Science.gov

Sample records for planetary geologic mappers

  1. Abstracts of the annual meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers: June 21-22, 2002, Tempe, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Senske, David A.

    2002-01-01

    The annual meeting of planetary geologic mappers allows mappers the opportunity to exchange ideas, experiences, victories, and problems. In addition, presentations are reviewed by the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS) to provide input to the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Mapping Program review panel’s consideration of new proposals and progress reports that include mapping tasks. Funded mappers bring both oral presentation materials (slides or viewgraphs) and map products to post for review by GEMS and fellow mappers. Additionally, the annual meetings typically feature optional field trips that offer Earth analogs and parallels to planetary mapping problems or workshops that provide information and status of current missions. The 2002 meeting of planetary geologic mappers was held June 21-22 at the Mars Flight Facility, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. Dr. Phil Christensen graciously offered the use of the newly renovated facility, and Ms. Kelly Bender not only proved to be a courteous hostess, but also arranged a short workshop on June 23 regarding TES and THEMIS data. Approximately 30 people attended each day of the 2-day meeting, although not the same 30—some attended only on Thursday and others only on Friday. On Thursday, eight mappers gave oral presentations of Mars mapping, and an additional two presentations were presented as posters only. Eight oral presentations on Venus mapping were given on Friday, and an additional four presentations were posters only. Twelve people attended the TES/THEMIS workshop. Presentations of Ganymede mapping and Europa mapping (the latter not yet financially sponsored by PG&G mapping program) were also given on Friday. Aside from the regular presentations of maps-in-progress, there were some additional talks. Lisa Gaddis (USGS) presented a proposal seeking support for a new lunar mapping program in light of all the new data available; she made a good case that the GEMS panel discussed. Jim Skinner (USGS) gave

  2. Abstracts of the annual Planetary Geologic Mappers Meeting, June 18-19, 2001, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Timothy J.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Senske, David A.

    2002-01-01

    The annual Planetary Geologic Mappers Meeting serves two purposes. In addition to giving mappers the opportunity to exchange ideas, experiences, victories, and problems with others, presentations are reviewed by the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GeMS) to provide input to the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Mapping Program review panel’s consideration of new proposals and progress reports that include mapping tasks. Funded mappers bring both oral presentation materials (slides or viewgraphs) and map products to post for review by GeMS and fellow mappers. Additionally, the annual meetings typically feature optional field trips offering earth analogs and parallels to planetary mapping problems. The 2001 Mappers Meeting, June 18-19, was convened by Tim Parker, Dave Senske, and Ken Tanaka and was hosted by Larry Crumpler and Jayne Aubele of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Oral presentations were given in the Museum’s Honeywell Auditorium, and maps were posted in the Sandia Room. In addition to active mappers, guests included local science teachers who had successfully competed for the right to attend and listen to the reports. It was a unique pleasure for mappers to have the opportunity to interact with and provide information to teachers responding so enthusiastically to the meeting presentation. On Sunday, June 17, Larry and Jayne conducted an optional pre-meeting field trip. The flanks of Rio Grande Rift, east and west of Albuquerque and Valles Caldera north of town presented tectonic, volcanic, and sedimentary examples of the Rift and adjoining areas analogous to observed features on Mars and Venus. The arid but volcanically and tectonically active environment of New Mexico’s rift valley enables focus on features that appear morphologically young and spectacular in satellite images and digital relief models. The theme of the trip was to see what, at orbiter resolution, "obvious" geologic features look like at

  3. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, Tucson, AZ 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, Tracy K.P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Saunders, R. Stephen; Bleamaster, Leslie F.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Report of the Annual Mappers Meeting Planetary Science Institute Tucson, Arizona June 28 and 29, 2007 Approximately 22 people attended this year's mappers meeting, and many more submitted abstracts and maps in absentia. The 2007 meeting was convened by Tracy Gregg, Les Bleamaster, Steve Saunders, and Ken Tanaka and was hosted by David Crown and Les Bleamaster of the Planetary Science Institute (PSI) in Tucson, Arizona. Oral presentations and poster discussions took place on Thursday, June 28 and Friday, June 29. This year's meeting also included a unique opportunity to visit the operations centers of two active Mars missions; field trips to the University of Arizona took place on Thursday and Friday afternoons. Outgoing Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS) chairperson, Tracy Gregg, commenced the meeting with an introduction and David Crown followed with a discussion of logistics and the PSI facility; Steve Saunders (Planetary Geology and Geophysics Discipline Scientist) then provided a brief program update. Science presentations kicked off with Venus mapper Vicki Hansen and graduate students Eric Tharalson and Bhairavi Shankar of the University of Minnesota, Duluth, showing a 3-D animation of the global distribution of tesserae and discussing the implications, a progress report for V-45 quadrangle mapping, and a brief discussion of circular lows. Les Bleamaster (PSI) followed with a progress report on mapping of the V-50 quadrangle and the 1:10M Helen Planitia quadrangle. David Crown (PSI) concluded the Venus presentations with a discussion of progress made on the V-30 quadrangle. The remainder of Thursday's presentations jumped around the Solar System including Mars, Io, and Earth. Ken Tanaka of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began the afternoon with a general discussion of the status of the planetary mapping program at USGS. Buck Janes (University of Arizona) provided background information about the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) and

  4. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, Nampa, Idaho 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Saunders, R. Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 18 people attended this year's mappers meeting, and many more submitted abstracts and maps in absentia. The meeting was held on the campus of Northwest Nazarene University (NNU), and was graciously hosted by NNU's School of Health and Science. Planetary mapper Dr. Jim Zimbelman is an alumnus of NNU, and he was pivotal in organizing the meeting at this location. Oral and poster presentations were given on Friday, June 30. Drs. Bill Bonnichsen and Marty Godchaux led field excursions on July 1 and 2. USGS Astrogeology Team Chief Scientist Lisa Gaddis led the meeting with a brief discussion of the status of the planetary mapping program at USGS, and a more detailed description of the Lunar Mapping Program. She indicated that there is now a functioning website (http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/Projects/PlanetaryMapping/Lunar/) which shows which lunar quadrangles are available to be mapped. Like other USGS-published maps, proposals to complete a lunar geologic map must be submitted to the regular Planetary Geology & Geophysics (PGG) program for peer review. Jim Skinner (USGS) later presented the progress of the 1:2.5M-scale map of the lunar Copernicus quadrangle, and demonstrated the wide range of data that are available to support these maps. Gaddis and Skinner encouraged the community to submit proposals for generating lunar geologic maps, and reminded us that, as for all planetary maps, the project must be science-driven. Venus mapper Jim Zimbelman of the Smithsonian Institution (SI) presented the progress for his V-15 and V-16 quadrangles; Vicki Hansen (University of Minnesota Duluth) showed her preliminary work on V-45. Zimbelman addressed an issue that has been plaguing the community: 'delinquent Venus mappers'. In short, there were a number of Venus maps funded in the early 1990s under the Venus Data Analysis Program (VDAP). Unfortunately, funding for this program was cut before many Venus maps could be completed, resulting in about 10 Venus maps that

  5. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, San Antonio, TX, 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III (Editor); Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Kelley, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Topics covered include: Geologic Mapping of the Beta-Atla-Themis (BAT) Region of Venus: A Progress Report; Geologic Map of the Snegurochka Planitia Quadrangle (V-1): Implications for Tectonic and Volcanic History of the North Polar Region of Venus; Preliminary Geological Map of the Fortuna Tessera (V-2) Quadrangle, Venus; Geological Map of the Fredegonde (V-57) Quadrangle, Venus; Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus; Geologic Mapping of V-19; Lunar Geologic Mapping: A Preliminary Map of a Portion of the LQ-10 ("Marius") Quadrangle; Geologic Mapping of the Lunar South Pole, Quadrangle LQ-30: Volcanic History and Stratigraphy of Schr dinger Basin; Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars; Geologic Mapping Investigations of the Northwest Rim of Hellas Basin, Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Meridiani Region of Mars; Geology of a Portion of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002 and -25007; Geologic Mapping of Holden Crater and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava Outflow System; Mapping Tyrrhena Patera and Hesperia Planum, Mars; Geologic Mapping of Athabaca Valles; Geologic Mapping of MTM -30247, -35247 and -40247 Quadrangles, Reull Vallis Region, Mars Topography of the Martian Impact Crater Tooting; Mars Structural and Stratigraphic Mapping along the Coprates Rise; Geology of Libya Montes and the Interbasin Plains of Northern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: Project Introduction and First Year Work Plan; Geology of the Southern Utopia Planitia Highland-Lowland Boundary Plain: Second Year Results and Third Year Plan; Mars Global Geologic Mapping: About Half Way Done; New Geologic Map of the Scandia Region of Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation on Mars and the Northern Lowland Plains of Venus; Volcanism on Io: Insights from Global Geologic Mapping; and Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009.

  6. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, Flagstaff, AZ, 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III (Editor); Tanaka, Kenneth L. (Editor); Kelley, Michael S. (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    Interbasin Plains of Northern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: First Year Results and Second Year Work Plan; Mars Global Geologic Mapping Progress and Suggested Geographic-Based Hierarchal Systems for Unit Grouping and Naming; Progress in the Scandia Region Geologic Map of Mars; Geomorphic Mapping of MTMS -20022 and -20017; Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation, Mars, and the Northern Lowland Plains, Venus; Volcanism on Io: Results from Global Geologic Mapping; Employing Geodatabases for Planetary Mapping Conduct - Requirements, Concepts and Solutions; and Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2010.

  7. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, Flagstaff, AZ, 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III (Editor); Tanaka, Kenneth L. (Editor); Kelley, Michael S. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Merging of the USGS Atlas of Mercury 1:5,000,000 Geologic Series; Geologic Mapping of the V-36 Thetis Regio Quadrangle: 2008 Progress Report; Structural Maps of the V-17 Beta Regio Quadrangle, Venus; Geologic Mapping of Isabella Quadrangle (V-50) and Helen Planitia, Venus; Renewed Mapping of the Nepthys Mons Quadrangle (V-54), Venus; Mapping the Sedna-Lavinia Region of Venus; Geologic Mapping of the Guinevere Planitia Quadrangle of Venus; Geological Mapping of Fortuna Tessera (V-2): Venus and Earth's Archean Process Comparisons; Geological Mapping of the North Polar Region of Venus (V-1 Snegurochka Planitia): Significant Problems and Comparisons to the Earth's Archean; Venus Quadrangle Geological Mapping: Use of Geoscience Data Visualization Systems in Mapping and Training; Geologic Map of the V-1 Snegurochka Planitia Quadrangle: Progress Report; The Fredegonde (V-57) Quadrangle, Venus: Characterization of the Venus Midlands; Formation and Evolution of Lakshmi Planum (V-7), Venus: Assessment of Models using Observations from Geological Mapping; Geologic Map of the Meskhent Tessera Quadrangle (V-3), Venus: Evidence for Early Formation and Preservation of Regional Topography; Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus: A Progress Report; Geology of the Lachesis Tessera Quadrangle (V-18), Venus; Geologic Mapping of the Juno Chasma Quadrangle, Venus: Establishing the Relation Between Rifting and Volcanism; Geologic Mapping of V-19, V-28, and V-53; Lunar Geologic Mapping Program: 2008 Update; Geologic Mapping of the Marius Quadrangle, the Moon; Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars: Introductory Report; New Geologic Map of the Argyre Region of Mars; Geologic Evolution of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002, and -25007; Mapping Hesperia Planum, Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Meridiani Region, Mars; Geology of Holden Crater and the Holden and Ladon Multi

  8. Nasa's Planetary Geologic Mapping Program: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division supports the geologic mapping of planetary surfaces through a distinct organizational structure and a series of research and analysis (R&A) funding programs. Cartography and geologic mapping issues for NASA's planetary science programs are overseen by the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT), which is an assessment group for cartography similar to the Mars Exploration Program Assessment Group (MEPAG) for Mars exploration. MAPSIT's Steering Committee includes specialists in geological mapping, who make up the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS). I am the GEMS Chair, and with a group of 3-4 community mappers we advise the U.S. Geological Survey Planetary Geologic Mapping Coordinator (Dr. James Skinner) and develop policy and procedures to aid the planetary geologic mapping community. GEMS meets twice a year, at the Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in March, and at the Annual Planetary Mappers' Meeting in June (attendance is required by all NASA-funded geologic mappers). Funding programs under NASA's current R&A structure to propose geological mapping projects include Mars Data Analysis (Mars), Lunar Data Analysis (Moon), Discovery Data Analysis (Mercury, Vesta, Ceres), Cassini Data Analysis (Saturn moons), Solar System Workings (Venus or Jupiter moons), and the Planetary Data Archiving, Restoration, and Tools (PDART) program. Current NASA policy requires all funded geologic mapping projects to be done digitally using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software. In this presentation we will discuss details on how geologic mapping is done consistent with current NASA policy and USGS guidelines.

  9. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    This second issue in a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications includes (1) a catalog of terrestrial craterform structures for northern Europe; (2) abstracts of results of the Planetary Geology Program, and (3) a list of the photographic holdings of regional planetary image facilities.

  10. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

  11. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A wide variety of topics on planetary geology are presented. Subjects include stratigraphy and geomorphology of Copernicus, the Mamers valle region, and other selected regions of Mars and the Moon. Crater density and distribution are discussed for Callisto and the lunar surface. Spectroscopic analysis is described for Europa and Ganymede.

  12. Planetary geological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Solomonidou, Anezina

    2014-11-01

    In this introduction to planetary geology, we review the major geologic processes affecting the solid bodies of the solar system, namely volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, and erosion. We illustrate the interplay of these processes in different worlds, briefly reviewing how they affect the surfaces of the Earth's Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars, then focusing on two very different worlds: Jupiter's moon Io, the most volcanically active object in the solar system, and Saturn's moon Titan, where the interaction between a dense atmosphere and the surface make for remarkably earth-like landscapes despite the great differences in surface temperature and composition.

  13. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces (e.g., Varnes, 1974). Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962 (Hackman, 1962). Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete

  14. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, John A., III; Nedell, Susan S.

    1987-01-01

    The surface of Mars displays a broad range of channel and valley features. There is as great a range in morphology as in scale. Some of the features of Martian geography are examined. Geomorphic mapping, crater counts on selected surfaces, and a detailed study of drainage basins are used to trace the geologic evolution of the Margaritifer Sinus Quandrangle. The layered deposits in the Valles Marineris are described in detail and the geologic processes that could have led to their formation are analyzed.

  15. Contribution of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data to geologic exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, J. R.; Dykstra, J. D.; Sheffield, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The increased number of carefully selected narrow spectral bands and the increased spatial resolution of thematic mapper data over previously available satellite data contribute greatly to geologic exploration, both by providing spectral information that permits lithologic differentiation and recognition of alteration and spatial information that reveals structure. As vegetation and soil cover increase, the value of spectral components of TM data decreases relative to the value of the spatial component of the data. However, even in vegetated areas, the greater spectral breadth and discrimination of TM data permits improved recognition and mapping of spatial elements of the terrain. As our understanding of the spectral manifestations of the responses of soils and vegetation to unusual chemical environments increases, the value of spectral components of TM data to exploration will greatly improve in covered areas.

  16. Radar TopoMapper concept for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Soren N.; Lou, Yun-Ling; Hensley, Scott; Harvey, Wayne L.; McKinnon, William B.

    2004-12-01

    Topographic information is key to interpreting the geology and geophysics of planetary bodies such as the icy Galilean satellites. Traditionally elevation information has been derived from stereo-photogrammetry, but the last couple of decades have offered new techniques, including radar interferometry, photoclinometry (shape from shading) and laser altimetry. Combining synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology with interferometry (InSAR) enables high resolution imaging with elevation information at each image point. With two appropriately spaced antennas on a spacecraft, single-pass imaging radar interferometry can provide wide swath topographic data, independent of solar illumination, as was recently demonstrated on Earth by the Shuttle Topographic Radar Mission (SRTM; www.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm). We will present the science requirements, measurement principle, a straw-man"s design, and the predicted performance of a "compact SRTM" which could be flown on NASA missions such as the proposed Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO). In this paper we discuss challenges, including the calibration strategy and critical technology elements such as the high power RF-amplifier. We expect that the performance, both in terms of elevation accuracy and mapping rate would suffice to 1) determine topography on local and regional scales; 2) search for active geological change on the time scale of JIMO"s orbit around, e.g., Europa (30-60 days); and 3) determine the global tidal amplitude at Europa, Callisto, and Ganymede, which would constitute direct proof of the existence of oceans in all three icy moons.

  17. Planetary geology in the 1980s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.

    1984-01-01

    The geologic aspects of solar system studies are defined and the goals of planetary geology are discussed. Planetary geology is the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of matter condensed in the form of planets, satellites, asteroids, and comets. It is a multidisciplinary effort involving investigators with backgrounds in geology, chemistry, physics, astronomy, geodesy, cartography, and other disciplines concerned with the solid planets. The report is primarily restricted to the kinds of experiments and observations made through unmanned missions.

  18. Planetary Geology: Goals, Future Directions, and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Planetary exploration has provided a torrent of discoveries and a recognition that planets are not inert objects. This expanded view has led to the notion of comparative planetology, in which the differences and similarities among planetary objects are assessed. Solar system exploration is undergoing a change from an era of reconnaissance to one of intensive exploration and focused study. Analyses of planetary surfaces are playing a key role in this transition, especially as attention is focused on such exploration goals as returned samples from Mars. To assess how the science of planetary geology can best contribute to the goals of solar system exploration, a workshop was held at Arizona State University in January 1987. The participants discussed previous accomplishments of the planetary geology program, assessed the current studies in planetary geology, and considered the requirements to meet near-term and long-term exploration goals.

  19. Titan's Geology as Viewed by the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, R. M.; Stofan, E. R.; Wood, C.; Robshaw, L.; Mitchell, K. L.; Radebaugh, J.; Lorenz, R.; Lunine, J.; Wall, S. D.; Kirk, R.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2007-05-01

    Cassini's Titan Radar Mapper has imaged the surface of Titan on 8 flybys to date, collecting Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data at spatial resolution ranging from about 300 m to about 2 km. These radar images reveal that Titan's surface has been modified by both endogenic (volcanism, tectonism) and exogenic (impact cratering, erosion) processes, with no process dominating in an obvious way. Although less than 15 % of the surface of Titan has been imaged to date using SAR, the acquired swaths are distributed over a wide latitudinal and longitudinal range, enabling some conclusions to be drawn about the global distribution of processes. Cryovolcanic units have been identified in SAR images mostly at mid-latitudes (40-60 N), these include the construct Ganesa Macula, several calderas with associated flows, and large cryovolcanic flows. Flybys over high northern latitudes have shown lacustrine features, the distribution of these features is consistent with colder temperatures and more precipitation at high latitudes. Some of the depressions filled by the lakes may be volcanic calderas, but a thermokarstic origin is also possible (Mitchell et al., Lunar Planet Sci. Conf. XXXVIII, 2007). Ridges and mountains that are interpreted to be of tectonic origin have been seen mostly at low latitudes (Radebaugh et al., Lunar Planet Sci. Conf. XXXVIII, 2007), while drainage channels appear common at all latitudes (Lorenz et al., Plan. Space Sci., submitted). Fields of dunes (Titan's "sand seas") are mostly equatorial, but a few isolated patches of dunes extend as far north as ~60 degrees. The distribution and orientation of dunes is as expected from Titan's winds (Lorenz et al., 2006, Science 312; Radebaugh et al., Icarus, submitted). Erosion by fluvial processes is likely to have occurred on a global scale. The small number of definitive impact craters suggests that these geologic processes are erasing or burying the majority of impacts. Future data will allow us to further

  20. Reports of planetary geology program, 1980. [Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Compiler); Kosters, E. C. (Compiler)

    1980-01-01

    This is a compilation of abstracts of reports which summarize work conducted in the Planetary Geology Program. Each report reflects significant accomplishments within the area of the author's funded grant or contract.

  1. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planetary bodies, to techniques and instrument development for exploration.

  2. Reports of planetary geology program, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Several areas of the Planetary Geology Program were addressed including outer solar system satellites, asteroids, comets, Venus, cratering processes and landform development, volcanic processes, aeolian processes, fluvial processes, periglacial and permafrost processes, geomorphology, remote sensing, tectonics and stratigraphy, and mapping.

  3. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2010. Appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces. Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962. Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete. Terrestrial geologic maps published by

  4. Terrestrial analogs, planetary geology, and the nature of geological reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Victor R.

    2014-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical to planetary geology, but its role can be misconstrued by those unfamiliar with the practice of that science. The methodological importance of analogy to geology lies in the formulation of genetic hypotheses, an absolutely essential component of geological reasoning that was either ignored or denigrated by most 20th century philosophers of science, who took the theoretical/ experimental methodology of physics to be the sole model for all of scientific inquiry. Following the seminal 19th century work of Grove Karl Gilbert, an early pioneer of planetary geology, it has long been recognized that broad experience with and understanding of terrestrial geological phenomena provide geologists with their most effective resource for the invention of potentially fruitful, working hypotheses. The actions of (1) forming such hypotheses, (2) following their consequences, and (3) testing those consequences comprise integral parts of effective geological practice in regard to the understanding of planetary surfaces. Nevertheless, the logical terminology and philosophical bases for such practice will be unfamiliar to most planetary scientists, both geologists and nongeologists. The invention of geological hypotheses involves both inductive inferences of the type Gilbert termed “empiric classification” and abductive inferences of a logical form made famous by the 19th century American logician Charles Sanders Peirce. The testing and corroboration of geological hypotheses relies less on the correspondence logic of theoretical/ experimental sciences, like physics, and more on the logic of consistency, coherence, and consilience that characterizes the investigative and historical sciences of interpretation exemplified by geology.

  5. Abstracts for the Planetary Geology Field Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (Editor); Black, D.

    1977-01-01

    The conference was to foster a better understanding of the volcanic history of the planets through the presentation of papers and through field trips to areas on the basalt plains of Idaho that appear to be analogous to some planetary surfaces. Papers include discussions of the volcanic geology of the Snake River Plain, general volcanic geology, and aspects of volcanism on the terrestrial planets.

  6. Advances in planetary geology, volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    This publication is a continuation of volume 1; it is a compilation of reports focusing on research into the origin and evolution of the solar system with emphasis on planetary geology. Specific reports include a multispectral and geomorphic investigation of the surface of Europa and a geologic interpretation of remote sensing data for the Martian volcano Ascreaus Mons.

  7. Advances in planetary geology, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a continuation of volume 1; it is a compilation of reports focusing on research into the origin and evolution of the solar system with emphasis on planetary geology. Specific reports include a multispectral and geomorphic investigation of the surface of Europa and a geologic interpretation of remote sensing data for the Martian volcano Ascreaus Mons.

  8. Reports of Planetary Geology Program, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Work conducted in the Planetary Geology program is summarized. The following categories are presented: outer solar system satellites; asteroids and comets; Venus; cratering processes and landform development; volcanic processes and landforms; aolian processes and landforms; fluvial processes and landform development; periglacial and permafrost processes; structure, tectonics and stratigraphy; remote sensing and regolith studies; geologic mapping, cartography and geodesy.

  9. Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, George E.

    2004-01-01

    Geological mapping and topical studies, primarily in the southern Acidalia Planitia/Cydonia Mensae region of Mars is presented. The overall objective was to understand geologic processes and crustal history in the northern lowland in order to assess the probability that an ocean once existed in this region. The major deliverable is a block of 6 1:500,000 scale geologic maps that will be published in 2004 as a single map at 1:1,000,000 scale along with extensive descriptive and interpretive text. A major issue addressed by the mapping was the relative ages of the extensive plains of Acidalia Planitia and the knobs and mesas of Cydonia Mensae. The mapping results clearly favor a younger age for the plains. Topical studies included a preliminary analysis of the very abundant small domes and cones to assess the possibility that their origins could be determined by detailed mapping and remote-sensing analysis. We also tested the validity of putative shorelines by using GIs to co-register full-resolution MOLA altimetry data and Viking images with these shorelines plotted on them. Of the 3 proposed shorelines in this area, one is probably valid, one is definitely not valid, and the third is apparently 2 shorelines closely spaced in elevation. Publications supported entirely or in part by this grant are included.

  10. Reports of Planetary Geology Program, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts of 205 reports from Principal investigators of NASA's Planetary Geology Program succinctly summarize work conducted and reflect the significant accomplishments. The entries are arranged under the following topics: (1) Saturnian satellites; (2) asteroids, comets and Galilean satellites; (3) cratering processes and landform development; (4) volcanic processes and landforms; (5) Aerolian processes and landforms; (6) fluvial, preglacial, and other processes of landform development; (7) Mars polar deposits, volatiles, and climate; (8) structure, tectonics, and stratigraphy; (9) remote sensing and regolith chemistry; (10) cartography and geologic mapping; and (11) special programs.

  11. Geologic exploration: The contribution of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, J. R.; Dykstra, J. D.; Sheffield, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The major advantages of the TM data over that of MSS systems are increased spatial resolution and a greater number of narrow, strategically placed spectral bands. The 30 meter pixel size permits finer definition of ground features and improves reliability of the photointerpretation of geologic structure. The value of the spatial data increases relative to the value of the spectral data as soil and vegetation cover increase. In arid areas with good exposure, it is possible with careful digital processing and some inventive color compositing to produce enough spectral differentiation of rock types and thereby produce facsimiles of standard geologic maps with a minimum of field work or reference to existing maps. Hue-saturation value images are compared with geological maps of Death Valley, California, the Big Horn/Wind River Basin of Wyoming, the area around Cement, Oklahoma, and Detroit. False color composites of the Ontario region are also examined.

  12. Geologic results of the TMS survey over Mt. Emmons, Colorado. [Thematic Mapper Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.; Sadowski, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    In 1981, NASA conducted with an American company a cooperative study, involving the use of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data. The study was concerned with an area near Crested Butte, Colorado, which contains a known, but unmined, major molybdenum deposit. Detailed ground observations in the Mt. Emmons area demonstrated that the imagery was extremely effective for detection of geologically significant features. The imagery specifically delineated areas of ferric iron staining, seritization, and hornfelized rock. Attention is given to data acquisition and data processing, field work in 1982 and in 1983, the integration of gravity data, and costs.

  13. Reports of planetary geology program, 1976 - 1977. [abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R. (Compiler); Wahmann, R. (Compiler); Howard, J. H., III

    1977-01-01

    One hundred seventeen investigations undertaken in the NASA Planetary Geology Program in 1976-1977 are reported in abstract form. Topics discussed include solar system formation; planetary interiors; planetary evolution; asteroids, comets and moons; cratering; volcanic, eolian, fluvial and mass wasting processes; volatiles and the Martian regolith; mapping; and instrument development and techniques. An author index is provided.

  14. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1981 NASA Planetary Geology Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. The evolution of the solar system, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planets are considered. Galilean satellites and small bodies, Venus, geochemistry and regoliths, volcanic and aeolian processes and landforms, fluvial and periglacial processes, and planetary impact cratering, remote sensing, and cartography are discussed.

  15. Reports of planetary geology program, 1977-1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, R. (Compiler); Boyce, J. (Compiler); Boss, A. P.; Peale, S. J.; Alfven, H.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Sonett, C. P.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Helin, E. F.; Carusi, A.

    1978-01-01

    A compilation of abstracts of reports which summarizes work conducted by Planetary Geology Principal Investigators and their associates is presented. Full reports of these abstracts were presented to the annual meeting of Planetary Geology Principal Investigators and their associates at the Universtiy of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, May 31, June 1 and 2, 1978.

  16. Significant achievements in the Planetary Geology Program, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, H.E.

    1981-09-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1981 NASA Planetary Geology Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. The evolution of the solar system, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planets are considered. Galilean satellites and small bodies, Venus, geochemistry and regoliths, volcanic and aeolian processes and landforms, fluvial and periglacial processes, and planetary impact cratering, remote sensing, and cartography are discussed.

  17. Activities in planetary geology for the physical and earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalli, R.; Greeley, R.

    1982-01-01

    A users guide for teaching activities in planetary geology, and for physical and earth sciences is presented. The following topics are discussed: cratering; aeolian processes; planetary atmospheres, in particular the Coriolis Effect and storm systems; photogeologic mapping of other planets, Moon provinces and stratigraphy, planets in stereo, land form mapping of Moon, Mercury and Mars, and geologic features of Mars.

  18. Significant achievements in the Planetary Geology Program. [geologic processes, comparative planetology, and solar system evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Developments reported at a meeting of principal investigators for NASA's planetology geology program are summarized. Topics covered include: constraints on solar system formation; asteriods, comets, and satellites; constraints on planetary interiors; volatiles and regoliths; instrument development techniques; planetary cartography; geological and geochemical constraints on planetary evolution; fluvial processes and channel formation; volcanic processes; Eolian processes; radar studies of planetary surfaces; cratering as a process, landform, and dating method; and the Tharsis region of Mars. Activities at a planetary geology field conference on Eolian processes are reported and techniques recommended for the presentation and analysis of crater size-frequency data are included.

  19. The NASA/USGS Planetary Geologic Mapping Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.

    NASA's Planetary Geologic Mapping Program (PGM) publishes geologic maps of the planets based on released, geodetically controlled spacecraft data. The general objectives of PGM include (1) production of geologic maps that will greatly increase our knowledge of the materials and processes that have contributed to the evolution of Solar System bodies, and (2) geologic surveys of areas of special interest that may be investigated by future missions. Although most map authors are from U.S. institutions, some European investigators have also served as authors. PGM is sponsored by NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program (PGG) and has been supported by personnel of the Astrogeology Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for more than 40 years. PGG also supports the Astrogeology Team to prepare and distribute controlled data products necessary for the production of geologic maps. USGS coordination and outreach activities for PGM include developing new planetary geologic map series, managing existing map series, generating geologic mapping databases and packages for individual mapping investigators, providing oversight and expertise in meeting the requirements of USGS map standards, providing editorial support in map reviews and revisions, supporting map pre-press production, and maintaining an informative planetary geologic mapping web page (http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/Projects/PlanetaryMapping/). The Astrogeology Team also provides a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) web site (Planetary Interactive GIS on the Web Analyzable Database, or PIGWAD) to facilitate distribution and analysis of spatially registered, planetary geologic data primarily in vector form. USGS now publishes planetary geologic map data in GIS format. Geologic maps of planetary bodies published by USGS through 2005 include 80 of the Moon from 1:10K to 1:5M scale, 93 of Mars from 1:500K to 1:15M scale, 18 of Venus at 1:5M and 1:15M scales, 9 of Mercury at 1:5M scale, and 16 of the Galilean

  20. Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts of reports from NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program are presented. Research is documented in summary form of the work conducted. Each report reflects significant accomplishments within the area of the author's funded grant or contract.

  1. Reports of planetary geology and geophysics program, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Henry (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Abstracts of reports from Principal Investigators of NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program are compiled. The research conducted under this program during 1989 is summarized. Each report includes significant accomplishments in the area of the author's funded grant or contract.

  2. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1980 NASA Planetology Program Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution and comparative planetology to geologic processes active on other planetary bodies.

  3. Updated symbol catalogue for geologic and geomorphologic mapping in Planetary Scinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nass, Andrea; Fortezzo, Corey; Skinner, James, Jr.; Hunter, Marc; Hare, Trent

    2017-04-01

    Maps are one of the most powerful communication tools for spatial data. This is true for terrestrial data, as well as the many types of planetary data. Geologic and/or geomorphologic maps of planetary surfaces, in particular those of the Moon, Mars, and Venus, are standardized products and often prepared as a part of hypothesis-driven science investigations. The NASA-funded Planetary Geologic Mapping program, coordinated by the USGS Astrogeology Science Center (ASC), produces high-quality, standardized, and refereed geologic maps and digital databases of planetary bodies. In this context, 242 geologic, geomorphologic, and thematic map sheets and map series have been published since the 1962. However, outside of this program, numerous non-USGS published maps are created as result of scientific investigations and published, e.g. as figures or supplemental materials within a peer-reviewed journal article. Due to the complexity of planetary surfaces, diversity between different planet surfaces, and the varied resolution of the data, geomorphologic and geologic mapping is a challenging task. Because of these limiting conditions, the mapping process is a highly interpretative work and is mostly limited to remotely sensed satellite data - with a few expetions from rover data. Uniform and an unambiguous data are fundamental to make quality observations that lead to unbiased and supported interpretations, especially when there is no current groundtruthing. To allow for correlation between different map products (digital or analog), the most commonly used spatial objects are predefined cartographic symbols. The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Digital Cartographic Standard for Geologic Map Symbolization (DCSGMS) defines the most commonly used symbols, colors, and hatch patterns in one comprehensive document. Chapter 25 of the DCSGMS defines the Planetary Geology Features based on the symbols defined in the Venus Mapper's Handbook. After reviewing the 242 planetary

  4. Performance evaluation and geologic utility of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paylor, E. D.; Abrams, M. J.; Conel, J. E.; Kahle, A. B.; Lang, H. R.

    1985-01-01

    The overall objective of the project was to evaluate LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data in the context of geologic applications. This involved a quantitative assessment of the data quality including the spatial and spectral characteristics realized by the instrument. Three test sites were selected for the study: (1) Silver Bell, Arizona; (2) Death Valley, California; and (3) Wind River/Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming. Conclusions include: (1) Artificial and natural targets can be used to atmospherically calibrate TM data and investigate scanner radiometry, atmospheric parameters, and construction of atmospheric Modulation Transfer Functions (MTF's), (2) No significant radiometric degradation occurs in TM data as a result of SCROUNGE processing; however, the data exhibit narrow digital number (DN) distributiosn suggesting that the configuration of the instrument is not optimal for each science applications, (30 Increased spatial resolution, 1:24,000 enlargement capability, and good geometric fidelity of TM data allow accurate photogeologic/geomorphic mapping, including relative age dating of alluvial fans, measurement of structural and bedding attitudes, and construction of such things as structural cross sections and stratigraphic columns. (4) TM bands 5 and 7 are particularly useful for geologic applications because they span a region of the spectrum not previously sampled by multispectral scanner data and are important for characterizing clay and carbonate materials.

  5. A bibliography of planetary geology principal investigators and their associates, 1976-1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography cites publications submitted by 484 principal investigators and their associates who were supported through NASA's Office of Space Sciences Planetary Geology Program. Subject classifications include: solar system formation, comets, and asteroids; planetary satellites, planetary interiors, geological and geochemical constraints on planetary evolution; impact crater studies, volcanism, eolian studies, fluvian studies, Mars geological mapping; Mercury geological mapping; planetary cartography; and instrument development and techniques. An author/editor index is provided.

  6. Abstracts for the Planetary Geology Field Conference on Aeolian Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (Editor); Black, D. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The Planetary Geology Field Conference on Aeolian Processes was organized at the request of the Planetary Geology Program office of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to bring together geologists working on aeolian problems on earth and planetologists concerned with similar problems on the planets. Abstracts of papers presented at the conference are arranged herein by alphabetical order of the senior author. Papers fall into three broad categories: (1) Viking Orbiter and Viking Lander results on aeolian processes and/or landforms on Mars, (2) laboratory results on studies of aeolian processes, and (3) photogeology and field studies of aeolian processes on Earth.

  7. Landsat 4 thematic mapper imagery: improved tool for geologic mapping in eastern overthrust

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.

    1984-04-01

    The central Appalachians were studied using Landsat 4 thematic mapper (TM) data to evaluate the improved spatial resolution (30 x 30 m, 100 x 100 ft) of TM for mapping capabilities. The TM bands 2, 3, and 4 were contrast stretched and edge enhanced using digital processing techniques. Photogeologic analysis of the 1:125,000-scale TM image examined drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. The study area comprises the junction of the central and southern Appalachians where fold axes change from N30/sup 0/E to N60/sup 0/E. Southeast-dipping thrust faults trend northeastward across the area. Cambrian through Devonian rocks are involved in and exposed by the thrust faults. Recognition of drainage relationships (density and pattern) are important in identifying lithologies. Landforms reflect structure and lithology through characteristic topographic expression. Improved identification and delineation of drainage and landform characteristics on TM imagery support structural and lithologic interpretations. Lineaments were identified by drainage, tonal, and topographic characteristics. Two major lineaments trending N83/sup 0/E and N56/sup 0/W, at the junction of the southern and central Appalachians, were identified. Identified structural features include fold axes, thrust faults, strike-slip faults, and thrust-faulted folds. Detailed lineament and structural mapping on TM imagery aids in unraveling complex surface geologic patterns in this critical area of the eastern overthrust. Digitally enhanced Landsat 4 TM data proved advantageous for accurate mapping of drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. Improved accuracy on a regional scale allows reliable geologic mapping and therefore subsurface interpretations, benefitting hydrocarbon exploration.

  8. Landsat 4 thematic mapper imagery: improved tool for geologic mapping in eastern overthrust

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.

    1984-04-01

    The central Appalachians were studied using Landsat 4 thematic mapper (TM) data to evaluate the improved spatial resolution (30 x 30 m, 100 x 100 ft) of TM for mapping capabilities. The TM bands 2, 3, and 4 were contrast stretched and edge enhanced using digital processing techniques. Photogeologic analysis of the 1:125,000-scale TM image examined drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. The study area comprises the junction of the central and southern Appalachians where fold axes change from N30/sup 0/E to N60/sup 0/E. Southeast-dipping thrust faults trend northeastward across the area. Cambrian through Devonian rocks are involved in and exposed by the thrust faults. Recognition of drainage relationships (density and pattern) are important in identifying lithologies. Landforms reflect structure and lithology through characteristic topographic expression. Improved identification and delineation of drainage and landform characteristics on TM imagery support structural and lithologic interpretations. Lineaments were identified by drainage, tonal, and topographic characteristics. Two major lineaments trending N83/sup 0/E and N56/sup 0/W, at the junction of the southern and central Appalachians, were identified. Identified structural features include fold axes, thrust faults, strike-slip faults, and thrust-faulted folds. Detailed lineament and structural mapping on TM imagery aids in unraveling complex surface geologic patterns in this critical area of the eastern overthrust. Digitally enhanced Landsat 4 TM data proved advantageous for accurate mapping of drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. Improved accuracy on a regional scale allows reliable geologic mapping and therefore subsurface interpretations, benefiting hydrocarbon exploration.

  9. Introduction to Planetary Science: The Geological Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothery, David A.

    2008-04-01

    The authors' stated intention is that this book should be used as the basis for a capstone course for senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students majoring in the Earth sciences. The authors argue, and I agree, that a planetary science course like this can provide excellent opportunities to revisit and apply, in an appealing and engaging manner, many of the themes encountered during an Earth sciences degree. It is disappointing that this attractive book misses many opportunities to do so.

  10. Directory of research projects, 1991. Planetary geology and geophysics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Ted A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Information is provided about currently funded scientific research within the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program. The directory consists of the proposal summary sheet from each proposal funded by the program during fiscal year 1991. Information is provided on the research topic, principal investigator, institution, summary of research objectives, past accomplishments, and proposed investigators.

  11. Directory of research projects: Planetary geology and geophysics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Henry (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Information about currently funded scientific research within the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program is provided, including the proposal summary sheet from each proposal funded under the program during fiscal year 1990. Information about the research project, including title, principal investigator, institution, summary of research objectives, past accomplishments, and proposed new investigations is also provided.

  12. Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Abstracts compiled from reports from Principal Investigators of the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, Office of Space Science and Applications are presented. The purpose is to document in summary form work conducted in this program during 1986. Each report reflects significant accomplishments within the area of the author's funded grant or contract.

  13. Activities in Planetary Geology for the Physical and Earth Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Alli, Richard, Ed.; Greely, Ronald, Ed.

    The activities in this guide deal with concepts in planetary geology, but they can be generalized to illustrate broad problems in the earth sciences. They are designed to supplement or introduce topics usually encountered in earth science courses. The exercises, organized into independent units which can be presented in any order, are appropriate…

  14. Reports of planetary geology and geophysics program, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Henry E. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This is a compilation of abstracts of reports from Principal Investigators of NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, Office of Space Science and Applications. The purpose is to document in summary form research work conducted in this program during 1988. Each report reflects significant accomplishments within the area of the author's funded grant or contract.

  15. Reports of planetary geology and geophysics program, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This is a compilation of abstracts of reports from Principal Investigators of NASA's PLanetary Geology and Geophysics program, Office of Space Science and Applications. The purpose is to document in summary form research work conducted in this program during 1987. Each report reflects significant accomplishments in the area of the author's funded grant or contract.

  16. Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Compiler); Watters, T. R. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Topics include outer planets and satellites; asteroids and comets; Venus; lunar origin and solar dynamics; cratering process; planetary interiors, petrology, and geochemistry; volcanic processes; aeolian processes and landforms; fluvial processes; geomorphology; periglacial and permafrost processes; remote sensing and regolith studies; structure, tectonics, and stratigraphy; geological mapping, cartography, and geodesy; and radar applications.

  17. Reports of planetary geology and geophysics program, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    Abstracts compiled from reports from Principal Investigators of the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, Office of Space Science and Applications are presented. The purpose is to document in summary form work conducted in this program during 1986. Each report reflects significant accomplishments within the area of the author's funded grant or contract.

  18. Directory of research projects: Planetary geology and geophysics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Henry (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Information about currently funded scientific research within the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program is provided. The directory consists of the proposal summary sheet from each proposal funded under the program during Fiscal Year 1992. The sheets provide information about the research project, including title, principal investigator, institution, summary of research objectives, past accomplishments, and proposed new investigations.

  19. Planetary Geology: A Teacher's Guide with Activities in Physical and Earth Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educator's guide discusses planetary geology. Exercises are grouped into five units: (1) introduction to geologic processes; (2) impact cratering activities; (3) planetary atmospheres; (4) planetary surfaces; and (5) geologic mapping. Suggested introductory exercises are noted at the beginning of each exercise. Each activity includes an…

  20. Planetary geology, stellar evolution and galactic cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Field studies of selected basalt flows in the Snake River Plain, Idaho, were made for comparative lunar and Mars geological investigations. Studies of basalt lava tubes were also initiated in Washington, Oregon, Hawaii, and northern California. The main effort in the stellar evolution research is toward the development of a computer code to calculate hydrodynamic flow coupled with radiative energy transport. Estimates of the rotation effects on a collapsing cloud indicate that the total angular momentum is the critical parameter. The study of Paschen and Balmer alpha lines of positronium atoms in the center of a galaxy is mentioned.

  1. Planetary geology: Impact processes on asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. R.; Davis, D. R.; Greenberg, R.; Weidenschilling, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamental geological and geophysical properties of asteroids were studied by theoretical and simulation studies of their collisional evolution. Numerical simulations incorporating realistic physical models were developed to study the collisional evolution of hypothetical asteroid populations over the age of the solar system. Ideas and models are constrained by the observed distributions of sizes, shapes, and spin rates in the asteroid belt, by properties of Hirayama families, and by experimental studies of cratering and collisional phenomena. It is suggested that many asteroids are gravitationally-bound "rubble piles.' Those that rotate rapidly may have nonspherical quasi-equilibrium shapes, such as ellipsoids or binaries. Through comparison of models with astronomical data, physical properties of these asteroids (including bulk density) are determined, and physical processes that have operated in the solar system in primordial and subsequent epochs are studied.

  2. Geodatabase model for global geologic mapping: concept and implementation in planetary sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nass, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    One aim of the NASA Dawn mission is to generate global geologic maps of the asteroid Vesta and the dwarf planet Ceres. To accomplish this, the Dawn Science Team followed the technical recommendations for cartographic basemap production. The geological mapping campaign of Vesta was completed and published, but mapping of the dwarf planet Ceres is still ongoing. The tiling schema for the geological mapping is the same for both planetary bodies and for Ceres it is divided into two parts: four overview quadrangles (Survey Orbit, 415 m/pixel) and 15 more detailed quadrangles (High Altitude Mapping HAMO, 140 m/pixel). The first global geologic map was based on survey images (415 m/pixel). The combine 4 Survey quadrangles completed by HAMO data served as basis for generating a more detailed view of the geologic history and also for defining the chronostratigraphy and time scale of the dwarf planet. The most detailed view can be expected within the 15 mapping quadrangles based on HAMO resolution and completed by the Low Altitude Mapping (LAMO) data with 35 m/pixel. For the interpretative mapping process of each quadrangle one responsible mapper was assigned. Unifying the geological mapping of each quadrangle and bringing this together to regional and global valid statements is already a very time intensive task. However, another challenge that has to be accomplished is to consider how the 15 individual mappers can generate one homogenous GIS-based project (w.r.t. geometrical and visual character) thus produce a geologically-consistent final map. Our approach this challenge was already discussed for mapping of Vesta. To accommodate the map requirements regarding rules for data storage and database management, the computer-based GIS environment used for the interpretative mapping process must be designed in a way that it can be adjusted to the unique features of the individual investigation areas. Within this contribution the template will be presented that uses standards

  3. Planetary Biology-Paleontological, Geological, and Molecular Histories of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Steven A.; Caraco, M. Daniel; Thomson, J. Michael; Gaucher, Eric A.

    2002-05-01

    The history of life on Earth is chronicled in the geological strata, the fossil record, and the genomes of contemporary organisms. When examined together, these records help identify metabolic and regulatory pathways, annotate protein sequences, and identify animal models to develop new drugs, among other features of scientific and biomedical interest. Together, planetary analysis of genome and proteome databases is providing an enhanced understanding of how life interacts with the biosphere and adapts to global change.

  4. Planetary biology--paleontological, geological, and molecular histories of life.

    PubMed

    Benner, Steven A; Caraco, M Daniel; Thomson, J Michael; Gaucher, Eric A

    2002-05-03

    The history of life on Earth is chronicled in the geological strata, the fossil record, and the genomes of contemporary organisms. When examined together, these records help identify metabolic and regulatory pathways, annotate protein sequences, and identify animal models to develop new drugs, among other features of scientific and biomedical interest. Together, planetary analysis of genome and proteome databases is providing an enhanced understanding of how life interacts with the biosphere and adapts to global change.

  5. The Moon: Keystone to Understanding Planetary Geological Processes and History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Extensive and intensive exploration of the Earth's Moon by astronauts and an international array of automated spacecraft has provided an unequaled data set that has provided deep insight into geology, geochemistry, mineralogy, petrology, chronology, geophysics and internal structure. This level of insight is unequaled except for Earth. Analysis of these data sets over the last 35 years has proven fundamental to understanding planetary surface processes and evolution, and is essential to linking surface processes with internal and thermal evolution. Much of the understanding that we presently have of other terrestrial planets and outer planet satellites derives from the foundation of these data. On the basis of these data, the Moon is a laboratory for understanding of planetary processes and a keystone for providing evolutionary perspective. Important comparative planetology issues being addressed by lunar studies include impact cratering, magmatic activity and tectonism. Future planetary exploration plans should keep in mind the importance of further lunar exploration in continuing to build solid underpinnings in this keystone to planetary evolution. Examples of these insights and applications to other planets are cited.

  6. Planetary GIS at the U.S. Geological Survey Astrogeology Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, T. M.; Skinner, J. A.; Fortezzo, C. M.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    For the past 51 years, the USGS Astrogeology Science Center has been a resource for planetary geoscience, cartography, and remote sensing. In more recent years, we have supported GIS for planetary data integration, geologic mapping and analysis.

  7. Geologic guide to the island of Hawaii: A field guide for comparative planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    With geological data available for all inner planets except Venus, we are entering an era of true comparative planetary geology, when knowledge of the differences and similarities for classes of structures (e.g., shield volcanoes) will lead to a better understanding of general geological processes, regardless of planet. Thus, it is imperative that planetologists, particularly those involved in geological mapping and surface feature analysis for terrestrial planets, be familiar with volcanic terrain in terms of its origin, structure, and morphology. One means of gaining this experience is through field trips in volcanic terrains - hence, the Planetology Conference in Hawaii. In addition, discussions with volcanologists at the conference provide an important basis for establishing communications between the two fields that will facilitate comparative studies as more data become available.

  8. USGS EDMAP Program-Training the Next Generation of Geologic Mappers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    EDMAP is an interactive and meaningful program for university students to gain experience and knowledge in geologic mapping while contributing to national efforts to map the geology of the United States. It is a matching-funds grant program with universities and is one of the three components of the congressionally mandated U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program. Geology professors whose specialty is geologic mapping request EDMAP funding to support upper-level undergraduate and graduate students at their colleges or universities in a 1-year mentor-guided geologic mapping project that focuses on a specific geographic area. Every Federal dollar that is awarded is matched with university funds.

  9. Application of Electron Probe Microanalysis to the Study of Geological and Planetary Materials.

    PubMed

    McGee, James J.; Keil, Klaus

    2001-03-01

    The impact of electron probe microanalysis on the study of geological and planetary materials has been tremendous. Electron microprobes evolved into routine analytical instruments in geological research laboratories as instrument capabilities improved and applications to geologic/planetary materials expanded. The contributions of electron probe microanalysis to the characterization of minerals, both terrestrial and extraterrestrial, and to other significant geological research, such as light element analysis, trace element analysis, and element mapping, is described.

  10. Preliminary spectral and geologic analysis of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data, Wind River Basin area, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, J. E.; Lang, H. R.; Paylor, E. D.; Alley, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) image of the Wind River Basin area in Wyoming is currently under analysis for stratigraphic and structural mapping and for assessment of spectral and spatial characteristics using visible, near infrared, and short wavelength infrared bands. To estimate the equivalent Lambertian surface reflectance, TM radiance data were calibrated to remove atmospheric and instrumental effects. Reflectance measurements for homogeneous natural and cultural targets were acquired about one year after data acquisition. Calibration data obtained during the analysis were used to calculate new gains and offsets to improve scanner response for earth science applications. It is shown that the principal component images calculated from the TM data were the result of linear transformations of ground reflectance. In images prepared from this transform, the separation of spectral classes was independent of systematic atmospheric and instrumental factors. Several examples of the processed images are provided.

  11. Preliminary spectral and geologic analysis of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data, Wind River Basin area, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, J. E.; Lang, H. R.; Paylor, E. D.; Alley, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) image of the Wind River Basin area in Wyoming is currently under analysis for stratigraphic and structural mapping and for assessment of spectral and spatial characteristics using visible, near infrared, and short wavelength infrared bands. To estimate the equivalent Lambertian surface reflectance, TM radiance data were calibrated to remove atmospheric and instrumental effects. Reflectance measurements for homogeneous natural and cultural targets were acquired about one year after data acquisition. Calibration data obtained during the analysis were used to calculate new gains and offsets to improve scanner response for earth science applications. It is shown that the principal component images calculated from the TM data were the result of linear transformations of ground reflectance. In images prepared from this transform, the separation of spectral classes was independent of systematic atmospheric and instrumental factors. Several examples of the processed images are provided.

  12. Rovers as Geological Helpers for Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Rovers can be used to perform field science on other planetary surfaces and in hostile and dangerous environments on Earth. Rovers are mobility systems for carrying instrumentation to investigate targets of interest and can perform geologic exploration on a distant planet (e.g. Mars) autonomously with periodic command from Earth. For nearby sites (such as the Moon or sites on Earth) rovers can be teleoperated with excellent capabilities. In future human exploration, robotic rovers will assist human explorers as scouts, tool and instrument carriers, and a traverse "buddy". Rovers can be wheeled vehicles, like the Mars Pathfinder Sojourner, or can walk on legs, like the Dante vehicle that was deployed into a volcanic caldera on Mt. Spurr, Alaska. Wheeled rovers can generally traverse slopes as high as 35 degrees, can avoid hazards too big to roll over, and can carry a wide range of instrumentation. More challenging terrain and steeper slopes can be negotiated by walkers. Limitations on rover performance result primarily from the bandwidth and frequency with which data are transmitted, and the accuracy with which the rover can navigate to a new position. Based on communication strategies, power availability, and navigation approach planned or demonstrated for Mars missions to date, rovers on Mars will probably traverse only a few meters per day. Collecting samples, especially if it involves accurate instrument placement, will be a slow process. Using live teleoperation (such as operating a rover on the Moon from Earth) rovers have traversed more than 1 km in an 8 hour period while also performing science operations, and can be moved much faster when the goal is simply to make the distance. I will review the results of field experiments with planetary surface rovers, concentrating on their successful and problematic performance aspects. This paper will be accompanied by a working demonstration of a prototype planetary surface rover.

  13. Rovers as Geological Helpers for Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Rovers can be used to perform field science on other planetary surfaces and in hostile and dangerous environments on Earth. Rovers are mobility systems for carrying instrumentation to investigate targets of interest and can perform geologic exploration on a distant planet (e.g. Mars) autonomously with periodic command from Earth. For nearby sites (such as the Moon or sites on Earth) rovers can be teleoperated with excellent capabilities. In future human exploration, robotic rovers will assist human explorers as scouts, tool and instrument carriers, and a traverse "buddy". Rovers can be wheeled vehicles, like the Mars Pathfinder Sojourner, or can walk on legs, like the Dante vehicle that was deployed into a volcanic caldera on Mt. Spurr, Alaska. Wheeled rovers can generally traverse slopes as high as 35 degrees, can avoid hazards too big to roll over, and can carry a wide range of instrumentation. More challenging terrain and steeper slopes can be negotiated by walkers. Limitations on rover performance result primarily from the bandwidth and frequency with which data are transmitted, and the accuracy with which the rover can navigate to a new position. Based on communication strategies, power availability, and navigation approach planned or demonstrated for Mars missions to date, rovers on Mars will probably traverse only a few meters per day. Collecting samples, especially if it involves accurate instrument placement, will be a slow process. Using live teleoperation (such as operating a rover on the Moon from Earth) rovers have traversed more than 1 km in an 8 hour period while also performing science operations, and can be moved much faster when the goal is simply to make the distance. I will review the results of field experiments with planetary surface rovers, concentrating on their successful and problematic performance aspects. This paper will be accompanied by a working demonstration of a prototype planetary surface rover.

  14. Compositional diversity and geologic insights of the Aristarchus crater from Moon Mineralogy Mapper data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mustard, J.F.; Pieters, C.M.; Isaacson, P.J.; Head, J.W.; Besse, S.; Clark, R.N.; Klima, R.L.; Petro, N.E.; Staid, M.I.; Sunshine, J.M.; Runyon, C.J.; Tompkins, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) acquired high spatial and spectral resolution data of the Aristarchus Plateau with 140 m/pixel in 85 spectral bands from 0.43 to 3.0 m. The data were collected as radiance and converted to reflectance using the observational constraints and a solar spectrum scaled to the Moon-Sun distance. Summary spectral parameters for the area of mafic silicate 1 and 2 m bands were calculated from the M3 data and used to map the distribution of key units that were then analyzed in detail with the spectral data. This analysis focuses on five key compositional units in the region. (1) The central peaks are shown to be strongly enriched in feldspar and are likely from the upper plagioclase-rich crust of the Moon. (2) The impact melt is compositionally diverse with clear signatures of feldspathic crust, olivine, and glass. (3) The crater walls and ejecta show a high degree of spatial heterogeneity and evidence for massive breccia blocks. (4) Olivine, strongly concentrated on the rim, wall, and exterior of the southeastern quadrant of the crater, is commonly associated the impact melt. (5) There are at least two types of glass deposits observed: pyroclastic glass and impact glass. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Geologic Studies of Planetary Surfaces Using Radar Polarimetric Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Donald B.; Campbell, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Radar is a useful remote sensing tool for studying planetary geology because it is sensitive to the composition, structure, and roughness of the surface and can penetrate some materials to reveal buried terrain. The Arecibo Observatory radar system transmits a single sense of circular polarization, and both senses of circular polarization are received, which allows for the construction of the Stokes polarization vector. From the Stokes vector, daughter products such as the circular polarization ratio, the degree of linear polarization, and linear polarization angle are obtained. Recent polarimetric imaging using Arecibo has included Venus and the Moon. These observations can be compared to radar data for terrestrial surfaces to better understand surface physical properties and regional geologic evolution. For example, polarimetric radar studies of volcanic settings on Venus, the Moon and Earth display some similarities, but also illustrate a variety of different emplacement and erosion mechanisms. Polarimetric radar data provides important information about surface properties beyond what can be obtained from single-polarization radar. Future observations using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar will provide information on roughness, composition and stratigraphy that will support a broader interpretation of surface evolution.

  16. Geologic mapping of the Semipalatinsk region, Eastern Kazakstan, using Landsat Thematic Mapper and spot panchromatic data

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.A.; Berlin, G.L.

    1992-12-31

    This geologic reconnaissance study centers on a 90 by 140 km area about 100 km southwest of Semipalatinsk near the east border of the Kazakstan Republic of the USSR. Semipalatinsk, a regional center for grain growing, and several other cities along the Irtysh River were originally established as fortified outposts by the Russians during the 18th and 19th centuries to contain the indigenous, nomadic Kazak herdsmen. The Kazakstan region remained largely undeveloped until after the 1917 Russian Revolution, when exploration geologists began discovering many large mineral deposits. Today, known resources include coal, copper, iron ore, lead, zinc, and barite; most of these are of national significance. These vast mineral resources have prompted development of many metallurgical and chemical industries in the republic. Despite the extensive exploration for mineral resources in this region, published geologic maps (Nalivkin, 1960; Esenov, 1971; Borovikov, 1972) are all at scales of 1:1,100,000 or smaller, and there are no detailed descriptions of the geology around Semipalatinsk in the open literature. Our preliminary examination of commercial remote-sensing, data indicated that the lithology and structure of this area are extremely varied and complex at all scales -- much more so than that portrayed on the published geologic maps. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to use commercially available remotely sensed data for the area and remotely sensed data obtained for analog study sites, as well as the sparse, sketchy information in the published literature, to better define and map the geologic units (Sheet 1), structure (Sheet 2), and drainage features (Sheet 3) of this area.

  17. Using a Field Experience to Build Understanding of Planetary Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higbie, M.; Treiman, A.; Kiefer, W.; Shipp, S.

    2004-12-01

    In the summer of 2004, the Lunar and Planetary Institute hosted 25 middle- and high-school teachers on a week-long field experience in Idaho and Montana. This workshop mixed field work with classroom experiences and provided educators and scientists the opportunity to interact. The educators investigated deposits associated with Glacial Lake Missoula floods and lava flows in the Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve. The participants applied what they learned about Earth-based processes to develop understanding of processes operating on Mars and the most recent results from NASA's missions to Mars. This was the most recent of five field-based experiences that used Earth-planet comparisons as a basis for experiential learning. These field experiences all are designed to strengthen content knowledge of geologic processes and planetary sciences. Learning geology through fieldwork enables participants to take ownership of the content through real-life experience; in essence, the teacher becomes the student. Establishing deeper knowledge of the content increases their confidence in facilitating inquiry-based science in their own classrooms. In addition to content, the educators are immersed in the process of science. Participants make observations, compile notes and illustrations, debate interpretations, draw conclusions, and communicate findings. Care was taken to separate observations and interpretations to help build an understanding of scientific reasoning. Discussions often involved questions without solutions, or with multiple solutions. While some participants expressed discomfort with these aspects of the nature of science, most were more comfortable with open-ended, inquiry based exploration by the close of the workshop. The field work is coupled with discussion and activities in the classroom. Participants reflected on the field sites and placed them in the context of the geologic history of the region. Observations and interpretations at

  18. A bibliography of planetary geology principal investigators and their associates, 1982 - 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography cites recent publications by principal investigators and their associates, supported through NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications, Earth and Planetary Exploration Division, Planetary Geology Program. It serves as a companion piece to NASA TM-85127, ""Reports of Planetary Programs, 1982". Entries are listed under the following subject areas: solar system, comets, asteroids, meteorites and small bodies; geologic mapping, geomorphology, and stratigraphy; structure, tectonics, and planetary and satellite evolutions; impact craters; volcanism; fluvial, mass wasting, glacial and preglacial studies; Eolian and Arid climate studies; regolith, volatiles, atmosphere, and climate, radar; remote sensing and photometric studies; and cartography, photogrammetry, geodesy, and altimetry. An author index is provided.

  19. A bibliography of planetary geology and geophysics principal investigators and their associates, 1990-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A compilation of selected bibliographic data specifically relating to recent publications submitted by principal investigators and their associates, supported through the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications, Solar System Exploration Division, Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program is presented.

  20. A bibliography of planetary geology and geophysics principal investigators and their associates, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This is a compilation of selected bibliographic data specifically relating to recent publications submitted by principle investigators and their associates, supported through the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications, Solar System Exploration Division, Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program.

  1. A bibliography of planetary geology and geophysics principal investigators and their associates, 1986-1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A compilation is presented of selected bibliographic data relating to recent publications submitted by principal investigators and their associates, supported through NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications, Solar System Exploration Division, Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program

  2. Planetary Geologic Mapping Python Toolbox: A Suite of Tools to Support Mapping Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, M. A.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.; Fortezzo, C. M.

    2017-06-01

    The collective focus of the Planetary Geologic Mapping Python Toolbox is to provide researchers with additional means to migrate legacy GIS data, assess the quality of data and analysis results, and simplify common mapping tasks.

  3. A bibliography of planetary geology and geophysics principal investigators and their associates, 1983 - 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witbeck, N. E. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    A compilation is given of selected bibliographic data specifically relating to recent publications submitted by principle investigators and their associates, supported through NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications, Solar System Exploration Division, Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program. Topics include the solar system, asteroids, volcanoes, stratigraphy, remote sensing, and planetary craters.

  4. The Venus Emissivity Mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbert, Joern; Marcq, Emmanuel; Widemann, Thomas; Mueller, Nils; Kappel, David; Tsang, Constantine; Maturilli, Alessandro; Ferrari, Sabrina; D'Amore, Mario; Dyar, Melinda; Smrekar, Suzanne

    2016-10-01

    The permanent cloud cover of Venus prohibits observations of the surface with traditional imaging techniques over the entire visible spectral range. Fortunately, Venus' atmospheric gases are largely transparent in narrow spectral windows near 1 mm. Ground observers were the first to successfully use these windows, followed by spacecraft observations during the flyby of the Galileo mission on its way to Jupiter and most recently from Venus orbit by ESA's Venus Express with the VMC and VIRTIS instruments. Analyses of VIRTIS measurements have successfully demonstrated that surface information can be extracted from these windows, but the design of the instrument limited its use for more in-depth surface investigations.Based on experience gained from using VIRTIS to observe the surface of Venus and new high temperature laboratory experiments currently performed at the Planetary Spectroscopy Laboratory of DLR, we have designed the multi-spectral Venus Emissivity Mapper (VEM). Observations from VIRTIS have revealed surface emissivity variations correlated with geological features, but existing data sets contain only three spectral channels. VEM is optimized to map the surface composition and texture, and to search for active volcanism using the narrow atmospheric windows, building on lessons from prior instrumentation and methodology. It offers an opportunity to gain important information about surface mineralogy and texture by virtue of having six different channels for surface mapping.VEM is focused mainly on observing the surface, mapping in all near-IR atmospheric windows using filters with spectral characteristics optimized for the wavelengths and widths of those windows. It also observes bands necessary for correcting atmospheric effects; these bands also provide valuable scientific data on composition as well as altitude and size distribution of the cloud particles, and on H2O vapor abundance variations in the lowest 15 km of the atmosphere.In combination with a

  5. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars All Over: Geologic Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles presented in this session include: 1) 'Geology of Noachian Martian Highlands Surrounding the Gusev Crater'; 2) 'The History of Deposition and Nature of Material in Hellas Basin, Mars'; 3) 'Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation on Mars'; 4) 'Geology of the Aram Chaos from MGS-Mars Odyssey Missions and Mars Express HRSC Data'; 5) 'Toward a Comprehensive Stratigraphic Column of Mars'; 6 'The Olympus Mons Aureole Deposits: Constraints on Emplacement Scenarios Based on Remotely Sensed Data'.

  6. Reports of planetary geology program, 1979 - 1980. [bibliographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirth, P.; Greeley, R.; Dalli, R.

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts of 145 reports are compiled addressing the morphology, geochemistry, and stratigraphy of planetary surfaces with some specific examinations of volcanic, aeolian, fluvial, and periglacial processes and landforms. In addition, reports on cartography and remote sensing of planet surfaces are included.

  7. A bibliography of planetary geology principal investigators and their associates, 1981 - 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Over 800 publications submitted by researchers supported through NASA's Planetary Geology Program are cited and an author/editor index is provided. Entries are listed under the following subjects: (1) general interest topics; (2) solar system, comets, asteroids, and small bodies; (3) geologic mapping, geomorphology, and stratigraphy; (4) structure, tectonics, geologic and geophysical evolution; (5) impact craters: morphology, density, and geologic studies; (6) volcanism; (7) fluvial, mass wasting, and periglacial processes; (8) Eolian studies; (9) regolith, volatile, atmosphere, and climate; (10) remote sensing, radar, and photometry; and (11) cartography, photogrammetry, geodesy, and altimetry.

  8. A bibliography of planetary geology principal investigators and their associates, 1979 - 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lettvin, E. (Compiler); Boyce, J. M. (Compiler)

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography cites 698 reports and articles published from May 1979 through May 1980 by principal investigators and associates who received support from NASA's Office of Space Science, as part of the Planetary Geology program. Entries are arranged in the following categories: (1) general interest; (2) solar system, asteroids, comets, and satellites; (3) structure, tectonics, and stratigraphy; (4) regolith and volatiles; (5) volcanism; (6) impact craters; (7) Eolian glacial An author index is provided. The bibliography serves as a companion document to NASA TM 81776, "Reports of Planetary Geology Programs, 1979-1980".

  9. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes, to techniques and instrument development for future exploration.

  10. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1975 - 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Developments in planetology research as reported at the 1976 NASA Planetology Program Principal Investigators' meeting are summarized. Topics range from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes to techniques and instrument development for future exploration.

  11. Application of Interferometric Radars to Planetary Geologic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Rosen, P.; Freeman, A.

    2005-01-01

    Radar interferometry is rapidly becoming one of the major applications of radar systems in Earth orbit. So far the 2000 flight of the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) is the only dedicated U.S. radar to be flown for the collection of interferometric data, but enough has been learned from this mission and from the use of foreign partner radars (ERS-1/2, Radarsat, ENIVISAT and JERS-1) for the potential planetary applications of this technique to be identified. A recent workshop was organized by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), and was held at Oxnard, CA, from October 20th - 22nd, 2004. At this meeting, the major interest was in terrestrial radar systems, but approx. 20 or the approx. 250 attendees also discussed potential applications of interferometric radar for the terrestrial planets. The primary foci were for the detection of planetary water, the search for active tectonism and volcanism and the improved topographic mapping. This abstract provides a summary of these planetary discussions at the Oxnard meeting.

  12. Remote sensing and geologic studies of the planetary crusts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, B. R.

    1983-01-01

    Dark haloed craters and regions of the Moon which were sites of ancient volcanism were remotely sensed as well as KREEP deposits in the Inbrium region. The relationship between geology and geochemistry in the Undarum/Spumans region was also examined. Results are summarized for observations of the Reiner Gamma formation, studies of impact cratering mechanics and processes, spectral variations of asteroidal surfaces, albedo and color variations on Ganymede, and studies of lunar impact structures.

  13. Cooperative research in terrestrial planetary geology and geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This final report for the period of July 1991 to August 1994 covered a variety of topics concerning the study of Earth and Mars. The Earth studies stressed the interpretation of the MAGSAT crustal magnetic anomalies in order to determine the geological structure, mineralogical composition, magnetic nature, and the historical background of submarine features, and also featured work in the area of terrestrial remote sensing. Mars research included the early evolution of the Martian atmosphere and hydrosphere and the investigations of the large Martian impact basins. Detailed summaries of the research is included, along with lists of the publications resulting from this research.

  14. Conduct of Geologic Field Work During Planetary Exploration: Why Geology Matters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2010-01-01

    The science of field geology is the investigative process of determining the distribution of rock units and structures on a planet s surface, and it is the first order data set that informs all subsequent studies of a planet, such as geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics or remote sensing. These allied sciences, as important as they are, derive the basis of their understanding from the knowledge of the geology of a given location. When we go back to the Moon, and on to Mars, the surface systems we deploy will need to support the conduct of field geology if these endeavors are to be scientifically useful. This lecture will consider what field geology is about - why it s important, how we do it, how the conduct of field geology informs many other sciences, and how it will affect the design of surface systems and implementation of operations in the future.

  15. NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Undergraduate Research Program (PGGURP): The Value of Undergraduate Geoscience Internships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, T. K.

    2008-12-01

    NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program began funding PGGURP in 1978, in an effort to help planetary scientists deal with what was then seen as a flood of Viking Orbiter data. Each subsequent year, PGGURP has paired 8 - 15 undergraduates with NASA-funded Principal Investigators (PIs) around the country for approximately 8 weeks during the summer. Unlike other internship programs, the students are not housed together, but are paired, one-on-one, with a PI at his or her home institution. PGGURP interns have worked at sites ranging from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Through NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, the interns' travel and lodging costs are covered, as are a cost-of-living stipend. Approximately 30% of the undergraduate PGGURP participants continue on to graduate school in the planetary sciences. We consider this to be an enormous success, because the participants are among the best and brightest undergraduates in the country with a wide range of declared majors (e.g., physics, chemistry, biology, as well as geology). Furthermore, those students that do continue tend to excel, and point to the internship as a turning point in their scientific careers. The NASA PIs who serve as mentors agree that this is a valuable experience for them, too, and many of them have been hosting interns annually for well over a decade. The PI obtains enthusiastic and intelligent undergraduate, free of charge, for a summer, while having the opportunity to work closely with today's students who are the future of planetary science. The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in Houston, TX, also sponsors a summer undergraduate internship. Approximately 12 students are selected to live together in apartments located near the Lunar and Planetary Institute and the Johnson Space Center. Similar to PGGURP, the LPI interns are carefully selected to work one-on-one for ~10 weeks during the summer with one of the LPI staff scientists

  16. Volcanism of the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho: A comparative planetary geology-guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; King, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The Planetary Geology Field Conference on the central Snake River Plain was conceived and developed to accomplish several objectives. Primarily, field conferences are sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to draw attention to aspects of terrestrial geology that appear to be important in interpreting the origin and evolution of extraterrestrial planetary surfaces. Another aspect is to present results of recent research in a region. A final objective of this conference is to bring together investigators of diverse backgrounds who share a common interest in the Snake River Plain. The Snake River Plain appears to be similar in surface morphology to many volcanic regions on the Moon, Mars, and possibly Mercury. Therefore, the Snake River Plain, in combination with the relatively good state of preservation, the lack of forests or other heavy vegetation, and the good network of jeep trails, is an area nearly ideal for analog studies.

  17. Research in volcanic geology, petrology and planetary science at MIT, 1969 to 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgetchin, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    The behavior of volcanoes was studied by geologic mapping, petrologic investigations of lava and xenoliths, physical measurements, and theoretical modelling. Field observations were conducted in Alaska (Nunivak Island), Iceland, Hawaii (Mauna Kea), Italy (Etna, Stromboli), and Arizona. The results are discussed and compared with known data for lunar and planetary gelogy. Field methods used for the volcano research are cited and a list is given of all participating scientists and students. Publications and abstracts resulting from the research are also listed.

  18. Conduct of Geologic Field Work During Planetary Exploration: Why Geology Matters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2010-01-01

    The science of field geology is the investigative process of determining the distribution of rock units and structures on a planet fs surface, and it is the first-order data set that informs all subsequent studies of a planet, such as geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics, or remote sensing. For future missions to the Moon and Mars, the surface systems deployed must support the conduct of field geology if these endeavors are to be scientifically useful. This lecture discussed what field geology is all about.why it is important, how it is done, how conducting field geology informs many other sciences, and how it affects the design of surface systems and the implementation of operations in the future.

  19. Preliminary Geologic/spectral Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data, Wind River/bighorn Basin Area, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, H. R.; Conel, J. E.; Paylor, E. D.

    1984-01-01

    A LIDQA evaluation for geologic applications of a LANDSAT TM scene covering the Wind River/Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming, is examined. This involves a quantitative assessment of data quality including spatial and spectral characteristics. Analysis is concentrated on the 6 visible, near infrared, and short wavelength infrared bands. Preliminary analysis demonstrates that: (1) principal component images derived from the correlation matrix provide the most useful geologic information. To extract surface spectral reflectance, the TM radiance data must be calibrated. Scatterplots demonstrate that TM data can be calibrated and sensor response is essentially linear. Low instrumental offset and gain settings result in spectral data that do not utilize the full dynamic range of the TM system.

  20. Examining Volcanic Terrains Using In Situ Geochemical Technologies; Implications for Planetary Field Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Evans, C. A.; Rogers, A. D.; Ito, G.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Gendreau, K.

    2015-01-01

    Regardless of the target destination for the next manned planetary mission, the crew will require technology with which to select samples for return to Earth. The six Apollo lunar surface missions crews had only the tools to enable them to physically pick samples up off the surface or from a boulder and store those samples for return to the Lunar Module and eventually to Earth. Sample characterization was dependent upon visual inspection and relied upon their extensive geology training. In the four decades since Apollo however, great advances have been made in traditionally laboratory-based instrument technologies that enable miniaturization to a field-portable configuration. The implications of these advancements extend past traditional terrestrial field geology and into planetary surface exploration. With tools that will allow for real-time geochemical analysis, an astronaut can better develop a series of working hypotheses that are testable during surface science operations. One such technology is x-ray fluorescence (XRF). Traditionally used in a laboratory configuration, these instruments have now been developed and marketed commercially in a field-portable mode. We examine this technology in the context of geologic sample analysis and discuss current and future plans for instrument deployment. We also discuss the development of the Chromatic Mineral Identification and Surface Texture (CMIST) instrument at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Testing is taking place in conjunction with the RIS4E (Remote, In Situ, and Synchrotron Studies for Science and Exploration) SSERVI (Solar System Exploration and Research Virtual Institute) team activities, including field testing at Kilauea Volcano, HI..

  1. Tour Through the Solar System: A Hands-On Planetary Geology Course for High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, S. B.; Gillis-Davis, J. J.

    2011-09-01

    We have developed a course in planetary geology for high school students, the primary goals of which are to help students learn how to learn, to reduce the fear and anxiety associated with learning science and math, and to encourage an interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Our emphasis in this course is on active learning in a learner-centered environment. All students scored significantly higher on the post-knowledge survey compared with the pre-knowledge survey, and there is a good correlation between the post-knowledge survey and the final exam. Student evaluations showed an increased interest in STEM fields as a result of this course.

  2. Field geologic observation and sample collection strategies for planetary surface exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS geologist crewmembers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, José M.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W.

    2013-10-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic fieldwork, the Desert RATS (Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crewmembers who participated in the 2010 field test. We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies related to duplication of samples and observations; logistical constraints on the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to "flexibly execute" their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  3. Tools and Technologies Needed for Conducting Planetary Field Geology While On EVA: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS Geologist Crewmembers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Kelsey; Hurtado, Jose M., Jr.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Bleisath, Scott; Buffington, Jesse; Rice, James W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic fieldwork, the Desert RATS (Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crewmembers who participated in the 2010 field test. We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies related to duplication of samples and observations; logistical constraints on the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to "flexibly execute" their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  4. Field Geologic Observation and Sample Collection Strategies for Planetary Surface Exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS Geologist Crewmembers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurtado, Jose M., Jr.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic field- work, the Desert RATS(Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crew members who participated in the 2010 field test.We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies relatedtoduplicationofsamplesandobservations;logisticalconstraintson the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to flexibly execute their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  5. Scannerless terrain mapper

    SciTech Connect

    Sackos, J.; Bradley, B.; Diegert, C.; Ma, P.; Gary, C.

    1996-09-01

    NASA-Ames Research Center, in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories, is developing a Scannerless Terrain Mapper (STM) for autonomous vehicle guidance through the use of virtual reality. The STM sensor is based on an innovative imaging optical radar technology that is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories. The sensor uses active flood-light scene illumination and an image intensified CCD camera receiver to rapidly produce and record very high quality range imagery of observed scenes. The STM is an all solid-state device (containing no moving parts) and offers significant size, performance, reliability, simplicity, and affordability advantages over other types of 3-D sensor technologies, such as scanned laser radar, stereo vision, and structured lighting. The sensor is based on low cost, commercially available hardware, and is very well suited for affordable application to a wide variety of military and commercial uses, including: munition guidance, target recognition, robotic vision, automated inspection, driver enhanced vision, collision avoidance, site security and monitoring, and facility surveying. This paper reviews the sensor technology, discusses NASA`s terrain mapping applications, and presents results from the initial testing of the sensor at NASA`s planetary landscape simulator.

  6. Scannerless terrain mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sackos, John T.; Bradley, Bart D.; Diegert, Carl F.; Ma, Paul W.; Gary, Charles K.

    1996-10-01

    NASA-Ames Research Center, in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories, is developing a scannerless terrain mapper (STM) for autonomous vehicle guidance through the use of virtual reality. The STM sensor is based on an innovative imaging optical radar technology that is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories. The sensor uses active flood- light scene illumination and an image intensified CCD camera receiver to rapidly produce and record very high quality range imagery of observed scenes. The STM is an all solid- state device (containing no moving parts) and offers significant size, performance, reliability, simplicity, and affordability advantages over other types of 3-D sensor technologies, such as scanned laser radar, stereo vision, and structured lighting. The sensor is based on low cost, commercially available hardware, and is very well suited for affordable application to a wide variety of military and commercial uses, including: munition guidance, target recognition, robotic vision, automated inspection, driver enhanced vision, collision avoidance, site security and monitoring, and facility surveying. This paper reviews the sensor technology, discusses NASA's terrain mapping applications, and presents results from the initial testing of the sensor at NASA's planetary landscape simulator.

  7. Field/Lab Training Workshops in Planetary Geology and Astrobiology for Secondary School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, A.; Newsom, H.; Hoehler, T.; Tsairides, C.; Karlstrom, K.; Crossey, L.; Kiefer, W.; Kadel, S.; Garcia-Pichel, F.; Aubele, J.; Crumpler, L.

    2003-12-01

    Thematic field-lab-classroom workshops can be successful in training secondary teachers in planetary geology and astrobiology, from the LPI's 4 years experience. A typical workshop includes ˜4 days of field study and ˜3 days of related classroom/lab lectures and exercises. Up to 30 teachers have participated at once, and the staff averages 5 researchers and educators. The 2003 workshop, The Great Desert, focused on geology and life in the Colorado Plateau as analogs for Mars. Specific emphases were on geologic processes exemplified in the Grand Canyon, Sunset Crater and Meteor Crater, and on biotic communities in desert soils and hot springs. The classroom portion, hosted by UNM, included lectures, lab work, and teaching exercises keyed to the field experience and its extensions to Mars. Formal followups: non-directive exit questionnaires; email list-serves for participants; websites with images, presentations, and exercises from the workshop, and links to related materials (e.g., http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/EPO/yellowstone2002/index.html); and interviews for six-month retrospective. Graduate and continuing education credit are available. Past workshops, all relevant to Mars, have targeted: geology and extremophiles of Yellowstone NP, geology of the Cascade volcanos; and giant floods and lava flows of central Washington. The greatest benefit of this workshop format is the teachers' intense, deep experience, emphasizing scientific content. They learn from field, classroom, and laboratory perspectives, and work with PhD level researchers who contribute their excitement, demonstrate and teach critical thought processes, and provide authoritative background and answers. The small group size permits personal interactions (among teachers and presenters) that complement each other's understanding and appreciation of the subject. They log ˜65 contact hours with the staff, in small groups or one-on-one. Teachers return to the classroom with personal experiences

  8. Geologic Mapping of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Katherine H.

    1998-05-01

    Planetary geologic mapping involves integrating a terrestrial-based understanding of surface and subsurface processes and mapping principles to investigate scientific questions. Mars mappers must keep in mind that physical processes, such as wind and flowing water on Mars, are or were different from terrestrial processes because the planetary atmospheres have changed differently over time. Geologic mapping of Mars has traditionally been done by hand using overlays on photomosaics of Viking Orbiter and Mariner images. Photoclinometry and shadow measurements have been used to determine elevations, and the distribution and size of craters have been used to determine the relative ages of surfaces- more densely cratered surfaces are older. Some mappers are now using computer software (ranging from Photoshop to ArcInfo) to facilitate mapping, though their applications must be carefully executed so that registration of the images remains true. Images and some mapping results are now available on the internet, and new data from recent missions to Mars (Pathfinder and Surveyor) will offer clarifying information to mapping efforts. This paper consists chiefly of pictures and diagrams.

  9. Comparing Geologic Data Sets Collected by Planetary Analog Traverses and by Standard Geologic Field Mapping: Desert Rats Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Wanda; Evans, Cynthia; Gruener, John; Eppler, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Geologic mapping involves interpreting relationships between identifiable units and landforms to understand the formative history of a region. Traditional field techniques are used to accomplish this on Earth. Mapping proves more challenging for other planets, which are studied primarily by orbital remote sensing and, less frequently, by robotic and human surface exploration. Systematic comparative assessments of geologic maps created by traditional mapping versus photogeology together with data from planned traverses are limited. The objective of this project is to produce a geologic map from data collected on the Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) 2010 analog mission using Apollo-style traverses in conjunction with remote sensing data. This map is compared with a geologic map produced using standard field techniques.

  10. Internet protocol network mapper

    SciTech Connect

    Youd, David W.; Colon III, Domingo R.; Seidl, Edward T.

    2016-02-23

    A network mapper for performing tasks on targets is provided. The mapper generates a map of a network that specifies the overall configuration of the network. The mapper inputs a procedure that defines how the network is to be mapped. The procedure specifies what, when, and in what order the tasks are to be performed. Each task specifies processing that is to be performed for a target to produce results. The procedure may also specify input parameters for a task. The mapper inputs initial targets that specify a range of network addresses to be mapped. The mapper maps the network by, for each target, executing the procedure to perform the tasks on the target. The results of the tasks represent the mapping of the network defined by the initial targets.

  11. The U.S. Geological Survey Flagstaff Science Campus—Providing expertise on planetary science, ecology, water resources, geologic processes, and human interactions with the Earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, Robert J.; Vaughan, R. Greg; McDougall, Kristin; Wojtowicz, Todd; Thenkenbail, Prasad

    2017-06-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Flagstaff Science Campus is focused on interdisciplinary study of the Earth and solar system, and has the scientific expertise to detect early environmental changes and provide strategies to minimize possible adverse effects on humanity. The Flagstaff Science Campus (FSC) is located in Flagstaff, Arizona, which is situated in the northern part of the State, home to a wide variety of landscapes and natural resources, including (1) young volcanoes in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, (2) the seven ecological life zones of the San Francisco Peaks, (3) the extensive geologic record of the Colorado Plateau and Grand Canyon, (4) the Colorado River and its perennial, ephemeral, and intermittent tributaries, and (5) a multitude of canyons, mountains, arroyos, and plains. More than 200 scientists, technicians, and support staff provide research, monitoring, and technical advancements in planetary geology and mapping, biology and ecology, Earth-based geology, hydrology, and changing climate and landscapes. Scientists at the FSC work in collaboration with multiple State, Federal, Tribal, municipal, and academic partners to address regional, national, and global environmental issues, and provide scientific outreach to the general public.

  12. Modeling shear zones in geological and planetary sciences: solid- and fluid-thermal-mechanical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Yuen, D. A.

    2003-11-01

    Shear zones are the most ubiquitous features observed in planetary surfaces. They appear as a jagged network of faults at the observable brittle surface of planets and, in geological exposures of deeper rocks, they turn into smoothly braided networks of localized shear displacement leaving centimeter wide bands of "mylonitized", reduced grain sizes behind. The overall size of the entire shear network rarely exceeds kilometer scale at depth. Although mylonitic shear zones are only visible to the observer, when uplifted and exposed at the surface, they govern the mechanical behavior of the strongest part of the lithosphere below 10-15 km depth. Mylonitic shear zones dissect plates, thus allowing plate tectonics to develop on the Earth. We review the basic multiscale physics underlying mylonitic, ductile shear zone nucleation, growth and longevity and show that grain size reduction is a symptomatic cause but not necessarily the main reason for localization. We also discuss a framework for analytic and numerical modeling including the effects of thermal-mechanical couplings, thermal-elasticity, the influence of water and void-volatile feedback. The physics of ductile shear zones relies on feedback processes that turn a macroscopically homogenously deforming body into a heterogeneously slipping solid medium. Positive feedback can amplify strength heterogeneities by cascading through different scales. We define basic, intrinsic length scales of strength heterogeneity such as those associated with plasticity, grain size, fluid-inclusion and thermal diffusion length scale. For an understanding ductile shear zones we need to consider the energetics of deformation. Shear heating introduces a jerky flow phenomenon potentially accompanied by ductile earthquakes. Additional focusing due to grain size reduction only operates for a narrow parameter range of cooling rates. For the long time scale, deformational energy stored inside the shear zone through plastic dilation or

  13. Estuary Data Mapper (EDM)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Estuary Data Mapper is a tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for any of the approximately 2,000 estuaries and associated watersheds in along the five US coastal regions

  14. Moon Mapper Looks Homeward

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-03

    NASA Moon Minerology Mapper, a guest instrument onboard the Indian Space Research Organization Chandrayaan-1 mission to the moon, looks homeward. Australia is visible in the lower center of the image.

  15. NASA Moon Mineralogy Mapper

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-12-17

    Different wavelengths of light provide new information about the Orientale Basin region of the moon in a composite image taken by NASA Moon Mineralogy Mapper, a guest instrument aboard the Indian Space Research Organization Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft.

  16. Planetary maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    An important goal of the USGS planetary mapping program is to systematically map the geology of the Moon, Mars, Venus, and Mercury, and the satellites of the outer planets. These geologic maps are published in the USGS Miscellaneous Investigations (I) Series. Planetary maps on sale at the USGS include shaded-relief maps, topographic maps, geologic maps, and controlled photomosaics. Controlled photomosaics are assembled from two or more photographs or images using a network of points of known latitude and longitude. The images used for most of these planetary maps are electronic images, obtained from orbiting television cameras, various optical-mechanical systems. Photographic film was only used to map Earth's Moon.

  17. Geologic Interpretation of Data Sets Collected by Planetary Analog Geology Traverses and by Standard Geologic Field Mapping. Part 1; A Comparison Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Bleacher, Jacob F.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Feng, Wanda; Gruener, John; Hurwitz, Debra M.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Whitson, Peggy; Janoiko, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Geologic maps integrate the distributions, contacts, and compositions of rock and sediment bodies as a means to interpret local to regional formative histories. Applying terrestrial mapping techniques to other planets is challenging because data is collected primarily by orbiting instruments, with infrequent, spatiallylimited in situ human and robotic exploration. Although geologic maps developed using remote data sets and limited "Apollo-style" field access likely contain inaccuracies, the magnitude, type, and occurrence of these are only marginally understood. This project evaluates the interpretative and cartographic accuracy of both field- and remote-based mapping approaches by comparing two 1:24,000 scale geologic maps of the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF), north-central Arizona. The first map is based on traditional field mapping techniques, while the second is based on remote data sets, augmented with limited field observations collected during NASA Desert Research & Technology Studies (RATS) 2010 exercises. The RATS mission used Apollo-style methods not only for pre-mission traverse planning but also to conduct geologic sampling as part of science operation tests. Cross-comparison demonstrates that the Apollo-style map identifies many of the same rock units and determines a similar broad history as the field-based map. However, field mapping techniques allow markedly improved discrimination of map units, particularly unconsolidated surficial deposits, and recognize a more complex eruptive history than was possible using Apollo-style data. Further, the distribution of unconsolidated surface units was more obvious in the remote sensing data to the field team after conducting the fieldwork. The study raises questions about the most effective approach to balancing mission costs with the rate of knowledge capture, suggesting that there is an inflection point in the "knowledge capture curve" beyond which additional resource investment yields progressively

  18. EPA Recovery Mapper

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Recovery Mapper is an Internet interactive mapping application that allows users to discover information about every American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) award that EPA has funded for six programs. By integrating data reported by the recipients of Recovery Act funding and data created by EPA, this application delivers a level of transparency and public accessibility to users interested in EPA's use of Recovery Act monies. The application is relatively easy to use and builds on the same mapping model as Google, Bing, MapQuest and other commonly used mapping interfaces. EPA Recovery Mapper tracks each award made by each program and gives basic Quick Facts information for each award including award name, location, award date, dollar amounts and more. Data Summaries for each EPA program or for each state are provided displaying dollars for Total Awarded, Total Received (Paid), and Total Jobs This Quarter by Recovery for the latest quarter of data released by Recovery.gov. The data are reported to the government and EPA four times a year by the award recipients. The latest quarterly report will always be displayed in the EPA Recovery Mapper. In addition, the application provides many details about each award. Users will learn more about how to access and interpret these data later in this document. Data shown in the EPA Recovery Mapper are derived from information reported back to FederalReporting.gov from the recipients of Recovery Act funding. EPA

  19. MyEnviroMapper

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EnviroMapper for Envirofacts is a single point of access to select U.S. EPA environmental data. This Web site provides access to several EPA databases to provide you with information about environmental activities that may affect air, water, and l

  20. Sapping Features of the Colorado Plateau: a Comparative Planetary Geology Field Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Alan D. (Editor); Kochel, R. Craig (Editor); Holt, Henry E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    This book is an attempt to determine geomorphic criteria to be used to distinguish between channels formed predominantly by sapping and seepage erosion and those formed principally by surface runoff processes. The geologic nature of the Colorado Plateau has resulted in geomorphic features that show similarities to some areas on Mars, especially certain valley networks within thick sandstone formations. Where spring sapping is an effective process, the valleys that develop are unique in terms of their morphology and network pattern.

  1. Conducting Planetary Field Geology on EVA: Lessons from the 2010 DRATS Geologist Crewmembers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Kelsey E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Hurtado, J. M., Jr.; Rice, J.; Garry, W. B.; Eppler, D.

    2011-01-01

    In order to prepare for the next phase of planetary surface exploration, the Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) field program seeks to test the next generation of technology needed to explore other surfaces. The 2010 DRATS 14-day field campaign focused on the simultaneous operation of two habitatable rovers, or Space Exploration Vehicles (SEVs). Each rover was crewed by one astronaut/commander and one geologist, with a change in crews on day seven of the mission. This shift change allowed for eight crew members to test the DRATS technology and operational protocols [1,2]. The insights presented in this abstract represent the crew s thoughts on lessons learned from this field season, as well as potential future testing concepts.

  2. Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region’s geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  3. Neodymium diffusion in orthopyroxene: Experimental studies and applications to geological and planetary problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Jennifer; Ganguly, Jibamitra; Hervig, Richard; Dohmen, Ralf; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2011-08-01

    We have determined the Nd 3+ diffusion kinetics in natural enstatite crystals as a function of temperature, f(O 2) and crystallographic direction at 1 bar pressure and applied these data to several terrestrial and planetary problems. The diffusion is found to be anisotropic with the diffusion parallel to the c-axial direction being significantly greater than that parallel to a- and b-axis. Also, D(// a) is likely to be somewhat greater than D(// b). Diffusion experiments parallel to the b-axial direction as a function of f(O 2) do not show a significant dependence of D(Nd 3+) on f(O 2) within the range defined by the IW buffer and 1.5 log unit above the WM buffer. The observed diffusion anisotropy and weak f(O 2) effect on D(Nd 3+) may be understood by considering the crystal structure of enstatite and the likely diffusion pathways. Using the experimental data for D(Nd 3+), we calculated the closure temperature of the Sm-Nd geochronological system in enstatite during cooling as a function of cooling rate, grain size and geometry, initial (peak) temperature and diffusion direction. We have also evaluated the approximate domain of validity of closure temperatures calculated on the basis of an infinite plane sheet model for finite plane sheets showing anisotropic diffusion. These results provide a quantitative framework for the interpretation of Sm-Nd mineral ages of orthopyroxene in planetary samples. We discuss the implications of our experimental data to the problems of melting and subsolidus cooling of mantle rocks, and the resetting of Sm-Nd mineral ages in mesosiderites. It is found that a cooling model proposed earlier [Ganguly J., Yang H., Ghose S., 1994. Thermal history of mesosiderites: Quantitative constraints from compositional zoning and Fe-Mg ordering in orthopyroxene. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58, 2711-2723] could lead to the observed ˜90 Ma difference between the U-Pb age and Sm-Nd mineral age for mesosiderites, thus obviating the need for a model of

  4. Ground Penetrating Radar Field Studies of Planetary Analog Geologic Settings: Impact Ejecta, Volcanics, and Fluvial Terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, P. S.; Grant, J. A.; Carter, L. M.; Garry, W.; Williams, K. K.; Morgan, G. A.; Daubar, I.; Bussey, B.

    2012-12-01

    Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) data from terrestrial analog environments can help constrain models for evolution of the lunar and martian surfaces, aid in interpretation of orbital SAR data, and help predict what might be encountered in the subsurface during future landed scientific or engineering operations. Results and interpretations presented here from impact ejecta (Barringer Meteorite Crater), volcanic deposits (Northern Arizona cinders overlying lavas, columnar-jointed Columbia River flood basalts, Hawaii lava flows), and terrains influenced by fluvial-related activity (channeled scablands megaflood bar, Mauna Kea glacio-fluvial deposits) focus on defining the radar "fingerprint" of geologic materials and settings that may be analogous to those found on the Moon and Mars. The challenge in using GPR in geologic investigations is the degree to which different geologic features and processes can be uniquely identified and distinguished in the data. Our approach to constraining this is to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize GPR signatures of different geological environments and to compare them with "ground-truth" observations of subsurface exposures immediately adjacent or subjacent to our GPR transects. Several sites were chosen in each field area based on accessibility, visual access to the subsurface, and presence of particular geologic features of interest. The interpreted distribution of blocks in impact ejecta at Meteor Crater, using a 400 MHz antenna (wavelength of 75 cm) is 1.5-3 blocks per m^3 in the upper 1 m (and 0.5-1 blocks per m^3 in the upper two meters), which is close to the in situ measured block distribution of 2-3 blocks larger than 0.25-0.30 m per m^3. This is roughly the detection limit to be expected from the λ/3 resolution approximation of radar wavelength and indicates that the 400 MHz GPR is characterizing the block population in ejecta. While megaflood bar deposits are also reflector-rich, individual reflectors are in

  5. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, John M.

    1987-01-01

    LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) images were used to produce improved geologic maps of the ophiolites of the Brooks Range, and to recognize regional-scale structures that might affect the spatial distribution of the ophiolites. From the TM data, significant information was obtained concerning the distribution of rock types and structures that could not easily be acquired with conventional geologic studies. The information obtained from the TM data, in combination with other geologic data, is being used to further the understanding of the tectonic evolution of the Brooks Range. Results of the work in the Maiyumerak Mountains area are used to illustrate the information being obtained with the LANDSAT TM data, and the way that the information is being integrated with other geologic data.

  6. Planetary Surface Instruments Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Charles (Editor); Treiman, Allan H. (Editor); Kostiuk, Theodor (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This report on planetary surface investigations and planetary landers covers: (1) the precise chemical analysis of solids; (2) isotopes and evolved gas analyses; (3) planetary interiors; planetary atmospheres from within as measured by landers; (4) mineralogical examination of extraterrestrial bodies; (5) regoliths; and (6) field geology/processes.

  7. Modeling pN2 through Geological Time: Implications for Planetary Climates and Atmospheric Biosignatures.

    PubMed

    Stüeken, E E; Kipp, M A; Koehler, M C; Schwieterman, E W; Johnson, B; Buick, R

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen is a major nutrient for all life on Earth and could plausibly play a similar role in extraterrestrial biospheres. The major reservoir of nitrogen at Earth's surface is atmospheric N2, but recent studies have proposed that the size of this reservoir may have fluctuated significantly over the course of Earth's history with particularly low levels in the Neoarchean-presumably as a result of biological activity. We used a biogeochemical box model to test which conditions are necessary to cause large swings in atmospheric N2 pressure. Parameters for our model are constrained by observations of modern Earth and reconstructions of biomass burial and oxidative weathering in deep time. A 1-D climate model was used to model potential effects on atmospheric climate. In a second set of tests, we perturbed our box model to investigate which parameters have the greatest impact on the evolution of atmospheric pN2 and consider possible implications for nitrogen cycling on other planets. Our results suggest that (a) a high rate of biomass burial would have been needed in the Archean to draw down atmospheric pN2 to less than half modern levels, (b) the resulting effect on temperature could probably have been compensated by increasing solar luminosity and a mild increase in pCO2, and (c) atmospheric oxygenation could have initiated a stepwise pN2 rebound through oxidative weathering. In general, life appears to be necessary for significant atmospheric pN2 swings on Earth-like planets. Our results further support the idea that an exoplanetary atmosphere rich in both N2 and O2 is a signature of an oxygen-producing biosphere. Key Words: Biosignatures-Early Earth-Planetary atmospheres. Astrobiology 16, 949-963.

  8. Numerical Models in Planetary Geology - Specifics of One-Plate Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, Doris; Wünnemann, Kai; Spohn, Tilman

    2015-04-01

    Impact craters, volcanic constructs and compressional and extensional fracture zones are typical landforms found on terrestrial planets. Features characteristic of plate-tectonics like on Earth are generally lacking. An exception are the surfaces of Ganymede and perhaps Europa where indications of lateral displacements of surface units have been observed. Planetary geologists modeling tectonic features often resort to studies of features on Earth such as Graben formation of which Valles Marineris on Mars is a giant example or shield volcanoes where Olympus Mons is another giant example. Scaling laws can be used, for instance for shield volcanoes to relate their height and base diameter to the value of the planet's gravity. More specific for numerical modeling of landforms on terrestrial planets is the formation of impact craters, which can be more easily studied on airless bodies or planets of low atmospheric pressure such as Mercury, the Moon, and Mars. Impact modeling relates crater diameters and morphology to the size and mass of the impactor. Very large impacts may even be affecting the mantles and cores and have been modeled, for instance, to study the heating and melting of a planet's deep interior. The giant impact hypothesis for the formation of Earth's moon has been tested by modeling. Such studies have only been possible due to significant improvements of so-called hydrocodes over the last couple of decades, specifically in terms of material modeling. The consideration of elastic-plastic material behavior taking ductile and brittle deformation, fracturing, and the compaction and opening of pore space into account was recognized to be key for a better understanding of impact crater formation. As a consequence of the advancements in material modeling the classic term "hydrocode" is actually no longer justified and is now often replaced by the term "shock physics code". Another tectonic feature that is more specific to terrestrial planets are lobate scarps

  9. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Images of the Andes as a Classroom Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Arthur L.; Fox, Andrew N.

    1990-01-01

    Described is the use of Thematic Mapper images in undergraduate geology instruction. The work of the Andes Project at Cornell University is discussed. Digitally enhanced illustrations of landforms in the Andes mountains of South America are provided. (CW)

  10. Eyesafe laser cloud mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodall, Milton A., II; Minch, J. R.; Nunez, J.; Keeter, Howard S.; Johnson, Anthony M.

    1990-07-01

    The performance of eyesafe erbium:glass lasers operating at a wavelength of 1. 54 urn has been tested under various natural and manmade obscurants. To obtain the maximum amount of information two distinct system configurations were employed. The first a laser cloud mapper was designed to provide a direct depth profile of smoke density and reflectivity as well as target position. The second configuration was a production military laser rangefinder. It is representative of systems currently incorporated in tactical armored vehicles and was used to provide a direct indication of target range. 1.

  11. Planetary Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Batson, Raymond M.

    2007-02-01

    Preface; List of contributors; 1. Introduction R. Greeley and R. M. Batson; 2. History of planetary cartography R. M. Batson, E. A. Whitaker and D. E. Wilhelms; 3. Cartography R. M. Batson; 4. Planetary nomenclature M. E. Strobell and H. Masursky; 5. Geodetic control M. E. Davies; 6. Topographic mapping S. S. C. Wu and F. J. Doyle; 7. Geologic mapping D. E. Wilhelms; Appendices R. M. Batson and J. L. Inge; Index.

  12. Cryovolcanic features on Titan's surface as revealed by the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, R.M.C.; Mitchell, K.L.; Stofan, E.R.; Lunine, J.I.; Lorenz, R.; Paganelli, F.; Kirk, R.L.; Wood, C.A.; Wall, S.D.; Robshaw, L.E.; Fortes, A.D.; Neish, C.D.; Radebaugh, J.; Reffet, E.; Ostro, S.J.; Elachi, C.; Allison, M.D.; Anderson, Y.; Boehmer, R.; Boubin, G.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Janssen, M.A.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.O.; Ori, G.; Orosei, R.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.E.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Soderblom, L.A.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.D.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper obtained Synthetic Aperture Radar images of Titan's surface during four fly-bys during the mission's first year. These images show that Titan's surface is very complex geologically, showing evidence of major planetary geologic processes, including cryovolcanism. This paper discusses the variety of cryovolcanic features identified from SAR images, their possible origin, and their geologic context. The features which we identify as cryovolcanic in origin include a large (180 km diameter) volcanic construct (dome or shield), several extensive flows, and three calderas which appear to be the source of flows. The composition of the cryomagma on Titan is still unknown, but constraints on rheological properties can be estimated using flow thickness. Rheological properties of one flow were estimated and appear inconsistent with ammonia-water slurries, and possibly more consistent with ammonia-water-methanol slurries. The extent of cryovolcanism on Titan is still not known, as only a small fraction of the surface has been imaged at sufficient resolution. Energetic considerations suggest that cryovolcanism may have been a dominant process in the resurfacing of Titan. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc.

  13. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Topics discussed include: (1) Martian global tectonics; (2) the origin and evolution of a circular and an irregular lunar mare; (3) stratigraphy of Oceanus Procellarum basalts: sources and styles of emplacement; (4) the tectonic evolution of the Oceanus Procellarum Basin; (5) charting the Southern Seas: the evolution of the Lunar Mare Australe; (6) the stratigraphy of Mare Imbrium; and (7) Storms and rains: a comparison of the Lunar Mare Imbrium and Oceanus Procellarum.

  14. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Three dissertations are provided covering (1) the stochastic evolution of asteroidal regoliths and the origin of brecciated and gas-rich meteorites; (2) ridge systems on Mars; and (3) the morphology and evolution of Ganymede and Callisto.

  15. Lithologic mapping using Landsat thematic mapper data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Salisbury, J.W.; Jones, O.D.; Mimms, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM), with its new near infrared bands centered at 1.65 μm and 2.20 μm and spatial resolution of 30 m has been used to distinguish rocks containing minerals having ferric-iron absorption bands in the visible and near-infrared and Al-O- and CO3 absorption bands in the 2.1-2.4 μm regions. On the basis of characteristic absorption bands, digitally processed TM data were used to differentiate vegetated from non-vegetated areas, limonitic from nonlimonitic rocks, rocks containing minerals having absorption bands in the near-infrared region from rocks lacking infrared absorption bands. Specific minerals were detected in both the humid eastern and semi-arid western United States. The absorption bands in the near-infrared region were used to detect kaolinite in open-pit exposures of a kaolin mining district near Macon, Georgia; calcium carbonate in the back sands along the east coast of Floridia; and kaolinite, alunite, jarosite, sericite and gypsum in natural exposures near Boulder City, Nevada. These results show that the additional spectral bands in the near-infrared region and increased spatial resolution of the Thematic Mapper provide a valuable tool for distinguishing several significant geologic materials not distinguishable from space using previous imaging systems. They also show that TM data can be successfully used in a variety of geologic environments.

  16. Geological interpretation and analysis of surface based, spatially referenced planetary imagery data using PRoGIS 2.0 and Pro3D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R.; Gupta, S.; Giordano, M.; Morley, J. G.; Muller, J. P.; Tao, Y.; Sprinks, J.; Traxler, C.; Hesina, G.; Ortner, T.; Sander, K.; Nauschnegg, B.; Paar, G.; Willner, K.; Pajdla, T.

    2015-10-01

    We apply the capabilities of the geospatial environment PRoGIS 2.0 and the real time rendering viewer PRo3D to geological analysis of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover-B (MER-B Opportunity rover) and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL Curiosity rover) datasets. Short baseline and serendipitous long baseline stereo Pancam rover imagery are used to create 3D point clouds which can be combined with super-resolution images derived from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter HiRISE orbital data, andsuper-resolution outcrop images derived from MER Pancam, as well as hand-lens scale images for geology and outcrop characterization at all scales. Data within the PRoViDE database are presented and accessed through the PRoGIS interface. Simple geological measurement tools are implemented within the PRoGIS and PRo3D web software to accurately measure the dip and strike of bedding in outcrops, create detailed stratigraphic logs for correlation between the areas investigated, and to develop realistic 3D models for the characterization of planetary surface processes. Annotation tools are being developed to aid discussion and dissemination of the observations within the planetary science community.

  17. Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. K.; Sabins, F. F., Jr.; Rowan, L. C.; Short, N. M.

    1975-01-01

    Papers from private industry reporting applications of remote sensing to oil and gas exploration were presented. Digitally processed LANDSAT images were successfully employed in several geologic interpretations. A growing interest in digital image processing among the geologic user community was shown. The papers covered a wide geographic range and a wide technical and application range. Topics included: (1) oil and gas exploration, by use of radar and multisensor studies as well as by use of LANDSAT imagery or LANDSAT digital data, (2) mineral exploration, by mapping from LANDSAT and Skylab imagery and by LANDSAT digital processing, (3) geothermal energy studies with Skylab imagery, (4) environmental and engineering geology, by use of radar or LANDSAT and Skylab imagery, (5) regional mapping and interpretation, and digital and spectral methods.

  18. A Review of the Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer as a Tool for Field Geologic Investigations on Earth and in Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Kelsey E.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Hodges, Kip V.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Graff, Trevor G.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy is a well-established and commonly used technique in obtaining diagnostic compositional data on geological samples. Recently, developments in X-ray tube and detector technologies have resulted in miniaturized, field-portable instruments that enable new applications both in and out of standard laboratory settings. These applications, however, have not been extensively applied to geologic field campaigns. This study investigates the feasibility of using developing handheld XRF (hXRF) technology to enhance terrestrial field geology, with potential applications in planetary surface exploration missions. We demonstrate that the hXRF is quite stable, providing reliable and accurate data continuously over a several year period. Additionally, sample preparation is proved to have a marked effect on the strategy for collecting and assimilating hXRF data. While the hXRF is capable of obtaining data that are comparable to laboratory XRF analysis for several geologically-important elements (such as Si, Ca, Ti, and K), the instrument is unable to detect other elements (such as Mg and Na) reliably. While this limits the use of the hXRF, especially when compared to laboratory XRF techniques, the hXRF is still capable of providing the field user with significantly improved contextual awareness of a field site, and more work is needed to fully evaluate the potential of this instrument in more complex geologic environments.

  19. A Review of the Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer as a Tool for Field Geologic Investigations on Earth and in Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Kelsey E.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Hodges, Kip V.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Graff, Trevor G.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy is a well-established and commonly used technique in obtaining diagnostic compositional data on geological samples. Recently, developments in X-ray tube and detector technologies have resulted in miniaturized, field-portable instruments that enable new applications both in and out of standard laboratory settings. These applications, however, have not been extensively applied to geologic field campaigns. This study investigates the feasibility of using developing handheld XRF (hXRF) technology to enhance terrestrial field geology, with potential applications in planetary surface exploration missions. We demonstrate that the hXRF is quite stable, providing reliable and accurate data continuously over a several year period. Additionally, sample preparation is proved to have a marked effect on the strategy for collecting and assimilating hXRF data. While the hXRF is capable of obtaining data that are comparable to laboratory XRF analysis for several geologically-important elements (such as Si, Ca, Ti, and K), the instrument is unable to detect other elements (such as Mg and Na) reliably. While this limits the use of the hXRF, especially when compared to laboratory XRF techniques, the hXRF is still capable of providing the field user with significantly improved contextual awareness of a field site, and more work is needed to fully evaluate the potential of this instrument in more complex geologic environments.

  20. VSWIR Microimaging Spectroscopy for Geologic History and Identifying and Quantifying Mineral, Ice, and Organic Abundances on Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlmann, B. L.; Blaney, D. L.; Green, R. O.; Mouroulis, P.

    2016-10-01

    VSWIR microimaging spectroscopy is a key tool for landed planetary missions, acquiring simultaneous composition and texture. It has been matured to TRL 6 as UCIS and is presently being used for meteorite and terrestrial earth science studies.

  1. About Estuary Data Mapper (EDM)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Estuary Data Mapper is a tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for any of the approximately 2,000 estuaries and associated watersheds in along the five US coastal regions.

  2. Mercury Mapper: First Look at the Innermost Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirshon, B.

    2012-12-01

    Until very recently little has been known about the planet Mercury, despite its relative proximity to Earth. Mercury is difficult to observe from Earth, because it is so small and so close to the sun, and only one spacecraft had visited the planet: Mariner 10, in the mid 1970s. But now, the MESSENGER spacecraft is in orbit around Mercury, sending back high-resolution images of virtually the entire planetary surface. This provides a rare opportunity for public engagement in the exploration of a new world—a chance for non-scientists to help scientists locate, measure and describe terrain never before seen. Mercury Mapper, designed by CosmoQuest, will provide the training and toolkit needed to accomplish the task. Using thousands of images selected by the MESSENGER science team, Mercury Mapper will guide citizen scientists through the process of finding, categorizing and measuring key topographic features of interest to researchers. Mercury Mapper users will in many cases be the first people to examine these features. In this session, members of the MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach team along with CosmoQuest designers involved in developing Mercury Mapper will share the many considerations and tradeoffs involved in creating a fun environment for engaging the public while also serving the interests of scientists performing original research.; ;

  3. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: planetary geology, meteorites, planetary composition, meteoritic composition, planetary craters, lunar craters, meteorite craters, petrology, petrography, volcanology, planetary crusts, geochronology, geomorphism, mineralogy, lithology, planetary atmospheres, impact melts, volcanoes, planetary evolution, tectonics, planetary mapping, asteroids, comets, lunar soil, lunar rocks, lunar geology, metamorphism, chemical composition, meteorite craters, and planetary mantles.

  4. Copernicus: Lunar surface mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, Frank J.; Anderson, Shaun D.

    1992-01-01

    The Utah State University (USU) 1991-92 Space Systems Design Team has designed a Lunar Surface Mapper (LSM) to parallel the development of the NASA Office of Exploration lunar initiatives. USU students named the LSM 'Copernicus' after the 16th century Polish astronomer, for whom the large lunar crater on the face of the moon was also named. The top level requirements for the Copernicus LSM are to produce a digital map of the lunar surface with an overall resolution of 12 meters (39.4 ft). It will also identify specified local surface features/areas to be mapped at higher resolutions by follow-on missions. The mapping operation will be conducted from a 300 km (186 mi) lunar-polar orbit. Although the entire surface should be mapped within six months, the spacecraft design lifetime will exceed one year with sufficient propellant planned for orbit maintenance in the anomalous lunar gravity field. The Copernicus LSM is a small satellite capable of reaching lunar orbit following launch on a Conestoga launch vehicle which is capable of placing 410 kg (900 lb) into translunar orbit. Upon orbital insertion, the spacecraft will weigh approximately 233 kg (513 lb). This rather severe mass constraint has insured attention to component/subsystem size and mass, and prevented 'requirements creep.' Transmission of data will be via line-of-sight to an earth-based receiving system.

  5. Planetary Surface Instruments Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Charles; Treiman, Allanh; Kostiuk, Theodor,

    1996-01-01

    This report on planetary surface investigations an d planetary landers covers: (1) the precise chemic al analysis of solids; (2) isotopes and evolved ga s analyses; (3) planetary interiors; planetary atm ospheres from within as measured by landers; (4) m ineralogical examination of extraterrestrial bodie s; (5) regoliths; and (6) field geology/processes . For individual titles, see N96-34812 through N96-34819. (Derived from text.)

  6. Landsat-D thematic mapper simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, G. F.; Tilton, E. L., III

    1982-01-01

    The design and testing program for the airborne Landsat-D thematic-mapper simulator (TMS) is summarized. The TMS is intended to provide data similar enough to those expected from Landsat-D to facilitate the development of data-processing software. The design process comprised mainly modifications on the existing MSS-simulator fiber optics, dichroics, and detectors to provide 7-channel coverage of the 0.45-12.3-micron range at 60-deg angle of view, corresponding to a 418-element, 13.8-km-wide ground swath. The TMS is carried on a Lear 23 aircraft operating at 750 km/h and 12-m altitude and equipped with a 15.2-cm aerial mapping camera and a ground-updated inertial navigational system. Agricultural, forestry, and geological trial applications are reviewed, and some sample results are given. The significant improvements predicted for the Landsat-D thematic mapper (relative to the Landsat MSS) are seen as confirmed, with the possible exception of the 120-m-resolution version of channel 7.

  7. Thematic Mapper research in the earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.; Stuart, Locke

    1989-01-01

    This paper's studies were initiated under the NASA program for the purpose of conducting the earth sciences research using the Landsat Thematic Mapper. The goals of the program include studies of the factors influencing the growth, health, condition, and distribution of vegetation on the earth; the processes controlling the evolution of the earth's crust; the earth's water budget and the hydrologic processes that operate at local, regional, and global scales; the physical and chemical interaction between different types of surficial materials; and the interaction between the earth's surface and its atmosphere. Twenty-seven domestic and five foreign investigations were initiated in 1985, with the results from most of them already published (one study was terminated due to the delay in the TDRSS). Twelve of the studies addressed hydrology, snow and ice, coastal processes, and near-shore oceanographic phenomena; seven addressed vegetation, soils, or animal habitat; and twelve addressed geologic subjects.

  8. Thematic Mapper research in the earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.; Stuart, Locke

    1989-01-01

    This paper's studies were initiated under the NASA program for the purpose of conducting the earth sciences research using the Landsat Thematic Mapper. The goals of the program include studies of the factors influencing the growth, health, condition, and distribution of vegetation on the earth; the processes controlling the evolution of the earth's crust; the earth's water budget and the hydrologic processes that operate at local, regional, and global scales; the physical and chemical interaction between different types of surficial materials; and the interaction between the earth's surface and its atmosphere. Twenty-seven domestic and five foreign investigations were initiated in 1985, with the results from most of them already published (one study was terminated due to the delay in the TDRSS). Twelve of the studies addressed hydrology, snow and ice, coastal processes, and near-shore oceanographic phenomena; seven addressed vegetation, soils, or animal habitat; and twelve addressed geologic subjects.

  9. Issues of geologically-focused situational awareness in robotic planetary missions: Lessons from an analogue mission at Mistastin Lake impact structure, Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonenko, I.; Osinski, G. R.; Battler, M.; Beauchamp, M.; Cupelli, L.; Chanou, A.; Francis, R.; Mader, M. M.; Marion, C.; McCullough, E.; Pickersgill, A. E.; Preston, L. J.; Shankar, B.; Unrau, T.; Veillette, D.

    2013-07-01

    Remote robotic data provides different information than that obtained from immersion in the field. This significantly affects the geological situational awareness experienced by members of a mission control science team. In order to optimize science return from planetary robotic missions, these limitations must be understood and their effects mitigated to fully leverage the field experience of scientists at mission control.Results from a 13-day analogue deployment at the Mistastin Lake impact structure in Labrador, Canada suggest that scale, relief, geological detail, and time are intertwined issues that impact the mission control science team's effectiveness in interpreting the geology of an area. These issues are evaluated and several mitigation options are suggested. Scale was found to be difficult to interpret without the reference of known objects, even when numerical scale data were available. For this reason, embedding intuitive scale-indicating features into image data is recommended. Since relief is not conveyed in 2D images, both 3D data and observations from multiple angles are required. Furthermore, the 3D data must be observed in animation or as anaglyphs, since without such assistance much of the relief information in 3D data is not communicated. Geological detail may also be missed due to the time required to collect, analyze, and request data.We also suggest that these issues can be addressed, in part, by an improved understanding of the operational time costs and benefits of scientific data collection. Robotic activities operate on inherently slow time-scales. This fact needs to be embraced and accommodated. Instead of focusing too quickly on the details of a target of interest, thereby potentially minimizing science return, time should be allocated at first to more broad data collection at that target, including preliminary surveys, multiple observations from various vantage points, and progressively smaller scale of focus. This operational model

  10. Planetary geosciences, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T. (Editor); Plescia, Jeff L. (Editor); James, Odette B. (Editor); Macpherson, Glenn (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Research topics within the NASA Planetary Geosciences Program are presented. Activity in the fields of planetary geology, geophysics, materials, and geochemistry is covered. The investigator's current research efforts, the importance of that work in understanding a particular planetary geoscience problem, the context of that research, and the broader planetary geoscience effort is described. As an example, theoretical modelling of the stability of water ice within the Martian regolith, the applicability of that work to understanding Martian volatiles in general, and the geologic history of Mars is discussed.

  11. Assessment of planetary geologic mapping techniques for Mars using terrestrial analogs: The SP Mountain area of the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Skinner, J.A.; Crumpler, L.S.; Dohm, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    We photogeologically mapped the SP Mountain region of the San Francisco Volcanic Field in northern Arizona, USA to evaluate and improve the fidelity of approaches used in geologic mapping of Mars. This test site, which was previously mapped in the field, is chiefly composed of Late Cenozoic cinder cones, lava flows, and alluvium perched on Permian limestone of the Kaibab Formation. Faulting and folding has deformed the older rocks and some of the volcanic materials, and fluvial erosion has carved drainage systems and deposited alluvium. These geologic materials and their formational and modificational histories are similar to those for regions of the Martian surface. We independently prepared four geologic maps using topographic and image data at resolutions that mimic those that are commonly used to map the geology of Mars (where consideration was included for the fact that Martian features such as lava flows are commonly much larger than their terrestrial counterparts). We primarily based our map units and stratigraphic relations on geomorphology, color contrasts, and cross-cutting relationships. Afterward, we compared our results with previously published field-based mapping results, including detailed analyses of the stratigraphy and of the spatial overlap and proximity of the field-based vs. remote-based (photogeologic) map units, contacts, and structures. Results of these analyses provide insights into how to optimize the photogeologic mapping of Mars (and, by extension, other remotely observed planetary surfaces). We recommend the following: (1) photogeologic mapping as an excellent approach to recovering the general geology of a region, along with examination of local, high-resolution datasets to gain insights into the complexity of the geology at outcrop scales; (2) delineating volcanic vents and lava-flow sequences conservatively and understanding that flow abutment and flow overlap are difficult to distinguish in remote data sets; (3) taking care to

  12. PHOTOMICROPHOTOGRAPHY- GEOLOGY ( SEM)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-10-13

    PHOTOMICROPHOTOGRAPHY -GEOLOGY (SEM) High magnification and resolution views of lunar, meteorite and terrestrial materials using the Scanning Electron MIcroscope (SEM), Bldg. 31 Planetary and Earth Science Laboratory.

  13. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation research, planetary mission performance, penetrator mission concepts for airless planets/satellites, geology orbiter payload adaptability, lunar mission performance, and advanced planning activities. Study reports and related publications are included in a bibliography section.

  14. Landsat-4 thematic mapper and thematic mapper simulator data for a porphyry copper deposit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aircraft thematic mapper (TM) data were analyzed to evaluate the potential utility of the Landsat-4 thematic mapper for geologic mapping and detection of hydrothermal alteration zones in the Silver Bell porphyry copper deposit in southern Arizona. The data allow a comparison between aircraft TV simulator data and the Landsat-4 TM satellite data which possess similar spectral bands. A color rationcomposite of 30-m pixels was resampled, in order to clearly define a number of hydroxyl bearing minerals, (kaolinite, sericite, white mica), pyrite and iron oxide/hydroxide minerals. The iron oxide minerals have diagnostic absorption bands in the 0.45 and 0.85 micron regions of the spectrum, and the hydrous minerals are characterized by an absorption in the 2.2 micron region. The position of the spectral bands allow the TM to identify regions of hydrothermal alteration without resorting to a data processing algorithm. The comparison of the aircraft and Landsat-4 TM data showed considerable agreement, and confirmed the utility of TM data for identifying hydrothermal alteration zones. Samples of some color TM images are provided.

  15. GEM: The GAAIN Entity Mapper

    PubMed Central

    Dewan, Peehoo; Ambite, Jose-Luis; Toga, Arthur W.

    2015-01-01

    We present a software system solution that significantly simplifies data sharing of medical data. This system, called GEM (for the GAAIN Entity Mapper), harmonizes medical data. Harmonization is the process of unifying information across multiple disparate datasets needed to share and aggregate medical data. Specifically, our system automates the task of finding corresponding elements across different independently created (medical) datasets of related data. We present our overall approach, detailed technical architecture, and experimental evaluations demonstrating the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:26665184

  16. A Retrospective: Active Volatile-Driven Geologic Processes Across the Solar System—Lessons for Planetary Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderblom, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    When Voyagers 1 and 2 left Earth in 1977, we had little clue as to the rich variety of activity we'd find on the outer Solar System moons. The moons of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune would likely exhibit little geologic evolution¾much less even than our Moon. We expected battered, cratered, dead worlds. Like the Moon, Mars had showed volcanic activity in the geologic past, but ancient, heavily crater highlands dominated both surfaces. It seemed unlikely that we'd find even extinct volcanism in the cold, dead reaches of the outer Solar System. Voyager 1 shocked us by revealing Io's prolific ongoing volcanism. (Not all were surprised: just days earlier, Peale, Cassen, and Reynolds published a prediction that Io could be volcanically active). Europa, too, was a Voyager surprise; only a small handful of impact craters pocked its surface. It too had to be a geologically young body—likely still actively evolving. We have even found very recent geological activity on tiny cometary nuclei, where young flows have oozed forth across their surfaces. At Neptune, incredibly, Voyager 2 found eruptions on Triton's 37K polar cap—plumes driven by solar-heated nitrogen gas blasting dark dust and bright ice in 8-km-high columns. On Mars, "dark spiders" near the pole signaled similar active eruptions, in this case driven by pressurized carbon dioxide. Cassini witnessed a myriad of jets near tiny Enceladus' south pole, arising from an internal ocean evidently driven by active chemical processes and modulated by Saturn's proximity. Cassini revealed Titan to be Earth's alien twin, with a host of processes borrowed from textbooks on terrestrial geomorphology and meteorology. Akin to Earth's global hydrological cycle, Titan's runs on methane—methane rivers, seas, and rain abound. What lessons can we take from these active places into the next phase of exploration? When the Voyagers were launched, our naiveté allowed that only planet Earth was dynamically active. But exploring

  17. Star Tracker/Mapper: System Design Parameters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-01

    AD-A008 554 STAR TRACKER/MAPPER: SYSTEM’DESIGN PARAMETERS F. W. Schenkel Johns Hopkins University Prepared for: Naval Plant Representative Office...APLIJHU TG 1256 4. TITLE (andSubritle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Star Tracker/Mapper: System Design Parameters 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT...identify by block number) Design parameters Star tracker/mapper Optical sensors Optical trackers Spectral characteristics 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on

  18. Planetary Volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonenko, I.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C. W.

    1998-01-01

    The final report consists of 10 journal articles concerning Planetary Volcanism. The articles discuss the following topics: (1) lunar stratigraphy; (2) cryptomare thickness measurements; (3) spherical harmonic spectra; (4) late stage activity of volcanoes on Venus; (5) stresses and calderas on Mars; (6) magma reservoir failure; (7) lunar mare basalt volcanism; (8) impact and volcanic glasses in the 79001/2 Core; (9) geology of the lunar regional dark mantle deposits; and (10) factors controlling the depths and sizes of magma reservoirs in Martian volcanoes.

  19. Next Step in Marine Impact Studies: Combining Geological Data with Numerical Simulations for Applications in Planetary Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormo, J.

    2003-02-01

    Baltoscandia is favourable for geological studies of marine-target (M-T) craters. One reason is the relatively dense population of craters of different diameters, of approximately the same age, and with different target water depths. This allows comparative studies of the effects of a target water layer on the lithologies and morphologies of the resulting craters. Baltoscandian craters like Kardla and Lockne are well documented. Today, a considerable number of the documented craters and impact sites on Earth are known to have formed at sea. All but one, the Eltanin impact site west of Chile, have formed in epicontinental seas. This circumstance is mainly a result of higher probability of both formation and preservation in such areas. Famous craters as Chicxulub, Chesapeake Bay, and Mjolnir were also formed at sea. Marine impact cratering is an important topic within impact research. The fact that our planet is mostly covered by water must be taken into consideration when evaluating consequences and hazards from impact events. In addition, M-T craters may have applications in the exploration of our Solar System.

  20. Planetary ecology

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, D.E.; Brierley, C.L.; Brierley, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Over 100 top scientists contribute their knowledge to this study of the cycling of matter in our environment. It introduces the concept of biogeochemistry - an association of geochemical and biological forces which has led to a concept of planetary and biological co-evolution, and to a natural history ruled by inanimate and animate forces. Based on a symposium held in 1983, this volume compiled important research findings generated in 11 countries. It merges many scientific disciplines to promote an awareness that life is a universal, ubiquitous, and versatile geological force. Scientists working in microbiology, geology, atmospheric chemistry, paleoecology, geochemistry, soil chemistry, and environmental science will find data important to their work in this compendium.

  1. The Geology of the Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H. (Editor); Saunders, R. S.; Strom, R. G.; Wilhelms, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    The geologic history of the terrestrial planets is outlined in light of recent exploration and the revolution in geologic thinking. Among the topics considered are planet formation; planetary craters, basins, and general surface characteristics; tectonics; planetary atmospheres; and volcanism.

  2. Lightning mapper sensor design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Poon, C. W.; Shelton, J. C.; Laverty, N. P.; Cook, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    World-wide continuous measurement of lightning location, intensity, and time during both day and night is to be provided by the Lightning Mapper (LITMAP) instrument. A technology assessment to determine if the LITMAP requirements can be met using existing sensor and electronic technologies is presented. The baseline concept discussed in this report is a compromise among a number of opposing requirements (e.g., ground resolution versus array size; large field of view versus narrow bandpass filter). The concept provides coverage for more than 80 percent of the lightning events as based on recent above-cloud NASA/U2 lightning measurements.

  3. Registering Thematic Mapper imagery to digital elevation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frew, J.

    1984-01-01

    The problems encountered when attempting to register Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data to U.S. geological survey digital elevation models (DEMs) are examined. It is shown that TM and DEM data are not available in the same map projection, necessitating geometric transformation of one of the data type, that the TM data are not accurately located in their nominal projection, and that TM data have higher resolution than most DEM data, but oversampling the DEM data to TM resolution introduces systematic noise. Further work needed in this area is discussed.

  4. Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian shield of Northeastern Sudan using thematic mapper imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Bechtel is nearing completion of a one-year program that uses digitally enhanced LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data to compile the first comprehensive regional tectonic map of the Proterozoic Nubian Shield exposed in the northern Red Sea Hills of northeastern Sudan. The status of significant objectives of this study are given. Pertinent published and unpublished geologic literature and maps of the northern Red Sea Hills to establish the geologic framework of the region were reviewed. Thematic mapper imagery for optimal base-map enhancements was processed. Photo mosaics of enhanced images to serve as base maps for compilation of geologic information were completed. Interpretation of TM imagery to define and delineate structural and lithogologic provinces was completed. Geologic information (petrologic, and radiometric data) was compiled from the literature review onto base-map overlays. Evaluation of the tectonic evolution of the Nubian Shield based on the image interpretation and the compiled tectonic maps is continuing.

  5. Revised landsat-5 thematic mapper radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barsi, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data that are processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) will be updated. The lifetime gain model that was implemented on May 5, 2003, for the reflective bands (1-5, 7) will be replaced by a new lifetime radiometric-calibration curve that is derived from the instrument's response to pseudoinvariant desert sites and from cross calibration with the Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced TM Plus (ETM+). Although this calibration update applies to all archived and future L5 TM data, the principal improvements in the calibration are for the data acquired during the first eight years of the mission (1984-1991), where the changes in the instrument-gain values are as much as 15%. The radiometric scaling coefficients for bands 1 and 2 for approximately the first eight years of the mission have also been changed. Users will need to apply these new coefficients to convert the calibrated data product digital numbers to radiance. The scaling coefficients for the other bands have not changed.

  6. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, John M.

    1988-01-01

    The two principle objectives of the project Thematic Mapper Study of Alaskan Ophiolites were to further develop techniques for producing geologic maps, and to study the tectonics of the ophiolite terrains of the Brooks Range and Ruby Geanticline of northern Alaska. Ophiolites, sections of oceanic lithosphere emplaced along island arcs and continental margins, are important to the understanding of mountain belt evolution. Ophiolites also provide an opportunity to study the structural, lithologic, and geochemical characteristics of ocean lithosphere, yielding a better understanding of the processes forming lithosphere. The first part of the report is a description of the methods and results of the TM mapping and gravity modeling. The second part includes papers being prepared for publication. These papers are the following: (1) an analysis of basalt spectral variations; (2) a study of basalt geochemical variations; (3) an examination of the cooling history of the ophiolites using radiometric data; (4) an analysis of shortening produced by thrusting during the Brooks Range orogeny; and (5) a study of an ophiolite using digital aeromagnetic and topographic data. Additional papers are in preparation.

  7. Activities at the Lunar and Planetary Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, K.

    1984-01-01

    The scientific and administrative activities of the Lunar and Planetary Institute are summarized. Recent research relating to geophysics, planetary geology, the origin of the Earth and Moon, the lunar surface, Mars, meteorites, and image processing techniques is discussed.

  8. Planetary atlases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Inge, J. L.; Morgan, H. F.

    1991-01-01

    Two kinds of planetary map atlases are in production. Atlases of the first kind contain reduced-scale versions of maps in hard-bound books with dimensions of 11 x 14 inches. These new atlases are intended to: (1) provide concise but comprehensive references to the geography of the planets needed by planetary scientists and others; and (2) allow inexpensive access to the planetary map dataset without requiring acquisition and examination of tens or hundreds of full-size map sheets. Two such atlases have been published and a third is in press. Work was begun of an Atlas of the Satellite of the Outer Planets. The second kind of atlas is a popular or semi-technical version designed for commercial publication and distribution. The first edition, The Atlas of the Solar System, is nearly ready for publication. New funding and contracting constraints now make it unlikely that the atlas can be published in the format originally planned. Currently, the possibility of publishing the maps through the U.S. Geological Survey as a series of folios in the I-map series is being explored. The maps are global views of each solid-surface body of the Solar System. Each map shows airbrushed relief, albedo, and, where available, topography. A set of simplified geologic maps is also included. All of the maps are on equal-area projections. Scales are 1:40,000,000 for the Earth and Venus; 1:2,000,000 for the Saturnian satellites Mimas and Enceladus and the Uranian satellite Miranda; 1:100,000 for the Martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos; and 1:10,000,000 for all other bodies.

  9. Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: planetary geology, meteorites, planetary composition, meteoritic composition, planetary craters, lunar craters, meteorite craters, petrology, petrography, volcanology, planetary crusts, geochronology, geomorphism, mineralogy, lithology, planetary atmospheres, impact melts, K-T Boundary Layer, volcanoes, planetary evolution, tectonics, planetary mapping, asteroids, comets, lunar soil, lunar rocks, lunar geology, metamorphism, chemical composition, meteorite craters, planetary mantles, and space exploration.

  10. Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: G-M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: meteorites, meteoritic composition, geochemistry, planetary geology, planetary composition, planetary craters, the Moon, Mars, Venus, asteroids, planetary atmospheres, meteorite craters, space exploration, lunar geology, planetary surfaces, lunar surface, lunar rocks, lunar soil, planetary atmospheres, lunar atmosphere, lunar exploration, space missions, geomorphology, lithology, petrology, petrography, planetary evolution, Earth surface, planetary surfaces, volcanology, volcanos, lava, magma, mineralogy, minerals, ejecta, impact damage, meteoritic damage, tectonics, etc.

  11. Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: planetary geology, meteorites, planetary composition, meteoritic composition, planetary craters, lunar craters, meteorite craters, petrology, petrography, volcanology, planetary crusts, geochronology, geomorphism, mineralogy, lithology, planetary atmospheres, impact melts, K-T Boundary Layer, volcanoes, planetary evolution, tectonics, planetary mapping, asteroids, comets, lunar soil, lunar rocks, lunar geology, metamorphism, chemical composition, meteorite craters, planetary mantles, and space exploration. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  12. Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: G-M

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: meteorites, meteoritic composition, geochemistry, planetary geology, planetary composition, planetary craters, the Moon, Mars, Venus, asteroids, planetary atmospheres, meteorite craters, space exploration, lunar geology, planetary surfaces, lunar surface, lunar rocks, lunar soil, planetary atmospheres, lunar atmosphere, lunar exploration, space missions, geomorphology, lithology, petrology, petrography, planetary evolution, Earth surface, planetary surfaces, volcanology, volcanos, lava, magma, mineralogy, minerals, ejecta, impact damage, meteoritic damage, tectonics, etc. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  13. Geostationary Carbon Process Mapper (GCPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Miller, Charles; Frankenberg, Christian; Natraj, Vijay; Rider, David; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Geostationary Carbon Process Mapper (GCPM) is an earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases related to climate change and human activity.Understanding of sources and sinks of CO2 is currently limited by frequency of observations and uncertainty in vertical transport. GCPM improves this situation by making simultaneous high resolution measurements of CO2, CH4, CF, and CO in near-IR, many times per day. GCPM is able to investigate processes with time scales of minutes to hours. CO2, CH4, CF, Co selected because their combination provides information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic sources/sinks. Quasi-continuous monitoring effectively eliminates atmospheric transport uncertainties from source/sink inversion modeling. will have one instrument (GeoFTS), hosted on a commercial communications satellite, planned for two years operation. GCPM will affordably advance the understanding of observed cycle variability improving future climate projections.

  14. Geostationary Carbon Process Mapper (GCPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Miller, Charles; Frankenberg, Christian; Natraj, Vijay; Rider, David; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Geostationary Carbon Process Mapper (GCPM) is an earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases related to climate change and human activity.Understanding of sources and sinks of CO2 is currently limited by frequency of observations and uncertainty in vertical transport. GCPM improves this situation by making simultaneous high resolution measurements of CO2, CH4, CF, and CO in near-IR, many times per day. GCPM is able to investigate processes with time scales of minutes to hours. CO2, CH4, CF, Co selected because their combination provides information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic sources/sinks. Quasi-continuous monitoring effectively eliminates atmospheric transport uncertainties from source/sink inversion modeling. will have one instrument (GeoFTS), hosted on a commercial communications satellite, planned for two years operation. GCPM will affordably advance the understanding of observed cycle variability improving future climate projections.

  15. The Integrated Radiation Mapper Assistant

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, R.E.; Tripp, L.R.

    1995-03-01

    The Integrated Radiation Mapper Assistant (IRMA) system combines state-of-the-art radiation sensors and microprocessor based analysis techniques to perform radiation surveys. Control of the survey function is from a control station located outside the radiation thus reducing time spent in radiation areas performing radiation surveys. The system consists of a directional radiation sensor, a laser range finder, two area radiation sensors, and a video camera mounted on a pan and tilt platform. THis sensor package is deployable on a remotely operated vehicle. The outputs of the system are radiation intensity maps identifying both radiation source intensities and radiation levels throughout the room being surveyed. After completion of the survey, the data can be removed from the control station computer for further analysis or archiving.

  16. Advanced mesospheric temperature mapper for high-latitude airglow studies.

    PubMed

    Pautet, P-D; Taylor, M J; Pendleton, W R; Zhao, Y; Yuan, T; Esplin, R; McLain, D

    2014-09-10

    Over the past 60 years, ground-based remote sensing measurements of the Earth's mesospheric temperature have been performed using the nighttime hydroxyl (OH) emission, which originates at an altitude of ∼87  km. Several types of instruments have been employed to date: spectrometers, Fabry-Perot or Michelson interferometers, scanning-radiometers, and more recently temperature mappers. Most of them measure the mesospheric temperature in a few sample directions and/or with a limited temporal resolution, restricting their research capabilities to the investigation of larger-scale perturbations such as inertial waves, tides, or planetary waves. The Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM) is a novel infrared digital imaging system that measures selected emission lines in the mesospheric OH (3,1) band (at ∼1.5  μm) to create intensity and temperature maps of the mesosphere around 87 km. The data are obtained with an unprecedented spatial (∼0.5  km) and temporal (typically 30″) resolution over a large 120° field of view, allowing detailed measurements of wave propagation and dissipation at the ∼87  km level, even in the presence of strong aurora or under full moon conditions. This paper describes the AMTM characteristics, compares measured temperatures with values obtained by a collocated Na lidar instrument, and presents several examples of temperature maps and nightly keogram representations to illustrate the excellent capabilities of this new instrument.

  17. Twenty-Second Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The papers in this collection were written for general presentation, avoiding jargon and unnecessarily complex terms. Some of the topics covered include: planetary evolution, planetary satellites, planetary composition, planetary surfaces, planetary geology, volcanology, meteorite impacts and composition, and cosmic dust. Particular emphasis is placed on Mars and the Moon.

  18. Frequent Questions about Estuary Data Mapper (EDM)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Estuary Data Mapper is a tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for any of the approximately 2,000 estuaries and associated watersheds in along the five US coastal regions

  19. Downloading and Installing Estuary Data Mapper (EDM)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Estuary Data Mapper is a tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for any of the approximately 2,000 estuaries and associated watersheds in along the five US coastal regions

  20. Pioneer Venus radar mapper experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettengill, G.H.; Ford, P.G.; Brown, W.E.; Kaula, W.M.; Keller, C.H.; Masursky, H.; McGill, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Altimetry and radar scattering data for Venus, obtained from 10 of the first 13 orbits of the Pioneer Venus orbiter, have disclosed what appears to be a rift valley having vertical relief of up to 7 kilometers, as well as a neighboring, gently rolling plain. Planetary oblateness appears unlikely to exceed 112500 and may be substantially smaller. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

  1. MAPPER: A personal computer map projection tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Steven A.

    1993-01-01

    MAPPER is a set of software tools designed to let users create and manipulate map projections on a personal computer (PC). The capability exists to generate five popular map projections. These include azimuthal, cylindrical, mercator, lambert, and sinusoidal projections. Data for projections are contained in five coordinate databases at various resolutions. MAPPER is managed by a system of pull-down windows. This interface allows the user to intuitively create, view and export maps to other platforms.

  2. Landsat Thematic Mapper Image Mosaic of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Christopher J.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Blauer, Steven L.; Friesen, Beverly A.; Bauer, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC) produced a seamless, cloud-minimized remotely-sensed image spanning the State of Colorado. Multiple orthorectified Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes collected during 2006-2008 were spectrally normalized via reflectance transformation and linear regression based upon pseudo-invariant features (PIFS) following the removal of clouds. Individual Landsat scenes were then mosaicked to form a six-band image composite spanning the visible to shortwave infrared spectrum. This image mosaic, presented here, will also be used to create a conifer health classification for Colorado in Scientific Investigations Map 3103. An archive of past and current Landsat imagery exists and is available to the scientific community (http://glovis.usgs.gov/), but significant pre-processing was required to produce a statewide mosaic from this information. Much of the data contained perennial cloud cover that complicated analysis and classification efforts. Existing Landsat mosaic products, typically three band image composites, did not include the full suite of multispectral information necessary to produce this assessment, and were derived using data collected in 2001 or earlier. A six-band image mosaic covering Colorado was produced. This mosaic includes blue (band 1), green (band 2), red (band 3), near infrared (band 4), and shortwave infrared information (bands 5 and 7). The image composite shown here displays three of the Landsat bands (7, 4, and 2), which are sensitive to the shortwave infrared, near infrared, and green ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. Vegetation appears green in this image, while water looks black, and unforested areas appear pink. The lines that may be visible in the on-screen version of the PDF are an artifact of the export methods used to create this file. The file should be viewed at 150 percent zoom or greater for optimum viewing.

  3. GIS-based Conceptual Database Model for Planetary Geoscientific Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gasselt, Stephan; Nass, Andrea; Neukum, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    We here report on the conceptual design of a geodatabase model as part of a larger-scaled GIS-based system composed of several applications, templates and database backend which supports conducting combined geological as well as geomorphological mapping of planetary surfaces and which simplifies the process of maintaining data and map products. Performing geological and/or geomorphological stand-alone or systematic mapping of planetary surfaces supported by modern GIS environments involves several tasks to be performed before the actual mapping process can be carried out. Such tasks deal with setting up a working environment by querying and defining raster data from a variety of planetary missions to be used and processed, importing auxiliary data, defining projection parameters for one or more map layer(s) and each raster/vector dataset, importing processed data, and defining a variety of vector shape geometries and attributes for mapping in terms of geometry type, representation symbology and attribute domains in a consistent way. In order to allow consistent mapping approaches and subsequent homogenisation success, a mapper makes use of pre-defined model schemas (templates) and definitions allowing to import mapping representation and styles as well as a backbone geo-database to immediately start working and making use of the provided infrastructure. The conceptual geo-database design developed far involves the design of the main object and data layers and consists of objects, object types, their relationships and additionally the formulation of integrity conditions on a level which is in principle independent of the exact implementation and its environment. Furthermore, the data layer containing attribute domains has been implemented. The conceptual design has been crafted using ESRI's ArcGIS File Geodatabase environment but it can be exported to any other GDBMS. The overall layout consists of several main elements or entity groups composed of relations

  4. SkyMapper Early Data Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Christian; Onken, Christopher; Schmidt, Brian; Bessell, Michael; Da Costa, Gary; Luvaul, Lance; Mackey, Dougal; Murphy, Simon; White, Marc; SkyMapper Team

    2016-05-01

    The SkyMapper Early Data Release (EDR) is the initial data release from the SkyMapper Southern Survey, which aims to create a deep, multi-epoch, multi-band photometric data set for the entire southern sky. EDR covers approximately 6700 sq. deg. (one-third) of the southern sky as obtained by the Short Survey component of the project. All included fields have at least two visits in good conditions in all six SkyMapper filters (uvgriz). Object catalogues are complete to magnitude 17-18, depending on filter. IVOA-complaint table access protocol (TAP), cone search and simple image access protocol (SIAP) services are available from the SkyMapper website (http://skymapper.anu.edu.au/), as well as through tools such as TOPCAT. Data are restricted to Australian astronomers and their collaborators for twelve months from the release date. Further details on the reduction of SkyMapper data, along with data quality improvements, will be released in late 2016 as part of SkyMapper Data Release 1 (DR1).

  5. Geologic Mapping of V-19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, P.; Stofan, E. R.; Guest, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    A geologic map of the Sedna Planitia (V-19) quadrangle is being completed at the 1:5,000,000 scale as part of the NASA Planetary Geologic Mapping Program, and will be submitted for review by September 2009.

  6. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: H-O

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: planetary geology, lunar geology, meteorites, shock loads, cometary collisions, planetary mapping, planetary atmospheres, chondrites, chondrules, planetary surfaces, impact craters, lava flow, achondrites, geochemistry, stratigraphy, micrometeorites, tectonics, mineralogy, petrology, geomorphology, and volcanology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers from this report.

  7. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: H-O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: planetary geology, lunar geology, meteorites, shock loads, cometary collisions, planetary mapping, planetary atmospheres, chondrites, chondrules, planetary surfaces, impact craters, lava flow, achondrites, geochemistry, stratigraphy, micrometeorites, tectonics, mineralogy, petrology, geomorphology, and volcanology.

  8. Development, Deployment, and Assessment of Dynamic Geological and Geophysical Models Using the Google Earth APP and API: Implications for Undergraduate Education in the Earth and Planetary Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Gobert, J.

    2009-12-01

    We previously reported on innovative techniques for presenting data on virtual globes such as Google Earth using emergent Collada models that reveal subsurface geology and geophysics. We here present several new and enhanced models and linked lesson plans to aid deployment in undergraduate geoscience courses, along with preliminary results from our assessment of their effectiveness. The new Collada models are created with Google SketchUp, Bonzai3D, and MeshLab software, and are grouped to cover (i) small scale field mapping areas; (ii) regional scale studies of the North Atlantic Ocean Basin, the Appalachian Orogen, and the Pacific Ring of Fire; and (iii) global scale studies of terrestrial planets, moons, and asteroids. Enhancements include emergent block models with three-dimensional surface topography; models that conserve structural orientation data; interactive virtual specimens; models that animate plate movements on the virtual globe; exploded 3-D views of planetary mantles and cores; and server-generated dynamic KML. We tested volunteer students and professors using Silverback monitoring software, think-aloud verbalizations, and questionnaires designed to assess their understanding of the underlying geo-scientific phenomena. With the aid of a cohort of instructors across the U.S., we are continuing to assess areas in which users encounter difficulties with both the software and geoscientific concepts. Preliminary results suggest that it is easy to overestimate the computer expertise of novice users even when they are content knowledge experts (i.e., instructors), and that a detailed introduction to virtual globe manipulation is essential before moving on to geoscience applications. Tasks that seem trivial to developers may present barriers to non-technical users and technicalities that challenge instructors may block adoption in the classroom. We have developed new models using the Google Earth API which permits enhanced interaction and dynamic feedback and

  9. Stratigraphy and structural geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Greeley, R.; Guest, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The immediate goal of stratigraphy and structural geology is to reduce the enormous complexity of a planetary surface to comprehensible proportions by dividing the near-surface rocks into units and mapping their distribution and attitude.

  10. Conference on Planetary Volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrametz, K.; Kofler, L.

    1982-01-01

    Initial and present volatile inventories and distributions in the Earth, other planets, meteorites, and comets; observational evidence on the time history of volatile transfer among reservoirs; and volatiles in planetary bodies, their mechanisms of transport, and their relation to thermal, chemical, geological and biological evolution were addressed.

  11. Conference on Planetary Volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, R. O. (Compiler); Oconnell, R. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Initial and present volatile inventories and distributions in the Earth, other planets, meteorites, and comets; observational evidence on the time history of volatile transfer among reservoirs; and volatiles in planetary bodies, their mechanisms of transport, and their relation to thermal, chemical, geological and biological evolution are addressed.

  12. The Global Geology of Titan from Cassini RADAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly; Malaska, Michael J.

    The variety of geological processes on Titan is rivaled in our Solar System only on Earth. Results from the Cassini-Huygens mission obtained so far have revealed a wide range of geologic and climatological processes. We use data obtained by Cassini’s Titan Radar Mapper (13.78 GHz, lambda=2.17 cm) to analyze the distribution of different types of geologic processes occurring on Titan’s surface, both endogenic and exogenic, and to derive temporal relationships between these processes, at least at local scales. The distribution and interplay of geologic processes is important to provide constraints on models of the interior and of surface-atmosphere interactions. We mapped the SAR images in terms of characteristic morphology of geological features and their radar backscatter in order to determine possible emplacement sequences and the overall distribution of geologic processes. All the major planetary geologic processes - volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering and erosion - appear to have played a role in shaping Titan’s complex surface. This paper will review the distribution and relative ages of different geomorphologic units. While some units (craters, dunes, mountains, channels, lakes and seas) are well established in the literature, the presence of cryovolcanic features is still somewhat controversial, and the origin of undifferentiated plains (known as blandlands) is still mysterious. We now have over half of Titan’s surface imaged by SAR and the interpretation of these and other terrains is better constrained. The results from our latest analyses suggest that a sedimentary origin for the undifferentiated plains is the most likely. Cryovolcanism appears to have occurred on Titan, but it is not ubiquitous, and the major cryovolcanic area appears to be old, now partly covered by dunes. Titan’s surface shows a complex interaction between the surface and atmosphere, with erosional processes being driven by wind, liquids and dissolution.

  13. Thematic Mapper Spectral Dimensionality and Data Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crist, E. P.; Cicone, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Thematic Mapper data, simulated from field and laboratory spectrometer measurements of a variety of agricultural crops and a wide range of soils, are analyzed to determine their dispersion in the six space defined by the reflective TM bands (i.e., excluding the thermal band). While similar analyses of MSS data from agricultural scenes show that the vast majority of the MSS data occupy a single plane, the simulated TM data primarily occupy three dimensions, defining two intersecting planes and a zone of transition between the two. Viewing the plane of Vegetation head on provides a projection comparable to the single plane of MSS data. The Plane of Soils and transition zone represent new information made available largely as a result of the longer infrared bands included in the Thematic Mapper. A transformation, named the Thematic Mapper Tasseled Cap, is presented which rotates the TM data such that the described data structure is most readily accessible to view.

  14. Thematic Mapper Spectral Dimensionality and Data Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crist, E. P.; Cicone, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Thematic Mapper data, simulated from field and laboratory spectrometer measurements of a variety of agricultural crops and a wide range of soils, are analyzed to determine their dispersion in the six space defined by the reflective TM bands (i.e., excluding the thermal band). While similar analyses of MSS data from agricultural scenes show that the vast majority of the MSS data occupy a single plane, the simulated TM data primarily occupy three dimensions, defining two intersecting planes and a zone of transition between the two. Viewing the plane of Vegetation head on provides a projection comparable to the single plane of MSS data. The Plane of Soils and transition zone represent new information made available largely as a result of the longer infrared bands included in the Thematic Mapper. A transformation, named the Thematic Mapper Tasseled Cap, is presented which rotates the TM data such that the described data structure is most readily accessible to view.

  15. The Moon mineralogy mapper (M3) on Chandrayaan-1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pieters, C.M.; Boardman, J.; Buratti, B.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Glavich, T.; Green, R.; Head, J.; Isaacson, P.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; Mustard, J.; Petro, N.; Runyon, C.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Tompkins, S.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is a NASA-supported guest instrument on ISRO's remote sensing mission to Moon, Chandrayaan-1. The M3 is an imaging spectrometer that operates from the visible into the near-infrared (0.42-3.0 ??m) where highly diagnostic mineral absorption bands occur. Over the course of the mission M3 will provide low resolution spectroscopic data for the entire lunar surface at 140 m/pixel (86 spectral channels) to be used as a base-map and high spectral resolution science data (80 m/pixel; 260 spectral channels) for 25-50% of the surface. The detailed mineral assessment of different lunar terrains provided by M3 is principal information needed for understanding the geologic evolution of the lunar crust and lays the foundation for focused future in-depth exploration of the Moon.

  16. Blue Marble Matches: Using Earth for Planetary Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama

    2009-01-01

    Goal: This activity is designed to introduce students to geologic processes on Earth and model how scientists use Earth to gain a better understanding of other planetary bodies in the solar system. Objectives: Students will: 1. Identify common descriptor characteristics used by scientists to describe geologic features in images. 2. Identify geologic features and how they form on Earth. 3. Create a list of defining/distinguishing characteristics of geologic features 4. Identify geologic features in images of other planetary bodies. 5. List observations and interpretations about planetary body comparisons. 6. Create summary statements about planetary body comparisons.

  17. Thematic Mapper data for forest resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeff, Ilene S.; Merry, Carolyn J.

    1993-01-01

    A technique for classifying a Landsat Thematic Mapper image was demonstrated on the Wayne National Forest of southeastern Ohio. The classified image was integrated into a geographic information system database, and prescriptive forest land use allocation models were developed using the techniques of cartographic modeling. Timber harvest sites and accompanying haul roads were allocated.

  18. Demographics of Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagenal, F.; White, S.

    2011-10-01

    A survey was sent out to university departments around the US that were thought to include faculty involved in planetary science research and/or offer planetary science undergraduate or graduate degrees. This is Part A of a study of the demographics of planetary science carried out by the American Institute of Physics (AIP) and sponsored by NASA's Planetary Science Division. Part B will be a survey of the planetary scientists with PhDs working in the US, to be carried out by the AIP in mid-2011. Starting on December 8th 2010 surveys were sent out by email to department chairs. A total of 48 departments responded between December 9th and April 8th . There is only U of Arizona that has a department that is called planetary sciences - the rest are combined with Earth sciences (14), astronomy (15), geology/geophysics (8), physics (7), atmospheric science (5), something else or combinations thereof. We present statistics from these 48 departments on faculty, researchers, graduate and undergraduate students.

  19. Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: petrology, petrography, meteoritic composition, planetary geology, atmospheric composition, astronomical spectroscopy, lunar geology, Mars (planet), Mars composition, Mars surface, volcanology, Mars volcanoes, Mars craters, lunar craters, mineralogy, mineral deposits, lithology, asteroids, impact melts, planetary composition, planetary atmospheres, planetary mapping, cosmic dust, photogeology, stratigraphy, lunar craters, lunar exploration, space exploration, geochronology, tectonics, atmospheric chemistry, astronomical models, and geochemistry.

  20. Geologic mapping of Argyre Planitia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorsline, Donn S.; Parker, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the results from the geologic mapping of the central and southern Argyre basin of Mars. At the Mars Geologic Mapper's Meeting in Flagstaff during July, 1993, Dave Scott (United States Geological Survey, Mars Geologic Mapping Steering Committee Chair) recommended that all four quadrangles be combined into a single 1:1,000,000 scale map for publication. It was agreed that this would be cost-effective and that the decrease in scale would not compromise the original science goals of the mapping. Tim Parker completed mapping on the 1:500,000 scale base maps, for which all the necessary materials had already been produced, and included the work as a chapter in his dissertation, which was completed in the fall of 1994. Geologic mapping of the two southernmost quadrangles (MTM -55036 and MTM -55043; MTM=Mars Transverse Mercator) was completed as planned during the first year of work. These maps and a detailed draft of the map text were given a preliminary review by Dave Scott during summer, 1993. Geologic mapping of the remaining two quadrangles (MTM -50036 and MTM -50043) was completed by summer, 1994. Results were described at the Mars Geologic Mappers Meeting, held in Pocatello, Idaho, during July, 1994. Funds for the third and final year of the project have been transferred to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where Tim Parker will revise and finalize all maps and map text for publication by the United States Geological Survey at the 1:1,000,000 map scale.

  1. The US planetary exploration program opportunities for international cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Opportunities for international participation in US-sponsored interplanetary missions are discussed on the basis of the recommendations of the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration of the National Academy of Sciences Space Science Board. The initial core missions suggested are a Venus radar mapper, a Mars geoscience/climatology orbiter, a comet-rendezvous/asteroid-flyby mission, and a Titan probe/radar mapper. Subsequent core missions are listed, and the need for cooperation in planning and development stages to facilitate international participation is indicated.

  2. The US planetary exploration program opportunities for international cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Opportunities for international participation in US-sponsored interplanetary missions are discussed on the basis of the recommendations of the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration of the National Academy of Sciences Space Science Board. The initial core missions suggested are a Venus radar mapper, a Mars geoscience/climatology orbiter, a comet-rendezvous/asteroid-flyby mission, and a Titan probe/radar mapper. Subsequent core missions are listed, and the need for cooperation in planning and development stages to facilitate international participation is indicated.

  3. Measurement of Thematic Mapper data quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.; Hlavka, C. A.; Card, D. H.; Buis, J. S.; Schowengerdt, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Thematic Mapper data from Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 were examined for band-to-band registration, absolute geodetic registration, periodic noise and spatial resolution. Between focal planes, appreciable misregistrations existed in early data products but were corrected in later data products. The analysis of absolute geodetic registration used only system-corrected data because ground control point-corrected data were unavailable. Geodetic registration errors averaged only 9.7 pixels, less than expected for system-corrected data. Periodic noise at four spatial frequencies was observed in Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper data by using Fourier analysis on small areas over water. Magnitudes of periodic noise components were consistent within a scene. The modulation transfer function was determined for two Landsat-4 scenes. The effective instantaneous field of view was 40.8 meters in one case, and 48.6 meters in the other.

  4. The SkyMapper Transient Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalzo, R. A.; Yuan, F.; Childress, M. J.; Möller, A.; Schmidt, B. P.; Tucker, B. E.; Zhang, B. R.; Onken, C. A.; Wolf, C.; Astier, P.; Betoule, M.; Regnault, N.

    2017-07-01

    The SkyMapper 1.3 m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory has now begun regular operations. Alongside the Southern Sky Survey, a comprehensive digital survey of the entire southern sky, SkyMapper will carry out a search for supernovae and other transients. The search strategy, covering a total footprint area of 2 000 deg2 with a cadence of ⩽5 d, is optimised for discovery and follow-up of low-redshift type Ia supernovae to constrain cosmic expansion and peculiar velocities. We describe the search operations and infrastructure, including a parallelised software pipeline to discover variable objects in difference imaging; simulations of the performance of the survey over its lifetime; public access to discovered transients; and some first results from the Science Verification data.

  5. Evaluation of corn/soybeans separability using Thematic Mapper and Thematic Mapper Simulator data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. E.; Badhwar, G. D.; Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Shen, S. S.; Sorensen, C. T.; Carnes, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Multitemporal Thematic Mapper, Thematic Mapper Simulator, and detailed ground truth data were collected for a 9- by 11-km sample segment in Webster County, IA, in the summer of 1982. Three dates were acquired each with Thematic Mapper Simulator (June 7, June 23, and July 31) and Thematic Mapper (August 2, September 3, and October 21). The Thematic Mapper Simulator data were converted to equivalent TM count values using TM and TMS calibration data and model based estimates of atmospheric effects. The July 31, TMS image was compared to the August 2, TM image to verify the conversion process. A quantitative measure of proportion estimation variance (Fisher information) was used to evaluate the corn/soybeans separability for each TM band as a function of time during the growing season. The additional bands in the middle infrared allowed corn and soybeans to be separated much earlier than was possible with the visible and near-infrared bands alone. Using the TM and TMS data, temporal profiles of the TM principal components were developed. The greenness and brightness exhibited behavior similar to MSS greenness and brightness for corn and soybeans.

  6. Evaluation of corn/soybeans separability using Thematic Mapper and Thematic Mapper Simulator data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. E.; Badhwar, G. D.; Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Shen, S. S.; Sorensen, C. T.; Carnes, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Multitemporal Thematic Mapper, Thematic Mapper Simulator, and detailed ground truth data were collected for a 9- by 11-km sample segment in Webster County, IA, in the summer of 1982. Three dates were acquired each with Thematic Mapper Simulator (June 7, June 23, and July 31) and Thematic Mapper (August 2, September 3, and October 21). The Thematic Mapper Simulator data were converted to equivalent TM count values using TM and TMS calibration data and model based estimates of atmospheric effects. The July 31, TMS image was compared to the August 2, TM image to verify the conversion process. A quantitative measure of proportion estimation variance (Fisher information) was used to evaluate the corn/soybeans separability for each TM band as a function of time during the growing season. The additional bands in the middle infrared allowed corn and soybeans to be separated much earlier than was possible with the visible and near-infrared bands alone. Using the TM and TMS data, temporal profiles of the TM principal components were developed. The greenness and brightness exhibited behavior similar to MSS greenness and brightness for corn and soybeans.

  7. Thematic mapper critical elements breadboard program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dale, C. H., Jr.; Engel, J. L.; Harney, E. D.

    1976-01-01

    A 40.6 cm bidirectional scan mirror assembly, a scan line corrector and a silicon photodiode array with integral preamplifier input stages were designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate performance consistent with requirements of the Hughes thematic mapper system. The measured performance met or exceeded the original design goals in all cases with the qualification that well defined and well understood deficiencies in the design of the photodiode array package will require the prescribed corrections before flight use.

  8. Thematic Mapper: Design through flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LANDSAT 4 and 5, launched in 1982 and 1984, not only carried the Thematic Mapper, but were redesigned to handle the increased data rates associated with it, and to communicate that data to Earth via geosynchronous orbiting Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS). The TM development program is summarized. A brief historical perspective is presented of the evolution of design requirements and hardware development. The basic performance parameters that serve as sensor design guidelines are presented.

  9. Juno's Earth flyby: the Jovian infrared Auroral Mapper preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, A.; Moriconi, M. L.; Mura, A.; Tosi, F.; Sindoni, G.; Noschese, R.; Cicchetti, A.; Filacchione, G.

    2016-08-01

    The Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper, JIRAM, is an image-spectrometer onboard the NASA Juno spacecraft flying to Jupiter. The instrument has been designed to study the aurora and the atmosphere of the planet in the spectral range 2-5 μm. The very first scientific observation taken with the instrument was at the Moon just before Juno's Earth fly-by occurred on October 9, 2013. The purpose was to check the instrument regular operation modes and to optimize the instrumental performances. The testing activity will be completed with pointing and a radiometric/spectral calibrations shortly after Jupiter Orbit Insertion. Then the reconstruction of some Moon infrared images, together with co-located spectra used to retrieve the lunar surface temperature, is a fundamental step in the instrument operation tuning. The main scope of this article is to serve as a reference to future users of the JIRAM datasets after public release with the NASA Planetary Data System.

  10. Planetary Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  11. Planetary Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  12. cMapper: gene-centric connectivity mapper for EBI-RDF platform.

    PubMed

    Shoaib, Muhammad; Ansari, Adnan Ahmad; Ahn, Sung-Min

    2017-01-15

    In this era of biological big data, data integration has become a common task and a challenge for biologists. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) was developed to enable interoperability of heterogeneous datasets. The EBI-RDF platform enables an efficient data integration of six independent biological databases using RDF technologies and shared ontologies. However, to take advantage of this platform, biologists need to be familiar with RDF technologies and SPARQL query language. To overcome this practical limitation of the EBI-RDF platform, we developed cMapper, a web-based tool that enables biologists to search the EBI-RDF databases in a gene-centric manner without a thorough knowledge of RDF and SPARQL. cMapper allows biologists to search data entities in the EBI-RDF platform that are connected to genes or small molecules of interest in multiple biological contexts. The input to cMapper consists of a set of genes or small molecules, and the output are data entities in six independent EBI-RDF databases connected with the given genes or small molecules in the user's query. cMapper provides output to users in the form of a graph in which nodes represent data entities and the edges represent connections between data entities and inputted set of genes or small molecules. Furthermore, users can apply filters based on database, taxonomy, organ and pathways in order to focus on a core connectivity graph of their interest. Data entities from multiple databases are differentiated based on background colors. cMapper also enables users to investigate shared connections between genes or small molecules of interest. Users can view the output graph on a web browser or download it in either GraphML or JSON formats. cMapper is available as a web application with an integrated MySQL database. The web application was developed using Java and deployed on Tomcat server. We developed the user interface using HTML5, JQuery and the Cytoscape Graph API. cMapper can be accessed at

  13. Planetary science: Flow of an alien ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Liquid water may lurk beneath the frozen surfaces of Jupiter's moon Europa and other icy worlds. Extending ocean science beyond Earth, planetary oceanographers are linking Europa's ocean dynamics to its enigmatic surface geology.

  14. Thematic mapper studies of Andean volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, P. W.

    1986-01-01

    The primary objective was to identify all the active volcanoes in the Andean region of Bolivia. Morphological features of the Tata Sabaya volcano, Bolivia, were studied with the thematic mapper. Details include marginal levees on lava and pyroclastic flows, and summit crater structure. Valley glacier moraine deposits, not easily identified on the multispectral band scanner, were also unambiguous, and provide useful marker horizons on large volcanic edifices which were built up in preglacial times but which were active subsequently. With such high resolution imagery, it is not only possible to identify potentially active volcanoes, but also to use standard photogeological interpretation to outline the history of individual volcanoes.

  15. Thematic mapper studies band correlation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, S. G.; Kiang, R.

    1976-01-01

    Spectral data representative of thematic mapper candidate bands 1 and 3 to 7 were obtained by selecting appropriate combinations of bands from the JSC 24 channel multispectral scanner. Of all the bands assigned, only candidate bands 4 (.74 mu to .80 mu) and 5 (.80 mu to .91 mu) showed consistently high intercorrelation from region to region and time to time. This extremely high correlation persisted when looking at the composite data set in a multitemporal, multilocation domain. The GISS investigations lend positive confirmation to the hypothesis, that TM bands 4 and 5 are redundant.

  16. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF LANDSAT-4 THEMATIC MAPPER DATA FOR THEIR GEOMETRIC AND RADIOMETRIC ACCURACIES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysoki, M.H.; Falcone, N.; Bender, L.U.; Jones, O.D.; ,

    1985-01-01

    This report describes results of some preliminary analyses of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data for the NASA Landsat Image Quality Analysis program. The work is being done under interagency agreement S-12407-C between the U. S. Geological Survey and NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center. Landsat-4 TM scenes for Washington, D. C. Macon, Georgia (40050-15333, September 4, 1982) and Cape Canaveral, Florida have been examined to determine their geometric and radiometric accuracy. In addition, parts of these scenes are also being analyzed to determine the ability to identify specific rock types with the added near-infrared TM bands.

  17. Titan Radar Mapper observations from Cassini's T3 fly-by

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elachi, C.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Stofan, E.; Lopes, R.; Kirk, R.; Lorenz, R.; Lunine, J.; Paganelli, F.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.; Anderson, Y.; Ostro, S.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

    2006-01-01

    Cassini's Titan Radar Mapper imaged the surface of Saturn's moon Titan on its February 2005 fly-by (denoted T3), collecting high-resolution synthetic-aperture radar and larger-scale radiometry and scatterometry data. These data provide the first definitive identification of impact craters on the surface of Titan, networks of fluvial channels and surficial dark streaks that may be longitudinal dunes. Here we describe this great diversity of landforms. We conclude that much of the surface thus far imaged by radar of the haze-shrouded Titan is very young, with persistent geologic activity. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.

  18. The South Polar Structure on Vesta from Dawn: Using Geologic, Topographic and Compositional Mapping and Planetary Analogs to Test Origin Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, P.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Neukum, G.; Schmedemann, N.; Yingst, R.; Williams, D. A.; Garry, W. B.; Buczkowski, D.; McCord, T. B.; Sykes, M. V.; O'Brien, D. P.; Blewett, D. T.; Asmar, S.; Ermakov, A.; Gaskell, R. W.; Raymond, C. A.; Polanskey, C.; Marchi, S.; Mottola, S.; Prettyman, T. H.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Nathues, A.; DeSanctis, C.; McSween, H. Y.; Russell, C. T.

    2011-12-01

    Approach imaging of Vesta by the Dawn spacecraft (Russell et al., 2007) show that the south polar topographic anomaly first observed by HST (Thomas et al., 1997), is a complex and unique geologic structure. A dense set of concentric arcuate, cuspate, and spiral inward-facing scarps and ridges form a coherent ~460-525 km wide annular feature. This region is bounded by a set of asymmetric and discontinuous inward-facing scarps several kilometers high. The center is dominated by a large central mountain ~200 km wide and 10-15 km high. The topography is complex, broadly circular with a large circular extension to one side. Three models for the origin of this structure have been proposed. Key tests of the HST-based large impact model include impact melt and ejecta but approach imagery is not yet of sufficient resolution to unambiguously detect these. Nevertheless, comparison to large impact features on Hyperion, Rhea and Iapetus suggest a basic similarity in planform to the large central mound and arcuate inward-facing scarps on Vesta. Alternatively, the complex interior can be interpreted as the manifestation of a large downwelling mantle plume. Broadly similar structures have been observed on Miranda and Enceladus, although these lack large central mounds. The third model suggests extensive post-impact deformation of a large impact feature. Rapid rotation during impact (Jutzi and Asphaug, 2011) may also explain some of the anomalous features. Impact ejecta and global fracturing may have profoundly altered Vestan geology. Large equatorial troughs may be related to the formation process or post-impact deformation. The confirmation of any of these models and their effects will required the detailed imagery, topography, compositional (VIR and GRaND), geologic and gravity mapping observations planned by Dawn. Preliminary crater counts indicate a possible surface model age of ~3.8 Gyr for the south polar structure. However, the structure is morphologically well preserved

  19. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry

    2014-03-01

    Preface: a personal view of planetary rings; 1. Introduction: the allure of the ringed planets; 2. Studies of planetary rings 1610-2013; 3. Diversity of planetary rings; 4. Individual ring particles and their collisions; 5. Large-scale ring evolution; 6. Moons confine and sculpt rings; 7. Explaining ring phenomena; 8. N-body simulations; 9. Stochastic models; 10. Age and evolution of rings; 11. Saturn's mysterious F ring; 12. Uranus' rings and moons; 13. Neptune's partial rings; 14. Jupiter's ring-moon system after Galileo and New Horizons; 15. Ring photometry; 16. Dusty rings; 17. Concluding remarks; Afterword; Glossary; References; Index.

  20. SkyMapper Discovery of a Nearby SN IIn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childress, M.; Scalzo, R.; Yuan, F.; Tucker, B.; Zhang, B.; Ruiter, A.; Seitenzahl, I.; Schmidt, B.; Ryder, S.

    2015-06-01

    We report the discovery of a nearby Type IIn SN as part of the SkyMapper Transient (SMT) survey conducted with the 268-megapixel camera on the SkyMapper 1.3-m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory near Coonabarabran, NSW, Australia (Keller et al., 2007, PASA, 24, 1).

  1. Radiometrie recalibration procedure for landsat-5 thematic mapper data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Micijevic, E.; Hayes, R.W.; Barsi, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Landsat-5 (L5) satellite was launched on March 01, 1984, with a design life of three years. Incredibly, the L5 Thematic Mapper (TM) has collected data for 23 years. Over this time, the detectors have aged, and its radiometric characteristics have changed since launch. The calibration procedures and parameters have also changed with time. Revised radiometric calibrations have improved the radiometric accuracy of recently processed data; however, users with data that were processed prior to the calibration update do not benefit from the revisions. A procedure has been developed to give users the ability to recalibrate their existing Level 1 (L1) products without having to purchase reprocessed data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The accuracy of the recalibration is dependent on the knowledge of the prior calibration applied to the data. The ""Work Order" file, included with standard National Land Archive Production System (NLAFS) data products, gives parameters that define the applied calibration. These are the Internal Calibrator (IC) calibration parameters or the default prelaunch calibration, if there were problems with the IC calibration. This paper details the recalibration procedure for data processed using IC, in which users have the Work Order file. ?? 2001 IEEE.

  2. Improved outgassing models for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Micijevic, E.; Chander, G.; Hayes, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    The Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) detectors of the short wave infrared (SWIR) bands 5 and 7 are maintained on cryogenic temperatures to minimize thermal noise and allow adequate detection of scene energy. Over the instrument's lifetime, gain oscillations are observed in these bands that are caused by an ice-like contaminant that gradually builds up on the window of a dewar that houses these bands' detectors. This process of icing, an effect of material outgassing in space, is detected and characterized through observations of Internal Calibrator (IC) data. Analyses of IC data indicated three to five percent uncertainty in absolute gain estimates due to this icing phenomenon. The thin-film interference lifetime models implemented in the image product generation systems at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) successfully remove up to 80 percent of the icing effects for the image acquisition period from the satellite's launch in 1984 until 2001; however, their correction ability was found to be much lower for the time thereafter. This study concentrates on improving the estimates of the contaminant film growth rate and the associated change in the period of gain oscillations. The goal is to provide model parameters with the potential to correct 70 to 80 percent of gain uncertainties caused by outgassing effects in L5 TM bands 5 and 7 over the instrument's entire lifetime. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  3. Improved outgassing models for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Micijevic, E.; Chander, G.; Hayes, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) detectors of the short wave infrared (SWIR) bands 5 and 7 are maintained on cryogenic temperatures to minimize thermal noise and allow adequate detection of scene energy. Over the instrument's lifetime, gain oscillations are observed in these bands that are caused by an ice-like contaminant that gradually builds up on the window of a dewar that houses these bands' detectors. This process of icing, an effect of material outgassing in space, is detected and characterized through observations of Internal Calibrator (IC) data. Analyses of IC data indicated three to five percent uncertainty in absolute gain estimates due to this icing phenomenon. The thin-film interference lifetime models implemented in the image product generation systems at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) successfully remove up to 80 percent of the icing effects for the image acquisition period from the satellite's launch in 1984 until 2001; however, their correction ability was found to be much lower for the time thereafter. This study concentrates on improving the estimates of the contaminant film growth rate and the associated change in the period of gain oscillations. The goal is to provide model parameters with the potential to correct 70 to 80 percent of gain uncertainties caused by outgassing effects in L5 TM bands 5 and 7 over the instrument's entire lifetime. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  4. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This CD-ROM presents papers presented to the Thirty-first Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, March 13-17, 2000, Houston, Texas. Eighty-one conference sessions, and over one thousand extended abstracts are included. Abstracts cover topics such as Martian surface properties and geology, meteoritic composition, Martian landing sites and roving vehicles, planned Mars Sample Return Missions, and general astrobiology.

  5. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This CD-ROM presents papers presented to the Thirty-first Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, March 13-17, 2000, Houston, Texas. Eighty-one conference sessions, and over one thousand extended abstracts are included. Abstracts cover topics such as Martian surface properties and geology, meteoritic composition, Martian landing sites and roving vehicles, planned Mars Sample Return Missions, and general astrobiology.

  6. Planetary Magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.

    2007-01-01

    The chapter on Planetary Magnetism by Connerney describes the magnetic fields of the planets, from Mercury to Neptune, including the large satellites (Moon, Ganymede) that have or once had active dynamos. The chapter describes the spacecraft missions and observations that, along with select remote observations, form the basis of our knowledge of planetary magnetic fields. Connerney describes the methods of analysis used to characterize planetary magnetic fields, and the models used to represent the main field (due to dynamo action in the planet's interior) and/or remnant magnetic fields locked in the planet's crust, where appropriate. These observations provide valuable insights into dynamo generation of magnetic fields, the structure and composition of planetary interiors, and the evolution of planets.

  7. Planetary Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. Bruce; Abercrombie, Rachel; Keddie, Susan; Mizutani, Hitoshi; Nagihara, Seiichi; Nakamura, Yosio; Pike, W. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies two main themes to guide planetary science in the next two decades: understanding planetary origins, and understanding the constitution and fundamental processes of the planets themselves. Within the latter theme, four specific goals related to interior measurements addressing the theme. These are: (1) Understanding the internal structure and dynamics of at least one solid body, other than the Earth or Moon, that is actively convecting, (2) Determine the characteristics of the magnetic fields of Mercury and the outer planets to provide insight into the generation of planetary magnetic fields, (3) Specify the nature and sources of stress that are responsible for the global tectonics of Mars, Venus, and several icy satellites of the outer planets, and (4) Advance significantly our understanding of crust-mantle structure for all the solid planets. These goals can be addressed almost exclusively by measurements made on the surfaces of planetary bodies.

  8. Planetary transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nerstad, K.A.; Windish, W.E.

    1987-04-21

    A planetary transmission is described comprising: an input shaft; a first planetary gear set having a first sun gear driven by the input shaft, a first planet carrier serving as the output, a first ring gear, and first brake means for selectively holding the fist ring gear stationary; a second planetary gear set having a second sun gear driven by the input shaft, a second planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the first ring gear, a second ring gear, and second brake means for selectively holding the second ring gear stationary; a third planetary gear set having a third sun gear connected for joint rotation to the second planet carrier, a third planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the second ring gear, a third ring gear, and third brake means for selectively holding the third ring gear stationary; and clutch means for connecting the third sun gear to the input shaft and providing a direct drive mode of operation.

  9. Planetary volcanism

    SciTech Connect

    Cattermole, P.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents studies of the volcanic features of individual planets. Bring together the most recently acquired data on selected regions of individual planets and discusses in detail the volcanic processes at work. Begins with a discussion of theoretical considerations and a survey of volcanism on earth. Continues with a comparative approach to planetary volcanism, looking at the volcanic features of different planets. Draws conclusions about planetary development based on the characteristic volcanic features of the different planets.

  10. Planetary geosciences, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T. (Editor); James, Odette B. (Editor); Lunine, Jonathan I. (Editor); Macpherson, Glenn J. (Editor); Phillips, Roger J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Planetary Geosciences Programs (the Planetary Geology and Geophysics and the Planetary Material and Geochemistry Programs) provide support and an organizational framework for scientific research on solid bodies of the solar system. These research and analysis programs support scientific research aimed at increasing our understanding of the physical, chemical, and dynamic nature of the solid bodies of the solar system: the Moon, the terrestrial planets, the satellites of the outer planets, the rings, the asteroids, and the comets. This research is conducted using a variety of methods: laboratory experiments, theoretical approaches, data analysis, and Earth analog techniques. Through research supported by these programs, we are expanding our understanding of the origin and evolution of the solar system. This document is intended to provide an overview of the more significant scientific findings and discoveries made this year by scientists supported by the Planetary Geosciences Program. To a large degree, these results and discoveries are the measure of success of the programs.

  11. A New Measurement Capability Using the CEDAR Mesospheric Temperature Mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. J.; Pendleton, W. R.

    2001-12-01

    The CEDAR Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (MTM) was developed at Utah State University in 1996/7 as part of the CEDAR Phase III initiative for new research instrumentation. The MTM uses a sensitive bare CCD detector to obtain high signal-to-noise ratio ( ~100:1) images of selected emission lines in the near infrared OH (6,2) band to determine intensity and temperature perturbations induced by a wide range of atmospheric waves (periods ~10 min - ~10 hrs) with a precision of better than 2K in 3-min (or 0.5 K in 30 min). The high precision and stability of the MTM make it very well suited for long-term field measurements and extensive data sets have been obtained alongside two powerful Na lidar systems: at Ft Collins, CO (1997/98), and at the Starfire Optical Range, NM (1998/2000). These joint data sets have revealed a wealth of new information on gravity wave and tidal propagation at mesospheric heights and to date our analyses have focused on characterizing the 8-hr tide at mid-latitudes and the identification of a fall equinox transition signature associated with the penetration of stationary planetary wave energy into the upper mesosphere during the seasonal reversal of the stratospheric wind field. In this presentation we will summarize these results and will then focus on recent measurements of wave propagation (phase) and growth (amplitude) from Bear Lake Observatory, UT using an enhanced MTM capable of measuring wave signatures in the both the near infrared OH (peak altitude ~87 km) and the 02(0,1) (altitude ~94 km) emission layers. New observations using the enhanced MTM are planned as part of the NASA/NSF TIMED coordinated ground-based measurements program and the AFOSR/NSF Maui-MALT initiative.

  12. Thematic mapper: detailed radiometric and geometric characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, Hugh

    1983-01-01

    Those radiometric characteristics of the Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) that can be established without absolute calibration of spectral data have been examined. Subscenes of radiometric all raw data (B-data) were examined on an individual detector basis: areas of uniform radiance were used to characterize subtle radiometric differences and noise problems. A variety of anomalies have been discovered with magnitude of a few digital levels or less: the only problem not addressable by ground processing is irregular width of the digital levels. Essentially all of this non-ideal performance is incorporated in the fully processed (P-type) images, but disguised by the geometric resampling procedure. The overall performance of the Thematic Mapper is a great improvement over previous Landsat scanners. The effective resolution in radiance is degraded by about a factor of two by irregular width of the digital levels. Several detectors have a change of gain with a period of several scans, the largest effect is about 4%. These detectors appear to switch between two response levels during scan direction reversal; there is no apparent periodicity to these changes. This can cause small apparent difference between forward and reverse scans for portions of an image. The high-frequency noise level of each detector was characterized by the standard deviation of the first derivative in the sample direction across a flat field. Coherent sinusoidal noise patterns were determined using one-dimensional Fourier transforms. A "stitching" pattern in Band 1 has a period of 13.8 samples with a peak-to-peak amplitude ranging from 1 to 5 DN. Noise with a period of 3.24 samples is pronounced for most detectors in band 1, to a lesser extent in bands 2, 3, and 4, and below background noise levels in bands 5, 6, and 7. The geometric fidelity of the GSFC film writer used for Thematic Mapper (TM) images was assessed by measurement with accuracy bette than three micrometers of a test grid. A set of 55

  13. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: P-Z

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: impact craters, tektites, lunar geology, lava flow, geodynamics, chondrites, planetary geology, planetary surfaces, volcanology, tectonics, topography, regolith, metamorphic rock, geomorphology, lunar soil, geochemistry, petrology, cometary collisions, geochronology, weathering, and meteoritic composition.

  14. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: P-Z

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: impact craters, tektites, lunar geology, lava flow, geodynamics, chondrites, planetary geology, planetary surfaces, volcanology, tectonics, topography, regolith, metamorphic rock, geomorphology, lunar soil, geochemistry, petrology, cometary collisions, geochronology, weathering, and meteoritic composition. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  15. Venus radar mapper attitude reference quaternion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, D. T.

    1986-01-01

    Polynomial functions of time are used to specify the components of the quaternion which represents the nominal attitude of the Venus Radar mapper spacecraft during mapping. The following constraints must be satisfied in order to obtain acceptable synthetic array radar data: the nominal attitude function must have a large dynamic range, the sensor orientation must be known very accurately, the attitude reference function must use as little memory as possible, and the spacecraft must operate autonomously. Fitting polynomials to the components of the desired quaternion function is a straightforward method for providing a very dynamic nominal attitude using a minimum amount of on-board computer resources. Although the attitude from the polynomials may not be exactly the one requested by the radar designers, the polynomial coefficients are known, so they do not contribute to the attitude uncertainty. Frequent coefficient updates are not required, so the spacecraft can operate autonomously.

  16. Snow Reflectance from LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.

    1984-01-01

    In California 75% of the agricultural water supply comes from the melting Sierra Nevada snowpack. Basin-wide albedo measurements from the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper could be used to better forecast the timing of the spring runoff, because these data can be combined with solar radiation calculations to estimate the net radiation budget. The TM is better-suited for this purpose than the MSS because of its large dynamic range. Saturation still occurs in bands 1-4, but is severe only in band 1. Differentiation of snow optical grain size is possible with TM band 4 through a moderately clear atmosphere. The TM band 5 can discriminate clouds from snow, and the combination of bands 2 and 5 appears best for snow mapping.

  17. Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper outgassing effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, D.L.; Micijevic, E.

    2004-01-01

    A periodic 3% to 5% variation in detector response affecting both image and internal calibrator (IC) data has been observed in bands 5 and 7 of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper. The source for this variation is thought to be an interference effect due to buildup of an ice-like contaminant film on a ZnSe window, covered with an antireflective coating (ARC), of the cooled dewar containing these detectors. Periodic warming of the dewar is required in order to remove the contaminant and restore detector response to an uncontaminated level. These effects in the IC data have been characterized over four individual outgassing cycles using thin-film models to estimate transmittance of the window/ARC and ARC/contaminant film stack throughout the instrument lifetime. Based on the results obtained from this modeling, a lookup table procedure has been implemented that provides correction factors to improve the calibration accuracy of bands 5 and 7 by approximately 5%.

  18. Thematic mapper studies of central Andean volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Peter W.

    1987-01-01

    A series of false color composite images covering the volcanic cordillera was written. Each image is 45 km (1536 x 1536 pixels) and was constructed using bands 7, 4, and 2 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) data. Approximately 100 images were prepared to date. A set of LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images was used in conjunction with the TM hardcopy to compile a computer data base of all volcanic structure in the Central Andean province. Over 500 individual structures were identified. About 75 major volcanoes were identified as active, or potentially active. A pilot study was begun combining Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data with TM for a test area in north Chile and Bolivia.

  19. MAPPER alignment sensor evaluation on process wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergeer, N.; Lattard, L.; de Boer, G.; Couweleers, F.; Dave, D.; Pradelles, J.; Bustos, J.

    2013-03-01

    MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing. In order to reduce costs and to minimize the footprint of this tool a new alignment sensor has been developed; based on technologies used for DVD optical heads. A wafer with an alignment mark is scanned with the sensor, resulting in an intensity pattern versus position. From this pattern the mark position can be calculated. Evaluations have been made over the performance of this type of sensor using different mark designs at several lithography process steps for FEOL and BEOL manufacturing. It has been shown that sub-nanometer reproducibility (3σ std) of alignment mark readings can be achieved while being robust against various process steps.

  20. Lineage mapper: A versatile cell and particle tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalfoun, Joe; Majurski, Michael; Dima, Alden; Halter, Michael; Bhadriraju, Kiran; Brady, Mary

    2016-11-01

    The ability to accurately track cells and particles from images is critical to many biomedical problems. To address this, we developed Lineage Mapper, an open-source tracker for time-lapse images of biological cells, colonies, and particles. Lineage Mapper tracks objects independently of the segmentation method, detects mitosis in confluence, separates cell clumps mistakenly segmented as a single cell, provides accuracy and scalability even on terabyte-sized datasets, and creates division and/or fusion lineages. Lineage Mapper has been tested and validated on multiple biological and simulated problems. The software is available in ImageJ and Matlab at isg.nist.gov.

  1. Lineage mapper: A versatile cell and particle tracker

    PubMed Central

    Chalfoun, Joe; Majurski, Michael; Dima, Alden; Halter, Michael; Bhadriraju, Kiran; Brady, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The ability to accurately track cells and particles from images is critical to many biomedical problems. To address this, we developed Lineage Mapper, an open-source tracker for time-lapse images of biological cells, colonies, and particles. Lineage Mapper tracks objects independently of the segmentation method, detects mitosis in confluence, separates cell clumps mistakenly segmented as a single cell, provides accuracy and scalability even on terabyte-sized datasets, and creates division and/or fusion lineages. Lineage Mapper has been tested and validated on multiple biological and simulated problems. The software is available in ImageJ and Matlab at isg.nist.gov. PMID:27853188

  2. Development of image mappers for hyperspectral biomedical imaging applications

    PubMed Central

    Kester, Robert T.; Gao, Liang; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2010-01-01

    A new design and fabrication method is presented for creating large-format (>100 mirror facets) image mappers for a snapshot hyperspectral biomedical imaging system called an image mapping spectrometer (IMS). To verify this approach a 250 facet image mapper with 25 multiple-tilt angles is designed for a compact IMS that groups the 25 subpupils in a 5 × 5 matrix residing within a single collecting objective's pupil. The image mapper is fabricated by precision diamond raster fly cutting using surface-shaped tools. The individual mirror facets have minimal edge eating, tilt errors of <1 mrad, and an average roughness of 5.4 nm. PMID:20357875

  3. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2011-07-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction: the allure of ringed planets; 2. Studies of planetary rings 1610-2004; 3. Diversity of planetary rings; 4. Individual ring particles and their collisions; 5. Large-scale ring evolution; 6. Moons confine and sculpt rings; 7. Explaining ring phenomena; 8. N-Body simulations; 9. Stochastic models; 10. Age and evolution of rings; 11. Saturn's mysterious F ring; 12. Neptune's partial rings; 13. Jupiter's ring-moon system after Galileo; 14. Ring photometry; 15. Dusty rings; 16. Cassini observations; 17. Summary: the big questions; Glossary; References; Index.

  4. Planetary astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, David; Hunten, Donald; Ahearn, Michael F.; Belton, Michael J. S.; Black, David; Brown, Robert A.; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Cochran, Anita L.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Depater, Imke

    1991-01-01

    The authors profile the field of astronomy, identify some of the key scientific questions that can be addressed during the decade of the 1990's, and recommend several facilities that are critically important for answering these questions. Scientific opportunities for the 1990' are discussed. Areas discussed include protoplanetary disks, an inventory of the solar system, primitive material in the solar system, the dynamics of planetary atmospheres, planetary rings and ring dynamics, the composition and structure of the atmospheres of giant planets, the volcanoes of IO, and the mineralogy of the Martian surface. Critical technology developments, proposed projects and facilities, and recommendations for research and facilities are discussed.

  5. Planetary magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1980-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft have now probed the magnetic fields of all the terrestrial planets, the moon, Jupiter, and Saturn. These measurements reveal that dynamos are active in at least four of the planets, Mercury, the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn but that Venus and Mars appear to have at most only very weak planetary magnetic fields. The moon may have once possessed an internal dynamo, for the surface rocks are magnetized. The large satellites of the outer solar system are candidates for dynamo action in addition to the large planets themselves. Of these satellites the one most likely to generate its own internal magnetic field is Io.

  6. Planetary Magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.T.

    1980-02-01

    Planetary spacecraft have now probed the magnetic fields of all the terrestrial planets, the moon, Jupiter, and Saturn. These measurements reveal that dynamos are active in at least four of the planets, Mercury, the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn but that Venus and Mars appear to have at most only very weak planetary magnetic fields. The moon may have once possessed an internal dynamo, for the surface rocks are magnetized. The large satellites of the outer solar system are candidates for dynamo action in addition to the large planets themselves. Of these satellites the one most likely to generate its own internal magnetic field is Io.

  7. Planetary magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1980-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft have now probed the magnetic fields of all the terrestrial planets, the moon, Jupiter, and Saturn. These measurements reveal that dynamos are active in at least four of the planets, Mercury, the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn but that Venus and Mars appear to have at most only very weak planetary magnetic fields. The moon may have once possessed an internal dynamo, for the surface rocks are magnetized. The large satellites of the outer solar system are candidates for dynamo action in addition to the large planets themselves. Of these satellites the one most likely to generate its own internal magnetic field is Io.

  8. Old Geology and New Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 28 May 2003

    Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  9. Old Geology and New Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 28 May 2003

    Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  10. Planetary Geomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Victor R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various topics related to planetary geomorphology, including: research techniques; such geomorphic processes as impact, volcanic, degradational, eolian, and hillslope/mass movement processes; and channels and valleys. Indicates that the subject should be taught as a series of scientific questions rather than scientific results of…

  11. Planetary Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    1994-01-01

    Just over two decades ago, Jim Pollack made a critical contribution to our understanding of planetary ring particle properties, and resolved a major apparent paradox between radar reflection and radio emission observations. At the time, particle properties were about all there were to study about planetary rings, and the fundamental questions were, why is Saturn the only planet with rings, how big are the particles, and what are they made of? Since then, we have received an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Meanwhile, we have seen steady progress in our understanding of the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron-to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems into the complex webs of structure that we now know them to display. Insights gained from studies of these giant dynamical analogs have carried over into improved understanding of the formation of the planets themselves from particle disks, a subject very close to Jim's heart. The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems are invariably found in association with families of regular satellites, and there is ark emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system

  12. Planetary quarantine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The overall objective is to identify those areas of future missions which will be impacted by planetary quarantine (PQ) constraints. The objective of the phase being described was to develop an approach for using decision theory in performing a PQ analysis for a Mariner Jupiter Uranus Mission and to compare it with the traditional approach used for other missions.

  13. Planetary radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The radar astronomy activities supported by the Deep Space Network during June, July, and August 1980 are reported. The planetary bodies observed were Venus, Mercury, and the asteroid Toro. Data were obtained at both S and X band, and the observations were considered successful.

  14. Planetary quarantine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Developed methodologies and procedures for the reduction of microbial burden on an assembled spacecraft at the time of encapsulation or terminal sterilization are reported. This technology is required for reducing excessive microbial burden on spacecraft components for the purposes of either decreasing planetary contamination probabilities for an orbiter or minimizing the duration of a sterilization process for a lander.

  15. Planetary Geomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Victor R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various topics related to planetary geomorphology, including: research techniques; such geomorphic processes as impact, volcanic, degradational, eolian, and hillslope/mass movement processes; and channels and valleys. Indicates that the subject should be taught as a series of scientific questions rather than scientific results of…

  16. Planetary Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    1994-01-01

    Just over two decades ago, Jim Pollack made a critical contribution to our understanding of planetary ring particle properties, and resolved a major apparent paradox between radar reflection and radio emission observations. At the time, particle properties were about all there were to study about planetary rings, and the fundamental questions were, why is Saturn the only planet with rings, how big are the particles, and what are they made of? Since then, we have received an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Meanwhile, we have seen steady progress in our understanding of the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron-to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems into the complex webs of structure that we now know them to display. Insights gained from studies of these giant dynamical analogs have carried over into improved understanding of the formation of the planets themselves from particle disks, a subject very close to Jim's heart. The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems are invariably found in association with families of regular satellites, and there is ark emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system

  17. Thematic Mapper. Volume 1: Calibration report flight model, LANDSAT 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, R. C.; Lansing, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The calibration of the Flight 1 Model Thematic Mapper is discussed. Spectral response, scan profile, coherent noise, line spread profiles and white light leaks, square wave response, radiometric calibration, and commands and telemetry are specifically addressed.

  18. Field Geology/Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  19. Evaluation of thematic mapper data for natural resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, R.H.; Waltz, F.A.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center evaluated the utility of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) date for natural resource assessment, emphasizing manual interpretation and digital classification of the data for U.S. Department of the Interior applications. Substantially more information was derived from TM data than from Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data. Greater resolution of TM data aided in locating roads, small stock ponds, and many other land features that could be used as landmarks. The improved spatial resolution of TM data also permitted more efficient visual interpretations of land use, better identification of resource types, and improved assessment of ecological status of natural vegetation. TM data also provided a new source of spectral information that was useful for natural resource assessment. New mid-infrared spectral bands, TM band 5 and band 7, aided in distinguishing water resources, wetland vegetation resources, and other important terrain features. The added information was useful for both manual interpretation and digital data classification of vegetation resources and land features. Results from the analyses of both TM and TM simulator (TMS) spectral data suggest that the coefficient of variation for major land cover types is generally less for TM data than for MSS data taken from the same area. This reduction in variance should contribute to an improved multispectral analysis, contributing new information about vegetation in natural ecosystems. Although the amount of new information in TM bands 5 and 7 is mall, it is unique in that the same information cannot be derived from four-band Landsat MSS spectral data.

  20. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.

    Planetary rings are the only nearby astrophysical disks and the only disks that have been investigated by spacecraft (especially the Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn). Although there are significant differences between rings and other disks, chiefly the large planet/ring mass ratio that greatly enhances the flatness of rings (aspect ratios as small as 10- 7), understanding of disks in general can be enhanced by understanding the dynamical processes observed at close range and in real time in planetary rings.We review the known ring systems of the four giant planets, as well as the prospects for ring systems yet to be discovered. We then review planetary rings by type. The A, B, and C rings of Saturn, plus the Cassini Division, comprise our solar system's only dense broad disk and host many phenomena of general application to disks including spiral waves, gap formation, self-gravity wakes, viscous overstability and normal modes, impact clouds, and orbital evolution of embedded moons. Dense narrow rings are found both at Uranus (where they comprise the main rings entirely) and at Saturn (where they are embedded in the broad disk) and are the primary natural laboratory for understanding shepherding and self-stability. Narrow dusty rings, likely generated by embedded source bodies, are surprisingly found to sport azimuthally confined arcs at Neptune, Saturn, and Jupiter. Finally, every known ring system includes a substantial component of diffuse dusty rings.Planetary rings have shown themselves to be useful as detectors of planetary processes around them, including the planetary magnetic field and interplanetary impactors as well as the gravity of nearby perturbing moons. Experimental rings science has made great progress in recent decades, especially numerical simulations of self-gravity wakes and other processes but also laboratory investigations of coefficient of restitution and spectroscopic ground truth. The age of self-sustained ring systems is a matter of

  1. Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: petrology, petrography, meteoritic composition, planetary geology, atmospheric composition, astronomical spectroscopy, lunar geology, Mars (planet), Mars composition, Mars surface, volcanology, Mars volcanoes, Mars craters, lunar craters, mineralogy, mineral deposits, lithology, asteroids, impact melts, planetary composition, planetary atmospheres, planetary mapping, cosmic dust, photogeology, stratigraphy, lunar craters, lunar exploration, space exploration, geochronology, tectonics, atmospheric chemistry, astronomical models, and geochemistry. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  2. LITHOLOGIC MAPPING USING LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DATA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Salisbury, J.W.; Jones, O.D.; Mimms, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    The paper is in abstract form. It discusses the Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM), with its new near infrared bands centered at 1. 65 mu m and 2. 20 mu m and spatial resolution of 30 m, which has been used to distinguish rocks containing minerals having ferric-iron absorption bands in the visible and near-infrared and Al-O and CO//3 absorption bands in the 2. 1-2. 4 mu m regions. On the basis of characteristic absorption bands, digitally processed TM data were used to differentiate vegetated from non-vegetated areas, limonitic from nonlimonitic rocks, rocks containing minerals having absorption bands in the near-infrared region from rocks lacking the infrared absorption bands. Specific minerals were detected in both the humid eastern and semi-arid western United States. The absorption bands in the near-infrared region were used to detect kaolinite in open-pit exposures of a kaolin mining district near Macon, Georgia; calcium carbonate in the beach sands along the east coast of Florida; and kaolinite, alunite, jarosite, sericite and gypsum in natural exposures near Boulder City, Nevada.

  3. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The combinations of Thematic Mapper (TM) bands that best distinguish basalts of the Brooks Range ophiolites were determined. Geochemical analyses, including major, trace, and rare earth elements (REE), are being done in order to study the significance of TM spectral variations that were observed within some of the sampled rock units. An image of the topography of the western Brooks Range and Colville Basin was constructed. Elevation data for the rest of Northern Alaska are being acquired to expand the area covered by the topography image. Two balanced cross sections (one along the eastern margin, the other along the western margin of the Brooks Range) are being constructed, using the techniques of fault-bend and fault-propagation folding. These are being used to obtain regional shortening estimates for the Brooks Range in an attempt to constrain tectonic models for the evolution of Northern Alaska. The TM data are being used to confirm reconnaissance maps and to obtain structural data where no maps exist. Along with the TM data, digital topography, seismic reflection profiles, and magnetic and gravity surveys are examined to better understand the evolution of the Colville Basin, north of the Brooks Range.

  4. Information extraction from thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1983-01-01

    The improvements introduced in spectral, spatial, and ratiometric capabilities through installation of the thematic mapper (TM) on the Landsat-4 spacecraft are described. The TM optical sensors scan in the visible (0.45-0.52, 0.52-0.60, and 0.63-0.69 micron), near-IR (0.76-0.90 micron), middle-IR (1.55-1.75 micron), and thermal IR (10.4-12.5 microns). The reflectances of vegetation and the differences in chlorophyll absorption by various plants are discerned more accurately than with the MSS, while the effects of land surface obscuration by water vapor are reduced. The blue-green band upgrades water measurements for bathymetry, reef, and atoll mapping, and the middle-IR increases sensitivity to leaf water content. The field-of-view is a 30 x 30 m square, one-fifth that of the MSS. Results from sample surveys of forested wetlands in Tennessee and agricultural land use patterns are presented.

  5. Snow reflectance from Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.

    1984-01-01

    In California 75 percent of the agricultural water supply comes from the melting Sierra Nevada snowpack. Basin-wide spectral albedo measurements from the Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) could be used to better forecast the timing of the spring runoff, because these data can be combined with solar radiation calculations to estimate the net radiation balance. The TM is better-suited for this purpose than the Multispectral Scanner because of its larger dynamic range. Saturation still occurs in bands 1-4, but is severe only in TM1 (0.45-0.52 micron). Snow reflectance in TM2 (0.43-0.61 micron) is typical of the visible wavelength region, where reflectance is almost insensitive to crystal size but sensitive to contamination. TM4 (0.78-0.90 micron) allows estimation of effective optical grain size and thereby spectral extension throughout the near-infrared. TM5 (1.57-1.78 microns) can discriminate clouds from snow.

  6. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper calibration update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, Dennis L.; Malla, Rimy; Mettler, Cory J.; Markham, Brian L.; Micijevic, Esad

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) collected imagery of the Earth's surface from 1982 to 1993. Although largely overshadowed by Landsat 5 which was launched in 1984, Landsat 4 TM imagery extends the TM-based record of the Earth back to 1982 and also substantially supplements the image archive collected by Landsat 5. To provide a consistent calibration record for the TM instruments, Landsat 4 TM was cross-calibrated to Landsat 5 using nearly simultaneous overpass imagery of pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) in the time period of 1988-1990. To determine if the radiometric gain of Landsat 4 had changed over its lifetime, time series from two PICS locations (a Saharan site known as Libya 4 and a site in southwest North America, commonly referred to as the Sonoran Desert site) were developed. The results indicated that Landsat 4 had been very stable over its lifetime, with no discernible degradation in sensor performance in all reflective bands except band 1. In contrast, band 1 exhibited a 12% decay in responsivity over the lifetime of the instrument. Results from this paper have been implemented at USGS EROS, which enables users of Landsat TM data sets to obtain consistently calibrated data from Landsat 4 and 5 TM as well as Landsat 7 ETM+ instruments.

  7. Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, T.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Planetary atmospheres are the external gaseous envelopes which surround the planets. In the case of the telluric planets, they represent only a negligible fraction of their mass, but they play an essential role in the energy balance between the surfaces and the Sun. In the case of the GIANT PLANETS, which are mostly gaseous, they account for a large fraction of their total mass and constitute the...

  8. Planetary quarantine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Those areas of future missions which will be impacted by planetary quarantine (PQ) constraints were identified. The specific objectives for this reporting period were (1) to perform an analysis of the effects of PQ on an outer planet atmospheric probe, and (2) to prepare a quantitative illustration of spacecraft microbial reduction resulting from exposure to space environments. The Jupiter Orbiter Probe mission was used as a model for both of these efforts.

  9. Planetary Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  10. Planetary engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  11. Planetary engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey water resources Internet tools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, Kimberly H.

    2013-11-07

    The U.S. Geological Fact Sheet (USGS) provides a wealth of information on hydrologic data, maps, graphs, and other resources for your State.Sources of water resources information are listed below.WaterWatchWaterQualityWatchGroundwater WatchWaterNowWaterAlertUSGS Flood Inundation MapperNational Water Information System (NWIS)StreamStatsNational Water Quality Assessment (NAWOA)

  13. Current research in geological applications of remote sensing techniques and implications for petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Settle, M.; Taranik, J.V.

    1983-03-01

    Exploration geologists have made extensive use of aerial photography and orbital Landsat imagery, primarily for purposes of structural mapping. The Landsat 4 spacecraft launched in July 1982 is carrying a new imaging instrument called the Thematic Mapper which represents a significant advance over earlier Landsat sensors. Experimental studies with airborne Thematic Mapper simulators tentatively indicate that these measurement capabilities will have a major payoff in terms of our ability to detect variations in clay mineralogy and abundance, to map bleaching effects in surficial rocks and soils that may be produced by hydrocarbon seepage, and to detect variations in the distribution and vigor of natural vegetation that are also related to seepage phenomena. The improved spatial resolution of the Thematic Mapper will enable photogeologists to identify smaller scale landforms and drainage features which will also contribute to improved structural mapping capabilities. Research is currently underway to determine the utility of Thematic Mapper measurements for geologic mapping in complex areas characterized by large relief and extensive vegetation. Radar imaging techniques also represent an important source of information concerning geological conditions at the earth's surface. Exploration geologists have made extensive use of airborne radar surveys for terrain analysis and structural mapping, particularly in tropical environments. Orbital radar techniques may provide an important new tool for mapping facies variations within sedimentary basins.

  14. Regional aeolian dynamics and sand mixing in the Gran Desierto: Evidence from Landsat thematic mapper images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blount, Grady; Smith, Milton O.; Adams, John B.; Greeley, Ronald; Christensen, Phillip R.

    1990-09-01

    Spatial variations in sand composition were mapped on a regional scale in a terrestrial sand sea, the Gran Desierto of Sonora, Mexico. Mesoscale mapping on a satellite image base allowed quantitative interpretation of the dynamic development of sand sheets and dunes. The results were used to interpret the Quaternary geologic history of the tectonically active region at the mouth of the Colorado River. Landsat thematic mapper multispectral images were used to predict the abundance of different mineralogies of sand grains in a mixed aeolian terrain. A spectral mixing model separated the effects of vegetation and topographically induced shading and shadow from the effects produced by different mineral and rock types. Compositions determined remotely agreed well with samples from selected areas within the spectral limitations of the thematic mapper. A simple discrimination capability for active versus inactive sand surfaces is demonstrated based upon differences in the percentage of low-albedo accessory grains occurring on dormant aeolian surfaces. A technique for discriminating between low-albedo materials and macroscopic shade is implemented by combining thermal images with the results of the spectral mixing model. The image analysis revealed important compositional variations over large areas that were not readily apparent in the field.

  15. Regional aeolian dynamics and sand mixing in the Gran Desierto: Evidence from Landsat thematic mapper images

    SciTech Connect

    Blount, G.; Greeley, R.; Christensen, P.R. ); Smith, M.O.; Adams, J.B. )

    1990-09-10

    Spatial variations in sand composition were mapped on a regional scale in a terrestrial sand sea, the Gran Desierto of Sonora, Mexico. Mesoscale mapping on a satellite image base allowed quantitative interpretation of the dynamic development of sand sheets and dunes. The results were used to interpret the Quaternary geologic history of the tectonically active region at the mouth of the Colorado River. Landsat thematic mapper multispectral images were used to predict the abundance of different mineralogies of sand grains in a mixed aeolian terrain. A spectral mixing model separated the effects of vegetation and topographically induced shading and shadow from the effects produced by different mineral and rock types. Compositions determined remotely agreed well with samples from selected areas within the spectral limitations of the thematic mapper. A simple discrimination capability for active versus inactive sand surfaces is demonstrated based upon differences in the percentage of low-albedo accessory grains occurring on dormant aeolian surfaces. A technique for discriminating between low-albedo materials and macroscopic shade is implemented by combing thermal images with the results of the spectral mixing model. The image analysis revealed important compositional variations over large areas that were not readily apparent in the field.

  16. Status of the Landsat thematic mapper and multispectral scanner archive conversion system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, Darla J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (EDC) manages the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive. This archive includes Landsat thematic mapper (TM) multispectral scanner (MSS) data acquired since 1972. The Landsat archive is an important resource to global change research. To ensure long-term availability of Landsat data from the archive, the EDC specified requirements for a Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner Archive Conversion System (TMACS) that would preserve the data by transcribing it to a more durable medium. In addition to media conversion, hardware and software was installed at EDC in July 1992. In December 1992, the EDC began converting Landsat MSS data from high-density, open reel instrumentation tapes to digital cassette tapes. Almost 320,000 MSS images acquired since 1979 and more than 200,000 TM images acquired since 1982 will be converted to the new medium during the next 3 years. During the media conversion process, several high-density tapes have exhibited severe binder degradation. Even though these tapes have been stored in environmentally controlled conditions, hydrolysis has occurred, resulting in "sticky oxide shed". Using a thermostatically controlled oven built at EDC, tape "baking" has been 100 percent successful and actually improves the quality of some images.

  17. Comparison of Landsat multispectral scanner and thematic mapper data from Wind River basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Geronsin, R.L.; Merry, M.C.

    1984-07-01

    Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data are limited by MSS spatial resolution (80 m or 262 ft) and bandwidth selection. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data have greatly enhanced spatial resolution (30 m or 98 ft) and TM operates in spectral bands suited to geologic interpretation. To compare the two systems, three images center over the Wind River basin of Wyoming were obtained. Two were TM images - a false color composite (FCC) and a natural color composite (NCC) - and the third was an MSS image. A systematic analysis of drainage, landforms, geologic structure, gross lithologic characteristics, lineaments, and curvilinears was performed on the three images. Drainage density and landform distinction were greatly enhanced on the TM images. Geologic features such as faults, strike and dip, folds, and lithologic characteristics are often difficult to distinguish on the MSS image but are readily apparent on the TM images. The lineament-curvilinear analysis of the MSS image showed longer but less distinct linear features. In comparison, the TM images allowed interpretation of shorter but more distinct linear elements, providing a more accurate delineation of the actual dimensions of the geologic features which these lineaments are thought to represent. An analysis of the oil production present in the study area showed 75% of the surface productive structures were delineated on the TM images, whereas only the most obvious structures were visible on the MSS image.

  18. Novice to Expert Cognition During Geologic Bedrock Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petcovic, H. L.; Libarkin, J.; Hambrick, D. Z.; Baker, K. M.; Elkins, J. T.; Callahan, C. N.; Turner, S.; Rench, T. A.; LaDue, N.

    2011-12-01

    novices in our sample, but not for the experts. For experienced mappers, we found a significant correlation between GCI scores and the thoroughness with which they covered the map area, plus a relationship between speed and map accuracy such that faster mappers produced better maps. However, fast novice mappers tended to produce the worst maps. Successful mappers formed a mental model of the underlying geologic structure immediately to early in the mapping task, then spent field time collecting observations to confirm, disconfirm, or modify their initial model. In contrast, the least successful mappers (all inexperienced) rarely generated explanations or models of the underlying geologic structure in the field.

  19. Field mappers for laser material processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, Paul; Currie, Matthew; Trela, Natalia; Baker, Howard J.; Murphy, Eoin; Walker, Duncan; McBride, Roy

    2016-03-01

    The native shape of the single-mode laser beam used for high power material processing applications is circular with a Gaussian intensity profile. Manufacturers are now demanding the ability to transform the intensity profile and shape to be compatible with a new generation of advanced processing applications that require much higher precision and control. We describe the design, fabrication and application of a dual-optic, beam-shaping system for single-mode laser sources, that transforms a Gaussian laser beam by remapping - hence field mapping - the intensity profile to create a wide variety of spot shapes including discs, donuts, XY separable and rotationally symmetric. The pair of optics transform the intensity distribution and subsequently flatten the phase of the beam, with spot sizes and depth of focus close to that of a diffraction limited beam. The field mapping approach to beam-shaping is a refractive solution that does not add speckle to the beam, making it ideal for use with single mode laser sources, moving beyond the limits of conventional field mapping in terms of spot size and achievable shapes. We describe a manufacturing process for refractive optics in fused silica that uses a freeform direct-write process that is especially suited for the fabrication of this type of freeform optic. The beam-shaper described above was manufactured in conventional UV-fused silica using this process. The fabrication process generates a smooth surface (<1nm RMS), leading to laser damage thresholds of greater than 100J/cm2, which is well matched to high power laser sources. Experimental verification of the dual-optic filed mapper is presented.

  20. Planetary Dynamos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busse, F. H.

    1985-01-01

    The MAGSAT-program has added significantly to our knowledge of planetary magnetism. The accuracy of observations has been improved such that a reliable extrapolation of the magnetic field to the core surface is now much more feasible than it has been before, and the prospect of further MAGSAT missions raises the expectation that the time dependence of the geomagnetic field will be known with similar accuracy in the future. In the research support it has been attempted to develop dynamo theory with these applications in mind.

  1. Planetary magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D. P.; Ness, N. F.

    1981-01-01

    A concise overview is presented of our understanding of planetary magnetospheres (and in particular, of that of the Earth), as of the end of 1981. Emphasis is placed on processes of astrophysical interest, e.g., on particle acceleration, collision-free shocks, particle motion, parallel electric fields, magnetic merging, substorms, and large scale plasma flows. The general morphology and topology of the Earth's magnetosphere are discussed, and important results are given about the magnetospheres of Jupiter, Saturn and Mercury, including those derived from the Voyager 1 and 2 missions and those related to Jupiter's satellite Io. About 160 references are cited, including many reviews from which additional details can be obtained.

  2. Planetary astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Harlan J.

    1991-01-01

    Lunar-based astronomy offers major prospects for solar system research in the coming century. In addition to active advocacy of both ground-based and Lunar-based astronomy, a workshop on the value of asteroids as a resource for man is being organized. The following subject areas are also covered: (1) astrophysics from the Moon (composition and structure of planetary atmospheres); (2) a decade of cost-reduction in Very Large Telescopes (the SST as prototype of special-purpose telescopes); and (3) a plan for development of lunar astronomy.

  3. Geologic Evolution of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002, and -25007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortezzo, C. M.; Williams, K. K.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a continuing study to understand the relationship between valleys and highland resurfacing through geologic mapping, the authors are continuing to map seven 1:500,000-scale MTM quads in portions of the Margaritifer, Arabia, and Noachis Terrae. Results from this mapping will also help constrain the role and extent of past water in the region. The MTMs are grouped in two different areas within the region and compliment previous mapping in adjacent areas. Three western quads focus on Jones crater and the Himera, Samara, and Loire Valles systems. This abstract focuses on the four eastern quads wherein a large, ancient impact structure, Noachis basin, is flanked on its south and east by a series of valley networks. A solitary valley drains this basin and stretches north-northeast for approximately 450 km, transporting materials into Arabia Terra. Pertinent raster and vector data have been imported and registered using ESRI's ArcMap GIS software. To inspect and quantify stratigraphic relations, crater counts are being compiled in ESRI's ArcView GIS software to make use of crater counting tools specifically developed for planetary mappers. New datasets from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter including 4 CTX images, 31 CRISM multi-spectral pushbroom images, and 4 HiRISE images were incorporated into the project during the third year. The CRISM dataset uses summary parameters with thresholds to select targets for the high-resolution datasets. The befit for mappers is the extensive coverage and general compositional information. Results of a cursory analysis show strong mafic absorptions on the floors of Peta crater and Noachis basin. LCP absorptions occur more often than olivine, however, olivine tends to be denser than both pyroxenes. Olivine and HCP mat indicate relatively younger rocks, which is supported by the occurrence of wrinkle ridges associated with high olivine and HCP absorptions in the Peta crater and Noachis basin floors.

  4. Planetary science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, John R.; Bridges, Frank; Gault, Donald; Greeley, Ronald; Houpis, Harry; Lin, Douglas; Weidenschilling, Stuart

    1987-01-01

    The following types of experiments for a proposed Space Station Microgravity Particle Research Facility are described: (1) low velocity collisions between fragile particles; (2) low velocity collisions of ice particles; (3) plasma-dust interaction; and (4) aggregation of finely-comminuted geological materials. The required capabilities and desired hardware for the facility are detailed.

  5. Universal planetary tectonics (supertectonics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    Universal planetary tectonics (supertectonics) G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, kochem.36@mail.ru The wave planetology [1-3 & others] proceeds from the following: "planetary structures are made by orbits and rotations". A uniform reason makes uniform structures. Inertia-gravity waves arising in planetary bodies due to their movements in Keplerian elliptical orbits with periodically changing accelerations warp these bodies in such way that they acquire polyhedron shapes (after interference of standing waves of four directions). Strong Newtonian gravity makes bodies larger than ~400 to 500 km in diameter globular and polyhedra are rarely seen. Only geomorphologic, geologic and geophysical mapping can develop these hidden structures. But small bodies, normally less than ~ 300 to 400 km in diameter, often show parts of the polyhedra, rarely fully developed forms (the asteroid Steins and satellite Amalthea present rather perfect forms of "diamond"). Depending on warping wavelengths (they make harmonics) various Plato's figures superimposed on each other can be distinguished. The fundamental wave 1 produces a tetrahedron, intrinsically dichotomic figure in which a vertex (contraction) always is opposed to a face (expansion). From the recent examples the best is the saturnian northern hexagon (a face) opposed to the southern hurricane (a vertex). The first overtone wave 2 is responsible for creation of structural octahedra. Whole ‘diamonds" and their parts are known [4, 5]. Other overtones produce less developed (because of smaller wave amplitudes) planetary shapes complicating main forms. Thus, the first common structural peculiarity of planetary bodies is their polyhedron nature. Not less important is the second common structural peculiarity. As all globular or smaller more or less isometric bodies rotate, they have an angular momentum. It is inevitably different in tropic and extra-tropic belts having uneven radii or distances to

  6. Planetary Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1998-01-01

    This 1-year project was an augmentation grant to my NASA Planetary Astronomy grant. With the awarded funding, we accomplished the following tasks: (1) Conducted two NVK imaging runs in conjunction with the ILAW (International Lunar Atmosphere Week) Observing Campaigns in 1995 and 1997. In the first run, we obtained repeated imaging sequences of lunar Na D-line emission to better quantify the temporal variations detected in earlier runs. In the second run we obtained extremely high resolution (R=960.000) Na line profiles using the 4m AAT in Australia. These data are being analyzed under our new 3-year Planetary Astronomy grant. (2) Reduced, analyzed, and published our March 1995 spectroscopic dataset to detect (or set stringent upper limits on) Rb. Cs, Mg. Al. Fe, Ba, Ba. OH, and several other species. These results were reported in a talk at the LPSC and in two papers: (1) A Spectroscopic Survey of Metallic Abundances in the Lunar Atmosphere. and (2) A Search for Magnesium in the Lunar Atmosphere. Both reprints are attached. Wrote up an extensive, invited Reviews of Geophysics review article on advances in the study of the lunar atmosphere. This 70-page article, which is expected to appear in print in 1999, is also attached.

  7. Planetary Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, James F.

    1997-01-01

    This grant was entitled 'Planetary Habitability' and the work performed under it related to elucidating the conditions that lead to habitable, i.e. Earth-like, planets. Below are listed publications for the past two and a half years that came out of this work. The main thrusts of the research involved: (1) showing under what conditions atmospheric O2 and O3 can be considered as evidence for life on a planet's surface; (2) determining whether CH4 may have played a role in warming early Mars; (3) studying the effect of varying UV levels on Earth-like planets around different types of stars to see whether this would pose a threat to habitability; and (4) studying the effect of chaotic obliquity variations on planetary climates and determining whether planets that experienced such variations might still be habitable. Several of these topics involve ongoing research that has been carried out under a new grant number, but which continues to be funded by NASA's Exobiology program.

  8. Statistical analysis of Thematic Mapper Simulator data for the geobotanical discrimination of rock types in southwest Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, L. A.; Weinstock, K. J.; Mouat, D. A.; Card, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for the geobotanical discrimination of rock types based on vegetative cover characteristics is addressed in this research. A methodology for accomplishing this evaluation utilizing univariate and multivariate techniques is presented. TMS data acquired with a Daedalus DEI-1260 multispectral scanner were integrated with vegetation and geologic information for subsequent statistical analyses, which included a chi-square test, an analysis of variance, stepwise discriminant analysis, and Duncan's multiple range test. Results indicate that ultramafic rock types are spectrally separable from nonultramafics based on vegetative cover through the use of statistical analyses.

  9. Mineralogy of the Lunar Crust in Spatial Context: First Results from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J.; Buratti, B.; Clark, R.; Combe, J-P; Green, R.; Goswami, J. N.; Head, J. W., III; Hicks, M.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, S.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T. B.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Runyon, C.; Staid, M. I.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Tompkins, S.; Varanasi, P.

    2009-01-01

    India's Chandrayaan-1 successfully launched October 22, 2008 and went into lunar orbit a few weeks later. Commissioning of instruments began in late November and was near complete by the end of the year. Initial data for NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) were acquired across the Orientale Basin and the science results are discussed here. M 3 image-cube data provide mineralogy of the surface in geologic context. A major new result is that the existence and distribution of massive amounts of anorthosite as a continuous stratigraphic crustal layer is now irrefutable.

  10. Statistical analysis of Thematic Mapper Simulator data for the geobotanical discrimination of rock types in southwest Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, L. A.; Weinstock, K. J.; Mouat, D. A.; Card, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for the geobotanical discrimination of rock types based on vegetative cover characteristics is addressed in this research. A methodology for accomplishing this evaluation utilizing univariate and multivariate techniques is presented. TMS data acquired with a Daedalus DEI-1260 multispectral scanner were integrated with vegetation and geologic information for subsequent statistical analyses, which included a chi-square test, an analysis of variance, stepwise discriminant analysis, and Duncan's multiple range test. Results indicate that ultramafic rock types are spectrally separable from nonultramafics based on vegetative cover through the use of statistical analyses.

  11. Evaluation of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data as Applied to Geologic Exploration: Summary of Results. [Death Valley, California, Cement-Velma, Oklahoma; Big Horn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming; Spanish Peaks, Colorado; and the Four Corners area (Paradox Basin of Utah and Colorado)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dykstra, J. D.; Sheffield, C. A.; Everett, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    As with any tool applied to geologic exploration, maximum value results from the innovative integration of optimally processed LANDSAT-4 data with existing pertinent information and perceptive geologic thinking. The synoptic view of the satellite images and the relatively high resolution of the data permits recognization of regional tectonic patterns and their detailed mapping. The refined spatial and spectral characteristics and digital nature surface alterations associated with hydrothermal activity and microseepage of hydrocarbons. In general, as vegetation and soil cover increase, the value of spectral components of TM data decreases with respect to the value of the spatial component of the data. This observation reinforces the experience from working with MSS data that digital processing must be optimized both for the area and for the application.

  12. Evaluation of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data as Applied to Geologic Exploration: Summary of Results. [Death Valley, California, Cement-Velma, Oklahoma; Big Horn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming; Spanish Peaks, Colorado; and the Four Corners area (Paradox Basin of Utah and Colorado)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dykstra, J. D.; Sheffield, C. A.; Everett, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    As with any tool applied to geologic exploration, maximum value results from the innovative integration of optimally processed LANDSAT-4 data with existing pertinent information and perceptive geologic thinking. The synoptic view of the satellite images and the relatively high resolution of the data permits recognization of regional tectonic patterns and their detailed mapping. The refined spatial and spectral characteristics and digital nature surface alterations associated with hydrothermal activity and microseepage of hydrocarbons. In general, as vegetation and soil cover increase, the value of spectral components of TM data decreases with respect to the value of the spatial component of the data. This observation reinforces the experience from working with MSS data that digital processing must be optimized both for the area and for the application.

  13. Validation of the Thematic Mapper radiometric and geometric correction algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischel, D.

    1984-01-01

    The radiometric and geometric correction algorithms for Thematic Mapper are critical to subsequent successful information extraction. Earlier Landsat scanners, known as Multispectral Scanners, produce imagery which exhibits striping due to mismatching of detector gains and biases. Thematic Mapper exhibits the same phenomenon at three levels: detector-to-detector, scan-to-scan, and multiscan striping. The cause of these variations has been traced to variations in the dark current of the detectors. An alternative formulation has been tested and shown to be very satisfactory. Unfortunately, the Thematic Mapper detectors exhibit saturation effects suffered while viewing extensive cloud areas, and is not easily correctable. The geometric correction algorithm has been shown to be remarkably reliable. Only minor and modest improvements are indicated and shown to be effective.

  14. Application of thematic mapper-type data over a porphyry-molybdenum deposit in Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.; Sadowski, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the utility of thematic mapper data as a source of geologically useful information for mountainous areas of varying vegetation density. Much of the processing was done in an a priori manner without prior ground-based information. This approach resulted in a successfull mapping of the alteration associated with the Mt. Emmons molybdenum ore body as well as several other hydrothermal systems. Supervised classification produced a vegetation map at least as accurate as the mapping done for the environmental impact statement. Principal components were used to map zones of general, subtle alteration and to separate hematitically stained rock from staining associated with hydrothermal activity. Decorrelation color composites were found to be useful field mapping aids, easily delineating many lithologies and vegetation classes of interest. The factors restricting the interpretability and computer manipulation of the data are examined.

  15. Application of thematic mapper-type data over a porphyry-molybdenum deposit in Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.; Sadowski, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the utility of thematic mapper data as a source of geologically useful information for mountainous areas of varying vegetation density. Much of the processing was done in an a priori manner without prior ground-based information. This approach resulted in a successfull mapping of the alteration associated with the Mt. Emmons molybdenum ore body as well as several other hydrothermal systems. Supervised classification produced a vegetation map at least as accurate as the mapping done for the environmental impact statement. Principal components were used to map zones of general, subtle alteration and to separate hematitically stained rock from staining associated with hydrothermal activity. Decorrelation color composites were found to be useful field mapping aids, easily delineating many lithologies and vegetation classes of interest. The factors restricting the interpretability and computer manipulation of the data are examined.

  16. Planetary image conversion task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. D.; Stanley, C. L.; Laughlin, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Planetary Image Conversion Task group processed 12,500 magnetic tapes containing raw imaging data from JPL planetary missions and produced an image data base in consistent format on 1200 fully packed 6250-bpi tapes. The output tapes will remain at JPL. A copy of the entire tape set was delivered to US Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz. A secondary task converted computer datalogs, which had been stored in project specific MARK IV File Management System data types and structures, to flat-file, text format that is processable on any modern computer system. The conversion processing took place at JPL's Image Processing Laboratory on an IBM 370-158 with existing software modified slightly to meet the needs of the conversion task. More than 99% of the original digital image data was successfully recovered by the conversion task. However, processing data tapes recorded before 1975 was destructive. This discovery is of critical importance to facilities responsible for maintaining digital archives since normal periodic random sampling techniques would be unlikely to detect this phenomenon, and entire data sets could be wiped out in the act of generating seemingly positive sampling results. Reccomended follow-on activities are also included.

  17. Planetary Pits and Caves: Targets for Science Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, W. L.; Boston, P. J.; Cushing, G.; Titus, T. N.; Wagner, R. V.; Colaprete, A.; Haruyama, J.; Jones, H. L.; Blank, J. G.; Mueller, R. P.; Stopar, J. D.; Tabib, W.; Wong, U.

    2017-02-01

    Planetary pits, caves, and voids are compelling mission destinations for science, exploration, and habitation throughout the solar system. Questions of origins, geology, mineralogy, stratigraphy, gravimetry, aging, and astrobiology abound.

  18. Advanced planetary analyses. [for planetary mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The results are summarized of research accomplished during this period concerning planetary mission planning are summarized. The tasks reported include the cost estimations research, planetary missions handbook, and advanced planning activities.

  19. Intraband radiometric performance of the Landsat Thematic Mappers.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, H.H.; Cook, D.A.; Eliason, E.M.; Eliason, P.T.

    1985-01-01

    Radiometric characteristics have been examined of the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mappers (TMs) that can be established without absolute calibration of spectral data. This analysis is based on radiometrically and geometrically raw (B-type) data of both uniform (flat-field) and high-contrast scenes. Subscenes selected for uniform radiance were used to characterized subtle radiometric differences and noise problems. Although the general performance of the Thematic Mappers is excellent, various anomalies that have a magnitude of a few digital levels (DN) or less are quantified. -from Authors

  20. An overview of the thematic mapper geometric correction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, E. P.

    1983-01-01

    Geometric accuracy specifications for LANDSAT 4 are reviewed and the processing concepts which form the basis of NASA's thematic mapper geometric correction system are summarized for both the flight and ground segments. The flight segment includes the thematic mapper instrument, attitude measurement devices, attitude control, and ephemeris processing. For geometric correction the ground segment uses mirror scan correction data, payload correction data, and control point information to determine where TM detector samples fall on output map projection systems. Then the raw imagery is reformatted and resampled to produce image samples on a selected output projection grid system.

  1. The GOES-R Lightning Mapper Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechler, Dennis; Christian, Hugh; Goodman, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The Lightning Mapper Sensor on GOES-R builds on previous measurements of lightning from low earth orbit by the OTD (Optical Transient Detector) and LIS (Lightning Imaging Sensor) sensors. Unlike observations from low earth orbit, the GOES-R platform will allow continuous monitoring of lightning activity over the Continental United States and southern Canada, Central and South America, and portions of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The LMS will detect total (cloud-to-ground and intracloud) lightning at storm scale resolution (approx. 8 km) using a highly sensitive Charge Coupled Device (CCD) detector array. Discrimination between lightning optical transients and a bright sunlit background scene is accomplished by employing spectral, spatial, and temporal filtering along with a background subtraction technique. The result is 24 hour detection capability of total lightning. These total lightning observations can be made available to users within about 20 seconds. Research indicates a number of ways that total lightning observations from LMS could benefit operational activities, including 1) potential increases in lead times and reduced false alarms for severe thunderstorm and tornado Warnings, 2) improved routing of &rail around thunderstorms, 3) support for spacecraft launches and landings, 4) improved ability to monitor tropical cyclone intensity, 5) ability to monitor thunderstorm intensification/weakening during radar outages or where radar coverage is poor, 6) better identification of deep convection for the initialization of numerical prediction models, 7) improved forest fire forecasts, 8) identification of convective initiation, 9) identification of heavy convective snowfall, and 10) enhanced temporal resolution of storm evolution (1 minute) than is available from radar observations. Total lightning data has been used in an operational environment since July 2003 at the Huntsville, Alabama National Weather Service office. Total lightning measurements are

  2. The GOES-R Lightning Mapper Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechler, Dennis; Christian, Hugh; Goodman, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The Lightning Mapper Sensor on GOES-R builds on previous measurements of lightning from low earth orbit by the OTD (Optical Transient Detector) and LIS (Lightning Imaging Sensor) sensors. Unlike observations from low earth orbit, the GOES-R platform will allow continuous monitoring of lightning activity over the Continental United States and southern Canada, Central and South America, and portions of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The LMS will detect total (cloud-to-ground and intracloud) lightning at storm scale resolution (approx. 8 km) using a highly sensitive Charge Coupled Device (CCD) detector array. Discrimination between lightning optical transients and a bright sunlit background scene is accomplished by employing spectral, spatial, and temporal filtering along with a background subtraction technique. The result is 24 hour detection capability of total lightning. These total lightning observations can be made available to users within about 20 seconds. Research indicates a number of ways that total lightning observations from LMS could benefit operational activities, including 1) potential increases in lead times and reduced false alarms for severe thunderstorm and tornado Warnings, 2) improved routing of &rail around thunderstorms, 3) support for spacecraft launches and landings, 4) improved ability to monitor tropical cyclone intensity, 5) ability to monitor thunderstorm intensification/weakening during radar outages or where radar coverage is poor, 6) better identification of deep convection for the initialization of numerical prediction models, 7) improved forest fire forecasts, 8) identification of convective initiation, 9) identification of heavy convective snowfall, and 10) enhanced temporal resolution of storm evolution (1 minute) than is available from radar observations. Total lightning data has been used in an operational environment since July 2003 at the Huntsville, Alabama National Weather Service office. Total lightning measurements are

  3. Lunar Geologic Mapping Program: 2008 Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddis, L.; Tanaka, K.; Skinner, J.; Hawke, B. R.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Lunar Geologic Mapping Program is underway and a mappers handbook is in preparation. This program for systematic, global lunar geologic mapping at 1:2.5M scale incorporates digital, multi-scale data from a wide variety of sources. Many of these datasets have been tied to the new Unified Lunar Control Network 2005 [1] and are available online. This presentation summarizes the current status of this mapping program, the datasets now available, and how they might be used for mapping on the Moon.

  4. Planetary magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1981-01-01

    A synoptic view of early and recent data on the planetary magnetism of Mercury, Venus, the moon, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn is presented. The data on Mercury from Mariner 10 are synthesized with various other sources, while data for Venus obtained from 120 orbits of Pioneer Venus give the upper limit of the magnetic dipole. Explorer 35 Lunar Orbiter data provided the first evidence of lunar magnetization, but it was the Apollo subsatellite data that measured accurately the magnetic dipole of the moon. A complete magnetic survey of Mars is still needed, and only some preliminary data are given on the magnetic dipole of the planet. Figures on the magnetic dipoles of Jupiter and Saturn are also suggested. It is concluded that if the magnetic field data are to be used to infer the interior properties of the planets, good measures of the multiple harmonics in the field are needed, which may be obtained only through low altitude polar orbits.

  5. Planetary magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1981-01-01

    A synoptic view of early and recent data on the planetary magnetism of Mercury, Venus, the moon, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn is presented. The data on Mercury from Mariner 10 are synthesized with various other sources, while data for Venus obtained from 120 orbits of Pioneer Venus give the upper limit of the magnetic dipole. Explorer 35 Lunar Orbiter data provided the first evidence of lunar magnetization, but it was the Apollo subsatellite data that measured accurately the magnetic dipole of the moon. A complete magnetic survey of Mars is still needed, and only some preliminary data are given on the magnetic dipole of the planet. Figures on the magnetic dipoles of Jupiter and Saturn are also suggested. It is concluded that if the magnetic field data are to be used to infer the interior properties of the planets, good measures of the multiple harmonics in the field are needed, which may be obtained only through low altitude polar orbits.

  6. Use of thematic mapper imagery to assess water quality, trophic state, and macrophyte distributions in Massachusetts lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldron, Marcus C.; Steeves, Peter A.; Finn, John T.

    2001-01-01

    During the spring and summer of 1996, 1997, and 1998, measurements of phytoplankton- chlorophyll concentration, Secchi disk transparency, and color were made at 97 Massachusetts lakes within 24 hours of Landsat Thematic Mapper imaging of the lakes in an effort to assess water quality and trophic state. Spatial distributions of floating, emergent, and submerged macrophytes were mapped in 49 of the lakes at least once during the 3-year period. The maps were digitized and used to assign pixels in the thematic mapper images to one of four vegetation cover classes-open water, 1-50 percent floating-and-emergent-vegetation cover, 51-100 percent floating-and-emergent-vegetation cover, and submerged vegetation at any density. The field data were collected by teams of U.S. Geological Survey and Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management staff and by 76 volunteers. Side-by-side sampling by U.S. Geological Survey and volunteer field teams resulted in statistically similar chlorophyll determinations, Secchi disk readings, and temperature measurements, but concurrent color determinations were not similar, possibly due to contamination of sample bottles issued to the volunteers.Attempts to develop predictive relations between phytoplankton-chlorophyll concentration, Secchi disk transparency, lake color, dissolved organic carbon, and various combinations of thematic mapper bands 1, 2, 3, and 4 digital numbers were unsuccessful, primarily because of the extremely low concentrations of chlorophyll in the lakes studied, and also because of the highly variable dissolved organic carbon concentrations.Predictive relations were developed between Secchi disk transparency and phytoplankton-chlorophyll concentration, and between color and dissolved organic carbon concentration. Phytoplankton-chlorophyll concentration was inversely correlated with Secchi disk transparency during all three sampling periods. The relations were very similar in 1996 and 1997 and indicated that 62 to 67

  7. Spectroradiometric calibration of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.

    1983-01-01

    The results of an analysis that relates thematic mapper (TM) saturation level to ground reflectance, calendar date, latitude, and atmospheric condition is provided. A revised version of the preprint included with the last quarterly report is also provided for publication in the IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing.

  8. Nitrogen Source and Loading Data for EPA Estuary Data Mapper

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen source and loading data have been compiled and aggregated at the scale of estuaries and associated watersheds of the conterminous United States, using the spatial framework in EPA's Estuary Data Mapper (EDM) to provide system boundaries. Original sources of data include...

  9. Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, J. (Principal Investigator); Slater, P.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an analysis that relates TM saturation level to ground reflectance, calendar date, latitude, and atmospheric conditions are reported. The determination of the spectral reflectance at the entrance pupil of the LANDSAT 4 pupil of the thematic mapper is described.

  10. Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Palmer, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The eleventh quarterly report on Spectroradiometric Calibration of the Thematic Mapper (Contract NAS5-27832) discusses calibrations made at White Sands on 24 May 1985. An attempt is made to standardize test results. Critical values used in the final steps of the data reduction and the comparison of the results of the pre-flight and internal calibration (IC) data are summarized.

  11. Nitrogen Source and Loading Data for EPA Estuary Data Mapper

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen source and loading data have been compiled and aggregated at the scale of estuaries and associated watersheds of the conterminous United States, using the spatial framework in EPA's Estuary Data Mapper (EDM) to provide system boundaries. Original sources of data include...

  12. MAPPER: progress toward a high-volume manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, G.; Dansberg, M. P.; Jager, R.; Peijster, J. J. M.; Slot, E.; Steenbrink, S. W. H. K.; Wieland, M. J.

    2013-03-01

    MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing with high speed optical data transport for switching the electron beams. In this way optical columns can be made with a throughput of 10 wafers per hour. By clustering several of these systems together high throughputs can be realized in a small footprint. This enables a highly cost-competitive solution for either direct patterning or complementary patterning approach, [1, 2]. For a 10 wph throughput per unit MAPPER will use 13,260 parallel electron beams, delivering 170 μA to the wafer. To realize this large current at the wafer MAPPER uses its patterned beam approach where each beam consists of 49 subbeams [3]. MAPPER is currently realizing its MATRIX platform. This system is one unit in the cluster depicted above and will have a capability of 10 wph (containing the patterned beams approach) and have full overlay capability. One 10 wph unit will have a footprint of 1.1 m x 1.65m. This paper will provide an overview of the development status of this MATRIX platform.

  13. From Planetary Mapping to Map Production: Planetary Cartography as integral discipline in Planetary Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nass, Andrea; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hargitai, Hendrik; Hare, Trent; Manaud, Nicolas; Karachevtseva, Irina; Kersten, Elke; Roatsch, Thomas; Wählisch, Marita; Kereszturi, Akos

    2016-04-01

    Cartography is one of the most important communication channels between users of spatial information and laymen as well as the open public alike. This applies to all known real-world objects located either here on Earth or on any other object in our Solar System. In planetary sciences, however, the main use of cartography resides in a concept called planetary mapping with all its various attached meanings: it can be (1) systematic spacecraft observation from orbit, i.e. the retrieval of physical information, (2) the interpretation of discrete planetary surface units and their abstraction, or it can be (3) planetary cartography sensu strictu, i.e., the technical and artistic creation of map products. As the concept of planetary mapping covers a wide range of different information and knowledge levels, aims associated with the concept of mapping consequently range from a technical and engineering focus to a scientific distillation process. Among others, scientific centers focusing on planetary cartography are the United State Geological Survey (USGS, Flagstaff), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK, Moscow), Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE, Hungary), and the German Aerospace Center (DLR, Berlin). The International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Commission Planetary Cartography within International Cartographic Association (ICA), the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), the WG IV/8 Planetary Mapping and Spatial Databases within International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) and a range of other institutions contribute on definition frameworks in planetary cartography. Classical cartography is nowadays often (mis-)understood as a tool mainly rather than a scientific discipline and an art of communication. Consequently, concepts of information systems, mapping tools and cartographic frameworks are used interchangeably, and cartographic workflows and visualization of spatial information in thematic maps have often been

  14. Planetary science at APL.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A. F.

    1999-12-01

    Planetary science at APL did not begin with the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission, although NEAR, as the first planetary mission ever implemented by a non-NASA center, is what brought the Laboratory into the main arena of planetary exploration. This is the story of how that happened, how planetary science developed at APL, and what lies ahead.

  15. Cassini atmospheric chemistry mapper. Volume 1. Investigation and technical plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William Hayden; Baines, Kevin Hays; Drossart, Pierre; Fegley, Bruce; Orton, Glenn; Noll, Keith; Reitsema, Harold; Bjoraker, Gordon L.

    1990-01-01

    The Cassini Atmospheric Chemistry Mapper (ACM) enables a broad range of atmospheric science investigations for Saturn and Titan by providing high spectral and spatial resolution mapping and occultation capabilities at 3 and 5 microns. ACM can directly address the major atmospheric science objectives for Saturn and for Titan, as defined by the Announcement of Opportunity, with pivotal diagnostic measurements not accessible to any other proposed Cassini instrument. ACM determines mixing ratios for atmospheric molecules from spectral line profiles for an important and extensive volume of the atmosphere of Saturn (and Jupiter). Spatial and vertical profiles of disequilibrium species abundances define Saturn's deep atmosphere, its chemistry, and its vertical transport phenomena. ACM spectral maps provide a unique means to interpret atmospheric conditions in the deep (approximately 1000 bar) atmosphere of Saturn. Deep chemistry and vertical transport is inferred from the vertical and horizontal distribution of a series of disequilibrium species. Solar occultations provide a method to bridge the altitude range in Saturn's (and Titan's) atmosphere that is not accessible to radio science, thermal infrared, and UV spectroscopy with temperature measurements to plus or minus 2K from the analysis of molecular line ratios and to attain an high sensitivity for low-abundance chemical species in the very large column densities that may be achieved during occultations for Saturn. For Titan, ACM solar occultations yield very well resolved (1/6 scale height) vertical mixing ratios column abundances for atmospheric molecular constituents. Occultations also provide for detecting abundant species very high in the upper atmosphere, while at greater depths, detecting the isotopes of C and O, constraining the production mechanisms, and/or sources for the above species. ACM measures the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols via their opacity at 3 microns and, particularly, at 5

  16. Planetary Seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.

    2015-01-01

    Of the many geophysical means that can be used to probe a planet's interior, seismology remains the most direct. In addition to Earth, seismometers have been installed on Venus, Mars, and the Moon. Given that the seismic data gathered on the Moon (now over 40 years ago) revolutionized our understanding of the Moon and are still being used today to produce new insight into the state of the lunar interior, it is no wonder that many future missions, both real and conceptual, plan to take seismometers to other planets. To best facilitate the return of high-quality data from these instruments, as well as to further our understanding of the dynamic processes that modify a planet's interior, various modeling approaches are used to quantify parameters such as the amount and distribution of seismicity, tidal deformation, and seismic structure of the terrestrial planets. In addition, recent advances in wavefield modeling have permitted a renewed look at seismic energy transmission and the effects of attenuation and scattering, as well as the presence and effect of a core, on recorded seismograms. In this talk I will discuss some of these methods and review the history of planetary seismology.

  17. Planetary nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobell, M. E.; Masursky, Harold

    1987-01-01

    In fiscal 1986, names were chosen for prominent features on the five previously known Uranian satellites and for features on the largest of the 10 satellites discovered by Voyager 2. The names of the five large satellites are taken mostly from Shakespeare, and most are spirits; therefore, Shakespearean and spirit themes were used to choose names for topographic features on the satellites. Crater names and most other feature names on Miranda, Oberon, and Titania are from Shakespeare; features on Ariel are named for bright spirits and those on Umbriel for dark, all taken from universal mythology. Preliminary coordinates for these features are derived from shaded relief maps of the satellites to be published in 1987. Orbital elements have been established for the 10 new satellites, and a paper describing this work is in progress; satellite positions are under review by Commission 16 of the IAU. The moon 1985 U1 is informally designated Puck. The nine small satellites discovered in 1986 are to be named for Shakespearean heroines; these names are to be listed in the 1987 edition of the Annual Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature.

  18. Planetary nomenclature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobell, M. E.; Masursky, Harold

    1987-05-01

    In fiscal 1986, names were chosen for prominent features on the five previously known Uranian satellites and for features on the largest of the 10 satellites discovered by Voyager 2. The names of the five large satellites are taken mostly from Shakespeare, and most are spirits; therefore, Shakespearean and spirit themes were used to choose names for topographic features on the satellites. Crater names and most other feature names on Miranda, Oberon, and Titania are from Shakespeare; features on Ariel are named for bright spirits and those on Umbriel for dark, all taken from universal mythology. Preliminary coordinates for these features are derived from shaded relief maps of the satellites to be published in 1987. Orbital elements have been established for the 10 new satellites, and a paper describing this work is in progress; satellite positions are under review by Commission 16 of the IAU. The moon 1985 U1 is informally designated Puck. The nine small satellites discovered in 1986 are to be named for Shakespearean heroines; these names are to be listed in the 1987 edition of the Annual Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature.

  19. Evaluation of Thematic Mapper Performance as Applied to Hydrocarbon Exploration. [Ontario, Canada; Cement, Oklahoma; and Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, J. R.; Sheffield, C.; Dykstra, J.

    1985-01-01

    The role data from the first three LANDSAT satellites have in geologic exploration and their current level of acceptance is reviewed and the advantages of LANDSAT 4 TM data over MSS data are discussed. Specially enhanced Thematic Mapper imager can make a very significant contribution to the oil and gas and mineral exploration industries. The TM's increased spatial resolution enables the production of larger scale imagery, which greatly increases the amount of geomorphic and structural information interpretable. TM's greater spectral resolution, combined with the smaller, more homogeneous pixels, should enable a far greater confidence in mapping lithologies and detecting geobotanical anomalies from space. The results from its applications to hydrocarbon and mineral exploration promise to bring the majority of the geologic exploration community into that final stage of acceptance and routine application of the satellite data.

  20. Application of combined Landsat thematic mapper and airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner data to lithologic mapping in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Ehmann, W.J.; Brickey, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Future Landsat satellites are to include the Thematic Mapper (TM) and also may incorporate additional multispectral scanners. One such scanner being considered for geologic and other applications is a four-channel thermal-infrared multispectral scanner having 60-m spatial resolution. This paper discusses the results of studies using combined Landsat TM and airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital data for lithologic discrimination, identification, and geologic mapping in two areas within the Basin and Range province of Nevada. Field and laboratory reflectance spectra in the visible and reflective-infrared and laboratory spectra in the thermal-infrared parts of the spectrum were used to verify distinctions made between rock types in the image data sets.

  1. Proceedings of the eighteenth lunar and planetary science conference

    SciTech Connect

    Ryder, G. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the Proceedings of the 18th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Topics covered include: Petrogensis and chemistry of lunar samples; geology and petrogensis of the Apollo 15 landing site; Lunar geology and applications; and Extraterrestrial grains: observations and theories.

  2. New structural and stratigraphic insights for northwestern Pakistan from field and Landsat Thematic Mapper data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, J.; Beck, R.; Gnos, E.; Vincent, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    The remote Waziristan region of northwestern Pakistan includes outcrops of the India-Asia suture zone. The excellent exposure of the Waziristan ophiolite and associated sedimentary lithosomes and their inaccessibility made the use of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data desirable in this study. Landsat TM data were used to create a spectral ratio image of bands 3/4, 5/4, and 7/5, displayed as red, green, and blue, respectively, and a principal component analysis image of bands 4, 5, and 7 (RGB). These images were interpreted in the context of available geologic maps, limited field work, and biostratigraphic, lithostratigraphic, and radiometric data. They were used to create a coherent geologic map of Waziristan and cross section of the area that document five tectonic units in the region and provide a new and more detailed tectonic history for the region. The lowest unit is comprised of Indian shelf sediments that were thrust under the Waziristan ophiolite. The ophiolite has been tectonically shuffled and consists of two separate tectonic units. The top thrust sheet is a nappe comprised of distal Triassic to Lower Cretaceous Neotethyan sediments that were underthrust during the Late Cretaceous by the ophiolite riding on Indian shelf strata. The uppermost unit contains unconformable Tertiary and younger strata. The thrust sheets show that the Waziristan ophiolite was obducted during Late Cretaceous time and imply that the Paleocene and Eocene deformation represents collision of India with the Kabul block and/or Asia.

  3. Thematic mapper research in the Earth sciences: Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield of northeastern Sudan/southeastern Egypt using thematic mapper imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield using the Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery is progressing well and shows great promise. The TM tapes for the six LANDSAT 5 scenes covering the northern portion of the Red Sea hills were received, and preliminary maps and interpretations were made for most of the area. It is apparent that faulting and shearing associated with the major suture zones such as the Sol Hamed are clearly visible and that considerable detail can be seen. An entire quadrant of scene 173,45 was examined in detail using all seven bands, and every band combination was evaluated to best display the geology. A comparison was done with color ratio combinations and color combinations of the eigen vector bands to verify if band combinations of 7-red, 4-green, and 2-blue were indeed superior. There is no single optimum enhancement which provides the greatest detail for every image and no single combination of spectral bands for all cases, although bands 7, 4, and 2 do provide the best overall display. The color combination of the eigen vector bands proved useful in distinguishing fine detailed features.

  4. Thematic mapper research in the Earth sciences: Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield of northeastern Sudan/southeastern Egypt using thematic mapper imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-02-01

    The tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield using the Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery is progressing well and shows great promise. The TM tapes for the six LANDSAT 5 scenes covering the northern portion of the Red Sea hills were received, and preliminary maps and interpretations were made for most of the area. It is apparent that faulting and shearing associated with the major suture zones such as the Sol Hamed are clearly visible and that considerable detail can be seen. An entire quadrant of scene 173,45 was examined in detail using all seven bands, and every band combination was evaluated to best display the geology. A comparison was done with color ratio combinations and color combinations of the eigen vector bands to verify if band combinations of 7-red, 4-green, and 2-blue were indeed superior. There is no single optimum enhancement which provides the greatest detail for every image and no single combination of spectral bands for all cases, although bands 7, 4, and 2 do provide the best overall display. The color combination of the eigen vector bands proved useful in distinguishing fine detailed features.

  5. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometerfor lunar science: Instrument description, calibration, on‐orbit measurements, science data calibration and on‐orbit validation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    C. Pieters,; P. Mouroulis,; M. Eastwood,; J. Boardman,; Green, R.O.; Glavich, T.; Isaacson, P.; Annadurai, M.; Besse, S.; Cate, D.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Barr, D.; Cheek, L.; Combe, J.; Dhingra, D.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Goswami, J.N.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Head, J.; Hovland, L.; Hyman, S.; Klima, R.; Koch, T.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, A.S.K.; Lee, K.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; McLaughlin, S.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Runyon, C.; Sellar, G.; Smith, C.; Sobel, H.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Thaisen, K.; Tompkins, S.; Tseng, H.; Vane, G.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.; Wilson, D.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was selected to pursue a wide range of science objectives requiring measurement of composition at fine spatial scales over the full lunar surface. To pursue these objectives, a broad spectral range imaging spectrometer with high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio capable of measuring compositionally diagnostic spectral absorption features from a wide variety of known and possible lunar materials was required. For this purpose the Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was designed and developed that measures the spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm with 10 nm spectral sampling through a 24 degree field of view with 0.7 milliradian spatial sampling. The instrument has a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 400 for the specified equatorial reference radiance and greater than 100 for the polar reference radiance. The spectral cross-track uniformity is >90% and spectral instantaneous field-of-view uniformity is >90%. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper was launched on Chandrayaan-1 on the 22nd of October. On the 18th of November 2008 the Moon Mineralogy Mapper was turned on and collected a first light data set within 24 h. During this early checkout period and throughout the mission the spacecraft thermal environment and orbital parameters varied more than expected and placed operational and data quality constraints on the measurements. On the 29th of August 2009, spacecraft communication was lost. Over the course of the flight mission 1542 downlinked data sets were acquired that provide coverage of more than 95% of the lunar surface. An end-to-end science data calibration system was developed and all measurements have been passed through this system and delivered to the Planetary Data System (PDS.NASA.GOV). An extensive effort has been undertaken by the science team to validate the Moon Mineralogy Mapper science measurements in the context of the mission objectives. A focused spectral, radiometric

  6. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometer for lunar science: Instrument description, calibration, on-orbit measurements, science data calibration and on-orbit validation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, R.O.; Pieters, C.; Mouroulis, P.; Eastwood, M.; Boardman, J.; Glavich, T.; Isaacson, P.; Annadurai, M.; Besse, S.; Barr, D.; Buratti, B.; Cate, D.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Cheek, L.; Combe, J.; Dhingra, D.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Goswami, J.N.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Head, J.; Hovland, L.; Hyman, S.; Klima, R.; Koch, T.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, A.S.K.; Lee, Kenneth; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; McLaughlin, S.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Rodriquez, J.; Runyon, C.; Sellar, G.; Smith, C.; Sobel, H.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Thaisen, K.; Tompkins, S.; Tseng, H.; Vane, G.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.; Wilson, D.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was selected to pursue a wide range of science objectives requiring measurement of composition at fine spatial scales over the full lunar surface. To pursue these objectives, a broad spectral range imaging spectrometer with high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio capable of measuring compositionally diagnostic spectral absorption features from a wide variety of known and possible lunar materials was required. For this purpose the Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was designed and developed that measures the spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm with 10 nm spectral sampling through a 24 degree field of view with 0.7 milliradian spatial sampling. The instrument has a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 400 for the specified equatorial reference radiance and greater than 100 for the polar reference radiance. The spectral cross-track uniformity is >90% and spectral instantaneous field-of-view uniformity is >90%. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper was launched on Chandrayaan-1 on the 22nd of October. On the 18th of November 2008 the Moon Mineralogy Mapper was turned on and collected a first light data set within 24 h. During this early checkout period and throughout the mission the spacecraft thermal environment and orbital parameters varied more than expected and placed operational and data quality constraints on the measurements. On the 29th of August 2009, spacecraft communication was lost. Over the course of the flight mission 1542 downlinked data sets were acquired that provide coverage of more than 95% of the lunar surface. An end-to-end science data calibration system was developed and all measurements have been passed through this system and delivered to the Planetary Data System (PDS.NASA.GOV). An extensive effort has been undertaken by the science team to validate the Moon Mineralogy Mapper science measurements in the context of the mission objectives. A focused spectral, radiometric

  7. Data and Information Exchange System for the "Reindeer Mapper" Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy; Yurchak, Boris

    2005-01-01

    During this past year, the Reindeer Mapper Intranet system has been set up on the NASA system, 8 team members have been established, a Reindeer Mapper reference list containing 696 items has been entered, 6 power point presentations have been put on line for review among team members, 304 satellite images have been catalogued (including 16 Landsat images, 288 NDVI 10-day composited images and an anomaly series- May 1998 to December 2002, and 56 SAR CEOS S A R format files), schedules and meeting dates are being shared, students at the Nordic Sami Institute are experimenting with the system for reindeer herder indigenous knowledge sharing, and an "address book" is being developed. Several documents and presentations have been translated and made available in Russian for our Russian colleagues. This has enabled our Russian partners to utilize documents and presentations for use in their research (e.g., SAR imagery comparisons with Russian GIS of specific study areas) and discussion with local colleagues.

  8. Data and Information Exchange System for the "Reindeer Mapper" Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy; Yurchak, Boris

    2005-01-01

    During this past year, the Reindeer Mapper Intranet system has been set up on the NASA system, 8 team members have been established, a Reindeer Mapper reference list containing 696 items has been entered, 6 power point presentations have been put on line for review among team members, 304 satellite images have been catalogued (including 16 Landsat images, 288 NDVI 10-day composited images and an anomaly series- May 1998 to December 2002, and 56 SAR CEOS S A R format files), schedules and meeting dates are being shared, students at the Nordic Sami Institute are experimenting with the system for reindeer herder indigenous knowledge sharing, and an "address book" is being developed. Several documents and presentations have been translated and made available in Russian for our Russian colleagues. This has enabled our Russian partners to utilize documents and presentations for use in their research (e.g., SAR imagery comparisons with Russian GIS of specific study areas) and discussion with local colleagues.

  9. The eNanoMapper database for nanomaterial safety information.

    PubMed

    Jeliazkova, Nina; Chomenidis, Charalampos; Doganis, Philip; Fadeel, Bengt; Grafström, Roland; Hardy, Barry; Hastings, Janna; Hegi, Markus; Jeliazkov, Vedrin; Kochev, Nikolay; Kohonen, Pekka; Munteanu, Cristian R; Sarimveis, Haralambos; Smeets, Bart; Sopasakis, Pantelis; Tsiliki, Georgia; Vorgrimmler, David; Willighagen, Egon

    2015-01-01

    The NanoSafety Cluster, a cluster of projects funded by the European Commision, identified the need for a computational infrastructure for toxicological data management of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Ontologies, open standards, and interoperable designs were envisioned to empower a harmonized approach to European research in nanotechnology. This setting provides a number of opportunities and challenges in the representation of nanomaterials data and the integration of ENM information originating from diverse systems. Within this cluster, eNanoMapper works towards supporting the collaborative safety assessment for ENMs by creating a modular and extensible infrastructure for data sharing, data analysis, and building computational toxicology models for ENMs. The eNanoMapper database solution builds on the previous experience of the consortium partners in supporting diverse data through flexible data storage, open source components and web services. We have recently described the design of the eNanoMapper prototype database along with a summary of challenges in the representation of ENM data and an extensive review of existing nano-related data models, databases, and nanomaterials-related entries in chemical and toxicogenomic databases. This paper continues with a focus on the database functionality exposed through its application programming interface (API), and its use in visualisation and modelling. Considering the preferred community practice of using spreadsheet templates, we developed a configurable spreadsheet parser facilitating user friendly data preparation and data upload. We further present a web application able to retrieve the experimental data via the API and analyze it with multiple data preprocessing and machine learning algorithms. We demonstrate how the eNanoMapper database is used to import and publish online ENM and assay data from several data sources, how the "representational state transfer" (REST) API enables building user friendly

  10. LANDSAT D to test thematic mapper, inaugurate operational system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    NASA will launch the Landsat D spacecraft on July 9, 1982 aboard a new, up-rated Delta 3920 expendable launch vehicle. LANDSAT D will incorporate two highly sophisticated sensors; the flight proven multispectral scanner; and a new instrument expected to advance considerably the remote sensing capabilities of Earth resources satellites. The new sensor, the thematic mapper, provides data in seven spectral (light) bands with greatly improved spectral, spatial and radiometric resolution.

  11. Airborne Topographic Mapper Calibration Procedures and Accuracy Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Chreston F.; Krabill, William B.; Manizade, Serdar S.; Russell, Rob L.; Sonntag, John G.; Swift, Robert N.; Yungel, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Description of NASA Airborn Topographic Mapper (ATM) lidar calibration procedures including analysis of the accuracy and consistancy of various ATM instrument parameters and the resulting influence on topographic elevation measurements. The ATM elevations measurements from a nominal operating altitude 500 to 750 m above the ice surface was found to be: Horizontal Accuracy 74 cm, Horizontal Precision 14 cm, Vertical Accuracy 6.6 cm, Vertical Precision 3 cm.

  12. The eNanoMapper database for nanomaterial safety information

    PubMed Central

    Chomenidis, Charalampos; Doganis, Philip; Fadeel, Bengt; Grafström, Roland; Hardy, Barry; Hastings, Janna; Hegi, Markus; Jeliazkov, Vedrin; Kochev, Nikolay; Kohonen, Pekka; Munteanu, Cristian R; Sarimveis, Haralambos; Smeets, Bart; Sopasakis, Pantelis; Tsiliki, Georgia; Vorgrimmler, David; Willighagen, Egon

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background: The NanoSafety Cluster, a cluster of projects funded by the European Commision, identified the need for a computational infrastructure for toxicological data management of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Ontologies, open standards, and interoperable designs were envisioned to empower a harmonized approach to European research in nanotechnology. This setting provides a number of opportunities and challenges in the representation of nanomaterials data and the integration of ENM information originating from diverse systems. Within this cluster, eNanoMapper works towards supporting the collaborative safety assessment for ENMs by creating a modular and extensible infrastructure for data sharing, data analysis, and building computational toxicology models for ENMs. Results: The eNanoMapper database solution builds on the previous experience of the consortium partners in supporting diverse data through flexible data storage, open source components and web services. We have recently described the design of the eNanoMapper prototype database along with a summary of challenges in the representation of ENM data and an extensive review of existing nano-related data models, databases, and nanomaterials-related entries in chemical and toxicogenomic databases. This paper continues with a focus on the database functionality exposed through its application programming interface (API), and its use in visualisation and modelling. Considering the preferred community practice of using spreadsheet templates, we developed a configurable spreadsheet parser facilitating user friendly data preparation and data upload. We further present a web application able to retrieve the experimental data via the API and analyze it with multiple data preprocessing and machine learning algorithms. Conclusion: We demonstrate how the eNanoMapper database is used to import and publish online ENM and assay data from several data sources, how the “representational state transfer

  13. An analytic solution for the orbital perturbations of the Venus Radar Mapper due to gravitational harmonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijayaraghavan, A.

    1984-01-01

    Hill's variational equations are solved analytically for the orbital perturbations of a spacecraft nominally in an elliptic orbit around a non-spherical body. The rotation of the central planet about its spin-axis is not considered in the analysis. The perturbations are restricted to the planetary gravitational harmonics only. An extremely simple algorithm is derived to transform the spherical harmonic potentials to the orbital coordinate system, and the resulting accelerations are shown to be simply trigonometric functions of the true anomaly. With the principal matrix solution for the differential equations of the adjoint system given in closed form, the orthogonality of the trigonometric functions makes it possible to obtain an analytic solution for the non-homogeneous problem, at intervals of 2 pi in true anomaly. The solution for orbital perturbations can be extended over several revolutions by applying well-known results from Floquet's theory. The technique is demonstrated with results presented on the spacecraft periapsis altitude for the forthcoming Venus Radar Mapper Mission.

  14. An analytic solution for the orbital perturbations of the Venus Radar Mapper due to gravitational harmonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijayaraghavan, A.

    1984-01-01

    Hill's variational equations are solved analytically for the orbital perturbations of a spacecraft nominally in an elliptic orbit around a non-spherical body. The rotation of the central planet about its spin-axis is not considered in the analysis. The perturbations are restricted to the planetary gravitational harmonics only. An extremely simple algorithm is derived to transform the spherical harmonic potentials to the orbital coordinate system, and the resulting accelerations are shown to be simply trigonometric functions of the true anomaly. With the principal matrix solution for the differential equations of the adjoint system given in closed form, the orthogonality of the trigonometric functions makes it possible to obtain an analytic solution for the non-homogeneous problem, at intervals of 2 pi in true anomaly. The solution for orbital perturbations can be extended over several revolutions by applying well-known results from Floquet's theory. The technique is demonstrated with results presented on the spacecraft periapsis altitude for the forthcoming Venus Radar Mapper Mission.

  15. Testing geoscience data visualization systems for geological mapping and training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.; Huffman, J. N.; Forsberg, A. S.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Ivanov, M. A.; Dickson, J. L.; Senthil Kumar, P.

    2008-09-01

    desktops (DT), 2) semi-immersive Fishtank VR (FT) (i.e., a conventional desktop with head-tracked stereo and 6DOF input), 3) tiled wall displays (TW), and 4) fully immersive virtual reality (IVR) (e.g., "Cave Automatic Virtual Environment", or Cave system). Formal studies demonstrate that fully immersive Cave environments are superior to desktop systems for many tasks. There is still much to learn and understand, however, about how the varying degrees of immersive displays affect task performance. For example, in using a 1280x1024 desktop monitor to explore an image, the mapper wastes a lot of time in image zooming/panning to balance the analysis-driven need for both detail as well as context. Therefore, we have spent a considerable amount of time exploring higher-resolution media, such as an IBM Bertha display 3840x2400 or a tiled wall with multiple projectors. We have found through over a year of weekly meetings and assessment that they definitely improve the efficiency of analysis and mapping. Here we outline briefly the nature of the major systems and our initial assessment of these in 1:5M Scale NASA-USGS Venus Geological Mapping Program (http://astrogeology.usgs. gov/Projects/PlanetaryMapping/MapStatus/VenusStatus/V enus_Status.html). 1. Immersive Virtual Reality (Cave): ADVISER System Description: Our Cave system is an 8'x8'x8' cube with four projection surfaces (three walls and the floor). Four linux machines (identical in performance to the desktop machine) provide data for the Cave. Users utilize a handheld 3D tracked input device to navigate. Our 3D input device has a joystick and is simple to use. To navigate, the user simply points in the direction he/she wants to fly and pushes the joystick forward or backward to move relative to that direction. The user can push the joystick to the left and right to rotate his/her position in the virtual world. A collision detection algorithm is used to prevent the user from going underneath the surface. We have developed

  16. Nano Mapper: an Internet knowledge mapping system for nanotechnology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Hu, Daning; Dang, Yan; Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Larson, Catherine A.; Chan, Joyce

    2009-04-01

    Nanotechnology research has experienced rapid growth in recent years. Advances in information technology enable efficient investigation of publications, their contents, and relationships for large sets of nanotechnology-related documents in order to assess the status of the field. This paper presents the development of a new knowledge mapping system, called Nano Mapper (http://nanomapper.eller.arizona.edu), which integrates the analysis of nanotechnology patents and research grants into a Web-based platform. The Nano Mapper system currently contains nanotechnology-related patents for 1976-2006 from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), European Patent Office (EPO), and Japan Patent Office (JPO), as well as grant documents from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for the same time period. The system provides complex search functionalities, and makes available a set of analysis and visualization tools (statistics, trend graphs, citation networks, and content maps) that can be applied to different levels of analytical units (countries, institutions, technical fields) and for different time intervals. The paper shows important nanotechnology patenting activities at USPTO for 2005-2006 identified through the Nano Mapper system.

  17. Nano Mapper: an Internet knowledge mapping system for nanotechnology development

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Daning; Dang, Yan; Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Larson, Catherine A.; Chan, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology research has experienced rapid growth in recent years. Advances in information technology enable efficient investigation of publications, their contents, and relationships for large sets of nanotechnology-related documents in order to assess the status of the field. This paper presents the development of a new knowledge mapping system, called Nano Mapper (http://nanomapper.eller.arizona.edu), which integrates the analysis of nanotechnology patents and research grants into a Web-based platform. The Nano Mapper system currently contains nanotechnology-related patents for 1976–2006 from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), European Patent Office (EPO), and Japan Patent Office (JPO), as well as grant documents from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for the same time period. The system provides complex search functionalities, and makes available a set of analysis and visualization tools (statistics, trend graphs, citation networks, and content maps) that can be applied to different levels of analytical units (countries, institutions, technical fields) and for different time intervals. The paper shows important nanotechnology patenting activities at USPTO for 2005–2006 identified through the Nano Mapper system. PMID:21170121

  18. Global Geologic Map of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, T.; Figueredo, P.; Greeley, R.; Hare, T.; Kolb, E.; Mullins, K.; Senske, D.; Tanaka, K.; Weiser, S.

    2008-01-01

    Europa, with its indications of a sub-ice ocean, is of keen interest to astrobiology and planetary geology. Knowledge of the global distribution and timing of Europan geologic units is a key step for the synthesis of data from the Galileo mission, and for the planning of future missions to the satellite. The first geologic map of Europa was produced at a hemisphere scale with low resolution Voyager data. Following the acquisition of higher resolution data by the Galileo mission, researchers have identified surface units and determined sequences of events in relatively small areas of Europa through geologic mapping using images at various resolutions acquired by Galileo's Solid State Imaging camera. These works provided a local to subregional perspective and employed different criteria for the determination and naming of units. Unified guidelines for the identification, mapping and naming of Europan geologic units were put forth by and employed in regional-to-hemispheric scale mapping which is now being expanded into a global geologic map. A global photomosaic of Galileo and Voyager data was used as a basemap for mapping in ArcGIS, following suggested methodology of all-stratigraphy for planetary mapping. The following units have been defined in global mapping and are listed in stratigraphic order from oldest to youngest: ridged plains material, Argadnel Regio unit, dark plains material, lineaments, disrupted plains material, lenticulated plains material and Chaos material.

  19. Planetary Landscape Geography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargitai, H.

    INTRODUCTION Landscape is one of the most often used category in physical ge- ography. The term "landshap" was introduced by Dutch painters in the 15-16th cen- tury. [1] The elements that build up a landscape (or environment) on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements. The same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. Landscapes build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface. On Earth, landscapes can be classified and qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered. Using the data from landers and data from orbiters we can now classify planetary landscapes (these can be used as geologic mapping units as well). By looking at a unknown landscape, we can determine the processes that created it and its development history. This was the case in the Pathfinder/Sojourner panoramas. [2]. DISCUSSION Planetary landscape evolution. We can draw a raw landscape develop- ment history by adding the different landscape building elements to each other. This has a strong connection with the planet's thermal evolution (age of the planet or the present surface materials) and with orbital parameters (distance from the central star, orbit excentricity etc). This way we can build a complex system in which we use differ- ent evolutional stages of lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic and biogenic conditions which determine the given - Solar System or exoplanetary - landscape. Landscape elements. "Simple" landscapes can be found on asteroids: no linear horizon is present (not differentiated body, only impact structures), no atmosphere (therefore no atmospheric scattering - black sky as part of the landscape) and no

  20. International Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses recent international programs in various areas of geology, including land-use problems, coping with geological hazards, and conserving the environment while searching for energy and mineral resources. (MLH)

  1. International Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses recent international programs in various areas of geology, including land-use problems, coping with geological hazards, and conserving the environment while searching for energy and mineral resources. (MLH)

  2. Engineering Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, John B.

    1983-01-01

    Engineering geology activities in government and the private sector are highlighted. Also highlighted are conferences in this field, awards presented at conferences (including an award to an undergraduate geology student), and a new publication "Geotechnology in Massachusetts." (JN)

  3. Environmental Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James R.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses ways that geologic techniques can be used to help evaluate our environment, make economic realities and environmental requirements more compatible, and expand the use of geology in environmental analyses. (MLH)

  4. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas A.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical techniques used to solve geological problems are briefly discussed (including comments on use of geostatistics). Highlights of conferences/meetings and conference papers in mathematical geology are also provided. (JN)

  5. Archeological Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, George

    1977-01-01

    Describes the rapid expansion of archeological geology, especially in the area of archeological excavations, where geologists use dating techniques and knowledge of geological events to interpret archeological sites. (MLH)

  6. Archeological Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, George

    1977-01-01

    Describes the rapid expansion of archeological geology, especially in the area of archeological excavations, where geologists use dating techniques and knowledge of geological events to interpret archeological sites. (MLH)

  7. 77 FR 11565 - Agency Information Collection: Comment Request AGENCY: United States Geological Survey (USGS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ..., request EDMAP funding to support undergraduate and graduate students at their college or university in a... efforts of more than 1,000 students working with more than 244 professors at 148 universities in 44 states... generation of geologic mappers. The NCGMP allocates funds to colleges and universities in the United...

  8. Planetary landscape: a new synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargitai, H.

    with recent nomenclature elements. The once-existed "large landcapes" system (Terrae and maria covering more-or-less the whole surface) now lacks terrae. The planetary nomenlcature and geomo rphic/geologic feature type system evolved in the last century in a very comlex way - now it is time to make a clear and unambigous system and make it universally applicable for each planetary body. REFERENCE: [1] Márton, Mátyás: A tengerfenék-domborzati formák jellegzetes névtípusai és a magyar földrajzinév-adás. (Undersea topography forms and its characteristic name types and the Hungarian geographic nomenclature)

  9. Exploring the Largest Mass Fraction of the Solar System: the Case for Planetary Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, L. R.; Draper, D.; Righter, K.; McCubbin, F.; Boyce, J.

    2017-01-01

    Why explore planetary interiors: The typical image that comes to mind for planetary science is that of a planet surface. And while surface data drive our exploration of evolved geologic processes, it is the interiors of planets that hold the key to planetary origins via accretionary and early differentiation processes. It is that initial setting of the bulk planet composition that sets the stage for all geologic processes that follow. But nearly all of the mass of planets is inaccessible to direct examination, making experimentation an absolute necessity for full planetary exploration.

  10. Energy Balance Models and Planetary Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    We know that planetary dynamics can have a significant affect on the climate of planets. Planetary dynamics dominate the glacial-interglacial periods on Earth, leaving a significant imprint on the geological record. They have also been demonstrated to have a driving influence on the climates of other planets in our solar system. We should therefore expect th.ere to be similar relationships on extrasolar planets. Here we describe a simple energy balance model that can predict the growth and thickness of glaciers, and their feedbacks on climate. We will also describe model changes that we have made to include planetary dynamics effects. This is the model we will use at the start of our collaboration to handle the influence of dynamics on climate.

  11. Meteorites, the Moon and the History of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvin, Ursula B.

    1986-01-01

    Traces the historical events that linked geology with the planetary sciences. Reviews the origins of meteorities as a modern science and highlights the advances made in this area. Discusses lunar related theories and research. (ML)

  12. Meteorites, the Moon and the History of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvin, Ursula B.

    1986-01-01

    Traces the historical events that linked geology with the planetary sciences. Reviews the origins of meteorities as a modern science and highlights the advances made in this area. Discusses lunar related theories and research. (ML)

  13. Planetary maps - Passports for the mind

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.M. )

    1990-12-01

    The various types of planetary maps are reviewed. Included are basic descriptions of planimetric, topographic, geologic, and digital maps. It is noted that planimetric maps are pictorial representations of a planet's round surface flattened into a plane, such as controlled photomosaic maps and shaded relief maps. Topographic maps, those usually made with data from altimeters and stereoscopic images, have contour lines indicating the shapes and elevations of landforms. Geologic maps carry additional information about landforms, such as rock types, the processes that formed them, and their relative ages. The International Astronomical Union nomenclature system is briefly discussed, pointing out that the Union often assigns themes to areas to be mapped.

  14. Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The spectral coverage characteristics of the two thematic mapper instruments were determined by analyses of spectral measurements of the optics, filters, and detectors. The following results are presented: (1) band 2 and 3 flatness was slightly below specification, and band 7 flatness was below specification; (2) band 5 upper-band edge was higher than specifications; (3) band 2 band edges were shifted upward about 9 nm relative to nominal; and (4) band 4, 5, and 7 lower band edges were 16 to 18 nm higher then nominal.

  15. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathrop, Richard G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions.

  16. Radiometric calibration of Landsat Thematic Mapper multispectral images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavez, P.S.

    1989-01-01

    A main problem encountered in radiometric calibration of satellite image data is correcting for atmospheric effects. Without this correction, an image digital number (DN) cannot be converted to a surface reflectance value. In this paper the accuracy of a calibration procedure, which includes a correction for atmospheric scattering, is tested. Two simple methods, a stand-alone and an in situ sky radiance measurement technique, were used to derive the HAZE DN values for each of the six reflectance Thematic Mapper (TM) bands. The DNs of two Landsat TM images of Phoenix, Arizona were converted to surface reflectances. -from Author

  17. Mapper: A distributed object-oriented database application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younger, Herbert; O'Reilly, John; Frogner, Bjorn

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project. The initial application involved decomposition of a large database across multiple processors to improve the speed of processing compound queries. The commercial outcome was a tourist information system with a point-to-point driving direction program called MAPPER. A distributed, object-oriented approach was used for the general design, while a spatial decomposition was used to divide the database into computationally manageable pieces. The resulting system is highly flexible with respect to both modifications and reuse.

  18. An Analysis LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Geometric Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. E.; Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.; Gokhman, B.; Friedman, S. Z.; Logan, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    LANDSAT Thematic Mapper P-data of Washington, D. C., Harrisburg, PA, and Salton Sea, CA are analyzed to determine magnitudes and causes of error in the geometric conformity of the data to known Earth surface geometry. Several tests of data geometry are performed. Intraband and interband correlation and registration are investigated, exclusive of map based ground truth. The magnitudes and statistical trends of pixel offsets between a single band's mirror scans (due to processing procedures) are computed, and the inter-band integrity of registration is analyzed. A line to line correlation analysis is included.

  19. Evaluation of Thematic Mapper interband registration and noise characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.; Hlavka, C. A.; Card, D. H.; Buis, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the Thematic Mapper (TM) instruments aboard the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 spacecraft have provided the first digital imagery of the earth's surface with a resolution sufficient to distinguish cultural features easily. The present paper provides a description of the results of studies designed to investigate the band-to-band registration, geodetic registration to a map base, and periodic noise. In the eight TM scenes analyzed, the band-to-band registration accuracy was high even before correction, and the correction for the shift between focal planes brought all bands into registration according to tight specifications.

  20. A prospectus for Thematic Mapper research in the Earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Earth science applications of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery are discussed. Prospective research themes are defined in a general sense in relation to the technical measurement capabilities of the TM and the various types of Earth information that can potentially be derived from multispectral TM imagery. An overview of the system developed to acquire and reduce TM data is presented. The technical capabilities of this system are presented in detail. The orbital performance of the TM sensor is described, based upon the analysis of LANDSAT 4 and 5 TM data collected to date.

  1. Cropland measurement using Thematic Mapper data and radiometric model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, John G.; Khuwaiter, I. H. S.

    1989-01-01

    To halt erosion and desertification, it is necessary to quantify resources that are affected. Necessary information includes inventory of croplands and desert areas as they change over time. Several studies indicate the value of remote sensor data as input to inventories. In this study, the radiometric modeling of spectral characteristics of soil and vegetation provides the theoretical basis for the remote sensing approach. Use of Landsat Thematic Mapper images allows measurement of croplands in Saudi Arabia, demonstrating the capability of the approach. The inventory techniques and remote sensing approach presented are potentially useful in developing countries.

  2. Moon Mineralogy Mapper: Unlocking the Mysteries of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runyon, Cassandra

    2006-01-01

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is a state-of-the-art high spectral resolution imaging spectrometer that will characterize and map the mineral composition of the Moon. The M3 instrument will be flown on Chandrayaan-I, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) mission to be launched in March 2008. The Moon is a cornerstone to understanding early solar system processes. M3 high-resolution compositional maps will dramatically improve our understanding about the early evolution of the terrestrial planets and will provide an assessment of lunar resources at high spatial resolution.

  3. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Lathrop, R.G., JR. )

    1992-04-01

    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions. 17 refs.

  4. Cropland measurement using Thematic Mapper data and radiometric model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, John G.; Khuwaiter, I. H. S.

    1989-01-01

    To halt erosion and desertification, it is necessary to quantify resources that are affected. Necessary information includes inventory of croplands and desert areas as they change over time. Several studies indicate the value of remote sensor data as input to inventories. In this study, the radiometric modeling of spectral characteristics of soil and vegetation provides the theoretical basis for the remote sensing approach. Use of Landsat Thematic Mapper images allows measurement of croplands in Saudi Arabia, demonstrating the capability of the approach. The inventory techniques and remote sensing approach presented are potentially useful in developing countries.

  5. Demonstration of angular anisotropy in the output of Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duggin, M. J. (Principal Investigator); Lindsay, J.; Piwinski, D. J.; Schoch, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    There is a dependence of TM output (proportional to scene radiance in a manner which will be discussed) upon season, upon cover type and upon view angle. The existence of a significant systematic variation across uniform scenes in p-type (radiometrically and geometrically pre-processed) data is demonstrated. Present pre-processing does remove the effects and the problem must be addressed because the effects are large. While this is in no way attributable to any shortcomings in the thematic mapper, it is an effect which is sufficiently important to warrant more study, with a view to developing suitable pre-processing correction algorithms.

  6. Evaluation of Landsat Thematic Mapper for vegetated alluvium soils information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Houston, A. G.; Pitts, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper data acquired over Mississippi County, Arkansas, on August 22, 1982, were evaluated whether TM provides information that could be used for soil association maps and if soil properties (variability within vegetated fields) can be detected with the new bands on TM. It was found that TM data - especially the mid-IR and thermal bands - show the capability for separating vegetated soil landscapes on a broad basis. Analysis at the field level with a crop growing indicates that TM, with its additional and narrower bands and improved spatial resolution is influenced by within-field variability due to soils.

  7. Planetary cartography in the next decade (1984 - 1994)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The cartographic products required to support science and planetary exploration during the next 10 years were assessed. Only major map series or first order maps needed to characterize the surface physiography of a planet or satellite were considered. Included in these considerations are maps needed as bases for plotting geologic, geophysical, and atmospheric phenomena and for planning future planetary exploration. These products consist of three types of maps: controlled photomosaics, shaded relief maps, and topographic contour maps.

  8. Smart Rotorcraft Field Assistants for Terrestrial and Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Aiken, Edwin W.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Field science in extreme terrestrial environments is often difficult and sometimes dangerous. Field seasons are also often short in duration. Robotic field assistants, particularly small highly mobile rotary-wing platforms, have the potential to significantly augment a field season's scientific return on investment for geology and astrobiology researchers by providing an entirely new suite of sophisticated field tools. Robotic rotorcraft and other vertical lift planetary aerial vehicle also hold promise for supporting planetary science missions.

  9. A mapper's reflection on Dementia Care Mapping with older residents living in a nursing home.

    PubMed

    Mansah, Martha; Coulon, Lyn; Brown, Peter

    2008-06-01

    Aim and objective.  This paper explores reflection stemming from a Dementia Care Mapper's own learning and development concerning person-centred care with older residents living in a dementia specific nursing home. Background.  Dementia Care Mapping has been employed in few Australian residential care facilities to promote person-centred care and the well-being of residents. Reflection has also been used selectively in some practices to improve and evaluate the care process. However, contemporary nursing literature has failed to highlight the usefulness of applying reflection following Dementia Care Mapping with older residents. Method.  The mapper's reflections arose from the Dementia Care Mapping observation of five older residents and writing a daily reflective journal. Findings.  From the reflection, a dominant major theme emerged named as the Learning Experience from Mapping Residents with two sub-themes entitled Mapper's Identification of Resident's Unique Needs and Mapper's Empowerment of Clinicians. Dementia Care Mapping recommendations from the mapper's experience highlighted effective approaches to conducting Dementia Care Mapping in residential care facilities. Conclusions.  The valuable process of reflection to Dementia Care Mapping provided the mapper with clinical insights. Further from the mapper's final reflection, a poem entitled Come Back Mind, Come Back to Me was conceived and penned. Relevance to clinical practice.  The mapper's engagement in ongoing reflection incorporated with Dementia Care Mapping has the potential to promote best practice for the care of older people living in aged care facilities.

  10. Basis and methods of NASA airborne topographic mapper lidar surveys for coastal studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Krabill, William B.; Swift, Robert N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the basic principles of airborne laser altimetry for surveys of coastal topography, and describes the methods used in the acquisition and processing of NASA Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) surveys that cover much of the conterminous US coastline. This form of remote sensing, also known as "topographic lidar", has undergone extremely rapid development during the last two decades, and has the potential to contribute within a wide range of coastal scientific investigations. Various airborne laser surveying (ALS) applications that are relevant to coastal studies are being pursued by researchers in a range of Earth science disciplines. Examples include the mapping of "bald earth" land surfaces below even moderately dense vegetation in studies of geologic framework and hydrology, and determination of the vegetation canopy structure, a key variable in mapping wildlife habitats. ALS has also proven to be an excellent method for the regional mapping of geomorphic change along barrier island beaches and other sandy coasts due to storms or long-term sedimentary processes. Coastal scientists are adopting ALS as a basic method in the study of an array of additional coastal topics. ALS can provide useful information in the analysis of shoreline change, the prediction and assessment of landslides along seacliffs and headlands, examination of subsidence causing coastal land loss, and in predicting storm surge and tsunami inundation.

  11. A preliminary evaluation of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data for their geometric and radiometric accuracies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podwysocki, M. H.; Bender, L. U.; Falcone, N.; Jones, O. D.

    1983-01-01

    Some LANDSAT thematic mapper data collected over the eastern United States were analyzed for their whole scene geometric accuracy, band to band registration and radiometric accuracy. Band ratio images were created for a part of one scene in order to assess the capability of mapping geologic units with contrasting spectral properties. Systematic errors were found in the geometric accuracy of whole scenes, part of which were attributable to the film writing device used to record the images to film. Band to band registration showed that bands 1 through 4 were registered to within one pixel. Likewise, bands 5 and 7 also were registered to within one pixel. However, bands 5 and 7 were misregistered with bands 1 through 4 by 1 to 2 pixels. Band 6 was misregistered by 4 pixels to bands 1 through 4. Radiometric analysis indicated two kinds of banding, a modulo-16 stripping and an alternate light dark group of 16 scanlines. A color ratio composite image consisting of TM band ratios 3/4, 5/2, and 5/7 showed limonitic clay rich soils, limonitic clay poor soils, and nonlimonitic materials as distinctly different colors on the image.

  12. Development of landsat-5 thematic mapper internal calibrator gain and offset table

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Micijevic, E.; Markham, B.L.; Haque, Md. O.

    2008-01-01

    The National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) has been the primary processing system for Landsat data since U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS) started archiving Landsat data. NLAPS converts raw satellite data into radiometrically and geometrically calibrated products. NLAPS has historically used the Internal Calibrator (IC) to calibrate the reflective bands of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM), even though the lamps in the IC were less stable than the TM detectors, as evidenced by vicarious calibration results. In 2003, a major effort was made to model the actual TM gain change and to update NLAPS to use this model rather than the unstable IC data for radiometric calibration. The model coefficients were revised in 2007 to reflect greater understanding of the changes in the TM responsivity. While the calibration updates are important to users with recently processed data, the processing system no longer calculates the original IC gain or offset. For specific applications, it is useful to have a record of the gain and offset actually applied to the older data. Thus, the NLAPS calibration database was used to generate estimated daily values for the radiometric gain and offset that might have been applied to TM data. This paper discusses the need for and generation of the NLAPSIC gain and offset tables. A companion paper covers the application of and errors associated with using these tables.

  13. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support provided by Science Applications, Inc. staff members to Earth and Planetary Exploration Division, OSSA/NASA, for the period 1 February 1981 to 30 April 1982 are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation, planetary missions performance, solar system exploration committee support, Mars program planning, Galilean satellite mission concepts, and advanced propulsion data base. The work covers 80 man-months of research. Study reports and related publications are included in a bibliography section.

  14. Remote Raman spectroscopy for planetary exploration: a review.

    PubMed

    Angel, S Michael; Gomer, Nathaniel R; Sharma, Shiv K; McKay, Chris

    2012-02-01

    In this review, we discuss the current state of standoff Raman spectroscopy as it applies to remote planetary applications, including standoff instrumentation, the technique's ability to identify biologically and geologically important analytes, and the feasibility to make standoff Raman measurements under various planetary conditions. This is not intended to be an exhaustive review of standoff Raman and many excellent papers are not mentioned. Rather it is intended to give the reader a quick review of the types of standoff Raman systems that are being developed and that might be suitable for astrospectroscopy, a look at specific analytes that are of interest for planetary applications, planetary measurement opportunities and challenges that need to be solved, and a brief discussion of the feasibility of making surface and plume planetary Raman measurements from an orbiting spacecraft.

  15. Laboratory Studies in Support of Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, James B.; Castillo, J.; Hodyss, R.; Spilker, T.; Brown, L.; Orton, G.; Gudipati, M.; Mastrapa, R.; Atreya, S.; Nimmo, F.; Blankenship, D.; Durham, B.; Khurana, K.; others

    2009-09-01

    Scientific understanding in several fields within Planetary Science could enter a period of rapid progress and discovery once certain laboratory investigations are performed to provide valuable constraints on fundamental properties of radiation and matter, the physics and chemistry of atmospheric, surface and subsurface compounds, and dynamic interactions within the Solar System. Much theoretical work at present is based upon rough estimates of basic parameters that could be measured under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. Due to the exotic nature of many planetary environments, these investigations are unique, challenging, and generally expensive for the individual researchers. Traditionally, funding for laboratory work has lagged behind that of missions; at present, there is sufficient mission data already recorded to justify a sustained investment in laboratory activities over the coming decade that would result in an exponential return in scientific progress. Specific laboratory investigations are needed to provide fundamental physical, chemical, and biological parameters for theoretical models and observational interpretations that will drive the entire field of Planetary Science forward, particularly with regard to atmospheric dynamics, chemistry, and composition; celestial dynamics, surface chemistry and composition, planetary formation, geology, and geophysics; plasmas and magnetospheres; and applications of astrobiology and astrophysics for Solar System bodies. A series of topical white papers addressing each of these are being submitted to the Planetary Science Decadal Survey and highlighting the areas most in need of supporting laboratory work.

  16. SPACE AND PLANETARY ENVIRONMENTS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES, PLUTO (PLANET), SATURN(PLANET), SOLAR RADIATION, SOLAR WIND, SPECTROGRAPHY, STARS, SUN, TERRAIN, GEOMAGNETISM, ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION, URANUS(PLANET), VAN ALLEN RADIATION BELT, VENUS(PLANET).

  17. Remote sensing of coastal wetlands biomass using Thematic Mapper wavebands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardisky, M. A.; Klemas, V.

    1985-01-01

    Spectral data, simulating thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 are gathered in salt and brackish marshes using a hand-held radiometer. Simple regression models are developed equating spectral radiance indices with total live biomass for S. alterniflora in a salt marsh and for a variety of plant species in a brackish marsh. Models are then tested using an independent set of data and compared to harvest estimates of biomass. In the salt marsh, biomass estimates from spectral data are similar to harvest biomass estimates during most of the growing season. Estimates of annual net aerial primary productivity calculated from spectral data are within 21% of production estimated from harvest data. During August, biomass estimates from spectral data in the brackish marsh are similar to biomass estimated by harvesting techniques. At other times during the growing season, spectral data estimates of biomass are not always comparable to harvest biomass estimates. Reasonable estimates of wetlands biomass are possible during the peak of the growing season (August) using spectral data similar to thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 gathered with hand-held radiometers.

  18. Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Boncyk, Wayne C.; Helder, D.L.; Barker, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Landsat-7 is currently being built and tested for launch in 1998. The Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor for Landsat-7, a derivative of the highly successful Thematic Mapper (TM) sensors on Landsats 4 and 5, and the Landsat-7 ground system are being built to provide enhanced radiometric calibration performance. In addition, regular vicarious calibration campaigns are being planned to provide additional information for calibration of the ETM+ instrument. The primary upgrades to the instrument include the addition of two solar calibrators: the full aperture solar calibrator, a deployable diffuser, and the partial aperture solar calibrator, a passive device that allows the ETM+ to image the sun. The ground processing incorporates for the first time an off-line facility, the Image Assessment System (IAS), to perform calibration, evaluation and analysis. Within the IAS, processing capabilities include radiometric artifact characterization and correction, radiometric calibration from the multiple calibrator sources, inclusion of results from vicarious calibration and statistical trending of calibration data to improve calibration estimation. The Landsat Product Generation System, the portion of the ground system responsible for producing calibrated products, will incorporate the radiometric artifact correction algorithms and will use the calibration information generated by the IAS. This calibration information will also be supplied to ground processing systems throughout the world.

  19. Remote sensing of coastal wetlands biomass using Thematic Mapper wavebands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardisky, M. A.; Klemas, V.

    1985-01-01

    Spectral data, simulating thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 are gathered in salt and brackish marshes using a hand-held radiometer. Simple regression models are developed equating spectral radiance indices with total live biomass for S. alterniflora in a salt marsh and for a variety of plant species in a brackish marsh. Models are then tested using an independent set of data and compared to harvest estimates of biomass. In the salt marsh, biomass estimates from spectral data are similar to harvest biomass estimates during most of the growing season. Estimates of annual net aerial primary productivity calculated from spectral data are within 21% of production estimated from harvest data. During August, biomass estimates from spectral data in the brackish marsh are similar to biomass estimated by harvesting techniques. At other times during the growing season, spectral data estimates of biomass are not always comparable to harvest biomass estimates. Reasonable estimates of wetlands biomass are possible during the peak of the growing season (August) using spectral data similar to thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 gathered with hand-held radiometers.

  20. Structural mapping and analysis of a Madagascar Precambrian shear zone using enhanced Landsat Thematic Mapper Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kilmer, D.S.; Duncan, I.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Recently, the west coast of Madagascar has become a frontier region for petroleum exploration. Major structures in the Precambrian shield of Madagascar may have a strong control on the development of sedimentary basins, as has been documented in the Morondava basin. The 2.5-3.0+ Ga shield of Madagascar is an amphibolite- to granulite-grade metamorphic gneiss terrain, intruded by anorthosites and 550-Ma granites and pegmatites. Landsat Thematic Mapper data provides a cost-effective method for regional-scale structural mapping of this poorly known terrain. A five-component linear mixing model has been used to enhance the lithologic information in this six-band data. Lithologic component images thus produced utilize the full geologic spectral range of the data. A preliminary structural geologic map compiled from the component images has greater detail than existing maps at 1:100,000 scale, to which it has been compared. The Ankafotra-Saririaky shear zone has been identified as a north-northeast-trending, 15- to 20-km-wide region of appressed folds, attenuated layering, and subparallel faults on the western side of the shield. Two anorthosite massifs that occur within this shear zone have the structural characteristics of boudins in a ductile matrix. The shear deformed a preexisting terrain of poly-phase folding, characterized by tight folds and complex fold interference structures displayed by basins and domes on a scale of 10 km. Enhanced remote sensing data can be used to characterize the nature and mechanism of shear deformation in such zones.

  1. From Planetary Intelligence to Planetary Wisdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    "Planetary intelligence" - when understood as an input into the processes of "managing" Earth - hints at an instrumental understanding of scientific information. At minimum it is a call for useful data of political (and even military) value; at best it speaks to an ability to collect, integrate and apply such information. In this sense, 21st century society has more "intelligence" than any generation of humans before, begging the question whether just more or better "planetary intelligence" will do anything at all to move us off the path of planetary destruction (i.e., beyond planetary boundaries) that it has been on for decades if not centuries. Social scientists have argued that there are at least four shortcomings in this way of thinking that - if addressed - could open up 1) what is being researched; 2) what is considered socially robust knowledge; 3) how science interacts with policy-makers and other "planet managers"; and 4) what is being done in practice with the "intelligence" given to those positioned at the levers of change. To the extent "planetary management" continues to be approached from a scientistic paradigm alone, there is little hope that Earth's future will remain in a safe operating space in this or coming centuries.

  2. Remote compositional analysis of lunar olivine-rich lithologies with Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isaacson, P.J.; Pieters, C.M.; Besse, S.; Clark, R.N.; Head, J.W.; Klima, R.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Petro, N.E.; Staid, M.I.; Sunshine, J.M.; Taylor, L.A.; Thaisen, K.G.; Tompkins, S.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic approach for deconvolving remotely sensed lunar olivine-rich visible to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra with the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) is evaluated with Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M 3) spectra. Whereas earlier studies of laboratory reflectance spectra focused only on complications due to chromite inclusions in lunar olivines, we develop a systematic approach for addressing (through continuum removal) the prominent continuum slopes common to remotely sensed reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We have validated our continuum removal on a suite of laboratory reflectance spectra. Suites of olivine-dominated reflectance spectra from a small crater near Mare Moscoviense, the Copernicus central peak, Aristarchus, and the crater Marius in the Marius Hills were analyzed. Spectral diversity was detected in visual evaluation of the spectra and was quantified using the MGM. The MGM-derived band positions are used to estimate the olivine's composition in a relative sense. Spectra of olivines from Moscoviense exhibit diversity in their absorption features, and this diversity suggests some variation in olivine Fe/Mg content. Olivines from Copernicus are observed to be spectrally homogeneous and thus are predicted to be more compositionally homogeneous than those at Moscoviense but are of broadly similar composition to the Moscoviense olivines. Olivines from Aristarchus and Marius exhibit clear spectral differences from those at Moscoviense and Copernicus but also exhibit features that suggest contributions from other phases. If the various precautions discussed here are weighed carefully, the methods presented here can be used to make general predictions of absolute olivine composition (Fe/Mg content). Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. The Planetary Data System— Archiving Planetary Data for the use of the Planetary Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Thomas H.; McLaughlin, Stephanie A.; Grayzeck, Edwin J.; Vilas, Faith; Knopf, William P.; Crichton, Daniel J.

    2014-11-01

    NASA’s Planetary Data System (PDS) archives, curates, and distributes digital data from NASA’s planetary missions. PDS provides the planetary science community convenient online access to data from NASA’s missions so that they can continue to mine these rich data sets for new discoveries. The PDS is a federated system consisting of nodes for specific discipline areas ranging from planetary geology to space physics. Our federation includes an engineering node that provides systems engineering support to the entire PDS.In order to adequately capture complete mission data sets containing not only raw and reduced instrument data, but also calibration and documentation and geometry data required to interpret and use these data sets both singly and together (data from multiple instruments, or from multiple missions), PDS personnel work with NASA missions from the initial AO through the end of mission to define, organize, and document the data. This process includes peer-review of data sets by members of the science community to ensure that the data sets are scientifically useful, effectively organized, and well documented. PDS makes the data in PDS easily searchable so that members of the planetary community can both query the archive to find data relevant to specific scientific investigations and easily retrieve the data for analysis. To ensure long-term preservation of data and to make data sets more easily searchable with the new capabilities in Information Technology now available (and as existing technologies become obsolete), the PDS (together with the COSPAR sponsored IPDA) developed and deployed a new data archiving system known as PDS4, released in 2013. The LADEE, MAVEN, OSIRIS REx, InSight, and Mars2020 missions are using PDS4. ESA has adopted PDS4 for the upcoming BepiColumbo mission. The PDS is actively migrating existing data records into PDS4 and developing tools to aid data providers and users. The PDS is also incorporating challenge

  4. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, Allen W.

    1978-01-01

    Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

  5. Geological gyrocompass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, M. H.; Beason, S. C.

    1988-08-01

    The geological gyrocompass is an accurate, portable instrument useful for geologic mapping and surveying which employs an aircraft gyrocompass, strike reference bars, a pair of sights and levelling devices for horizontally levelling the instrument. A clinometer graduated in degrees indicates the dip of the surface being measured.

  6. Physical geology

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, B.; Porter, S.

    1987-01-01

    The book integrates current thinking on processes (plate techtonics, chemical cycles, changes throughout geologic time). It is an introduction to investigations into the way the earth works, how mountains are formed, how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust and mantle interact with each other. Treatments on climate, paleoclimatology and landscape evolution are included, as is a discussion on how human activity affects geological interactions.

  7. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, Allen W.

    1978-01-01

    Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

  8. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  9. Remote Sensing of Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.

    2001-01-01

    Our efforts have been focused on understanding the physical properties of planetary surfaces using remote sensing techniques. Specific application has been to the surfaces of the Moon and Mars. Our approach has been to use thermal-infrared emission and radar reflectance and scattering as a way of exploring the decimeter-scale structure of these surfaces. At this scale, the techniques are sensitive to physical parameters such as the average or effective particle size of surface materials, the degree of induration or physical bonding between individual regolith grains, and the abundance of rocks of different sizes resting on or admixed in to the surface. The results are relevant to understanding the geological processes that have affected the surface and, in the case of Mars, determining site safety and scientific relevance for planning upcoming lander, rover, and sample-return spacecraft missions. Specific results are discussed below, and publications that have resulted are listed at the end.

  10. Exploring Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, John W.

    2008-09-01

    I am willing to bet a nice bottle of chardonnay that much of the Eos readership has lugged around, fondled, and fumbled through an introductory physical geology textbook of some form or another, once upon a time. Mine, in 1970, was Physical Geology, by Longwell, Flint, and Sanders, which I still have, by the way. Most of us know how ``classical'' physical geology textbooks have been organized: first, a broad overview of Earth processes, then several sections devoted to groups of more specific subjects (e.g., mineralogy, sedimentary rocks, and environments, with one chapter per subject), then several sections devoted to a synthesis of geologic processes in the context of plate tectonics, and finally, typically, a discussion of Earth resources and environment- related issues. Some relatively new textbooks have ventured into new pedagogical formats, for example, emphasizing how we know what we know (e.g., How Does Earth Work: Physical Geology and the Process of Science by Smith and Pun).

  11. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation research, planetary mission performance, penetrator advanced studies, Mercury mission transport requirements, definition of super solar electric propulsion/solar sail mission discriminators, and advanced planning activities.

  12. Planetary Exploration in ESA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwehm, Gerhard H.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on planetary exploration in the European Space Agency is shown. The topics include: 1) History of the Solar System Material; 2) ROSETTA: The Comet Mission; 3) A New Name For The Lander: PHILAE; 4) The Rosetta Mission; 5) Lander: Design Characteristics; 6) SMART-1 Mission; 7) MARS Express VENUS Express; 8) Planetary Exploration in ESA The Future.

  13. Multistage Planetary Power Transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, G. B.; Dyba, G. J.; Ragen, M. A.; Kleckner, R. J.; Sheynin, L.

    1986-01-01

    PLANETSYS simulates thermomechanical performance of multistage planetary performance of multistage planetary power transmission. Two versions of code developed, SKF version and NASA version. Major function of program: compute performance characteristics of planet bearing for any of six kinematic inversions. PLANETSYS solves heat-balance equations for either steadystate or transient thermal conditions, and produces temperature maps for mechanical system.

  14. Hydrodynamic Simulations of Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jacob; Stewart, G. R.; Esposito, L. W.

    2013-10-01

    Simulations of rings have traditionally been done using N-body methods, granting insight into the interactions of individual ring particles on varying scales. However, due to the scale of a typical ring system and the sheer number of particles involved, a global N-body simulation is too computationally expensive, unless particle collisions are replaced by stochastic forces (Bromley & Kenyon, 2013). Rings are extraordinarily flat systems and therefore are well-suited to existing geophysical shallow-water hydrodynamics models with well-established non-linear advection methods. By adopting a general relationship between pressure and surface density such as a polytropic equation of state, we can modify the shallow-water formula to treat a thin, compressible, self-gravitating, shearing fluid. Previous hydrodynamic simulations of planetary rings have been restricted to axisymmetric flows and therefore have not treated the response to nonaxisymmetric perturbations by moons (Schmidt & Tscharnuter 1999, Latter & Ogilvie 2010). We seek to expand on existing hydrodynamic methods and, by comparing our work with complementary N-body simulations and Cassini observations, confirm the veracity of our results at small scales before eventually moving to a global domain size. We will use non-Newtonian, dynamically variable viscosity to model the viscous transport caused by unresolved self-gravity wakes. Self-gravity will be added to model the dynamics of large-scale structures, such as density waves and edge waves. Support from NASA Outer Planets and Planetary Geology and Geophysics programs is gratefully acknowledged.

  15. Gender Diversity in Planetary Volcanology: Encouraging Equality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, T. K.; Lopes, R. M.

    2004-12-01

    We have brought together a group of respected and well-known female planetary volcanologists to create a book designed to encourage young women to pursue scientific careers. The book, entitled "Volcanic Worlds: Exploring the Solar System's Volcanoes," published by Praxis, is written for undergraduates who may have no background in geology or planetary sciences. Each chapter covers a different Solar System body or volcanic process, and is authored by a woman who is an expert in her field. Subjects covered include: the relation of plate tectonics to volcanism on Earth; the study of Mars' volcanoes from space and using rovers; geysers on Neptune's moon Triton and on Earth; eruptions on Io; and studying submarine lava flows from a submarine. Each chapter is written in a comfortable, readily accessible tone, with authors presenting not only science, but also some of the unique challenges faced by women conducting volcanological research today-and how these are overcome. Although not intended to be a textbook, this work could easily form the basis of an undergraduate geology seminar, honors course, or as a valuable accessory to an introductory geology course. In addition, it could be used in courses that would be cross-listed between geology departments and sociology departments. We will present more information on the book, and suggestions of how it could be used in the classroom to enhance gender diversity in the Earth and Space Sciences.

  16. Geologic time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, William L.

    2000-01-01

    The Earth is very old 4 1/2 billion years or more according to recent estimates. This vast span of time, called geologic time by earth scientists, is difficult to comprehend in the familiar time units of months and years, or even centuries. How then do scientists reckon geologic time, and why do they believe the Earth is so old? A great part of the secret of the Earth's age is locked up in its rocks, and our centuries-old search for the key led to the beginning and nourished the growth of geologic science.

  17. Thematic Mapper Image Production in the Engineering Checkout Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischel, D.; Lyon, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Thematic Mapper data processing during LANDSAT 4's first year was performed on an engineering evaluation basis. Fully corrected products were created for some 282 scenes during this period using software and systems based upon the intended full production systems to become operational following the evaluation period. The engineering systems included substantial software and procedures for assessing spacecraft, instrument and ground processing algorithmic behavior. The data systems are described in terms of performance objectives, processing organization and data flow, quality assurance measurements and achievement of goals. The a priori implementation of TM radiometric and geometric corrections is described. Changes to processing suggested by or implemented on the basis of on-orbit data analysis are discussed. Spacecraft, instrument and algorithmic performance are evaluated.

  18. Estimating forest productivity with Thematic Mapper and biogeographical data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Elizabeth A.; Iverson, Louis R.; Graham, Robin L.

    1989-01-01

    Spectral data from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) on three forest exosystems (the southern Illinois, the Great Smoky Mountains regions in Tennessee and North Carolina, and the central Adirondack Mountains in New York) were used in conjunction with ground-collected measures of forest productivity and such information as the area's slope, aspect, elevation, and soil and vegetation types, to develop models of regional forest productivity. It is shown that the models developed may be used to estimate the productivity of a region with a high degree of confidence, but that the reliability of single-pixel estimates is poor. The characteristics of a given ecosystem determine which spectral values are most closely related to forest productivity. Thus, mid-IR, NIR, and visible bands are most significant in Illinois and New York, while the thermal band is relatively more important in the Smokies.

  19. Spectroradiometric calibration of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, Philip N.; Palmer, James M.

    1986-01-01

    A list of personnel who have contributed to the program is provided. Sixteen publications and presentations are also listed. A preprint summarizing five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations of the solar reflective bands of the LANDSAT-5 Thematic Mapper is presented. The 23 band calibrations made on the five dates show a 2.5% RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean. A preprint is also presented that discusses the reflectance-based results of the above preprint. It proceeds to analyze and present results of a second, independent calibration method based on radiance measurements from a helicopter. Radiative transfer through the atmosphere, model atmospheres, the calibration methodology used at White Sands and the results of a sensitivity analysis of the reflectance-based approach is also discussed.

  20. Analysis of forest structure using thematic mapper simulator data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. L.; Westman, W. E.; Brass, J. A.; Stephenson, N. J.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Spanner, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The potential of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for sensing forest structure information has been explored by principal components and feature selection techniques. In a survey of forest structural properties conducted for 123 field sites of the Sequoia National Park, the canopy closure could be well estimated (r = 0.62 to 0.69) by a variety of channel bands and band ratios, without reference to the forest type. Estimation of the basal area was less successful (r = 0.51 or less) on the average, but could be improved for certain forest types when data were stratified by floristic composition. To achieve such a stratification, individual sites were ordinated by a detrended correspondence analysis based on the canopy of dominant species. The analysis of forest structure in the Sequoia data suggests that total basal area can be best predicted in stands of lower density, and in younger even-aged managed stands.

  1. Landsat Thematic Mapper geodetic accuracy - Implications for geocoded map compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.; Walker, R. E.; Gokhmann, B.

    1985-01-01

    The geodetic accuracy and geometric fidelity of corrected thematic mapper (TM) imagery are evaluated. The positional accuracy requirements for the TM are for a single band to within 0.5 pixels of true earth-surface locations at any point over 90 percent of the image and for interband registration to within 0.3 pixel tolerance over 90 percent of the data. Landsat 4 and 5 TM data are analyzed to investigate: (1) single band geometric integrity, (2) 30 m resolution interband registration; (3) image to image conformity; (4) image to ground conformity; and (5) image projective geometry conformity to a mapped earth geometry. The procedures used to study these characteristics are described. The data reveal that Landsat TM digital data met or exceed map accuracy standards for horizontal control.

  2. Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Palmer, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Radiometric measurements were taken on the morning of the LANDSAT 5 Thematic Mapper overpass. The sky was cloud free and the sites were dry. Barnes multiband radiometer data were collected for a 4 x 4 pixel area and two fractional pixel areas of slightly higher and lower reflectances than the larger area. Helicopter color photography was obtained of all the ground areas. This photography will allow a detailed reflectance map of the 4 x 4 pixel are to be made and registered to the TM imagery to an accuracy of better than half a pixel. Spectropolarimeter data were also collected of the 4 x 4 pixel area from the helicopter. In addition, ground based solar radiometer data were collected to provide spectral extinction optical thickness valves. The radiative transfer theory used in the development of the Herman code which was used in predicting the TM entrance pupil spectral radiances from the ground based measurements is described.

  3. Analysis of forest structure using thematic mapper simulator data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. L.; Westman, W. E.; Brass, J. A.; Stephenson, N. J.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Spanner, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The potential of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for sensing forest structure information has been explored by principal components and feature selection techniques. In a survey of forest structural properties conducted for 123 field sites of the Sequoia National Park, the canopy closure could be well estimated (r = 0.62 to 0.69) by a variety of channel bands and band ratios, without reference to the forest type. Estimation of the basal area was less successful (r = 0.51 or less) on the average, but could be improved for certain forest types when data were stratified by floristic composition. To achieve such a stratification, individual sites were ordinated by a detrended correspondence analysis based on the canopy of dominant species. The analysis of forest structure in the Sequoia data suggests that total basal area can be best predicted in stands of lower density, and in younger even-aged managed stands.

  4. Classification of corn and soybeans using multitemporal Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The multitemporal classification approach based on the greenness profile derived from Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) spectral bands has proved successful in effectively separating and identifying corn, soybean, and other ground cover classes. Features derived from these profiles have been shown to carry virtually all the information contained in the original data and, in addition, have been shown to be stable over a large geographic area of the United States. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the same features derived from multitemporal Thematic Mapper (TM) data would also prove effective in separating these two crop types, and, in fact, if algorithms developed for MSS could be directly applied to TM. It is shown that this is indeed the case. In addition, because of greater spatial and spectral resolution, the accuracy of TM classifications is better than in MSS.

  5. Classification of corn and soybeans using multitemporal Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The multitemporal classification approach based on the greenness profile derived from Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) spectral bands has proved successful in effectively separating and identifying corn, soybean, and other ground cover classes. Features derived from these profiles have been shown to carry virtually all the information contained in the original data and, in addition, have been shown to be stable over a large geographic area of the United States. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the same features derived from multitemporal Thematic Mapper (TM) data would also prove effective in separating these two crop types, and, in fact, if algorithms developed for MSS could be directly applied to TM. It is shown that this is indeed the case. In addition, because of greater spatial and spectral resolution, the accuracy of TM classifications is better than in MSS.

  6. Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT thematic mapper sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Data collected on the spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-4 backup thematic mapper instruments, the protoflight (TM/PF) and flight (TM/F) models, respectively, are presented and analyzed. Tests were conducted on the instruments and their components to determine compliance with two sets of spectral specifications: band-by-band spectral coverage and channel-by-channel within-band spectral matching. Spectral coverage specifications were placed on: (1) band edges--points at 50% of peak response, (2) band edge slopes--steepness of rise and fall-off of response, (3) spectral flatness--evenness of response between edges, and (4) spurious system response--ratio of out-of-band response to in-band response. Compliance with the spectral coverage specifications was determined by analysis of spectral measurements on the individual components contributing to the overall spectral response: filters, detectors, and optical surfaces.

  7. Analysis of conifer forest regeneration using Landsat Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorella, Maria; Ripple, William J.

    1995-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were used to evaluate young conifer stands in the western Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Regression and correlation analyses were used to describe the relationships between TM band values and age of young Douglas-fir stands (2 to 35 years old). Spectral data from well regenerated Douglas-fir stands were compared to those of poorly regenerated conifer stands. TM bands 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 were inversely correlated with the age (r greater than or equal to -0.80) of well regenerated Douglas-fir stands. Overall, the 'structural index' (TM 4/5 ratio) had the highest correlation to age of Douglas-fir stands (r = 0.96). Poorly regenerated stands were spectrally distinct from well regenerated Douglas-fir stands after the stands reached an age of approximately 15 years.

  8. LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schowengerdt, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A power spectrum (PS) analysis technique was used to compare thematic mapper (TM) A and P-tape data for a Washington, DC scene in two orthogonal directions, along scan and along track. The resulting effective modulation transfer functions (MTF) between the A and P data are repeatable from area to area and consistent with theoretical expectations. The average x-direction (along scan) MTF calculated with the PS technique is compared to the MTF of the cubic convolution resampling function used to create P data from A data. The two curves are nearly identical, indicating that the major factor affecting the image quality of P data relative to A data is the cubic convolution resampling.

  9. The Mars mapper science and mission planning tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Martin W.

    1993-01-01

    The Mars Mapper Program (MOm) is an interactive tool for science and mission design developed for the Mars Observer Mission (MO). MOm is a function of the Planning and Sequencing Element of the MO Ground Data System. The primary users of MOm are members of the science and mission planning teams. Using MOm, the user can display digital maps of Mars in various projections and resolutions ranging from 1 to 256 pixels per degree squared. The user can overlay the maps with ground tracks of the MO spacecraft (S/C) and footprints and swaths of the various instruments on-board the S/C. Orbital and instrument geometric parameters can be computed on demand and displayed on the digital map or plotted in XY-plots. The parameter data can also be saved into files for other uses. MOm is divided into 3 major processes: Generator, Mapper, Plotter. The Generator Process is the main control which spawns all other processes. The processes communicate via sockets. At any one time, only 1 copy of MOm may operate on the system. However, up to 5 copies of each of the major processes may be invoked from the Generator. MOm is developed on the Sun SPARCStation 2GX with menu driven graphical user interface (GUI). The map window and its overlays are mouse-sensitized to permit on-demand calculations of various parameters along an orbit. The program is currently under testing and will be delivered to the MO Mission System Configuration Management for distribution to the MO community in 3/93.

  10. Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A series of experiments were initiated to determine the feasibility of using thematic mapper spectral data to estimate wetlands biomass. The experiments were conducted using hand-held radiometers simulating thematic mapper wavebands 3, 4 and 5. Spectral radiance data were collected from the ground and from a low altitude aircraft in an attempt to gain some insight into the potential utility of actual thematic mapper data for biomass estimation in wetland plant communities. In addition, radiative transfer models describing volume reflectance of eight water column containing submerged aquatic vegetation were refined.

  11. The effect of spatial, spectral and radiometric factors on classification accuracy using thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.; Acevedo, W.; Alexander, D.; Buis, J.; Card, D.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment of a factorial design was conducted to test the effects on classification accuracy of land cover types due to the improved spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper (TM) in comparison to the Multispectral Scanner (MSS). High altitude aircraft scanner data from the Airborne Thematic Mapper instrument was acquired over central California in August, 1983 and used to simulate Thematic Mapper data as well as all combinations of the three characteristics for eight data sets in all. Results for the training sites (field center pixels) showed better classification accuracies for MSS spatial resolution, TM spectral bands and TM radiometry in order of importance.

  12. Thematic Mapper simulator research for forest resource mapping in the Clearwater National Forest, Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brass, J. A.; Peterson, D. L.; Spanner, M. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Ulliman, J. J.; Brockhaus, J.

    1984-01-01

    Per-pixel maximum likelihood digital classification and photo interpretation of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) composited images for a managed conifer forest were used to evaluate both land cover and forest structure characteristics. TMS channels 4, 7, 5 and 3, which were found to be optimal for forest vegetation analysis, used the full range of the Thematic Mapper's spectral capability. Photo interpretation results indicate that a false color composite from TMS channels 4, 7, and 2 provided the highest accuracies; the combination of improved spatial, spectral and radiometric resolution of the Thematic Mapper yielded greater sensitivity to forest structural characteristics.

  13. Planetary data definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-10-01

    Planetary data include all of those data which have resulted from measurements made by the instruments carried aboard planetary exploration spacecraft, and (for our purposes) exclude observations of Moon and Earth. The working, planetary data base is envisioned to contain not only these data, but also a wide range of supporting measurements such as calibration files, navigation parameters, spacecraft engineering states, and the various Earth-based and laboratory measurements which provide the planetary research scientist with historical and comparative data. No convention exists across the disciplines of the planetary community for defining or naming the various levels through which data pass in the progression from a sensed impulse at the spacecraft to a reduced, calibrated, and/or analyzed element in a planetary data set. Terms such as EDR (experiment data record), RDR (reduced data record), and SEDR (supplementary experiment data record) imply different meanings depending on the data set under consideration. The development of standard terminology for the general levels of planetary data is necessary.

  14. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Richard B.

    1979-01-01

    The year 1978 marked a continued trend toward practical applications in mathematical geology. Developments included work in interactive computer graphics, factor analysis, the vanishing tons problem, universal kriging, and resource estimating. (BB)

  15. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

  16. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

  17. Geology orbiter comparison study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, J. A. J.; Blasius, K. R.; Davis, D. R.; Pang, K. D.; Shreve, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Instrument requirements of planetary geology orbiters were examined with the objective of determining the feasibility of applying standard instrument designs to a host of terrestrial targets. Within the basic discipline area of geochemistry, gamma-ray, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic spectroscopy remote sensing techniques were considered. Within the discipline area of geophysics, the complementary techniques of gravimetry and radar were studied. Experiments using these techniques were analyzed for comparison at the Moon, Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites. On the basis of these comparative assessments, the adaptability of each sensing technique was judged as a basic technique for many targets, as a single instrument applied to many targets, as a single instrument used in different mission modes, and as an instrument capability for nongeoscience objectives.

  18. Geology, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabins, F. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Trends in geologic application of remote sensing are identified. These trends are as follows: (1) increased applications of orbital imagery in fields such as engineering and environmental geology - some specific applications include recognition of active earthquake faults, site location for nuclear powerplants, and recognition of landslide hazards; (2) utilization of remote sensing by industry, especially oil and gas companies, and (3) application of digital image processing to mineral exploration.

  19. Planetary Magnetic Fields: Planetary Interiors and Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Shkolnik, Evgenya; Hallinan, Gregg; Planetary Habitability Study Team

    2016-06-01

    The W. M. Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) sponsored the Planetary Magnetic Fields: Planetary Interiors and Habitability Study to review the state of knowledge of extrasolar planetary magnetic fields and the prospects for their detection. There were multiple motivations for this Study. Planetary-scale magnetic fields are a window to a planet's interior and provide shielding of the planet's atmosphere. The Earth, Mercury, Ganymede, and the giant planets of the solar system all contain internal dynamo currents that generate planetary-scale magnetic fields. In turn, these internal dynamo currents arise from differential rotation, convection, compositional dynamics, or a combination of these in objects' interiors. If coupled to an energy source, such as the incident kinetic or magnetic energy from the solar wind or an orbiting satellite, a planet's magnetic field can produce intense electron cyclotron masers in its magnetic polar regions. The most well known example of this process in the solar system is the Jovian decametric emission, but all of the giant planets and the Earth contain similar electron cyclotron masers within their magnetospheres. Extrapolated to extrasolar planets, the remote detection of the magnetic field of an extrasolar planet would provide a means of obtaining constraints on the thermal state, composition, and dynamics of its interior--all of which will be difficult to determine by other means--as well as improved understanding of the basic planetary dynamo process. This report presents the findings from the Study, including potential mission concepts that emerged and future work in both modeling and observations. There was also an identification of that radio wavelength observations would likely be key to making significant progress in this field. The entire Study program would not have been possible without the generous support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. We thank Michele Judd, Tom Prince, and the staff of the W. M. Keck Institute for

  20. Smart Rotorcraft Field Assistants for Terrestrial and Planetary Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    astrobiology researchers by providing an entirely new suite of sophisticated field tools. Robotic rotorcraft and other vertical lift planetary...12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 2004 IEEE Aerospace Conference...significantly augment a field season?s scientific return on investment for geology and astrobiology researchers by providing an entirely new suite of

  1. Lunar & Planetary Science, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents a summary of each paper presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference at the Johnson Space Center, Houston in March 1980. Topics relate to Venus, Jupiter, Mars, asteroids, meteorites, regoliths, achondrites, remote sensing, and cratering studies. (SA)

  2. Lunar & Planetary Science, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents a summary of each paper presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference at the Johnson Space Center, Houston in March 1980. Topics relate to Venus, Jupiter, Mars, asteroids, meteorites, regoliths, achondrites, remote sensing, and cratering studies. (SA)

  3. Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

  4. Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

  5. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 2, part C: Subsystem data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Reference lists are provided to acceptance data for each of the major subsystems of the thematic mapper. Configuration reports, lists and copies of all failure reports, and requests for deviation/waiver are included.

  6. Resource and environmental surveys from space with the thematic mapper in the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The selection of observation of vegetation is the primary optimization objective of the thematic mapper. The following are aspects of plans for the thematic mapper: (1) to include an appropriately modified first generation MSS in the thematic mapper mission; (2) to provide assured coverage for a minimum of six years to give agencies and other users an opportunity to justify the necessary commitment of resources for the transition into a completely valid operational phase; (3) to provide for global, direct data read-out, without the necessity for on-board data storage or dependence on foreign receiving stations; (4) to recognize the operational character of the thematic mapper after successful completion of its experimental evaluation; and (5) to combine future experimental packages with compatible orbits as part of the operational LANDSAT follow-on payloads.

  7. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part G: Miscellaneous system data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Functional and design data from various thematic mapper subsystems are presented. Coarse focus, modulation transfer function, and shim requirements are addressed along with spectral matching and spatial coverage tests.

  8. LANDSAT-4 Science Characterization Early Results. Volume 3, Part 2: Thematic Mapper (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The calibration of the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper is discussed as well as the atmospheric, radiometric, and geometric accuracy and correction of data obtained with this sensor. Methods are given for assessing TM band to band registration.

  9. INPE LANDSAT-D thematic mapper computer compatible tape format specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Desouza, R. C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The format of the computer compatible tapes (CCT) which contain Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery data acquired from the LANDSAT D and D Prime satellites by the INSTITUTO DE PERSQUISAS ESPACIALS (CNPq-INPE/BRAZIL) is defined.

  10. The Planetary Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pataki, Louis P.

    2016-06-01

    This poster presentation presents the Planetary Project, a multi-week simulated research experience for college non-science majors. Students work in research teams of three to investigate the properties of a fictitious planetary system (the “Planetary System”) created each semester by the instructor. The students write team and individual papers in which they use the available data to draw conclusions about planets, other objects or general properties of the Planetary System and in which they compare, contrast and explain the similarities between the objects in the Planetary System and comparable objects in the Solar System.Data about the orbital and physical properties of the planets in the Planetary System are released at the start of the project. Each week the teams request data from a changing pool of available data. For example, in week one pictures of the planets are available. Each team picks one planet and the data (pictures) on that planet are released only to that team. Different data are available in subsequent weeks. Occasionally a news release to all groups reports an unusual occurrence - e.g. the appearance of a comet.Each student acts as principal author for one of the group paper which must contain a description of the week’s data, conclusions derived from that data about the Planetary System and a comparison with the Solar System. Each students writes a final, individual paper on a topic of their choice dealing with the Planetary System in which they follow the same data, conclusion, comparison format. Students “publish” their papers on a class-only restricted website and present their discoveries in class talks. Data are released to all on the website as the related papers are “published.” Additional papers commenting on the published work and released data are encouraged.The successes and problems of the method are presented.

  11. Destination: Geology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  12. Volcanology from space - Using Landsat thematic mapper data in the central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, P. W.; Mcallister, R.

    1986-01-01

    The use of the Landsat thematic mapper to identify potentially active Andean volcanos and to study the history of individual volcanos is discussed. A thematic mapper image of the 6150-m-high Socompa volcano is presented and it is noted that TM data have played a valuable role in tracking debris streams in the avalanche derived from the different parts of the original volcanic edifice. The consequences of Landsat commercialization are considered.

  13. Volcanology from space - Using Landsat thematic mapper data in the central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, P. W.; Mcallister, R.

    1986-01-01

    The use of the Landsat thematic mapper to identify potentially active Andean volcanos and to study the history of individual volcanos is discussed. A thematic mapper image of the 6150-m-high Socompa volcano is presented and it is noted that TM data have played a valuable role in tracking debris streams in the avalanche derived from the different parts of the original volcanic edifice. The consequences of Landsat commercialization are considered.

  14. First Confirmed Supernova with the SkyMapper/Zooniverse Supernova Sighting Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.; Moller, A.; Armstrong, P.; Mould, J.; Uddin, S.; Muthukrishna, D.; Panther, F. H.; Ruiter, A.; Ridden-Harper, R.; Schmidt, B. P.; Sommer, N. E.; Zhang, B.; Seitenzahl, I.; Baeten, E.; Craggs, A.

    2017-05-01

    We report the classification of a type Ia supernova, SN 2017dxh, discovered in the SkyMapper Transient (SMT) Survey (Scalzo et al. 2017) which utilizes the 268-Mpix camera on the SkyMapper 1.3-m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory near Coonabarabran, NSW, Australia (Keller et al., 2007, PASA, 24, 1). The object was photometrically discovered by citizen scientists as part of the Zooniverse Supernova Sighting Project.

  15. Integration of diverse remote sensing data sets for geologic mapping and resource exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, Fred A.; Dietz, John B.

    1991-01-01

    The use of high-quality multispectral images in the visible, near-infrared, shortwave infrared, thermal infrared, and microwave regions of the spectrum for producing thematic maps showing details of the surface geology is reported. The airborne data sets used in the study include the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer, the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner, and the airborne SAR. Ancillary data include a digital elevation model, National High Altitude Photography, Landsat Multispectral Scanner data, Landsat Thematic Mapper data, laboratory and field spectral measurements, and traditional geologic mapping. The integrated, multispectral images are shown to provide new geologic information that can be used in mineral deposit models to provide exploration targets.

  16. Updated radiometric calibration for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper reflective bands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Thome, K.J.; Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Malla, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) has been the workhorse of the Landsat system. Launched in 1984, it continues collecting data through the time frame of this paper. Thus, it provides an invaluable link to the past history of the land features of the Earth's surface, and it becomes imperative to provide an accurate radiometric calibration of the reflective bands to the user community. Previous calibration has been based on information obtained from prelaunch, the onboard calibrator, vicarious calibration attempts, and cross-calibration with Landsat-7. Currently, additional data sources are available to improve this calibration. Specifically, improvements in vicarious calibration methods and development of the use of pseudoinvariant sites for trending provide two additional independent calibration sources. The use of these additional estimates has resulted in a consistent calibration approach that ties together all of the available calibration data sources. Results from this analysis indicate a simple exponential, or a constant model may be used for all bands throughout the lifetime of Landsat-5 TM. Where previously time constants for the exponential models were approximately one year, the updated model has significantly longer time constants in bands 1-3. In contrast, bands 4, 5, and 7 are shown to be best modeled by a constant. The models proposed in this paper indicate calibration knowledge of 5% or better early in life, decreasing to nearly 2% later in life. These models have been implemented at the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) and are the default calibration used for all Landsat TM data now distributed through EROS. ?? 2008 IEEE.

  17. Select problems in planetary structural geology: Global-scale tectonics on Io, regional-scale kinematics on Venus, and local-scale field analyses on Earth with application to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Windy L.

    2005-11-01

    the surface; and subsequent erosive floods excavated the structures. A second population of BRSs near Tokio Station, WA, are morphologically analogous to quasi-circular structures in Athabasca Valles, Mars (a region that is geologically similar to the Channeled Scabland). If the martian features formed as BRSs, then they indicate local water-lava interactions and at least two floods through Athabasca Valles.

  18. Measuring Geologic Time on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Recent images from Mars show compelling evidence of near-surface flowing water, aeolian activity slope processes, and ice cap evolution that underscores the dynamic geologic history of the planet. Establishing an accurate chronology for Martian planetary features is critical for addressing fundamental questions about the evolution of the planet's surface and atmosphere and the differentiation of its interior. For example, how long was standing water on the surface? If life did evolve on Mars, did it occur before or after the evolution of life on Earth? These are arguably some of the most profound questions currently being asked by the planetary science community. Yet answers will not be forthcoming without an absolute chronology of Mars history, enabling the construction of a timescale comparable to Earth's. Discussion of methods for establishing such a chronology is particularly timely in light of new missions to Mars that are being planned to return in situ measurements or samples to Earth.

  19. Analysis of Micro-Rearrangements in 25 Eukaryotic Species Pairs by SyntenyMapper

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Stefanie; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2014-01-01

    High-quality mapping of genomic regions and genes between two organisms is an indispensable prerequisite for evolutionary analyses and comparative genomics. Existing approaches to this problem focus on either delineating orthologs or finding extended sequence regions of common evolutionary origin (syntenic blocks). We propose SyntenyMapper, a novel tool for refining predefined syntenic regions. SyntenyMapper creates a set of blocks with conserved gene order between two genomes and finds all minor rearrangements that occurred since the evolutionary split of the two species considered. We also present TrackMapper, a SyntenyMapper-based tool that allows users to directly compare genome features, such as histone modifications, between two organisms, and identify genes with highly conserved features. We demonstrate SyntenyMapper's advantages by conducting a large-scale analysis of micro-rearrangements within syntenic regions of 25 eukaryotic species. Unsurprisingly, the number and length of syntenic regions is correlated with evolutionary distance, while the number of micro-rearrangements depends only on the size of the harboring region. On the other hand, the size of rearranged regions remains relatively constant regardless of the evolutionary distance between the organisms, implying a length constraint in the rearrangement process. SyntenyMapper is a useful software tool for both large-scale and gene-centric genome comparisons. PMID:25375783

  20. HGDP and HapMap Analysis by Ancestry Mapper Reveals Local and Global Population Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Tiago R.; Casey, Jillian P.; Conroy, Judith; Regan, Regina; Fitzpatrick, Darren J.; Shah, Naisha; Sobral, João; Ennis, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of human origins, migrations, and expansions is greatly enhanced by the availability of large datasets of genetic information from different populations and by the development of bioinformatic tools used to analyze the data. We present Ancestry Mapper, which we believe improves on existing methods, for the assignment of genetic ancestry to an individual and to study the relationships between local and global populations. The principle function of the method, named Ancestry Mapper, is to give each individual analyzed a genetic identifier, made up of just 51 genetic coordinates, that corresponds to its relationship to the HGDP reference population. As a consequence, the Ancestry Mapper Id (AMid) has intrinsic biological meaning and provides a tool to measure similarity between world populations. We applied Ancestry Mapper to a dataset comprised of the HGDP and HapMap data. The results show distinctions at the continental level, while simultaneously giving details at the population level. We clustered AMids of HGDP/HapMap and observe a recapitulation of human migrations: for a small number of clusters, individuals are grouped according to continental origins; for a larger number of clusters, regional and population distinctions are evident. Calculating distances between AMids allows us to infer ancestry. The number of coordinates is expandable, increasing the power of Ancestry Mapper. An R package called Ancestry Mapper is available to apply this method to any high density genomic data set. PMID:23189146

  1. HGDP and HapMap analysis by Ancestry Mapper reveals local and global population relationships.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Tiago R; Casey, Jillian P; Conroy, Judith; Regan, Regina; Fitzpatrick, Darren J; Shah, Naisha; Sobral, João; Ennis, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of human origins, migrations, and expansions is greatly enhanced by the availability of large datasets of genetic information from different populations and by the development of bioinformatic tools used to analyze the data. We present Ancestry Mapper, which we believe improves on existing methods, for the assignment of genetic ancestry to an individual and to study the relationships between local and global populations. The principle function of the method, named Ancestry Mapper, is to give each individual analyzed a genetic identifier, made up of just 51 genetic coordinates, that corresponds to its relationship to the HGDP reference population. As a consequence, the Ancestry Mapper Id (AMid) has intrinsic biological meaning and provides a tool to measure similarity between world populations. We applied Ancestry Mapper to a dataset comprised of the HGDP and HapMap data. The results show distinctions at the continental level, while simultaneously giving details at the population level. We clustered AMids of HGDP/HapMap and observe a recapitulation of human migrations: for a small number of clusters, individuals are grouped according to continental origins; for a larger number of clusters, regional and population distinctions are evident. Calculating distances between AMids allows us to infer ancestry. The number of coordinates is expandable, increasing the power of Ancestry Mapper. An R package called Ancestry Mapper is available to apply this method to any high density genomic data set.

  2. PlasMapper: a web server for drawing and auto-annotating plasmid maps.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoli; Stothard, Paul; Forsythe, Ian J; Wishart, David S

    2004-07-01

    PlasMapper is a comprehensive web server that automatically generates and annotates high-quality circular plasmid maps. Taking only the plasmid/vector DNA sequence as input, PlasMapper uses sequence pattern matching and BLAST alignment to automatically identify and label common promoters, terminators, cloning sites, restriction sites, reporter genes, affinity tags, selectable marker genes, replication origins and open reading frames. PlasMapper then presents the identified features in textual form and as high-resolution, multicolored graphical output. The appearance and contents of the output can be customized in numerous ways using several supplied options. Further, PlasMapper images can be rendered in both rasterized (PNG and JPG) and vector graphics (SVG) formats to accommodate a variety of user needs or preferences. The images and textual output are of sufficient quality that they may be used directly in publications or presentations. The PlasMapper web server is freely accessible at http://wishart.biology.ualberta.ca/PlasMapper.

  3. Structural Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, John; Frankel, Kurt L.

    2011-05-01

    Structural geology and continental tectonics were ushered in to the modern quantitative age of geosciences with the arrival of the global plate tectonics paradigm (circa 1968), derived using new data from the oceans' depths, and John Ramsay's 1967 seminal work, Folding and Fracturing of Rocks. Fossen is to be applauded for crafting a unique, high-caliber, and accessible undergraduate textbook on structural geology that faithfully reflects this advance and the subsequent evolution of the discipline. This well-written text draws on Fossen's wealth of professional experience, including his broad and diverse academic research and experience in the petroleum industry. This book is beautifully illustrated, with excellent original color diagrams and with impressive color field photographs that are all keyed to locations and placed into geologic context.

  4. Overlay performance assessment of MAPPER's FLX-1200 (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattard, Ludovic; Servin, Isabelle; Pradelles, Jonathan; Blancquaert, Yoann; Rademaker, Guido; Pain, Laurent; de Boer, Guido; Brandt, Pieter; Dansberg, Michel; Jager, Remco J. A.; Peijster, Jerry J. M.; Slot, Erwin; Steenbrink, Stijn W. H. K.; Vergeer, Niels; Wieland, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Mapper Lithography has introduced its first product, the FLX-1200, which is installed at CEA-Leti in Grenoble (France). This is a mask less lithography system, based on massively parallel electron-beam writing with high-speed optical data transport for switching the electron beams. This FLX platform is initially targeted for 1 wph performance for 28 nm technology nodes, but can also be used for less demanding imaging. The electron source currently integrated is capable of scaling to 10 wph at the same resolution performance, which will be implemented by gradually upgrading the illumination optics. The system has an optical alignment system enabling mix-and-match with optical 193 nm immersion systems using standard NVSM marks. The tool at CEA-Leti is in-line with a Sokudo Duo clean track. Mapper Lithography and CEA-Leti are working in collaboration to develop turnkey solution for specific applications. At previous conferences we have presented imaging results including 28nm node resolution, cross wafer CDu of 2.5nm 3 and a throughput of half a wafer per hour, overhead times included. At this conference we will present results regarding the overlay performance of the FLX-1200. In figure 2 an initial result towards measuring the overlay performance of the FLX-1200 is shown. We have exposed a wafer twice without unloading the wafer in between exposures. In the first exposure half of a dense dot array is exposed. In the second exposure the remainder of the dense dot array is exposed. After development the wafer has been inspected using a CD-SEM at 480 locations distributed over an area of 100mm x 100mm. For each SEM image the shift of the pattern written in the first exposure relative to the pattern written in the second exposure is measured. Cross wafer this shift is 7 nm u+3s in X and 5 nm u+3s in Y. The next step is to evaluate the impact of unloading and loading of the wafer in between exposures. At the conference the latest results will be presented.

  5. The GOES-R GeoStationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved capability for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The Geostationary Lighting Mapper (GLM) will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lighting flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency among a number of potential applications. In parallel with the instrument development (a prototype and 4 flight models), a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms (environmental data records), cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications using GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, merged with ground-based sensors, and decision aids augmented by numerical weather prediction model forecasts. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. An international field campaign planned for 2011-2012 will produce concurrent observations from a VHF lightning mapping array, Meteosat multi-band imagery, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning

  6. Geological Gyrocompass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, M. H.; Beason, S. C.

    1990-10-01

    The invention relates to a new and improved geologic mapping and surveying apparatus for providing accurate, dependable, and portable measurement of attitudes of planar surfaces in situations where magnetic compasses will not work. The invention provides a unique arrangement of the gyrocompass and power supply in a portable carrying case. A gyroscope is not dependent on the earth's magnetic field for a reference as is a magnetic compass. Therefore, the invention of a geological gyrocompass is immune to disturbances in the earth's magnetic field and nearly duplicates the Brunton compass accuracy but does not require an environment free of magnetic anomalies.

  7. Theoretical geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical geology Present day geology is mostly empirical of nature. I claim that geology is by nature complex and that the empirical approach is bound to fail. Let's consider the input to be the set of ambient conditions and the output to be the sedimentary rock record. I claim that the output can only be deduced from the input if the relation from input to output be known. The fundamental question is therefore the following: Can one predict the output from the input or can one predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? If one can, than the empirical/deductive method has changes, if one can't than that method is bound to fail. The fundamental problem to solve is therefore the following: How to predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? It is interesting to observe that this question is never asked and many a study is conducted by the empirical/deductive method; it seems that the empirical method has been accepted as being appropriate without question. It is, however, easy to argument that a sedimentary system is by nature complex and that several input parameters vary at the same time and that they can create similar output in the rock record. It follows trivially from these first principles that in such a case the deductive solution cannot be unique. At the same time several geological methods depart precisely from the assumption, that one particular variable is the dictator/driver and that the others are constant, even though the data do not support such an assumption. The method of "sequence stratigraphy" is a typical example of such a dogma. It can be easily argued that all the interpretation resulting from a method that is built on uncertain or wrong assumptions is erroneous. Still, this method has survived for many years, nonwithstanding all the critics it has received. This is just one example of the present day geological world and is not unique. Even the alternative methods criticising sequence stratigraphy actually depart from the same

  8. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albritton, Claude C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of the concept of geologic time. Develops the topic by using the major discoveries of geologists, beginning with Steno and following through to the discovery and use of radiometric dating. An extensive reference list is provided. (JM)

  9. City Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  10. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albritton, Claude C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of the concept of geologic time. Develops the topic by using the major discoveries of geologists, beginning with Steno and following through to the discovery and use of radiometric dating. An extensive reference list is provided. (JM)

  11. Lead Optimization Mapper: Automating free energy calculations for lead optimization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuai; Wu, Yujie; Lin, Teng; Abel, Robert; Redmann, Jonathan P.; Summa, Christopher M.; Jaber, Vivian R.; Lim, Nathan M.; Mobley, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Alchemical free energy calculations hold increasing promise as an aid to drug discovery efforts. However, applications of these techniques in discovery projects have been relatively few, partly because of the difficulty of planning and setting up calculations. Here, we introduce Lead Optimization Mapper, LOMAP, an automated algorithm to plan efficient relative free energy calculations between potential ligands within a substantial library of perhaps hundreds of compounds. In this approach, ligands are first grouped by structural similarity primarily based on the size of a (loosely defined) maximal common substructure, and then calculations are planned within and between sets of structurally related compounds. An emphasis is placed on ensuring that relative free energies can be obtained between any pair of compounds without combining the results of too many different relative free energy calculations (to avoid accumulation of error) and by providing some redundancy to allow for the possibility of error and consistency checking and provide some insight into when results can be expected to be unreliable. The algorithm is discussed in detail and a Python implementation, based on both Schrödinger's and OpenEye's APIs, has been made available freely under the BSD license. PMID:24072356

  12. Systematic and random variations in digital Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duggin, M. J. (Principal Investigator); Sakhavat, H.

    1985-01-01

    Radiance recorded by any remote sensing instrument will contain noise which will consist of both systematic and random variations. Systematic variations may be due to sun-target-sensor geometry, atmospheric conditions, and the interaction of the spectral characteristics of the sensor with those of upwelling radiance. Random variations in the data may be caused by variations in the nature and in the heterogeneity of the ground cover, by variations in atmospheric transmission, and by the interaction of these variations with the sensing device. It is important to be aware of the extent of random and systematic errors in recorded radiance data across ostensibly uniform ground areas in order to assess the impact on quantative image analysis procedures for both the single date and the multidate cases. It is the intention here to examine the systematic and the random variations in digital radiance data recorded in each band by the thematic mapper over crop areas which are ostensibly uniform and which are free from visible cloud.

  13. New dust opacity mapping from Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Terry Z.; Richardson, Mark I.

    1993-01-01

    Global dust opacity mapping for Mars has been carried forward using the approach described by Martin (1986) for Viking IR Thermal Mapper data. New maps are presented for the period from the beginning of Viking observations, until Ls 210 deg in 1979 (1.36 Mars years). This range includes the second and more extensive planet-encircling dust storm observed by Viking, known as storm 1977b. Improvements in approach result in greater time resolution and smaller noise than in the earlier work. A strong local storm event filled the Hellas basin at Ls 170 deg, prior to the 1977a storm. Dust is retained in equatorial regions following the 1977b storm far longer than in mid-latitudes. Minor dust events appear to raise the opacity in northern high latitudes during northern spring. Additional mapping with high time resolution has been done for the periods of time near the major storm origins in order to search for clues to the mechanism of storm initiation. The first evidence of the start of the 1977b storm is pushed back to Ls 274.2 deg, preceding signs of the storm in images by about 15 hours.

  14. Radiometric calibration of Landsat Thematic Mapper Thermal Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wukelic, G. E.; Gibbons, D. E.; Martucci, L. M.; Foote, H. P.

    1989-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of satellite-acquired data is essential for quantitative scientific studies, as well as for a variety of image-processing applications. This paper describes a multiyear, on-orbit radiometric calibration of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Band 6 conducted at DOE's Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Numerous Landsat TM scenes acquired and analyzed included day and night coverages at several geographical locations over several seasons. Concurrent with Landsat overpasses, thermal field and local meteorological (surface and radiosonde) measurements were collected. At-satellite (uncorrected) radiances and temperatures for water and nonwater land cover were compared to ground truth (GT) measurements after making adjustments for atmospheric (using LOWTRAN), mixed-pixel, and emissivity effects. Results indicate that, for both water and nonwater features, TM Band 6 average corrected temperature determinations using local radiosonde data to adjust for atmospheric effects, and using appropriate emissivities, are within 1.0 C of GT temperature values. Temperatures of water pixels derived from uncorrected TM Band 6 data varied roughly between 1 and 3 C of ground truth values for water temperatures ranging between 4 and 24 C. Moreover, corrections using nonlocal and noncoincident radiosonde data resulted in errors as large as 12 C. Corrections using the U.S. Standard Atmosphere gave temperature values within 1 to 2 C of GT. The average uncertainty for field instruments was + or - 0.2 C; average uncertainty for Landsat TM corrected temperature determinations was + or - 0.4 C.

  15. Lead optimization mapper: automating free energy calculations for lead optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuai; Wu, Yujie; Lin, Teng; Abel, Robert; Redmann, Jonathan P.; Summa, Christopher M.; Jaber, Vivian R.; Lim, Nathan M.; Mobley, David L.

    2013-09-01

    Alchemical free energy calculations hold increasing promise as an aid to drug discovery efforts. However, applications of these techniques in discovery projects have been relatively few, partly because of the difficulty of planning and setting up calculations. Here, we introduce lead optimization mapper, LOMAP, an automated algorithm to plan efficient relative free energy calculations between potential ligands within a substantial library of perhaps hundreds of compounds. In this approach, ligands are first grouped by structural similarity primarily based on the size of a (loosely defined) maximal common substructure, and then calculations are planned within and between sets of structurally related compounds. An emphasis is placed on ensuring that relative free energies can be obtained between any pair of compounds without combining the results of too many different relative free energy calculations (to avoid accumulation of error) and by providing some redundancy to allow for the possibility of error and consistency checking and provide some insight into when results can be expected to be unreliable. The algorithm is discussed in detail and a Python implementation, based on both Schrödinger's and OpenEye's APIs, has been made available freely under the BSD license.

  16. Lead optimization mapper: automating free energy calculations for lead optimization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Wu, Yujie; Lin, Teng; Abel, Robert; Redmann, Jonathan P; Summa, Christopher M; Jaber, Vivian R; Lim, Nathan M; Mobley, David L

    2013-09-01

    Alchemical free energy calculations hold increasing promise as an aid to drug discovery efforts. However, applications of these techniques in discovery projects have been relatively few, partly because of the difficulty of planning and setting up calculations. Here, we introduce lead optimization mapper, LOMAP, an automated algorithm to plan efficient relative free energy calculations between potential ligands within a substantial library of perhaps hundreds of compounds. In this approach, ligands are first grouped by structural similarity primarily based on the size of a (loosely defined) maximal common substructure, and then calculations are planned within and between sets of structurally related compounds. An emphasis is placed on ensuring that relative free energies can be obtained between any pair of compounds without combining the results of too many different relative free energy calculations (to avoid accumulation of error) and by providing some redundancy to allow for the possibility of error and consistency checking and provide some insight into when results can be expected to be unreliable. The algorithm is discussed in detail and a Python implementation, based on both Schrödinger's and OpenEye's APIs, has been made available freely under the BSD license.

  17. Estuary Data Mapper: A coastal information system to propel ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Estuary Data Mapper (EDM) is a free, interactive virtual gateway to coastal data aimed to promote research and aid in environmental management. The graphical user interface allows users to custom select and subset data based on their spatial and temporal interests giving them easy access to visualize, retrieve, and save data for further analysis. Data are accessible across estuarine systems of the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Pacific regions of the United States and includes: (1) time series data including tidal, hydrologic, and weather, (2) water and sediment quality, (3) atmospheric deposition, (4) habitat, (5) coastal exposure indices, (6) historic and projected land-use and population, (7) historic and projected nitrogen and phosphorous sources and load summaries. EDM issues Web Coverage Service Interface Standard queries (WCS; simple, standard one-line text strings) to a public web service to quickly obtain data subsets by variable, for a date-time range and area selected by user. EDM is continuously being enhanced with updated data and new options. Recent additions include a comprehensive suite of nitrogen source and loading data, and inputs for supporting a modeling approach of seagrass habitat. Additions planned for the near future include 1) support for Integrated Water Resources Management cost-benefit analysis, specifically the Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool and 2) visualization of the combined effects of climate change, land-use a

  18. Flight performance of the Far-Infrared Line Mapper (FILM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibai, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Takao; Makiuti, Sin'itirou; Matsuhara, Hideo; Hiromoto, Norihisa; Okumura, Ken-Ichi; Doi, Yasuo; Toya, Takanao; Okuda, Haruyuki

    1996-10-01

    The far-infrared line mapper (FILM) is a far-infrared spectrometer and in one of four focal plane instruments of the infrared telescope in space (IRTS), FILM was designed for wide area intensity mapping of far-infrared emission from interstellar gas and dust in the galaxy. The targets are the [CII] 158 micrometer line of the ionized carbon, the [OI] 63 micrometer line of the oxygen atom, and the continuum emission at 155 and 160 micrometer from the interstellar dust grain. A cylindrically concave varied line-space grating and a linear array of stressed Ge:Ga were successfully developed and allowed us to make a compact spectrometer compatible to severe limitations of the small cryogenic telescope. The IRTS, onboard the space flyer unit (SFU), was launched by a HII rocket on March 18, 1995 and was recovered by a STS on January 13, 1996. The FILM worked very well during four weeks allocated for the IRTS observation and produced a lot of valuable data. The sensitivity and the spatial resolution for the [CII] line are an order of magnitude better than the previous work.

  19. Preliminary Evaluation of Thematic Mapper Image Data Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.; Hall, F. G.; Pitts, D. E.; Bizzell, R. M.; Yao, S.; Sorensen, C.; Reyna, E.; Carnes, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Thematic Mapper (TM) data from Mississippi County, Arkansas, and Webster County, Iowa, were examined for the purpose of evaluating the image data quality of the TM which was launched on board the LANDSAT-4 spacecraft. Preliminary clustering and principal component analysis indicates that the middle infrared and thermal infrared data of TM appear to add significant information over that of the near IR and visible bands of the multispectral scanner data. Moreover, the higher spatial resolution of TM appears to provide better definition of the edges and the within variability of agricultural fields. The geometric performance of TM data, without ground control correction, was found to exceed expectations. The modulation transfer function for the 1.65 m band was found to agree with prelaunch specifications when the effects of the GSFC cubic convolution and the atmosphere were removed. The band to band registration for the bands within the noncooled focal plane was found to be better than specified. However, the middle infrared and thermal infrared, which are on a separate cooled focal plane were found to be misregistered and were significantly worse than prelaunch specifications.

  20. The Goes-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved storm diagnostic capability with the Advanced Baseline Imager. The GLM will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lighting flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development, a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms, cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. In this paper we will report on new Nowcasting and storm warning applications being developed and evaluated at various NOAA Testbeds.

  1. Lynx Mobile Mapper for Surveying City Centers and Highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conforti, D.; Zampa, F.

    2011-09-01

    In the last two years the Lynx Mobile Mapper has become the new lidar solution developed for surveying large areas that are impractical with static lidar sensors and require an accuracy and resolution that exceed airborne technologies. The system allows the scanning at a speed up to 100 km/h, obtaining accuracy better than 5 cm with an up to 7 mm resolution. Therefore, this solution proves to be an excellent tool for surveying city centers, highways, railways, thanks also to a very fast, safe and accurate data collection. This paper will present two applications: 1- The survey of the entire ancient city center of Brescia (Italy) with it medieval castle, the narrows streets and the main squares. It also has been run a test to survey with the Lynx the tunnel that go underneath the castle and compare the result with a static laser scanner survey, 2- The survey of the Calatrava Bridge on the A1 highway. The central bridge, which crosses over the high-speed rail line and the A1 motorway is composed as a single symmetrical arch, placed longitudinally, which rises to a height of 46m. During the survey the two A1 motorway carriageways have been scanned and the upper part of the bridge for a complete 3D model of this structure.

  2. Accuracy verification of the Lynx Mobile Mapper system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puente, I.; González-Jorge, H.; Riveiro, B.; Arias, P.

    2013-02-01

    LiDAR technology is one of the most effective and reliable means of data collection. Given the increasing use of LiDAR data for close range metrology applications such as deformation monitoring and infrastructure inspection, it becomes necessary to test the relative accuracy, boresight calibration of both LiDAR sensors and performance of navigation solution (or absolute accuracy) of any mobile laser scanning system employed for this purpose. Therefore, the paper's primary contribution is a set of tests for the characterization and evaluation of any mobile laser scanning system based on two LiDAR sensors. We present experimental results of the Lynx Mobile Mapper system from Optech Inc. Employing a low-cost calibration standard, we demonstrated sub-cm accuracy of targets at distances up to 10 m. Also, we introduce boresighting results derived from the Lynx system. Moreover, the global system's accuracy is tested with a series of rigorous experiments operated at a maximum scan frequency of 200 Hz, pulse repetition frequency of 500 kHz per sensor and a 360° scanning field of view. Assuring good GPS conditions, we proved a good global performance of the system, which makes it suitable for very accurate applications.

  3. Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Palmer, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The results of analyses of Thematic Mapper (TM) images acquired on July 8 and October 28, 1984, and of a check of the calibration of the 1.22-m integrating sphere at Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC) are described. The results obtained from the in-flight calibration attempts disagree with the pre-flight calibrations for bands 2 and 4. Considerable effort was expended in an attempt to explain the disagreement. The difficult point to explain is that the difference between the radiances predicted by the radiative transfer code (the code radiances) and the radiances predicted by the preflight calibration (the pre-flight radiances) fluctuate with spectral band. Because the spectral quantities measured at White Sands show little change with spectral band, these fluctuations are not anticipated. Analyses of other targets at White Sands such as clouds, cloud shadows, and water surfaces tend to support the pre-flight and internal calibrator calibrations. The source of the disagreement has not been identified. It could be due to: (1) a computational error in the data reduction; (2) an incorrect assumption in the input to the radiative transfer code; or (3) incorrect operation of the field equipment.

  4. An analysis of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper geometric properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. E.; Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.; Gohkman, B.; Friedman, S. Z.; Logan, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data of Washington, DC, Harrisburg, PA, and Salton Sea, CA were analyzed to determine geometric integrity and conformity of the data to known earth surface geometry. Several tests were performed. Intraband correlation and interband registration were investigated. No problems were observed in the intraband analysis, and aside from indications of slight misregistration between bands of the primary versus bands of the secondary focal planes, interband registration was well within the specified tolerances. A substantial number of ground control points were found and used to check the images' conformity to the Space Oblique Mercator (SOM) projection of their respective areas. The means of the residual offsets, which included nonprocessing related measurement errors, were close to the one pixel level in the two scenes examined. The Harrisburg scene residual mean was 28.38 m (0.95 pixels) with a standard deviation of 19.82 m (0.66 pixels), while the mean and standard deviation for the Salton Sea scene were 40.46 (1.35 pixels) and 30.57 m (1.02 pixels), respectively. Overall, the data were judged to be a high geometric quality with errors close to those targeted by the TM sensor design specifications.

  5. A Preliminary Assessment of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodenough, D. G.; Fleming, E. A.; Dickinson, K.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a preliminary assessment of both raw and NASA processed Thematic Mapper (TM) data are discussed. Geometric correction of NASA processed TM data was carried out. Correction was possible to within 3 pixels in the along track direction and 2 pixels in the across track direction. A preliminary evaluation of TM imagery provided by the NASA LANDSAT Assessmemt System for geometric accuracy and map information content was performed on samples of imagery. The initial indications were that bands 3, 5 and 7 contain the most useful cartographic information. The resolution of rural and urban detail as well as the fit to plotted map detail was found to be improved over LANDSAT MSS, and such images may provide adequate revision information for 1:250,000 maps in areas where it is not currently profitable to use LANDSAT MSS. The relative gains and offsets for each detector in each band of raw data were calculated in a study of the radiometric correction of TM data. This was done for different subscenes as well as a full scene and the variation of the results with direction of scan and position of subscene were studied.

  6. Stability of landsat-4 thematic mapper outgassing models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Micijevic, E.; Chander, G.

    2006-01-01

    Oscillations in radiometric gains of the short wave infrared (SWIR) bands in Landsat-4 (L4) and Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mappers (TMs) are observed through an analysis of detector responses to the Internal Calibrator (IC) pulses. The oscillations are believed to be caused by an interference effect due to a contaminant film buildup on the window of the cryogenically cooled dewar that houses these detectors. This process of contamination, referred to as outgassing effects, has been well characterized using an optical thin-film model that relates detector responses to the accumulated film thickness and its growth rate. The current models for L4 TM are based on average detector responses to the second brightest IC lamp and have been derived from three data sets acquired during different times throughout the instrument's lifetime. Unlike in L5 TM outgassing characterization, it was found that the L4 TM responses to all three IC lamps can be used to provide accurate characterization and correction for outgassing effects. The analysis of single detector responses revealed an up to five percent difference in the estimated oscillating periods and also indicated a gradual variation of contaminant growth rate over the focal plane.

  7. Venus Radar Mapper (VRM): Multimode radar system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William T. K.; Edgerton, Alvin T.

    1986-01-01

    The surface of Venus has remained a relative mystery because of the very dense atmosphere that is opaque to visible radiation and, thus, normal photographic techniques used to explore the other terrestrial objects in the solar system are useless. The atmosphere is, however, almost transparent to radar waves and images of the surface have been produced via Earth-based and orbital radars. The technique of obtaining radar images of a surface is variously called side looking radar, imaging radar, or synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The radar requires a moving platform in which the antenna is side looking. High resolution is obtained in the cross-track or range direction by conventional radar pulse encoding. In the along-track or azimuth direction, the resolution would normally be the antenna beam width, but for the SAR case, a much longer antenna (or much sharper beam) is obtained by moving past a surface target as shown, and then combining the echoes from many pulses, by using the Doppler data, to obtain the images. The radar design of the Venus Radar Mapper (VRM) is discussed. It will acquire global radar imagery and altimetry data of the surface of Venus.

  8. The GOES-R Series Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), which will have just completed Critical Design Review and move forward into the construction phase of instrument development. The GLM will operate continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development (an engineering development unit and 4 flight models), a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms, cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional ground-based lightning networks are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms, test data sets, and applications, as well as improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. In this presentation we review the planned implementation of the instrument and suite of operational algorithms

  9. Estuary Data Mapper: A coastal information system to propel ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Estuary Data Mapper (EDM) is a free, interactive virtual gateway to coastal data aimed to promote research and aid in environmental management. The graphical user interface allows users to custom select and subset data based on their spatial and temporal interests giving them easy access to visualize, retrieve, and save data for further analysis. Data are accessible across estuarine systems of the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Pacific regions of the United States and includes: (1) time series data including tidal, hydrologic, and weather, (2) water and sediment quality, (3) atmospheric deposition, (4) habitat, (5) coastal exposure indices, (6) historic and projected land-use and population, (7) historic and projected nitrogen and phosphorous sources and load summaries. EDM issues Web Coverage Service Interface Standard queries (WCS; simple, standard one-line text strings) to a public web service to quickly obtain data subsets by variable, for a date-time range and area selected by user. EDM is continuously being enhanced with updated data and new options. Recent additions include a comprehensive suite of nitrogen source and loading data, and inputs for supporting a modeling approach of seagrass habitat. Additions planned for the near future include 1) support for Integrated Water Resources Management cost-benefit analysis, specifically the Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool and 2) visualization of the combined effects of climate change, land-use a

  10. Radiometric calibration of Landsat Thematic Mapper Thermal Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wukelic, G. E.; Gibbons, D. E.; Martucci, L. M.; Foote, H. P.

    1989-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of satellite-acquired data is essential for quantitative scientific studies, as well as for a variety of image-processing applications. This paper describes a multiyear, on-orbit radiometric calibration of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Band 6 conducted at DOE's Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Numerous Landsat TM scenes acquired and analyzed included day and night coverages at several geographical locations over several seasons. Concurrent with Landsat overpasses, thermal field and local meteorological (surface and radiosonde) measurements were collected. At-satellite (uncorrected) radiances and temperatures for water and nonwater land cover were compared to ground truth (GT) measurements after making adjustments for atmospheric (using LOWTRAN), mixed-pixel, and emissivity effects. Results indicate that, for both water and nonwater features, TM Band 6 average corrected temperature determinations using local radiosonde data to adjust for atmospheric effects, and using appropriate emissivities, are within 1.0 C of GT temperature values. Temperatures of water pixels derived from uncorrected TM Band 6 data varied roughly between 1 and 3 C of ground truth values for water temperatures ranging between 4 and 24 C. Moreover, corrections using nonlocal and noncoincident radiosonde data resulted in errors as large as 12 C. Corrections using the U.S. Standard Atmosphere gave temperature values within 1 to 2 C of GT. The average uncertainty for field instruments was + or - 0.2 C; average uncertainty for Landsat TM corrected temperature determinations was + or - 0.4 C.

  11. An analysis of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper geometric properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. E.; Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.; Gohkman, B.; Friedman, S. Z.; Logan, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data of Washington, DC, Harrisburg, PA, and Salton Sea, CA were analyzed to determine geometric integrity and conformity of the data to known earth surface geometry. Several tests were performed. Intraband correlation and interband registration were investigated. No problems were observed in the intraband analysis, and aside from indications of slight misregistration between bands of the primary versus bands of the secondary focal planes, interband registration was well within the specified tolerances. A substantial number of ground control points were found and used to check the images' conformity to the Space Oblique Mercator (SOM) projection of their respective areas. The means of the residual offsets, which included nonprocessing related measurement errors, were close to the one pixel level in the two scenes examined. The Harrisburg scene residual mean was 28.38 m (0.95 pixels) with a standard deviation of 19.82 m (0.66 pixels), while the mean and standard deviation for the Salton Sea scene were 40.46 (1.35 pixels) and 30.57 m (1.02 pixels), respectively. Overall, the data were judged to be a high geometric quality with errors close to those targeted by the TM sensor design specifications.

  12. Planetary plains: subsidence and warping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G.

    fabric of oceanic floors. Short, medium wave undulations of Pacific's floor (A. Cazenave et al., 1992; D. McAdoo & K. Marks, 1992) present lineations underlining its whole shape. NE lineations predominate on its northern sub-basin, NW lineations on its southern one. They cross at the equatorial zone and together with some other directions give a pattern resembling that observed on the venusian surface. The venusian regional plains typically deformed by wrinkle ridges show interesting similarities to volcanic plains on the Moon and Mars [3]. A subsidence along with warpings can squeeze out some "superfluous" material to surface through planetary scale fissures. This material builds mid-oceanic ridges and huge Hawaii volcano. The Cassini Regio on Iapetus is crossed in the equatorial plain by the dark ridge in some places high 20 km. References: [1] Kochemasov G. G. (2004) Mars and Earth: two dichotomies - one cause. In Workshop on "Hemispheres 1 apart: the origin and modification of the martian crustal dichotomy", LPI Contribution # 1203, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, p. 37. [2] Kochemasov G.G.(1999) Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr. v.1, #3, p.700 . [3] Basilevsky A.T., Head J.W. (2006) Impact craters on regional plains in Venus: Age relations with wrinkle ridges and implications for the geological evolution of Venus // JGR, v.111, EO3006, doi: 10.1029/2005JE002473, 2006. 2

  13. Non-planetary Science from Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, M.; Rabe, K.; Daniels, K.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary science is naturally focussed on the issues of the origin and history of solar systems, especially our own. The implications of an early turbulent history of our solar system reach into many areas including the origin of Earth's oceans, of ores in the Earth's crust and possibly the seeding of life. There are however other areas of science that stand to be developed greatly by planetary missions, primarily to small solar system bodies. The physics of granular materials has been well-studied in Earth's gravity, but lacks a general theory. Because of the compacting effects of gravity, some experiments desired for testing these theories remain impossible on Earth. Studying the behavior of a micro-gravity rubble pile -- such as many asteroids are believed to be -- could provide a new route towards exploring general principles of granular physics. These same studies would also prove valuable for planning missions to sample these same bodies, as techniques for anchoring and deep sampling are difficult to plan in the absence of such knowledge. In materials physics, first-principles total-energy calculations for compounds of a given stoichiometry have identified metastable, or even stable, structures distinct from known structures obtained by synthesis under laboratory conditions. The conditions in the proto-planetary nebula, in the slowly cooling cores of planetesimals, and in the high speed collisions of planetesimals and their derivatives, are all conditions that cannot be achieved in the laboratory. Large samples from comets and asteroids offer the chance to find crystals with these as-yet unobserved structures as well as more exotic materials. Some of these could have unusual properties important for materials science. Meteorites give us a glimpse of these exotic materials, several dozen of which are known that are unique to meteorites. But samples retrieved directly from small bodies in space will not have been affected by atmospheric entry, warmth or

  14. Foundations of planetary quarantine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, L. B.; Lyle, R. G.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of some of the problems in microbiology and engineering involved in the implementation of planetary quarantine. It is shown that the solutions require new knowledge in both disciplines for success at low cost in terms of both monetary outlay and man's further exploration of the planets. A related problem exists in that engineers are not accustomed to the wide variation of biological data and microbiologists must learn to work and think in more exact terms. Those responsible for formulating or influencing national and international policies must walk a tightrope with delicate balance between unnecessarily stringent requirements for planetary quarantine on the one hand and prevention of contamination on the other. The success of planetary quarantine measures can be assured only by rigorous measures, each checked, rechecked, and triple-checked to make sure that no errors have been made and that no factor has been overlooked.

  15. Planetary noble gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the history and current status of research on planetary noble gases is presented. The discovery that neon and argon are vastly more abundant on Venus than on earth points to the solar wind rather than condensation as the fundamental process for placing noble gases in the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets; however, solar wind implantation may not be able to fully reproduce the observed gradient, nor does it obviously account for similar planetary Ne/Ar ratios and dissimilar planetary Ar/Kr ratios. More recent studies have emphasized escape rather than accretion. Hydrodynamic escape, which is fractionating, readily accounts for the difference between atmospheric neon and isotopically light mantle neon. Atmospheric cratering, which is nearly nonfractionating, can account for the extreme scarcity of nonradiogenic noble gases (and other volatiles) on Mars.

  16. Extrasolar planetary systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, S.-S.

    1973-01-01

    The terms 'planet' and 'planet-like objects' are defined. The observational search for extrasolar planetary systems is described, as performable by earthbound optical telescopes, by space probes, by long baseline radio interferometry, and finally by inference from the reception of signals sent by intelligent beings in other worlds. It is shown that any planetary system must be preceded by a rotating disk of gas and dust around a central mass. A brief review of the theories of the formation of the solar system is given, along with a proposed scheme for classification of these theories. The evidence for magnetic activity in the early stages of stellar evolution is presented. The magnetic braking theories of solar and stellar rotation are discussed, and an estimate is made for the frequency of occurrence of planetary systems in the universe.

  17. Foundations of planetary quarantine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, L. B.; Lyle, R. G.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of some of the problems in microbiology and engineering involved in the implementation of planetary quarantine. It is shown that the solutions require new knowledge in both disciplines for success at low cost in terms of both monetary outlay and man's further exploration of the planets. A related problem exists in that engineers are not accustomed to the wide variation of biological data and microbiologists must learn to work and think in more exact terms. Those responsible for formulating or influencing national and international policies must walk a tightrope with delicate balance between unnecessarily stringent requirements for planetary quarantine on the one hand and prevention of contamination on the other. The success of planetary quarantine measures can be assured only by rigorous measures, each checked, rechecked, and triple-checked to make sure that no errors have been made and that no factor has been overlooked.

  18. CheS-Mapper 2.0 for visual validation of (Q)SAR models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sound statistical validation is important to evaluate and compare the overall performance of (Q)SAR models. However, classical validation does not support the user in better understanding the properties of the model or the underlying data. Even though, a number of visualization tools for analyzing (Q)SAR information in small molecule datasets exist, integrated visualization methods that allow the investigation of model validation results are still lacking. Results We propose visual validation, as an approach for the graphical inspection of (Q)SAR model validation results. The approach applies the 3D viewer CheS-Mapper, an open-source application for the exploration of small molecules in virtual 3D space. The present work describes the new functionalities in CheS-Mapper 2.0, that facilitate the analysis of (Q)SAR information and allows the visual validation of (Q)SAR models. The tool enables the comparison of model predictions to the actual activity in feature space. The approach is generic: It is model-independent and can handle physico-chemical and structural input features as well as quantitative and qualitative endpoints. Conclusions Visual validation with CheS-Mapper enables analyzing (Q)SAR information in the data and indicates how this information is employed by the (Q)SAR model. It reveals, if the endpoint is modeled too specific or too generic and highlights common properties of misclassified compounds. Moreover, the researcher can use CheS-Mapper to inspect how the (Q)SAR model predicts activity cliffs. The CheS-Mapper software is freely available at http://ches-mapper.org. Graphical abstract Comparing actual and predicted activity values with CheS-Mapper.

  19. Airships for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing an airship for planetary atmospheric exploration was assessed. The environmental conditions of the planets and moons within our solar system were evaluated to determine their applicability for airship flight. A station-keeping mission of 50 days in length was used as the baseline mission. Airship sizing was performed utilizing both solar power and isotope power to meet the baseline mission goal at the selected planetary location. The results show that an isotope-powered airship is feasible within the lower atmosphere of Venus and Saturn s moon Titan.

  20. Planetary surface weathering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The weathering of planetary surfaces is treated. Both physical and chemical weathering (reactions between minerals or mineraloids and planetary volatiles through oxidation, hydration, carbonation, or solution processes) are discussed. Venus, earth, and Mars all possess permanent atmospheres such that weathering should be expected to significantly affect their respective surfaces. In contrast, Mercury and the moon lack permanent atmospheres but conceivably could experience surface weathering in response to transient atmospheres generated by volcanic or impact cratering events. Weathering processes can be postulated for other rocky objects including Io, Titan, asteroids, and comets.

  1. Geology Fulbrights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulbright grants in geology for 1988-89 remain open. Specific opportunities are available in Egypt, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Iraq, Kuwait, Morocco, Mozambique, Oman, Poland, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, U.S.S.R., West Bank, Yemen, and Zimbabwe. Other countries are also open to applications in any discipline, and geology is among their preferred fields.The grants are available until awarded and are open only to U.S. citizens. In Central and South America and French-speaking Africa, knowledge of host-country language is required. For more information, contact the Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES), 11 Dupont Circle N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036; tel. 202-939-5401.

  2. Geology team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Evaluating of the combined utility of narrowband and multispectral imaging in both the infrared and visible for the lithologic identification of geologic materials, and of the combined utility of multispectral imaging in the visible and infrared for lithologic mapping on a global bases are near term recommendations for future imaging capabilities. Long term recommendations include laboratory research into methods of field sampling and theoretical models of microscale mixing. The utility of improved spatial and spectral resolutions and radiometric sensitivity is also suggested for the long term. Geobotanical remote sensing research should be conducted to (1) separate geological and botanical spectral signatures in individual picture elements; (2) study geobotanical correlations that more fully simulate natural conditions; and use test sites designed to test specific geobotanical hypotheses.

  3. Accuracy assessment for the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Land-Cover Mapping Program: New York and New Jersey Region

    Treesearch

    Zhiliang Zhu; Limin Yang; Stephen V. Stehman; Raymond L. Czaplewski

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with other government and private organizations, is producing a conterminous U.S. land-cover map using Landsat Thematic Mapper 30-meter data for the Federal regions designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Accuracy assessment is to be conducted for each Federal region to estimate overall and class-specific...

  4. Planetary science comes to Nantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Robert

    2011-12-01

    MEETING REPORT Robert Massey reports on highlights of the first joint meeting of the European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) and the AAS Division of Planetary Scientists (DPS) in Nantes in October.

  5. Hyperspectral Soil Mapper (HYSOMA) software interface: Review and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabrillat, Sabine; Guillaso, Stephane; Eisele, Andreas; Rogass, Christian

    2014-05-01

    With the upcoming launch of the next generation of hyperspectral satellites that will routinely deliver high spectral resolution images for the entire globe (e.g. EnMAP, HISUI, HyspIRI, HypXIM, PRISMA), an increasing demand for the availability/accessibility of hyperspectral soil products is coming from the geoscience community. Indeed, many robust methods for the prediction of soil properties based on imaging spectroscopy already exist and have been successfully used for a wide range of soil mapping airborne applications. Nevertheless, these methods require expert know-how and fine-tuning, which makes them used sparingly. More developments are needed toward easy-to-access soil toolboxes as a major step toward the operational use of hyperspectral soil products for Earth's surface processes monitoring and modelling, to allow non-experienced users to obtain new information based on non-expensive software packages where repeatability of the results is an important prerequisite. In this frame, based on the EU-FP7 EUFAR (European Facility for Airborne Research) project and EnMAP satellite science program, higher performing soil algorithms were developed at the GFZ German Research Center for Geosciences as demonstrators for end-to-end processing chains with harmonized quality measures. The algorithms were built-in into the HYSOMA (Hyperspectral SOil MApper) software interface, providing an experimental platform for soil mapping applications of hyperspectral imagery that gives the choice of multiple algorithms for each soil parameter. The software interface focuses on fully automatic generation of semi-quantitative soil maps such as soil moisture, soil organic matter, iron oxide, clay content, and carbonate content. Additionally, a field calibration option calculates fully quantitative soil maps provided ground truth soil data are available. Implemented soil algorithms have been tested and validated using extensive in-situ ground truth data sets. The source of the HYSOMA

  6. Airborne Topographic Mapper waveform analysis over Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, D.; Harbeck, J. P.; Manizade, S.; Kurtz, N. T.; Studinger, M.

    2012-12-01

    Data from 2009, 2010, and 2011 Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) Arctic surveys were used in this study. The transmitted and received ATM lidar waveforms were fitted with Gaussian curves to calculate pulse width, peak location, pulse amplitude, and noise level. For each transmitted and received waveform, skewness, kurtosis, and pulse area were also calculated. Received waveform parameters, such as pulse width, pulse amplitude, pulse area, skewness, and kurtosis show geographically correlated patterns along an ATM swath. The relationship between these parameters and sea ice freeboard and surface features were studied by comparing these parameters with ATM derived freeboard and coincident Continuous Airborne Mapping By Optical Translator (CAMBOT) and Digital Mapping System (DMS) images which have been used to classify sea ice surface types such as leads, thin ice, grey ice and thick ice. The apparent reflectivity, defined as the ratio of the received pulse area to the transmitted pulse area, is directly related to surface reflectivity. The results show that ATM footprints with low elevation are often associated with large received pulse width and low apparent reflectivity. When the apparent reflectivity is below 0.25, the received pulse width increases with it, and when it is above 0.3, the received pulse width decreases with it. Received pulse skewness is strongly correlated with kurtosis (correlation coefficient larger than 0.95) and pulse width (correlation coefficient less than -0.95). As expected, no transmitted waveform parameters show any geographically correlated pattern. These results will be used to improve the lead/thin ice identification and improve the precision and accuracy of ATM measured sea ice freeboard.

  7. GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper Performance Specifications and Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Petersen, William A.; Boldi, Robert A.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Bateman, Monte G.; Buchler, Dennis E.; McCaul, E. William, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is a single channel, near-IR imager/optical transient event detector, used to detect, locate and measure total lightning activity over the full-disk. The next generation NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series will carry a GLM that will provide continuous day and night observations of lightning. The mission objectives for the GLM are to: (1) Provide continuous, full-disk lightning measurements for storm warning and nowcasting, (2) Provide early warning of tornadic activity, and (2) Accumulate a long-term database to track decadal changes of lightning. The GLM owes its heritage to the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (1997- present) and the Optical Transient Detector (1995-2000), which were developed for the Earth Observing System and have produced a combined 13 year data record of global lightning activity. GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms and applications. The science data will consist of lightning "events", "groups", and "flashes". The algorithm is being designed to be an efficient user of the computational resources. This may include parallelization of the code and the concept of sub-dividing the GLM FOV into regions to be processed in parallel. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds (e.g., Lightning Mapping Arrays in North Alabama, Oklahoma, Central Florida, and the Washington DC Metropolitan area) are being used to develop the prelaunch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution.

  8. Image navigation and registration for the geostationary lightning mapper (GLM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bezooijen, Roel W. H.; Demroff, Howard; Burton, Gregory; Chu, Donald; Yang, Shu S.

    2016-10-01

    The Geostationary Lightning Mappers (GLM) for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) GOES-R series will, for the first time, provide hemispherical lightning information 24 hours a day from longitudes of 75 and 137 degrees west. The first GLM of a series of four is planned for launch in November, 2016. Observation of lightning patterns by GLM holds promise to improve tornado warning lead times to greater than 20 minutes while halving the present false alarm rates. In addition, GLM will improve airline traffic flow management, and provide climatology data allowing us to understand the Earth's evolving climate. The paper describes the method used for translating the pixel position of a lightning event to its corresponding geodetic longitude and latitude, using the J2000 attitude of the GLM mount frame reported by the spacecraft, the position of the spacecraft, and the alignment of the GLM coordinate frame relative to its mount frame. Because the latter alignment will experience seasonal variation, this alignment is determined daily using GLM background images collected over the previous 7 days. The process involves identification of coastlines in the background images and determination of the alignment change necessary to match the detected coastline with the coastline predicted using the GSHHS database. Registration is achieved using a variation of the Lucas-Kanade algorithm where we added a dither and average technique to improve performance significantly. An innovative water mask technique was conceived to enable self-contained detection of clear coastline sections usable for registration. Extensive simulations using accurate visible images from GOES13 and GOES15 have been used to demonstrate the performance of the coastline registration method, the results of which are presented in the paper.

  9. The Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haffner, L. Matthew; Reynolds, Ronald J.; Babler, Brian L.; Madsen, Gregory J.; Hill, Alex S.; Barger, Kathleen; Jaehnig, Kurt P.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin J.; Percival, Jeffrey W.; Chopra, Nitish; Pingel, Nickolas; Reese, Daniel T.; Gostisha, Martin; Wunderlin, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    We present the first all-sky, kinematic survey of Hα from the Milky Way, combining survey observations taken with the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) from Kitt Peak (1997-2007) and Cerro Tololo (2009-present). The WHAM Sky Survey (WHAM-SS) reaches sensitivity levels of about 0.1 R (EM ~ 0.2 pc cm^-6) with emission detected toward every direction in the sky. Each pointing of the survey comprises a spatially integrated spectrum from a one-degree beam on the sky covering at least 200 km/s around the Local Standard of Rest with 12 km/s spectral resolution. WHAM was designed primarily to study the pervasive warm ionized medium (WIM) component of the interstellar medium (ISM) but also reveals many large-scale, locally-ionized regions throughout the Galaxy. The WIM is a diffuse but thick component of the ISM that extends several kiloparsecs into the Galactic halo with a kinematic signature that traces the gaseous spiral arms of the Galaxy. In addition to this fairly smooth global emission, the Hα sky contains many individual H II regions and supernova remnants, a few revealed in the WHAM-SS for the first time. Some locations are dominated by complex filamentary network of diffuse ionized gas where the ISM has been shaped by past winds and supernovae and is now powered by a new wave of star formation. At high latitudes, faint emission from intermediate-velocity clouds is also regularly present. The success of WHAM as a fully remote observing facility for nearly two decades is due in no small part to the excellent and responsive support staff at KPNO in Arizona and CTIO in Chile. WHAM has been designed, built, and operated primarily through support of the National Science Foundation. The current research presented here is funded by award AST-1108911.

  10. The BHVI-EyeMapper: peripheral refraction and aberration profiles.

    PubMed

    Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Falk, Darrin; Bakaraju, Ravi C; Holden, Brien A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this article was to present the optical design of a new instrument (BHVI-EyeMapper, EM), which is dedicated to rapid peripheral wavefront measurements across the visual field for distance and near, and to compare the peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration profiles obtained in myopic eyes with and without accommodation. Central and peripheral refractive errors (M, J180, and J45) and higher-order aberrations (C[3, 1], C[3, 3], and C[4, 0]) were measured in 26 myopic participants (mean [±SD] age, 20.9 [±2.0] years; mean [±SD] spherical equivalent, -3.00 [±0.90] diopters [D]) corrected for distance. Measurements were performed along the horizontal visual field with (-2.00 to -5.00 D) and without (+1.00 D fogging) accommodation. Changes as a function of accommodation were compared using tilt and curvature coefficients of peripheral refraction and aberration profiles. As accommodation increased, the relative peripheral refraction profiles of M and J180 became significantly (p < 0.05) more negative and the profile of M became significantly (p < 0.05) more asymmetric. No significant differences were found for the J45 profiles (p > 0.05). The peripheral aberration profiles of C[3, 1], C[3, 3], and C[4, 0] became significantly (p < 0.05) less asymmetric as accommodation increased, but no differences were found in the curvature. The current study showed that significant changes in peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration profiles occurred during accommodation in myopic eyes. With its extended measurement capabilities, that is, permitting rapid peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration measurements up to visual field angles of ±50 degrees for distance and near (up to -5.00 D), the EM is a new advanced instrument that may provide additional insights in the ongoing quest to understand and monitor myopia development.

  11. HomozygosityMapper2012--bridging the gap between homozygosity mapping and deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Seelow, Dominik; Schuelke, Markus

    2012-07-01

    Homozygosity mapping is a common method to map recessive traits in consanguineous families. To facilitate these analyses, we have developed HomozygosityMapper, a web-based approach to homozygosity mapping. HomozygosityMapper allows researchers to directly upload the genotype files produced by the major genotyping platforms as well as deep sequencing data. It detects stretches of homozygosity shared by the affected individuals and displays them graphically. Users can interactively inspect the underlying genotypes, manually refine these regions and eventually submit them to our candidate gene search engine GeneDistiller to identify the most promising candidate genes. Here, we present the new version of HomozygosityMapper. The most striking new feature is the support of Next Generation Sequencing *.vcf files as input. Upon users' requests, we have implemented the analysis of common experimental rodents as well as of important farm animals. Furthermore, we have extended the options for single families and loss of heterozygosity studies. Another new feature is the export of *.bed files for targeted enrichment of the potential disease regions for deep sequencing strategies. HomozygosityMapper also generates files for conventional linkage analyses which are already restricted to the possible disease regions, hence superseding CPU-intensive genome-wide analyses. HomozygosityMapper is freely available at http://www.homozygositymapper.org/.

  12. Planetary quarantine computer applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rafenstein, M.

    1973-01-01

    The computer programs are identified pertaining to planetary quarantine activities within the Project Engineering Division, both at the Air Force Eastern Test Range and on site at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief description of each program and program inputs are given and typical program outputs are shown.

  13. Planetary Quarantine Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The activities of the Planetary Quarantine Department at Sandia Laboratories during the period April 1965 through June 1972 are summarized. Included are the rationale, the methods, and the results of modeling and experimentation used in dry heat, radiation, thermoradiation, and chemical sterilization studies. Publications describing these activities and accounts of closely related research are also furnished.

  14. The Planetary Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaud, N.; Zender, J.; Heather, D.; Barthelemy, M.; Vazquez, J. L.; Trautner, R.; Ortiz, I.; Dowson, J.; Arviset, C.; Parilla, E.

    2007-08-01

    Scientific and engineering data from ESA's planetary missions are made accessible to the world-wide scientific community via the Planetary Science Archive (PSA). The PSA consists of online services incorporating search, preview, download, notification and shopping basket functionality. Besides data from the Giotto spacecraft and several ground-based cometary observations, the PSA contains data from the Mars Express, Smart-1 and Huygens spacecraft. In spring 2007 the PSA will provide the science and engineering data collected by Rosetta until July 2006 and data collected by Venus Express until November 2005. The main goal of the archive initiative is to contribute to the maximum scientific exploitation of the data. The PSA provides a broad range of query possibilities. User can search the database by targets, planetary features, observation geometry, dataset characteristics and time information. Primary emphasis of the archive is on long-term data and knowledge preservation. All data sets are peer reviewed and must undergo an additional PSA internal validation procedure. The PSA continuously discusses with the community and the instrument teams the definition of derived parameters useful for data identification via cross-discipline or cross-instrument searches. As the PSA supports the concept of users and groups, proprietary data are protected from unauthorized users. All data are compatible to the Planetary Data System Standard and the PSA staff work in close collaboration with the PDS.

  15. Asteroidal and planetary analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, W. K.

    1975-01-01

    Photometric, spectrophotometric, and radiometric investigations of asteroids and planets are reported. Profiles of the planetary disk were used to study the physical structure of the Uranus atmosphere, and thermal and photographic properties of Saturn rings were theoretically modelled. Ground-based Mars observations were made for long-term comparison with Mariner 9 results.

  16. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Eleven study tasks are described and key results are discussed for the following: advanced planning activity; cost estimation research; planetary missions performance handbooks-revisions; multiple discipline science assessment; asteroid workshop; galilean lander mission strategies; asteroid exploration study; ion drive transport capabilities; Mars strategy study; Venus surface sample return; and ion drive/solar sail assessment study.

  17. Contemporary Planetary Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belton, Michael J. S.; Levy, Eugene H.

    1982-01-01

    Presents an overview of planetary science and the United States program for exploration of the planets, examining the program's scientific objectives, its current activities, and the diversity of its methods. Also discusses the program's lack of continuity, especially in personnel. (Author/JN)

  18. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The 35th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference covered topics on Mars, planetary origins, planetary analog studies, education,chondrite studies, and meteorite composition. Over 1000 reports were presented at the conference in over 100 sessions. Each session, and presentations,was processed separately for the database.

  19. Planetary GIS interfaces and links with the Planetary Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, A. P.; Baumann, P.; Beccati, A.; Cecconi, B.; Erard, S.; Marmo, C.

    2014-04-01

    Planetary data with a strong geographic component constitute a large portion of all those collected over planets and moons [e.g. 1]. The variety of Solar System bodies imaged and their geometry is large and cartographic standards have been set [e.g. 2]. Linking and making broadly accessible the growing amount of data in planetary archives of the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) [3, 4] and ESA Planetary Science Archive (PSA) [5], derived datasets from experiment teams, group and individual scientists is a tremendous challenge. In order to tackle this, Virtual Observatory (VO) techniques and tools applied to Planetary Science data have been developed [6, 7].

  20. Planetary systems in binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Genya

    In this thesis we investigate the orbital evolution of planets in binaries. Unlike our own Solar System, at least one out of five planetary systems known to date is associated with additional stellar companions. Despite their large distances from the planetary systems, these stellar companions play an important role in significantly altering the planetary architecture over very long timescales. Most of the planets in binaries are found in hierarchical configurations in which a planet orbits around a component of a wide stellar binary. The evolution of such hierarchical triples has been analytically understood through the framework of the Kozai mechanism, in which the orbital eccentricity of a planet secularly grows through angular momentum exchange with the stellar companion. The aim of our first study is to investigate the global effect of stellar companions in exciting planetary eccentricities through the Kozai mechanism, using synthetic eccentricity distributions computed numerically from various initial assumptions motivated by observational studies. As inferred from observations and theoretical planet formation simulations, newly formed planetary systems are more likely to be oligarchic, containing multiple giant planets. However, the long-term evolution of gravitationally coupled planets perturbed by a stellar companion has been little understood in the previous studies. From a large ensemble of numerical integrations of double-planet systems in binaries, we have found that there are various evolutionary classes of multiple planets in binaries compared to simple hierarchical triple systems containing only one planet. Using the Kozai mechanism and the Laplace-Lagrange secular theory, we also provide analytic criteria that can readily predict the secular evolutionary behavior of a pair of planetary orbits in binaries. In the last part of this thesis we discuss an alternative channel of planetary migration induced by a combined effect of dissipative tidal forces