectral equations for bound states as well as quasi-bound states of a circular graphene quantum dot and related quantities such as the local density of states and the scattering coefficients are all expressed exactly in terms of the T-matrix for the radial confinement potential. As an example, we use the developed formalism to analyse physical aspects of a graphene quantum dot induced by a trapezoidal radial potential. Among the obtained results, it is in particular suggested that the thermal fluctuations and electrostatic disorders may appear as an obstacle to controlling the valley polarization of Dirac electrons.
Transfer-matrix approach for finite-difference time-domain simulation of periodic structures.
Deinega, Alexei; Belousov, Sergei; Valuev, Ilya
2013-11-01
Optical properties of periodic structures can be calculated using the transfer-matrix approach, which establishes a relation between amplitudes of the wave incident on a structure with transmitted or reflected waves. The transfer matrix can be used to obtain transmittance and reflectance spectra of finite periodic structures as well as eigenmodes of infinite structures. Traditionally, calculation of the transfer matrix is performed in the frequency domain and involves linear algebra. In this work, we present a technique for calculation of the transfer matrix using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and show the way of its implementation in FDTD code. To illustrate the performance of our technique we calculate the transmittance spectra for opal photonic crystal slabs consisting of multiple layers of spherical scatterers. Our technique can be used for photonic band structure calculations. It can also be combined with existing FDTD methods for the analysis of periodic structures at an oblique incidence, as well as for modeling point sources in a periodic environment. PMID:24329377
Ray transfer matrix for a spiral phase plate.
Eggleston, M; Godat, T; Munro, E; Alonso, M A; Shi, H; Bhattacharya, M
2013-12-01
We present a ray transfer matrix for a spiral phase plate. Using this matrix we determine the stability of an optical resonator made of two spiral phase plates and trace stable ray orbits in the resonator. Our results should be relevant to laser physics, optical micromanipulation, quantum information, and optomechanics. PMID:24323013
Connectivity-dependent properties of diluted sytems in a transfer-matrix description
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Queiroz, S. L. A.; Stinchcombe, R. B.
1998-06-01
We introduce an approach to connectivity-dependent properties of diluted systems, which is based on the transfer-matrix formulation of the percolation problem. It simultaneously incorporates the connective properties reflected in nonzero matrix elements and allows one to use standard random-matrix multiplication techniques. Thus it is possible to investigate physical processes on the percolation structure with the high efficiency and precision characteristic of transfer-matrix methods, while avoiding disconnections. The method is illustrated for two-dimensional site percolation by calculating the finite-size longitudinal dc conductivity for (i) the critical correlation length along the strip, (ii) at the percolation threshold, and (iii) very near the pure-system limit.
A transfer-matrix study of directed lattice animals and directed percolation on a square lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knežević, Dragica; Knežević, Milan
2016-03-01
We studied the large-scale properties of directed lattice animals and directed percolation on a square lattice. Using a transfer-matrix approach on strips of finite widths, we generated relatively long sequences of estimates for effective values of critical fugacity, percolation threshold and correlation length critical exponents. We applied two different extrapolation methods to obtain estimates for infinite systems. The precision of our final estimates is comparable to (or better than) the precision of the best currently available results.
Transfer-matrix scaling for diluted Ising systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Queiroz, S. L. A.; Stinchcombe, R. B.
1992-09-01
A transfer-matrix scaling technique is developed for randomly diluted systems and applied to the site-diluted Ising model on a square lattice. For each connected configuration between adjacent columns, the contribution of the respective transfer matrix to the decay of correlations is considered only as far as the ratio of the two largest eigenvalues, allowing an economical incorporation of configurational averages. Predictions for the phase boundary at and near the percolation and pure Ising limits, and for the correlation exponent η at those limits, agree with exactly known results to within 1% error with largest strip widths of only L=5. The exponent η remains near the pure value (1/4) for all intermediate concentrations until it turns over to the percolation value at the threshold.
Distribution of the transfer matrix in disordered wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ancliff, M.
2016-07-01
A closed expression is derived for the probability distribution of the transfer matrix for a particle moving in one-dimension with delta-correlated, weak disorder. The change in the distribution as a function of wire length is described by a diffusion equation on the {SU}(1,1) group, which is solved through the decomposition of the regular representation into irreducible components. The expression generalizes a number of well-known results, including the distributions of the transmission coefficient and local density of states. As an application, the average single energy-level contribution to the persistent current in a flux threaded ring is derived.
Transfer matrix approach to the curve crossing problems of two exponential diabatic potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diwaker; Chakraborty, Aniruddha
2015-11-01
In the present manuscript, we have presented a method of calculation of non-adiabatic transition probability using transfer matrix technique. As an example for the two-state curve crossing problem, we have considered two diabatic potentials (two exponential potentials in the present case) with opposite sign of slopes which crosses each other and there is a coupling between the two diabatic potentials. The coupling is chosen as a Gaussian coupling which is further expressed as a collection of Dirac Delta potentials and the transition probability from one diabatic potential to another is calculated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varney, Philip; Green, Itzhak
2014-11-01
Numerous methods are available to calculate rotordynamic whirl frequencies, including analytic methods, finite element analysis, and the transfer matrix method. The typical real-valued transfer matrix (RTM) suffers from several deficiencies, including lengthy computation times and the inability to distinguish forward and backward whirl. Though application of complex coordinates in rotordynamic analysis is not novel per se, specific advantages gained from using such coordinates in a transfer matrix analysis have yet to be elucidated. The present work employs a complex coordinate redefinition of the transfer matrix to obtain reduced forms of the elemental transfer matrices in inertial and rotating reference frames, including external stiffness and damping. Application of the complex-valued state variable redefinition results in a reduction of the 8×8 RTM to the 4×4 Complex Transfer Matrix (CTM). The CTM is advantageous in that it intrinsically separates forward and backward whirl, eases symbolic manipulation by halving the transfer matrices’ dimension, and provides significant improvement in computation time. A symbolic analysis is performed on a simple overhung rotor to demonstrate the mathematical motivation for whirl frequency separation. The CTM's utility is further shown by analyzing a rotordynamic system supported by viscoelastic elastomer rings. Viscoelastic elastomer ring supports can provide significant damping while reducing the cost and complexity associated with conventional components such as squeeze film dampers. The stiffness and damping of a viscoelastic damper ring are determined herein as a function of whirl frequency using the viscoelastic correspondence principle and a constitutive fractional calculus viscoelasticity model. The CTM is then employed to obtain the characteristic equation, where the whirl frequency dependent stiffness and damping of the elastomer supports are included. The Campbell diagram is shown, demonstrating the CTM
A modified Finite Element-Transfer Matrix for control design of space structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tan, T.-M.; Yousuff, A.; Bahar, L. Y.; Konstandinidis, M.
1990-01-01
The Finite Element-Transfer Matrix (FETM) method was developed for reducing the computational efforts involved in structural analysis. While being widely used by structural analysts, this method does, however, have certain limitations, particularly when used for the control design of large flexible structures. In this paper, a new formulation based on the FETM method is presented. The new method effectively overcomes the limitations in the original FETM method, and also allows an easy construction of reduced models that are tailored for the control design. Other advantages of this new method include the ability to extract open loop frequencies and mode shapes with less computation, and simplification of the design procedures for output feedback, constrained compensation, and decentralized control. The development of this new method and the procedures for generating reduced models using this method are described in detail and the role of the reduced models in control design is discussed through an illustrative example.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfeuty, Pierre M.; Wheeler, John C.
1983-04-01
Equilibrium polymerization is very different in one dimension than in higher dimensionality. The transition that occurs in the limit of vanishing initiation equilibrium constant (which is a critical point in higher dimensionality) becomes a first-order transition at non-vanishing temperature in one dimension. A simple model of equilibrium polymerization that has been discussed recently for higher dimensionality is solved exactly by the transfer-matrix method in one dimension. The equivalent n-->0 vector model of magnetism is also solved exactly for all fields and temperatures by transfer-matrix methods and is analyzed by an exact renormalization-group transformation. The renormalization-group analysis contains several interesting features including the fact that the parameter space of the Hamiltonian must be enlarged to six dimensions, yet remains finite. The connection of the model and transition treated here with the Zimm-Bragg model of the helix-coil transition and with the one-dimensional Ising model of magnetism is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yu-Kun; Chen, Pochung; Kao, Ying-Jer; Xiang, Tao
2014-05-01
By using a different quantum-to-classical mapping from the Trotter-Suzuki decomposition, we identify the entanglement structure of the maximal eigenvectors for the associated quantum transfer matrix. This observation provides a deeper insight into the problem of linear growth of the entanglement entropy in time evolution using conventional methods. Based on this observation, we propose a general method for arbitrary temperatures using the biorthonormal transfer-matrix renormalization group. Our method exhibits a competitive accuracy with a much cheaper computational cost in comparison with two recently proposed methods for long-time dynamics based on a folding algorithm [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 240603 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.240603] and a modified time-dependent density-matrix renormalization group [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 227206 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.227206].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishiyama, Yoshihiro
2006-01-01
A transfer-matrix simulation scheme for the three-dimensional (d=3) bond percolation is presented. Our scheme is based on Novotny’s transfer-matrix formalism, which enables us to consider arbitrary (integral) number of sites N constituting a unit of the transfer-matrix slice even for d=3 . Such an arbitrariness allows us to perform systematic finite-size-scaling analysis of the criticality at the percolation threshold. Diagonalizing the transfer matrix for N=4,5,…,10 , we obtain an estimate for the correlation-length critical exponent ν=0.81(5) .
Nishiyama, Yoshihiro
2006-01-01
A transfer-matrix simulation scheme for the three-dimensional (d=3) bond percolation is presented. Our scheme is based on Novotny's transfer-matrix formalism, which enables us to consider arbitrary (integral) number of sites N constituting a unit of the transfer-matrix slice even for d=3. Such an arbitrariness allows us to perform systematic finite-size-scaling analysis of the criticality at the percolation threshold. Diagonalizing the transfer matrix for N=4, 5,..., we obtain an estimate for the correlation-length critical exponent v=0.81(5). PMID:16486223
Development of a hybrid wave based-transfer matrix model for sound transmission analysis.
Dijckmans, A; Vermeir, G
2013-04-01
In this paper, a hybrid wave based-transfer matrix model is presented that allows for the investigation of the sound transmission through finite multilayered structures placed between two reverberant rooms. The multilayered structure may consist of an arbitrary configuration of fluid, elastic, or poro-elastic layers. The field variables (structural displacements and sound pressures) are expanded in terms of structural and acoustic wave functions. The boundary and continuity conditions in the rooms determine the participation factors in the pressure expansions. The displacement of the multilayered structure is determined by the mechanical impedance matrix, which gives a relation between the pressures and transverse displacements at both sides of the structure. The elements of this matrix are calculated with the transfer matrix method. First, the hybrid model is numerically validated. Next a comparison is made with sound transmission loss measurements of a hollow brick wall and a sandwich panel. Finally, numerical simulations show the influence of structural damping, room dimensions and plate dimensions on the sound transmission loss of multilayered structures. PMID:23556585
Transfer-matrix scaling from disorder-averaged correlation lengths for diluted Ising systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Queiroz, S. L. A.; Stinchcombe, R. B.
1994-10-01
A transfer-matrix-scaling technique is developed for randomly diluted systems, and applied to the site-diluted Ising model on a square lattice in two dimensions. For each allowed disorder configuration between two adjacent columns, the contribution of the respective transfer matrix to the decay of correlations is considered only as far as the ratio of its two largest eigenvalues, allowing an economical calculation of a configuration-averaged correlation length. Standard phenomenological-renormalization procedures are then used to analyze aspects of the phase boundary which are difficult to assess accurately by alternative methods. For magnetic site concentration p close to pc, the extent of exponential behavior of the Tc×p curve is clearly seen for over two decades of variation of p-pc. Close to the pure-system limit, the exactly known reduced slope is reproduced to a very good approximation, though with nonmonotonic convergence. The averaged correlation lengths are inserted into the exponent-amplitude relationship predicted by conformal invariance to hold at criticality. The resulting exponent η remains near the pure value (1/4) for all intermediate concentrations until it crosses over to the percolation value at the threshold.
Troparevski, Claudia; Sabau, Adrian S; Lupini, Andrew R; Zhang, Zhenyu
2010-01-01
We present a novel way to account for partially coherent and incoherent interference phenomena in optical multilayer systems via the transfer-matrix method. The transfer matrix method is employed in its usual way via Fresnel coefficients in a 2x2 matrix configuration. The novel feature is that there is no need to use modified Fresnel coefficients or the square of their amplitudes to work in the incoherent limit. The transition from coherent, to partially coherent, to incoherent interference is achieved by introducing a random phase of increasing intensity in the propagating media. This random phase can simulate the effect of defects or impurities in the media. This method provides a general way of dealing with optical multilayer systems, in which coherent and incoherent interference are treated on equal footing.
Wave transfer matrix for a spiral phase plate.
Rumala, Yisa S
2015-05-10
The wave transfer matrix (WTM) is applied to calculating various characteristics of a spiral phase plate (SPP) for the first time to our knowledge. This approach provides a more convenient and systematic approach to calculating properties of a multilayered SPP device. In particular, it predicts the optical wave characteristics on the input and output plane of the device when the SPP is fabricated on a substrate of the same refractive index as the SPP as well as on a substrate of a different refractive index compared to the SPP. The dependence of the parameters on the input laser frequency is studied in detail for a low finesse SPP etalon device for both cases. The equations derived from the WTM are used to show that a variation in input laser frequency causes the optical intensity pattern on the output plane to rotate, while preserving the topology of the optical vortex, i.e., the variation in laser frequency has a minimal effect on the parameters describing the azimuthal intensity modulation and orbital angular momentum content of the beam. In addition, the equations predict the presence of longitudinal modes in the SPP device. PMID:25967494
Transfer matrix approach for the Kerr and Faraday rotation in layered nanostructures.
Széchenyi, Gábor; Vigh, Máté; Kormányos, Andor; Cserti, József
2016-09-21
To study the optical rotation of the polarization of light incident on multilayer systems consisting of atomically thin conductors and dielectric multilayers we present a general method based on transfer matrices. The transfer matrix of the atomically thin conducting layer is obtained using the Maxwell equations. We derive expressions for the Kerr (Faraday) rotation angle and for the ellipticity of the reflected (transmitted) light as a function of the incident angle and polarization of the light. The method is demonstrated by calculating the Kerr (Faraday) angle for bilayer graphene in the quantum anomalous Hall state placed on the top of dielectric multilayers. The optical conductivity of the bilayer graphene is calculated in the framework of a four-band model. PMID:27420800
Transfer matrix approach for the Kerr and Faraday rotation in layered nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Széchenyi, Gábor; Vigh, Máté; Kormányos, Andor; Cserti, József
2016-09-01
To study the optical rotation of the polarization of light incident on multilayer systems consisting of atomically thin conductors and dielectric multilayers we present a general method based on transfer matrices. The transfer matrix of the atomically thin conducting layer is obtained using the Maxwell equations. We derive expressions for the Kerr (Faraday) rotation angle and for the ellipticity of the reflected (transmitted) light as a function of the incident angle and polarization of the light. The method is demonstrated by calculating the Kerr (Faraday) angle for bilayer graphene in the quantum anomalous Hall state placed on the top of dielectric multilayers. The optical conductivity of the bilayer graphene is calculated in the framework of a four-band model.
Left-handed materials and negative refraction: Transfer matrix and FDTD calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soukoulis, Costas M.
2004-03-01
We will present transfer matrix calculations of metallic wires, split ring resonators (SRR) and left-handed materials (LHM). Our results [1] show that the transfer matrix method can capture all the details characteristics of the metamaterials. In particular the dependence of the resonance frequency and its width on the structural parameters of the SRR and the size of the unit cell is studied. Also the dependence of the imaginary part of effective permittivity of arrays of metallic wires is studied in detail. It is found [2,3] that the imaginary part of effective permittivity has small values even for wires as small as 20 micron in diameter. The transfer matrix is very useful in calculating both the amplitude and the phase of the transmission and reflection coefficient. These numerical data was used [4] in the determination of the effective parameters of the metamaterials. It was indeed found that the refractive index was unambiguously negative in the frequency region where both ɛ and μ were negative. Finally, we will show that SRR have a strong electric response, equivalent to that of cut wires [5], which dominates the response of LHM. A new criterion is introduced to clearly identify if an experimental expression peak is left- or right handed. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations will be presented for the transmission of the EM wave through the interface of the positive and negative refraction index. It is found [6] that the wave is trapped temporarily at the interface and after a long time the wave front moves eventually in the direction of negative refraction. The differences between negative refraction in photonic crystals and left-handed materials will be also discussed. Work supported by US-DOE, DARPA, NSF and EU (DALHM project). References: [1] P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 033401 (2002); Phys. Rev. E 65, 036622 (2002). [2] P. Markos, I. Rousochatzakis and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 66, 045601 (2002). [3] P. Markos and C. M
Transfer matrix theory of monolayer graphene/bilayer graphene heterostructure superlattice
Wang, Yu
2014-10-28
We have formulated a transfer matrix method to investigate electronic properties of graphene heterostructure consisting of monolayer graphene and bilayer counterpart. By evaluating transmission, conductance, and band dispersion, we show that, irrespective of the different carrier chiralities in monolayer graphene and bilayer graphene, superlattice consisting of biased bilayer graphene barrier and monolayer graphene well can mimic the electronic properties of conventional semiconductor superlattice, displaying the extended subbands in the quantum tunneling regime and producing anisotropic minigaps for the classically allowed transport. Due to the lateral confinement, the lowest mode has shifted away from the charge neutral point of monolayer graphene component, opening a sizeable gap in concerned structure. Following the gate-field and geometry modulation, all electronic states and gaps between them can be externally engineered in an electric-controllable strategy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cramer, Nick; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Cheung, Kenny; Teodorescu, Mircea
2015-01-01
This paper presents a modeling and control of aerostructure developed by lattice-based cellular materials/components. The proposed aerostructure concept leverages a building block strategy for lattice-based components which provide great adaptability to varying ight scenarios, the needs of which are essential for in- ight wing shaping control. A decentralized structural control design is proposed that utilizes discrete-time lumped mass transfer matrix method (DT-LM-TMM). The objective is to develop an e ective reduced order model through DT-LM-TMM that can be used to design a decentralized controller for the structural control of a wing. The proposed approach developed in this paper shows that, as far as the performance of overall structural system is concerned, the reduced order model can be as e ective as the full order model in designing an optimal stabilizing controller.
Doutres, Olivier; Atalla, Noureddine; Osman, Haisam
2015-06-01
Porous materials are widely used for improving sound absorption and sound transmission loss of vibrating structures. However, their efficiency is limited to medium and high frequencies of sound. A solution for improving their low frequency behavior while keeping an acceptable thickness is to embed resonant structures such as Helmholtz resonators (HRs). This work investigates the absorption and transmission acoustic performances of a cellular porous material with a two-dimensional periodic arrangement of HR inclusions. A low frequency model of a resonant periodic unit cell based on the parallel transfer matrix method is presented. The model is validated by comparison with impedance tube measurements and simulations based on both the finite element method and a homogenization based model. At the HR resonance frequency (i) the transmission loss is greatly improved and (ii) the sound absorption of the foam can be either decreased or improved depending on the HR tuning frequency and on the thickness and properties of the host foam. Finally, the diffuse field sound absorption and diffuse field sound transmission loss performance of a 2.6 m(2) resonant cellular material are measured. It is shown that the improvements observed at the Helmholtz resonant frequency on a single cell are confirmed at a larger scale. PMID:26093437
Transfer matrix approach to layered systems with axial symmetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bahar, L. Y.
1976-01-01
The stress and displacement distribution in a layered medium is found by means of transfer matrices. The surface loading exhibits axial symmetry, and each layer is of infinite extent in the horizontal direction, of constant depth, and is considered to be linearly elastic, homogeneous, and isotropic. The method developed has the built-in advantage of enforcing interface continuity conditions automatically. Its application to layered composites shows the flexibility with which it predicts the local as well as the global response of the medium.
Collapse of two-dimensional linear polymers: a transfer matrix calculation of the exponent nu t
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derrida, B.; Saleur, H.
1985-12-01
Using a transfer matrix technique and finite size scaling, the authors calculate the exponent nu t of two-dimensional polymers at the theta point. They find nu t=0.55+or-0.01 by two slightly different calculations on the square lattice. This value is compared with those which had been previously proposed in the literature.
Kojima, Takeo
2013-04-15
We study the supersymmetry U{sub q}(sl-caret(M+1|N+1)) analogue of the supersymmetric t-J model with a boundary. Our approach is based on the algebraic analysis method of solvable lattice models. We diagonalize the commuting transfer matrix by using the bosonizations of the vertex operators associated with the quantum affine supersymmetry U{sub q}(sl-caret(M+1|N+1)).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Liang; Tao, Kunwang; Qian, Xinlin
2015-04-01
With the increasing developments of islands, the protection and management of island's natural resources are imperative. The core of islands' protection and management is to acquire the information of changes of the land use and land cover. What's more, the purpose of the islands' land use change information analysis is to plan the effective protection of land resource, achieve scientific management and sustainable utilization. Based on the improved calculation method of land use change and the computational model of change rate of the land use, an analysis of land use transfer matrix and transfer probability matrix is presented, and the method of land use change analysis based on the transfer matrix is proposed in this paper. And then the comparative analysis of all types of land use transfer is introduced. Taken the island of Dongtou in Zhejiang Province as the case, with the SPOT-5 satellite image in 2005 and the aerial image in 2011 as the data source, the current situation of land utilization of Dongtou Island and its land use change are analyzed. The experiment results show that, from 2005 to 2011, the greatest changes are the structures and water, followed by the forest land, grassland, cultivated land and others. The major change of structure and forest is the net change, while the major change of the water and grassland is the swap change. From the perspective of increment, the conversion from waters to structure has the most advantage, followed by water converted to grassland and road. To see from the loss, structures converted into roads and buildings have the most superiority transformation, followed by structures converted to grassland. The analysis of the case proves that the proposed process and method in this paper could achieve better results in the practical application. The experiment results also demonstrate that the proposed method could effectively obtain the dynamic change information of land use which is much helpful for land management and
Topological edge states in two-gap unitary systems: a transfer matrix approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tauber, Clément; Delplace, Pierre
2015-11-01
We construct and investigate a family of two-band unitary systems living on a cylinder geometry and presenting localized edge states. Using the transfer matrix formalism, we solve and investigate in detail such states in the thermodynamic limit. Analytic considerations then suggest the construction of a family of Riemann surfaces associated to the band structure of the system. In this picture, the corresponding edge states naturally wind around non-contractile loops, defining a topological invariant associated to each gap of the system.
Percolation conductivity of Penrose tiling by transfer-matrix Monte Carlo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babalievski, F. V.
1991-09-01
A generalization of Derrida and Vannimenus transfer-matrix Monte Carlo for calculations of percolation conductivity of Penrose Tiling was applied. The strips used were 10(exp 4) long and widths varied between 3 and 19. The results show that in spite of differences for strip widths 3-7 the percolative conductivity of Penrose tiling is very close to that of square lattice. The estimation of the percolation transport exponent once more confirms the universality conjecture for 0-1 distribution of resistors.
Transfer matrix approach to the statistical mechanics of single polymer molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Livadaru, Lucian
In this work, we demonstrate, implement and critically assess the capabilities and the limitations of the Transfer Matrix (TM) method to the statistical mechanics of single polymer molecules within their classical models. We first show how the TM can be employed with the help of computers, to provide highly accurate results for the configurational statistics of polymers in theta-conditions. We proceed gradually from simple to complex polymer models, analyzing their statistical properties as we vary the model parameters. In the order of their complexity, the polymer models approached in this work are: (i) the freely jointed chain (FJC); (ii) the freely rotating chain (FRC); (iii) the rotational isomeric state (RIS) model with and without energy parameters; (iv) the continuous rotational potential model (for n-alkanes); (v) an interacting chain model (ICM) with virtual bonds for poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG). The Statistical Mechanics of polymer chains is carried out in both the Helmholtz and Gibbs ensembles, depending on the quantities of interest. In the Helmholtz ensemble the polymer's Green function is generally a function of both the spatial coordinates and orientations of chain bonds. In the Gibbs ensemble its arguments are the bond orientations with respect to an applied external force. This renders the latter ensemble more feasible for an accurate study of the mechanical properties of the mentioned models. We adapt the TM method to study statistical and thermodynamical properties of various models, including: chain end distribution functions, characteristic ratios, mean square radius of gyration, Kuhn length, static structure factor, pair correlation function, force-extension curves, Helmholtz and Gibbs free energies. For all cases, the TM calculations yielded accurate results for all these quantities. Wherever possible, we compared our findings to other results, theoretical or experimental in literature. A great deal of effort was focused on precise
Transfer matrix formulation of scattering theory in two and three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loran, Farhang; Mostafazadeh, Ali
2016-04-01
In one dimension, one can dissect a scattering potential v (x ) into pieces vi(x ) and use the notion of the transfer matrix to determine the scattering content of v (x ) from that of vi(x ) . This observation has numerous practical applications in different areas of physics. The problem of finding an analogous procedure in dimensions larger than 1 has been an important open problem for decades. We provide a complete solution for this problem and discuss some of its applications. In particular, we derive an exact expression for the scattering amplitude of the δ -function potential in two and three dimensions and a potential describing a slab laser with a surface line defect. We show that the presence of the defect makes the slab begin lasing for arbitrarily small gain coefficients.
A transfer matrix approach to vibration localization in mistuned blade assemblies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ottarson, Gisli; Pierre, Chritophe
1993-01-01
A study of mode localization in mistuned bladed disks is performed using transfer matrices. The transfer matrix approach yields the free response of a general, mono-coupled, perfectly cyclic assembly in closed form. A mistuned structure is represented by random transfer matrices, and the expansion of these matrices in terms of the small mistuning parameter leads to the definition of a measure of sensitivity to mistuning. An approximation of the localization factor, the spatially averaged rate of exponential attenuation per blade-disk sector, is obtained through perturbation techniques in the limits of high and low sensitivity. The methodology is applied to a common model of a bladed disk and the results verified by Monte Carlo simulations. The easily calculated sensitivity measure may prove to be a valuable design tool due to its system-independent quantification of mistuning effects such as mode localization.
Polymer model with annealed dilution on the square lattice: A transfer-matrix study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serra, Pablo; Stilck, Jürgen F.
1994-02-01
We study a lattice model for equilibrium polymerization with annealed dilution. The model considered is an Ising lattice-gas monomer-solvent system where the polymers are represented by mutually and self-avoiding walks constrained to pass through sites occupied by monomers. Numerical results on the square lattice using transfer-matrix techniques and finite-size scaling are reported. The values obtained for the tricitical exponent νt are in agreement with the tricritical Ising exponent (8/11) for high values of the monomer fugacity, but the accuracy we obtained does not rule out the possibility of νt being equal to the critical self-avoiding-walk (SAW) value 3/4. Our results indicate that a crossover occurs in the tricritical behavior of the model. This crossover corroborates the equivalence between a particular limit of the diluted model and the self-attracting polymer system proposed recently.
Transfer matrix analysis of backscattering and reflection effects on WDM-PON systems.
Simatupang, Joni Welman; Lee, San-Liang
2013-11-18
This paper proposes using power transfer matrix analysis to characterize the effects of Rayleigh backscattering and Fresnel reflection on WDM-PON systems. The modeling of a WDM-PON system can be carried out simply by matrix multiplication of the corresponding matrices for all the building blocks, where all possible guided backward lights and resonant configurations along the optical network can be accounted for. The total sum of all interferences affecting the bidirectional transmission that leads to an optical crosstalk-to-signal (C/S) ratio can be modeled as back-reflections through cascaded two-port networks for the downstream and upstream signals. This approach is simple, robust, efficient, and also accurate. Its accuracy is verified for simple system architectures and then applied to study more complicated cases. The results show its versatility to analyze a wide variety of bidirectional optical transmission systems. PMID:24514275
Teif, Vladimir B.
2007-01-01
The transfer matrix methodology is proposed as a systematic tool for the statistical–mechanical description of DNA–protein–drug binding involved in gene regulation. We show that a genetic system of several cis-regulatory modules is calculable using this method, considering explicitly the site-overlapping, competitive, cooperative binding of regulatory proteins, their multilayer assembly and DNA looping. In the methodological section, the matrix models are solved for the basic types of short- and long-range interactions between DNA-bound proteins, drugs and nucleosomes. We apply the matrix method to gene regulation at the OR operator of phage λ. The transfer matrix formalism allowed the description of the λ-switch at a single-nucleotide resolution, taking into account the effects of a range of inter-protein distances. Our calculations confirm previously established roles of the contact CI–Cro–RNAP interactions. Concerning long-range interactions, we show that while the DNA loop between the OR and OL operators is important at the lysogenic CI concentrations, the interference between the adjacent promoters PR and PRM becomes more important at small CI concentrations. A large change in the expression pattern may arise in this regime due to anticooperative interactions between DNA-bound RNA polymerases. The applicability of the matrix method to more complex systems is discussed. PMID:17526526
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowen, Patrick T.; Urzhumov, Yaroslav A.
2016-04-01
Acoustic metamaterial structures with discrete and continuous rotational symmetries attract interest of theorists and engineers due to the relative simplicity of their design and fabrication. They are also likely candidates for omnidirectional acoustic cloaking and other transformation-acoustical novelties. In this paper, we employ a stratified description of such structures, and develop the theory and an efficient symbolic/numerical algorithm for analyzing the scattering properties of such structures immersed in homogeneous fluid environments. The algorithm calculates the partial scattering amplitudes and the related scattering phases for an arbitrary layered distribution of acoustic material properties. The efficiency of the algorithm enables us to find approximate solutions to certain inverse scattering problems through quasi-global optimization. The scattering problems addressed here are the three forms of cloaking: (1) extinction cross-section suppression, the canonical form of cloaking, (2) monostatic sonar invisibility (backscattering suppression), and (3) acoustic force cloaking (transport cross-section suppression). We also address the efficiency-bandwidth tradeoff and design approximate cloaks with wider bandwidth using a new optimization formulation.
Transfer matrix modeling of a tensioned piezo-solar hybrid energy harvesting ribbon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Punnag; Bryant, Matthew
2015-04-01
This paper proposes a multifunctional compliant structure that can harvest electrical power from both incident sunlight and ambient mechanical energy including wind flow or vibration. The energy harvesting device consists of a slender, ribbon-like, flexible thin film solar cell that is laminated with piezoelectric patches. The harvester is mounted in longitudinal tension and subjected to a transverse wind flow to excite flow-induced aeroelastic vibrations. This paper formulates an analytic model of the bending dynamics of the device. We present a Transfer Matrix formulation that also accounts for the changes in natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system when subjected to axial loads in a beam. It also observed that mode shape obtained using TMM formulation shows numerical stability even for very high tensile loads providing results consistent with the geometric boundary conditions applied at the ends of a beam. This article also discusses about structurally modeling a piezo - solar energy harvester using TMM methodology, where a thin clampedclamped solar film is bonded with piezo patches having a much higher bending stiffness. Additionally, the effect of axial tension on the mode shape of the thin host structure of the piezo-solar ribbon is presented and it is shown how this tension can be used advantageously to affect the strain distribution of the entire structure and introduce higher strains at the piezo patches.
Entanglement entropy from corner transfer matrix in Forrester-Baxter non-unitary RSOS models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bianchini, Davide; Ravanini, Francesco
2016-04-01
Using a corner transfer matrix approach, we compute the bipartite entanglement Rényi entropy in the off-critical perturbations of non-unitary conformal minimal models realised by lattice spin chains Hamiltonians related to the Forrester-Baxter RSOS models (Bianchini et al 2015 J. Stat. Mech. P03010) in regime III. This allows to show on a set of explicit examples that the Rényi entropies for non-unitary theories rescale near criticality as the logarithm of the correlation length with a coefficient proportional to the effective central charge. This complements a similar result, recently established for the size rescaling at the critical point (Bianchini et al 2015 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 48 04FT01), showing the expected agreement of the two behaviours. We also compute the first subleading unusual correction to the scaling behaviour, showing that it is expressible in terms of expansions of various fractional powers of the correlation length, related to the differences {{Δ }}-{{{Δ }}}{min} between the conformal dimensions of fields in the theory and the minimal conformal dimension. Finally, a few observations on the limit leading to the off-critical logarithmic minimal models of Pearce and Seaton (2012 J. Stat. Mech. P09014) are put forward.
Chen, Changming; Niu, Xiaoyan; Han, Chao; Shi, Zuosen; Wang, Xinbin; Sun, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Fei; Cui, Zhanchen; Zhang, Daming
2014-08-25
A transparent reconfigurable optical interleaver module composed of cascaded AWGs-based wavelength-channel-selector/interleaver monolithically integrated with multimode interference (MMI) variable optical attenuators (VOAs) and Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) switch arrays was designed and fabricated using polymer photonic lightwave circuits. Highly fluorinated photopolymer and grafting modified organic-inorganic hybrid material were synthesized as the waveguide core and caldding, respectively. Thermo-optic (TO) tunable wavelength transfer matrix (WTM) function of the module can be achieved for optical routing network. The one-chip transmission loss is ~ 6 dB and crosstalk is less than ~25 dB for transverse-magnetic (TM) mode. The crosstalk and extinction ratio of the MMI VOAs were measured as -15.2 dB and 17.5 dB with driving current 8 mA, respectively. The modulation depth of the TO switches is obtained as ~18.2 dB with 2.2 V bias. Proposed novel interleaver module could be well suited for DWDM optical communication systems. PMID:25321200
ac response near the percolation threshold: Transfer-matrix results in two and three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bug, A. L. R.; Grest, Gary S.; Cohen, Morrel H.; Webman, Itzhak
1987-09-01
The complex admittivities of two- and three-dimensional networks of resistors and capacitors are calculated at pc using a transfer matrix. As predicted by scaling theories, the loss tangent becomes frequency independent in a critical range of frequencies. In three dimensions, for the usual model of unit conductors and capacitors at pc for the conductors, the dynamical exponents t and s are found to have values consistent with previous dc numerical studies. Similarly, the two-dimensional square site lattice and a bond lattice of superconductors and normal capacitors are both found to display dynamical scaling with universal (two-dimensional) exponents. Finally, two-dimensional networks with unit capacitors, but a power-law distribution of conductors, p(σ)~σ-α for α<σ0 (and zero otherwise), are studied for the two cases α=0 and 0.6. Dynamical scaling behavior is also seen on these lattices. In both cases, the bulk conductivities inferred from the dynamical scaling display nonuniversal values of the exponent t, while the exponent s remains at its universal value.
Transfer matrix computation of critical polynomials for two-dimensional Potts models
Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke; Scullard, Christian R.
2013-02-04
We showed, In our previous work, that critical manifolds of the q-state Potts model can be studied by means of a graph polynomial PB(q, v), henceforth referred to as the critical polynomial. This polynomial may be defined on any periodic two-dimensional lattice. It depends on a finite subgraph B, called the basis, and the manner in which B is tiled to construct the lattice. The real roots v = eK — 1 of PB(q, v) either give the exact critical points for the lattice, or provide approximations that, in principle, can be made arbitrarily accurate by increasing the size ofmore » B in an appropriate way. In earlier work, PB(q, v) was defined by a contraction-deletion identity, similar to that satisfied by the Tutte polynomial. Here, we give a probabilistic definition of PB(q, v), which facilitates its computation, using the transfer matrix, on much larger B than was previously possible.We present results for the critical polynomial on the (4, 82), kagome, and (3, 122) lattices for bases of up to respectively 96, 162, and 243 edges, compared to the limit of 36 edges with contraction-deletion. We discuss in detail the role of the symmetries and the embedding of B. The critical temperatures vc obtained for ferromagnetic (v > 0) Potts models are at least as precise as the best available results from Monte Carlo simulations or series expansions. For instance, with q = 3 we obtain vc(4, 82) = 3.742 489 (4), vc(kagome) = 1.876 459 7 (2), and vc(3, 122) = 5.033 078 49 (4), the precision being comparable or superior to the best simulation results. More generally, we trace the critical manifolds in the real (q, v) plane and discuss the intricate structure of the phase diagram in the antiferromagnetic (v < 0) region.« less
New mechanism for mass gap scaling and transfer-matrix study for (1+1)D directed percolation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henkel, Malte; Privman, Vladimir
1990-10-01
The standard scaling mechanism for matching asymptotic behaviors on the approach to criticality fails for directed percolation, as indicated by transfer-matrix calculations for sizes up to N=15. A formulation is proposed incorporating irrelevant-variable corrections in a new pattern of asymptotic scaling. Numerical data support these theoretical predictions and, among other results, yield a new estimate, λ=0.37+/-0.04, for the leading irrelevant-variable exponent.
Transfer matrix computation of critical polynomials for two-dimensional Potts models
Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke; Scullard, Christian R.
2013-02-04
We showed, In our previous work, that critical manifolds of the q-state Potts model can be studied by means of a graph polynomial P_{B}(q, v), henceforth referred to as the critical polynomial. This polynomial may be defined on any periodic two-dimensional lattice. It depends on a finite subgraph B, called the basis, and the manner in which B is tiled to construct the lattice. The real roots v = e^{K} — 1 of P_{B}(q, v) either give the exact critical points for the lattice, or provide approximations that, in principle, can be made arbitrarily accurate by increasing the size of B in an appropriate way. In earlier work, P_{B}(q, v) was defined by a contraction-deletion identity, similar to that satisfied by the Tutte polynomial. Here, we give a probabilistic definition of P_{B}(q, v), which facilitates its computation, using the transfer matrix, on much larger B than was previously possible.We present results for the critical polynomial on the (4, 8^{2}), kagome, and (3, 12^{2}) lattices for bases of up to respectively 96, 162, and 243 edges, compared to the limit of 36 edges with contraction-deletion. We discuss in detail the role of the symmetries and the embedding of B. The critical temperatures v_{c }obtained for ferromagnetic (v > 0) Potts models are at least as precise as the best available results from Monte Carlo simulations or series expansions. For instance, with q = 3 we obtain v_{c}(4, 8^{2}) = 3.742 489 (4), v_{c}(kagome) = 1.876 459 7 (2), and v_{c}(3, 12^{2}) = 5.033 078 49 (4), the precision being comparable or superior to the best simulation results. More generally, we trace the critical manifolds in the real (q, v) plane and discuss the intricate structure of the phase diagram in the antiferromagnetic (v < 0) region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagashima, H. N.; Onody, R. N.; Faria, R. M.
1999-01-01
A statistical model of resistor networks is proposed to describe a polymer structure and to simulate the real and imaginary components of its ac resistivity. It takes into account the polydispersiveness of the material as well as intrachain and interchain charge transport processes. By the application of a transfer-matrix technique, it reproduces ac resistivity measurements carried out with polyaniline films in different doping degrees and at different temperatures. Our results indicate that interchain processes govern the resistivity behavior in the low-frequency region while, for higher frequencies, intrachain mechanisms are dominant.
Transfer Matrix and Reflexion in a Metallo-Dielectric Photonic Crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alejo-Molina, A.; Sánchez-Mondragón, J. J.; Velésquez-Ordoñez, C.; Zamudio-Lara, A.; Escobedo-Alatorre, J. J.; May-Arrioja, D. A.; Torres-Cisneros, M.
2008-04-01
We study the 1D Metallo-Dielectric Photonic Crystal (MDPC) by two alternative methods, the transmittance and the band structure derived from its dispersion relation. Both approaches have well established exponents on two different regimens, Yablonovitch [1] and Maradudin [2]. We discuss, the particular domain where both formalism coexist and become conveniently complementary. We discuss a MDPC created by a DPC with metallic insets. We find that both, metallic and dielectric features coexist at the band structure as well as the transmittance. We point out how they are related, in particular in that regimen where the applicability of [2] is limited, but we can still draw a relation to understand the complex behavior in [1]. We have carried out the analytical and numerical analysis of a one dimensional metallo-dielectric stack as a sequence of extremely thin metallic inlays, periodically spaced, preserving the dielectric cell periodicity, on a substrate of two dielectrics that former themselves a PC.
Localization in quantum percolation: Transfer-matrix calculations in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soukoulis, C. M.; Economou, E. N.; Grest, Gary S.
1987-12-01
The quantum site percolation problem, which is defined by a disordered tight-binding Hamiltonian with a binary probability distribution, is studied using finite-size scaling methods. For the simple cubic lattice, the dependence of the mobility edge on the strength of the site energy is obtained. Exactly at the center of each subband the states appear to be always localized. The lowest value of the quantum site percolation threshold is pq=0.44+/-0.01 and occurs for an energy near the center of the subband. These numerical results are found to be in satisfactory agreement with the predictions of the potential-well analogy, based on a cluster coherent-potential approximation. The integrated density of states is also calculated numerically. A spike in the density of states exactly at the center of the subband and a gap around it are observed, in agreement with earlier work by Kirkpatrick and Eggarter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawkes, Jeremy J.; Coakley, W. Terence; Gröschl, Martin; Benes, Ewald; Armstrong, Sian; Tasker, Paul J.; Nowotny, Helmut
2002-03-01
The quantitative performance of a ``single half-wavelength'' acoustic resonator operated at frequencies around 3 MHz as a continuous flow microparticle filter has been investigated. Standing wave acoustic radiation pressure on suspended particles (5-μm latex) drives them towards the center of the half-wavelength separation channel. Clarified suspending phase from the region closest to the filter wall is drawn away through a downstream outlet. The filtration efficiency of the device was established from continuous turbidity measurements at the filter outlet. The frequency dependence of the acoustic energy density in the aqueous particle suspension layer of the filter system was obtained by application of the transfer matrix model [H. Nowotny and E. Benes, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 82, 513-521 (1987)]. Both the measured clearances and the calculated energy density distributions showed a maximum at the fundamental of the piezoceramic transducer and a second, significantly larger, maximum at another system's resonance not coinciding with any of the transducer or empty chamber resonances. The calculated frequency of this principal energy density maximum was in excellent agreement with the optimal clearance frequency for the four tested channel widths. The high-resolution measurements of filter performance provide, for the first time, direct verification of the matrix model predictions of the frequency dependence of acoustic energy density in the water layer.
ABINIT: Plane-Wave-Based Density-Functional Theory on High Performance Computers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torrent, Marc
2014-03-01
For several years, a continuous effort has been produced to adapt electronic structure codes based on Density-Functional Theory to the future computing architectures. Among these codes, ABINIT is based on a plane-wave description of the wave functions which allows to treat systems of any kind. Porting such a code on petascale architectures pose difficulties related to the many-body nature of the DFT equations. To improve the performances of ABINIT - especially for what concerns standard LDA/GGA ground-state and response-function calculations - several strategies have been followed: A full multi-level parallelisation MPI scheme has been implemented, exploiting all possible levels and distributing both computation and memory. It allows to increase the number of distributed processes and could not be achieved without a strong restructuring of the code. The core algorithm used to solve the eigen problem (``Locally Optimal Blocked Congugate Gradient''), a Blocked-Davidson-like algorithm, is based on a distribution of processes combining plane-waves and bands. In addition to the distributed memory parallelization, a full hybrid scheme has been implemented, using standard shared-memory directives (openMP/openACC) or porting some comsuming code sections to Graphics Processing Units (GPU). As no simple performance model exists, the complexity of use has been increased; the code efficiency strongly depends on the distribution of processes among the numerous levels. ABINIT is able to predict the performances of several process distributions and automatically choose the most favourable one. On the other hand, a big effort has been carried out to analyse the performances of the code on petascale architectures, showing which sections of codes have to be improved; they all are related to Matrix Algebra (diagonalisation, orthogonalisation). The different strategies employed to improve the code scalability will be described. They are based on an exploration of new diagonalization algorithm, as well as the use of external optimized librairies. Part of this work has been supported by the european Prace project (PaRtnership for Advanced Computing in Europe) in the framework of its workpackage 8.
LOBSTER: A tool to extract chemical bonding from plane-wave based DFT.
Maintz, Stefan; Deringer, Volker L; Tchougréeff, Andrei L; Dronskowski, Richard
2016-04-30
The computer program LOBSTER (Local Orbital Basis Suite Towards Electronic-Structure Reconstruction) enables chemical-bonding analysis based on periodic plane-wave (PAW) density-functional theory (DFT) output and is applicable to a wide range of first-principles simulations in solid-state and materials chemistry. LOBSTER incorporates analytic projection routines described previously in this very journal [J. Comput. Chem. 2013, 34, 2557] and offers improved functionality. It calculates, among others, atom-projected densities of states (pDOS), projected crystal orbital Hamilton population (pCOHP) curves, and the recently introduced bond-weighted distribution function (BWDF). The software is offered free-of-charge for non-commercial research. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26914535
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kemper, A.; Schadschneider, A.; Zittartz, J.
2001-05-01
We apply the transfer-matrix density-matrix renormalization group (TMRG) to a stochastic model, the Domany-Kinzel cellular automaton, which exhibits a non-equilibrium phase transition in the directed percolation universality class. Estimates for the stochastic time evolution, phase boundaries and critical exponents can be obtained with high precision. This is possible using only modest numerical effort since the thermodynamic limit can be taken analytically in our approach. We also point out further advantages of the TMRG over other numerical approaches, such as classical DMRG or Monte Carlo simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Hooijdonk, Eloise; Berthier, Serge; Vigneron, Jean-Pol
2012-12-01
Scales of the scarabaeid beetle Hoplia coerulea (Coleoptera) contain fluorescent molecules embedded in a multilayer structure. The consequence of this source confinement is a modification of the fluorescence properties, i.e., an enhancement or inhibition of the emission of certain wavelengths. In this work, we propose a bio-inspired approach to this problem. In other words, we use numerical simulations based on the one-dimensional transfer-matrix formalism to investigate the influence of a Hoplia-like system on emission characteristics and, from the results, we deduce potential technical applications. We reveal that depending on the choice of some parameters (layer thickness, dielectric constant, and position of the emitting source in the structure), it is possible to enhance or inhibit the fluorescence emission for certain wavelengths. This observation could be of great interest to design new optical devices in the field of optoelectronic, solar cells, biosensors, etc.
Propagation of guided modes in curved nanoribbon waveguides
Yang, P.; Ye, Zhuo; Hu, Xinhua; Li, Ming; Ho, Kai-Ming
2006-08-23
The authors develop a plane-wave-based transfer matrix method in curvilinear coordinates to study the guided modes in curved nanoribbon waveguides. The problem of a curved structure is transformed into an equivalent one of a straight structure with spatially dependent tensors of dielectric constant and magnetic permeability. The authors investigate the coupling between the eigenmodes of the straight part and those of the curved part when the waveguide is bent. The authors show that curved sections can result in strong oscillations in the transmission spectrum similar to the recent experimental results of Lawet al.
Ganesan, P.; Vanitha, K.; Senthilkumar, L.
2015-08-28
The tunneling current has been calculated by a derived analytical expression for the transmission coefficient (TC) based on the theory of coherent resonant tunneling within the effective mass approximation by applying a constant field in quantum well/dot dopped RTD. For the bare Al{sub 0.35}Ga{sub 0.65}As double barrier structure, the peak to valley ratio is 0.165 from the I-V characteristics. Notably, the presence of In{sub 0.21}Ga{sub 0.79}As well in the emitter region significantly enhances the peak to valley ratio to 0.970. Interestingly, the presence of both the In{sub 0.21}Ga{sub 0.79}As well and InAs QD, increases the peak to valley ratio further to 0.978, because of the greater probability for the energy levels in these regions to be in resonance. On comparing experimental results, which show the similar trend for the current-voltage characteristics, imply that the quantum structure considered here is suitable for device applications.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pereyra, Pedro; Robledo-Martinez, Arturo
2009-01-01
We explicitly show that the well-known transmission and reflection amplitudes of planar slabs, obtained via an algebraic summation of Fresnel amplitudes, are completely equivalent to those obtained from transfer matrices in the scattering approach. This equivalence makes the finite periodic systems theory a powerful alternative to the cumbersome…
Extension of modified power method to two-dimensional problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Peng; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung
2016-09-01
In this study, the generalized modified power method was extended to two-dimensional problems. A direct application of the method to two-dimensional problems was shown to be unstable when the number of requested eigenmodes is larger than a certain problem dependent number. The root cause of this instability has been identified as the degeneracy of the transfer matrix. In order to resolve this instability, the number of sub-regions for the transfer matrix was increased to be larger than the number of requested eigenmodes; and a new transfer matrix was introduced accordingly which can be calculated by the least square method. The stability of the new method has been successfully demonstrated with a neutron diffusion eigenvalue problem and the 2D C5G7 benchmark problem.
HARES: an efficient method for first-principles electronic structure calculations of complex systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waghmare, U. V.; Kim, Hanchul; Park, I. J.; Modine, Normand; Maragakis, P.; Kaxiras, Efthimios
2001-07-01
We discuss our new implementation of the Real-space Electronic Structure method for studying the atomic and electronic structure of infinite periodic as well as finite systems, based on density functional theory. This improved version which we call HARES (for High-performance-Fortran Adaptive grid Real-space Electronic Structure) aims at making the method widely applicable and efficient, using high performance Fortran on parallel architectures. The scaling of various parts of a HARES calculation is analyzed and compared to that of plane-wave based methods. The new developments that lead to enhanced performance, and their parallel implementation, are presented in detail. We illustrate the application of HARES to the study of elemental crystalline solids, molecules and complex crystalline materials, such as blue bronze and zeolites.
Transfer matrix of a spherical scatterer
Podolsky, V.S.; Lisyansky, A.A.
1996-11-01
We derive the off-shell scattering matrix for a spherical scatterer. The result obtained generalizes the off-on-shell matrix commonly used in the theory of scalar waves propagation in random media. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szmulowicz, Frank
1998-04-01
The numerically stable, Hermitian secular equation for superlattices within the envelope-function approximation [F. Szmulowicz, Phys. Rev. B 54, 11 539 (1996)] is derived via the transfer-matrix approach using Burt's boundary conditions. In the process, the tangents-only form of the secular equation is related to an earlier transfer matrix approach [L. R. Ram-Mohan, K. H. Yoo, and R. L. Aggarwal, Phys. Rev. B 38, 6151 (1988)] and extended to structures with an arbitrary number of layers per superlattice period. The formalism is applied to superlattices with two (InAs/In0.23Ga0.77Sb) and three (InAs/In0.3Ga0.7Sb/GaSb) layers per superlattice period, which are of interest for infrared detector and infrared cascade-laser applications, respectively.
Substantial influence on solar energy harnessing ability by geometries of ordered Si nanowire array
2014-01-01
The reflectance of the controlled periodic Si nanowire (NW) arrays is systematically explored, which characterizes the influence on the solar energy harnessing ability by the geometries of the NW. A unique dependence of the reflectance of the Si NW array on the diameter, the height, and the bending of the NW are disclosed. The solar energy loss caused by the reflection of the Si NW array exhibits the minimum for the NW with intermediate diameter and length. A plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method (TMM) simulation is performed, which is well consistent with the experimental results. Our results demonstrate the design principle to optimize the Si NW arrays for high-efficiency solar cells. PACS 81.07.-b; 78.67.-n; 81.16.-c PMID:25258613
Formulation of a dynamic analysis method for a generic family of hoop-mast antenna systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gabriele, A.; Loewy, R.
1981-01-01
Analytical studies of mast-cable-hoop-membrane type antennas were conducted using a transfer matrix numerical analysis approach. This method, by virtue of its specialization and the inherently easy compartmentalization of the formulation and numerical procedures, can be significantly more efficient in computer time required and in the time needed to review and interpret the results.
A new method for the calculation of the conductivity of inhomogeneous systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byshkin, M. S.; Turkin, A. A.
2005-06-01
A new method for computing the conductivity of random irregular resistor networks is developed. This method is a generalization of the transfer-matrix technique, proposed by Derrida and Vannimenus for regular 2D and 3D lattices. At the same time for large systems the method presented in this paper is more efficient than the transfer-matrix technique. To demonstrate the method it is applied to a cubic lattice at the percolation threshold and away from it. The conductivity has been found for lattices with size up to 3243. The ratio between the conductivity exponent t and the correlation length exponent η was estimated to be t/η = 2.315, in good agreement with the literature data.
Li, Xiang-Guo; Chu, Iek-Heng; Zhang, X. -G.; Cheng, Hai-Ping
2015-05-28
Electron transport in graphene is along the sheet but junction devices are often made by stacking different sheets together in a “side-contact” geometry which causes the current to flow perpendicular to the sheets within the device. Such geometry presents a challenge to first-principles transport methods. We solve this problem by implementing a plane-wave-based multiple-scattering theory for electron transport. In this study, this implementation improves the computational efficiency over the existing plane-wave transport code, scales better for parallelization over large number of nodes, and does not require the current direction to be along a lattice axis. As a first application, wemore » calculate the tunneling current through a side-contact graphene junction formed by two separate graphene sheets with the edges overlapping each other. We find that transport properties of this junction depend strongly on the AA or AB stacking within the overlapping region as well as the vacuum gap between two graphene sheets. Finally, such transport behaviors are explained in terms of carbon orbital orientation, hybridization, and delocalization as the geometry is varied.« less
Li, Xiang-Guo; Chu, Iek-Heng; Zhang, X. -G.; Cheng, Hai-Ping
2015-05-28
Electron transport in graphene is along the sheet but junction devices are often made by stacking different sheets together in a “side-contact” geometry which causes the current to flow perpendicular to the sheets within the device. Such geometry presents a challenge to first-principles transport methods. We solve this problem by implementing a plane-wave-based multiple-scattering theory for electron transport. In this study, this implementation improves the computational efficiency over the existing plane-wave transport code, scales better for parallelization over large number of nodes, and does not require the current direction to be along a lattice axis. As a first application, we calculate the tunneling current through a side-contact graphene junction formed by two separate graphene sheets with the edges overlapping each other. We find that transport properties of this junction depend strongly on the AA or AB stacking within the overlapping region as well as the vacuum gap between two graphene sheets. Finally, such transport behaviors are explained in terms of carbon orbital orientation, hybridization, and delocalization as the geometry is varied.
A neutron multiplicity analysis method for uranium samples with liquid scintillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Hao; Lin, Hongtao; Liu, Guorong; Li, Jinghuai; Liang, Qinglei; Zhao, Yonggang
2015-10-01
A new neutron multiplicity analysis method for uranium samples with liquid scintillators is introduced. An active well-type fast neutron multiplicity counter has been built, which consists of four BC501A liquid scintillators, a n/γdiscrimination module MPD-4, a multi-stop time to digital convertor MCS6A, and two Am-Li sources. A mathematical model is built to symbolize the detection processes of fission neutrons. Based on this model, equations in the form of R=F*P*Q*T could be achieved, where F indicates the induced fission rate by interrogation sources, P indicates the transfer matrix determined by multiplication process, Q indicates the transfer matrix determined by detection efficiency, T indicates the transfer matrix determined by signal recording process and crosstalk in the counter. Unknown parameters about the item are determined by the solutions of the equations. A 252Cf source and some low enriched uranium items have been measured. The feasibility of the method is proven by its application to the data analysis of the experiments.
Variational methods for field theories
Ben-Menahem, S.
1986-09-01
Four field theory models are studied: Periodic Quantum Electrodynamics (PQED) in (2 + 1) dimensions, free scalar field theory in (1 + 1) dimensions, the Quantum XY model in (1 + 1) dimensions, and the (1 + 1) dimensional Ising model in a transverse magnetic field. The last three parts deal exclusively with variational methods; the PQED part involves mainly the path-integral approach. The PQED calculation results in a better understanding of the connection between electric confinement through monopole screening, and confinement through tunneling between degenerate vacua. This includes a better quantitative agreement for the string tensions in the two approaches. Free field theory is used as a laboratory for a new variational blocking-truncation approximation, in which the high-frequency modes in a block are truncated to wave functions that depend on the slower background modes (Boron-Oppenheimer approximation). This ''adiabatic truncation'' method gives very accurate results for ground-state energy density and correlation functions. Various adiabatic schemes, with one variable kept per site and then two variables per site, are used. For the XY model, several trial wave functions for the ground state are explored, with an emphasis on the periodic Gaussian. A connection is established with the vortex Coulomb gas of the Euclidean path integral approach. The approximations used are taken from the realms of statistical mechanics (mean field approximation, transfer-matrix methods) and of quantum mechanics (iterative blocking schemes). In developing blocking schemes based on continuous variables, problems due to the periodicity of the model were solved. Our results exhibit an order-disorder phase transition. The transfer-matrix method is used to find a good (non-blocking) trial ground state for the Ising model in a transverse magnetic field in (1 + 1) dimensions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Connick, Robert J.
Accurate measurement of normal incident transmission loss is essential for the acoustic characterization of building materials. In this research, a method of measuring normal incidence sound transmission loss proposed by Salissou et al. as a complement to standard E2611-09 of the American Society for Testing and Materials [Standard Test Method for Measurement of Normal Incidence Sound Transmission of Acoustical Materials Based on the Transfer Matrix Method (American Society for Testing and Materials, New York, 2009)] is verified. Two sam- ples from the original literature are used to verify the method as well as a Filtros RTM sample. Following the verification, several nano-material Aerogel samples are measured.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jara-Almonte, J.; Mitchell, L. D.
1988-01-01
The paper covers two distinct parts: theory and application. The goal of this work was the reduction of model size with an increase in eigenvalue/vector accuracy. This method is ideal for the condensation of large truss- or beam-type structures. The theoretical approach involves the conversion of a continuum transfer matrix beam element into an 'Exact' dynamic stiffness element. This formulation is implemented in a finite element environment. This results in the need to solve a transcendental eigenvalue problem. Once the eigenvalue is determined the eigenvectors can be reconstructed with any desired spatial precision. No discretization limitations are imposed on the reconstruction. The results of such a combined finite element and transfer matrix formulation is a much smaller FEM eigenvalue problem. This formulation has the ability to extract higher eigenvalues as easily and as accurately as lower eigenvalues. Moreover, one can extract many more eigenvalues/vectors from the model than the number of degrees of freedom in the FEM formulation. Typically, the number of eigenvalues accurately extractable via the 'Exact' element method are at least 8 times the number of degrees of freedom. In contrast, the FEM usually extracts one accurate (within 5 percent) eigenvalue for each 3-4 degrees of freedom. The 'Exact' element results in a 20-30 improvement in the number of accurately extractable eigenvalues and eigenvectors.
Zhuo, Ye
2011-01-01
In this thesis, we theoretically study the electromagnetic wave propagation in several passive and active optical components and devices including 2-D photonic crystals, straight and curved waveguides, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), and etc. Several optical designs are also presented like organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells and solar concentrators. The first part of the thesis focuses on theoretical investigation. First, the plane-wave-based transfer (scattering) matrix method (TMM) is briefly described with a short review of photonic crystals and other numerical methods to study them (Chapter 1 and 2). Next TMM, the numerical method itself is investigated in details and developed in advance to deal with more complex optical systems. In chapter 3, TMM is extended in curvilinear coordinates to study curved nanoribbon waveguides. The problem of a curved structure is transformed into an equivalent one of a straight structure with spatially dependent tensors of dielectric constant and magnetic permeability. In chapter 4, a new set of localized basis orbitals are introduced to locally represent electromagnetic field in photonic crystals as alternative to planewave basis. The second part of the thesis focuses on the design of optical devices. First, two examples of TMM applications are given. The first example is the design of metal grating structures as replacements of ITO to enhance the optical absorption in OPV cells (chapter 6). The second one is the design of the same structure as above to enhance the light extraction of OLEDs (chapter 7). Next, two design examples by ray tracing method are given, including applying a microlens array to enhance the light extraction of OLEDs (chapter 5) and an all-angle wide-wavelength design of solar concentrator (chapter 8). In summary, this dissertation has extended TMM which makes it capable of treating complex optical systems. Several optical designs by TMM and ray tracing method are also given as a full complement of this
Modelling parallel assemblies of porous materials using the equivalent circuit method.
Pieren, Reto; Heutschi, Kurt
2015-02-01
Recently, the accuracy of the parallel transfer matrix method (P-TMM) and the admittance sum method (ASM) in the prediction of the absorption properties of parallel assemblies of materials was investigated [Verdière, Panneton, Elkoun, Dupont, and Leclaire, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, EL90-EL95 (2014)]. It was demonstrated that P-TMM is more versatile than ASM, as a larger variety of different backing configurations can be handled. Here it will be shown that the same universality is offered by the equivalent circuit method. PMID:25698040
An approximate loop transfer recovery method for designing fixed-order compensators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calise, Anthony J.; Prasad, J. V. R.
1988-01-01
A method for designing fixed-order dynamic compensators for multivariable time invariant linear systems is presented which is based on the minimization of a linear quadratic performance index. The present formulation is performed in an output feedback setting which uses an observer cononical form to represent the compensator dynamics. Techniques for penalizing the plant and compensator states and for selecting the distribution on initial conditions such that the loop transfer matrix approximates that of a full-state feedback design have been developed. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated using the examples of the pointing of a flexible structure and a helicopter flight control problem.
New method for computation of band structures in 1D photonic crystals based on the Fresnel equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roshan Entezar, S.
2013-02-01
In this paper, we present a new method for calculation of band structure in one-dimensional bilayer photonic crystals, based on the Fresnel equations. We derive a new relation to obtain the band structure without using the Floquet theorem. It is shown that this relation can be simplified under the assumption that the single-path phase-shift acquired through the individual layers of the photonic crystal be equal to ? . The results obtained by our method are compared with the ones obtained from the transfer matrix method to show that they are exactly identical.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Shan-Jun; Hu, Li-Yun; Fan, Hong-Yi
2010-05-01
Based on the entangled Fresnel operator (EFO) proposed in [Commun. Theor. Phys. 46 (2006) 559], the optical operator method studied by the IWOP technique (Ma et al., Commun. Theor. Phys. 49 (2008) 1295) is extended to the two-mode case, which gives the decomposition of the entangled Fresnel operator, corresponding to the decomposition of ray transfer matrix [A, B, C, D]. The EFO can unify those optical operators in two-mode case. Various decompositions of EFO into the exponential canonical operators are obtained. The entangled state representation is useful in the research.
Olson, W B
1987-06-15
The realization that the usual optical geometry of an absorption cell is the frustrum of a cone and that a requirement can be put on any transfer optics system that eliminates the need for a field lens at the cell input leads to a powerful method of first-order optical system design through (1) determination of a required ray transfer matrix, unique except for sign, which requires a single concave spherical mirror (or lens) to implement and (2) getting additional degrees of freedom to make the system more practical at the expense of additional spherical mirrors (or lenses). Two successful applications of the method are described. PMID:20489890
Constructing parent Hamiltonians for SU(N) ALKT states - a diagrammatic method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Abhishek; Quella, Thomas
Over the last decade, there has been increasing experimental interest in alkaline cold atom systems which exhibit SU (N) symmmetry. Theoretical work has shown that a one-dimensional SU (N) chain can have N - 1 symmetric protected states distinguished by fractionalized boundary spins. We introduce a new method for constructing SU (N) invariant Hamiltonians for Haldane phases in one dimension. Working at the AKLT point where the ground state is known exactly, we show a universal form of the Hamiltonian for any appropriate choice of physical and boundary spins. We apply our method to the case where the physical spin is in the adjoint representation and obtain a general expression for the Hamiltonian as well the Transfer Matrix for any N. Finally we comment on the relevance of our results to the generalized Haldane conjecture.
A new process to estimate the speed of sound using three-sensor method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simon, Alexandre; Martinez-Molina, John-Jairo; Fortes-Patella, Regiane
2016-01-01
As a part of complex works aiming at the evaluation of the pump's dynamic transfer matrix, this paper presents an estimation method of the speed of sound in water and water/air flows using three pressure transducer measurements. The experimental study was carried out at the CREMHyG acoustic test rig, for a void ratio varying from 0 to 1 % and for amplitudes of speed of sound from 100 to 1400 m/s. To estimate the speed of sound in this large range of amplitude, a new post-treatment approach was developed, based on the least mean squares method. Experimental results obtained were compared with existing theoretical models, and a very good agreement was observed. The post-processing appeared fast, robust and accurate for all the mono- and diphasic flows analyzed. The results presented in this paper can be applied, for instance, in acoustic characterization of the hydraulic systems, mainly in the case of space rocket turbopump applications.
Third order TRANSPORT with MAD (Methodical Accelerator Design) input
Carey, D.C.
1988-09-20
This paper describes computer-aided design codes for particle accelerators. Among the topics discussed are: input beam description; parameters and algebraic expressions; the physical elements; beam lines; operations; and third-order transfer matrix. (LSP)
Saha, Krishnendu; Straus, Kenneth J.; Glick, Stephen J.; Chen, Yu.
2014-08-28
To maximize sensitivity, it is desirable that ring Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems dedicated for imaging the breast have a small bore. Unfortunately, due to parallax error this causes substantial degradation in spatial resolution for objects near the periphery of the breast. In this work, a framework for computing and incorporating an accurate system matrix into iterative reconstruction is presented in an effort to reduce spatial resolution degradation towards the periphery of the breast. The GATE Monte Carlo Simulation software was utilized to accurately model the system matrix for a breast PET system. A strategy for increasing the count statistics in the system matrix computation and for reducing the system element storage space was used by calculating only a subset of matrix elements and then estimating the rest of the elements by using the geometric symmetry of the cylindrical scanner. To implement this strategy, polar voxel basis functions were used to represent the object, resulting in a block-circulant system matrix. Simulation studies using a breast PET scanner model with ring geometry demonstrated improved contrast at 45% reduced noise level and 1.5 to 3 times resolution performance improvement when compared to MLEM reconstruction using a simple line-integral model. The GATE based system matrix reconstruction technique promises to improve resolution and noise performance and reduce image distortion at FOV periphery compared to line-integral based system matrix reconstruction.
Saha, Krishnendu; Straus, Kenneth J.; Chen, Yu.; Glick, Stephen J.
2014-01-01
To maximize sensitivity, it is desirable that ring Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems dedicated for imaging the breast have a small bore. Unfortunately, due to parallax error this causes substantial degradation in spatial resolution for objects near the periphery of the breast. In this work, a framework for computing and incorporating an accurate system matrix into iterative reconstruction is presented in an effort to reduce spatial resolution degradation towards the periphery of the breast. The GATE Monte Carlo Simulation software was utilized to accurately model the system matrix for a breast PET system. A strategy for increasing the count statistics in the system matrix computation and for reducing the system element storage space was used by calculating only a subset of matrix elements and then estimating the rest of the elements by using the geometric symmetry of the cylindrical scanner. To implement this strategy, polar voxel basis functions were used to represent the object, resulting in a block-circulant system matrix. Simulation studies using a breast PET scanner model with ring geometry demonstrated improved contrast at 45% reduced noise level and 1.5 to 3 times resolution performance improvement when compared to MLEM reconstruction using a simple line-integral model. The GATE based system matrix reconstruction technique promises to improve resolution and noise performance and reduce image distortion at FOV periphery compared to line-integral based system matrix reconstruction. PMID:25371555
Saha, Krishnendu; Straus, Kenneth J; Chen, Yu; Glick, Stephen J
2014-08-28
To maximize sensitivity, it is desirable that ring Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems dedicated for imaging the breast have a small bore. Unfortunately, due to parallax error this causes substantial degradation in spatial resolution for objects near the periphery of the breast. In this work, a framework for computing and incorporating an accurate system matrix into iterative reconstruction is presented in an effort to reduce spatial resolution degradation towards the periphery of the breast. The GATE Monte Carlo Simulation software was utilized to accurately model the system matrix for a breast PET system. A strategy for increasing the count statistics in the system matrix computation and for reducing the system element storage space was used by calculating only a subset of matrix elements and then estimating the rest of the elements by using the geometric symmetry of the cylindrical scanner. To implement this strategy, polar voxel basis functions were used to represent the object, resulting in a block-circulant system matrix. Simulation studies using a breast PET scanner model with ring geometry demonstrated improved contrast at 45% reduced noise level and 1.5 to 3 times resolution performance improvement when compared to MLEM reconstruction using a simple line-integral model. The GATE based system matrix reconstruction technique promises to improve resolution and noise performance and reduce image distortion at FOV periphery compared to line-integral based system matrix reconstruction. PMID:25371555
Transfer Matrix Approach to 1d Random Band Matrices: Density of States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shcherbina, Mariya; Shcherbina, Tatyana
2016-08-01
We study the special case of n× n 1D Gaussian Hermitian random band matrices, when the covariance of the elements is determined by the matrix J=(-W^2triangle +1)^{-1} . Assuming that n≥ CW log W≫ 1 , we prove that the averaged density of states coincides with the Wigner semicircle law up to the correction of order W^{-1}.
Spacecraft Orbit Determination with The B-spline Approximation Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Ye-zhi; Huang, Yong; Hu, Xiao-gong; Li, Pei-jia; Cao, Jian-feng
2014-04-01
It is known that the dynamical orbit determination is the most common way to get the precise orbits of spacecraft. However, it is hard to build up the precise dynamical model of spacecraft sometimes. In order to solve this problem, the technique of the orbit determination with the B-spline approximation method based on the theory of function approximation is presented in this article. In order to verify the effectiveness of this method, simulative orbit determinations in the cases of LEO (Low Earth Orbit), MEO (Medium Earth Orbit), and HEO (Highly Eccentric Orbit) satellites are performed, and it is shown that this method has a reliable accuracy and stable solution. The approach can be performed in both the conventional celestial coordinate system and the conventional terrestrial coordinate system. The spacecraft's position and velocity can be calculated directly with the B-spline approximation method, it needs not to integrate the dynamical equations, nor to calculate the state transfer matrix, thus the burden of calculations in the orbit determination is reduced substantially relative to the dynamical orbit determination method. The technique not only has a certain theoretical significance, but also can serve as a conventional algorithm in the spacecraft orbit determination.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Mingfeng; Xia, Ling; Shou, Guofa; Tang, Min
2007-03-01
Computing epicardial potentials from body surface potentials constitutes one form of ill-posed inverse problem of electrocardiography (ECG). To solve this ECG inverse problem, the Tikhonov regularization and truncated singular-value decomposition (TSVD) methods have been commonly used to overcome the ill-posed property by imposing constraints on the magnitudes or derivatives of the computed epicardial potentials. Such direct regularization methods, however, are impractical when the transfer matrix is large. The least-squares QR (LSQR) method, one of the iterative regularization methods based on Lanczos bidiagonalization and QR factorization, has been shown to be numerically more reliable in various circumstances than the other methods considered. This LSQR method, however, to our knowledge, has not been introduced and investigated for the ECG inverse problem. In this paper, the regularization properties of the Krylov subspace iterative method of LSQR for solving the ECG inverse problem were investigated. Due to the 'semi-convergence' property of the LSQR method, the L-curve method was used to determine the stopping iteration number. The performance of the LSQR method for solving the ECG inverse problem was also evaluated based on a realistic heart-torso model simulation protocol. The results show that the inverse solutions recovered by the LSQR method were more accurate than those recovered by the Tikhonov and TSVD methods. In addition, by combing the LSQR with genetic algorithms (GA), the performance can be improved further. It suggests that their combination may provide a good scheme for solving the ECG inverse problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez-Coppola, H.; Diago-Cisneros, L.; Pérez-Álvarez, R.
2007-11-01
Using the formal analysis made by Bohm [D. Bohm, Quantum Theory (Dover, New York, 1979)] to calculate approximately the phase time for a transmitted and the reflected wave packets through a potential barrier, we calculate the phase time for a semiconductor system formed by different mesoscopic layers. The transmitted and the reflected wave packets are analyzed and the applicability of this procedure, based on the stationary phase of a wave packet, is considered in different conditions. For the applicability of the stationary phase method an expression is obtained in the case of the transmitted wave depending only on the derivatives of the phase, up to third order. This condition indicates whether the parameters of the system allow us to define the wave packet by its leading term. The case of a multiple barrier systems is shown as an illustration of the results. This formalism includes the use of the transfer matrix to describe the central stratum, whether it is formed by one layer (the single barrier case), or two barriers and an inner well (the double barrier resonant tunneling semiconductor structure system), but one can assume that this stratum can be comprise of any number or any kind of semiconductor layers.
Finite-Temperature Variational Monte Carlo Method for Strongly Correlated Electron Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takai, Kensaku; Ido, Kota; Misawa, Takahiro; Yamaji, Youhei; Imada, Masatoshi
2016-03-01
A new computational method for finite-temperature properties of strongly correlated electrons is proposed by extending the variational Monte Carlo method originally developed for the ground state. The method is based on the path integral in the imaginary-time formulation, starting from the infinite-temperature state that is well approximated by a small number of certain random initial states. Lower temperatures are progressively reached by the imaginary-time evolution. The algorithm follows the framework of the quantum transfer matrix and finite-temperature Lanczos methods, but we extend them to treat much larger system sizes without the negative sign problem by optimizing the truncated Hilbert space on the basis of the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP). This optimization algorithm is equivalent to the stochastic reconfiguration (SR) method that has been frequently used for the ground state to optimally truncate the Hilbert space. The obtained finite-temperature states allow an interpretation based on the thermal pure quantum (TPQ) state instead of the conventional canonical-ensemble average. Our method is tested for the one- and two-dimensional Hubbard models and its accuracy and efficiency are demonstrated.
A general solution strategy of modified power method for higher mode solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Peng; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung
2016-01-01
A general solution strategy of the modified power iteration method for calculating higher eigenmodes has been developed and applied in continuous energy Monte Carlo simulation. The new approach adopts four features: 1) the eigen decomposition of transfer matrix, 2) weight cancellation for higher modes, 3) population control with higher mode weights, and 4) stabilization technique of statistical fluctuations using multi-cycle accumulations. The numerical tests of neutron transport eigenvalue problems successfully demonstrate that the new strategy can significantly accelerate the fission source convergence with stable convergence behavior while obtaining multiple higher eigenmodes at the same time. The advantages of the new strategy can be summarized as 1) the replacement of the cumbersome solution step of high order polynomial equations required by Booth's original method with the simple matrix eigen decomposition, 2) faster fission source convergence in inactive cycles, 3) more stable behaviors in both inactive and active cycles, and 4) smaller variances in active cycles. Advantages 3 and 4 can be attributed to the lower sensitivity of the new strategy to statistical fluctuations due to the multi-cycle accumulations. The application of the modified power method to continuous energy Monte Carlo simulation and the higher eigenmodes up to 4th order are reported for the first time in this paper.
A new Monte Carlo power method for the eigenvalue problem of transfer matrices
Koma, Tohru )
1993-04-01
The author proposes a new Monte Carlo method for calculating eigenvalues of transfer matrices leading to free energies and to correlation lengths of classical and quantum many-body systems. Generally, this method can be applied to the calculation of the maximum eigenvalue of a nonnegative matrix A such that all the matrix elements of A[sup k] are strictly positive for an integer k. This method is based on a new representation of the maximum eigenvalue of the matrix A as the thermal average of a certain observable of a many-body system. Therefore one can easily calculate the maximum eigenvalue of a transfer matrix leading to the free energy in the standard Monte Carlo simulations, such as the Metropolis algorithm. As test cases, the author calculates the free energies of the square-lattice Ising model and of the spin-1/2 XY Heisenberg chain. He also proves two useful theorems on the ergodicity in quantum Monte Carlo algorithms, or more generally, on the ergodicity of Monte Carlo algorithms using the new representation of the maximum eigenvalue of the matrix A. 39 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Briones-Torres, J. A.; Pernas-Salomón, R.; Pérez-Álvarez, R.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.
2016-05-01
Gapless bilayer graphene (GBG), like monolayer graphene, is a material system with unique properties, such as anti-Klein tunneling and intrinsic Fano resonances. These properties rely on the gapless parabolic dispersion relation and the chiral nature of bilayer graphene electrons. In addition, propagating and evanescent electron states coexist inherently in this material, giving rise to these exotic properties. In this sense, bilayer graphene is unique, since in most material systems in which Fano resonance phenomena are manifested an external source that provides extended states is required. However, from a numerical standpoint, the presence of evanescent-divergent states in the eigenfunctions linear superposition representing the Dirac spinors, leads to a numerical degradation (the so called Ωd problem) in the practical applications of the standard Coefficient Transfer Matrix (K) method used to study charge transport properties in Bilayer Graphene based multi-barrier systems. We present here a straightforward procedure based in the hybrid compliance-stiffness matrix method (H) that can overcome this numerical degradation. Our results show that in contrast to standard matrix method, the proposed H method is suitable to study the transmission and transport properties of electrons in GBG superlattice since it remains numerically stable regardless the size of the superlattice and the range of values taken by the input parameters: the energy and angle of the incident electrons, the barrier height and the thickness and number of barriers. We show that the matrix determinant can be used as a test of the numerical accuracy in real calculations.
Accurate reliability analysis method for quantum-dot cellular automata circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Huanqing; Cai, Li; Wang, Sen; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Yang, Xiaokuo
2015-10-01
Probabilistic transfer matrix (PTM) is a widely used model in the reliability research of circuits. However, PTM model cannot reflect the impact of input signals on reliability, so it does not completely conform to the mechanism of the novel field-coupled nanoelectronic device which is called quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA). It is difficult to get accurate results when PTM model is used to analyze the reliability of QCA circuits. To solve this problem, we present the fault tree models of QCA fundamental devices according to different input signals. After that, the binary decision diagram (BDD) is used to quantitatively investigate the reliability of two QCA XOR gates depending on the presented models. By employing the fault tree models, the impact of input signals on reliability can be identified clearly and the crucial components of a circuit can be found out precisely based on the importance values (IVs) of components. So this method is contributive to the construction of reliable QCA circuits.
Series Expansion Method for Asymmetrical Percolation Models with Two Connection Probabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inui, Norio; Komatsu, Genichi; Kameoka, Koichi
2000-01-01
In order to study the solvability of the percolation model based on Guttmann and Enting's conjecture, the power series for the percolation probability in the form of ∑nHn(q)pn is examined. Although the power series is given by calculating inverse of the transfer-matrix in principle, it is very hard to obtain the inverse matrix containing many complex polynomials as elements. We introduce a new series expansion technique which does not necessitate inverse operation for the transfer-matrix.By using the new procedure, we derive the series of the asymmetrical percolation probability including the isotropic percolation probability as a special case.
Hsu, Sen-ming; Chang, Hung-chun
2008-12-22
To effectively investigate the fundamental characteristics of two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals (PCs) with arbitrary 3D material anisotropy under the out-of-plane wave propagation, we establish a full-vectorial finite element method based eigenvalue algorithm to perform related analysis correctly. The band edge diagrams can be conveniently constructed from the band structures of varied propagation constants obtained from the algorithm, which is helpful for the analysis and design of photonic ban gap (PBG) fibers. Several PCs are analyzed to demonstrate the correctness of this numerical model. Our analysis results for simple PCs are checked with others' ones using different methods, including the transfer matrix method, the finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) method, and the plane-wave expansion method. And the validity of those for the most complex PC with arbitrary 3D anisotropy is supported by related liquid-crystal-filled PBG fiber mode analysis, which demonstrates the dependence of transmission properties on the PBGs, employing a full-vectorial finite element beam propagation method (FE-BPM). PMID:19104565
Yang, Chao
2009-07-17
We present a practical approach to calculate the complex band structure of an electrode for quantum transport calculations. This method is designed for plane wave based Hamiltonian with nonlocal pseudopotentials and the auxiliary periodic boundary condition transport calculation approach. Currently there is no direct method to calculate all the evanescent states for a given energy for systems with nonlocal pseudopotentials. On the other hand, in the auxiliary periodic boundary condition transport calculation, there is no need for all the evanescent states at a given energy. The current method fills this niche. The method has been used to study copper and gold nanowires and bulk electrodes.
A Method for Efficient Transmittance Spectrum Prediction of Transparent Composite Electrodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Zhao; Dhar, A.; Alford, T. L.
2015-07-01
The interest in indium-free transparent composite electrode (TCE), a thin metal layer embedded between two transparent metal oxide (TMO) layers resulting in TMO/metal/TMO composite structure, has grown recently with the advent of their high figures of merit and its potential application in photovoltaic applications. However, most of the work to date has focused on experimentally producing the best optically transmitting TCE. To better design TCEs and minimize experimental work, it would be useful to develop a model that predicts the optical transmission. In the current work, the transfer-matrix method is employed to calculate the transmittance spectrum of TCE. To validate this approach, the transmittance spectra of TiO2/Au/TiO2 and TiO2/Ag/TiO2 multilayer thin-film TCEs are calculated with use of extracted material parameters. The calculated transmittance spectrum of TiO2/Au/TiO2 matches the measured spectrum quite well. However, the calcualted transmittance of TiO2/Ag/TiO2 is higher than its measured transmittance. The presence of voids in the Ag film is probably responsible for the decreased transmittance of the TiO2/Ag/TiO2 sample, and the continuous Au film in TiO2/Au/TiO2 ensures a good agreement between transmittance prediction and measurement. Our approach is a reliable tool to predict the optical transmittance of TCE with continuous films, and it can efficiently expedite the selection from numerous possible combinations of transparent metal oxides and metals when developing TCEs for future photovoltaic applications. It can also serve as a convenient method to assess the continuity of embedded metal layer.
More, J. J.; Sorensen, D. C.
1982-02-01
Newton's method plays a central role in the development of numerical techniques for optimization. In fact, most of the current practical methods for optimization can be viewed as variations on Newton's method. It is therefore important to understand Newton's method as an algorithm in its own right and as a key introduction to the most recent ideas in this area. One of the aims of this expository paper is to present and analyze two main approaches to Newton's method for unconstrained minimization: the line search approach and the trust region approach. The other aim is to present some of the recent developments in the optimization field which are related to Newton's method. In particular, we explore several variations on Newton's method which are appropriate for large scale problems, and we also show how quasi-Newton methods can be derived quite naturally from Newton's method.
Cui, Jiwen; Feng, Kunpeng; Hu, Yang; Li, Junying; Dang, Hong; Tan, Jiubin
2015-12-28
Focusing on the ultra-precision dimensional measurement of parts with micro-scale dimensions and high aspect ratios, a two-dimensional double fiber probe with a single fiber Bragg grating (DS-FBG probe) is investigated in detail in this paper. The theoretical analysis of the sensing principle is verified by spectrum simulations of the DS-FBG probe with a modified transfer matrix method using the strain distribution within the DS-FBG probe. The fabrication process and physical principle of the capillary-driven self-assembly of double fibers in the UV adhesive with a low viscosity are demonstrated. Experimental results indicate that resolutions of 30 nm in radial direction and 15 nm in axial direction can be achieved, and the short-term displacement drifts within 90 seconds are 28.0 nm in radial direction and 7.9 nm in axial direction, and the long-term displacement drifts within 1 hour are 61.3 nm in radial direction and 17.3 nm in axial direction. The repeatability of the probing system can reach 60 nm and the measurement result of a standard nozzle is 300.49 μm with a standard deviation of 20 nm. PMID:26831960
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Huamao
1998-11-01
In this paper, a new sonofluorescence method is proposed. Based upon the method, the author has obtained the sonofluorescence emission spectrum of an aqueous luminol- NaOH solution, and displayed the cavitation field distribution in a sonochemical glass reactor.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Resistivity methods were among the first geophysical techniques developed. The basic concept originated with Conrad Schlumberger, who conducted the initial resistivity field tests in Normandy, France during 1912. The resistivity method, employed in its earliest and most conventional form, uses an ex...
Greve, Douglas N; Salat, David H; Bowen, Spencer L; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Schultz, Aaron P; Catana, Ciprian; Becker, J Alex; Svarer, Claus; Knudsen, Gitte M; Sperling, Reisa A; Johnson, Keith A
2016-05-15
A cross-sectional group study of the effects of aging on brain metabolism as measured with (18)F-FDG-PET was performed using several different partial volume correction (PVC) methods: no correction (NoPVC), Meltzer (MZ), Müller-Gärtner (MG), and the symmetric geometric transfer matrix (SGTM) using 99 subjects aged 65-87years from the Harvard Aging Brain study. Sensitivity to parameter selection was tested for MZ and MG. The various methods and parameter settings resulted in an extremely wide range of conclusions as to the effects of age on metabolism, from almost no changes to virtually all of cortical regions showing a decrease with age. Simulations showed that NoPVC had significant bias that made the age effect on metabolism appear to be much larger and more significant than it is. MZ was found to be the same as NoPVC for liberal brain masks; for conservative brain masks, MZ showed few areas correlated with age. MG and SGTM were found to be similar; however, MG was sensitive to a thresholding parameter that can result in data loss. CSF uptake was surprisingly high at about 15% of that in gray matter. The exclusion of CSF from SGTM and MG models, which is almost universally done, caused a substantial loss in the power to detect age-related changes. This diversity of results reflects the literature on the metabolism of aging and suggests that extreme care should be taken when applying PVC or interpreting results that have been corrected for partial volume effects. Using the SGTM, significant age-related changes of about 7% per decade were found in frontal and cingulate cortices as well as primary visual and insular cortices. PMID:26915497
Lin, YuPo J.; Hestekin, Jamie; Arora, Michelle; St. Martin, Edward J.
2004-09-28
An electrodeionization method for continuously producing and or separating and/or concentrating ionizable organics present in dilute concentrations in an ionic solution while controlling the pH to within one to one-half pH unit method for continuously producing and or separating and/or concentrating ionizable organics present in dilute concentrations in an ionic solution while controlling the pH to within one to one-half pH unit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio
2012-03-01
Ensemble methods are statistical and computational learning procedures reminiscent of the human social learning behavior of seeking several opinions before making any crucial decision. The idea of combining the opinions of different "experts" to obtain an overall “ensemble” decision is rooted in our culture at least from the classical age of ancient Greece, and it has been formalized during the Enlightenment with the Condorcet Jury Theorem[45]), which proved that the judgment of a committee is superior to those of individuals, provided the individuals have reasonable competence. Ensembles are sets of learning machines that combine in some way their decisions, or their learning algorithms, or different views of data, or other specific characteristics to obtain more reliable and more accurate predictions in supervised and unsupervised learning problems [48,116]. A simple example is represented by the majority vote ensemble, by which the decisions of different learning machines are combined, and the class that receives the majority of “votes” (i.e., the class predicted by the majority of the learning machines) is the class predicted by the overall ensemble [158]. In the literature, a plethora of terms other than ensembles has been used, such as fusion, combination, aggregation, and committee, to indicate sets of learning machines that work together to solve a machine learning problem [19,40,56,66,99,108,123], but in this chapter we maintain the term ensemble in its widest meaning, in order to include the whole range of combination methods. Nowadays, ensemble methods represent one of the main current research lines in machine learning [48,116], and the interest of the research community on ensemble methods is witnessed by conferences and workshops specifically devoted to ensembles, first of all the multiple classifier systems (MCS) conference organized by Roli, Kittler, Windeatt, and other researchers of this area [14,62,85,149,173]. Several theories have been
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio
2012-03-01
Ensemble methods are statistical and computational learning procedures reminiscent of the human social learning behavior of seeking several opinions before making any crucial decision. The idea of combining the opinions of different "experts" to obtain an overall “ensemble” decision is rooted in our culture at least from the classical age of ancient Greece, and it has been formalized during the Enlightenment with the Condorcet Jury Theorem[45]), which proved that the judgment of a committee is superior to those of individuals, provided the individuals have reasonable competence. Ensembles are sets of learning machines that combine in some way their decisions, or their learning algorithms, or different views of data, or other specific characteristics to obtain more reliable and more accurate predictions in supervised and unsupervised learning problems [48,116]. A simple example is represented by the majority vote ensemble, by which the decisions of different learning machines are combined, and the class that receives the majority of “votes” (i.e., the class predicted by the majority of the learning machines) is the class predicted by the overall ensemble [158]. In the literature, a plethora of terms other than ensembles has been used, such as fusion, combination, aggregation, and committee, to indicate sets of learning machines that work together to solve a machine learning problem [19,40,56,66,99,108,123], but in this chapter we maintain the term ensemble in its widest meaning, in order to include the whole range of combination methods. Nowadays, ensemble methods represent one of the main current research lines in machine learning [48,116], and the interest of the research community on ensemble methods is witnessed by conferences and workshops specifically devoted to ensembles, first of all the multiple classifier systems (MCS) conference organized by Roli, Kittler, Windeatt, and other researchers of this area [14,62,85,149,173]. Several theories have been
Methods of orbit correction system optimization
Chao, Yu-Chiu
1997-08-01
Extracting optimal performance out of an orbit correction system is an important component of accelerator design and evaluation. The question of effectiveness vs. economy, however, is not always easily tractable. This is especially true in cases where betatron function magnitude and phase advance do not have smooth or periodic dependencies on the physical distance. In this report a program is presented using linear algebraic techniques to address this problem. A systematic recipe is given, supported with quantitative criteria, for arriving at an orbit correction system design with the optimal balance between performance and economy. The orbit referred to in this context can be generalized to include angle, path length, orbit effects on the optical transfer matrix, and simultaneous effects on multiple pass orbits.
Glass, J.T.
1993-01-01
Methods discussed in this compilation of notes and diagrams are Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and other surface analysis techniques (auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and scanning tunnelling microscopy). A comparative evaluation of different techniques is performed. In-vacuo and in-situ analyses are described.
Stokley, C.O.; Haas, R.C.
1991-04-30
This patent describes a drilling method. It includes: rotating a drill bit in a well head to drill a well in an earth formation while circulating drilling fluid consisting essentially of a liquid; conducting the returning drilling fluid, and oil and gas from the formation to a flow rate control valve and to a pressure control valve; and conducting fluid from the flow rate control valve and the pressure control valve to a separator vessel maintained under pressure.
Googin, J.M.
1963-11-01
Methods of making articles by powder metallurgy techniques are presented. An article is made by packing a metal powder into a desired shape, raising the temperature of the powder compact to a sintering temperature in the presence of a reducing gas, and alternately increasing and decreasing the pressure of the gas while the temperatume is being raised. The product has a greater density than can be achieved by sintering for the same length of time at a constant gas pressure. (AEC)
Townsend, R.G.
1959-08-25
A method is described for protectively coating beryllium metal by etching the metal in an acid bath, immersing the etched beryllium in a solution of sodium zincate for a brief period of time, immersing the beryllium in concentrated nitric acid, immersing the beryhlium in a second solution of sodium zincate, electroplating a thin layer of copper over the beryllium, and finally electroplating a layer of chromium over the copper layer.
Tümmler, Burkhard
2014-01-01
Genotyping allows for the identification of bacterial isolates to the strain level and provides basic information about the evolutionary biology, population biology, taxonomy, ecology, and genetics of bacteria. Depending on the underlying question and available resources, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains may be typed by anonymous fingerprinting techniques or electronically portable sequence-based typing methods such as multiple locus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA), multilocus sequence typing, or oligonucleotide microarray. Macrorestriction fragment pattern analysis is a genotyping method that is globally applicable to all bacteria and hence has been and still is the reference method for strain typing in bacteriology. Agarose-embedded chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a rare-cutting restriction endonuclease and the generated 20-70 fragments are then separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The chapter provides a detailed step-by-step manual for SpeI genome fingerprinting of Pseudomonas chromosomes that has been optimized for SpeI fragment pattern analysis of P. aeruginosa. PMID:24818895
Walls, Claudia A.; Kirby, Glen H.; Janney, Mark A.; Omatete, Ogbemi O.; Nunn, Stephen D.; McMillan, April D.
2000-01-01
A method of gelcasting includes the steps of providing a solution of at least hydroxymethylacrylamide (HMAM) and water. At least one inorganic powder is added to the mixture. At least one initiator system is provided to polymerize the HMAM. The initiator polymerizes the HMAM and water, to form a firm hydrogel that contains the inorganic powder. One or more comonomers can be polymerized with the HMAM monomer, to alter the final properties of the gelcast material. Additionally, one or more additives can be included in the polymerization mixture, to alter the properties of the gelcast material.
Gini, Giuseppina
2016-01-01
In this chapter, we introduce the basis of computational chemistry and discuss how computational methods have been extended to some biological properties and toxicology, in particular. Since about 20 years, chemical experimentation is more and more replaced by modeling and virtual experimentation, using a large core of mathematics, chemistry, physics, and algorithms. Then we see how animal experiments, aimed at providing a standardized result about a biological property, can be mimicked by new in silico methods. Our emphasis here is on toxicology and on predicting properties through chemical structures. Two main streams of such models are available: models that consider the whole molecular structure to predict a value, namely QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships), and models that find relevant substructures to predict a class, namely SAR. The term in silico discovery is applied to chemical design, to computational toxicology, and to drug discovery. We discuss how the experimental practice in biological science is moving more and more toward modeling and simulation. Such virtual experiments confirm hypotheses, provide data for regulation, and help in designing new chemicals. PMID:27311459
Grover, Blair K.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.; Casper, William L.
2005-12-20
A method for collecting data regarding a matric potential of a media includes providing a tensiometer having a stainless steel tensiometer casing, the stainless steel tensiometer casing comprising a tip portion which includes a wetted porous stainless steel membrane through which a matric potential of a media is sensed; driving the tensiometer into the media using an insertion tube comprising a plurality of probe casing which are selectively coupled to form the insertion tube as the tensiometer is progressively driven deeper into the media, wherein the wetted porous stainless steel membrane is in contact with the media; and sensing the matric potential the media exerts on the wetted porous stainless steel membrane by a pressure sensor in fluid hydraulic connection with the porous stainless steel membrane. A tensiometer includes a stainless steel casing.
Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.
2012-12-18
A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.
Cornell, A.A.; Dunbar, J.V.; Ruffner, J.H.
1959-09-29
A semi-automatic method is described for the weld joining of pipes and fittings which utilizes the inert gasshielded consumable electrode electric arc welding technique, comprising laying down the root pass at a first peripheral velocity and thereafter laying down the filler passes over the root pass necessary to complete the weld by revolving the pipes and fittings at a second peripheral velocity different from the first peripheral velocity, maintaining the welding head in a fixed position as to the specific direction of revolution, while the longitudinal axis of the welding head is disposed angularly in the direction of revolution at amounts between twenty minutas and about four degrees from the first position.
A frequency domain approach to handling qualities design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolovich, W. A.
1978-01-01
A method for designing linear multivariable feedback control systems based on desired closed loop transfer matrix information is introduced. The technique which was employed to achieve the final design was based on a theoretical result, known as the structure theorem. The structure theorem was a frequency domain relationship which simplified the expression for the transfer matrix (matrix of transfer functions) of a linear time-invariant multivariable system. The effect of linear state variable feedback on the closed loop transfer matrix of the system was also clarified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dordain, J. J.
Methods for modeling and characterizing the fuel supply system of liquid propellant rockets subjects to longitudinal vibrations at frequencies between 10 and 100 Hz (the so-called pogo effect) are discussed. The structural, motor and fuel system transfer functions are described. Experimental determination of the transfer matrix of an elementary transfer matrix is outlined. An ultrasonic flowmeter is presented. The methods and the flowmeter were applied to Ariane and Diamant B, eliminating the pogo effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roehrig, Hans; Hashmi, Syed F.; Dallas, William J.; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Rehm, Kelly; Fan, Jiahua
2010-08-01
Our laboratory has investigated the efficacy of a suite of color calibration and monitor profiling packages which employ a variety of color measurement sensors. Each of the methods computes gamma correction tables for the red, green and blue color channels of a monitor that attempt to: a) match a desired luminance range and tone reproduction curve; and b) maintain a target neutral point across the range of grey values. All of the methods examined here produce International Color Consortium (ICC) profiles that describe the color rendering capabilities of the monitor after calibration. Color profiles incorporate a transfer matrix that establishes the relationship between RGB driving levels and the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) XYZ (tristimulus) values of the resulting on-screen color; the matrix is developed by displaying color patches of known RGB values on the monitor and measuring the tristimulus values with a sensor. The number and chromatic distribution of color patches varies across methods and is usually not under user control. In this work we examine the effect of employing differing calibration and profiling methods on rendition of color images. A series of color patches encoded in sRGB color space were presented on the monitor using color-management software that utilized the ICC profile produced by each method. The patches were displayed on the calibrated monitor and measured with a Minolta CS200 colorimeter. Differences in intended and achieved luminance and chromaticity were computed using the CIE DE2000 color-difference metric, in which a value of ΔE = 1 is generally considered to be approximately one just noticeable difference (JND) in color. We observed between one and 17 JND's for individual colors, depending on calibration method and target. As an extension of this fundamental work1, we further improved our calibration method by defining concrete calibration parameters for the display, using the NEC wide gamut puck, and making sure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowen, Spencer L.; Byars, Larry G.; Michel, Christian J.; Chonde, Daniel B.; Catana, Ciprian
2013-10-01
Kinetic parameters estimated from dynamic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET acquisitions have been used frequently to assess brain function in humans. Neglecting partial volume correction (PVC) for a dynamic series has been shown to produce significant bias in model estimates. Accurate PVC requires a space-variant model describing the reconstructed image spatial point spread function (PSF) that accounts for resolution limitations, including non-uniformities across the field of view due to the parallax effect. For ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM), image resolution convergence is local and influenced significantly by the number of iterations, the count density, and background-to-target ratio. As both count density and background-to-target values for a brain structure can change during a dynamic scan, the local image resolution may also concurrently vary. When PVC is applied post-reconstruction the kinetic parameter estimates may be biased when neglecting the frame-dependent resolution. We explored the influence of the PVC method and implementation on kinetic parameters estimated by fitting 18F-FDG dynamic data acquired on a dedicated brain PET scanner and reconstructed with and without PSF modelling in the OSEM algorithm. The performance of several PVC algorithms was quantified with a phantom experiment, an anthropomorphic Monte Carlo simulation, and a patient scan. Using the last frame reconstructed image only for regional spread function (RSF) generation, as opposed to computing RSFs for each frame independently, and applying perturbation geometric transfer matrix PVC with PSF based OSEM produced the lowest magnitude bias kinetic parameter estimates in most instances, although at the cost of increased noise compared to the PVC methods utilizing conventional OSEM. Use of the last frame RSFs for PVC with no PSF modelling in the OSEM algorithm produced the lowest bias in cerebral metabolic rate of glucose estimates, although by less than 5% in most
From Method to Post Method: A Panacea!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Masouleh, Nima Shakouri
2012-01-01
The foundation of language teaching has undergone many changes. The rise and fall of language teaching methods depends upon a variety of factors extrinsic to a method itself and often reflects the influence of profit-seekers and promoters, as well as the forces of the intellectual marketplace. There was always a source of contention among people…
The Multidimensional WKB Method.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knudson, Stephen K.; Noid, D. W.
1989-01-01
Discusses a new method for determining the eigenvalues of the Schroedinger equation when the potential energy function does not have a simple form. Describes the mathematical methods and provides an application. Lists limitations to the method. (MVL)
Uranium price forecasting methods
Fuller, D.M.
1994-03-01
This article reviews a number of forecasting methods that have been applied to uranium prices and compares their relative strengths and weaknesses. The methods reviewed are: (1) judgemental methods, (2) technical analysis, (3) time-series methods, (4) fundamental analysis, and (5) econometric methods. Historically, none of these methods has performed very well, but a well-thought-out model is still useful as a basis from which to adjust to new circumstances and try again.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, F. Burton
1977-01-01
The Moore methods, in which college mathematics students prove theorems for themselves, is described. Difficulties and drawbacks to this method, appropriate areas of mathematics in which the Moore method can be used, and techniques in using the method are discussed. (DT)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Freed, Alan D.
1996-01-01
There are many aspects to consider when designing a Rosenbrock-Wanner-Wolfbrandt (ROW) method for the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations (ODE's) solving initial value problems (IVP's). The process can be simplified by constructing ROW methods around good Runge-Kutta (RK) methods. The formulation of a new, simple, embedded, third-order, ROW method demonstrates this design approach.
Hedin, F.; Le Coguiec, A.; Le Floch, C.; Llory, M.; Villemeur, A.
1981-01-01
The method described in this paper is an inductive method for combining failures (called the Failure Combination Method (FCM)). It is based on a preliminary analysis of the systems performed with an FMEA. As a study has been undertaken to test the method, the organization of the study as well as its first results from a methodological point of view are stressed. 8 refs.
Radiochemical method development
Erickson, M.D.; Aldstadt, J.H.; Alvarado, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Smith, L.L.
1994-09-01
The authors have developed methods for chemical characterization of the environment under a multitask project that focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. The authors have developed improved methods for separation of environmental levels of technetium-99, radium, and actinides from soil and water; separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences; and isolation of strontium. They are also developing methods for simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes (including nonradionuclides) by using a new instrumental technique, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The new ICP-MS methods have greater sensitivity and efficiency and could replace many radiometric techniques. They are using flow injection analysis to integrate and automate the separation methods with the ICP-MS methodology. The final product of all activities will be methods that are available (published in the U.S. Department of Energy`s analytical methods compendium) and acceptable for use in regulatory situations.
Calculation of complex band structure for low symmetry lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srivastava, Manoj; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Cheng, Hai-Ping
2009-03-01
Complex band structure calculation is an integral part of a first-principles plane-wave based quantum transport method. [1] The direction of decay for the complex wave vectors is also the transport direction. The existing algorithm [1] has the limitation that it only allows the transport direction along a lattice vector perpendicular to the basal plane formed by two other lattice vectors, e.g., the c-axis of a tetragonal lattice. We generalize this algorithm to nonorthogonal lattices with transport direction not aligned with any lattice vector. We show that this generalization leads to changes in the boundary conditions and the Schrodinger's equation projected to the transport direction. We present, as an example, the calculation of the complex band structure of fcc Cu along a direction perpendicular to the (111) basal plane. [1] Hyoung Joon Choi and Jisoon Ihm, Phys. Rev. B 59, 2267 (1999).
Selecting Needs Analysis Methods.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Newstrom, John W.; Lilyquist, John M.
1979-01-01
Presents a contingency model for decision making with regard to needs analysis methods. Focus is on 12 methods with brief discussion of their defining characteristics and some operational guidelines for their use. (JOW)
Electromagnetic induction methods
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Electromagnetic induction geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use for agricultural purposes. Electromagnetic induction methods measure the electrical conductivity (or resistivity) for a bulk volume of soil directly beneath the surface. An instrument called a ground conductivity meter...
Geobacteraceae strains and methods
Lovley, Derek R.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Yi, Hana
2015-07-07
Embodiments of the present invention provide a method of producing genetically modified strains of electricigenic microbes that are specifically adapted for the production of electrical current in microbial fuel cells, as well as strains produced by such methods and fuel cells using such strains. In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides genetically modified strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and methods of using such strains.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bolshakov, A. A.
1985-01-01
The study of Earth from space with specialized satellites, and from manned orbiting stations, has become important in the space programs. The broad complex of methods used for probing Earth from space are different methods of the study of ocean, dynamics. The different methods of ocean observation are described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1977-01-01
Basic differential equations governing compressible turbulent boundary layer flow are reviewed, including conservation of mass and energy, momentum equations derived from Navier-Stokes equations, and equations of state. Closure procedures were broken down into: (1) simple or zeroth-order methods, (2) first-order or mean field closure methods, and (3) second-order or mean turbulence field methods.
1993-12-31
Chapter 4, discusses the various techniques used in the study human cytogenetics. The methods are discussed in historical order, from direct methods to tissue culture techniques, prenatal studies, meiotic studies, sex chromatin techniques, banding techniques, prophase banding and replication studies. Nomenclature of human chromosomes and quantitative methods are also mentioned. 60 refs., 3 figs.
Redefining the "Scientific Method".
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spiece, Kelly R.; Colosi, Joseph
2000-01-01
Surveys 15 introductory biology textbooks for their presentation of the scientific method. Teaching the scientific method involves more than simplified steps and subjectivity--human politics, cultural influences, and chance are all a part of science. Presents an activity for students to experience the scientific method. (Contains 34 references.)…
Accelerated molecular dynamics methods
Perez, Danny
2011-01-04
The molecular dynamics method, although extremely powerful for materials simulations, is limited to times scales of roughly one microsecond or less. On longer time scales, dynamical evolution typically consists of infrequent events, which are usually activated processes. This course is focused on understanding infrequent-event dynamics, on methods for characterizing infrequent-event mechanisms and rate constants, and on methods for simulating long time scales in infrequent-event systems, emphasizing the recently developed accelerated molecular dynamics methods (hyperdynamics, parallel replica dynamics, and temperature accelerated dynamics). Some familiarity with basic statistical mechanics and molecular dynamics methods will be assumed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, Meng-Sing
1992-01-01
A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended Lagrangian method', is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. Meanwhile, it also avoids the inaccuracy incurred due to geometry and variable interpolations used by the previous Lagrangian methods. Unlike the Lagrangian method previously imposed which is valid only for supersonic flows, the present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows as well as supersonic flows. The method proposed in this paper is robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multi-dimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in one-dimensional problems.
[Medical Equipment Maintenance Methods].
Liu, Hongbin
2015-09-01
Due to the high technology and the complexity of medical equipment, as well as to the safety and effectiveness, it determines the high requirements of the medical equipment maintenance work. This paper introduces some basic methods of medical instrument maintenance, including fault tree analysis, node method and exclusive method which are the three important methods in the medical equipment maintenance, through using these three methods for the instruments that have circuit drawings, hardware breakdown maintenance can be done easily. And this paper introduces the processing methods of some special fault conditions, in order to reduce little detours in meeting the same problems. Learning is very important for stuff just engaged in this area. PMID:26904890
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, Meng-Sing
1993-01-01
A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended Lagrangian method', is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. Meanwhile, it also avoids the inaccuracy incurred due to geometry and variable interpolations used by the previous Lagrangian methods. The present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows as well as supersonic flows. The method proposed in this paper is robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multidimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in 1D problems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McKay, David S.; Cooper, Bonnie L.
2010-01-01
This slide presentation describes new fractionation methods that are used to create dust that is respirable for testing the effects of inhalation of lunar dust in preparation for future manned lunar exploration. Because lunar dust is a very limited commodity, a method that does not result in loss of the material had to be developed. The dust separation system that is described incorporates some traditional methods, while preventing the dust from being contaminated or changed in reactivity properties while also limiting losses.
The Schwinger Variational Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huo, Winifred M.
1995-01-01
Variational methods have proven invaluable in theoretical physics and chemistry, both for bound state problems and for the study of collision phenomena. For collisional problems they can be grouped into two types: those based on the Schroedinger equation and those based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. The application of the Schwinger variational (SV) method to e-molecule collisions and photoionization has been reviewed previously. The present chapter discusses the implementation of the SV method as applied to e-molecule collisions.
Methods of Voice Reconstruction
Chen, Hung-Chi; Kim Evans, Karen F.; Salgado, Christopher J.; Mardini, Samir
2010-01-01
This article reviews methods of voice reconstruction. Nonsurgical methods of voice reconstruction include electrolarynx, pneumatic artificial larynx, and esophageal speech. Surgical methods of voice reconstruction include neoglottis, tracheoesophageal puncture, and prosthesis. Tracheoesophageal puncture can be performed in patients with pedicled flaps such as colon interposition, jejunum, or gastric pull-up or in free flaps such as perforator flaps, jejunum, and colon flaps. Other flaps for voice reconstruction include the ileocolon flap and jejunum. Laryngeal transplantation is also reviewed. PMID:22550443
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zang, Thomas A.; Streett, Craig L.; Hussaini, M. Yousuff
1989-01-01
One of the objectives of these notes is to provide a basic introduction to spectral methods with a particular emphasis on applications to computational fluid dynamics. Another objective is to summarize some of the most important developments in spectral methods in the last two years. The fundamentals of spectral methods for simple problems will be covered in depth, and the essential elements of several fluid dynamical applications will be sketched.
Multigrid contact detection method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Kejing; Dong, Shoubin; Zhou, Zhaoyao
2007-03-01
Contact detection is a general problem of many physical simulations. This work presents a O(N) multigrid method for general contact detection problems (MGCD). The multigrid idea is integrated with contact detection problems. Both the time complexity and memory consumption of the MGCD are O(N) . Unlike other methods, whose efficiencies are influenced strongly by the object size distribution, the performance of MGCD is insensitive to the object size distribution. We compare the MGCD with the no binary search (NBS) method and the multilevel boxing method in three dimensions for both time complexity and memory consumption. For objects with similar size, the MGCD is as good as the NBS method, both of which outperform the multilevel boxing method regarding memory consumption. For objects with diverse size, the MGCD outperform both the NBS method and the multilevel boxing method. We use the MGCD to solve the contact detection problem for a granular simulation system based on the discrete element method. From this granular simulation, we get the density property of monosize packing and binary packing with size ratio equal to 10. The packing density for monosize particles is 0.636. For binary packing with size ratio equal to 10, when the number of small particles is 300 times as the number of big particles, the maximal packing density 0.824 is achieved.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, Meng-Sing
1995-01-01
A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended Lagrangian method,' is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. The present method and the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method have a similarity in spirit-eliminating the cross-streamline numerical diffusion. For this purpose, we suggest a simple grid constraint condition and utilize an accurate discretization procedure. This grid constraint is only applied to the transverse cell face parallel to the local stream velocity, and hence our method for the steady state problems naturally reduces to the streamline-curvature method, without explicitly solving the steady stream-coordinate equations formulated a priori. Unlike the Lagrangian method proposed by Loh and Hui which is valid only for steady supersonic flows, the present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows and supersonic flows as well as unsteady flows, simply by invoking in the same code an appropriate grid constraint suggested in this paper. The approach is found to be robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multi-dimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in one-dimensional problems.
Lindley, C; Mackowiak, J
1985-01-01
Various methods for controlling inventory are described, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. The open-to-buy (OTB) budget method limits purchases to a specific amount of funds available for purchasing pharmaceuticals during a specified period. The emphasis of the OTB method is financial control of the pharmacy inventory. Although it is useful in monitoring and adjusting the dollar value of the inventory, it should be combined with other methods for a total inventory control system. The primary emphasis of the short-list method is to provide accurate and timely inventory information to the person responsible for order placement. The short list identifies the items that are in short supply. It is the most common feedback and control mechanism in use, but it is best suited for settings where duplicate or reserve stock is maintained and monitored by more rigorous methods. The main objective of the minimum and maximum method is to determine when and how much to order of each item. It also provides limited dollar control. The major disadvantage of this method is the time it requires to establish the minimum and maximum levels and to update them regularly to reflect changes in demand. The stock record card method is used to record information on the movement of goods in and out of the storage area. Stock cards can also be used to monitor inventory levels and facilitate order initiation. It is probably the optimum method to be used alone. The most effective system of inventory control is one employing a combination of these methods tailored to meet the institution's needs and available resources. PMID:3970028
Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
BOUCHER, JOHN G.
THE AUTHOR STATES THAT BEFORE PRESENT FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS CAN BE DISCUSSED INTELLIGENTLY, THE RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY AND LINGUISTICS WHICH HAS INFLUENCED THE DEVELOPMENT OF THESE METHODS MUST BE CONSIDERED. MANY FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS WERE BEGINNING TO FEEL COMFORTABLE WITH THE AUDIOLINGUAL APPROACH WHEN NOAM CHOMSKY, IN HIS 1966…
Method of forming nanodielectrics
Tuncer, Enis [Knoxville, TN; Polyzos, Georgios [Oak Ridge, TN
2014-01-07
A method of making a nanoparticle filled dielectric material. The method includes mixing nanoparticle precursors with a polymer material and reacting the nanoparticle mixed with the polymer material to form nanoparticles dispersed within the polymer material to form a dielectric composite.
Martin, Frank S.; Silver, Gary L.
1991-04-30
A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.
Improved nonlinear prediction method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi
2014-06-01
The analysis and prediction of time series data have been addressed by researchers. Many techniques have been developed to be applied in various areas, such as weather forecasting, financial markets and hydrological phenomena involving data that are contaminated by noise. Therefore, various techniques to improve the method have been introduced to analyze and predict time series data. In respect of the importance of analysis and the accuracy of the prediction result, a study was undertaken to test the effectiveness of the improved nonlinear prediction method for data that contain noise. The improved nonlinear prediction method involves the formation of composite serial data based on the successive differences of the time series. Then, the phase space reconstruction was performed on the composite data (one-dimensional) to reconstruct a number of space dimensions. Finally the local linear approximation method was employed to make a prediction based on the phase space. This improved method was tested with data series Logistics that contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of noise. The results show that by using the improved method, the predictions were found to be in close agreement with the observed ones. The correlation coefficient was close to one when the improved method was applied on data with up to 10% noise. Thus, an improvement to analyze data with noise without involving any noise reduction method was introduced to predict the time series data.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.
2011-01-01
"Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin
2006-01-01
The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…
Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.
1991-04-30
A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boulton, L. H.
1973-01-01
Discusses application of Schoniger's method of quantitative organic elemental analysis in teaching of qualitative analysis of the halogens, nitrogen, sulphur, and phosphorus. Indicates that the oxygen flask method is safe and suitable for both high school and college courses because of simple apparatus requirements. (CC)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.
2011-01-01
"Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions. It weaves…
Methods for data classification
Garrity, George; Lilburn, Timothy G.
2011-10-11
The present invention provides methods for classifying data and uncovering and correcting annotation errors. In particular, the present invention provides a self-organizing, self-correcting algorithm for use in classifying data. Additionally, the present invention provides a method for classifying biological taxa.
Methods of Motivational Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Malouff, John M.; Rooke, Sally E.; Schutte, Nicola S.; Foster, Roxanne M.; Bhullar, Navjot
2008-01-01
As teachers, we want to motivate our students to learn during a unit and to continue learning about the topic after the unit ends. This article describes about a hundred methods we use to help motivate students to learn. The methods form 12 categories: (1) making content relevant to student values and goals; (2) helping students achieve their…
Chainer, Timothy J.; Dang, Hien P.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.; Sharma, Arun
2015-08-11
A method aspect for removing heat from a data center may use liquid coolant cooled without vapor compression refrigeration on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack. The method may also include regulating liquid coolant flow to the data center through a range of liquid coolant flow values with a controller-apparatus based upon information technology equipment temperature threshold of the data center.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Del Grande, John
1993-01-01
Describes the method that Archimedes utilized to calculate the volumes of spheres and other solids. The method found the volume of a sphere by comparing the mass of parallel slices of a sphere and a cone with that of a cylinder of known mass. (MDH)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duval, A
1922-01-01
Different maps and scales are discussed with particular emphasis on their use in aviation. The author makes the observation that current navigation methods are slow and dangerous and should be replaced by scientific methods of navigation based on loxodromy and the use of the compass.
Sessler, A.M.
1996-02-01
Diverse methods which are available for particle beam cooling are reviewed. They consist of some highly developed techniques such as radiation damping, electron cooling, stochastic cooling and the more recently developed, laser cooling. Methods which have been theoretically developed, but not yet achieved experimentally, are also reviewed. They consist of ionization cooling, laser cooling in three dimensions and stimulated radiation cooling.
Geopositional Statistical Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ross, Kenton
2006-01-01
RMSE based methods distort circular error estimates (up to 50% overestimation). The empirical approach is the only statistically unbiased estimator offered. Ager modification to Shultz approach is nearly unbiased, but cumbersome. All methods hover around 20% uncertainty (@ 95% confidence) for low geopositional bias error estimates. This requires careful consideration in assessment of higher accuracy products.
The core of the research effort in the Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program (ReVA) is a set of data integration methods ranging from simple overlays to complex multivariate statistics. These methods are described in the EPA publication titled, "Regional Vulnerability Assess...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ember, Lois R.
1977-01-01
The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Montgomery, Joel R.
2008-01-01
This working paper explores contemporary research related to methods for teaching reading in Spanish and English in bilingual, foreign language, and English as a second language (ESL) classrooms. Changes stemming from innovations in research and learning are identified and a table is provided to compare methods of teaching reading in Spanish and…
Decker, David L; Lyles, Brad F; Purcell, Richard G; Hershey, Ronald Lee
2014-05-20
An apparatus and method for supporting a tubing bundle during installation or removal. The apparatus includes a clamp for securing the tubing bundle to an external wireline. The method includes deploying the tubing bundle and wireline together, The tubing bundle is periodically secured to the wireline using a clamp.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wankat, Phillip C.
1984-01-01
Discusses a simple method for following the movement of a solute in an adsorption or ion exchange system. This movement is used to study a variety of operational methods, including continuous flow and pulsed flow counter-current operations and simulated counter-current systems. Effect of changing thermodynamic variables is also considered. (JM)
The Schwinger Variational Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huo, Winifred M.
1995-01-01
Variational methods have proven invaluable in theoretical physics and chemistry, both for bound state problems and for the study of collision phenomena. The application of the Schwinger variational (SV) method to e-molecule collisions and molecular photoionization has been reviewed previously. The present chapter discusses the implementation of the SV method as applied to e-molecule collisions. Since this is not a review of cross section data, cross sections are presented only to server as illustrative examples. In the SV method, the correct boundary condition is automatically incorporated through the use of Green's function. Thus SV calculations can employ basis functions with arbitrary boundary conditions. The iterative Schwinger method has been used extensively to study molecular photoionization. For e-molecule collisions, it is used at the static exchange level to study elastic scattering and coupled with the distorted wave approximation to study electronically inelastic scattering.
Probabilistic boundary element method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cruse, T. A.; Raveendra, S. T.
1989-01-01
The purpose of the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Method (PSAM) project is to develop structural analysis capabilities for the design analysis of advanced space propulsion system hardware. The boundary element method (BEM) is used as the basis of the Probabilistic Advanced Analysis Methods (PADAM) which is discussed. The probabilistic BEM code (PBEM) is used to obtain the structural response and sensitivity results to a set of random variables. As such, PBEM performs analogous to other structural analysis codes such as finite elements in the PSAM system. For linear problems, unlike the finite element method (FEM), the BEM governing equations are written at the boundary of the body only, thus, the method eliminates the need to model the volume of the body. However, for general body force problems, a direct condensation of the governing equations to the boundary of the body is not possible and therefore volume modeling is generally required.
John Herschel's Graphical Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hankins, Thomas L.
2011-01-01
In 1833 John Herschel published an account of his graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He had hoped to be the first to determine such orbits, but Felix Savary in France and Johann Franz Encke in Germany beat him to the punch using analytical methods. Herschel was convinced, however, that his graphical method was much superior to analytical methods, because it used the judgment of the hand and eye to correct the inevitable errors of observation. Line graphs of the kind used by Herschel became common only in the 1830s, so Herschel was introducing a new method. He also found computation fatiguing and devised a "wheeled machine" to help him out. Encke was skeptical of Herschel's methods. He said that he lived for calculation and that the English would be better astronomers if they calculated more. It is difficult to believe that the entire Scientific Revolution of the 17th century took place without graphs and that only a few examples appeared in the 18th century. Herschel promoted the use of graphs, not only in astronomy, but also in the study of meteorology and terrestrial magnetism. Because he was the most prominent scientist in England, Herschel's advocacy greatly advanced graphical methods.
Raj, Rishi; Cologna, Marco; Francis, John S.
2016-05-10
This disclosure provides methods of flash sintering and compositions created by these methods. Methods for sintering multilayered bodies are provided in which a sintered body is produced in less than one minute. In one aspect, each layer is of a different composition, and may be constituted wholly from a ceramic or from a combination of ceramic and metallic particles. When the body includes a layer of an anode composition, a layer of an electrolyte composition and a layer of a cathode composition, the sintered body can be used to produce a solid oxide fuel cell.
Mourant, Judith R.; Anderson, Gerhard D.; Bigio, Irving J.; Johnson, Tamara M.
1996-01-01
Method for fusing bone. The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.
Miner, Nadine E.; Caudell, Thomas P.
2004-06-08
A sound synthesis method for modeling and synthesizing dynamic, parameterized sounds. The sound synthesis method yields perceptually convincing sounds and provides flexibility through model parameterization. By manipulating model parameters, a variety of related, but perceptually different sounds can be generated. The result is subtle changes in sounds, in addition to synthesis of a variety of sounds, all from a small set of models. The sound models can change dynamically according to changes in the simulation environment. The method is applicable to both stochastic (impulse-based) and non-stochastic (pitched) sounds.
Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.
1981-02-27
A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.
Introduction to multigrid methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wesseling, P.
1995-01-01
These notes were written for an introductory course on the application of multigrid methods to elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations for engineers, physicists and applied mathematicians. The use of more advanced mathematical tools, such as functional analysis, is avoided. The course is intended to be accessible to a wide audience of users of computational methods. We restrict ourselves to finite volume and finite difference discretization. The basic principles are given. Smoothing methods and Fourier smoothing analysis are reviewed. The fundamental multigrid algorithm is studied. The smoothing and coarse grid approximation properties are discussed. Multigrid schedules and structured programming of multigrid algorithms are treated. Robustness and efficiency are considered.
Method for inducing hypothermia
Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.
2003-04-15
Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.
Method for inducing hypothermia
Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.
2005-11-08
Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.
Method for inducing hypothermia
Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.
2008-09-09
Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.
Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes
2013-05-14
A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seeber, F
1939-01-01
After a brief survey of the commonly used single-value test methods, the importance of the determination of the incipient knock for the octane number is discussed and improvements suggested for the knock testing in the CFR engine. The DVL supercharge test method with its superiority of direct determination of fuel knock in each single cylinder of an airplane engine without involving structural changes, is described and the advantages of a multiple-value method enumerated. A diagrammatic presentation of the knock characteristics is presented.
Generalized subspace correction methods
Kolm, P.; Arbenz, P.; Gander, W.
1996-12-31
A fundamental problem in scientific computing is the solution of large sparse systems of linear equations. Often these systems arise from the discretization of differential equations by finite difference, finite volume or finite element methods. Iterative methods exploiting these sparse structures have proven to be very effective on conventional computers for a wide area of applications. Due to the rapid development and increasing demand for the large computing powers of parallel computers, it has become important to design iterative methods specialized for these new architectures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zahorik, John A.
1973-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to examine a problem that exists in relation to teaching methods and which has quite possibly served to limit the value of many promising methodologies that have been developed. (Author)
Concrete compositions and methods
Chen, Irvin; Lee, Patricia Tung; Patterson, Joshua
2015-06-23
Provided herein are compositions, methods, and systems for cementitious compositions containing calcium carbonate compositions and aggregate. The compositions find use in a variety of applications, including use in a variety of building materials and building applications.
Method for synthesizing boracities
Wolf, Gary A [Kennewick, WA
1982-01-01
A method for producing boracites is disclosed in which a solution of divalent metal acetate, boric acid, and halogen acid is evaporated to dryness and the resulting solid is heated in an inert atmosphere under pressure.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dolan, Thomas G.
2003-01-01
Describes project delivery methods that are replacing the traditional Design/Bid/Build linear approach to the management, design, and construction of new facilities. These variations can enhance construction management and teamwork. (SLD)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.
1989-01-01
To overcome serious weaknesses in determining the performance of initiating devices, a novel 'ignitability test method', representing actual design interfaces and ignition materials, has been developed. Ignition device output consists of heat, light, gas an burning particles. Past research methods have evaluated these parameters individually. This paper describes the development and demonstration of an ignitability test method combining all these parameters, and the quantitative assessment of the ignition performance of two widely used percussion primers, the M42C1-PA101 and the M42C2-793. The ignition materials used for this evaluation were several powder, granule and pellet sizes of black powder and boron-potassium nitrate. This test method should be useful for performance evaluation of all initiator types, quality assurance, evaluation of ignition interfaces, and service life studies of initiators and ignition materials.
Patriarca, P.; Slaughter, G.M.
1962-11-27
A method of joining metal surfaces is given. Surfaces having nickel or iron as the base metal are joined together with a brazing composition consisting of 80% nickel, 10% phosphorus, and 10% chromium. (AEC)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oza, Nikunj C.
2004-01-01
Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve better prediction accuracy than any of the individual models could on their own. The basic goal when designing an ensemble is the same as when establishing a committee of people: each member of the committee should be as competent as possible, but the members should be complementary to one another. If the members are not complementary, Le., if they always agree, then the committee is unnecessary---any one member is sufficient. If the members are complementary, then when one or a few members make an error, the probability is high that the remaining members can correct this error. Research in ensemble methods has largely revolved around designing ensembles consisting of competent yet complementary models.
Method for making organooxysilanes
Schattenmann, Florian Johannes
2003-12-23
A method for the preparation of organooxysilanes containing at least one silicon-carbon bond is provided which comprises reacting at least one tetraorganooxysilane with at least one transition metal organo compound.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heinemann, Allen W.; Shontz, Franklin C.
1985-01-01
Describes a method that permits answering research questions of general importance by examining individuals in a comprehensive, whole-person manner. Discusses their use in two studies of persons with spinal cord injuries. (LLL)
Anderson, N.G.
1963-01-29
An improved method of sedimentation is described. A series of spaced surfaces of powdered material positioned normal to the centrifugal field concentrates the larger, slower moving molecules of a liquid and hastens sedimentation. (AEC)
Iii. Sleep assessment methods.
Sadeh, Avi
2015-03-01
Sleep is a complex phenomenon that could be understood and assessed at many levels. Sleep could be described at the behavioral level (relative lack of movements and awareness and responsiveness) and at the brain level (based on EEG activity). Sleep could be characterized by its duration, by its distribution during the 24-hr day period, and by its quality (e.g., consolidated versus fragmented). Different methods have been developed to assess various aspects of sleep. This chapter covers the most established and common methods used to assess sleep in infants and children. These methods include polysomnography, videosomnography, actigraphy, direct observations, sleep diaries, and questionnaires. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are highlighted. PMID:25704734
Mathematics Case Methods Project.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barnett, Carne S.
1998-01-01
Presents an overview and analysis of the Mathematics Case Methods Project, which uses cases in order to examine and reflect upon teaching. Focuses on a special kind of teacher knowledge, coined pedagogical-content knowledge. (ASK)
Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid Methods
Brezina, M; Falgout, R; MacLachlan, S; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J
2004-04-09
Our ability to simulate physical processes numerically is constrained by our ability to solve the resulting linear systems, prompting substantial research into the development of multiscale iterative methods capable of solving these linear systems with an optimal amount of effort. Overcoming the limitations of geometric multigrid methods to simple geometries and differential equations, algebraic multigrid methods construct the multigrid hierarchy based only on the given matrix. While this allows for efficient black-box solution of the linear systems associated with discretizations of many elliptic differential equations, it also results in a lack of robustness due to assumptions made on the near-null spaces of these matrices. This paper introduces an extension to algebraic multigrid methods that removes the need to make such assumptions by utilizing an adaptive process. The principles which guide the adaptivity are highlighted, as well as their application to algebraic multigrid solution of certain symmetric positive-definite linear systems.
Method for making organyltriorganooxysilanes
Schattenmann, Florian Johannes
2002-01-01
A method for the preparation of organyltriorganooxysilanes containing at least one silicon-carbon bond is provided comprising reacting at least one tetraorganooxysilane with an activated carbon and at least one base.
McAdams, Wm.A.; Foss, M.H.
1958-08-12
A method of testing containers for leaks is described, particularly the testing of containers or cans in which the uranium slugs for nuelear reactors are jacketed. This method involves the immersion of the can in water under l50 pounds of pressure, then removing, drying, and coating the can with anhydrous copper sulfate. Amy water absorbed by the can under pressure will exude and discolor the copper sulfate in the area about the leak.
Method of saccharifying cellulose
Johnson, Eric A.; Demain, Arnold L.; Madia, Ashwin
1985-09-10
A method of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of a reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.
Henn, Fritz
2013-04-09
Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.
Henn, Fritz
2012-01-24
Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.
Improved radioanalytical methods
Erickson, M.D.; Aldstadt, J.H.; Alvarado, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Smith, L.L.
1995-12-31
Methods for the chemical characterization of the environment are being developed under a multitask project for the Analytical Services Division (EM-263) within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management. This project focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. We have developed improved methods, for separation of environmental levels of technetium-99 and strontium-89/90, radium, and actinides from soil and water; and for separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences. Among the novel separation techniques being used are element- and class-specific resins and membranes. (The 3M Corporation is commercializing Empore {trademark} membranes under a cooperative research and development agreement [CRADA] initiated under this project). We have also developed methods for simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ICP-MS method requires less rigorous chemical separations than traditional radiochemical analyses because of its mass-selective mode of detection. Actinides and their progeny have been isolated and concentrated from a variety of natural water matrices by using automated batch separation incorporating selective resins prior to ICP-MS analyses. In addition, improvements in detection limits, sample volume, and time of analysis were obtained by using other sample introduction techniques, such as ultrasonic nebulization and electrothermal vaporization. Integration and automation of the separation methods with the ICP-MS methodology by using flow injection analysis is underway, with an objective of automating methods to achieve more reproducible results, reduce labor costs, cut analysis time, and minimize secondary waste generation through miniaturization of the process.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berkowitz, J. B.; Emerson, N. H.
1972-01-01
Results are presented of a comprehensive search of the literature available, much of which has been generated by the research centers of NASA and its contractors, on plating and coating methods and techniques. Methods covered included: (1) electroplating from aqueous solutions; (2) electroplating from nonaqueous solutions; (3) electroplating from fused-salt baths; (4) electroforming; (5) electroless plating, immersion plating, and mirroring; (6) electroplating from gaseous plasmas; and (7) anodized films and conversion coatings.
Legrain, G; Delvoye, P; Salami, L
1992-05-01
The Togolese National Family Welfare Programme introduced a visit card system for method selection in 1989 developed several years earlier in Burundi. Thereby the health worker is aided in choosing the best contraceptive method for each client on the basis of personal data, medical history, and a general and gynecological examination. the card is also used makes the selection by taking into account contraindications and considering them in conjunction with the client's individual profile. At this stage the innovative aspect of the visit card is that the contraindications are grouped together under 3 headings; those identified by asking questions (e.g., a mother breast feeding for less than 6 weeks),those identified by looking at the client's history (e.g., a recent liver ailment), and those revealed by the general and gynecological examination (e.g., a blood pressure of more than 14/10). The 2nd part of the card concerns the search for the recommended contraceptive method. It includes a list of the methods: rhythm, barrier, IUD, combination pill, low-dose progestogen pill, and injection. A plus sign indicates that the method is recommended, a minus sign indicates that the method is not recommended, and a double minus sign indicates that the method is relatively recommended. A relative contraindication becomes an absolute contraindication if associated with another relative contraindication. After the acceptance of the method, the health worker prescribes it, and advises the client about the follow-up program, any possible side effects, and any warning signs which necessitate another appointment. PMID:12222226
Multiscale methods for nanoengineering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jolley, Kenny
This project is presented in two sections. Two different multiscale models are developed in order to increase the computational speed of two well known atomistic algorithms, Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC). In Section I, the MD method is introduced. Following this, a multiscale method of linking an MD simulation of heat conduction to a finite element (FE) simulation is presented. The method is simple to implement into a conventional MD code and is independent of the atomistic model employed. This bridge between the FE and MD simulations works by ensuring that energy is conserved across the FE/MD boundary. The multiscale simulation allows for the investigation of large systems which are beyond the range of MD. The method is tested extensively in the steady state and transient regimes, and is shown to agree with well with large scale MD and FE simulations. Furthermore, the method removes the artificial boundary effects due to the thermostats and hence allows exact temperatures and temperature gradients to be imposed on to an MD simulation. This allows for better study of temperature gradients on crystal defects etc.. In Section II, the KMC method is introduced. A continuum model for the KMC method is presented and compared to the standard KMC model of surface diffusion. This method replaces the many discrete back and forth atom jumps performed by a standard KMC algorithm with a single flux that can evolve in time. Elastic strain is then incorporated into both algorithms and used to simulate atom deposition upon a substrate by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. Quantum dot formation due to a mismatch in the lattice spacing between a substrate and a deposited film is readily observed in both models. Furthermore, by depositing alternating layers of substrate and deposit, self-organised quantum dot super-lattices are observed in both models..
Method of saccharifying cellulose
Johnson, E.A.; Demain, A.L.; Madia, A.
1983-05-13
A method is disclosed of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of thiol reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.
Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R
1975-06-01
In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. PMID:1100671
Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R
1975-01-01
In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. Images PMID:1100671
Methods in Molecular Biophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serdyuk, Igor N.; Zaccai, Nathan R.; Zaccai, Joseph
2001-12-01
Our knowledge of biological macromolecules and their interactions is based on the application of physical methods, ranging from classical thermodynamics to recently developed techniques for the detection and manipulation of single molecules. These methods, which include mass spectrometry, hydrodynamics, microscopy, diffraction and crystallography, electron microscopy, molecular dynamics simulations, and nuclear magnetic resonance, are complementary; each has its specific advantages and limitations. Organised by method, this textbook provides descriptions and examples of applications for the key physical methods in modern biology. It is an invaluable resource for undergraduate and graduate students of molecular biophysics in science and medical schools, as well as research scientists looking for an introduction to techniques beyond their specialty. As appropriate for this interdisciplinary field, the book includes short asides to explain physics aspects to biologists and biology aspects to physicists. Comprehensive coverage and up-to-date treatment of the latest physical methods in modern biology Each method includes a brief historical introduction, theoretical principles, applications, advantages and limitations, and concludes with a checklist of key ideas Interdisciplinary and accessible to biologists, physicists, and those with medical backgrounds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henke, Luke
2010-01-01
The ICARE method is a flexible, widely applicable method for systems engineers to solve problems and resolve issues in a complete and comprehensive manner. The method can be tailored by diverse users for direct application to their function (e.g. system integrators, design engineers, technical discipline leads, analysts, etc.). The clever acronym, ICARE, instills the attitude of accountability, safety, technical rigor and engagement in the problem resolution: Identify, Communicate, Assess, Report, Execute (ICARE). This method was developed through observation of Space Shuttle Propulsion Systems Engineering and Integration (PSE&I) office personnel approach in an attempt to succinctly describe the actions of an effective systems engineer. Additionally it evolved from an effort to make a broadly-defined checklist for a PSE&I worker to perform their responsibilities in an iterative and recursive manner. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Systems Engineering Handbook states, engineering of NASA systems requires a systematic and disciplined set of processes that are applied recursively and iteratively for the design, development, operation, maintenance, and closeout of systems throughout the life cycle of the programs and projects. ICARE is a method that can be applied within the boundaries and requirements of NASA s systems engineering set of processes to provide an elevated sense of duty and responsibility to crew and vehicle safety. The importance of a disciplined set of processes and a safety-conscious mindset increases with the complexity of the system. Moreover, the larger the system and the larger the workforce, the more important it is to encourage the usage of the ICARE method as widely as possible. According to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook, elements of a system can include people, hardware, software, facilities, policies and documents; all things required to produce system-level results, qualities, properties, characteristics
1981-05-01
The World Health Organization (WHO) has financed a study of the Billings method of family planning in 3 developing and 2 developed countries to obtain objective data on the effectiveness of the method. Although 40% of the 870 couples had previously used another abstinence method and all were highly motivated to use the technique, the life-table pregnancy rate for the year following training in the method reached 20%. 11 studies of the cervical mucus method have been carried out in India, Tonga, Colombia, and Chile and in the US and Australia, often in new programs which did not employ uniform teaching methods. 2 Indian studies showed pregnancy rates of under 6/100 woman years, while 2 studies in developed countries showed rates under 15 and 2 showed rates over 30/100 woman years. Most of the studies have attributed the high pregnancy rates to the failure of couples to observe abstinence. Pregnancy occurred in the 5 countries partcipating in the WHO studies primarily as a result of the failure of couples to abstain from sexual relations during periods identified as fertile, despite active promotion of natural family planning and assistance from instructors at monthly intervals. Other reasons for the high failure rate were late occurrance of mucus flow relative to the time of ovulation, overly early appearance of mucus, and failure to observe or to interpret correctly the mucus symptom. Mucus patterns and facility of interpretation can be affected by various physiological or psychological factors, such as vaginal or cervical infection, vaginal secretion due to sexual stimulation, medicines, tension, and illness. The common observation of higher pregnancy rates among couples who wish to postpone rather than prevent a birth appears to be particularly important in the case of abstinence methods. PMID:12311398
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiariotti, Paolo; Martarelli, Milena; Revel, Gian Marco
2014-07-01
This paper proposes the use of continuous scanning laser Doppler vibrometry (CSLDV) in time domain correlation techniques that aim at characterizing the structure-borne contributions of the noise emission of a mechanical system. The time domain correlation technique presented in this paper is based on the use of FIR (finite impulse response) filters obtained from the vibro-acoustic transfer matrix when vibration data are collected by laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) exploited in continuous scan mode (CSLDV). The advantages, especially in terms of source decorrelation capabilities, related to the use of CSLDV for such purpose, with respect to standard discrete scan (SLDV), are discussed throughout the paper. To validate this approach, vibro-acoustic measurements were performed on a planetary gear motor for home appliances. The analysis of results is also supported by a simulation.
Methods for Neutron Spectrometry
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Brockhouse, Bertram N.
1961-01-09
The appropriate theories and the general philosophy of methods of measurement and treatment of data neutron spectrometry are discussed. Methods of analysis of results for liquids using the Van Hove formulation, and for crystals using the Born-von Karman theory, are reviewed. The most useful of the available methods of measurement are considered to be the crystal spectrometer methods and the pulsed monoenergetic beam/time-of-flight method. Pulsed-beam spectrometers have the advantage of higher counting rates than crystal spectrometers, especially in view of the fact that simultaneous measurements in several counters at different angles of scattering are possible in pulsed-beam spectrometers. The crystal spectrometer permits several valuable new types of specialized experiments to be performed, especially energy distribution measurements at constant momentum transfer. The Chalk River triple-axis crystal-spectrometer is discussed, with reference to its use in making the specialized experiments. The Chalk River rotating crystal (pulsed-beam) spectrometer is described, and a comparison of this type instrument with other pulsed-beam spectrometers is made. A partial outline of the theory of operation of rotating-crystal spectrometers is presented. The use of quartz-crystal filters for fast neutron elimination and for order elimination is discussed. (auth)
Optimization Methods in Sherpa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siemiginowska, Aneta; Nguyen, Dan T.; Doe, Stephen M.; Refsdal, Brian L.
2009-09-01
Forward fitting is a standard technique used to model X-ray data. A statistic, usually assumed weighted chi^2 or Poisson likelihood (e.g. Cash), is minimized in the fitting process to obtain a set of the best model parameters. Astronomical models often have complex forms with many parameters that can be correlated (e.g. an absorbed power law). Minimization is not trivial in such setting, as the statistical parameter space becomes multimodal and finding the global minimum is hard. Standard minimization algorithms can be found in many libraries of scientific functions, but they are usually focused on specific functions. However, Sherpa designed as general fitting and modeling application requires very robust optimization methods that can be applied to variety of astronomical data (X-ray spectra, images, timing, optical data etc.). We developed several optimization algorithms in Sherpa targeting a wide range of minimization problems. Two local minimization methods were built: Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was obtained from MINPACK subroutine LMDIF and modified to achieve the required robustness; and Nelder-Mead simplex method has been implemented in-house based on variations of the algorithm described in the literature. A global search Monte-Carlo method has been implemented following a differential evolution algorithm presented by Storn and Price (1997). We will present the methods in Sherpa and discuss their usage cases. We will focus on the application to Chandra data showing both 1D and 2D examples. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).
Panel methods: An introduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erickson, Larry L.
1990-01-01
Panel methods are numerical schemes for solving (the Prandtl-Glauert equation) for linear, inviscid, irrotational flow about aircraft flying at subsonic or supersonic speeds. The tools at the panel-method user's disposal are (1) surface panels of source-doublet-vorticity distributions that can represent nearly arbitrary geometry, and (2) extremely versatile boundary condition capabilities that can frequently be used for creative modeling. Panel-method capabilities and limitations, basic concepts common to all panel-method codes, different choices that were made in the implementation of these concepts into working computer programs, and various modeling techniques involving boundary conditions, jump properties, and trailing wakes are discussed. An approach for extending the method to nonlinear transonic flow is also presented. Three appendices supplement the main test. In appendix 1, additional detail is provided on how the basic concepts are implemented into a specific computer program (PANAIR). In appendix 2, it is shown how to evaluate analytically the fundamental surface integral that arises in the expressions for influence-coefficients, and evaluate its jump property. In appendix 3, a simple example is used to illustrate the so-called finite part of the improper integrals.
Methods of Melanoma Detection.
Leachman, Sancy A; Cassidy, Pamela B; Chen, Suephy C; Curiel, Clara; Geller, Alan; Gareau, Daniel; Pellacani, Giovanni; Grichnik, James M; Malvehy, Josep; North, Jeffrey; Jacques, Steven L; Petrie, Tracy; Puig, Susana; Swetter, Susan M; Tofte, Susan; Weinstock, Martin A
2016-01-01
Detection and removal of melanoma, before it has metastasized, dramatically improves prognosis and survival. The purpose of this chapter is to (1) summarize current methods of melanoma detection and (2) review state-of-the-art detection methods and technologies that have the potential to reduce melanoma mortality. Current strategies for the detection of melanoma range from population-based educational campaigns and screening to the use of algorithm-driven imaging technologies and performance of assays that identify markers of transformation. This chapter will begin by describing state-of-the-art methods for educating and increasing awareness of at-risk individuals and for performing comprehensive screening examinations. Standard and advanced photographic methods designed to improve reliability and reproducibility of the clinical examination will also be reviewed. Devices that magnify and/or enhance malignant features of individual melanocytic lesions (and algorithms that are available to interpret the results obtained from these devices) will be compared and contrasted. In vivo confocal microscopy and other cellular-level in vivo technologies will be compared to traditional tissue biopsy, and the role of a noninvasive "optical biopsy" in the clinical setting will be discussed. Finally, cellular and molecular methods that have been applied to the diagnosis of melanoma, such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), will be discussed. PMID:26601859
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, David N.
2004-01-01
This manual reviews the derivation of the similitude relationships believed to be important to ice accretion and examines ice-accretion data to evaluate their importance. Both size scaling and test-condition scaling methods employing the resulting similarity parameters are described, and experimental icing tests performed to evaluate scaling methods are reviewed with results. The material included applies primarily to unprotected, unswept geometries, but some discussion of how to approach other situations is included as well. The studies given here and scaling methods considered are applicable only to Appendix-C icing conditions. Nearly all of the experimental results presented have been obtained in sea-level tunnels. Recommendations are given regarding which scaling methods to use for both size scaling and test-condition scaling, and icing test results are described to support those recommendations. Facility limitations and size-scaling restrictions are discussed. Finally, appendices summarize the air, water and ice properties used in NASA scaling studies, give expressions for each of the similarity parameters used and provide sample calculations for the size-scaling and test-condition scaling methods advocated.
Battery equalization active methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.
2014-01-01
Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.
Multiple detectors "Influence Method".
Rios, I J; Mayer, R E
2016-05-01
The "Influence Method" is conceived for the absolute determination of a nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency and without the need to register coincidences of any kind. This method exploits the influence of the presence of one detector in the count rate of another detector, when they are placed one behind the other and define statistical estimators for the absolute number of incident particles and for the efficiency (Rios and Mayer, 2015a). Its detailed mathematical description was recently published (Rios and Mayer, 2015b) and its practical implementation in the measurement of a moderated neutron flux arising from an isotopic neutron source was exemplified in (Rios and Mayer, 2016). With the objective of further reducing the measurement uncertainties, in this article we extend the method for the case of multiple detectors placed one behind the other. The new estimators for the number of particles and the detection efficiency are herein derived. PMID:26943904
Branagan, Daniel J.; Burch, Joseph V.
2001-01-01
In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.
Barnette, Daniel W.
2002-01-01
The present invention provides a method of grid generation that uses the geometry of the problem space and the governing relations to generate a grid. The method can generate a grid with minimized discretization errors, and with minimal user interaction. The method of the present invention comprises assigning grid cell locations so that, when the governing relations are discretized using the grid, at least some of the discretization errors are substantially zero. Conventional grid generation is driven by the problem space geometry; grid generation according to the present invention is driven by problem space geometry and by governing relations. The present invention accordingly can provide two significant benefits: more efficient and accurate modeling since discretization errors are minimized, and reduced cost grid generation since less human interaction is required.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pontius, James T. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
The present invention is directed to a method of bonding at least two surfaces together. The methods step of the present invention include applying a strip of adhesive to a first surface along a predefined outer boundary of a bond area and thereby defining a remaining open area there within. A second surface, or gusset plate, is affixed onto the adhesive before the adhesive cures. The strip of adhesive is allowed to cure and then a second amount of adhesive is applied to cover the remaining open area and substantially fill a void between said first and second surfaces about said bond area. A stencil may be used to precisely apply the strip of adhesive. When the strip cures, it acts as a dam to prevent overflow of the subsequent application of adhesive to undesired areas. The method results in a precise bond area free of undesired shapes and of a preferred profile which eliminate the drawbacks of the prior art bonds.
Peterman, Dean R [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D [Pocatello, ID
2010-09-21
Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hobson, Michael P.; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David
2014-02-01
Preface; Part I. Methods: 1. Foundations and algorithms John Skilling; 2. Simple applications of Bayesian methods D. S. Sivia and Steve Rawlings; 3. Parameter estimation using Monte Carlo sampling Antony Lewis and Sarah Bridle; 4. Model selection and multi-model interference Andrew R. Liddle, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 5. Bayesian experimental design and model selection forecasting Roberto Trotta, Martin Kunz, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 6. Signal separation in cosmology M. P. Hobson, M. A. J. Ashdown and V. Stolyarov; Part II. Applications: 7. Bayesian source extraction M. P. Hobson, Graça Rocha and R. Savage; 8. Flux measurement Daniel Mortlock; 9. Gravitational wave astronomy Neil Cornish; 10. Bayesian analysis of cosmic microwave background data Andrew H. Jaffe; 11. Bayesian multilevel modelling of cosmological populations Thomas J. Loredo and Martin A. Hendry; 12. A Bayesian approach to galaxy evolution studies Stefano Andreon; 13. Photometric redshift estimation: methods and applications Ofer Lahav, Filipe B. Abdalla and Manda Banerji; Index.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hobson, Michael P.; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David
2009-12-01
Preface; Part I. Methods: 1. Foundations and algorithms John Skilling; 2. Simple applications of Bayesian methods D. S. Sivia and Steve Rawlings; 3. Parameter estimation using Monte Carlo sampling Antony Lewis and Sarah Bridle; 4. Model selection and multi-model interference Andrew R. Liddle, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 5. Bayesian experimental design and model selection forecasting Roberto Trotta, Martin Kunz, Pia Mukherjee and David Parkinson; 6. Signal separation in cosmology M. P. Hobson, M. A. J. Ashdown and V. Stolyarov; Part II. Applications: 7. Bayesian source extraction M. P. Hobson, Graça Rocha and R. Savage; 8. Flux measurement Daniel Mortlock; 9. Gravitational wave astronomy Neil Cornish; 10. Bayesian analysis of cosmic microwave background data Andrew H. Jaffe; 11. Bayesian multilevel modelling of cosmological populations Thomas J. Loredo and Martin A. Hendry; 12. A Bayesian approach to galaxy evolution studies Stefano Andreon; 13. Photometric redshift estimation: methods and applications Ofer Lahav, Filipe B. Abdalla and Manda Banerji; Index.
Saadd, Y.
1994-12-31
In spite of the tremendous progress achieved in recent years in the general area of iterative solution techniques, there are still a few obstacles to the acceptance of iterative methods in a number of applications. These applications give rise to very indefinite or highly ill-conditioned non Hermitian matrices. Trying to solve these systems with the simple-minded standard preconditioned Krylov subspace methods can be a frustrating experience. With the mathematical and physical models becoming more sophisticated, the typical linear systems which we encounter today are far more difficult to solve than those of just a few years ago. This trend is likely to accentuate. This workshop will discuss (1) these applications and the types of problems that they give rise to; and (2) recent progress in solving these problems with iterative methods. The workshop will end with a hopefully stimulating panel discussion with the speakers.
Membrane Protein Prediction Methods
Punta, Marco; Forrest, Lucy R.; Bigelow, Henry; Kernytsky, Andrew; Liu, Jinfeng; Rost, Burkhard
2007-01-01
We survey computational approaches that tackle membrane protein structure and function prediction. While describing the main ideas that have led to the development of the most relevant and novel methods, we also discuss pitfalls, provide practical hints and highlight the challenges that remain. The methods covered include: sequence alignment, motif search, functional residue identification, transmembrane segment and protein topology predictions, homology and ab initio modeling. Overall, predictions of functional and structural features of membrane proteins are improving, although progress is hampered by the limited amount of high-resolution experimental information available. While predictions of transmembrane segments and protein topology rank among the most accurate methods in computational biology, more attention and effort will be required in the future to ameliorate database search, homology and ab initio modeling. PMID:17367718
Unorthodox theoretical methods
Nedd, Sean
2012-01-01
The use of the ReaxFF force field to correlate with NMR mobilities of amine catalytic substituents on a mesoporous silica nanosphere surface is considered. The interfacing of the ReaxFF force field within the Surface Integrated Molecular Orbital/Molecular Mechanics (SIMOMM) method, in order to replicate earlier SIMOMM published data and to compare with the ReaxFF data, is discussed. The development of a new correlation consistent Composite Approach (ccCA) is presented, which incorporates the completely renormalized coupled cluster method with singles, doubles and non-iterative triples corrections towards the determination of heats of formations and reaction pathways which contain biradical species.
Shapiro, Andrew Philip; Thornton, Roy Fred; Salvo, Joseph James
2003-01-01
The present invention provides a method for treating contaminated media. The method comprises introducing remediating ions consisting essentially of ferrous ions, and being peroxide-free, in the contaminated media; applying a potential difference across the contaminated media to cause the remediating ions to migrate into contact with contaminants in the contaminated media; chemically degrading contaminants in the contaminated media by contact with the remediating ions; monitoring the contaminated media for degradation products of the contaminants; and controlling the step of applying the potential difference across the contaminated media in response to the step of monitoring.
Spacecraft Attitude Determination Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
This document is presentation in viewgraph form, which outlines the methods of determining spacecraft attitude. The presentation reviews several parameterizations relating to spacecraft attitude, such as Euler's Theorem, Rodriques parameters, and Euler-Rodriques parameters or Quaternion. Onboard attitude determination is the norm, using either single frame or filtering methods. The presentation reviews several mathematical representations of attitude. The mechanisms for determining attitude on board the Hubble Space Telescope, the Tropical Rainfall and Measuring Mission and the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer are reviewed. Wahba's problem, Procrustes Problem, and some solutions are also summarized.
Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.
1964-01-14
This patent relates to a method of producing neutrons in which there is produced a heated plasma containing heavy hydrogen isotope ions wherein heated ions are injected and confined in an elongated axially symmetric magnetic field having at least one magnetic field gradient region. In accordance with the method herein, the amplitude of the field and gradients are varied at an oscillatory periodic frequency to effect confinement by providing proper ratios of rotational to axial velocity components in the motion of said particles. The energetic neutrons may then be used as in a blanket zone containing a moderator and a source fissionable material to produce heat and thermal neutron fissionable materials. (AEC)
FUEL ELEMENT FABRICATION METHOD
Hix, J.N.; Cooley, G.E.; Cunningham, J.E.
1960-05-31
A method is given for assembling and fabricating a fuel element comprising a plurality of spaced parallel fuel plates of a bowed configuration supported by and between a pair of transperse aluminum side plates. In this method, a brasing alloy is preplated on one surface of the aluminum side plates in the form of a cladding or layer-of uniform thickness. Grooves are then cut into the side plates through the alloy layer and into the base aluminum which results in the utilization of thinner aluminum side plates since a portion of the necessary groove depth is supplied by the brazing alloy.
Oermann, M H
1990-01-01
Research on teaching methods in nursing education was categorized into studies on media, CAI, and other nontraditional instructional strategies. While the research differed, some generalizations may be made from the findings. Multimedia, whether it is used for individual or group instruction, is at least as effective as traditional instruction (lecture and lecture-discussion) in promoting cognitive learning, retention of knowledge, and performance. Further study is needed to identify variables that may influence learning and retention. While learner attitudes toward mediated instruction tended to be positive, investigators failed to control for the effect of novelty. Control over intervening variables was lacking in the majority of studies as well. Research indicated that CAI is as effective as other teaching methods in terms of knowledge gain and retention. Attitudes toward CAI tended to be favorable, with similar problems in measurement as those evidenced in studies of media. Chang (1986) also recommends that future research examine the impact of computer-video interactive instruction on students, faculty, and settings. Research is needed on experimental teaching methods, strategies for teaching problem solving and clinical judgment, and ways of improving the traditional lecture and discussion. Limited research in these areas makes generalizations impossible. There is a particular need for research on how to teach students the diagnostic reasoning process and encourage critical thinking, both in terms of appropriate teaching methods and the way in which those strategies should be used. It is interesting that few researchers studied lecture and lecture-discussion except as comparable teaching methods for research on other strategies. Additional research questions may be generated on lecture and discussion in relation to promoting concept learning, an understanding of nursing and other theories, transfer of knowledge, and development of cognitive skills. Few
Mourant, J.R.; Anderson, G.D.; Bigio, I.J.; Johnson, T.M.
1996-03-12
The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.
Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Perrine, Kenneth A.; Foote, Harlan P.; Thomas, James J.
2008-12-23
Methods for visualizing a graph by automatically drawing elements of the graph as labels are disclosed. In one embodiment, the method comprises receiving node information and edge information from an input device and/or communication interface, constructing a graph layout based at least in part on that information, wherein the edges are automatically drawn as labels, and displaying the graph on a display device according to the graph layout. In some embodiments, the nodes are automatically drawn as labels instead of, or in addition to, the label-edges.
Smith, C.S.
1959-08-01
A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.
Electrorheological fluids and methods
Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.
2015-06-02
Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.
On Galerkin difference methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banks, J. W.; Hagstrom, T.
2016-05-01
Energy-stable difference methods for hyperbolic initial-boundary value problems are constructed using a Galerkin framework. The underlying basis functions are Lagrange functions associated with continuous piecewise polynomial approximation on a computational grid. Both theoretical and computational evidence shows that the resulting methods possess excellent dispersion properties. In the absence of boundaries the spectral radii of the operators for the first and second derivative matrices are bounded independent of discretization order. With boundaries the spectral radius of the first order derivative matrix appears to be bounded independent of discretization order, and grows only slowly with discretization order for problems in second-order form.
2012-08-01
Interatomic force and energy calculation subroutine to be used with the molecular dynamics simulation code LAMMPS (Ref a.). The code evaluated the total energy and atomic forces (energy gradient) according to a cubic spline-based variant (Ref b.) of the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) with a additional Stillinger-Weber (SW) contribution.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pearce, Cathie; MacLure, Maggie
2009-01-01
Postmodern and deconstructionist approaches are necessarily concerned with "making visible" and working with marginalized "others". This article explores how theory as method might enable us to revisit methodological approaches that have conventionally relied upon semantic readings of the text. Deconstruction clears the way for such approaches…
Keller, D.V.; Smith, C.D.
1980-09-23
Methods of and apparatus for cleaning coal in which halogenated hydrocarbons are used as parting liquids are disclosed. Various novel techniques, components, and combinations thereof are employed to maximize efficiency; to minimize costs and adverse environmental impacts; to make it possible to recover coal of a character which has heretofore been economically unrecoverable; to produce a superior product; and to reach other worthwhile goals.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Travis, R. B.; Lamar, D. L.
1987-01-01
Reviews methods of determining apparent dip and highlights the use of a device which consists of a nomogram printed on a protractor. Explains how the apparent-dip calculator-protractor can be constructed and outlines the steps for its operation. (ML)
METHOD OF CENTRIFUGE OPERATION
Cohen, K.
1960-05-10
A method of isotope separation is described in which two streams are flowed axially of, and countercurrently through, a cylindrical centrifuge bowl. Under the influence of a centrifugal field, the light fraction is concentrated in a stream flowing through the central portion of the bowl, whereas the heavy fraction is concentrated in a stream at the periphery thereof.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gayman, W. H.
1974-01-01
Test method and apparatus determine fluid effective mass and damping in frequency range where effective mass may be considered as total mass less sum of slosh masses. Apparatus is designed so test tank and its mounting yoke are supported from structural test wall by series of flexures.
Methods Of Making Pyrrolidones
Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.
2003-12-30
The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.
Hydrocarbonaceous material upgrading method
Brecher, Lee E.; Mones, Charles G.; Guffey, Frank D.
2015-06-02
A hydrocarbonaceous material upgrading method may involve a novel combination of heating, vaporizing and chemically reacting hydrocarbonaceous feedstock that is substantially unpumpable at pipeline conditions, and condensation of vapors yielded thereby, in order to upgrade that feedstock to a hydrocarbonaceous material condensate that meets crude oil pipeline specification.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herrick, James A.
1989-01-01
Explores how argumentation in the eighteenth-century miracles controversy (a century-long debate in Britain over the reasonableness of revealed religion) exhibited a controlling concern for procedural considerations. Discusses how the Deists and the Orthodox apologists used their argumentative force to advance rival methods for evaluating miracle…
Kacewicz, M.
1987-11-01
An approach for the description of uncertainty in geology using fuzzy-set theory and an example of slope stability problem is presented. Soil parameters may be described by fuzzy sets. The fuzzy method of slope stability estimation is considered and verified in the case of one of Warsaw's (Poland) slopes.
Projecting the Scientific Method.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Uthe, R. E.
2000-01-01
Describes how the gas laws are an excellent vehicle for introducing the steps of the scientific method. Students can use balloons and a simple apparatus to observe changes in various gas parameters, develop ideas about the changes they see, collect numerical data, test their ideas, derive simple equations for the relationships, and use the…
Hutter, G.
1994-01-04
A method of processing contaminated soil is disclosed whereby the soil in the form of feed stock is heated in a combustion chamber of a processor with the hydrocarbons being evacuated to a condensing system resulting in a petroleum product while the soil feed stock is detoxified in an afterburner to form clean soil for general use. 1 fig.
Lipp, G. Daniel
1994-05-03
A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of triangular cell cross-section and high cell density, the die having a combination of (i) feedholes feeding slot intersections and (ii) feedholes feeding slot segments not supplied from slot intersections, whereby a reduction in feedhole count is achieved while still retaining good extrusion efficiency and extrudate uniformity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuksin, Sergei; Maiocchi, Alberto
In this chapter we present a general method of constructing the effective equation which describes the behavior of small-amplitude solutions for a nonlinear PDE in finite volume, provided that the linear part of the equation is a hamiltonian system with a pure imaginary discrete spectrum. The effective equation is obtained by retaining only the resonant terms of the nonlinearity (which may be hamiltonian, or may be not); the assertion that it describes the limiting behavior of small-amplitude solutions is a rigorous mathematical theorem. In particular, the method applies to the three- and four-wave systems. We demonstrate that different possible types of energy transport are covered by this method, depending on whether the set of resonances splits into finite clusters (this happens, e.g. in case of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation), or is connected (this happens, e.g. in the case of the NLS equation if the space-dimension is at least two). For equations of the first type the energy transition to high frequencies does not hold, while for equations of the second type it may take place. Our method applies to various weakly nonlinear wave systems, appearing in plasma, meteorology and oceanography.
Collins, H. Dale; Gribble, R. Parks; Busse, Lawrence J.
1991-01-01
A method for providing an image of the human heart's electrical system derives time-of-flight data from an array of EKG electrodes and this data is transformed into phase information. The phase information, treated as a hologram, is reconstructed to provide an image in one or two dimensions of the electrical system of the functioning heart.
Photovoltaic device and method
Cleereman, Robert J; Lesniak, Michael J; Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joe A; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K; Boven, Michelle L
2015-01-27
The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.
Methods of making pyrrolidones
Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.
2003-10-14
The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.
Methods of making pyrrolidones
Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.
2004-03-16
The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.
Methods of making pyrrolidones
Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.
2003-08-05
The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.
Method of purifying isosaccharinate
Rai, Dhanpat; Moore, Robert C.; Tucker, Mark D.
2010-09-07
A method of purifying isosaccharinate by mixing sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide with calcium isosaccharinate, removing the precipitated calcium carbonate and adjusting the pH to between approximately 4.5 to 5.0 thereby removing excess carbonate and hydroxide to provide an acidic solution containing isosaccharinate.
Method of photocatalytic nanotagging
Shelnutt, John A.; Medforth, Craig J.; Song, Yujiang
2010-04-27
A nanotagged chemical structure comprising a chemical structure with an associated photocatalyst and a tagging nanoparticle (a nanotag) grown in proximity to the photocatalyst, and a method for making the nanotagged chemical structure. The nanoparticle is grown in proximity to the photocatalyst by using a photocatalytic reduction reaction.
Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.
2008-08-19
A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.
Weissmann, Charles
2013-11-01
Major advances in science are usually launched by new methods or techniques. Because this essay is not intended as a history of science, I shall not invoke the invention of the microscope or telescope as the gateways to inner and outer space, but will restrict myself to developments I have witnessed, or almost witnessed, during my scientific lifetime. PMID:24055872
Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.
2010-10-26
A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.
1973-01-01
Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.
Nevanlinna, O.
1994-12-31
This note summarizes some results on (a monitored version of) the Arnoldi method in Hilbert spaces. The interest in working in infinite dimensional spaces comes partly from the fact that only then can one have meaningful asymptotical statements (which hopefully give some light to the convergence of Arnoldi in large dimensional problems with iteration indices far less than the dimension).
Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.
1989-01-01
Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream processing-bioseparations.…
Photovoltaic device and method
Cleereman, Robert; Lesniak, Michael J.; Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K.; Boven, Michelle L.
2015-11-24
The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.
Nonparametric Methods in Reliability
Hollander, Myles; Peña, Edsel A.
2005-01-01
Probabilistic and statistical models for the occurrence of a recurrent event over time are described. These models have applicability in the reliability, engineering, biomedical and other areas where a series of events occurs for an experimental unit as time progresses. Nonparametric inference methods, in particular, the estimation of a relevant distribution function, are described. PMID:16710444
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schechter, Abraham A.
This book addresses some common preservation techniques that invariably become necessary in library and archival collections of any size. The procedures are described in chronological sequence, and photographs show the techniques from the viewpoint of the person actually doing the work. The recommended repair methods can be accomplished using…
Teaching Materials and Methods.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Physiologist, 1982
1982-01-01
Twelve abstracts of papers presented at the 33rd Annual Fall Meeting of the American Physiological Society are listed, focusing on teaching materials/methods. Topics, among others, include trends in physiology laboratory programs, cardiovascular system model, cardiovascular computer simulation with didactic feedback, and computer generated figures…
Ferrari's Method and Technology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Althoen, Steve
2005-01-01
Some tips that combine knowledge of mathematics history and technology for adapting Ferrar's method to factor quintics with a TI-83 graphing calculator are presented. A demonstration on the use of the root finder and regression capabilities of the graphing calculator are presented, so that the tips can be easily adapted for any graphing calculator…
Teaching Materials and Methods.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Physiologist, 1987
1987-01-01
Contains abstracts of presented papers which deal with teaching materials and methods in physiology. Includes papers on preconceptual notions in physiology, somatosensory activity recorded in the dorsal root ganglion of the bull frog, and the use of the Apple Macintosh microcomputer in teaching human anatomy and physiology. (TW)
Selection: Evaluation and methods
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Procedures to collect and to analyze data for genetic improvement of dairy cattle are described. Methods of identification and milk recording are presented. Selection traits include production (milk, fat, and protein yields and component percentages), conformation (final score and linear type traits...
Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee
2013-04-16
The present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit.
Banker, John G.; Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.
1977-01-01
A method of limiting carbon contamination from graphite ware used in induction melting of uranium alloys is provided comprising coating the graphite surface with a suspension of Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 particles in water containing about 1.5 to 4% by weight sodium carboxymethylcellulose.
Banker, J.G.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.
1975-11-06
A method of limiting carbon contamination from graphite ware used in induction melting of uranium alloys is provided. The graphite surface is coated with a suspension of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ particles in water containing about 1.5 to 4 percent by weight sodium carboxymethylcellulose.
Research Methods in Sociolinguistics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel
2014-01-01
The development of Sociolinguistics has been qualitatively and quantitatively outstanding within Linguistic Science since its beginning in the 1950s, with a steady growth in both theoretical and methodological developments as well as in its interdisciplinary directions within the spectrum of language and society. Field methods in sociolinguistic…
Neurological Impress Method plus
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Flood, James; Lapp, Diane; Fisher, Douglas
2005-01-01
The purpose of these two studies was to redirect interest to the Neurological Impress Method, a multisensory approach to reading instruction that occurs between a teacher and a student, which has been largely forgotten in mainstream and special education circles over the past decades. In addition to its emphasis on oral reading, we included a…
Jackiewicz, Jason
2009-09-16
With the rapid advances in sophisticated solar modeling and the abundance of high-quality solar pulsation data, efficient and robust inversion techniques are crucial for seismic studies. We present some aspects of an efficient Fourier Optimally Localized Averaging (OLA) inversion method with an example applied to time-distance helioseismology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dasenbrock, Reed Way
1995-01-01
Examines literary theory's displacing of "method" in the New Historicist criticism. Argues that Stephen Greenblatt and Lee Paterson imply that no objective historical truth is possible and as a result do not give methodology its due weight in their criticism. Questions the theory of "truth" advanced in this vein of literary criticism. (TB)
Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.
2012-01-01
A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering
Motor degradation prediction methods
Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.
1996-12-01
Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.
Proximal Point Methods Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boikanyo, Oganeditse A.; Moroşanu, Gheorghe
2011-09-01
The proximal point methods have been widely used in the last decades to approximate the solutions of nonlinear equations associated with monotone operators. Inspired by the iterative procedure defined by B. Martinet (1970), R.T. Rockafellar introduced in 1976 the so-called proximal point algorithm (PPA) for a general maximal monotone operator. The sequence generated by this iterative method is weakly convergent under appropriate conditions, but not necessarily strongly convergent, as proved by O. Güler (1991). This fact explains the introduction of different modified versions of the PPA which generate strongly convergent sequences under appropriate conditions, including the contraction-PPA defined by H.K. Xu in 2002. Here we discuss Xu's modified PPA as well as some of its generalizations. Special attention is paid to the computational errors, in particular the original Rockafellar summability assumption is replaced by the condition that the error sequence converges to zero strongly.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J. (Inventor)
1983-01-01
A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.
Strong-Gunderson, Janet M.; Palumbo, Anthony V.
1998-01-01
The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer.
Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; Palumbo, A.V.
1998-09-15
The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. 2 figs.
Implementation of Rosenbrock methods
Shampine, L. F.
1980-11-01
Rosenbrock formulas have shown promise in research codes for the solution of initial-value problems for stiff systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). To help assess their practical value, the author wrote an item of mathematical software based on such a formula. This required a variety of algorithmic and software developments. Those of general interest are reported in this paper. Among them is a way to select automatically, at every step, an explicit Runge-Kutta formula or a Rosenbrock formula according to the stiffness of the problem. Solving linear systems is important to methods for stiff ODEs, and is rather special for Rosenbrock methods. A cheap, effective estimate of the condition of the linear systems is derived. Some numerical results are presented to illustrate the developments.
Chen, Jack C.; Stawisuck, Valerie M.; Prasad, Ravi
2003-01-01
A cold isopressing method in which two or more layers of material are formed within an isopressing mold. One of the layers consists of a tape-cast film. The layers are isopressed within the isopressing mold, thereby to laminate the layers and to compact the tape-cast film. The isopressing mold can be of cylindrical configuration with the layers being coaxial cylindrical layers. The materials used in forming the layers can contain green ceramic materials and the resultant structure can be fired and sintered as necessary and in accordance with known methods to produce a finished composite, ceramic structure. Further, such green ceramic materials can be of the type that are capable of conducting hydrogen or oxygen ions at high temperature with the object of utilizing the finished composite ceramic structure as a ceramic membrane element.
Swiler, Thomas P; Garcia, Ernest J; Francis, Kathryn M
2014-01-07
A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with a HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.
Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.
2013-06-11
A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.
Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin
2016-06-21
Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.
Smith, Richard Harding; Martin, Glenn Brian
2004-05-18
The present invention allows the determination of trace levels of ionic substances in a sample solution (ions, metal ions, and other electrically charged molecules) by coupling a separation method, such as liquid chromatography, with ion selective electrodes (ISE) prepared so as to allow detection at activities below 10.sup.-6 M. The separation method distributes constituent molecules into fractions due to unique chemical and physical properties, such as charge, hydrophobicity, specific binding interactions, or movement in an electrical field. The separated fractions are detected by means of the ISE(s). These ISEs can be used singly or in an array. Accordingly, modifications in the ISEs are used to permit detection of low activities, specifically, below 10.sup.-6 M, by using low activities of the primary analyte (the molecular species which is specifically detected) in the inner filling solution of the ISE. Arrays constructed in various ways allow flow-through sensing for multiple ions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zavarise, Giorgio
2015-07-01
The method presented here is a variation of the classical penalty one, suited to reduce penetration of the contacting surfaces. The slight but crucial modification concerns the introduction of a shift parameter that moves the minimum point of the constrained potential toward the exact value, without any penalty increase. With respect to the classical augmentation procedures, the solution improvement is embedded within the original penalty contribution. The problem is almost consistently linearized, and the shift is updated before each Newton's iteration. However, adding few iterations, with respect to the original penalty method, a reduction of the penetration of several orders of magnitude can be achieved. The numerical tests have shown very attractive characteristics and very stable solution paths. This permits to foresee a wide area of applications, not only in contact mechanics, but for any problem, like e.g. incompressible materials, where a penalty contribution is required.
Groundwater contamination field methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Ivan
Half of the drinking water in the United States comes from groundwater; 75% of the nation's cities obtain all or part of their supplies from groundwater; and the rural areas are 95% dependent upon groundwater. Therefore it is imperative that every possible precaution be taken to protect the purity of the groundwater.Because of the increasing interest in prevention of groundwater contamination and the need for nationally recognized methods for investigation of contamination, a symposium entitled “Field Methods for Groundwater Contamination Studies and Their Standardization” was held February 2-7, 1986, in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The symposium was sponsored and organized by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee D18 on Soil and Rock and Committee D19 on Water. Gene Collins of the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (Bartlesville, Okla.) was symposium chair, and Ivan Johnson (A. Ivan Johnson, Inc., Consulting, Arvada, Colo.) was vice chair.
Bertozzi, Carolyn; Yarema, Kevin J.; Mahal, Lara K.
2000-01-01
Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.
Bertozzi, Carolyn C.; Yarema, Kevin J.; Mahal, Lara K.
2008-04-01
Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.
Bertozzi, Carolyn; Yarema, Kevin J.; Mahal, Lara K.
2005-08-30
Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.
Bertozzi, Carolyn; Yarema, Kevin J.; Mahal, Lara K.
2002-10-01
Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.
Barrier methods of contraception.
Skrine, R L
1985-05-01
Barrier methods of contraception make up an essential part of the present contraceptive range, and doctors need to know in detail how to choose and fit them as well as how to instruct patients in their use. This discussion reviews the mode of action of the barrier method and then focuses on the vaginal diaphragm, the cervical or vault cap, the collatex (Today) sponge, condoms, emotionl problems associated with the use of barrier methods, advantages of barrier methods, and future developments. Barrier methods of contraception are only effective if used consistently and carefully. Failure rates vary greatly between studies, but in selected populations the failure rate for the diaphragm with spermicide can be as low as 1.9/100 woman years (wy) and for the condom 3.6 per 100wy (Vessey et al., 1982). If known user failures are removed, the figure for the condom can drop to as low as 0.4 per 100wy (John, 1973), which compares favorably with that of the combined oral contraceptive. Other studies quote failure rates of 10 per 100wy or more. These methods call for considerable participation by the patient at or before each act of intercourse and there is, therefore, great scope for inefficient use, either as a result of poor instruction or because couples find that they interfere with happy, relaxed sexual activity -- or fear that they may do so. Doctors need to understand the feelings of their patients before recommending them. The aim of a barrier method is to prevent live sperm from meeting the ovum. This is accomplished by the combination of a physical barrier with a spermicide. In the case of the condom, the integrity of the physical barrier is the most important factor, although some patients feel more secure with an additional spermicide. The vaginal barriers used at present do not produce a "water-tight" fit, and the principle is that the spermicide is held over the cervix by the barrier. It is also possible that the device acts partially by holding the alkaline
Comprehensive rotorcraft analysis methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stephens, Wendell B.; Austin, Edward E.
1988-01-01
The development and application of comprehensive rotorcraft analysis methods in the field of rotorcraft technology are described. These large scale analyses and the resulting computer programs are intended to treat the complex aeromechanical phenomena that describe the behavior of rotorcraft. They may be used to predict rotor aerodynamics, acoustic, performance, stability and control, handling qualities, loads and vibrations, structures, dynamics, and aeroelastic stability characteristics for a variety of applications including research, preliminary and detail design, and evaluation and treatment of field problems. The principal comprehensive methods developed or under development in recent years and generally available to the rotorcraft community because of US Army Aviation Research and Technology Activity (ARTA) sponsorship of all or part of the software systems are the Rotorcraft Flight Simulation (C81), Dynamic System Coupler (DYSCO), Coupled Rotor/Airframe Vibration Analysis Program (SIMVIB), Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD), General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program (GRASP), and Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System (2GCHAS).
Inspection system calibration methods
Deason, Vance A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.
2004-12-28
An inspection system calibration method includes producing two sideband signals of a first wavefront; interfering the two sideband signals in a photorefractive material, producing an output signal therefrom having a frequency and a magnitude; and producing a phase modulated operational signal having a frequency different from the output signal frequency, a magnitude, and a phase modulation amplitude. The method includes determining a ratio of the operational signal magnitude to the output signal magnitude, determining a ratio of a 1st order Bessel function of the operational signal phase modulation amplitude to a 0th order Bessel function of the operational signal phase modulation amplitude, and comparing the magnitude ratio to the Bessel function ratio.
Method for making nanomaterials
Fan, Hongyou; Wu, Huimeng
2013-06-04
A method of making a nanostructure by preparing a face centered cubic-ordered metal nanoparticle film from metal nanoparticles, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, exerting a hydrostatic pressure upon the film at pressures of several gigapascals, followed by applying a non-hydrostatic stress perpendicularly at a pressure greater than approximately 10 GPA to form an array of nanowires with individual nanowires having a relatively uniform length, average diameter and density.
Kertesz, F.; Buttram, H.J.
1962-04-24
ABS>A method for impregnating a refractory material by filling its pores with a first salt having a high melting temperature is described. The salt is mixed with another, more volatile salt, giving the mixture a much lower melting temperature than that of the first salt. The material is coated with the mixture, then heated to drive off the volatile salt, leaving the first salt in place. (AEC)
Method for detecting biomolecules
Huo, Qisheng; Liu, Jun
2008-08-12
A method for detecting and measuring the concentration of biomolecules in solution, utilizing a conducting electrode in contact with a solution containing target biomolecules, with a film with controllable pore size distribution characteristics applied to at least one surface of the conducting electrode. The film is functionalized with probe molecules that chemically interact with the target biomolecules at the film surface, blocking indicator molecules present in solution from diffusing from the solution to the electrode, thereby changing the electrochemical response of the electrode
Thermal coupling measurement method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosenthal, L. A.; Menichelli, V. J.
1974-01-01
Heat flow from an embedded heated wire responds to a change in the ambient environment. The wire is part of a self-balancing bridge system, and heat flow is measured directly in watts. Steady-state and transient thermal coupling can be measured directly and is an indication of the thermal resistance and diffusivity for the system under study. The method is applied to an aerospace electroexplosive component.
RUTHENIUM DECONTAMINATION METHOD
Gresky, A.T.
1960-07-19
A liquid-liquid extraction method of separating uranium from fission products is given. A small amount of a low molecular weight ketone is added to an acidic aqueous solution containing neutron-irradiated uranium and its associated fission products. The resulting solution is digested and then contacted with an organic liquid that extracts uranium values. The purpose of the step of digesting the aqueous solution in the presence of the ketone is to suppress the extractability of ruthenium.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holt, Maurice
1996-01-01
In this paper, second order Godunov methods are reviewed. The early versions by Colella and Woodward (PPM) and van Leer (MUSCL) are described in their original form. The simplification of these by Roe, based on approximate Riemann solver, is then presented. Attention is next given to the improvement in MUSCL due to Hancock and van Leer leading to a fuller paper by Huynh. Finally, brief reference is made to TVD and ENO schemes due to Harten.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.
Lipp, G. Daniel
1994-04-26
A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of rhombic cell cross-section by extrusion through an extrusion die of triangular cell discharge slot configuration, the die incorporating feedholes at selected slot intersections only, such that slot segments communicating directly with the feedholes discharge web material and slot segments not so connected do not discharge web material, whereby a rhombic cell cross-section in the extruded body is provided.
Sithambaram, Shanthakumar; Son, Young-Chan; Suib, Steven L.
2008-04-08
A method for forming an imine comprises reacting a first reactant comprising a hydroxyl functionality, a carbonyl functionality, or both a hydroxyl functionality and a carbonyl functionality with a second reactant having an amine functionality in the presence of ordered porous manganese-based octahedral molecular sieves and an oxygen containing gas at a temperature and for a time sufficient for the imine to be produced.
Chang, Shih-ger; Liu, Shou-heng; Liu, Zhao-rong; Yan, Naiqiang
2009-01-20
Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.
Chang, Shih-ger; Liu, Shou-heng; Liu, Zhao-rong; Yan, Naiqiang
2010-07-13
Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.
Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, Shou-Heng; Liu, Zhao-Rong; Yan, Naiqiang
2011-08-30
Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.
Poco, J.F.
1993-09-07
The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.
Poco, John F.
1993-01-01
The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.
Kato, Akio
2006-11-14
The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, J.-Y.
1992-01-01
Viewgraphs are presented on the following topics: the grand challenge of combustion engineering; research of probability density function (PDF) methods at Sandia; experiments of turbulent jet flames (Masri and Dibble, 1988); departures from chemical equilibrium; modeling turbulent reacting flows; superequilibrium OH radical; pdf modeling of turbulent jet flames; scatter plot for CH4 (methane) and O2 (oxygen); methanol turbulent jet flames; comparisons between predictions and experimental data; and turbulent C2H4 jet flames.
Underground mining methods handbook
Hustrulid, W.A.
1982-01-01
Sections discuss: mine design considerations; stopes requiring minimum support (includes room-and-pillar mining and sublevel stoping); stopes requiring some additional support other than pillars (includes shrinkage stoping, cut-and-fill stoping, undercut-and-fill mining, timber-supported system, top-slice mining, longwall mining and shortwall mining); caving methods (sublevel and block caving); underground equipment; financial considerations; design; and mine ventilation.
METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM
Heal, H.G.
1960-02-16
BS>A method of separating plutonium from aqueous nitrate solutions of plutonium, uranium. and high beta activity fission products is given. The pH of the aqueous solution is adjusted between 3.0 to 6.0 with ammonium acetate, ferric nitrate is added, and the solution is heated to 80 to 100 deg C to selectively form a basic ferric plutonium-carrying precipitate.
Bianchini, Gregory M.; McRae, Thomas G.
1985-01-01
Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.
Kinesimetric method and apparatus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thornton, W. E. (Inventor)
1980-01-01
Apparatus and method for the determination of functional capability of bodies are disclosed. Reach as well as velocity, acceleration and force generation at various positions may be determined for a body by a three dimensional kinesimeter equipped with an ergometer. A general data package indicative of performance potential of a subject body or collection of bodies is provided for interfacing with data characteristics of various environments.
Johns, I.B.; Newton, A.S.
1958-09-01
A method is described for detecting pin hole imperfections in coatings on uranium-metal objects. Such coated objects are contacted with a heated atmosphere of gaseous hydrogen and imperfections present in the coatings will allow the uranlum to react with the hydrogen to form uranium hydride. Since uranium hydride is less dense than uranium metal it will swell, causing enlargement of the coating defeot and rendering it visible.
Innovative sludge stabilization method
Riggenbach, J.D.
1995-06-01
Sludge is generated in many water and wastewater treatment processes, both biological and physical/chemical. Examples include biological sludges from sanitary and industrial wastewater treatment operations and chemical sludges such as those produced when metals are removed from metal plating wastewater. Even some potable water plants produce sludge, such as when alum is used as a flocculating agent to clarify turbid water. Because sludge is produced from such a variety of operations, different techniques have been developed to remove water from sludges and reduce the sludge volume and mass, thus making the sludge more suitable for recovery or disposal. These techniques include mechanical (e.g., filter presses), solar (sludge drying beds), and thermal. The least expensive of these methods, neglecting land costs, involves sludge drying beds and lagoons. The solar method was widely used in sewage treatment plants for many years, but has fallen in disfavor in the US; mechanical and thermal methods have been preferred. Since environmental remediation often requires managing sludges, this article presents a discussion of a variation of sludge lagoons known as evaporative sludge stabilization. Application of this process to the closure of two 2.5 acre (10117 m{sup 2}) hazardous waste surface impoundments will be discussed. 1 ref., 2 figs.
The Configuration Interaction Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sherrill, C. David; Schaefer, Henry F., III
Highly correlated configuration interaction (CI) wavefunctions going beyond the simple singles and doubles (CISD) model space can provide very reliable potential energy surfaces, describe electronic excited states, and yield benchmark energies and molecular properties for use in calibrating more approximate methods. Unfortunately, such wavefunctions are also notoriously difficult to evaluate due to their extreme computational demands. The dimension of a full CI procedure, which represents the exact solution of the electronic Schrödinger equation for a fixed one-particle basis set, grows factorially with the number of electrons and basis functions. For very large configuration spaces, the number of CI coupling coefficients becomes prohibitively large to store on disk; these coefficients must be evaluated as needed in a so-called direct CI procedure. Work done by several groups since 1980 has focused on using Slater determinants rather than spin (S2) eigenfunctions because coupling coefficients are easier to compute with the former. We review the fundamentals of the configuration interaction method and discuss various determinant-based CI algorithms. Additionally, we consider some applications of highly correlated CI methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hjorth, Jens
The unique feature of MEM is that C(-1)(z) = exp(z) amplifies all scales equally. Narayan & Nityananda (1986) have shown that this leads to Gaussian deconvolved peaks. In MMM different scales are treated differently, depending on the choice of C. This gives different peak shapes, but also allows one to experiment with the degree of peak sharpening as a function of peak height. In fact, despite its strong information-theoretic background, MEM is known to redistribute flux incorrectly during deconvolution, thus making the method problematic if the goal is to get correct intensities out. MMM could remedy this problem by using an alternative to the entropy. In conclusion, some ideas connecting the physics of blurring with a proposed reconstruction scheme, dubbed Maximum Mixing Method, have been presented. It has been shown that this physically motivated, non-information theoretic, non-probabilistic, non-Bayesian approach can be turned into a powerful deconvolution technique, competitive with, and having as a special case, the Maximum Entropy Method. Further work within the proposed framework is required to fully explore the consequences of the theory. A paper including proofs and examples is in preparation.
Generalization of the Engineering Method to the UNIVERSAL METHOD.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koen, Billy Vaughn
1987-01-01
Proposes that there is a universal method for all realms of knowledge. Reviews Descartes's definition of the universal method, the engineering definition, and the philosophical basis for the universal method. Contends that the engineering method best represents the universal method. (ML)
Three-spin interaction Ising model with a nondegenerate ground state at zero applied field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bidaux, R.; Boccara, N.; Forgàcs, G.
1986-10-01
The field-temperature phase diagram of a two-dimensional, three-spin interaction Ising model is studied using two different methods: mean field approximation and numerical transfer matrix techniques. The former leads to a rather rich phase diagram in which two separate phases with different symmetries can be found, and which presents first-order transition lines, a triple point, and a critical end point, like the solid-liquid-gas phase diagram of a pure compound. The numerical transfer matrix study confirms part of these results, but does not clearly evidence the existence of the less symmetric phase.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inui, Norio
1998-12-01
We investigate numerically the percolation probability of the asymmetric directed-bond percolation on the square lattice with two parameters p and q based on Guttmann and Enting's procedure (1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 76 344). A series in the form of 0305-4470/31/48/001/img1 is derived by using the finite transfer-matrix method. The denominator of 0305-4470/31/48/001/img2 is directly calculated from the determinant of the transfer matrix and it leads to a proof that poles all lies on the unit circle in the complex q plane. The solvability of the bond directed percolation is also discussed.
Sandford, M.T. II; Bradley, J.N.; Handel, T.G.
1996-06-01
Data embedding is a new steganographic method for combining digital information sets. This paper describes the data embedding method and gives examples of its application using software written in the C-programming language. Sandford and Handel produced a computer program (BMPEMBED, Ver. 1.51 written for IBM PC/AT or compatible, MS/DOS Ver. 3.3 or later) that implements data embedding in an application for digital imagery. Information is embedded into, and extracted from, Truecolor or color-pallet images in Microsoft{reg_sign} bitmap (.BMP) format. Hiding data in the noise component of a host, by means of an algorithm that modifies or replaces the noise bits, is termed {open_quote}steganography.{close_quote} Data embedding differs markedly from conventional steganography, because it uses the noise component of the host to insert information with few or no modifications to the host data values or their statistical properties. Consequently, the entropy of the host data is affected little by using data embedding to add information. The data embedding method applies to host data compressed with transform, or {open_quote}lossy{close_quote} compression algorithms, as for example ones based on discrete cosine transform and wavelet functions. Analysis of the host noise generates a key required for embedding and extracting the auxiliary data from the combined data. The key is stored easily in the combined data. Images without the key cannot be processed to extract the embedded information. To provide security for the embedded data, one can remove the key from the combined data and manage it separately. The image key can be encrypted and stored in the combined data or transmitted separately as a ciphertext much smaller in size than the embedded data. The key size is typically ten to one-hundred bytes, and it is in data an analysis algorithm.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, Ye (Inventor); Wu, Honglu (Inventor)
2015-01-01
Systems and methods for preparing a sample for further analysis are provided. The system can include an enclosure. A membrane can be disposed within the enclosure. First and second reservoirs can be disposed within the enclosure, and at least one of the first and second reservoirs can be adapted to have a reagent disposed therein. A valve can be disposed within the enclosure and in fluid communication with the first or second reservoirs or both. The valve can also be in fluid communication with the membrane. The valve can be adapted to selectively regulate the flow of the reagent from the first reservoir, through the membrane, and into the second reservoir.
Moses, Edward I.
1992-01-01
A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter.
ZIRCONIUM PHOSPHATE ADSORPTION METHOD
Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.S.; Schubert, J.; Boyd, G.E.
1958-11-01
A method is presented for separating plutonium values from fission product values in aqueous acidic solution. This is accomplished by flowing the solutlon containing such values through a bed of zirconium orthophosphate. Any fission products adsorbed can subsequently be eluted by washing the column with a solution of 2N HNO/sub 3/ and O.lN H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. Plutonium values may subsequently be desorbed by contacting the column with a solution of 7N HNO/sub 3/ .
Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.
1999-03-23
A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.
Follstaedt, David M.; Moran, Michael P.
2005-03-15
A method for thinning (such as in grinding and polishing) a material surface using an instrument means for moving an article with a discontinuous surface with an abrasive material dispersed between the material surface and the discontinuous surface where the discontinuous surface of the moving article provides an efficient means for maintaining contact of the abrasive with the material surface. When used to dimple specimens for microscopy analysis, a wheel with a surface that has been modified to produce a uniform or random discontinuous surface significantly improves the speed of the dimpling process without loss of quality of finish.
Powell, J.; Reich, M.; Danby, G.
1997-07-22
A magnetic imager includes a generator for practicing a method of applying a background magnetic field over a concealed object, with the object being effective to locally perturb the background field. The imager also includes a sensor for measuring perturbations of the background field to detect the object. In one embodiment, the background field is applied quasi-statically. And, the magnitude or rate of change of the perturbations may be measured for determining location, size, and/or condition of the object. 25 figs.
Lysimeter methods and apparatus
Clark, Don T.; Erickson, Eugene E.; Casper, William L.; Everett, David M.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.
2004-12-07
A suction lysimeter for sampling subsurface liquids includes a lysimeter casing having a drive portion, a reservoir portion, and a tip portion, the tip portion including a membrane through which subsurface liquids may be sampled; a fluid conduit coupled in fluid flowing relation relative to the membrane, and which in operation facilitates the delivery of the sampled subsurface liquids from the membrane to the reservoir portion; and a plurality of tubes coupled in fluid flowing relation relative to the reservoir portion, the tubes in operation facilitating delivery of the sampled subsurface liquids from the reservoir portion for testing. A method of sampling subsurface liquids comprises using this lysimeter.
Powell, James; Reich, Morris; Danby, Gordon
1997-07-22
A magnetic imager 10 includes a generator 18 for practicing a method of applying a background magnetic field over a concealed object, with the object being effective to locally perturb the background field. The imager 10 also includes a sensor 20 for measuring perturbations of the background field to detect the object. In one embodiment, the background field is applied quasi-statically. And, the magnitude or rate of change of the perturbations may be measured for determining location, size, and/or condition of the object.
Acoustic bubble removal method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trinh, E. H.; Elleman, D. D.; Wang, T. G. (Inventor)
1983-01-01
A method is described for removing bubbles from a liquid bath such as a bath of molten glass to be used for optical elements. Larger bubbles are first removed by applying acoustic energy resonant to a bath dimension to drive the larger bubbles toward a pressure well where the bubbles can coalesce and then be more easily removed. Thereafter, submillimeter bubbles are removed by applying acoustic energy of frequencies resonant to the small bubbles to oscillate them and thereby stir liquid immediately about the bubbles to facilitate their breakup and absorption into the liquid.
Method for resonant measurement
Rhodes, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Dixon, R.D.
1996-03-05
A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson`s ratio ({sigma}) and shear modulus ({mu}) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson`s ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson`s ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson`s ratio. 1 fig.
Revett, L. W.
1985-09-17
A well completion method comprising suspending NaCl crystals in the interval of the well bore to be perforated where the NaCl crystals are sized to bridge the perforations when the hydraulic pressure in the well bore exceeds the hydraulic pressure in the earth formation. The perforator is arranged to produce penetrations in the well bore in a radial pattern about the circumference of the well bore so as to effectively penetrate the entire circumference over a short interval. This enhances the perforation of vertical fractures in the earth formations.
SULFIDE METHOD PLUTONIUM SEPARATION
Duffield, R.B.
1958-08-12
A process is described for the recovery of plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium solutions. Such a solution is first treated with a soluble sullide, causing precipitation of the plutoniunn and uraniunn values present, along with those impurities which form insoluble sulfides. The precipitate is then treated with a solution of carbonate ions, which will dissolve the uranium and plutonium present while the fission product sulfides remain unaffected. After separation from the residue, this solution may then be treated by any of the usual methods, such as formation of a lanthanum fluoride precipitate, to effect separation of plutoniunn from uranium.
Dixon, Raymond D.; Smith, Frank M.; O'Leary, Richard F.
1997-01-01
A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon.
Alford, Kentin L.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Samuels, William D.; Zemanian, Thomas S.; Liu, Jun; Shin, Yongsoon; Fryxell, Glen E.
2009-09-15
The invention pertains to methods of forming monolayers on various surfaces. The surfaces can be selected from a wide array of materials, including, for example, aluminum dioxide, silicon dioxide, carbon and SiC. The substrates can be planar or porous. The monolayer is formed under enhanced pressure conditions. The monolayer contains functionalized molecules, and accordingly functionalizes a surface of the substrate. The properties of the functionalized substrate can enhance the substrate's applicability for numerous purposes including, for example, utilization in extracting contaminants, or incorporation into a polymeric matrix.
Alford, Kentin L.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Samuels, William D.; Zemanian, Thomas S.; Liu, Jun; Shin, Yongsoon; Fryxell, Glen E.
2009-12-08
The invention pertains to methods of forming monolayers on various surfaces. The surfaces can be selected from a wide array of materials, including, for example, aluminum dioxide, silicon dioxide, carbon and SiC. The substrates can be planar or porous. The monolayer is formed under enhanced pressure conditions. The monolayer contains functionalized molecules, and accordingly functionalizes a surface of the substrate. The properties of the functionalized substrate can enhance the substrate's applicability for numerous purposes including, for example, utilization in extracting contaminants, or incorporation into a polymeric matrix.
Method for resonant measurement
Rhodes, George W.; Migliori, Albert; Dixon, Raymond D.
1996-01-01
A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson's ratio (.sigma.) and shear modulus (.mu.) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson's ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson's ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson's ratio.
Langston, Cathy; Gisselman, Kelly; Palma, Douglas; McCue, John
2010-06-01
Multiple techniques exist to remove uroliths from each section of the urinary tract. Minimally invasive methods for removing lower urinary tract stones include voiding urohydropropulsion, retrograde urohydropropulsion followed by dissolution or removal, catheter retrieval, cystoscopic removal, and cystoscopy-assisted laser lithotripsy and surgery. Laparoscopic cystotomy is less invasive than surgical cystotomy. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy can be used for nephroliths and ureteroliths. Nephrotomy, pyelotomy, or urethrotomy may be recommended in certain situations. This article discusses each technique and gives guidance for selecting the most appropriate technique for an individual patient. PMID:20949423
Methods of Telomerase Inhibition
Andrews, Lucy G.; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.
2008-01-01
Summary Telomerase is central to cellular immortality and is a key component of most cancer cells although this enzyme is rarely expressed to significant levels in normal cells. Therefore, the inhibition of telomerase has garnered considerable attention as a possible anticancer approach. Many of the methods applied to telomerase inhibition focus on either of the two major components of the ribonucleoprotein holoenzyme, that is, the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) catalytic subunit or the telomerase RNA (TR) component. Other protocols have been developed to target the proteins, such as tankyrase, that are associated with telomerase at the ends of chromosomes. This chapter summarizes some of these recent advances in telomerase inhibition. PMID:18369812
METHOD OF ISOTOPE CONCENTRATION
Taylor, T.I.; Spindel, W.
1960-02-01
A method of concentrating N/sup 15/ in a liquid is described. Gaseous nitric oxide and at least one liquid selected from the group consisting of the aqueous oxyacids and oxides of nitrogen, wherein the atomic ratio of oxygen to nitrogen is greater than unity, are brought into intimate contact to cause an enrichment of the liquid and a depletion of the gas in N/sup 15/. The liquid is, thereafter, reacted with sulfur dioxide to produce a gas contuining nitric oxide. The gas contuining nitric oxide is then continuously passed in countercurrent contact with the liquid to cause further enrichment of the liquid.
METHOD OF ELECTROPOLISHING URANIUM
Walker, D.E.; Noland, R.A.
1959-07-14
A method of electropolishing the surface of uranium articles is presented. The process of this invention is carried out by immersing the uranium anticle into an electrolyte which contains from 35 to 65% by volume sulfuric acid, 1 to 20% by volume glycerine and 25 to 50% by volume of water. The article is made the anode in the cell and polished by electrolyzing at a voltage of from 10 to 15 volts. Discontinuing the electrolysis by intermittently withdrawing the anode from the electrolyte and removing any polarized film formed therein results in an especially bright surface.
Computational Methods for Crashworthiness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Carden, Huey D. (Compiler)
1993-01-01
Presentations and discussions from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Computational Methods for Crashworthiness held at Langley Research Center on 2-3 Sep. 1992 are included. The presentations addressed activities in the area of impact dynamics. Workshop attendees represented NASA, the Army and Air Force, the Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories, the aircraft and automotive industries, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the state-of-technology in the numerical simulation of crash and to provide guidelines for future research.
Moses, E.I.
1992-12-01
A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.
Henager, Jr., Charles H.; Brimhall, John L.
2000-01-01
According to the method of the present invention, joining a first bi-element carbide to a second bi-element carbide, has the steps of: (a) forming a bond agent containing a metal carbide and silicon; (b) placing the bond agent between the first and second bi-element carbides to form a pre-assembly; and (c) pressing and heating the pre-assembly in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature effective to induce a displacement reaction creating a metal silicon phase bonding the first and second bi-element carbides.
Janney, Mark A.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.
1999-01-01
A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.
Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.
2012-02-21
A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.
Construction Material And Method
Wagh, Arun S.; Antink, Allison L.
2006-02-21
A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic. The ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.
Mayes, James C.
2009-05-05
A device and method provide for cooling of a system having an energy source, one or more devices that actively consume energy, and one or more devices that generate heat. The device may include one or more thermoelectric coolers ("TECs") in conductive engagement with at least one of the heat-generating devices, and an energy diverter for diverting at least a portion of the energy from the energy source that is not consumed by the active energy-consuming devices to the TECs.
Recurrent fuzzy ranking methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hajjari, Tayebeh
2012-11-01
With the increasing development of fuzzy set theory in various scientific fields and the need to compare fuzzy numbers in different areas. Therefore, Ranking of fuzzy numbers plays a very important role in linguistic decision-making, engineering, business and some other fuzzy application systems. Several strategies have been proposed for ranking of fuzzy numbers. Each of these techniques has been shown to produce non-intuitive results in certain case. In this paper, we reviewed some recent ranking methods, which will be useful for the researchers who are interested in this area.
Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.
1985-08-20
A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.
Aeroelastic analysis of a troposkien-type wind turbine blade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nitzsche, F.
1981-01-01
The linear aeroelastic equations for one curved blade of a vertical axis wind turbine in state vector form are presented. The method is based on a simple integrating matrix scheme together with the transfer matrix idea. The method is proposed as a convenient way of solving the associated eigenvalue problem for general support conditions.
Accelerated adaptive integration method.
Kaus, Joseph W; Arrar, Mehrnoosh; McCammon, J Andrew
2014-05-15
Conformational changes that occur upon ligand binding may be too slow to observe on the time scales routinely accessible using molecular dynamics simulations. The adaptive integration method (AIM) leverages the notion that when a ligand is either fully coupled or decoupled, according to λ, barrier heights may change, making some conformational transitions more accessible at certain λ values. AIM adaptively changes the value of λ in a single simulation so that conformations sampled at one value of λ seed the conformational space sampled at another λ value. Adapting the value of λ throughout a simulation, however, does not resolve issues in sampling when barriers remain high regardless of the λ value. In this work, we introduce a new method, called Accelerated AIM (AcclAIM), in which the potential energy function is flattened at intermediate values of λ, promoting the exploration of conformational space as the ligand is decoupled from its receptor. We show, with both a simple model system (Bromocyclohexane) and the more complex biomolecule Thrombin, that AcclAIM is a promising approach to overcome high barriers in the calculation of free energies, without the need for any statistical reweighting or additional processors. PMID:24780083
Statistical methods in microbiology.
Ilstrup, D M
1990-01-01
Statistical methodology is viewed by the average laboratory scientist, or physician, sometimes with fear and trepidation, occasionally with loathing, and seldom with fondness. Statistics may never be loved by the medical community, but it does not have to be hated by them. It is true that statistical science is sometimes highly mathematical, always philosophical, and occasionally obtuse, but for the majority of medical studies it can be made palatable. The goal of this article has been to outline a finite set of methods of analysis that investigators should choose based on the nature of the variable being studied and the design of the experiment. The reader is encouraged to seek the advice of a professional statistician when there is any doubt about the appropriate method of analysis. A statistician can also help the investigator with problems that have nothing to do with statistical tests, such as quality control, choice of response variable and comparison groups, randomization, and blinding of assessment of response variables. PMID:2200604
Woerner, Robert L.
1979-01-01
Method for cryoinduced uniform deposition of cryogenic materials, such as deuterium-tritium (DT) mixtures, on the inner surface of hollow spherical members, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on the inner surface of the spherical member. Heating of the cryogenic material, located within a non-isothermal compact freezing cell, is accomplished by an electrical heat pulse, whereafter the material is quickly frozen forming a uniform layer on the inner surface of the spherical member. The method is not restricted to producing a frozen layer on only the inner surface of the innermost hollow member, but where multiple concentric hollow spheres are involved, such as in multiple shell targets for lasers, electron beams, etc., layers of cryogenic material may also be formed on the inner surface of intermediate or outer spherical members, thus providing the capability of forming targets having multiple concentric layers or shells of frozen DT.
Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method.
Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh
2016-01-01
Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows. PMID:27251098
Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method
Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh
2016-01-01
Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows. PMID:27251098
Accelerated Adaptive Integration Method
2015-01-01
Conformational changes that occur upon ligand binding may be too slow to observe on the time scales routinely accessible using molecular dynamics simulations. The adaptive integration method (AIM) leverages the notion that when a ligand is either fully coupled or decoupled, according to λ, barrier heights may change, making some conformational transitions more accessible at certain λ values. AIM adaptively changes the value of λ in a single simulation so that conformations sampled at one value of λ seed the conformational space sampled at another λ value. Adapting the value of λ throughout a simulation, however, does not resolve issues in sampling when barriers remain high regardless of the λ value. In this work, we introduce a new method, called Accelerated AIM (AcclAIM), in which the potential energy function is flattened at intermediate values of λ, promoting the exploration of conformational space as the ligand is decoupled from its receptor. We show, with both a simple model system (Bromocyclohexane) and the more complex biomolecule Thrombin, that AcclAIM is a promising approach to overcome high barriers in the calculation of free energies, without the need for any statistical reweighting or additional processors. PMID:24780083
Young, G.J.; Ohlinger, L.A.
1958-06-24
A nuclear reactor of the type which uses a liquid fuel and a method of controlling such a reactor are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of a tank for containing the liquid fuel such as a slurry of discrete particles of fissionnble material suspended in a heavy water moderator, and a control means in the form of a disc of neutron absorbirg material disposed below the top surface of the slurry and parallel thereto. The diameter of the disc is slightly smaller than the diameter of the tank and the disc is perforated to permit a flow of the slurry therethrough. The function of the disc is to divide the body of slurry into two separate portions, the lower portion being of a critical size to sustain a nuclear chain reaction and the upper portion between the top surface of the slurry and the top surface of the disc being of a non-critical size. The method of operation is to raise the disc in the reactor until the lower portion of the slurry has reached a critical size when it is desired to initiate the reaction, and to lower the disc in the reactor to reduce the size of the lower active portion the slurry to below criticality when it is desired to stop the reaction.
Methods of Endotoxin Detection.
Su, Wenqiong; Ding, Xianting
2015-08-01
Endotoxin, present in the outer membrane of all gram-negative bacteria, can pose serious risks to human health, from irreversible shock to death. Therefore, it is essential to develop sensitive, accurate, and rapid methods for its detection. The rabbit pyrogen test is the first standard technique for endotoxin detection and, nowadays, has been replaced by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate test, which is the most popular detection technique for endotoxin. With in-depth understanding of endotoxin, biosensors based on endotoxin-sensing components are promising alternatives to pursue in developing low-cost, easy-operation, and fast-response endotoxin detection techniques. This article summarizes the recent advances of endotoxin detection methods with a particular emphasis on optical and electrochemical biosensors based on various sensing elements ranging from nature biomolecules to artificial materials. As the research and technological revolution continues, the highly integrated and miniaturized commercial devices for sensitively and reliably detecting endotoxin will provide a wide range of applications in people's daily life. PMID:25720597
Macleish, K.G.
1958-02-11
ABS>This patent presents a method for locating a ground in a d-c circult having a number of parallel branches connected across a d-c source or generator. The complete method comprises the steps of locating the ground with reference to the mildpoint of the parallel branches by connecting a potentiometer across the terminals of the circuit and connecting the slider of the potentiometer to ground through a current indicating instrument, adjusting the slider to right or left of the mildpoint so as to cause the instrument to indicate zero, connecting the terminal of the network which is farthest from the ground as thus indicated by the potentiometer to ground through a condenser, impressing a ripple voltage on the circuit, and then measuring the ripple voltage at the midpoint of each parallel branch to find the branch in which is the lowest value of ripple voltage, and then measuring the distribution of the ripple voltage along this branch to determine the point at which the ripple voltage drops off to zero or substantially zero due to the existence of a ground. The invention has particular application where a circuit ground is present which will disappear if the normal circuit voltage is removed.
Nucleic acid detection methods
Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.
1998-05-19
The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.
Nucleic Acid Detection Methods
Smith, Cassandra L.; Yaar, Ron; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Cantor, Charles R.
1998-05-19
The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.
Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh
2016-06-01
Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows.
Extractive distillation method
Ogura, Sh.; Miyamoto, M.
1984-05-08
A method is disclosed for separating a hydrocarbon mixture into relatively difficulty soluble hydrocarbons and relatively easily soluble hydrocarbons by extractive distillation using a polar solvent. The method comprises feeding the starting hydrocarbon mixture to at least two evaporators, an extractive distillation column, a stripping column and a rectifying column; the improvement wherein (1) the polar solvent discharged at a high temperature from the bottom of the stripping column is recycled to the extractive distillation column after it has been cooled to a suitable temperature by giving up heat to a reboiler of the extractive distillation column, a reboiler of the rectifying column and successively to the two or more evaporators, and (2) the starting hydrocarbon mixture is divided into two or more streams and heated in two or more evaporators, one stream being evaporated in a first evaporator to a pressure necessary for introduction into the extractive distillation column and then fed to the extractive distillation column, and the other stream, after evaporation in a second and subsequent evaporators, being pressurized to a pressure required for introduction into the extractive distillation column by means of a compressor and then fed into the extractive distillation column.
Taylor, Charles E.; Noceti, Richard P.
1991-01-01
An improved catlayst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HC1 and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.
Ponzetto, Federico; Giraud, Sylvain; Leuenberger, Nicolas; Boccard, Julien; Nicoli, Raul; Baume, Norbert; Rudaz, Serge; Saugy, Martial
2016-01-01
Over the past few years, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has focused its efforts on detecting not only small prohibited molecules, but also larger endogenous molecules such as hormones, in the view of implementing an endocrinological module in the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP). In this chapter, the detection of two major types of hormones used for doping, growth hormone (GH) and endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (EAASs), will be discussed: a brief historical background followed by a description of state-of-the-art methods applied by accredited anti-doping laboratories will be provided and then current research trends outlined. In addition, microRNAs (miRNAs) will also be presented as a new class of biomarkers for doping detection. PMID:27348309
Myers, J. D.
1985-06-25
A simplified, relatively inexpensive laser device, wherein the laser elements are fixed in a body exoskeleton of electrical insulating material having a low coefficient of thermal expansion. The preferred embodiment includes a shotgun type laser filter having parallel bores which receive the laser flashlamp and laser rod in fixed relation in a body chamber. The reflector surrounds the laser filter and retains the filter within the body chamber. In the preferred method of this invention, several controlled lasing pulses are generated with each illumination pulse of the flashlamp, substantially increasing the efficiency of the laser device. The number of pulses is generally controlled by increasing the voltage to the flashlamp. The rapid multiple lasing pulses generate an elongated plasma in a fluid medium, such as the vitreous fluid body of an eye which makes the laser device extemely efficient for treating glaucoma and other medical treatments.
Olson, Eric J.
2013-06-11
An apparatus, program product, and method that run an algorithm on a hardware based processor, generate a hardware error as a result of running the algorithm, generate an algorithm output for the algorithm, compare the algorithm output to another output for the algorithm, and detect the hardware error from the comparison. The algorithm is designed to cause the hardware based processor to heat to a degree that increases the likelihood of hardware errors to manifest, and the hardware error is observable in the algorithm output. As such, electronic components may be sufficiently heated and/or sufficiently stressed to create better conditions for generating hardware errors, and the output of the algorithm may be compared at the end of the run to detect a hardware error that occurred anywhere during the run that may otherwise not be detected by traditional methodologies (e.g., due to cooling, insufficient heat and/or stress, etc.).
Tensiometer methods and apparatus
Grover, Blair K.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.; Casper, William L.
2004-08-10
A method for collecting data regarding a matric potential of a media includes providing a tensiometer having a stainless steel tensiometer casing, the stainless steel tensiometer casing comprising a tip portion which includes a wetted porous stainless steel membrane through which a matric potential of a media is sensed; driving the tensiometer into the media using an insertion tube comprising a plurality of probe casing which are selectively coupled to form the insertion tube as the tensiometer is progressively driven deeper into the media, wherein the wetted porous stainless steel membrane is in contact with the media; and sensing the matric potential the media exerts on the wetted porous stainless steel membrane by a pressure sensor in fluid hydraulic connection with the porous stainless steel membrane. A tensiometer includes a stainless steel casing.
Magnesium fluoride recovery method
Gay, Richard L.; McKenzie, Donald E.
1989-01-01
A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.
Gambill, W.R.; Greene, N.D.
1960-08-30
A method is given for increasing burn-out heat fluxes under nucleate boiling conditions in heat exchanger tubes without incurring an increase in pumping power requirements. This increase is achieved by utilizing a spinning flow having a rotational velocity sufficient to produce a centrifugal acceleration of at least 10,000 g at the tube wall. At this acceleration the heat-transfer rate at burn out is nearly twice the rate which can be achieved in a similar tube utilizing axial flow at the same pumping power. At higher accelerations the improvement over axial flow is greater, and heat fluxes in excess of 50 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr/sq ft can be achieved.
Geophysical Methods: an Overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, A.; Goldstein, N. E.; Lee, K. H.; Majer, E. L.; Morrison, H. F.; Myer, L.
1992-01-01
Geophysics is expected to have a major role in lunar resource assessment when manned systems return to the Moon. Geophysical measurements made from a lunar rover will contribute to a number of key studies: estimating regolith thickness, detection of possible large-diameter lava tubes within maria basalts, detection of possible subsurface ice in polar regions, detection of conductive minerals that formed directly from a melt (orthomagmatic sulfides of Cu, Ni, Co), and mapping lunar geology beneath the regolith. The techniques that can be used are dictated both by objectives and by our abilities to adapt current technology to lunar conditions. Instrument size, weight, power requirements, and freedom from orientation errors are factors we have considered. Among the geophysical methods we believe to be appropriate for a lunar resource assessment are magnetics, including gradiometry, time-domain magnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, seismic reflection, and gravimetry.
Ophthalmic method and apparatus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evvard, J. C.; Mcgannon, W. J.; Vargo, D. J. (Inventor)
1973-01-01
A method and apparatus for removing material and components such as the lens from an eye is described. High speed rotary cutting members at one end of a rod macerate the lens while an annular tubing disposed around the cutting members vibrates ultrasonically to coact with the cutting members in macerating the lens. At the same time, a liquid is supplied to the chamber behind the cornea of the eye. Spiral grooves extending along the rotating rod from the cutting members evacuate the liquid and the macerated material from the eye. An alternate embodiment of the apparatus includes a tube through which liquid is supplied to the operative site of the ultrasonically vibrating tube and the cutting members in the area of the lens.
Waveguide disturbance detection method
Korneev, Valeri A.; Nihei, Kurt T.; Myer, Larry R.
2000-01-01
A method for detection of a disturbance in a waveguide comprising transmitting a wavefield having symmetric and antisymmetric components from a horizontally and/or vertically polarized source and/or pressure source disposed symmetrically with respect to the longitudinal central axis of the waveguide at one end of the waveguide, recording the horizontal and/or vertical component or a pressure of the wavefield with a vertical array of receivers disposed at the opposite end of the waveguide, separating the wavenumber transform of the wavefield into the symmetric and antisymmetric components, integrating the symmetric and antisymmetric components over a broad frequency range, and comparing the magnitude of the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components to an expected magnitude for the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components for a waveguide of uniform thickness and properties thereby determining whether or not a disturbance is present inside the waveguide.
Radiofrequency attenuator and method
Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.; Agrawal, Anoop; Hall, Simon B.
2009-01-20
Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.
Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto
1999-01-01
The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.
McGuire, R.R.; Coon, C.L.; Harrar, J.E.; Pearson, R.K.
1984-02-21
A method and apparatus for electrochemically synthesizing N/sub 2/O/sub 5/ includes oxidizing a solution of N/sub 2/O/sub 4//HNO/sub 3/ at an anode, while maintaining a controlled potential between the N/sub 2/O/sub 4//HNO/sub 3/ solution and the anode. A potential of about 1.35 to 2.0 V vs. SCE is preferred, while a potential of about 1.80 V vs. SCE is most preferred. Thereafter, the N/sub 2/O/sub 5/ is reacted with either 1.5-diacetyl-3,7-dinitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (DADN) or 1,3,5,7-tetraacetyl-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (TAT) to form cyclotetramethylenetetraamine (HMX).
Johnson, K.J.; Coats, E.A.
1991-07-23
This patent describes a method of producing methane gas from a coalbed. It includes drilling a well into an earth formation to a depth penetrating a coalbed seam; setting a casing in the well extending through the coalbed seam; perforating the casing at the coalbed seam; installing a production tubing string in the well casing, the string extending in spaced relation in the casing to the coalbed seam and defining a continuous annulus in the well between the production tubing string and the casing between a surface end of the well and the coalbed seam, the production tubing string including a side pocket mandrel and a tubing removable gas lift valve installed in the side pocket mandrel; installing a tubing lift gas injection line in the well annulus along with the production tubing string the lift gas injection line being connected into the side pocket mandrel to communicate into the gas lift valve; installing a wellhead on the well having separate flow line.
Davis Jr., L. A.; Brost, D. F.; Haskin, H. K.
1984-11-13
A method of testing a chemical for use in an enhanced recovery of oil from an earth formation includes obtaining a test core of an earth formation. The test core is cleaned and then subjected to a predetermined sequence of events similar to that which the reservoir has experienced. The test core is flooded with a chemical to be tested and the chemical is then driven from the test core with a drive liquid. The test core is irradiated with a beam of electromagnetic energy at a microwave frequency. An indication representative of the effectiveness of the chemical in the test core is derived in accordance with the electromagnetic energy that has passed through the test core.
METHOD FOR PREPARING NORMORPHINE
Rapoport, H.; Look, M.
1959-06-01
An improved method is presented for producing normorphine from morphine. Morphine as the starting material is acetylated by treatment with acetylating agents to produce di-acetyl morphine (heroin). The acetylated compound is reacted with cyanating agents to produce di-acetyl-cyanonormorphine (cyanonorheroin). The di-acetyl-cyanonormorphine compound is then treated in accordance with the improved hydrolysis reactions of the present invention in which concentrated hydrochloric acid is employed for a limited time period to hydrolyze the acetyl group therefrom forming cyanonormorphine. Subsequently, the reaction mixture is diluted and hydrolysis of the cyano groups from the cyanonormorphine is effected with a longer contact time with dilute hydrochloric acid thereby producing normorphine. A high over-all conversion and production of a high purity product which may be radioactlvely labeled, if desired, is obtained by operation of the process.
Steinberg, Meyer; Manowitz, Bernard; Waide, Charles H.
1976-01-06
Method and apparatus for producing rockbolts in the roof of a subterranean cavity in which two components of an ambient temperature curable resin system are premixed and then inserted into a bore hole. The mixture is permitted to polymerize in situ and then the hardened material is cut off at the entrance to the hole leaving a hardened portion for insertion into the next hole as a precursor. In a preferred embodiment a flexible glass roving is employed to reinforce the material in the hole and a metal tube inserted to support the roving while it is fed into the hole and also to provide venting. The roving and tube is then cut off and left in the hole.
Hydroforming device and method
Guza, David E.
2007-09-11
An apparatus (10, 110) and method to form a workpiece (32, 132) into a useful product (28, 128) using a pressurized fluid (14), also termed as "hydroforming". The workpiece may be a tube or may be one or a plurality of sheets of a material. The apparatus has a chamber (12) adapted to contain a quantity of a fluid, a hydroforming means positioned within the chamber, and means for substantially immersing the workpiece in the fluid before, during and after the hydroforming operation. Dies (16, 18) enclose the workpiece and provide a cavity of desired shape against which the workpiece is expanded by the pressurized fluid. The chamber may be open or closed to the atmosphere during operation and the fluid temperature and/or level may be controlled.
Kennedy, J.W.; Segre, E.G.
1958-08-26
A method is presented for obtaining a compound of uranium in an extremely pure state and in such a condition that it can be used in determinations of the isotopic composition of uranium. Uranium deposited in calutron receivers is removed therefrom by washing with cold nitric acid and the resulting solution, coataining uranium and trace amounts of various impurities, such as Fe, Ag, Zn, Pb, and Ni, is then subjected to various analytical manipulations to obtain an impurity-free uranium containing solution. This solution is then evaporated on a platinum disk and the residue is ignited converting it to U2/sub 3//sub 8/. The platinum disk having such a thin film of pure U/sub 2/O/sub 8/ is suitable for use with isotopic determination techaiques.
Method for radioactivity monitoring
Umbarger, C. John; Cowder, Leo R.
1976-10-26
The disclosure relates to a method for analyzing uranium and/or thorium contents of liquid effluents preferably utilizing a sample containing counting chamber. Basically, 185.7-keV gamma rays following .sup.235 U alpha decay to .sup.231 Th which indicate .sup.235 U content and a 63-keV gamma ray doublet found in the nucleus of .sup.234 Pa, a granddaughter of .sup.238 U, are monitored and the ratio thereof taken to derive uranium content and isotopic enrichment .sup.235 U/.sup.235 U + .sup.238 U) in the liquid effluent. Thorium content is determined by monitoring the intensity of 238-keV gamma rays from the nucleus of .sup.212 Bi in the decay chain of .sup.232 Th.
Taylor, C.E.; Noceti, R.P.
1990-12-31
An improved catalyst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HCl and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride. 8 figs., 3 tabs.
Electrochemical catalyst recovery method
Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.
1995-05-30
A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.
Electrochemical catalyst recovery method
Silva, Laura J.; Bray, Lane A.
1995-01-01
A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.
DeNardo, Sally J.; Burke, Patricia A.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Goodman, Simon; Matzku, legal representative, Kerstin; Matzku, Siegfried
2006-04-18
A method of treating tumors, such as prostate tumors, breast tumors, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and the like, includes the sequential steps of administering to the patient at least one dose of an antiangiogenic cyclo-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing pentapeptide (cRGD pentapeptide); administering to the patient an anti-tumor effective amount of a radioimmunotherapeutic agent (RIT); and then administering to the patient at least one additional dose of cRGD pentapeptide. The cRGD pentapeptide is preferably cyclo-(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-[N-Me]-Val), and the RIT is preferably a radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complex in which chelating agent is chemically bonded to a tumor-targeting molecule, such as a monoclonal antibody.
Boyd, G.E.
1958-08-26
A process is presented fer separating uranium, plutonium, and fission products ions from uranyl nitrate solutions having a pH value between 1 and 3 obtained by dissolving neutron irradiated uranium. The method consists in passing such solutions through a bed of cation exchange resin, which may be a sulfonated phenol formaidehyde type. Following the adsorption step the resin is first treated with a solution of 0.2M to 0.3M sulfuric acid to desorb the uranium. Fission product ions are then desorbed by treating the resin in phosphoric acid and 1M in nitric acid. Lastly, the plutonium may be desorbed by treating the resin with a solution approximately 0.8M in phosphoric acid and 1M in nitric acid.
METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM
Brown, H.S.; Hill, O.F.
1958-02-01
Plutonium hexafluoride is a satisfactory fluorinating agent and may be reacted with various materials capable of forming fluorides, such as copper, iron, zinc, etc., with consequent formation of the metal fluoride and reduction of the plutonium to the form of a lower fluoride. In accordance with the present invention, it has been found that the reactivity of plutonium hexafluoride with other fluoridizable materials is so great that the process may be used as a method of separating plutonium from mixures containing plutonium hexafluoride and other vaporized fluorides even though the plutonium is present in but minute quantities. This process may be carried out by treating a mixture of fluoride vapors comprising plutonium hexafluoride and fluoride of uranium to selectively reduce the plutonium hexafluoride and convert it to a less volatile fluoride, and then recovering said less volatile fluoride from the vapor by condensation.
McGuire, Raymond R.; Coon, Clifford L.; Harrar, Jackson E.; Pearson, Richard K.
1984-01-01
A method and apparatus for electrochemically synthesizing N.sub.2 O.sub.5 cludes oxidizing a solution of N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /HNO.sub.3 at an anode, while maintaining a controlled potential between the N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /HNO.sub.3 solution and the anode. A potential of about 1.35 to 2.0 V vs. SCE is preferred, while a potential of about 1.80 V vs. SCE is most preferred. Thereafter, the N.sub.2 O.sub.5 is reacted with either 1.5-diacetyl-3,7-dinitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (DADN) or 1,3,5,7-tetraacetyl-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (TAT) to form cyclotetramethylenetetraamine (HMX).
Compressor surge control method
Dziubakowski, D.J.; Keys, M.A.I.V.; Shaffer, J.J.
1990-02-13
This patent describes a method of controlling surge in a centrifugal compressor having a predetermined surge condition line and providing a combined output with a base load means. It comprises: establishing a main surge control line offset from the centrifugal compressor surge condition line according to a function of pressure differentials across the centrifugal compressor and across an orifice in the inlet line of the centrifugal compressor; establishing a feed forward control signal which is a function of a variable associated with the base load means which may cause the surge condition in the centrifugal compressor; and establishing an anticipatory surge control line offset from the main surge control line as a function of the established main surge control line and the established feed forward control signal.
Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.
1997-04-01
A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.
Lamarre, B.L.
1989-09-26
This patent describes a method of removing radon from water without recycling. It comprises: distributing radon-laden water in the upper portion of a vertically oriented hollow column containing mass transfer packing material, forcing air through the column to evaporate radon gas out of the radon-laden water as the water splashes through the packing material, venting air laden with radon evaporated from the radon-laden water out of the column, collecting water significantly purified by removal of radon as the water falls to the lower portion of the column, and pumping the collected water into a water storage container remote from the source of the radon-laden water. Thereby the collected and stored water is available for immediate residential use without recycling through the mass transfer packing material.
Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.
1964-02-01
A method for producing neutrons is described in which there is employed a confinement zone defined between longitudinally spaced localized gradient regions of an elongated magnetic field. Changed particles and neutralizing electrons, more specifically deuterons and tritons and neutralizng electrons, are injected into the confinement field from ion sources located outside the field. The rotational energy of the parrticles is increased at the gradients by imposing an oscillating transverse electrical field thereacross. The imposition of such oscillating transverse electrical fields improves the reflection capability of such gradient fielda so that the reactive particles are retained more effectively within the zone. With the attainment of appropriate densities of plasma particles and provided that such particles are at a sufficiently high temperature, neutron-producing reactions ensue and large quantities of neutrons emerge from the containment zone. (AEC)
Method for controlling brazing
Hosking, F. Michael; Hall, Aaron C.; Givler, Richard C.; Walker, Charles A.
2006-08-01
A method for making a braze joint across a discontinuity in a work piece using alternating current. A filler metal is pre-placed at a location sufficiently close to the discontinuity such that, when an alternating current is applied across a work piece to heat the work piece and melt the filler metal, the filler metal is drawn into the discontinuity. The alternating current is maintained for a set residence time, generally less than 10 seconds and more particularly less than 3 seconds. The alternating current is then altered, generally by reducing the current and/or voltage such that the filler metal can solidify to form a braze joint of desired quality and thickness.
Bone, W.H.; Schmidt, W.W.
1958-11-01
A method is presented for forming refractory liners in cylindrical reaction vessels used for the reductlon of uranium tetrafluoride to metallic uranium. A preliminary form, having positioning lugs attached thereto, is inserted into the reaction vessel and the refractory powder, usually CaO, is put in the annular space between the form and the inner wall of the reaction vessel. A jolting table is used to compact this charge of liner material ln place, and after thls has been done, the preliminary form is removed and the flnal form or plug is lnserted without disturbing the partially completed lining. The remainder of the lining charge is then introduced and compacted by jolting, after which the form is removed.
DNA sequencing: chemical methods
Ambrose, B.J.B.; Pless, R.C.
1987-01-01
Limited base-specific or base-selective cleavage of a defined DNA fragment yields polynucleotide products, the length of which correlates with the positions of the particular base (or bases) in the original fragment. Sverdlov and co-workers recognized the possibility of using this principle for the determination of DNA sequences. In 1977 a fully elaborated method was introduced based on this principle, which allowed routine analysis of DNA sequences over distances greater than 100 nucleotide unite from a defined, radiolabeled terminus. Six procedures for partial cleavage were described. Simultaneous parallel resolution of an appropriate set of partial cleavage mixtures by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by visualization of the radioactive bands by autoradiography, allows the deduction of nucleotide sequence.
Standard environmental test methods
Schafer, D R
1983-12-01
This guide to uniformity in testing is intended primarily as an aid to persons responsible for designing, developing, and performing environmental tests. It will also be of use to those concerned with production, evaluation, and quality control and assurance. Checklists for preparing the environmental testing portion of product specifications are included, as are copies of Process Standards covering the instrumentation, equipment, and methods for use in environmental testing of Sandia National Laboratories components. Techniques and equipment are constantly improving. This version of SC-4452 reflects current state-of-the-art and practice in environmental testing. Previously existing sections of the document have ben updated and new ones have been added, e.g., Transient Testing on Vibration Machines.
Microencapsulation system and method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)
2006-01-01
A microencapsulation apparatus is provided which is configured to form co-axial multi-lamellar microcapsules from materials discharged from first and second microsphere dispensers of the apparatus. A method of fabricating and processing microcapsules is also provided which includes forming distinct droplets comprising one or more materials and introducing the droplets directly into a solution bath to form a membrane around the droplets such that a plurality of microcapsules are formed. A microencapsulation system is provided which includes a microcapsule production unit, a fluidized passage for washing and harvesting microcapsules dispensed from the microcapsule production unit and a flow sensor for sizing and counting the microcapsules. In some embodiments, the microencapsulation system may further include a controller configured to simultaneously operate the microcapsule production unit, fluidized passage and flow sensor to process the microcapsules in a continuous manner.
Microencapsulation system and method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A microencapsulation apparatus is provided which is configured to form co-axial multi-lamellar microcapsules from materials discharged from first and second microsphere dispensers of the apparatus. A method of fabricating and processing microcapsules is also provided which includes forming distinct droplets comprising one or more materials and introducing the droplets directly into a solution bath to form a membrane around the droplets such that a plurality of microcapsules are formed. A microencapsulation system is provided which includes a microcapsule production unit, a fluidized passage for washing and harvesting microcapsules dispensed from the microcapsule production unit and a flow sensor for sizing and counting the microcapsules. In some embodiments, the microencapsulation system may further include a controller configured to simultaneously operate the microcapsule production unit, fluidized passage and flow sensor to process the microcapsules in a continuous manner.
Predictive spark timing method
Tang, D.L.; Chang, M.F.; Sultan, M.C.
1990-01-09
This patent describes a method of determining spark time in a spark timing system of an internal combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders and a spark period for each cylinder in which a spark occurs. It comprises: generating at least one crankshaft position reference pulse for each spark firing event, the reference pulse nearest the next spark being set to occur within a same cylinder event as the next spark; measuring at least two reference periods between recent reference pulses; calculating the spark timing synchronously with crankshaft position by performing the calculation upon receipt of the reference pulse nearest the next spark; predicting the engine speed for the next spark period from at least two reference periods including the most recent reference period; and based on the predicted speed, calculating a spark time measured from the the reference pulse nearest the next spark.
Acoustophoresis separation method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heyman, Joseph S. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
A method and apparatus are provided for acoustophoresis, i.e., the separation of species via acoustic waves. An ultrasonic transducer applies an acoustic wave to one end of a sample container containing at least two species having different acoustic absorptions. The wave has a frequency tuned to or harmonized with the point of resonance of the species to be separated. This wave causes the species to be driven to an opposite end of the sample container for removal. A second ultrasonic transducer may be provided to apply a second, oppositely directed acoustic wave to prevent undesired streaming. In addition, a radio frequency tuned to the mechanical resonance and coupled with a magnetic field can serve to identify a species in a medium comprising species with similar absorption coefficients, whereby an acoustic wave having a frequency corresponding to this gyrational rate can then be applied to sweep the identified species to one end of the container for removal.
Radiofrequency attenuator and method
Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.; Agrawal, Anoop; Hall, Simon B.
2009-11-10
Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.
Unconventional methods for clustering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotyrba, Martin
2016-06-01
Cluster analysis or clustering is a task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar (in some sense or another) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters). It is the main task of exploratory data mining and a common technique for statistical data analysis used in many fields, including machine learning, pattern recognition, image analysis, information retrieval, and bioinformatics. The topic of this paper is one of the modern methods of clustering namely SOM (Self Organising Map). The paper describes the theory needed to understand the principle of clustering and descriptions of algorithm used with clustering in our experiments.
Kellerman, Peter
2013-12-21
The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.
Sainsbury, G.M.
1987-10-20
A method is described of sinking shafts comprising excavating a series of lifts wherein each lift is excavated by drilling a pattern of blast holes for the full depth of the lift boring a large diameter hole for the full depth of the lift. Then creating a chamber only at the lower end of the large diameter hole, blasting a portion of the walls of the chamber to deposit rock material into the chamber, extracting at least a portion of the rock material created by the blast and repeating the blasting and extraction step throughout the length of the lift from the bottom to the top and when the volume of the lift is blasted extracting the remaining rock broken material.
Tolle, Charles R.; Clark, Denis E.; Smartt, Herschel B.; Miller, Karen S.
2009-10-06
A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.
Fisher, R.W.
1957-12-10
A method is described for recovering thorium from impurities found in a slag containing thorium and said impurities, comprising leaching a composition containing thorium with water, removing the water solution, treating the residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting its acidity to 1 to 3 normal, adding oxalic acid, and thereafter separating the precipitated thorium oxalate digesting the residue from the hydrochloric acid treatment with a strong solution of sodium hydroxide at an elevated temperature, removing said solution and treating the insoluble residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting the acidity of this solution to 1 to 3 normal, adding nitric acid to oxidize the iron present, adding oxalic acid and thereafter separating the thorium oxalate thus precipitated.
Methods for studying oogenesis
Hudson, Andrew M.; Cooley, Lynn
2014-01-01
Drosophila oogenesis is an excellent system for the study of developmental cell biology. Active areas of research include stem cell maintenance, gamete development, pattern formation, cytoskeletal regulation, intercellular communication, intercellular transport, cell polarity, cell migration, cell death, morphogenesis, cell cycle control, and many more. The large size and relatively simple organization of egg chambers make them ideally suited for microscopy of both living and fixed whole mount tissue. A wide range of tools is available for oogenesis research. Newly available shRNA transgenic lines provide an alternative to classic loss-of-function F2 screens and clonal screens. Gene expression can be specifically controlled in either germline or somatic cells using the Gal4/UAS system. Protein trap lines provide fluorescent tags of proteins expressed at endogenous levels for live imaging and screening backgrounds. This review provides information on many available reagents and key methods for research in oogenesis. PMID:24440745
Characterization Methods of Encapsulates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhibing; Law, Daniel; Lian, Guoping
, reliable methods which can be used to characterize these properties of encapsulates are vital. In this chapter, the state-of-art of these methods, their principles and applications, and release mechanisms are described as follows.
Theurich, Gordon R.
1976-01-01
1. In a method of separating isotopes in a high speed gas centrifuge wherein a vertically oriented cylindrical rotor bowl is adapted to rotate about its axis within an evacuated chamber, and wherein an annular molecular pump having an intake end and a discharge end encircles the uppermost portion of said rotor bowl, said molecular pump being attached along its periphery in a leak-tight manner to said evacuated chamber, and wherein end cap closure means are affixed to the upper end of said rotor bowl, and a process gas withdrawal and insertion system enters said bowl through said end cap closure means, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and end cap defining an upper zone at the discharge end of said molecular pump, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and rotor bowl defining a lower annular zone at the intake end of said molecular pump, a method for removing gases from said upper and lower zones during centrifuge operation with a minimum loss of process gas from said rotor bowl, comprising, in combination: continuously measuring the pressure in said upper zone, pumping gas from said lower zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a first preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a second preselected value, said first preselected value being greater than said second preselected value, and continuously pumping gas from said upper zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a third preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a fourth preselected value, said third preselected value being greater than said first, second and fourth preselected values.
Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)
The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.
Birth control - slow release methods
Contraception - hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...
Schwartz, J L
1992-03-01
Smoking-cessation treatment consists of three phases: preparation, intervention, and maintenance. Preparation aims to increase the smoker's motivation to quit and to build confidence that he or she can be successful. Intervention can take any number of forms (or a combination of them) to help smokers to achieve abstinence. Maintenance, including support, coping strategies, and substitute behaviors, is necessary for permanent abstinence. Although most smokers who successfully quit do so on their own, many use cessation programs at some point during their smoking history. Moreover, many people act on the advice of a health professional in deciding to quit. Some are also aided by a smoking-cessation kit from a public or voluntary agency, a book, a tape, or an over-the-counter product. Still others receive help from mass-media campaigns, such as the Great American Smokeout, or community programs. Counseling, voluntary and commercial clinics, nicotine replacement strategies, hypnosis, acupuncture, and behavioral programs are other methods used by smokers to break the habit. Programs that include multiple treatments are more successful than single interventions. The most cost-effective strategy for smoking cessation for most smokers is self-care, which includes quitting on one's own and might also include acting on the advice of a health profession or using an aid such as a quit-smoking guide. Heavier, more addicted smokers are more likely to seek out formal programs after several attempts to quit. Many people can quit smoking, but staying off cigarettes requires maintenance, support, and additional techniques, such as relapse prevention. Physicians, dentists, and other health professionals can provide important assistance to their patients who smoke. Quit rates can be improved if clinicians provide more help (e.g., counseling, support) than just simple advice and warnings. Clinicians also play an important role in providing nicotine replacement products such as nicotine
Backus, S.; Kapteyn, H.C.; Murnane, M.M.
1997-07-01
Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask. The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethrough. The third mirror reflects the laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam. The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate. 7 figs.
Backus, Sterling; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.
1997-01-01
Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask. The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethough. The third mirror reflects the laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam. The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate.
Jones, Jr., Edward M.
1985-01-01
A method for producing tertiary ethers from C.sub.4 or C.sub.5 streams containing isobutene and isoamylene respectively in a process wherein a acidic cation exchange resin is used as the catalyst and as a distillation structure in a distillation reactor column, wherein the improvement is the operation of the catalytic distillation in two zones at different pressures, the first zone containing the catalyst packing and operated a higher pressure in the range of 100 to 200 psig in the case of C.sub.4 's and 15 to 100 psig in the case of C.sub.5 's which favors the etherification reaction and the second zone being a distillation operated at a lower pressure in the range of 0 to 100 psig in the case of C.sub.4 's and 0 to 15 psig in the case of C.sub.5 's wherein a first overhead from the first zone is fractionated to remove a portion of the unreacted alcohol from the first overhead and to return a condensed portion containing said alcohol to the first zone and to produce a second overhead having less alcohol than said first overhead.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riggs, Lloyd Stephen
In this work the transient currents induced on an arbitrary system of thin linear scatterers by an electromagnetic plane wave are solved by using an electric field integral equation (EFIE) formulation. The transient analysis is carried out using the singularity expansion method (SEM). The general analysis developed here is useful for assessing the vulnerability of military aircraft to a nuclear generated electromagnetic pulse (EMP). It is also useful as a modal synthesis tool in the analysis and design of frequency selective surfaces (FSS). SEM parameters for a variety of thin cylindrical geometries have been computed. Specifically, SEM poles, modes, coupling coefficients, and transient currents are given for the two and three element planar array. Poles and modes for planar arrays with a larger number (as many as eight) of identical equally spaced elements are also considered. SEM pole-mode results are given for identical parallel elements with ends located at the vertices of a regular N-agon. Pole-mode patterns are found for symmetric (and slightly perturbed) single junction N-arm elements and for the five junction Jerusalem cross. The Jerusalem cross element has been used extensively in FSS.
Music acupuncture stimulation method.
Brătilă, F; Moldovan, C
2007-01-01
Harmonic Medicine is the model using the theory that the body rhythms synchronize to an outer rhythm applied for therapeutic purpose, can restores the energy balance in acupuncture channels and organs and the condition of well-being. The purpose of this scientific work was to demonstrate the role played by harmonic sounds in the stimulation of the Lung (LU) Meridian (Shoutaiyin Feijing) and of the Kidney (KI) Meridian (Zushaoyin Shenjing). It was used an original method that included: measurement and electronic sound stimulation of the Meridian Entry Point, measurement of Meridian Exit Point, computer data processing, bio feed-back adjustment of the music stimulation parameters. After data processing, it was found that the sound stimulation of the Lung Meridian Frequency is optimal between 122 Hz and 128 Hz, with an average of 124 Hz (87% of the subjects) and for Kidney Meridian from 118 Hz to 121 Hz, with an average of 120 Hz (67% of the subjects). The acupuncture stimulation was more intense for female subjects (> 7%) than for the male ones. We preliminarily consider that an informational resonance phenomenon can be developed between the acupuncture music stimulation frequency and the cellular dipole frequency, being a really "resonant frequency signature" of an acupoint. The harmonic generation and the electronic excitation or low-excitation status of an acupuncture point may be considered as a resonance mechanism. By this kind of acupunctural stimulation, a symphony may act and play a healer role. PMID:18767418
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Byerly, Kent A. (Inventor); Dusl, John (Inventor)
2003-01-01
Transceiver and methods are included that are especially suitable for detecting metallic materials, such as metallic mines, within an environment. The transceiver includes a digital waveform generator used to transmit a signal into the environment and a receiver that produces a digital received signal. A tracking module preferably compares an in-phase and quadrature transmitted signal with an in-phase and quadrature received signal to produce a spectral transfer function of the magnetic transceiver over a selected range of frequencies. The transceiver initially preferably creates a reference transfer function which is then stored in a memory. Subsequently measured transfer functions will vary depending on the presence of metal in the environment which was not in the environment when the reference transfer function was determined. The system may be utilized in the presence of other antennas, metal, and electronics which may comprise a plastic mine detector for detecting plastic mines. Despite the additional antennas and other metallic materials that may be in the environment due to the plastic mine detector, the magnetic transceiver remains highly sensitive to metallic material which may be located in various portions of the environment and which may be detected by sweeping the detector over ground that may contain metals or mines.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Byerly, Kent A. (Inventor)
2003-01-01
System and methods are disclosed for fluid measurements which may be utilized to determine mass flow rates such as instantaneous mass flow of a fluid stream. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention may be utilized to compare an input mass flow to an output mass flow of a drilling fluid circulation stream. In one embodiment, a fluid flow rate is determined by utilizing a microwave detector in combination with an acoustic sensor. The acoustic signal is utilized to eliminate 2pi phase ambiguities in a reflected microwave signal. In another embodiment, a fluid flow rate may be determined by detecting a phase shift of an acoustic signal across two different predetermined transmission paths. A fluid density may be determined by detecting a calibrated phase shift of an acoustic signal through the fluid. In another embodiment, a second acoustic signal may be transmitted through the fluid to define a particular 2pi phase range which defines the phase shift. The present invention may comprise multiple transmitters/receivers operating at different frequencies to measure instantaneous fuel levels of cryogenic fuels within containers positioned in zero or near zero gravity environments. In one embodiment, a moveable flexible collar of transmitter/receivers may be utilized to determine inhomogenuities within solid rocket fuel tubes.
Bray, L.A.; DesChane, J.R.
1998-05-05
A method is described for separating {sup 213}Bi from a solution of radionuclides wherein the solution contains a concentration of the chloride ions and hydrogen ions adjusted to allow the formation of a chloride complex. The solution is then brought into contact with an anion exchange resin, whereupon {sup 213}Bi is absorbed from the solution and adhered onto the anion exchange resin in the chloride complex. Other non-absorbing radionuclides such as {sup 225}Ra, {sup 225}Ac, and {sup 221}Fr, along with HCl are removed from the anion exchange resin with a scrub solution. The {sup 213}Bi is removed from the anion exchange resin by washing the anion exchange resin with a stripping solution free of chloride ions and with a reduced hydrogen ion concentration which breaks the chloride anionic complex, releasing the {sup 213}Bi as a cation. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the anion exchange resin is provided as a thin membrane, allowing for extremely rapid adherence and stripping of the {sup 213}Bi. A preferred stripping solution for purification of {sup 213}Bi for use in medical applications includes sodium acetate, pH 5.5. A protein conjugated with bifunctional chelating agents in vivo with the NaOAc receives the {sup 213}Bi as it is being released from the anion exchange resin. 10 figs.
Bray, Lane Allan; DesChane, Jaquetta R.
1998-01-01
A method for separating .sup.213 Bi from a solution of radionuclides wherein the solution contains a concentration of the chloride ions and hydrogen ions adjusted to allow the formation of a chloride complex. The solution is then brought into contact with an anion exchange resin, whereupon .sup.213 Bi is absorbed from the solution and adhered onto the anion exchange resin in the chloride complex. Other non-absorbing radionuclides such as .sup.225 Ra, .sup.225 Ac, and .sup.221 Fr, along with HCl are removed from the anion exchange resin with a scrub solution. The .sup.213 Bi is removed from the anion exchange resin by washing the anion exchange resin with a stripping solution free of chloride ions and with a reduced hydrogen ion concentration which breaks the chloride anionic complex, releasing the .sup.213 Bi as a cation. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the anion exchange resin is provided as a thin membrane, allowing for extremely rapid adherence and stripping of the .sup.213 Bi. A preferred stripping solution for purification of .sup.213 Bi for use in medical applications includes sodium acetate, pH 5.5. A protein conjugated with bifunctional chelating agents in vivo with the NaOAc, to receive the .sup.213 Bi as it is being released from the anion exchange resin.
Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang
2005-01-01
This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.
Jones, E.M. Jr.
1985-03-12
A method is described for producing tertiary ethers from C[sub 4] or C[sub 5] streams containing isobutene and isoamylene respectively in a process wherein a acidic cation exchange resin is used as the catalyst and as a distillation structure in a distillation reactor column, wherein the improvement is the operation of the catalytic distillation in two zones at different pressures, the first zone containing the catalyst packing and operated a higher pressure in the range of 100 to 200 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 15 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 5] which favors the etherification reaction and the second zone being a distillation operated at a lower pressure in the range of 0 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 0 to 15 psig in the case of C[sub 5] wherein a first overhead from the first zone is fractionated to remove a portion of the unreacted alcohol from the first overhead and to return a condensed portion containing said alcohol to the first zone and to produce a second overhead having less alcohol than said first overhead. 3 figs.
Generalized Multicoincidence Analysis Methods
Warren, Glen A.; Smith, Leon E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Ellis, J. E.; Valsan, Andrei B.; Mengesha, Wondwosen
2005-10-01
The ability to conduct automated trace radionuclide analysis at or near the sample collection point would provide a valuable tool for emergency response, nuclear forensics and environmental monitoring. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing systems for this purpose based on dual gamma-ray spectrometers, e.g. NaI(TI) or HPGe, combined with thin organic scintillator sensors to detect light charged particles. Translating the coincident signatures recorded by these systems, which include , and , into the concentration of detectable radionuclides in the sample requires generalized multicoincidence analysis tools. The development and validation of the Coincidence Lookup Library, which currently contains the probabilities of single and coincidence signatures from more than 420 isotopes, is described. Also discussed is a method to calculate the probability of observing a coincidence signature which incorporates true coincidence summing effects. These effects are particularly important for high-geometric-efficiency detection systems. Finally, a process for validating the integrated analysis software package is demonstrated using GEANT 4 simulations of the prototype detector systems.
Generalized Multicoincidence Analysis Methods
Warren, Glen A.; Smith, Leon E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Ellis, J. E.; Valsan, Andrei B.; Mengesha, Wondwosen
2006-02-01
The ability to conduct automated trace radionuclide analysis at or near the sample collection point would provide a valuable tool for emergency response, environmental monitoring, and verification of treaties and agreements. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing systems for this purpose based on dual gamma-ray spectrometers, e.g. NaI(TI) or HPGe, combined with thin organic scintillator sensors to detect light charged particles. Translating the coincident signatures recorded by these systems, which include beta-gamma, gamma-gamma and beta-gamma-gamma, into the concentration of detectable radionuclides in the sample requires generalized multicoincidence analysis tools. The development and validation of the Coincidence Lookup Library, which currently contains the probabilities of single and coincidence signatures from more than 420 isotopes, is described. Also discussed is a method to calculate the probability of observing a coincidence signature which incorporates true coincidence summing effects. These effects are particularly important for high-geometric-efficiency detection systems. Finally, a process for verifying the integrated analysis software package is demonstrated using GEANT 4 simulations of the prototype detector systems.
Mimetic finite difference method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipnikov, Konstantin; Manzini, Gianmarco; Shashkov, Mikhail
2014-01-01
The mimetic finite difference (MFD) method mimics fundamental properties of mathematical and physical systems including conservation laws, symmetry and positivity of solutions, duality and self-adjointness of differential operators, and exact mathematical identities of the vector and tensor calculus. This article is the first comprehensive review of the 50-year long history of the mimetic methodology and describes in a systematic way the major mimetic ideas and their relevance to academic and real-life problems. The supporting applications include diffusion, electromagnetics, fluid flow, and Lagrangian hydrodynamics problems. The article provides enough details to build various discrete operators on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes and summarizes the major convergence results for the mimetic approximations. Most of these theoretical results, which are presented here as lemmas, propositions and theorems, are either original or an extension of existing results to a more general formulation using polyhedral meshes. Finally, flexibility and extensibility of the mimetic methodology are shown by deriving higher-order approximations, enforcing discrete maximum principles for diffusion problems, and ensuring the numerical stability for saddle-point systems.
Method for biological purification
Lucido, John A.; Keenan, Daniel; Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.; Shelenkova, Ludmila
2001-03-27
An apparatus is disclosed for containing a microorganism culture in an active exponential growth and delivering a supply of microorganisms to an environment containing wastes for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of the wastes. The apparatus comprises a bioreactor and an operably connected controller. The bioreactor has a bioreactor chamber for containing a supply of microorganisms, a second chamber for containing a supply of water and inorganic nutrients, and a third chamber for containing a supply of organic nutrients. The bioreactor is operably connected to the controller in which a first pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the second chamber and third chamber, and a second pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the environment containing wastes to be biodegraded. The controller further includes a timer and regulator operably connected to the first and second pumps to effectively maintain the microorganisms in exponential growth in the bioreactor chamber and to deliver microorganisms to an environment to be treated. Also, disclosed is a method for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of wastes.
Methods of channeling simulation
Barrett, J.H.
1989-06-01
Many computer simulation programs have been used to interpret experiments almost since the first channeling measurements were made. Certain aspects of these programs are important in how accurately they simulate ions in crystals; among these are the manner in which the structure of the crystal is incorporated, how any quantity of interest is computed, what ion-atom potential is used, how deflections are computed from the potential, incorporation of thermal vibrations of the lattice atoms, correlations of thermal vibrations, and form of stopping power. Other aspects of the programs are included to improve the speed; among these are table lookup, importance sampling, and the multiparameter method. It is desirable for programs to facilitate incorporation of special features of interest in special situations; examples are relaxations and enhanced vibrations of surface atoms, easy substitution of an alternate potential for comparison, change of row directions from layer to layer in strained-layer lattices, and different vibration amplitudes for substitutional solute or impurity atoms. Ways of implementing all of these aspects and features and the consequences of them will be discussed. 30 refs., 3 figs.
Desulfurization apparatus and method
Rong, Charles; Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn
2013-06-18
A method and system for desulfurization comprising first and second metal oxides; a walled enclosure having an inlet and an exhaust for the passage of gas to be treated; the first and second metal oxide being combinable with hydrogen sulfide to produce a reaction comprising a sulfide and water; the first metal oxide forming a first layer and the second metal oxide forming a second layer within the walled surroundings; the first and second layers being positioned so the first layer removes the bulk amount of the hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas prior to passage through the second layer, and the second layer removes substantially all of the remaining hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas; the first metal oxide producing a stoichiometrical capacity in excess of 500 mg sulfur/gram; the second metal oxide reacts with the hydrogen sulfide more favorably but has a stoichometrical capacity which is less than the first reactant; whereby the optimal amount by weight of the first and second metal oxides is achieved by utilizing two to three units by weight of the first metal oxide for every unit of the second metal oxide.
Diggs, R.E.
1982-08-10
An apparatus and method are disclosed for removing contaminants from water having solid contaminants dissolved therein. Contaminated water flows across a grid and into a storage tank. The grid utilizes solar energy to heat that water to a predetermined temperature. A heat transfer structure which is dome-shaped and receives water from the storage tank and a preheater means utilizing solar energy heats the water to a further predetermined temperature. An evaporator means receives the heated water and exposes it to a vacuum condition so that the temperature of the water is above the saturation temperature. The water is thus vaporized, and solid contaminants dissolved therein are separated therefrom. The solids are deposited on a plurality of moving belts and are then moved into a solids removal system. The solids removal system comprises a plurality of trap door pairs upon which the solids are deposited and which are sequentially opened so that the vacuum conditions existing in the evaporator are not disturbed. Vapor transferring means removes the water vapor from the evaporator and transfers it to the heat transfer structure wherein it is condensed to form distillate which is free of solid contaminants. Distillate removal means then removes the distillate from the heat transfer structure to collection or usage means.
Hathaway, Thomas J.
1979-01-01
This invention provides a housing containing a rotatable coal bucket that is sealed at its ends in the housing with a reciprocal plunger that is sealed in the bucket at one end and has an opposite cone-shaped end that wedges up against a closed end of the bucket, and a method for feeding dry, variable size coal from an ambient atmosphere at low pressure into a high temperature, high pressure reactor between the seals for producing fuel gas substantially without losing any high pressure gas from the reactor or excessively wearing the seals. To this end, the piston biases the plunger back and forth for loading and unloading the bucket with coal along an axis that is separated from the seals, the bucket is rotated to unload the coal into the reactor so as to fill the bucket with trapped high pressure gas from the reactor while preventing the gas from escaping therefrom, and then the cone-shaped plunger end is wedged into mating engagement with the closed end of the bucket to displace this high pressure bucket gas by expelling it back into the reactor whereby the bucket can be re-rotated for filling it with coal again substantially without losing any of the high pressure gas or excessively wearing the seals.
Züttel, Andreas
2004-04-01
Hydrogen exhibits the highest heating value per mass of all chemical fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is regenerative and environmentally friendly. There are two reasons why hydrogen is not the major fuel of today's energy consumption. First of all, hydrogen is just an energy carrier. And, although it is the most abundant element in the universe, it has to be produced, since on earth it only occurs in the form of water and hydrocarbons. This implies that we have to pay for the energy, which results in a difficult economic dilemma because ever since the industrial revolution we have become used to consuming energy for free. The second difficulty with hydrogen as an energy carrier is its low critical temperature of 33 K (i.e. hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperature). For mobile and in many cases also for stationary applications the volumetric and gravimetric density of hydrogen in a storage material is crucial. Hydrogen can be stored using six different methods and phenomena: (1) high-pressure gas cylinders (up to 800 bar), (2) liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks (at 21 K), (3) adsorbed hydrogen on materials with a large specific surface area (at T<100 K), (4) absorbed on interstitial sites in a host metal (at ambient pressure and temperature), (5) chemically bonded in covalent and ionic compounds (at ambient pressure), or (6) through oxidation of reactive metals, e.g. Li, Na, Mg, Al, Zn with water. The most common storage systems are high-pressure gas cylinders with a maximum pressure of 20 MPa (200 bar). New lightweight composite cylinders have been developed which are able to withstand pressures up to 80 MPa (800 bar) and therefore the hydrogen gas can reach a volumetric density of 36 kg.m(-3), approximately half as much as in its liquid state. Liquid hydrogen is stored in cryogenic tanks at 21.2 K and ambient pressure. Due to the low critical temperature of hydrogen (33 K), liquid hydrogen can only be stored in open systems. The volumetric density of liquid hydrogen
H.W. Kugel; D. Spong; R. Majeski; M. Zarnstorff
2003-02-28
The NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral-beam injection, and radio-frequency. Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The plan is to provide 3 MW of 50 keV balanced neutral-beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 msec for initial experiments, and to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 sec. Subsequent upgrades will add 3 MW of neutral-beam injection. This Chapter discusses the NCSX neutral-beam injection requirements and design issues, and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M (Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification) neutral-beam injection system. In addition, estimations are given for beam-heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size an d magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam-injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of radio-frequency heating by mode-conversion ion-Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron-cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the radio-frequency system lend themselves to current drive, so that if current drive became desirable for any reason only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The radio-frequency system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possibly ion-Bernstein-wave-generated sheared flows.
Kugel, H. W.; Spong, D.; Majeski, R.; Zarnstorff, M.
2008-01-18
The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral beam injection, and radio-frequency (rf). Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, neutral beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The experimental plan requires 3 MW of 50-keV balanced neutral beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 ms for initial experiments, to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 s. Subsequent upgrades will add 3MW of neutral beam injection (NBI). This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M NBI system. In addition, estimations are given for beam heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size and magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of rf heating by mode conversion ion Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the rf system lend themselves to current drive, so if current drive became desirable for any reason, only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The rf system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possiblyIBW-generated sheared flows.
Linear and nonlinear dynamic analysis of redundant load path bearingless rotor systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murthy, V. R.; Shultz, Louis A.
1994-01-01
The goal of this research is to develop the transfer matrix method to treat nonlinear autonomous boundary value problems with multiple branches. The application is the complete nonlinear aeroelastic analysis of multiple-branched rotor blades. Once the development is complete, it can be incorporated into the existing transfer matrix analyses. There are several difficulties to be overcome in reaching this objective. The conventional transfer matrix method is limited in that it is applicable only to linear branch chain-like structures, but consideration of multiple branch modeling is important for bearingless rotors. Also, hingeless and bearingless rotor blade dynamic characteristics (particularly their aeroelasticity problems) are inherently nonlinear. The nonlinear equations of motion and the multiple-branched boundary value problem are treated together using a direct transfer matrix method. First, the formulation is applied to a nonlinear single-branch blade to validate the nonlinear portion of the formulation. The nonlinear system of equations is iteratively solved using a form of Newton-Raphson iteration scheme developed for differential equations of continuous systems. The formulation is then applied to determine the nonlinear steady state trim and aeroelastic stability of a rotor blade in hover with two branches at the root. A comprehensive computer program is developed and is used to obtain numerical results for the (1) free vibration, (2) nonlinearly deformed steady state, (3) free vibration about the nonlinearly deformed steady state, and (4) aeroelastic stability tasks. The numerical results obtained by the present method agree with results from other methods.
Slope stability and stabilization methods
Abramson, L.W.; Lee, T.S.; Boyce, G.M.; Sharma, S.S.
1995-12-01
Slope stability can be a major problem during the construction of surface facilities. Cutting into existing ground disturbs the mechanics of the surrounding area, which can result in landslides and rock falls. This practical reference gives you the comprehensive information you need for slope stability analysis, suitable methods of analysis with and without the use of computers, and examples of common stability problems and stabilization methods for cuts and fills. It includes detailed discussions of methods used in slope stability analysis, including the Ordinary Method of Slices, Simplified Janbu Method, Simplified Bishop Method, Spencer`s Method, other limit equilibrium methods, numerical methods, total stress analysis, effective stress analysis, and the use of computer programs to solve problems. Chapters include: General Slope Stability Concepts; Engineering Geology Principles; Groundwater Conditions; Geologic Site Exploration; Laboratory Testing Interpretation; Slope Stability Concepts; Slope Stabilization Methods; and Design, Construction and Maintenance.
An Extended Method of SIRMs Connected Fuzzy Inference Method Using Kernel Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seki, Hirosato; Mizuguchi, Fuhito; Watanabe, Satoshi; Ishii, Hiroaki; Mizumoto, Masaharu
The single input rule modules connected fuzzy inference method (SIRMs method) by Yubazaki et al. can decrease the number of fuzzy rules drastically in comparison with the conventional fuzzy inference methods. Moreover, Seki et al. have proposed a functional-type SIRMs method which generalizes the consequent part of the SIRMs method to function. However, these SIRMs methods can not be applied to XOR (Exclusive OR). In this paper, we propose a “kernel-type SIRMs method” which uses the kernel trick to the SIRMs method, and show that this method can treat XOR. Further, a learning algorithm of the proposed SIRMs method is derived by using the steepest descent method, and compared with the one of conventional SIRMs method and kernel perceptron by applying to identification of nonlinear functions, medical diagnostic system and discriminant analysis of Iris data.
Variable metric conjugate gradient methods
Barth, T.; Manteuffel, T.
1994-07-01
1.1 Motivation. In this paper we present a framework that includes many well known iterative methods for the solution of nonsymmetric linear systems of equations, Ax = b. Section 2 begins with a brief review of the conjugate gradient method. Next, we describe a broader class of methods, known as projection methods, to which the conjugate gradient (CG) method and most conjugate gradient-like methods belong. The concept of a method having either a fixed or a variable metric is introduced. Methods that have a metric are referred to as either fixed or variable metric methods. Some relationships between projection methods and fixed (variable) metric methods are discussed. The main emphasis of the remainder of this paper is on variable metric methods. In Section 3 we show how the biconjugate gradient (BCG), and the quasi-minimal residual (QMR) methods fit into this framework as variable metric methods. By modifying the underlying Lanczos biorthogonalization process used in the implementation of BCG and QMR, we obtain other variable metric methods. These, we refer to as generalizations of BCG and QMR.
Gilli, Eduard; Schennach, Robert
2012-01-10
The measurement of the bonded area of pulp fibers has been an unsolved issue in paper science for more than 40 years. By the use of an established pulp fiber model, and a 4 × 4 transfer matrix formalism we simulated the optical behavior of pulp fibers in a modified imaging ellipsometer, and we demonstrate that there are rather strong symmetries in the ellipsometric angles Ψ and Δ when comparing single fibers, unbonded fiber crossings, and fiber-fiber bonds. Based on these symmetries we propose and test an algorithm that allows to distinguish the three cases (single fibers, unbonded fiber crossings, and fiber-fiber bonds) in the analysis of ellipsometric data. PMID:22270525
Off-diagonal Bethe ansatz solution of the XXX spin chain with arbitrary boundary conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Junpeng; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng
2013-10-01
Employing the off-diagonal Bethe ansatz method proposed recently by the present authors, we exactly diagonalize the XXX spin chain with arbitrary boundary fields. By constructing a functional relation between the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix and the quantum determinant, the associated T-Q relation and the Bethe ansatz equations are derived.
Algebraic Bethe Ansatz for Open XXX Model with Triangular Boundary Matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belliard, Samuel; Crampé, Nicolas; Ragoucy, Eric
2013-05-01
We consider an open XXX spin chain with two general boundary matrices whose entries obey a relation, which is equivalent to the possibility to put simultaneously the two matrices in a upper-triangular form. We construct Bethe vectors by means of a generalized algebraic Bethe ansatz. As usual, the method uses Bethe equations and provides transfer matrix eigenvalues.
Teaching Stable Two-Mirror Resonators through the Fractional Fourier Transform
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moreno, Ignacio; Garcia-Martinez, Pascuala; Ferreira, Carlos
2010-01-01
We analyse two-mirror resonators in terms of their fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) properties. We use the basic ABCD ray transfer matrix method to show how the resonator can be regarded as the cascade of two propagation-lens-propagation FRFT systems. Then, we present a connection between the geometric properties of the resonator (the g…
Reflection properties of one dimensional plasma photonic crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Arun; Khundrakpam, Pinky; Sharma, Priyanka
2013-06-01
In this paper band structure and reflection properties of on one-dimensional plasma photonic crystal (PPC) containing alternate layers of dielectric and micro-plasma have been presented. For the purpose of computation, transfer matrix method has been used. It is found that width of the forbidden band gap(s) can be increased by increasing the thickness of plasma layers.
Sessler, A.M.
1984-07-01
But a glance at the Livingston chart, Fig. 1, of accelerator particle energy as a function of time shows that the energy has steadily, exponentially, increased. Equally significant is the fact that this increase is the envelope of diverse technologies. If one is to stay on, or even near, the Livingston curve in future years then new acceleration techniques need to be developed. What are the new acceleration methods? In these two lectures I would like to sketch some of these new ideas. I am well aware that they will probably not result in high energy accelerators within this or the next decade, but conversely, it is likely that these ideas will form the basis for the accelerators of the next century. Anyway, the ideas are stimulating and suffice to show that accelerator physicists are not just 'engineers', but genuine scientists deserving to be welcomed into the company of high energy physicists. I believe that outsiders will find this field surprisingly fertile and, certainly fun. To put it more personally, I very much enjoy working in this field and lecturing on it. There are a number of review articles which should be consulted for references to the original literature. In addition there are three books on the subject. Given this material, I feel free to not completely reference the material in the remainder of this article; consultation of the review articles and books will be adequate as an introduction to the literature for references abound (hundreds are given). At last, by way of introduction, I should like to quote from the end of Ref. 2 for I think the remarks made there are most germane. Remember that the talk was addressed to accelerator physicists: 'Finally, it is often said, I think by physicists who are not well-informed, that accelerator builders have used up their capital and now are bereft of ideas, and as a result, high energy physics will eventually--rather soon, in fact--come to a halt. After all, one can't build too many machines greater than
Correlation of Two Anthocyanin Quantification Methods: HPLC and Spectrophotometric Methods
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The pH differential method and HPLC are methods that are commonly used by researchers and the food industry for quantifying anthocyanins in a sample. This study was conducted to establish a relationship between the two analytical methods. Seven juice samples containing an array of different individu...
Trojan Horse Method: Recent Experiments
Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R.; Rolfs, C.; Typel, S.
2006-07-12
The Trojan Horse Method allows for the measurements of cross sections in nuclear reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic features of the method are discussed and recent applications are presented.
Ethnographic Analysis of Instructional Method.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brooks, Douglas M.
1980-01-01
Instructional methods are operational exchanges between participants within environments that attempt to produce a learning outcome. The classroom teacher's ability to produce a learning outcome is the measure of instructional competence within that learning method. (JN)
Analytic Methods in Investigative Geometry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dobbs, David E.
2001-01-01
Suggests an alternative proof by analytic methods, which is more accessible than rigorous proof based on Euclid's Elements, in which students need only apply standard methods of trigonometry to the data without introducing new points or lines. (KHR)
Production Methods in Industrial Microbiology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gaden, Elmer L., Jr.
1981-01-01
Compares two methods (batch and continuous) in which microorganisms are used to produce industrial chemicals. Describes batch and continuous stirred-tank reactors and offers reasons why the batch method may be preferred. (JN)
Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan
2004-01-01
Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared. Each method is described and numerical solutions to test problems are conducted. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, and robustness is given.
Integrated force method versus displacement method for finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, S. N.; Berke, L.; Gallagher, R. H.
1991-01-01
A novel formulation termed the integrated force method (IFM) has been developed in recent years for analyzing structures. In this method all the internal forces are taken as independent variables, and the system equilibrium equations (EEs) are integrated with the global compatibility conditions (CCs) to form the governing set of equations. In IFM the CCs are obtained from the strain formulation of St. Venant, and no choices of redundant load systems have to be made, in constrast to the standard force method (SFM). This property of IFM allows the generation of the governing equation to be automated straightforwardly, as it is in the popular stiffness method (SM). In this report IFM and SM are compared relative to the structure of their respective equations, their conditioning, required solution methods, overall computational requirements, and convergence properties as these factors influence the accuracy of the results. Overall, this new version of the force method produces more accurate results than the stiffness method for comparable computational cost.
Integrated force method versus displacement method for finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, Surya N.; Berke, Laszlo; Gallagher, Richard H.
1990-01-01
A novel formulation termed the integrated force method (IFM) has been developed in recent years for analyzing structures. In this method all the internal forces are taken as independent variables, and the system equilibrium equations (EE's) are integrated with the global compatibility conditions (CC's) to form the governing set of equations. In IFM the CC's are obtained from the strain formulation of St. Venant, and no choices of redundant load systems have to be made, in constrast to the standard force method (SFM). This property of IFM allows the generation of the governing equation to be automated straightforwardly, as it is in the popular stiffness method (SM). In this report IFM and SM are compared relative to the structure of their respective equations, their conditioning, required solution methods, overall computational requirements, and convergence properties as these factors influence the accuracy of the results. Overall, this new version of the force method produces more accurate results than the stiffness method for comparable computational cost.
Optical measurement methods in thermogasdynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stursberg, K.; Erhardt, K.; Krahr, W.; Becker, M.
1978-01-01
A review is presented of a number of optical methods of flow measurements. Consideration is given to such spectroscopic methods as emission and absorption techniques, electron beam-stimulated fluorescence, and light scattering - Rayleigh, Raman and Mie - methods. The following visualization methods are also discussed: shadow photography, schlieren photography, interferometry, holographic interferometry, laser anemometry, particle holography, and electron-excitation imaging. A large bibliography is presented and the work is copiously illustrated with figures and photographs.