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Sample records for planetary protection protocols

  1. A Rover Operations Protocol for Maintaining Compliance with Planetary Protection Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Melissa; Vasavada, Ashwin

    2016-07-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, with its Curiosity rover, arrived at Gale Crater in August 2012 with the scientific objective of assessing the past and present habitability of the landing site area. It is not a life detection mission, but one that uses geological, geochemical, and environmental measurements to understand whether past and present conditions could have supported life. The MSL mission is designated Planetary Protection Category IVa, with specific restrictions on the landing site and surface operations. In particular, the mission is prohibited from introducing any hardware into a Mars Special Region, as defined by COSPAR policy and in NASA document NPR 8020.12D. Fluid-formed features such as recurring slope lineae are included in this prohibition. Finally, any evidence suggesting the presence of Special Regions or flowing liquid at the actual MSL landing site shall be communicated to the NASA Planetary Protection Officer immediately, and physical contact by the rover with such features shall be entirely avoided. The MSL Project has recently developed and instituted a protocol in daily rover operations to ensure ongoing compliance with its planetary protection categorization. A particular challenge comes from the fact that the characteristics of potential Special Regions may not be obvious in the rover downlink data (e.g., landscape images, chemical measurements, or meteorology), or easily distinguishable from characteristics of other processes that do not imply Special Regions. For this reason, the first step in the process would be for the lead scientist for that day of operations (a role that rotates through senior scientists on the mission) to scrutinize all the targets that may receive interaction by rover hardware, such as targets for arm contact, or paths for wheel contact. Based on the expertise of the lead scientist, and definitions of Mars Special Regions, if any features of concern are identified, the other scientists on duty that

  2. NASA's International Space Station: A Testbed for Planetary Protection Protocol Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, M. S.; Rucker, M.; Love, S.; Johnson, J.; Chambliss, J.; Pierson, D.; Ott, M.; Mary, N.; Glass, B.; Lupisella, M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Wherever humans go, they inevitably carry along the critters that live in and on them. Conventional wisdom has long held that it is unlikely those critters could survive the space environment, but in 2007 some microscopic aquatic animals called Tardigrades survived exposure to space and in 2008 Cyanobacteria lived for 548 days outside the ISS. Unlike the Mars rovers that were cleaned once and sent on their way, crew members will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations? What about the organisms we might reasonably expect a crewed spacecraft to leak or vent? Do we even know what they are? How long might our tiny hitch-hikers survive in close proximity to a warm spacecraft that periodically leaks/vents water or oxygen and how might they mutate with long-duration exposure? How will these contaminants migrate from their source in conditions encountered in space or on other planetary surfaces? This project aims to answer some of these questions by bringing together key stakeholder communities to develop a human forward contamination test, analysis, and integration plan. A system engineering approach to identify the experiments, analysis, and modeling needed to develop the contamination control protocols required will be used as a roadmap to integrate the many different parts of this problem - from launch to landing, living, and working on another planetary surface.

  3. Nasa's International Space Station: A Testbed for Planetary Protection Protocol Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, M. S.; Rucker, M.; Love, S.; Johnson, J.; Chambliss, J.; Pierson, D.; Ott, M.; Mary, N.; Glass, B.; Lupisella, M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Wherever humans go, they inevitably carry along the critters that live in and on them. Conventional wisdom has long held that it is unlikely those critters could survive the space environment, but in 2007 some microscopic aquatic animals called Tardigrades survived exposure to space and in 2008 Cyanobacteria lived for 548 days outside the ISS. Unlike the Mars rovers that were cleaned once and sent on their way, crew members will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations? What about the organisms we might reasonably expect a crewed spacecraft to leak or vent? Do we even know what they are? How long might our tiny hitch-hikers survive in close proximity to a warm spacecraft that periodically leaks/vents water or oxygen and how might they mutate with long-duration exposure? How will these contaminants migrate from their source in conditions encountered in space or on other planetary surfaces? This project aims to answer some of these questions by bringing together key stakeholder communities to develop a human forward contamination test, analysis, and integration plan. A system engineering approach to identify the experiments, analysis, and modeling needed to develop the contamination control protocols required will be used as a roadmap to integrate the many different parts of this problem - from launch to landing, living, and working on another planetary surface.

  4. Treatment of Solid Rocket Motors that Complies with Established Protocols to Ensure Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanski, Philip L.; Soler-Luna, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    This presentation discusses recent work being conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to evaluate various methods that could be employed to provide for planetary protection of those solar system bodies that are candidates for extraterrestrial life, thus preventing contamination of such bodies. MSFC is presently involved in the development phase of the Europa Lander De-Orbital Stage (DOS) braking motor. In order to prevent bio-contamination of this Jovian satellite, three paths are currently being considered. The first is (1) Bio-Reduction of those microscopic organisms in or on the vehicle (in this case a solid rocket motor (SRM)) that might otherwise be transported during the mission. Possible methods being investigated include heat sterilization, application or incorporation of biocide materials, and irradiation. While each method can be made to work, effects on the SRM's components (propellant, liner, insulation, etc.) could well prove deleterious. A second path would be use of (2) Bio-Barrier material(s). So long as such barrier(s) can maintain their integrity, planetary protection should be afforded. Under the harsh conditions encountered during extended spaceflight (vacuum, temperature extremes, radiation), however, such barrier(s) could well experience a breach. Finally, a third path would be to perform (3) Pyrotechnic Sterilization of the SRM during its end-of-mission phase. Multiple pyrotechnic units would be triggered to ensure activation of such an event and provide for a final sterilization before vehicle impact. In light of Europa's stringent bio-reduction targets, the final and best choice to minimize risk will probably be some combination of the above.

  5. Planetary protection on international waters: An onboard protocol for capsule retrieval and biosafety control in sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yoshinori; Yano, Hajime; Sekine, Yasuhito; Funase, Ryu; Takai, Ken

    2014-04-01

    Planetary protection has been recognized as one of the most important issues in sample return missions that may host certain living forms and biotic signatures in a returned sample. This paper proposes an initiative of sample capsule retrieval and onboard biosafety protocol in international waters for future biological and organic constituent missions to bring samples from possible habitable bodies in the solar system. We suggest the advantages of international waters being outside of national jurisdiction and active regions of human and traffic affairs on the condition that we accept the Outer Space Treaty. The scheme of onboard biological quarantine definitely reduces the potential risk of back-contamination of extraterrestrial materials to the Earth.

  6. Integration of planetary protection activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.

    1995-01-01

    For decades, NASA has been concerned about the protection of planets and other solar system bodies from biological contamination. Its policies regarding biological contamination control for outbound and inbound planetary spacecraft have evolved to focus on three important areas: (1) the preservation of celestial objects and the space environment; (2) protection of Earth from extraterrestrial hazards; and (3) ensuring the integrity of its scientific investigations. Over the years as new information has been obtained from planetary exploration and research, planetary protection parameters and policies have been modified accordingly. The overall focus of research under this cooperative agreement has been to provide information about non-scientific and societal factors related to planetary protection and use it in the planning and implementation phases of future Mars sample return missions.

  7. International Agreement on Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The maintenance of a NASA policy, is consistent with international agreements. The planetary protection policy management in OSS, with Field Center support. The advice from internal and external advisory groups (NRC, NAC/Planetary Protection Task Force). The technology research and standards development in bioload characterization. The technology research and development in bioload reduction/sterilization. This presentation focuses on: forward contamination - research on the potential for Earth life to exist on other bodies, improved strategies for planetary navigation and collision avoidance, and improved procedures for sterile spacecraft assembly, cleaning and/or sterilization; and backward contamination - development of sample transfer and container sealing technologies for Earth return, improvement in sample return landing target assessment and navigation strategy, planning for sample hazard determination requirements and procedures, safety certification, (liaison to NEO Program Office for compositional data on small bodies), facility planning for sample recovery system, quarantine, and long-term curation of 4 returned samples.

  8. Integration of Planetary Protection Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.

    2000-01-01

    Research and activities under this grant have focused on a systematic examination and analysis of critical questions likely to impact planetary protection (PP) controls and implementation for Mars sample return missions (MSR). Four areas in the non-scientific and social realms were selected for special attention because of their importance to future mission planning and concern about critical timing or possible economic impacts on MSR mission implementation. These include: (1) questions of legal uncertainty and the decision making process, (2) public perception of risks associated with sample return, (3) risk communication and Education/Public Outreach , and (4) planetary protection implications of alternative mission architectures, for both robotic and human sample return missions. In its entirety, NAG 2-986 has encompassed three categories of activity: (1) research and analysis (Race), (2) subcontracted research (MacGregor/Decision Research), and (3) consulting services.

  9. Mars Technology Program Planetary Protection Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the NASA Planetary Protection program are to preserve biological and organic conditions of solar-system bodies for future scientific exploration and to protect the Earth from potential hazardous extraterrestrial contamination. As the exploration of solar system continues, NASA remains committed to the implementation of planetary protection policy and regulations. To fulfill this commitment, the Mars Technology Program (MTP) has invested in a portfolio of tasks for developing necessary technologies to meet planetary protection requirements for the next decade missions.

  10. Planetary protection - some legal questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasan, E.

    When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lex lata, the existing applicable Law, especially Space Law, and also lex ferenda, what should be the law. With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of "Planetary", and of "Protection". About "Planetary": Our own Earth is the most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. Then, we have to discuss what is further meant by "Planetary": Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protection from what? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B. Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits. Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from Electronic "Noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then

  11. Planetary Protection Constraints For Planetary Exploration and Exobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debus, A.; Bonneville, R.; Viso, M.

    According to the article IX of the OUTER SPACE TREATY (London / Washington January 27., 1967) and in the frame of extraterrestrial missions, it is required to preserve planets and Earth from contamination. For ethical, safety and scientific reasons, the space agencies have to comply with the Outer Space Treaty and to take into account the related planetary protection Cospar recommendations. Planetary protection takes also into account the protection of exobiological science, because the results of life detection experimentations could have impacts on planetary protection regulations. The validation of their results depends strongly of how the samples have been collected, stored and analyzed, and particularly of their biological and organic cleanliness. Any risk of contamination by organic materials, chemical coumpounds and by terrestrial microorganisms must be avoided. A large number of missions is presently scheduled, particularly on Mars, in order to search for life or traces of past life. In the frame of such missions, CNES is building a planetary protection organization in order handle and to take in charge all tasks linked to science and engineering concerned by planetary protection. Taking into account CNES past experience in planetary protection related to the Mars 96 mission, its planned participation in exobiological missions with NASA as well as its works and involvement in Cospar activities, this paper will present the main requirements in order to avoid celestial bodies biological contamination, focussing on Mars and including Earth, and to protect exobiological science.

  12. Planetary protection - some legal questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasan, E.

    2004-01-01

    When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lexlata, theexistingapplicableLaw, especially Space Law, and also lexferenda, whatshouldbethe law . With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of the notions "Planetary", and "Protection". About " Planetary": Our own Earth is our most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. But what is further meant by "Planetary"? Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B.)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN, etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites, etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protectionfrom what ? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B.Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits.Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there, etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from electronic "noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then, we have to

  13. Extravehicular Activity and Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, J. A.; Mary, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    The first human mission to Mars will be the farthest distance that humans have traveled from Earth and the first human boots on Martian soil in the Exploration EVA Suit. The primary functions of the Exploration EVA Suit are to provide a habitable, anthropometric, pressurized environment for up to eight hours that allows crewmembers to perform autonomous and robotically assisted extravehicular exploration, science/research, construction, servicing, and repair operations on the exterior of the vehicle, in hazardous external conditions of the Mars local environment. The Exploration EVA Suit has the capability to structurally interface with exploration vehicles via next generation ingress/egress systems. Operational concepts and requirements are dependent on the mission profile, surface assets, and the Mars environment. This paper will discuss the effects and dependencies of the EVA system design with the local Mars environment and Planetary Protection. Of the three study areas listed for the workshop, EVA identifies most strongly with technology and operations for contamination control.

  14. Planetary protection - assaying new methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellen, J.; Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.

    Space age began in 1957 when the USSR launched the first satellite into earth orbit. In response to this new challenge the International Council for Science, formerly know as International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), established the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) in 1958. The role of COSPAR was to channel the international scientific research in space and establish an international forum. Through COSPAR the scientific community agreed on the need for screening interplanetary probes for forward (contamination of foreign planets) and backward (contamination of earth by returned samples/probes) contamination. To prevent both forms of contamination a set of rules, as a guideline was established. Nowadays the standard implementation of the planetary protection rules is based on the experience gained during NASA's Viking project in 1975/76. Since then the evaluation-methods for microbial contamination of spacecrafts have been changed or updated just slowly. In this study the standard method of sample taking will be evaluated. New methods for examination of those samples, based on the identification of life on the molecular level, will be reviewed and checked for their feasibility as microbial detection systems. The methods will be examined for their qualitative (detection and verification of different organisms) and quantitative (detection limit and concentration verification) qualities. Amongst the methods analyzed will be i.e. real-time / PCR (poly-chain-reaction), using specific primer-sets for the amplification of highly conserved rRNA or DNA regions. Measurement of intrinsic fluorescence, i.e ATP using luciferin-luciferase reagents. The use of FAME (fatty acid methyl esters) and microchips for microbial identification purposes. The methods will be chosen to give a good overall coverage of different possible molecular markers and approaches. The most promising methods shall then be lab-tested and evaluated for their use under spacecraft assembly

  15. Preface: New challenges for planetary protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kminek, Gerhard

    2016-05-01

    Planetary protection as a discipline goes back to the advent of the space age and the formation of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Planetary protection constraints are in place to ensure that scientific investigations related to the search for extraterrestrial life are not compromised and that the Earth is protected from the potential hazard posed by extraterrestrial matter carried by a spacecraft returning from an interplanetary mission.

  16. Mars Technology Program: Planetary Protection Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of Planetary Protection Technology in the Mars Technology Program. The goal of the program is to develop technologies that will enable NASA to build, launch, and operate a mission that has subsystems with different Planetary Protection (PP) classifications, specifically for operating a Category IVb-equivalent subsystem from a Category IVa platform. The IVa category of planetary protection requires bioburden reduction (i.e., no sterilization is required) The IVb category in addition to IVa requirements: (i.e., terminal sterilization of spacecraft is required). The differences between the categories are further reviewed.

  17. Post Viking planetary protection requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfson, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    Past planetary quarantine requirements were reviewed in the light of present Viking data to determine the steps necessary to prevent contamination of the Martian surface on future missions. The currently used term planetary protection reflects a broader scope of understanding of the problems involved. Various methods of preventing contamination are discussed in relation to proposed projects, specifically the 1984 Rover Mission.

  18. Planning for planetary protection : challenges beyond Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belz, Andrea P.; Cutts, James A.

    2006-01-01

    This document summarizes the technical challenges to planetary protection for these targets of interest and outlines some of the considerations, particularly at the system level, in designing an appropriate technology investment strategy for targets beyond Mars.

  19. Planetary Protection Bioburden Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaudet, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    , impacting an RCC panel is executed in minutes instead of hours needed by the commercial programs. Target damage due to impact can be assessed quickly, provided that target vibration modes and allowable stress are known. This work was done by Robert Clark, Jr., Paul Cotter, and Constantine Michalopoulos of The Boeing Company for Johnson Space Center. For further information, contact the JSC Innovation Partnerships Office at (281) 483-3809. MSC-24988-1 Wing Leading Edge RCC Rapid Response Damage Prediction Tool (IMPACT2) Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas (3) the MSL statistics for only the accountable assays. Other options on the main menu include a data editing form and utility programs that produce various reports requested by the microbiologists and the project, and tools to generate the groupings for the final analyses. The analyses can be carried out in three ways: Each assay can be treated separately, the assays can be collectively treated for the whole zone as a group, or the assays can be collected in groups designated by the JPL Planetary Protection Manager. The latter approach was used to generate the final report because assays on the same equipment or similar equipment can be assumed to have been exposed to the same environment and cleaning. Thus, the statistics are improved by having a larger population, thereby reducing the standard deviation by the square root of N. For each method mentioned above, three reports are available. The first is a detailed report including all the data. This version was very useful in verifying the calculations. The second is a brief report that is similar to the full detailed report, but does not print out the data. The third is a grand total and summary report in which each assay requires only one line. For the first and second reports, most of the calculations are performed in the report section itself. For the third, all the calculations are performed directly in the query bound to the report. All the numeric al

  20. Planetary protection policy (U.S.A.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D.

    1992-01-01

    Through existing treaty obligations of the United States, NASA is committed to exploring space while avoiding biological contamination of the planets, and to the protection of the earth against harm from materials returned from space. Because of the similarities between Mars and earth, plans for the exploration of Mars evoke discussions of these Planetary Protection issues. U.S. Planetary Protection Policy will be focused on the preservation of these goals in an arena that will change with the growth of scientific knowledge about the Martian environment. Early opportunities to gain the appropriate data will be used to guide later policy implementation. Because human presence on Mars will result in the end of earth's separation from the Martian environment, it is expected that precursor robotic missions will address critical planetary protection concerns before humans arrive.

  1. Europa Planetary Protection for Juno Jupiter Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, Douglas E.; Abelson, Robert D.; Johannesen, Jennie R.; Lam, Try; McAlpine, William J.; Newlin, Laura E.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Juno mission launched in 2011 and will explore the Jupiter system starting in 2016. Juno's suite of instruments is designed to investigate the atmosphere, gravitational fields, magnetic fields, and auroral regions. Its low perijove polar orbit will allow it to explore portions of the Jovian environment never before visited. While the Juno mission is not orbiting or flying close to Europa or the other Galilean satellites, planetary protection requirements for avoiding the contamination of Europa have been taken into account in the Juno mission design.The science mission is designed to conclude with a deorbit burn that disposes of the spacecraft in Jupiter's atmosphere. Compliance with planetary protection requirements is verified through a set of analyses including analysis of initial bioburden, analysis of the effect of bioburden reduction due to the space and Jovian radiation environments, probabilistic risk assessment of successful deorbit, Monte-Carlo orbit propagation, and bioburden reduction in the event of impact with an icy body.

  2. Lay and Expert Perceptions of Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, Donald G.; Slovic, Paul

    2000-01-01

    As space scientists and engineers plan new missions to Mars and other planets in our solar system, they will face critical questions about the potential for biological contamination of planetary surfaces. In a society that places ever-increasing importance on the role of public involvement in science and technology policy, questions about risks of biological contamination will be examined and debated in the media, and will lead to the formation of public perceptions of planetary-contamination risks. These perceptions will, over time, form an important input to the development of space policy. Previous research in public and expert perceptions of technological risks and hazards has shown that many of the problems faced by risk-management organizations are the result of differing perceptions of risk (and risk management) between the general public and scientific and technical experts. These differences manifest themselves both as disagreements about the definition (and level) of risk associated with a scientific, technological or industrial enterprise, and as distrust about the ability of risk-management organizations (both public and private) to adequately protect people's health and safety. This report presents the results of a set of survey studies designed to reveal perceptions of planetary exploration and protection from a wide range of respondents, including both members of the general public and experts in the life sciences. The potential value of this research lies in what it reveals about perceptions of risk and benefit that could improve risk-management policies and practices. For example, efforts to communicate with the public about Mars sample return missions could benefit from an understanding of the specific concerns that nonscientists have about such a mission by suggesting areas of potential improvement in public education and information. Assessment of both public and expert perceptions of risk can also be used to provide an advanced signal of

  3. Mars Science Laboratory Planetary Protection Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benardini, James; La Duc, Myron; Naviaux, Keith; Samuels, Jessica

    With over 500 sols of surface operations, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover has trekked over 5km. A key finding along this journey thus far, is that water molecules are bound to fine-grained soil particles, accounting for about 2 percent of the particles' weight at Gale Crater where Curiosity landed. There is no concern to planetary protection as the finding resulted directly from SAM baking (100-835°C) out the soil for analysis. Over that temperature range, OH and/or H2O was released, which was bound in amorphous phases. MSL has completed an approved Post-Launch Report. The Project continues to be in compliance with planetary protection requirements as Curiosity continues its exploration and scientific discoveries there is no evidence suggesting the presence of a special region. There is no spacecraft induced special region and no currently flowing liquid. All systems of interest to planetary protection are functioning nominally. The project has submitted an extended mission request to the NASA PPO. The status of the PP activities will be reported.

  4. InSight Planetary Protection Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benardini, James; La Duc, Myron; Willis, Jason

    The NASA Discovery Program’s next mission, Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSIght), consists of a single spacecraft that will be launched aboard an Atlas V 401 rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base (Space Launch Complex 3E) during the March 2016 timeframe. The overarching mission goal is to illuminate the fundamentals of formation and evolution of terrestrial planets by investigating the interior structure and processes of Mars. The flight system consists of a heritage cruise stage, aeroshell (heatshield and backshell), and Lander from the 2008 Phoenix mission. Included in the lander payload are various cameras, a seismometer, an auxiliary sensor suite to measure wind, temperature, and pressure, and a mole to penetrate the regolith (<5 meters) and assess the subsurface geothermal gradient of Mars. Being a Mars lander mission without life detection instruments, InSight has been designated a PP Category Iva mission. As such, planetary protection bioburden requirements apply which require microbial reduction procedures and biological burden reporting. The InSight project is current with required PP documentation, having completed an approved Planetary Protection Plan, Subsidiary PP Plans, and a PP Implementation Plan. The InSight mission’s early planetary protection campaign has commenced, coinciding with the fabrication and assembly of payload and flight system hardware and the baseline analysis of existing flight spares. A report on the status of InSight PP activities will be provided.

  5. Quality Assurance Specifications for Planetary Protection Assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Amy

    As the European Space Agency planetary protection (PP) activities move forward to support the ExoMars and other planetary missions, it will become necessary to increase staffing of labo-ratories that provide analyses for these programs. Standardization of procedures, a comprehen-sive quality assurance program, and unilateral training of personnel will be necessary to ensure that the planetary protection goals and schedules are met. The PP Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QAQC) program is designed to regulate and monitor procedures performed by labora-tory personnel to ensure that all work meets data quality objectives through the assembly and launch process. Because personnel time is at a premium and sampling schedules are often de-pendent on engineering schedules, it is necessary to have flexible staffing to support all sampling requirements. The most productive approach to having a competent and flexible work force is to establish well defined laboratory procedures and training programs that clearly address the needs of the program and the work force. The quality assurance specification for planetary protection assays has to ensure that labora-tories and associated personnel can demonstrate the competence to perform assays according to the applicable standard AD4. Detailed subjects included in the presentation are as follows: • field and laboratory control criteria • data reporting • personnel training requirements and certification • laboratory audit criteria. Based upon RD2 for primary and secondary validation and RD3 for data quality objectives, the QAQC will provide traceable quality assurance safeguards by providing structured laboratory requirements for guidelines and oversight including training and technical updates, standardized documentation, standardized QA/QC checks, data review and data archiving.

  6. Temperature-Time Issues in Bioburden Control for Planetary Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B.

    Heat energy, administered in the form of an elevated temperature heat soak over a specific interval of time, is a well-known method of inactivating organisms. Ster- ilization protocols, from commercial pasteurization to laboratory autoclaving, specify both the temperature and the time, as well as water activity, for treatments to achieve either acceptable reduction of bioburden or complete sterilization. In practical applications of planetary protection, whether to reduce spore load in for- ward or roundtrip contamination, or to exterminate putative organisms in returned samples from planetary bodies suspected of possible life, avoidance of expensive or potentially damaging treatments of hardware (or samples) could be accomplished if reciprocal relationships between time duration and soak temperature could be established. Conservative rules can be developed from consideration of empirical test data, derived relationships, current standards and various theoretical or proven mechanisms for thermal damage to biological systems.

  7. Planetary Protection Considerations For Exomars Meteorological Instrumentation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilletti, Adam

    2007-10-01

    Planetary protection requirements for Oxford University's contribution to the upcoming ESA ExoMars mission are discussed and the current methods being used to fulfil these requirements are detailed and reviewed. Oxford University is supplying temperature and wind sensors to the mission and since these will be exposed to the Martian environment there is a requirement that they are sterilised to stringent COSPAR standards adhered to by ESA. Typically dry heat microbial reduction (DHMR) is used to reduce spacecraft bioburden but the high temperatures involved are not compatible with the some hardware elements. Alternative, low-temperature sterilisation methods are reviewed and their applicability to spacecraft hardware discussed. The use of a commercially available, bench-top endotoxin tester in planetary protection is also discussed and data from preliminary tests performed at Oxford are presented. These devices, which utilise the immune response of horseshoe crabs to the presence of endotoxin, have the potential to reduce the time taken to determine bioburden by removing the need for conventional assaying -a lengthy and sometimes expensive process.

  8. Planetary protection issues for sample return missions.

    PubMed

    DeVincenzi, D L; Klein, H P

    1989-01-01

    Sample return missions from a comet nucleus and the Mars surface are currently under study in the US, USSR, and by ESA. Guidance on Planetary Protection (PP) issues is needed by mission scientists and engineers for incorporation into various elements of mission design studies. Although COSPAR has promulgated international policy on PP for various classes of solar system exploration missions, the applicability of this policy to sample return missions, in particular, remains vague. In this paper, we propose a set of implementing procedures to maintain the scientific integrity of these samples. We also propose that these same procedures will automatically assure that COSPAR-derived PP guidelines are achieved. The recommendations discussed here are the first step toward development of official COSPAR implementation requirements for sample return missions.

  9. Planetary Protection Technologies: Technical Challenges for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buxbaum, Karen L.

    2005-01-01

    The search for life in the solar system, using either in situ analysis or sample return, brings with it special technical challenges in the area of planetary protection. Planetary protection (PP) requires planetary explorers to preserve biological and organic conditions for future exploration and to protect the Earth from potential extraterrestrial contamination that could occur as a result of sample return to the Earth-Moon system. In view of the exploration plans before us, the NASA Solar System Exploration Program Roadmap published in May 2003 identified planetary protection as one of 13 technologies for "high priority technology investments." Recent discoveries at Mars and Jupiter, coupled with new policies, have made this planning for planetary protection technology particularly challenging and relevant.New missions to Mars have been formulated, which present significantly greater forward contamination potential. New policies, including the introduction by COSPAR of a Category IVc for planetary protection, have been adopted by COSPAR in response. Some missions may not be feasible without the introduction of new planetary protection technologies. Other missions may be technically possible but planetary protection requirements may be so costly to implement with current technology that they are not affordable. A strategic investment strategy will be needed to focus on technology investments designed to enable future missions and reduce the costs of future missions. This presentation will describe some of the potential technological pathways that may be most protective.

  10. Planetary protection principles used for Phobos-Grunt mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynov, M. B.; Alexashkin, S. N.; Khamidullina, N. M.; Orlov, O. I.; Novikova, N. D.; Deshevaya, E. A.; Trofimov, V. I.

    2011-12-01

    The article presents an analysis of the Phobos-Grunt mission, a classification of its phases in terms of planetary protection, and the main principles of activities management and definition of actions for fulfilling the planetary-protection requirements developed by Committee on Space Research.

  11. Life Support and Habitation and Planetary Protection Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, John A. (Editor); Race, Margaret S. (Editor); Fisher, John W. (Editor); Joshi, Jitendra A. (Editor); Rummel, John D. (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    A workshop entitled "Life Support and Habitation and Planetary Protection Workshop" was held in Houston, Texas on April 27-29, 2005 to facilitate the development of planetary protection guidelines for future human Mars exploration missions and to identify the potential effects of these guidelines on the design and selection of related human life support, extravehicular activity and monitoring and control systems. This report provides a summary of the workshop organization, starting assumptions, working group results and recommendations. Specific result topics include the identification of research and technology development gaps, potential forward and back contaminants and pathways, mitigation alternatives, and planetary protection requirements definition needs. Participants concluded that planetary protection and science-based requirements potentially affect system design, technology trade options, development costs and mission architecture. Therefore early and regular coordination between the planetary protection, scientific, planning, engineering, operations and medical communities is needed to develop workable and effective designs for human exploration of Mars.

  12. The Mars Plant Growth Experiment and Implications for Planetary Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Heather

    Plants are the ultimate and necessary solution for O2 production at a human base on Mars. Currently it is unknown if seeds can germinate on the Martian surface. The Mars Plant growth experiment (MPX) is a proposal for the first step in the development of a plant- based O2 production system by demonstrating plant germination and growth on the Martian surface. There is currently no planetary protection policy in place that covers plants on the Martian surface. We describe a planetary protection plan in compliance with NASA and COSPAR policy for a closed plant growth chamber on a Mars rover. We divide the plant growth chamber into two categories for planetary protection, the Outside: the outside of the chamber exposed to the Martian environment, and the Inside: the inside of the chamber which is sealed off from Mars atmosphere and contains the plant seeds and ancillary components for seed growth. We will treat outside surfaces of the chamber as other outside surfaces on the rover, wiped with a mixture of isopropyl alcohol and water as per Category IVb planetary protection requirements. All internal components of the MPX except the seeds and camera (including the water system, the plant growth stage and interior surface walls) will be sterilized by autoclave and subjected to sterilizing dry heat at a temperature of 125°C at an absolute humidity corresponding to a relative humidity of less than 25 percent referenced to the standard conditions of 0°C and 760 torr pressure. The seeds and internal compartments of the MPX in contact with the growth media will be assembled and tested to be free of viable microbes. MPX, once assembled, cannot survive Dry Heat Microbial Reduction. The camera with the radiation and CO2 sensors will be sealed in their own container and vented through HEPA filters. The seeds will be vernalized (microbe free) as per current Space Station methods described by Paul et al. 2001. Documentation of the lack of viable microbes on representative seeds

  13. Emirates Mars Mission Planetary Protection Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awadhi, Mohsen Al

    2016-07-01

    The United Arab Emirates is planning to launch a spacecraft to Mars in 2020 as part of the Emirates Mars Mission (EMM). The EMM spacecraft, Amal, will arrive in early 2021 and enter orbit about Mars. Through a sequence of subsequent maneuvers, the spacecraft will enter a large science orbit and remain there throughout the primary mission. This paper describes the planetary protection plan for the EMM mission. The EMM science orbit, where Amal will conduct the majority of its operations, is very large compared to other Mars orbiters. The nominal orbit has a periapse altitude of 20,000 km, an apoapse altitude of 43,000 km, and an inclination of 25 degrees. From this vantage point, Amal will conduct a series of atmospheric investigations. Since Amal's orbit is very large, the planetary protection plan is to demonstrate a very low probability that the spacecraft will ever encounter Mars' surface or lower atmosphere during the mission. The EMM team has prepared methods to demonstrate that (1) the launch vehicle targets support a 0.01% probability of impacting Mars, or less, within 50 years; (2) the spacecraft has a 1% probability or less of impacting Mars during 20 years; and (3) the spacecraft has a 5% probability or less of impacting Mars during 50 years. The EMM mission design resembles the mission design of many previous missions, differing only in the specific parameters and final destination. The following sequence describes the mission: 1.The mission will launch in July, 2020. The launch includes a brief parking orbit and a direct injection to the interplanetary cruise. The launch targets are specified by the hyperbolic departure's energy C3, and the hyperbolic departure's direction in space, captured by the right ascension and declination of the launch asymptote, RLA and DLA, respectively. The targets of the launch vehicle are biased away from Mars such that there is a 0.01% probability or less that the launch vehicle arrives onto a trajectory that impacts Mars

  14. Temperature-time issues in bioburden control for planetary protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Benton C.

    2004-01-01

    Heat energy, administered in the form of an elevated temperature heat soak over a specific interval of time, is a well-known method for inactivating organisms. Sterilization protocols, from commercial pasteurization to laboratory autoclaving, specify both temperature and time, as well as water activity, for treatments to achieve either acceptable reduction of bioburden or complete sterilization. In practical applications of planetary protection, whether to reduce spore load in forward or roundtrip contamination, or to exterminate putative organisms in returned samples from bodies suspected of possible life, avoidance of expensive or potentially damaging treatments of hardware (or samples) could be accomplished if reciprocal relationships between time duration and soak temperature could be established. Conservative rules can be developed from consideration of empirical test data, derived relationships, current standards and various theoretical or proven mechanisms for thermal damage to biological systems.

  15. Rough spacecraft surfaces -a threat to Planetary Protection issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Alexander; Facius, Rainer; Wirth, Reinhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    Inadvertent introduction of terrestrial microorganisms to foreign solar bodies could compromise the integrity of present and future life detection missions. For Planetary Protection purposes space agencies measure the aerobic, mesophilic spore load of a spacecraft as a proxy indicator in order to determine its bioload. Emerging novel hardware in space science implicates novel surface structures and materials that need to be controlled with regard to contaminations. For instance (roughened) carbon fiber reinforced plastic and Vectran fabric for construction of landing platforms and airbags, respectively, have been used in some Mars exploration missions. These materials have different levels of roughness and their potential risk to retain spores for insufficient sampling success has never been in scope of investigation. In this comprehensive study we evaluated ESA's novel nylon flocked swab protocol on stainless steel and other tech-nical surfaces with regard to Bacillus spore recovery. Low recovery efficiencies of the ESA standard wipe assay for large surface sampling were demonstrated with regard to Bacillus at-rophaeus spore detection. Therefore another protocol designed for rough surface sampling was evaluated on Vectran fabric and (roughened) carbon fiber reinforced plastic. Moreover, scan-ning electron micrographs of the technical surfaces studied allowed a more detailed view on their properties. The evaluated sampling protocols and the corresponding results are of high interest for future life detection missions in order to preserve their scientific integrity throughout spacecraft assembly.

  16. Advances in Planetary Protection at the Deep Space Gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spry, J. A.; Siegel, B.; Race, M.; Rummel, J. D.; Pugel, D. E.; Groen, F. J.; Kminek, G.; Conley, C. A.; Carosso, N. J.

    2018-02-01

    Planetary protection knowledge gaps that can be addressed by science performed at the Deep Space Gateway in the areas of human health and performance, space biology, and planetary sciences that enable future exploration in deep space, at Mars, and other targets.

  17. Planetary protection issues and future Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devincenzi, D. L.; Klein, H. P.; Bagby, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    A primary scientific theme for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is the search for life, extant or extinct, on Mars. Because of this, concerns have arisen about Planetary Protection (PP), the prevention of biological cross-contamination between Earth and other planets during solar system exploration missions. A recent workshop assessed the necessity for, and impact of, PP requirements on the unmanned and human missions to Mars comprising the SEI. The following ground-rules were adopted: (1) Information needed for assessing PP issues must be obtained during the unmanned precursor mission phase prior to human landings. (2) Returned Mars samples will be considered biologically hazardous until proven otherwise. (3) Deposition of microbes on Mars and exposure of the crew to martian materials are inevitable when humans land. And (4) Human landings are unlikely until it is demonstrated that there is no harmful effect of martian materials on terrestrial life forms. These ground-rules dictated the development of a conservative PP strategy for precursor missions. Key features of the proposed strategy include: to prevent forward-contamination, all orbiters will follow Mars Observer PP procedures for assembly, trajectory, and lifetime. All landers will follow Viking PP procedures for assembly, microbial load reduction, and bio-shield. And, to prevent back-contamination, all sample return missions will have PP requirements which include fail-safe sample sealing, breaking contact chain with the martian surface, and containment and quarantine analysis in Earth-based laboratory. In addition to deliberating on scientific and technical issues, the workshop made several recommendations for dealing with forward and back-contamination concerns from non-scicntific perspectives.

  18. Revised planetary protection policy for solar system exploration.

    PubMed

    DeVincenzi, D L; Stabekis, P D

    1984-01-01

    In order to control contamination of planets by terrestrial microorganisms and organic constituents, U.S. planetary missions have been governed by a planetary protection (or planetary quarantine) policy which has changed little since 1972. This policy has recently been reviewed in light of new information obtained from planetary exploration during the past decade and because of changes to, or uncertainties in, some parameters used in the existing quantitative approach. On the basis of this analysis, a revised planetary protection policy with the following key features is proposed: deemphasizing the use of mathematical models and quantitative analyses; establishing requirements for target planet/mission type (i.e., orbiter, lander, etc.) combinations; considering sample return missions a separate category; simplifying documentation; and imposing implementing procedures (i.e., trajectory biasing, cleanroom assembly, spacecraft sterilization, etc.) by exception, i.e., only if the planet/mission combination warrants such controls.

  19. Report of the December 2009 Titan Planetary Protection workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, Francois; Rummel, John; Kminek, Gerhard; Conley, Catharine; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    The status of planning for space missions to explore the outer solar system has identified the need to define the proper planetary protection categories and implementation guidelines for outer planet satellites. A COSPAR planetary protection workshop was held in Vienna in April 2009 on that subject, and a consensus was found regarding the planetary protection status of many of these objects. However, it was determined that for the planetary protection categorization of Titan further data and studies were required, to conclude whether there is only a remote (Cat. II) or significant (Cat. III) chance that contamination carried by a spacecraft could jeopardize future exploration. The main issue to be resolved is the uncertainty surrounding the communication between the surface and the potentially liquid water in the subsurface with regard to (feasible) processes and associated time frames. It was thus decided to have a planetary protection workshop fully dedicated to the case of Titan, both to focus greater expertise on the subject and to make use of additional Cassini-Huygens mission data. A two days Titan Planetary Protection workshop was thus organized at Caltech, on December 9 and 10, 2009. The meeting was sponsored by NASA and ESA, with the participation of the COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection. It was attended by 25 participants. The goal of this workshop was to resolve the mission category for Titan (and Ganymede) and develop a consensus on the Category II (remote chance that contamination jeopardize future exploration) versus II+ /III (less remote or significant chance of contamination jeopardize future exploration) dichotomy, taking into account both the conservative nature of planetary protection policy and the physical constraints on the Titan and Ganymede systems. The outcome of this workshop will be presented and discussed during the PPP1 session of the COSPAR General Assembly meeting in Bremen. Note: all participants of the Titan PP workshop are

  20. Planetary Protection Considerations in EVA System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Kosmo, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    very little expression of these anomalies. hardware from the human-occupied area may limit (although not likely eliminate) external materials in the human habitat. Definition of design-to requirements is critical to understanding technical feasibility and costs. The definition of Planetary Protection needs in relation to EVA mission and system element development cost impacts should be considered and interpreted in terms of Plausible Protection criteria. Since EVA operations will have the most direct physical interaction with the Martian surface, PP needs should be considered in the terms of mitigating hardware and operations impacts and costs.

  1. Planetary Protection Considerations for Life Support and Habitation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Hogan, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Life support systems for future human missions beyond low Earth orbit may include a combination of existing hardware components and advanced technologies. Discipline areas for technology development include atmosphere revitalization, water recovery, solid waste management, crew accommodations, food production, thermal systems, environmental monitoring, fire protection and radiation protection. Life support systems will be influenced by in situ resource utilization (ISRU), crew mobility and the degree of extravehicular activity. Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that technology developers have generally not considered. Planetary protection guidelines will affect the kind of operations, processes, and functions that can take place during future exploration missions, including venting and discharge of liquids and solids, ejection of wastes, use of ISRU, requirements for cabin atmospheric trace contaminant concentrations, cabin leakage and restrictions on what materials, organisms, and technologies that may be brought on missions. Compliance with planetary protection requirements may drive development of new capabilities or processes (e.g. in situ sterilization, waste containment, contaminant measurement) and limit or prohibit certain kinds of operations or processes (e.g. unfiltered venting). Ultimately, there will be an effect on mission costs, including the mission trade space. Planetary protection requirements need to be considered early in technology development programs. It is expected that planetary protection will have a major impact on technology selection for future missions.

  2. Influence of Planetary Protection Guidelines on Waste Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, John A.; Fisher, John W.; Levri, Julie A.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Race, Margaret S.; Stabekis, Perry D.; Rummel, John D.

    2005-01-01

    Newly outlined missions in the Space Exploration Initiative include extended human habitation on Mars. During these missions, large amounts of waste materials will be generated in solid, liquid and gaseous form. Returning these wastes to Earth will be extremely costly, and will therefore likely remain on Mars. Untreated, these wastes are a reservoir of live/dead organisms and molecules considered to be "biomarkers" i.e., indicators of life). If released to the planetary surface, these materials can potentially confound exobiology experiments and disrupt Martian ecology indefinitely (if existent). Waste management systems must therefore be specifically designed to control release of problematic materials both during the active phase of the mission, and for any specified post-mission duration. To effectively develop waste management requirements for Mars missions, planetary protection guidelines must first be established. While previous policies for Apollo lunar missions exist, it is anticipated that the increased probability of finding evidence of life on Mars, as well as the lengthy mission durations will initially lead to more conservative planetary protection measures. To facilitate the development of overall requirements for both waste management and planetary protection for future missions, a workshop was conducted to identify how these two areas interface, and to establish a preliminary set of planetary protection guidelines that address waste management operations. This paper provides background regarding past and current planetary protection and waste management issues, and their interactions. A summary of the recommended planetary protection guidelines, anticipated ramifications and research needs for waste management system design for both forward (Mars) and backward (Earth) contamination is also provided.

  3. NASA's planetary protection program as an astrobiology teaching module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Vera M.

    2005-09-01

    We are currently developing a teaching module on the NASA's Planetary Protection Program for UW-Parkside SENCER courses. SENCER stands for Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibility. It is a national initiative of the National Science Foundation (NSF), now in its fifth year, to improve science education by teaching basic sciences through the complex public issues of the 21st century. The Planetary Protection Program is one such complex public issue. Teaching astrobiology and the NASA's goals via the Planetary Protection module within the SENCER courses seems to be a good formula to reach large number of students in an interesting and innovative way. We shall describe the module that we are developing. It will be launched on our web site titled "Astrobiology at Parkside" (http://oldweb.uwp.edu/academic/chemistry/kolb/organic_chemistry/, or go to Google and then to Vera Kolb Home Page), and thus will be available for teaching to all interested parties.

  4. Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions: Workshop Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S. (Editor); Johnson, James E. (Editor); Spry, James A. (Editor); Siegel, Bette; Conley, Catharine A.

    2015-01-01

    This report on Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions summarizes the presentations, deliberations and findings of a workshop at NASA Ames Research Center, March 24-26, 2015, which was attended by more than 100 participants representing a diverse mix of science, engineering, technology, and policy areas. The main objective of the three-day workshop was to identify specific knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to make incremental progress towards the development of NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for Planetary Protection during human missions to Mars.

  5. Developing Tools and Technologies to Meet MSR Planetary Protection Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the tools and technologies that need to be developed for a Caching Rover mission in order to meet the overall Planetary Protection requirements for future Mars Sample Return (MSR) campaign. This is the result of an eight-month study sponsored by the Mars Exploration Program Office. The goal of this study is to provide a future MSR project with a focused technology development plan for achieving the necessary planetary protection and sample integrity capabilities for a Mars Caching Rover mission.

  6. A proposed new policy for planetary protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barengoltz, J. B.; Bergstrom, S. L.; Hobby, G. L.; Stabekis, P. D.

    1981-01-01

    A critical review of the present policy was conducted with emphasis on its application to future planetary exploration. The probable impact of recent data on the implementation of the present policy was also assessed. The existing policy and its implementation were found to: be excessive for certain missions (e.g., Voyager), neglect the contamination hazard posed by the bulk constituent organics of spacecraft, be ambiguous for certain missions (e.g., Pioneer Venus), and treat all extraterrestrial sample return missions alike. The major features of the proposed policy are planet/mission combinations, a qualitative top level statement, and implementation by exception rather than rule. The concept of planet/mission categories permits the imposition of requirements according to both biological interest in the target planet and the relative contamination hazard of the mission type.

  7. Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration: A Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Rummel, J.D.; Horneck, G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract With the recognition of an increasing potential for discovery of extraterrestrial life, a diverse set of researchers have noted a need to examine the foundational ethical principles that should frame our collective space activities as we explore outer space. A COSPAR Workshop on Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration was convened at Princeton University on June 8–10, 2010, to examine whether planetary protection measures and practices should be extended to protect planetary environments within an ethical framework that goes beyond “science protection” per se. The workshop had been in development prior to a 2006 NRC report on preventing the forward contamination of Mars, although it responded directly to one of the recommendations of that report and to several peer-reviewed papers as well. The workshop focused on the implications and responsibilities engendered when exploring outer space while avoiding harmful impacts on planetary bodies. Over 3 days, workshop participants developed a set of recommendations addressing the need for a revised policy framework to address “harmful contamination” beyond biological contamination, noting that it is important to maintain the current COSPAR planetary protection policy for scientific exploration and activities. The attendees agreed that there is need for further study of the ethical considerations used on Earth and the examination of management options and governmental mechanisms useful for establishing an environmental stewardship framework that incorporates both scientific input and enforcement. Scientists need to undertake public dialogue to communicate widely about these future policy deliberations and to ensure public involvement in decision making. A number of incremental steps have been taken since the workshop to implement some of these recommendations. Key Words: Planetary protection—Extraterrestrial life—Life in extreme environments

  8. Precision Time Protocol-Based Trilateration for Planetary Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdock, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Progeny Systems Corporation has developed a high-fidelity, field-scalable, non-Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation system that offers precision localization over communications channels. The system is bidirectional, providing position information to both base and mobile units. It is the first-ever wireless use of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Precision Time Protocol (PTP) in a bidirectional trilateration navigation system. The innovation provides a precise and reliable navigation capability to support traverse-path planning systems and other mapping applications, and it establishes a core infrastructure for long-term lunar and planetary occupation. Mature technologies are integrated to provide navigation capability and to support data and voice communications on the same network. On Earth, the innovation is particularly well suited for use in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), as it offers a non-GPS precision navigation and location service for use in GPS-denied environments. Its bidirectional capability provides real-time location data to the UAV operator and to the UAV. This approach optimizes assisted GPS techniques and can be used to determine the presence of GPS degradation, spoofing, or jamming.

  9. Planetary Protection: Two Relevant Terrestrial Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyba, C.

    2002-09-01

    Concerns about potential pathogens in returned samples from Mars ("Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations", National Research Council, 1997) or planetary satellites ("Evaluating the Biological Potential in Samples Returned from Planetary Satellites and Small Solar System Bodies", National Research Council, 1998) focus on two potential types of pathogenesis, toxic and infectious. The National Research Council reports cited above state that the chances of extraterrestrial organisms proving either toxic or infectious to humans are extremely low, but cannot be entirely ruled out. Here I discuss recently discovered terrestrial examples relevant to each possibility, in order to make these concerns concrete. The first example concerns the production of hepatotoxins (toxins affecting the liver) and neurotoxins by cyanobacteria in glacial lakes on alpine pastures in Switzerland. In this example, mat-forming benthic cyanobacteria are implicated in a hundred cattle poisonings that have been reported from alpine pasteurs in southeastern Switzerland over the past twenty-five years (e.g. K. Mez et al, Hydrobiologia 368, 1-15 (1998)). It is unlikely that these cyanobacteria evolved the toxins in response to dairy cows; rather the susceptibility of cattle to these toxins seems simply to be an unfortunate coincidence of a toxin working across a large evolutionary distance. The second example concerns the recent demonstration that the decimation of shallow-water Caribbean elkhorn coral is due to infection by a common fecal enterobacterium associated with the human gut (K. L. Patterson et al., PNAS 99, 8725-8730 (2002)). The bacterium, Serratia marcenscens, is also a free-living microbe in water and soil, as well as an opportunistic pathogen in a variety of animal species. The distance between humans and corals emphasizes the possibility that certain organisms may prove pathogenic across a wide evolutionary divide. Of course, in neither of these cases are the evolutionary

  10. Report on the 2015 COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection Colloquium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipkin, Victoria; Kminek, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    In consultation with the COSPAR Scientific Commissions B (Space Studies of the Earth-Moon System, Planets, and Small Bodies of the Solar System) and F (Life Sciences as Related to Space), the COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection organised a colloquium at the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern, Switzerland, in September 2015, to cover two pertinent topics: * Icy moon sample return planetary protection requirements * Mars Special Regions planetary protection requirements These two topics were addressed in two separate sessions. Participation from European, North American and Japanese scientists reflected broad expertise from the respective COSPAR Commissions, recent NASA MEPAG Science Analysis Group and National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine/European Science Foundation Mars Special Regions Review Committee. The recommendations described in this report are based on discussions that took place during the course of the colloquium and reflect a consensus of the colloquium participants that participated in the two separate sessions. These recommendations are brought to the 2016 COSPAR Scientific Assembly for further input and discussion as part of the recognised process for updating COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy.

  11. Overview of the 2008 COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, John

    In January 2008 the COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection held a Policy Workshop in Montŕal, Canada to consider a number of recommendations that had been suggested at prior e Panel business meetings for updating and clarifying the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy that had been adopted at the World Space Congress in 2002. One particular element of the Policy that was due for clarification was the definition of "Special Regions" on Mars, which was discussed by the Panel at a Special Regions Colloquium in Rome in September 2008, and which was recommended for updating by both the US National Research Council's Committee on Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars and by a Special Regions Science Analysis Group organized by NASA under its Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group in 2006. In other business, the Workshop also discussed and adopted wording to reflect the planetary protection considerations associated with future human missions to Mars (subsequent to several NASA and ESA workshops defining those), and addressed the planetary protection categorizations of both Venus and the Earth's Moon. The Workshop also defined a plan to move forward on the categorization of Outer Planet Satellites (to be done in conjunction with SC's B and F), and revised certain portions of the wording of the 1983 version of the COSPAR policy statement, emphasized full participation by all national members in planetary protection decisions and the need to study the ethical considerations of space exploration, and provided for a traceable version of the policy to be assembled and maintained by the Panel. This talk will review the Montŕal Workshop, and use its themes to introduce the remaining speakers in the session. e

  12. Ethical considerations for planetary protection in space exploration: a workshop.

    PubMed

    Rummel, J D; Race, M S; Horneck, G

    2012-11-01

    With the recognition of an increasing potential for discovery of extraterrestrial life, a diverse set of researchers have noted a need to examine the foundational ethical principles that should frame our collective space activities as we explore outer space. A COSPAR Workshop on Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration was convened at Princeton University on June 8-10, 2010, to examine whether planetary protection measures and practices should be extended to protect planetary environments within an ethical framework that goes beyond "science protection" per se. The workshop had been in development prior to a 2006 NRC report on preventing the forward contamination of Mars, although it responded directly to one of the recommendations of that report and to several peer-reviewed papers as well. The workshop focused on the implications and responsibilities engendered when exploring outer space while avoiding harmful impacts on planetary bodies. Over 3 days, workshop participants developed a set of recommendations addressing the need for a revised policy framework to address "harmful contamination" beyond biological contamination, noting that it is important to maintain the current COSPAR planetary protection policy for scientific exploration and activities. The attendees agreed that there is need for further study of the ethical considerations used on Earth and the examination of management options and governmental mechanisms useful for establishing an environmental stewardship framework that incorporates both scientific input and enforcement. Scientists need to undertake public dialogue to communicate widely about these future policy deliberations and to ensure public involvement in decision making. A number of incremental steps have been taken since the workshop to implement some of these recommendations.

  13. Low-latency teleoperations, planetary protection, and astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupisella, Mark L.

    2018-07-01

    The remote operation of an asset with time-delays short enough to allow for `real-time' or near real-time control - often referred to as low-latency teleoperations (LLT) - has important potential to address planetary protection concerns and to enhance astrobiology exploration. Not only can LLT assist with the search for extraterrestrial life and help mitigate planetary protection concerns as required by international treaty, but it can also aid in the real-time exploration of hazardous areas, robotically manipulate samples in real-time, and engage in precise measurements and experiments without the presence of crew in the immediate area. Furthermore, LLT can be particularly effective for studying `Special Regions' - areas of astrobiological interest that might be adversely affected by forward contamination from humans or spacecraft contaminants during activities on Mars. LLT can also aid human exploration by addressing concerns about backward contamination that could impact mission details for returning Martian samples and crew back to Earth.This paper provides an overview of LLT operational considerations and findings from recent NASA analyses and workshops related to planetary protection and human missions beyond Earth orbit. The paper focuses primarily on three interrelated areas of Mars operations that are particularly relevant to the planetary protection and the search for life: Mars orbit-to-surface LLT activities; Crew-on-surface and drilling LLT; and Mars surface science laboratory LLT. The paper also discusses several additional mission implementation considerations and closes with information on key knowledge gaps identified as necessary for the advance of LLT for planetary protection and astrobiology purposes on future human missions to Mars.

  14. Planetary protection issues in advance of human exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Davis, Wanda L.

    1989-01-01

    The major planetary quarantine issues associated with human exploration of Mars, which is viewed as being more likely to harbor indigenous life than is the moon, are discussed. Special attention is given to the environmental impact of human missions to Mars due to contamination and mechanical disturbances of the local environment, the contamination issues associated with the return of humans, and the planetary quarantine strategy for a human base. It is emphasized that, in addition to the question of indigenous life, there may be some concern of returning to earth the earth microorganisms that have spent some time in the Martian environment. It is suggested that, due to the fact that a robot system can be subjected to more stringent controls and protective treatments than a mission involving humans, a robotic sample return mission can help to eliminate many planetary-quarantine concerns about returning samples.

  15. 77 FR 71641 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (12-104)] NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration... Planetary Protection Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This Subcommittee reports to the...

  16. Planetary protection implementation on future Mars lander missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Robert; Devincenzi, Donald L.

    1993-06-01

    A workshop was convened to discuss the subject of planetary protection implementation for Mars lander missions. It was sponsored and organized by the Exobiology Implementation Team of the U.S./Russian Joint Working Group on Space Biomedical and Life Support Systems. The objective of the workshop was to discuss planetary protection issues for the Russian Mars '94 mission, which is currently under development, as well as for additional future Mars lander missions including the planned Mars '96 and U.S. MESUR Pathfinder and Network missions. A series of invited presentations was made to ensure that workshop participants had access to information relevant to the planned discussions. The topics summarized in this report include exobiology science objectives for Mars exploration, current international policy on planetary protection, planetary protection requirements developed for earlier missions, mission plans and designs for future U.S. and Russian Mars landers, biological contamination of spacecraft components, and techniques for spacecraft bioload reduction. In addition, the recent recommendations of the U.S. Space Studies Board (SSB) on this subject were also summarized. Much of the discussion focused on the recommendations of the SSB. The SSB proposed relaxing the planetary protection requirements for those Mars lander missions that do not contain life detection experiments, but maintaining Viking-like requirements for those missions that do contain life detection experiments. The SSB recommendations were found to be acceptable as a guide for future missions, although many questions and concerns about interpretation were raised and are summarized. Significant among the concerns was the need for more quantitative guidelines to prevent misinterpretation by project offices and better access to and use of the Viking data base of bio-assays to specify microbial burden targets. Among the questions raised were how will the SSB recommendations be integrated with existing

  17. Planetary protection implementation on future Mars lander missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Robert; Devincenzi, Donald L.

    1993-01-01

    A workshop was convened to discuss the subject of planetary protection implementation for Mars lander missions. It was sponsored and organized by the Exobiology Implementation Team of the U.S./Russian Joint Working Group on Space Biomedical and Life Support Systems. The objective of the workshop was to discuss planetary protection issues for the Russian Mars '94 mission, which is currently under development, as well as for additional future Mars lander missions including the planned Mars '96 and U.S. MESUR Pathfinder and Network missions. A series of invited presentations was made to ensure that workshop participants had access to information relevant to the planned discussions. The topics summarized in this report include exobiology science objectives for Mars exploration, current international policy on planetary protection, planetary protection requirements developed for earlier missions, mission plans and designs for future U.S. and Russian Mars landers, biological contamination of spacecraft components, and techniques for spacecraft bioload reduction. In addition, the recent recommendations of the U.S. Space Studies Board (SSB) on this subject were also summarized. Much of the discussion focused on the recommendations of the SSB. The SSB proposed relaxing the planetary protection requirements for those Mars lander missions that do not contain life detection experiments, but maintaining Viking-like requirements for those missions that do contain life detection experiments. The SSB recommendations were found to be acceptable as a guide for future missions, although many questions and concerns about interpretation were raised and are summarized. Significant among the concerns was the need for more quantitative guidelines to prevent misinterpretation by project offices and better access to and use of the Viking data base of bioassays to specify microbial burden targets. Among the questions raised were how will the SSB recommendations be integrated with existing

  18. Implementing planetary protection requirements for sample return missions.

    PubMed

    Rummel, J D

    2000-01-01

    NASA is committed to exploring space while avoiding the biological contamination of other solar system bodies and protecting the Earth against potential harm from materials returned from space. NASA's planetary protection program evaluates missions (with external advice from the US National Research Council and others) and imposes particular constraints on individual missions to achieve these objectives. In 1997 the National Research Council's Space Studies Board published the report, Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations, which reported advice to NASA on Mars sample return missions, complementing their 1992 report, The Biological Contamination of Mars Issues and Recommendations. Meanwhile, NASA has requested a new Space Studies Board study to address sample returns from bodies other than Mars. This study recognizes the variety of worlds that have been opened up to NASA and its partners by small, relatively inexpensive, missions of the Discovery class, as well as the reshaping of our ideas about life in the solar system that have been occasioned by the Galileo spacecraft's discovery that an ocean under the ice on Jupiter's moon Europa might, indeed, exist. This paper will report on NASA's planned implementation of planetary protection provisions based on these recent National Research Council recommendations, and will suggest measures for incorporation in the planetary protection policy of COSPAR. c2001 COSPAR Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Investments by NASA to build planetary protection capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxbaum, Karen; Conley, Catharine; Lin, Ying; Hayati, Samad

    NASA continues to invest in capabilities that will enable or enhance planetary protection planning and implementation for future missions. These investments are critical to the Mars Exploration Program and will be increasingly important as missions are planned for exploration of the outer planets and their icy moons. Since the last COSPAR Congress, there has been an opportunity to respond to the advice of NRC-PREVCOM and the analysis of the MEPAG Special Regions Science Analysis Group. This stimulated research into such things as expanded bioburden reduction options, modern molecular assays and genetic inventory capability, and approaches to understand or avoid recontamination of spacecraft parts and samples. Within NASA, a portfolio of PP research efforts has been supported through the NASA Office of Planetary Protection, the Mars Technology Program, and the Mars Program Office. The investment strategy focuses on technology investments designed to enable future missions and reduce their costs. In this presentation we will provide an update on research and development supported by NASA to enhance planetary protection capability. Copyright 2008 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  20. Mars Soil-Based Resource Processing and Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, G. B.; Mueller, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to extract and process resources at the site of exploration into products and services, commonly referred to as In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), can have significant benefits for robotic and human exploration missions. In particular, the ability to use in situ resources to make propellants, fuel cell reactants, and life support consumables has been shown in studies to significantly reduce mission mass, cost, and risk, while enhancing or enabling missions not possible without the incorporation of ISRU. In December 2007, NASA completed the Mars Human Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study. For the first time in a large scale Mars architecture study, water from Mars soil was considered as a potential resource. At the time of the study, knowledge of water resources (their form, concentration, and distribution) was extremely limited. Also, due to lack of understanding of how to apply planetary protection rules and requirements to ISRU soil-based excavation and processing, an extremely conservative approach was incorporated where only the top several centimeters of ultraviolet (UV) radiated soil could be processed (assumed to be 3% water by mass). While results of the Mars DRA 5.0 study showed that combining atmosphere processing to make oxygen and methane with soil processing to extract water provided the lowest mission mass, atmosphere processing to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) into oxygen was baselined for the mission since it was the lowest power and risk option. With increased knowledge and further clarification of Mars planetary protection rules, and the recent release of the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) report on "Special Regions and the Human Exploration of Mars", it is time to reexamine potential water resources on Mars, options for soil processing to extract water, and the implications with respect to planetary protection and Special Regions on Mars.

  1. Synergistic approach of asteroid exploitation and planetary protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, J. P.; McInnes, C. R.

    2012-02-01

    The asteroid and cometary impact hazard has long been recognised as an important issue requiring risk assessment and contingency planning. At the same time asteroids have also been acknowledged as possible sources of raw materials for future large-scale space engineering ventures. This paper explores possible synergies between these two apparently opposed views; planetary protection and space resource exploitation. In particular, the paper assumes a 5 tonne low-thrust spacecraft as a baseline for asteroid deflection and capture (or resource transport) missions. The system is assumed to land on the asteroid and provide a continuous thrust able to modify the orbit of the asteroid according to the mission objective. The paper analyses the capability of such a near-term system to provide both planetary protection and asteroid resources to Earth. Results show that a 5 tonne spacecraft could provide a high level of protection for modest impact hazards: airburst and local damage events (caused by 15-170 m diameter objects). At the same time, the same spacecraft could also be used to transport to bound Earth orbits significant quantities of material through judicious use of orbital dynamics and passively safe aero-capture manoeuvres or low energy ballistic capture. As will be shown, a 5 tonne low-thrust spacecraft could potentially transport between 12 and 350 times its own mass of asteroid resources by means of ballistic capture or aero-capture trajectories that pose very low dynamical pressures on the object.

  2. Planetary protection program for Mars 94/96 mission.

    PubMed

    Rogovski, G; Bogomolov, V; Ivanov, M; Runavot, J; Debus, A; Victorov, A; Darbord, J C

    1996-01-01

    Mars surface in-situ exploration started in 1975 with the American VIKING mission. Two probes landed on the northern hemisphere and provided, for the first time, detailed information on the martian terrain, atmosphere and meteorology. The current goal is to undertake larger surface investigations and many projects are being planned by the major Space Agencies with this objective. Among these projects, the Mars 94/96 mission will make a major contributor toward generating significant information about the martian surface on a large scale. Since the beginning of the Solar System exploration, planets where life could exist have been subject to planetary protection requirements. Those requirements accord with the COSPAR Policy and have two main goals: the protection of the planetary environment from influence or contamination by terrestrial microorganisms, the protection of life science, and particularly of life detection experiments searching extra-terrestrial life, and not life carried by probes and spacecrafts. As the conditions for life and survival for terrestrial microorganisms in the Mars environment became known, COSPAR recommendations were updated. This paper will describe the decontamination requirements which will be applied for the MARS 94/96 mission, the techniques and the procedures which are and will be used to realize and control the decontamination of probes and spacecrafts.

  3. Exposing Microorganisms in the Stratosphere for Planetary Protection Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David J. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Earths stratosphere is similar to the surface of Mars: rarified air which is dry, cold, and irradiated. E-MIST is a balloon payload that has 4 independently rotating skewers that hold known quantities of spore-forming bacteria isolated from spacecraft assembly facilities at NASA. Knowing the survival profile of microbes in the stratosphere can uniquely contribute to NASA Planetary Protection for Mars.Objectives 1. Collect environmental data in the stratosphere to understand factors impacting microbial survival. 2. Determine of surviving microbes (compared to starting quantities). 3. Examine microbial DNA mutations induced by stratosphere exposure.

  4. Revision to Planetary Protection Policy for Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVincenzi, D. L.; Stabekis, P.; Barengoltz, J.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Under existing COSPAR policy adopted in 1984, missions to Mars (landers, probes, and some orbiters) are designated as Category IV missions. As such, the procedures for implementing planetary protection requirements could include trajectory biasing, cleanrooms, bioload reduction, sterilization of hardware, and bioshields, i. e. requirements could be similar to Viking. However, in 1992, a U. S. National Academy of Sciences study recommended that controls on forward contamination of Mars be tied to specific mission objectives. The report recommended that Mars landers with life detection instruments be subject to at least Viking-level sterilization procedures for bioload reduction, while spacecraft (including orbiters) without life detection instruments be subject to at least Viking-level pre sterilization procedures for bioload reduction but need not be sterilized. In light of this, it is proposed that the current policy's Category IV missions and their planetary protection requirements be divided into two subcategories as follows: Category IV A, for missions comprising landers and probes without life detection experiments and some orbiters, which will meet a specified bioburden limit for exposed surfaces; Category IV B, for landers and probes with life detection experiments, which will require complete system sterilization. For Category IV A missions, bioburden specifications will be proposed and implementing procedures discussed. A resolution will be proposed to modify the existing COSPAR policy to reflect these changes. Similar specifications, procedures, and resolution for Category IV B missions will be the subject of a later study.

  5. Planetary Protection Issues in the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, Marvin E.; Race, M. S.; Rummel, J. D.; Baker, A.

    2005-01-01

    This workshop report, long delayed, is the first 21st century contribution to what will likely be a series of reports examining the effects of human exploration on the overall scientific study of Mars. The considerations of human-associated microbial contamination were last studied in a 1990 workshop ("Planetary Protection Issues and Future Mars Missions," NASA CP-10086, 1991), but the timing of that workshop allowed neither a careful examination of the full range of issues, nor an appreciation for the Mars that has been revealed by the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Pathfinder missions. Future workshops will also have the advantage of Mars Odyssey, the Mars Exploration Rover missions, and ESA's Mars Express, but the Pingree Park workshop reported here had both the NCR's (1992) concern that "Missions carrying humans to Mars will contaminate the planet" and over a decade of careful study of human exploration objectives to guide them and to reconcile. A daunting challenge, and one that is not going to be simple (as the working title of this meeting, "When Ecologies Collide?" might suggest), it is clear that the planetary protection issues will have to be addressed to enable human explorers to safely and competently extend out knowledge about Mars, and its potential as a home for life whether martian or human.

  6. Implementing planetary protection measures on the Mars Science Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Benardini, James N; La Duc, Myron T; Beaudet, Robert A; Koukol, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), comprising a cruise stage; an aeroshell; an entry, descent, and landing system; and the radioisotope thermoelectric generator-powered Curiosity rover, made history with its unprecedented sky crane landing on Mars on August 6, 2012. The mission's primary science objective has been to explore the area surrounding Gale Crater and assess its habitability for past life. Because microbial contamination could profoundly impact the integrity of the mission and compliance with international treaty was required, planetary protection measures were implemented on MSL hardware to verify that bioburden levels complied with NASA regulations. By applying the proper antimicrobial countermeasures throughout all phases of assembly, the total bacterial endospore burden of MSL at the time of launch was kept to 2.78×10⁵ spores, well within the required specification of less than 5.0×10⁵ spores. The total spore burden of the exposed surfaces of the landed MSL hardware was 5.64×10⁴, well below the allowed limit of 3.0×10⁵ spores. At the time of launch, the MSL spacecraft was burdened with an average of 22 spores/m², which included both planned landed and planned impacted hardware. Here, we report the results of a campaign to implement and verify planetary protection measures on the MSL flight system.

  7. Refinement of planetary protection policy for Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVincenzi, D. L.; Stabekis, P.; Barengoltz, J.

    1996-01-01

    Under existing COSPAR policy adopted in 1984, missions to Mars (landers, probes, and some orbiters) are designated as Category IV missions. As such, the procedures for implementing planetary protection requirements could include trajectory biasing, cleanrooms, bioload reduction, sterilization of hardware, and bioshields. In 1992, a U.S. National Research Council study recommended that controls on forward contamination of Mars be tied to specific mission objectives. The report recommended that Mars landers with life detection instruments be subject to at least Viking-level sterilization procedures for bioload reduction, while spacecraft (including orbiters) without life detection instruments be subject to at least Viking-level pre-sterilization procedures for bioload reduction but need not be sterilized. In light of this, it is proposed that the current policy's Category IV and its planetary protection requirements be divided into two sub-categories as follows: Category IVa, for missions comprising landers and probes without life detection experiments, which will meet a specified bioburden limit for exposed surfaces, and Category IVb, for landers and probes with life detection experiments, which will require sterilization of landed systems. In addition, Category III orbiter mission specifications are expanded to be consistent with these recommendations.

  8. Planetary Protection Issues in the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criswell, Marvin E.; Race, M. S.; Rummel, J. D.; Baker, A.

    2005-06-01

    This workshop report, long delayed, is the first 21st century contribution to what will likely be a series of reports examining the effects of human exploration on the overall scientific study of Mars. The considerations of human-associated microbial contamination were last studied in a 1990 workshop ("Planetary Protection Issues and Future Mars Missions," NASA CP-10086, 1991), but the timing of that workshop allowed neither a careful examination of the full range of issues, nor an appreciation for the Mars that has been revealed by the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Pathfinder missions. Future workshops will also have the advantage of Mars Odyssey, the Mars Exploration Rover missions, and ESA's Mars Express, but the Pingree Park workshop reported here had both the NCR's (1992) concern that "Missions carrying humans to Mars will contaminate the planet" and over a decade of careful study of human exploration objectives to guide them and to reconcile. A daunting challenge, and one that is not going to be simple (as the working title of this meeting, "When Ecologies Collide?" might suggest), it is clear that the planetary protection issues will have to be addressed to enable human explorers to safely and competently extend out knowledge about Mars, and its potential as a home for life whether martian or human.

  9. Enviromnental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Missions - Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Lange, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Planetary protection guidelines will affect the kind of operations, processes, and functions that can take place during future human planetary exploration missions. Ultimately, there will be an effect on mission costs, including the mission trade space when planetary protection requirements begin to drive vehicle deisgn in a concrete way. Planetary protection requirements need to be considered early in technology development and mission programs in order to estimate these impacts and push back on requirements or find efficient ways to perform necessary functions. It is expected that planetary protection will be a significant factor during technology selection and system architecture design for future missions.

  10. COSPAR Workshop on Planetary Protection for Titan and Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, J. D.; Raulin, F.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2010-06-01

    During the deliberations of the COSPAR Workshop on Planetary Protection for Outer Planet Satellites and Small Solar System Bodies (Rummel et al., 2009), held in Vienna in April 2009, a number of bodies in the outer Solar System were identified as being potentially in the "II+" category consistent with the COSPAR categorization scheme, referring to a body that is of interest to chemical evolution and the origin of life, but whose potential to support living organisms is undecided, including at least Titan, Ganymede, Triton, and the Pluto-Charon system (see Appendix C). Of these objects, Titan is the highest priority target for a near-term robotic flagship mission and Ganymede is also the subject of flagship mission interest. To address the concerns that were raised in Vienna about the categorization of Titan and Ganymede (as "II+") required another dedicated workshop to concentrate on those two bodies, a meeting was planned and held jointly by NASA, ESA, and COSPAR during the winter of 2009- 2010. This workshop included additional experts on Titan and Ganymede who were not able to participate in the Vienna meeting, and allowed the attendees to inspect detailed information about the most recent Cassini-Huygens results as well as the most current interpretation of the data available for both Titan and Ganymede. The goal of this workshop was to resolve the mission category for Titan and Ganymede and to develop a consensus on the II versus II+ dichotomy, taking into account both the conservative nature of planetary protection policy and the physical constraints on the Titan system and on Ganymede - the two largest moons in our solar system. This report summarizes the findings and recommendations from the workshop. The document will be distributed to the COSPAR Planetary Protection panel for consideration prior to the next General Assembly meeting in Bremen (Germany) during July 2010. Results from the Titan/Ganymede study will also be coordinated in a larger evaluation

  11. Planetary protection implementation on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barengoltz, J.; Witte, J.

    2008-09-01

    In August 2005 NASA launched a large orbiting science observatory, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), for what is scheduled to be a 5.4-year mission. High resolution imaging of the surface is a principal goal of the mission. One consequence of this goal however is the need for a low science orbit. Unfortunately this orbit fails the required 20-year orbit life set in NASA Planetary Protection (PP) requirements [NASA. Planetary protection provisions for robotic extraterrestrial missions, NASA procedural requirements NPR 8020.12C, NASA HQ, Washington, DC, April 2005.]. So rather than sacrifice the science goals of the mission by raising the science orbit, the MRO Project chose to be the first orbiter to pursue the bio-burden reduction approach. Cleaning alone for a large orbiter like MRO is insufficient to achieve the bio-burden threshold requirement in NASA PP requirements. The burden requirement for an orbiter includes spores encapsulated in non-metallic materials and trapped in joints, as well as located on all internal and external surfaces (the total spore burden). Total burden estimates are dominated by the mated and encapsulated burden. The encapsulated burden cannot be cleaned. The total burden of a smaller orbiter (e.g., Mars Odyssey) likely could not have met the requirement by cleaning; for the large MRO it is clearly impossible. Of course, a system-level partial sterilization, with its attendant costs and system design issues, could have been employed. In the approach taken by the MRO Project, hardware which will burn up (completely vaporize or ablate) before reaching the surface or will at least attain high temperature (500 °C for 0.5 s or more) due to entry heating was exempt from burden accounting. Thus the bio-burden estimate was reduced. Lockheed Martin engineers developed a process to perform what is called breakup and burn-up (B&B) analysis.Lockheed Martin Corporation.2 The use of the B&B analysis to comply with the spore burden requirement is

  12. Planetary Protection for future missions to Europa and other icy moons: the more things change...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, C. A.; Race, M.

    2007-12-01

    NASA maintains a planetary protection policy regarding contamination of extraterrestrial bodies by terrestrial microorganisms and organic compounds, and sets limits intended to minimize or prevent contamination resulting from spaceflight missions. Europa continues to be a high priority target for astrobiological investigations, and other icy moons of the outer planets are becoming increasingly interesting as data are returned from current missions. In 2000, a study was released by the NRC that provided recommendations on preventing the forward contamination of Europa. This study addressed a number of issues, including cleaning and sterilization requirements, the applicability of protocols derived from Viking and other missions to Mars, and the need to supplement spore based culture methods in assessing spacecraft bioload. The committee also identified a number of future studies that would improve knowledge of Europa and better define issues related to forward contamination of that body. The standard recommended by the 2000 study and adopted by NASA uses a probabilistic approach, such that spacecraft sent to Europa must demonstrate a probability less than 10-4 per mission of contaminating an europan ocean with one viable terrestrial organism. A number of factors enter into the equation for calculating this probability, including at least bioload at launch, probability of survival during flight, probability of reaching the surface of Europa, and probability of reaching an europan ocean. Recently, the NASA Planetary Protection Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council has recommended that the probabilistic approach recommended for Europa be applied to all outer planet icy moons, until another NRC study can be convened to reevaluate the issues in light of recent data. This presentation will discuss the status of current and anticipated planetary protection considerations for missions to Europa and other icy moons.

  13. Backward Planetary Protection Issues and Possible Solutions for Icy Plume Sample Return Missions from Astrobiological Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Hajime; McKay, Christopher P.; Anbar, Ariel; Tsou, Peter

    The recent report of possible water vapor plumes at Europa and Ceres, together with the well-known Enceladus plume containing water vapor, salt, ammonia, and organic molecules, suggests that sample return missions could evolve into a generic approach for outer Solar System exploration in the near future, especially for the benefit of astrobiology research. Sampling such plumes can be accomplished via fly-through mission designs, modeled after the successful Stardust mission to capture and return material from Comet Wild-2 and multiple, precise trajectory controls of the Cassini mission to fly through Enceladus’ plume. The proposed LIFE (Life Investigation For Enceladus) mission to Enceladus, which would sample organic molecules from the plume of that apparently habitable world, provides one example of the appealing scientific return of such missions. Beyond plumes, the upper atmosphere of Titan could also be sampled in this manner. The SCIM mission to Mars, also inspired by Stardust, would sample and return aerosol dust in the upper atmosphere of Mars and thus extends this concept even to other planetary bodies. Such missions share common design needs. In particular, they require large exposed sampler areas (or sampler arrays) that can be contained to the standards called for by international planetary protection protocols that COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy (PPP) recommends. Containment is also needed because these missions are driven by astrobiologically relevant science - including interest in organic molecules - which argues against heat sterilization that could destroy scientific value of samples. Sample containment is a daunting engineering challenge. Containment systems must be carefully designed to appropriate levels to satisfy the two top requirements: planetary protection policy and the preserving the scientific value of samples. Planning for Mars sample return tends to center on a hermetic seal specification (i.e., gas-tight against helium escape

  14. Design Tools for Cost-Effective Implementation of Planetary Protection Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Louise; Belz, Andrea; Evans, Michael; Kastner, Jason; Satter, Celeste; Spry, Andy

    2006-01-01

    Since the Viking missions to Mars in the 1970s, accounting for the costs associated with planetary protection implementation has not been done systematically during early project formulation phases, leading to unanticipated costs during subsequent implementation phases of flight projects. The simultaneous development of more stringent planetary protection requirements, resulting from new knowledge about the limits of life on Earth, together with current plans to conduct life-detection experiments on a number of different solar system target bodies motivates a systematic approach to integrating planetary protection requirements and mission design. A current development effort at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is aimed at integrating planetary protection requirements more fully into the early phases of mission architecture formulation and at developing tools to more rigorously predict associated cost and schedule impacts of architecture options chosen to meet planetary protection requirements.

  15. Planetary protection issues and human exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devincenzi, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    A key feature of the Space Exploration Initiative involves human missions to Mars. The report describing the initiative cites the search for life on Mars, extant or extinct, as one of the five science themes for such an endeavor. Because of this, concerns for planetary protection (PP) have arisen of two fronts: (1) forward contamination of Mars by spacecraft-borne terrestrial microbes which could interfere with exobiological analyses; and (2) back contamination of Earth by species that may be present in returned Mars samples. The United States is also signatory to an international treaty designed to protect Earth and planets from harmful cross-contamination during exploration. Therefore, it is timely to assess the necessity for, and impact of, PP procedures on the mission set comprising the human exploration of Mars. The ground-rules adopted at a recent workshop which addressed PP questions of this type are presented. In addition, the workshop produced several recommendations for dealing with forward and back contamination concerns for non-scientific perspectives, including public relations, legal, regulatory, international, and environmental.

  16. Planetary Protection for LIFE-Sample Return from Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, Peter; Yano, Hajime; Takano, Yoshinori; McKay, David; Takai, Ken; Anbar, Ariel; Baross, J.

    Introduction: We are seeking a balanced approach to returning Enceladus plume samples to state-of-the-art terrestrial laboratories to search for signs of life. NASA, ESA, JAXA and other space agencies are seeking habitable worlds and life beyond Earth. Enceladus, an icy moon of Saturn, is the first known body in the Solar System besides Earth to emit liquid water from its interior. Enceladus is the most accessible body in our Solar System for a low cost flyby sample return mission to capture aqueous based samples, to determine its state of life development, and shed light on how life can originate on wet planets/moons. LIFE combines the unique capabilities of teams of international exploration expertise. These returned Enceladus plume samples will determine if this habitable body is in fact inhabited [McKay et al, 2014]. This paper describes an approach for the LIFE mission to capture and return samples from Enceladus while meeting NASA and COSPAR planetary protection requirements. Forward planetary protection requirements for spacecraft missions to icy solar system bodies have been defined, however planetary protection requirements specific to an Earth return of samples collected from Enceladus or other Outer Planet Icy Moons, have yet to be defined. Background: From the first half century of space exploration, we have returned samples only from the Moon, comet Wild 2, the Solar Wind and the asteroid Itokawa. The in-depth analyses of these samples in terrestrial laboratories have yielded detailed chemical information that could not have been obtained otherwise. While obtaining samples from Solar System bodies is trans-formative science, it is rarely performed due to cost and complexity. The discovery by Cassini of geysers on Enceladus and organic materials in the ejected plume indicates that there is an exceptional opportunity and strong scientific rationale for LIFE. The earliest low-cost possible flight opportunity is the next Discovery Mission [Tsou et al 2012

  17. Planetary health: protecting human health on a rapidly changing planet.

    PubMed

    Myers, Samuel S

    2018-12-23

    The impact of human activities on our planet's natural systems has been intensifying rapidly in the past several decades, leading to disruption and transformation of most natural systems. These disruptions in the atmosphere, oceans, and across the terrestrial land surface are not only driving species to extinction, they pose serious threats to human health and wellbeing. Characterising and addressing these threats requires a paradigm shift. In a lecture delivered to the Academy of Medical Sciences on Nov 13, 2017, I describe the scale of human impacts on natural systems and the extensive associated health effects across nearly every dimension of human health. I highlight several overarching themes that emerge from planetary health and suggest advances in the way we train, reward, promote, and fund the generation of health scientists who will be tasked with breaking out of their disciplinary silos to address this urgent constellation of health threats. I propose that protecting the health of future generations requires taking better care of Earth's natural systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reassessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David; Race, Margaret; Farmer, Jack

    In 2008, NASA asked the US National Research Council (NRC) to review the findings of the report, Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations (National Academy Press, 1997), and to update its recommendations in the light of both current understanding of Mars's biolog-ical potential and ongoing improvements in biological, chemical, and physical sample-analysis capabilities and technologies. The committee established to address this request was tasked to pay particular attention to five topics. First, the likelihood that living entities may be included in samples returned from Mars. Second, scientific investigations that should be conducted to reduce uncertainty in the assessment of Mars' biological potential. Third, the possibility of large-scale effects on Earth's environment if any returned entity is released into the environment. Fourth, the status of technological measures that could be taken on a mission to prevent the inadvertent release of a returned sample into Earth's biosphere. Fifth, criteria for intentional sample release, taking note of current and anticipated regulatory frameworks. The paper outlines the recommendations contained in the committee's final report, Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions (The National Academies Press, 2009), with particular emphasis placed on the scientific, technical and policy changes since 1997 and indications as to how these changes modify the recommendations contained in the 1997 report.

  19. Planetary protection requirements for orbiter and netlander elements of the CNES/NASA Mars sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debus, A.

    In the framework of Mars exploration, particularly for missions dedicated to the search for life or for traces of ancient forms of life, NASA and CNES have decided to join their efforts in order to build a Mars sample return mission. Taking into account article IX of the OUTER SPACE TREATY (Treaty on principles governing the activities of states in the exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial, referenced 610 UNTS 205 - resolution 2222(XXI) of December 1966, ratified in London / Washington January 27, 1967) and in order to comply with the COSPAR planetary protection recommendations, a common planetary protection program has to be established. Mars in-situ experimentations are limited by the size and the mass of the instruments necessary to perform exobiology investigations and, consequently, it appears that the best way to conduct such experiments is to bring back Mars samples to Earth. A sample return mission enables the use of a very large number of instruments and analysis protocols, giving exobiologists the best chance to find living entities or organic compounds related to life. Such a mission is complicated from a planetary protection point of view, it combines constraints for the protection of both the Mars environment as well as Earth, including the preservation of samples to ensure the validity of exobiological experiments.

  20. Convection in Icy Satellites: Implications for Habitability and Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, A. C.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Solid-state convection and endogenic resurfacing in the outer ice shells of the icy Galilean satellites (especially Europa) may contribute to the habitability of their internal oceans and to the detectability of any biospheres by spacecraft. If convection occurs in an ice I layer, fluid motions are confined beneath a thick stagnant lid of cold, immobile ice that is too stiff to participate in convection. The thickness of the stagnant lid varies from 30 to 50% of the total thickness of the ice shell, depending on the grain size of ice. Upward convective motions deliver approximately 10(exp 9) to 10(exp 13) kg yr(sup -1) of ice to the base of the stagnant lid, where resurfacing events driven by compositional or tidal effects (such as the formation of domes or ridges on Europa, or formation of grooved terrain on Ganymede) may deliver materials from the stagnant lid onto the surface. Conversely, downward convective motions deliver the same mass of ice from the base of the stagnant lid to the bottom of the satellites ice shells. Materials from the satellites surfaces may be delivered to their oceans by downward convective motions if material from the surface can reach the base of the stagnant lid during resurfacing events. Triggering convection from an initially conductive ice shell requires modest amplitude (a few to tens of kelvins) temperature anomalies to soften the ice to permit convection, which may require tidal heating. Therefore, tidal heating, compositional buoyancy, and solid-state convection in combination may be required to permit mass transport between the surfaces and oceans of icy satellites. Callisto and probably Ganymede have thick stagnant lids with geologically inactive surfaces today, so forward contamination of their surfaces is not a significant issue. Active convection and breaching of the stagnant lid is a possibility on Europa today, so is of relevance to planetary protection policy.

  1. EVA Swab Tool to Support Planetary Protection and Astrobiology Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Hood, Drew; Walker, Mary; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2018-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on other planets, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. To ensure our crewed systems meet planetary protection requirements-and to protect our science from human contamination-we'll need to assess whether microorganisms may be leaking or venting from our spacecraft. Microbial sample collection outside of a pressurized spacecraft is complicated by temperature extremes, low pressures that preclude the use of laboratory standard (wetted) swabs, and operation either in bulky spacesuits or with robotic assistance. A team at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently developed a swab kit for use in collecting microbial samples from the external surfaces of crewed spacecraft, including spacesuits. The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Swab Kit consists of a single swab tool handle and an eight-canister sample caddy. The design team minimized development cost by re-purposing a heritage Space Shuttle tile repair handle that was designed to quickly snap into different tool attachments by engaging a mating device in each end effector. This allowed the tool handle to snap onto a fresh swab end effector much like popular shaving razor handles can snap onto a disposable blade cartridge. To disengage the handle from a swab, the user performs two independent functions, which can be done with a single hand. This dual operation mitigates the risk that a swab will be inadvertently released and lost in microgravity. Each swab end effector is fitted with commercially available foam swab tips, vendor-certified to be sterile for Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). A microbial filter installed in the bottom of each sample container allows the container to outgas and re-pressurize without introducing microbial contaminants to internal void spaces. Extensive ground testing, post-test handling, and sample analysis confirmed the design is able to maintain sterile conditions as the canister moves between

  2. EVA Swab Tool to Support Planetary Protection and Astrobiology Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Hood, Drew; Walker, Mary; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2018-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on other planets, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. To ensure our crewed systems meet planetary protection requirements-and to protect our science from human contamination-we'll need to assess whether microorganisms may be leaking or venting from our spacecraft. Microbial sample collection outside of a pressurized spacecraft is complicated by temperature extremes, low pressures that preclude the use of laboratory standard (wetted) swabs, and operation either in bulky spacesuits or with robotic assistance. Engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently developed a swab kit for use in collecting microbial samples from the external surfaces of crewed spacecraft, including spacesuits. The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Swab Kit consists of a single swab tool handle and an eight-canister sample caddy. The design team minimized development cost by re-purposing a heritage Space Shuttle tile repair handle that was designed to quickly snap into different tool attachments by engaging a mating device in each attachment. This allowed the tool handle to snap onto a fresh swab attachment much like popular shaving razor handles can snap onto a disposable blade cartridge. To disengage the handle from a swab, the user performs two independent functions, which can be done with a single hand. This dual operation mitigates the risk that a swab will be inadvertently released and lost in microgravity. Each swab attachment is fitted with commercially available foam swab tips, vendor-certified to be sterile for Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). A microbial filter installed in the bottom of each sample container allows the container to outgas and repressurize without introducing microbial contaminants to internal void spaces. Extensive ground testing, post-test handling, and sample analysis confirmed the design is able to maintain sterile conditions as the canister moves between

  3. Quantitative Planetary Protection for Sample Return from Ocean Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu, Marc; Takano, Yoshinori; Porco, Carolyn; McKay, Christopher P.; Glavin, Daniel; Anbar, Ariel; Sherwood, Brent; Yano, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    Volcanism on ocean worlds [1,2] facilitates ocean sample return missions, enabling uniquely flexible, sensitive, and specific laboratory analyses on Earth to study how far chemistry has evolved in presumably habitable oceans [3,4]. Such mission concepts have yet to quantitatively address planetary protection (PP) for ocean worlds [3,4]. These harbor liquid water [5,6], metabolically useful energy [7], and organic matter to support life [8]. Ocean temperatures may not exceed the limit for life as we know it [9,10], they are shielded from exogenic radiation by kilometers of ice, and their material has likely not been naturally exchanged with Earth [11]. The above factors would place sample return missions in Cat. V - Restricted Earth Return [12,13]. Forward PP requirements for Europa [13] and other ocean worlds [14] require that the probability of "introduction of a single viable terrestrial microorganism into a liquid-water environment" be lower than 10 ^{-4}. This probability should be estimated from (F1) "bioburden at launch," (F2) "cruise survival for contaminating organisms," (F3) "organism survival in the radiation environment adjacent to the target," (F4) "the probability of encountering […] the target," (F5) "the probability of surviving landing/impact on the target," (F6) "mechanisms and timescales of transport to the subsurface," and (F7) "survival […] after subsurface transfer" [13,14]. The compliance of specific designs of known cost could be evaluated from measurements of molecular contaminants as robust and universal proxies for microbial particulates [15] (F1); known microbial radiation tolerance [16] and planetary radiation budgets [17] (F2-F3); trajectory design (F4); projected impact velocities [18] (F5); ice transport timescales [19] (F6), and biomass growth rates in ice [20] (F7). In contrast, current backward PP requirements are only qualitative. Current policy [13,15] prohibits "destructive impact upon return," and requires that (B1) "unless

  4. Overview of current capabilities and research and technology developments for planetary protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, Andreas; Mogul, Rakesh; Stabekis, Pericles; Conley, Catharine A.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2014-07-01

    The pace of scientific exploration of our solar system provides ever-increasing insights into potentially habitable environments, and associated concerns for their contamination by Earth organisms. Biological and organic-chemical contamination has been extensively considered by the COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection (PPP) and has resulted in the internationally recognized regulations to which spacefaring nations adhere, and which have been in place for 40 years. The only successful Mars lander missions with system-level “sterilization” were the Viking landers in the 1970s. Since then different cleanliness requirements have been applied to spacecraft based on their destination, mission type, and scientific objectives. The Planetary Protection Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council has noted that a strategic Research & Technology Development (R&TD) roadmap would be very beneficial to encourage the timely availability of effective tools and methodologies to implement planetary protection requirements. New research avenues in planetary protection for ambitious future exploration missions can best be served by developing an over-arching program that integrates capability-driven developments with mission-driven implementation efforts. This paper analyzes the current status concerning microbial reduction and cleaning methods, recontamination control and bio-barriers, operational analysis methods, and addresses concepts for human exploration. Crosscutting research and support activities are discussed and a rationale for a Strategic Planetary Protection R&TD Roadmap is outlined. Such a roadmap for planetary protection provides a forum for strategic planning and will help to enable the next phases of solar system exploration.

  5. Options for Open Issues in Planetary Protection on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Benton

    2016-07-01

    Planetary Protection policies span a wide range, with several new components which currently have only high-level requirements or concerns associated with them. There are various options for more detailed requirements and/or analyses which can be used to meet the intent and specifications attendant with each new policy. Encroachment near a Special Region (SR) requires special consideration. Unless Category IVb procedures are undertaken, no hardware may land within an error ellipse of a SR. However, a buffer zone could be specified, and/or assessment of contamination by windborne organisms taking into account prevailing weather, history of regional dust devils, "cleaning event" disturbances experienced by MER rovers, dilution effects relative to the 1E-4 criterion for equivalence to Category IVb bioburden reduction by dry heat, and time of exposure to harsh UV and oxidants on Mars. Most or all designated SR's are potentially but not yet proven to be SR's. Methane plume detection from orbit or ground-based assets, with consideration of where the putative SR may exist (subsurface?) can be quantitatively compared with the potential for contamination by downward transport of bioburden from hardware surfaces. Similar considerations apply to caves and cavities providing access to sub-surface regions, including evaluation of thermal regimes and compatibility with microbial growth. Ultimately, these decisions may be affected by assessment of intrinsic lethality of the martian environment which could be evaluated via direct experimentation, such as use of bacterial endospores or other hardy organisms that have been genetically engineered to prevent growth on Mars (e.g., knockout genes), with aliquots exposed separately to the full martian environment, to atmospheric oxidants (sans UV), and to the universal soil. Upon return-to-Earth, the survival power of such organism relative to control samples would provide direct measurements that can be used to evaluate and pave the way

  6. A Path to Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Exploration: A Literature Review and Systems Engineering Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, James E.; Conley, Cassie; Siegel, Bette

    2015-01-01

    As systems, technologies, and plans for the human exploration of Mars and other destinations beyond low Earth orbit begin to coalesce, it is imperative that frequent and early consideration is given to how planetary protection practices and policy will be upheld. While the development of formal planetary protection requirements for future human space systems and operations may still be a few years from fruition, guidance to appropriately influence mission and system design will be needed soon to avoid costly design and operational changes. The path to constructing such requirements is a journey that espouses key systems engineering practices of understanding shared goals, objectives and concerns, identifying key stakeholders, and iterating a draft requirement set to gain community consensus. This paper traces through each of these practices, beginning with a literature review of nearly three decades of publications addressing planetary protection concerns with respect to human exploration. Key goals, objectives and concerns, particularly with respect to notional requirements, required studies and research, and technology development needs have been compiled and categorized to provide a current 'state of knowledge'. This information, combined with the identification of key stakeholders in upholding planetary protection concerns for human missions, has yielded a draft requirement set that might feed future iteration among space system designers, exploration scientists, and the mission operations community. Combining the information collected with a proposed forward path will hopefully yield a mutually agreeable set of timely, verifiable, and practical requirements for human space exploration that will uphold international commitment to planetary protection.

  7. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Exploration: Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection and the Protection of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly; Vonau, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Forward contamination concerns will affect release of gases and discharge of liquids and solids, including what may be left behind after planetary vehicles are abandoned upon return to Earth. A crew of four using a state of the art ECLSS could generate as much as 4.3 metric tons of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes and trash during a 500-day surface stay. These may present issues and concerns for both planetary protection and planetary science. Certainly, further closure of ECLSS systems will be of benefit by greater reuse of consumable products and reduced generation of waste products. It can be presumed that planetary protection will affect technology development by constraining how technologies can operate: limiting or prohibiting certain kinds of operations or processes (e.g. venting); necessitating that other kinds of operations be performed (e.g. sterilization; filtration of vent lines); prohibiting what can be brought on a mission (e.g. extremophiles); creating needs for new capabilities/ technologies (e.g. containment). Although any planned venting could include filtration to eliminate micro-organisms from inadvertently exiting the spacecraft, it may be impossible to eliminate or filter habitat structural leakage. Filtration will add pressure drops impacting size of lines and ducts, affect fan size and energy requirements, and add consumable mass. Technologies that may be employed to remove biomarkers and microbial contamination from liquid and solid wastes prior to storage or release may include mineralization technologies such as incineration, super critical wet oxidation and pyrolysis. These technologies, however, come with significant penalties for mass, power and consumables. This paper will estimate the nature and amounts of materials generated during Mars

  8. Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions: Recommendations from a 2009 NRC Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, Margaret; Farmer, Jack

    A 2009 report by the National Research Council (NRC) reviewed a previous study on Mars Sample Return (1997) and provided updated recommendations for future sample return mis-sions based on our current understanding about Mars and its biological potential, as well as advances in technology and analytical capabilities. The committee* made 12 specific recommen-dations that fall into three general categories—one related to current scientific understanding, ten based on changes in the technical and/or policy environment, and one aimed at public com-munication. Substantive changes from the 1997 report relate mainly to protocols and methods, technology and infrastructure, and general oversight. This presentation provides an overview of the 2009 report and its recommendations and analyzes how they may impact mission designs and plans. The full report, Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions is available online at: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?recordi d = 12576 * Study participants: Jack D. Farmer, Arizona State University (chair) James F. Bell III, Cornell University Kathleen C. Benison, Central Michigan University William V. Boynton, University of Arizona Sherry L. Cady, Portland State University F. Grant Ferris, University of Toronto Duncan MacPherson, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Margaret S. Race, SETI Institute Mark H. Thiemens, University of California, San Diego Meenakshi Wadhwa, Arizona State University

  9. 78 FR 64253 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... community and other persons, scientific and technical information relevant to program planning. DATES....m., Local Time. ADDRESSES: This meeting will take place at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center... Flight Center and must state that they are attending the NASA Advisory Council's Planetary Protection...

  10. Planetary Protection Concerns During Pre-Launch Radioisotope Power System Final Integration Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Fei; McKay, Terri; Spry, James A.; Colozza, Anthony J.; DiStefano, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) is a next-generation radioisotope-based power system that is currently being developed as an alternative to the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). Power sources such as these may be needed for proposed missions to solar system planets and bodies that have challenging Planetary Protection (PP) requirements (e.g. Mars, Europa, Enceladus) that may support NASA s search for life, remnants of past life, and the precursors of life. One concern is that the heat from the ASRG could potentially create a region in which liquid water may occur. As advised by the NASA Planetary Protection Officer, when deploying an ASRG to Mars, the current COSPAR/NASA PP policy should be followed for Category IVc mission. Thus, sterilization processing of the ASRG to achieve bioburden reduction would be essential to meet the Planetary Protection requirements. Due to thermal constraints and associated low temperature limits of elements of the ASRG, vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) was suggested as a candidate alternative sterilization process to complement dry heat microbial reduction (DHMR) for the assembled ASRG. The following proposed sterilization plan for the ASRG anticipates a mission Category IVc level of cleanliness. This plan provides a scenario in which VHP is used as the final sterilization process. Keywords: Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), Planetary Protection (PP), Vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) sterilization.

  11. 77 FR 20851 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... the Solar System --Current Status of NASA's Planetary Protection Program It is imperative that the... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (12-026)] NASA Advisory Council; Science...-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the...

  12. 78 FR 21421 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: 13-048] NASA Advisory Council; Science...-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Protection Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This Subcommittee reports to the...

  13. Impact of Planetary Protection and Contamination Control on a Life Detection or Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steininger, H.

    2018-04-01

    ExoMars as one of the few life detection missions can be an example of how planetary protection and contamination control influence of the development of flight hardware. A few lessons learned can be drawn from the mission even before launch.

  14. A Massively Parallel Bayesian Approach to Planetary Protection Trajectory Analysis and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Planetary Protection Office has levied a requirement that the upper stage of future planetary launches have a less than 10(exp -4) chance of impacting Mars within 50 years after launch. A brute-force approach requires a decade of computer time to demonstrate compliance. By using a Bayesian approach and taking advantage of the demonstrated reliability of the upper stage, the required number of fifty-year propagations can be massively reduced. By spreading the remaining embarrassingly parallel Monte Carlo simulations across multiple computers, compliance can be demonstrated in a reasonable time frame. The method used is described here.

  15. Planetary Protection Plan for an Antibody based instrument proposed for Mars2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Heather; Parro, Víctor

    The Signs Of Life Detector (SOLID) instrument is a high TRL level instrument proposed for the Mars 2020 instrument suite. In this presentation we describe the planetary protection instrument plan as if the instrument is classified as a life detection instrument compliant with Category IV(b) planetary protection mission requirements, NASA, ESA, and COSPAR policy. SOLID uses antibodies as a method for detecting organic and biomolecular components in soils. Due to the sensitive detection method, the scientific integrity of the instrument exceeds the planetary protection requirements. The instrument will be assembled and integrated in an ISO level 8 cleanroom or better (ISO 4 for the sample read out and fluidics components). Microbial reduction methods and assays employed are as follows: Wipe the outside and inside of the instrument with a mixture of isopropyl alcohol (70%) and water. Cell cultures will be the standard assay to determine enumeration of “viable” spores and other rapid assays such as LAL and ATP bioluminescence as secondary assays to verify the interior of the instrument is microbe free. SOLID’s design factors for contamination control include the following features: SOLID has the capability to heat the catchment tray to pyrolyze any Earth hitchhikers. There will also be an “air gap” of cm maintained between the sample acquisition device and the funnel inlet. This will prevent forward contamination of the sample collection device and reverse contamination of the detection unit. To mitigate false positives, SOLID will include anti-bodies for potential contaminants from organisms most commonly found in clean rooms. If selected for the Mars 2020 Rover, SOLID would be the first life detection instrument based on biomolecules sent by NASA, as such the planetary protection plan will set a precedence for future life detection instruments carrying biomolecules to other planetary bodies.

  16. Critical issues in connection with human planetary missions: protection of and from the environment.

    PubMed

    Horneck, G; Facius, R; Reitz, G; Rettberg, P; Baumstark-Khan, C; Gerzer, R

    2001-01-01

    Activities associated with human missions to the Moon or to Mars will interact with the environment in two reciprocal ways: (i) the mission needs to be protected from the natural environmental elements that can be harmful to human health, the equipment or to their operations: (ii) the specific natural environment of the Moon or Mars should be protected so that it retains its value for scientific and other purposes. The following environmental elements need to be considered in order to protect humans and the equipment on the planetary surface: (i) cosmic ionizing radiation, (ii) solar particle events; (iii) solar ultraviolet radiation; (iv) reduced gravity; (v) thin atmosphere; (vi) extremes in temperatures and their fluctuations; (vii) surface dust; (viii) impacts by meteorites and micrometeorites. In order to protect the planetary environment. the requirements for planetary protection as adopted by COSPAR for lander missions need to be revised in view of human presence on the planet. Landers carrying equipment for exobiological investigations require special consideration to reduce contamination by terrestrial microorganisms and organic matter to the Greatest feasible extent. Records of human activities on the planet's surface should be maintained in sufficient detail that future scientific experimenters can determine whether environmental modifications have resulted from explorations. Grant numbers: 14056/99/NL/PA. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Proactive Integration of Planetary Protection Needs Into Early Design Phases of Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, Margaret; Conley, Catharine

    Planetary protection (PP) policies established by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council for Science have been in force effectively for five decades, ensuring responsible exploration and the integrity of science activities, for both human and robotic missions in the Solar System beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). At present, operations on most bodies in the solar system are not constrained by planetary protection considerations because they cannot be contaminated by Earth life in ways that impact future space exploration. However, operations on Mars, Europa, and Enceladus, which represent locations with biological potential, are subject to strict planetary protection constraints for missions of all types because they can potentially be contaminated by organisms brought from Earth. Forward contamination control for robotic missions is generally accomplished through a combination of activities that reduce the bioload of microbial hitchhikers on outbound spacecraft prior to launch. Back contamination control for recent robotic missions has chiefly been accomplished by selecting sample-return targets that have little or no potential for extant life (e.g., cometary particles returned by Stardust mission). In the post-Apollo era, no human missions have had to deal with planetary protection constraints because they have never left Earth orbit. Future human missions to Mars, for example, will experience many of the challenges faced by the Apollo lunar missions, with the added possibility that astronauts on Mars may encounter habitable environments in their exploration or activities. Current COSPAR PP Principles indicate that safeguarding the Earth from potential back contamination is the highest planetary protection priority in Mars exploration. While guidelines for planetary protection controls on human missions to Mars have been established by COSPAR, detailed engineering constraints and processes for implementation of these guidelines have not

  18. Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions Workshop Booklet - 2015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonda, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Although NASA's preparations for the Apollo lunar missions had only a limited time to consider issues associated with the protection of the Moon from biological contamination and the quarantine of the astronauts returning to Earth, they learned many valuable lessons (both positive and negative) in the process. As such, those efforts represent the baseline of planetary protection preparations for sending humans to Mars. Neither the post-Apollo experience or the Shuttle and other follow-on missions of either the US or Russian human spaceflight programs could add many additional insights to that baseline. Current mission designers have had the intervening four decades for their consideration, and in that time there has been much learned about human-associated microbes, about Mars, and about humans in space that has helped prepare us for a broad spectrum of considerations regarding potential biological contamination in human Mars missions and how to control it. This paper will review the approaches used in getting this far, and highlight some implications of this history for the future development of planetary protection provisions for human missions to Mars. The role of NASA and ESA's planetary protection offices, and the aegis of COSPAR have been particularly important in the ongoing process.

  19. Elements of planetary protection against asteroid and comet hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Dashkiev, G. N.; Zhilyaev, B. E.

    2018-05-01

    The principles of protection against asteroid-comet hazard should constitute the main priority of the modern Proto-cosmic civilization on the planet Earth. Any impact of a fairly large asteroid or cometary nucleus with a size of 1 to 20 or more kilometers will lead to a global catastrophe and, perhaps, to the death of Mankind. Forces in order to withstand such a blow of the cosmic body during large space invasions, we do not have and, most likely, will not be for a long time . We need as soon as possible to create technical facilities and systems for long-term comfortable living of large colonies of people on the Moon, Mars, Venus and Mercury, having arranged there some elements of the biosphere. In these colonies people should live in extraterrestrial space settlements, and should periodically and constantly "outplay" scenarios of reliable and guaranteed re-population of the planet Earth by people. Such periodic "exercises" on the actual modeling of the return to the "post-catastrophic" Earth should ensure the survival of humanity even in the worst versions of the consequences of possible dangerous space invasions. That is, we should always be ready for the repopulation on the Earth by people and for the reconstruction of the basic elements of the man's biosphere.

  20. Electron Microscopy Abrasion Analysis of Candidate Fabrics for Planetary Space Suit Protective Overgarment Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, Mary J.

    1992-01-01

    The Electron Microscopy Abrasion Analysis of Candidate Fabrics for Planetary Space Suit Protective Overgarment Application is in support of the Abrasion Resistance Materials Screening Test. The fundamental assumption made for the SEM abrasion analysis was that woven fabrics to be used as the outermost layer of the protective overgarment in the design of the future, planetary space suits perform best when new. It is the goal of this study to determine which of the candidate fabrics was abraded the least in the tumble test. The sample that was abraded the least will be identified at the end of the report as the primary candidate fabric for further investigation. In addition, this analysis will determine if the abrasion seen by the laboratory tumbled samples is representative of actual EVA Apollo abrasion.

  1. Planetary Protection and Mars Special Regions--A Suggestion for Updating the Definition.

    PubMed

    Rettberg, Petra; Anesio, Alexandre M; Baker, Victor R; Baross, John A; Cady, Sherry L; Detsis, Emmanouil; Foreman, Christine M; Hauber, Ernst; Ori, Gian Gabriele; Pearce, David A; Renno, Nilton O; Ruvkun, Gary; Sattler, Birgit; Saunders, Mark P; Smith, David H; Wagner, Dirk; Westall, Frances

    2016-02-01

    We highlight the role of COSPAR and the scientific community in defining and updating the framework of planetary protection. Specifically, we focus on Mars "Special Regions," areas where strict planetary protection measures have to be applied before a spacecraft can explore them, given the existence of environmental conditions that may be conducive to terrestrial microbial growth. We outline the history of the concept of Special Regions and inform on recent developments regarding the COSPAR policy, namely, the MEPAG SR-SAG2 review and the Academies and ESF joint committee report on Mars Special Regions. We present some new issues that necessitate the update of the current policy and provide suggestions for new definitions of Special Regions. We conclude with the current major scientific questions that remain unanswered regarding Mars Special Regions.

  2. A consensus approach to planetary protection requirements: recommendations for Mars lander missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. D.; Meyer, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Over the last several years, the nature of the surface conditions on the planet Mars, our knowledge of the growth capabilities of Earth organisms under extreme conditions, and future opportunities for Mars exploration have been under extensive review in the United States and elsewhere. As part of these examinations, in 1992 the US Space Studies Board made a series of recommendations to NASA on the requirements that should be implemented on future missions that will explore Mars. In particular, significant changes were recommended in the requirements for Mars landers, changes that significantly alleviated the burden of planetary protection implementation for these missions. In this paper we propose a resolution implementing this new set of recommendations, for adoption by COSPAR at its 30th meeting in Hamburg. We also discuss future directions and study areas for planetary protection, in light of changing plans for Mars exploration.

  3. Resistance of Bacterial Endospores to Outer Space for Planetary Protection Purposes—Experiment PROTECT of the EXPOSE-E Mission

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Ralf; Cadet, Jean; Douki, Thierry; Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Nicholson, Wayne L.; Panitz, Corinna; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Spry, Andrew; Stackebrandt, Erko; Vaishampayan, Parag; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Spore-forming bacteria are of particular concern in the context of planetary protection because their tough endospores may withstand certain sterilization procedures as well as the harsh environments of outer space or planetary surfaces. To test their hardiness on a hypothetical mission to Mars, spores of Bacillus subtilis 168 and Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 were exposed for 1.5 years to selected parameters of space in the experiment PROTECT during the EXPOSE-E mission on board the International Space Station. Mounted as dry layers on spacecraft-qualified aluminum coupons, the “trip to Mars” spores experienced space vacuum, cosmic and extraterrestrial solar radiation, and temperature fluctuations, whereas the “stay on Mars” spores were subjected to a simulated martian environment that included atmospheric pressure and composition, and UV and cosmic radiation. The survival of spores from both assays was determined after retrieval. It was clearly shown that solar extraterrestrial UV radiation (λ≥110 nm) as well as the martian UV spectrum (λ≥200 nm) was the most deleterious factor applied; in some samples only a few survivors were recovered from spores exposed in monolayers. Spores in multilayers survived better by several orders of magnitude. All other environmental parameters encountered by the “trip to Mars” or “stay on Mars” spores did little harm to the spores, which showed about 50% survival or more. The data demonstrate the high chance of survival of spores on a Mars mission, if protected against solar irradiation. These results will have implications for planetary protection considerations. Key Words: Planetary protection—Bacterial spores—Space experiment—Simulated Mars mission. Astrobiology 12, 445–456. PMID:22680691

  4. In Situ Biological Contamination Studies of the Moon: Implications for Planetary Protection and Life Detection Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Lupisella, Mark; Williams, David R.; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA and ESA have outlined visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic precursor missions to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moan, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations, including possibly asteroids. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of life. The search for life on objects such as Mars will require careful operations, and that all systems be sufficiently cleaned and sterilized prior to launch to ensure that the scientific integrity of extraterrestrial samples is not jeopardized by terrestrial organic contamination. Under the Committee on Space Research's (COSPAR's) current planetary protection policy for the Moon, no sterilization procedures are required for outbound lunar spacecraft, nor is there a different planetary protection category for human missions, although preliminary C SPAR policy guidelines for human missions to Mars have been developed. Future in situ investigations of a variety of locations on the Moon by highly sensitive instruments designed to search for biologically derived organic compounds would help assess the contamination of the Moon by lunar spacecraft. These studies could also provide valuable "ground truth" data for Mars sample return missions and help define planetary protection requirements for future Mars bound spacecraft carrying life detection experiments. In addition, studies of the impact of terrestrial contamination of the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts could provide valuable data to help refine future: Mars surface exploration plans for a human mission to Mars.

  5. A Planetary Protection Strategy for the Mars Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept designed to send an airplane to fly through the lower atmosphere of Mars, with the goal of taking scientific measurements of the atmosphere, surface, and subsurface phenomenon. ARES was first proposed to the Mars Scout program in December 2002 for a 2007 launch opportunity and was selected to proceed with a Phase A study, step-2 proposal which was submitted in May 2003. ARES was not selected for the Scout mission, but efforts continued on risk reduction of the atmospheric flight system in preparation for the next Mars Scout opportunity in 2006. The ARES concept was again proposed in July 2006 to the Mars Scout program but was not selected to proceed into Phase A. This document describes the Planetary Protection strategy that was developed in ARES Pre Phase-A activities to help identify, early in the design process, certain hardware, assemblies, and/or subsystems that will require unique design considerations based on constraints imposed by Planetary Protection requirements. Had ARES been selected as an exploration project, information in this document would make up the ARES Project Planetary Protection Plan.

  6. A two-hypothesis approach to establishing a life detection/biohazard protocol for planetary samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Catharine; Steele, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    The COSPAR policy on performing a biohazard assessment on samples brought from Mars to Earth is framed in the context of a concern for false-positive results. However, as noted during the 2012 Workshop for Life Detection in Samples from Mars (ref. Kminek et al., 2014), a more significant concern for planetary samples brought to Earth is false-negative results, because an undetected biohazard could increase risk to the Earth. This is the reason that stringent contamination control must be a high priority for all Category V Restricted Earth Return missions. A useful conceptual framework for addressing these concerns involves two complementary 'null' hypotheses: testing both of them, together, would allow statistical and community confidence to be developed regarding one or the other conclusion. As noted above, false negatives are of primary concern for safety of the Earth, so the 'Earth Safety null hypothesis' -- that must be disproved to assure low risk to the Earth from samples introduced by Category V Restricted Earth Return missions -- is 'There is native life in these samples.' False positives are of primary concern for Astrobiology, so the 'Astrobiology null hypothesis' -- that must be disproved in order to demonstrate the existence of extraterrestrial life is 'There is no life in these samples.' The presence of Earth contamination would render both of these hypotheses more difficult to disprove. Both these hypotheses can be tested following a strict science protocol; analyse, interprete, test the hypotheses and repeat. The science measurements undertaken are then done in an iterative fashion that responds to discovery with both hypotheses testable from interpretation of the scientific data. This is a robust, community involved activity that ensures maximum science return with minimal sample use.

  7. The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate

    PubMed Central

    Velders, Guus J. M.; Andersen, Stephen O.; Daniel, John S.; Fahey, David W.; McFarland, Mack

    2007-01-01

    The 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is a landmark agreement that has successfully reduced the global production, consumption, and emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). ODSs are also greenhouse gases that contribute to the radiative forcing of climate change. Using historical ODSs emissions and scenarios of potential emissions, we show that the ODS contribution to radiative forcing most likely would have been much larger if the ODS link to stratospheric ozone depletion had not been recognized in 1974 and followed by a series of regulations. The climate protection already achieved by the Montreal Protocol alone is far larger than the reduction target of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Additional climate benefits that are significant compared with the Kyoto Protocol reduction target could be achieved by actions under the Montreal Protocol, by managing the emissions of substitute fluorocarbon gases and/or implementing alternative gases with lower global warming potentials. PMID:17360370

  8. The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate.

    PubMed

    Velders, Guus J M; Andersen, Stephen O; Daniel, John S; Fahey, David W; McFarland, Mack

    2007-03-20

    The 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is a landmark agreement that has successfully reduced the global production, consumption, and emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). ODSs are also greenhouse gases that contribute to the radiative forcing of climate change. Using historical ODSs emissions and scenarios of potential emissions, we show that the ODS contribution to radiative forcing most likely would have been much larger if the ODS link to stratospheric ozone depletion had not been recognized in 1974 and followed by a series of regulations. The climate protection already achieved by the Montreal Protocol alone is far larger than the reduction target of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Additional climate benefits that are significant compared with the Kyoto Protocol reduction target could be achieved by actions under the Montreal Protocol, by managing the emissions of substitute fluorocarbon gases and/or implementing alternative gases with lower global warming potentials.

  9. Report on the COSPAR Workshop on Refining Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spry, James Andrew; Rummel, John; Conley, Catharine; Race, Margaret; Kminek, Gerhard; Siegel, Bette

    2016-07-01

    A human mission to Mars has been the driving long-term goal for the development of the Global Exploration Roadmap by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group. Additionally, multiple national space agencies and commercial organizations have published similar plans and aspirations for human missions beyond LEO. The current COSPAR planetary protection "Guidelines for Human Missions to Mars" were developed in a series of workshops in the early 2000s and adopted into COSPAR policy at the Montreal Assembly in 2008. With changes and maturation in mission architecture concepts and hardware capabilities, the holding of a workshop provided an opportunity for timely review of these guidelines and their interpretation within current frameworks provided by ISECG and others. The COSPAR Workshop on Refining Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Missions was held in the US in spring 2016 to evaluate recent efforts and activities in the context of current COSPAR policy, as well as collect inputs from the various organizations considering crewed exploration missions to Mars and precursor robotic missions focused on surface material properties and environmental challenges. The workshop also considered potential updates to the COSPAR policy for human missions across a range of planetary destinations. This paper will report on those deliberations.

  10. Resistance of bacterial endospores to outer space for planetary protection purposes--experiment PROTECT of the EXPOSE-E mission.

    PubMed

    Horneck, Gerda; Moeller, Ralf; Cadet, Jean; Douki, Thierry; Mancinelli, Rocco L; Nicholson, Wayne L; Panitz, Corinna; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Spry, Andrew; Stackebrandt, Erko; Vaishampayan, Parag; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J

    2012-05-01

    Spore-forming bacteria are of particular concern in the context of planetary protection because their tough endospores may withstand certain sterilization procedures as well as the harsh environments of outer space or planetary surfaces. To test their hardiness on a hypothetical mission to Mars, spores of Bacillus subtilis 168 and Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 were exposed for 1.5 years to selected parameters of space in the experiment PROTECT during the EXPOSE-E mission on board the International Space Station. Mounted as dry layers on spacecraft-qualified aluminum coupons, the "trip to Mars" spores experienced space vacuum, cosmic and extraterrestrial solar radiation, and temperature fluctuations, whereas the "stay on Mars" spores were subjected to a simulated martian environment that included atmospheric pressure and composition, and UV and cosmic radiation. The survival of spores from both assays was determined after retrieval. It was clearly shown that solar extraterrestrial UV radiation (λ≥110 nm) as well as the martian UV spectrum (λ≥200 nm) was the most deleterious factor applied; in some samples only a few survivors were recovered from spores exposed in monolayers. Spores in multilayers survived better by several orders of magnitude. All other environmental parameters encountered by the "trip to Mars" or "stay on Mars" spores did little harm to the spores, which showed about 50% survival or more. The data demonstrate the high chance of survival of spores on a Mars mission, if protected against solar irradiation. These results will have implications for planetary protection considerations.

  11. Planetary protection and Mars: requirements and constraints on the 2016 and 2018 missions, and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, J.; Kminek, G.; Conley, C.

    2011-10-01

    The suite of missions being planned currently by NASA and ESA as a partnership under the name "ExoMars" include an orbiter and an entry, descent, and landing demonstrator module (EDM) for the 2016 "ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter" mission (ExoMars TGO), as well as a highly capable rover to be launched in 2018 to address the original ExoMars objectives (including the Pasteur payload). This 2018 ExoMars rover is expected to begin a series of missions leading to the first sample return mission from Mars, also conducted jointly between NASA, ESA, and their partners (JMSR). Each of these missions and mission components has a role in enabling future Mars exploration, including the search for life or life-related compounds on Mars, and each of them has the potential to carry confounding biological and organic materials into sensitive environments on Mars. Accordingly, this suite of missions will be subjected to joint planetary protection requirements applied by both ESA and NASA to their respective components, according to the COSPAR-delineated planetary protection policy to protect Mars from contamination, and eventually to provide for the protection of the Earth from potential life returned in a martian sample. This paper will discuss the challenges ahead for mission designers and the mission science teams, and will outline some of the potential pitfalls involved with different mission options.

  12. Multifunctional Interface Facility for Receiving and Processing Planetary Surface Materials for Science Investigation and Resource Evaluation at the Deep Space Gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibille, L.; Mantovani, J. G.; Townsend, I. I.; Mueller, R. P.

    2018-02-01

    The concepts describe hardware and instrumentation for the study of planetary surface materials at the Deep Space Gateway as a progressive evolution of capabilities for eliminating the need for special handling and Planetary Protection (PP) protocols inside the habitats.

  13. Planetary protection and the search for life beneath the surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2003-01-01

    The search for traces of extinct and extant life on Mars will be extended to beneath the surface of the planet. Current data from Mars missions suggesting the presence of liquid water early in Mars' history and mathematical modeling of the fate of water on Mars imply that liquid water may exist deep beneath the surface of Mars. This leads to the hypothesis that life may exist deep beneath the Martian surface. One possible scenario to look for life on Mars involves a series of unmanned missions culminating with a manned mission drilling deep into the Martian subsurface (approximately 3Km), collecting samples, and conducting preliminary analyses to select samples for return to earth. This mission must address both forward and back contamination issues, and falls under planetary protection category V. Planetary protection issues to be addressed include provisions stating that the inevitable deposition of earth microbes by humans should be minimized and localized, and that earth microbes and organic material must not contaminate the Martian subsurface. This requires that the drilling equipment be sterilized prior to use. Further, the collection, containment and retrieval of the sample must be conducted such that the crew is protected and that any materials returning to earth are contained (i.e., physically and biologically isolated) and the chain of connection with Mars is broken. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Planetary protection and the search for life beneath the surface of Mars.

    PubMed

    Mancinelli, Rocco L

    2003-01-01

    The search for traces of extinct and extant life on Mars will be extended to beneath the surface of the planet. Current data from Mars missions suggesting the presence of liquid water early in Mars' history and mathematical modeling of the fate of water on Mars imply that liquid water may exist deep beneath the surface of Mars. This leads to the hypothesis that life may exist deep beneath the Martian surface. One possible scenario to look for life on Mars involves a series of unmanned missions culminating with a manned mission drilling deep into the Martian subsurface (approximately 3Km), collecting samples, and conducting preliminary analyses to select samples for return to earth. This mission must address both forward and back contamination issues, and falls under planetary protection category V. Planetary protection issues to be addressed include provisions stating that the inevitable deposition of earth microbes by humans should be minimized and localized, and that earth microbes and organic material must not contaminate the Martian subsurface. This requires that the drilling equipment be sterilized prior to use. Further, the collection, containment and retrieval of the sample must be conducted such that the crew is protected and that any materials returning to earth are contained (i.e., physically and biologically isolated) and the chain of connection with Mars is broken. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. EURO-CARES: European Roadmap for a Sample Return Curation Facility and Planetary Protection Implications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucato, John Robert

    2016-07-01

    A mature European planetary exploration program and evolving sample return mission plans gathers the interest of a wider scientific community. The interest is generated from studying extraterrestrial samples in the laborato-ry providing new opportunities to address fundamental issues on the origin and evolution of the Solar System, on the primordial cosmochemistry, and on the nature of the building blocks of terrestrial planets and on the origin of life. Major space agencies are currently planning for missions that will collect samples from a variety of Solar Sys-tem environments, from primitive (carbonaceous) small bodies, from the Moon, Mars and its moons and, final-ly, from icy moons of the outer planets. A dedicated sample return curation facility is seen as an essential re-quirement for the receiving, assessment, characterization and secure preservation of the collected extraterrestrial samples and potentially their safe distribution to the scientific community. EURO-CARES is a European Commission study funded under the Horizon-2020 program. The strategic objec-tive of EURO-CARES is to create a roadmap for the implementation of a European Extraterrestrial Sample Cu-ration Facility. The facility has to provide safe storage and handling of extraterrestrial samples and has to enable the preliminary characterization in order to achieve the required effectiveness and collaborative outcomes for the whole international scientific community. For example, samples returned from Mars could pose a threat on the Earth's biosphere if any living extraterrestrial organism are present in the samples. Thus planetary protection is an essential aspect of all Mars sample return missions that will affect the retrival and transport from the point of return, sample handling, infrastructure methodology and management of a future curation facility. Analysis of the state of the art of Planetary Protection technology shows there are considerable possibilities to define and develop

  16. Planetary protection, legal ambiguity and the decision making process for Mars sample return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    As scientists and mission planners develop planetary protection requirements for future Mars sample return missions, they must recognize the socio-political context in which decisions about the mission will be made and pay careful attention to public concerns about potential back contamination of Earth. To the extent that planetary protection questions are unresolved or unaddressed at the time of an actual mission, they offer convenient footholds for public challenges in both legal and decision making realms, over which NASA will have little direct control. In this paper, two particular non-scientific areas of special concern are discussed in detail: 1) legal issues and 2) the decision making process. Understanding these areas is critical for addressing legitimate public concerns as well as for fulfilling procedural requirements regardless whether sample return evokes public controversy. Legal issues with the potential to complicate future missions include: procedural review under National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); uncertainty about institutional control and authority; conflicting regulations and overlapping jurisdictions; questions about international treaty obligations and large scale impacts; uncertanities about the nature of the organism; and constitutional and regulatory concerns about quarantine, public health and safety. In light of these important legal issues, it is critical that NASA consider the role and timing of public involvement in the decision making process as a way of anticipating problem areas and preparing for legitimate public questions and challenges to sample return missions.

  17. Potential Research and Development Synergies between Life support and Planetary protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasseur, Ch.; Kminek, G.; Mergeay, M.

    Long term manned missions of our Russian colleagues have demonstrated the risks associated with microbial contamination These risks concern both crew health via the metabolic consumables contamination water air but and also the hardware degradation Over the last six years ESA and IBMP have developed a collaboration to elaborate and document these microbial contamination issues The collaboration involved the mutual exchanges of knowledge as well as microbial samples and leads up to the microbial survey of the Russian module of the ISS Based on these results and in addition to an external expert report commissioned by ESA the agency initiated the development of a rapid and automated microbial detection and identification tool for use in future space missions In parallel to these developments and via several international meetings planetary protection experts have agreed to place clear specification of the microbial quality of future hardware landing on virgin planets as well as elaborate the preliminary requirements of contamination for manned missions on surface For these activities its is necessary to have a better understanding of microbial activity to create culture collection and to develop on-line detection tools Within this paper we present more deeply the life support activities related to microbial issues we identify some potential synergies with Planetary protection developments and we propose some pathway for collaboration between these two communities

  18. Review of exchange processes on Ganymede in view of its planetary protection categorization.

    PubMed

    Grasset, O; Bunce, E J; Coustenis, A; Dougherty, M K; Erd, C; Hussmann, H; Jaumann, R; Prieto-Ballesteros, O

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we provide a detailed review of Ganymede's characteristics that are germane to any consideration of its planetary protection requirements. Ganymede is the largest moon in our solar system and is the subject of one of the main science objectives of the JUICE mission to the jovian system. We explore the probability of the occurrence of potentially habitable zones within Ganymede at present, including those both within the deep liquid ocean and those in shallow liquid reservoirs. We consider the possible exchange processes between the surface and any putative habitats to set some constraints on the planetary protection approach for this moon. As a conclusion, the "remote" versus "significant" chance of contamination will be discussed, according to our current understanding of this giant icy moon. Based on the different estimates we investigate here, it appears extremely unlikely that material would be exchanged downward through the upper icy layer of Ganymede and, thus, bring material into the ocean over timescales consistent with the survival of microorganisms.

  19. Introduction to an Updated Analysis of Planetary Protection: "Special Regions" on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaty, D. W.; Rummel, J. D.; Viola, D.

    2014-03-01

    Since the beginning of human activity in space science and exploration, there has been an appreciation of the negative consequences of transferring life from one planet to another. Given the unknown consequences of contact between two life forms and the fundamental value of studying a new form life, thoughtfulness and caution are warranted. The "special regions" concept is a component of the International Council for Science's Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Planetary Protection Policy, as it applies to Mars. These are regions "within which terrestrial organisms are likely to replicate" as well as "any region which is interpreted to have a high potential for the existence of extant martian life." Robotic missions planning to have direct contact with such special regions are given planetary protection categorization (IVc), with stringent cleanliness constraints on the portions of the mission contacting such regions. The current, quantitative definition of "special regions based on temperature and water activity limits was adopted by COSPAR in 2008 after a two-year process that included meetings of the Mars Exploration Planning and Analysis Group's (MEPAG) Special Regions Science Analysis Group (SR-SAG) and COSPAR's Panel on Planetary Protection. In this study, the MEPAG SR-SAG2 will review and update the technical information that underlie NASA's and COSPAR's definition of special regions on Mars, enabling interpretations of when and where they could occur in light of new discoveries since 2007. This will include updates of current understanding in (1) the known physical limits to life on Earth, including low temperature and low water activity, the biological capture/use of vapor-phase water, and survival over long time scales with short periods of growth; (2) observational data sets and new models from Mars that could be relevant to our understanding of the natural variations on Mars of water activity and temperature, including recurring slope lineae (RSL

  20. The statistical treatment implemented to obtain the planetary protection bioburdens for the Mars Science Laboratory mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudet, Robert A.

    2013-06-01

    NASA Planetary Protection Policy requires that Category IV missions such as those going to the surface of Mars include detailed assessment and documentation of the bioburden on the spacecraft at launch. In the prior missions to Mars, the approaches used to estimate the bioburden could easily be conservative without penalizing the project because spacecraft elements such as the descent and landing stages had relatively small surface areas and volumes. With the advent of a large spacecraft such as Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), it became necessary for a modified—still conservative but more pragmatic—statistical treatment be used to obtain the standard deviations and the bioburden densities at about the 99.9% confidence limits. This article describes both the Gaussian and Poisson statistics that were implemented to analyze the bioburden data from the MSL spacecraft prior to launch. The standard deviations were weighted by the areas sampled with each swab or wipe. Some typical cases are given and discussed.

  1. Calculation of the number of Monte Carlo histories for a planetary protection probability of impact estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barengoltz, Jack

    2016-07-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) is a common method to estimate probability, effectively by a simulation. For planetary protection, it may be used to estimate the probability of impact P{}_{I} by a launch vehicle (upper stage) of a protected planet. The object of the analysis is to provide a value for P{}_{I} with a given level of confidence (LOC) that the true value does not exceed the maximum allowed value of P{}_{I}. In order to determine the number of MC histories required, one must also guess the maximum number of hits that will occur in the analysis. This extra parameter is needed because a LOC is desired. If more hits occur, the MC analysis would indicate that the true value may exceed the specification value with a higher probability than the LOC. (In the worst case, even the mean value of the estimated P{}_{I} might exceed the specification value.) After the analysis is conducted, the actual number of hits is, of course, the mean. The number of hits arises from a small probability per history and a large number of histories; these are the classic requirements for a Poisson distribution. For a known Poisson distribution (the mean is the only parameter), the probability for some interval in the number of hits is calculable. Before the analysis, this is not possible. Fortunately, there are methods that can bound the unknown mean for a Poisson distribution. F. Garwoodfootnote{ F. Garwood (1936), ``Fiduciary limits for the Poisson distribution.'' Biometrika 28, 437-442.} published an appropriate method that uses the Chi-squared function, actually its inversefootnote{ The integral chi-squared function would yield probability α as a function of the mean µ and an actual value n.} (despite the notation used): This formula for the upper and lower limits of the mean μ with the two-tailed probability 1-α depends on the LOC α and an estimated value of the number of "successes" n. In a MC analysis for planetary protection, only the upper limit is of interest, i.e., the single

  2. The Validation of Vapor Phase Hydrogen Peroxide Microbial Reduction for Planetary Protection and a Proposed Vacuum Process Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Shirley; Barengoltz, Jack; Kern, Roger; Koukol, Robert; Cash, Howard

    2006-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in conjunction with the NASA Planetary Protection Officer, has selected the vapor phase hydrogen peroxide sterilization process for continued development as a NASA approved sterilization technique for spacecraft subsystems and systems. The goal is to include this technique, with an appropriate specification, in NPR 8020.12C as a low temperature complementary technique to the dry heat sterilization process.To meet microbial reduction requirements for all Mars in-situ life detection and sample return missions, various planetary spacecraft subsystems will have to be exposed to a qualified sterilization process. This process could be the elevated temperature dry heat sterilization process (115 C for 40 hours) which was used to sterilize the Viking lander spacecraft. However, with utilization of such elements as highly sophisticated electronics and sensors in modern spacecraft, this process presents significant materials challenges and is thus an undesirable bioburden reduction method to design engineers. The objective of this work is to introduce vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an alternative to dry heat microbial reduction to meet planetary protection requirements.The VHP process is widely used by the medical industry to sterilize surgical instruments and biomedical devices, but high doses of VHP may degrade the performance of flight hardware, or compromise material properties. Our goal for this study was to determine the minimum VHP process conditions to achieve microbial reduction levels acceptable for planetary protection.

  3. An Examination of the Sagan-Coleman formula for application to planetary protection for Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barengoltz, Jack

    2016-07-01

    The Sagan-Coleman formulafootnote{ Sagan, C.; Coleman, S. (1965). "Spacecraft sterilization standards and contamination of Mars". Journal of Astronautics and Aeronautics 3 (5): 22-27.} was originally published as a method to estimate the probability of contamination of Mars by a spacecraft. This estimate was required to satisfy the NASA planetary protection requirements for Mars, which were at the time specified in terms of a maximum allowed value for the probability of contamination. The form of the formula is: P{}_{c} = N{}_{0}{}_{ }P{}_{1}*P{}_{2}*....P{}_{n}*P{}_{g} Here P{}_{c}, the probability of contamination is the probability that one or more of N{}_{0} microbes on the spacecraft will survive to a release on the surface of Mars and reproduce. P{}_{g} is the probability of growth (reproduction, per microbe). Before the identification of the necessary parameters for a flight mission to Europa, it is worthwhile to clarify the mathematical origin of the formula. In fact, the phrase ``one or more'' of the N{}_{0}{}_{ }microbes provides{}_{ }a clue. The exact mathematical form is: [P_c=1-{(1-p)}^{N_0}] Here p is the probability per microbe that it will survive and grow, 1-p is the probability that it won't, {(1-p)}^{N_0} is the probability that all N{}_{0} microbes fail to survive and grow. Thus the last value subtracted from unity is the probability of ``one or more'' surviving and growing. For the case that N{}_{0} p << 1 , the quantity in parentheses may be approximated by the first two terms of a Taylor expansion as 1 - N{}_{0}{}_{ }p, so that P{}_{c} = N{}_{0}{}_{ }p of course. For planetary protection purposes, the approximation is typically adequate. Nevertheless, an upper limit for the error (the residual from the truncation of the series) is provided. More importantly, the parameters are shown to be in three categories, at least one of which violates the derivation. That category is comprised of parameters that are independent of N{}_{0}, for example

  4. Ethical Considerations and Planetary Protection for Future Space Exploration - Starting with the Basics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, Margaret

    2012-07-01

    As COSPAR scientists deliberate what types of frameworks and policy approaches may be applicable to future activities by various sectors in space exploration, it also needs to consider the challenging question of what ethical values and foundations should be used in dealing with life, objects and activities in outer space. A 2010 COSPAR Workshop Report on Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration recommended that it is appropriate to maintain the existing PP policy aimed at scientific concerns even as we begin to explore various practical approaches to future contamination avoidance policies. It is also appropriate to examine in parallel the ethical considerations applicable to potential indigenous extraterrestrial life, non-living extraterrestrial features and environments, and planned uses and activities involving diverse life from Earth. Since numerous sectors have begun to propose activities raising varied ethical concerns (e.g., protection and management on the moon, strip mining, space synthetic biology, space code of conduct, and commercial space transport), it is timely to initiate serious international discussions about the appropriate ethical foundations and questions applicable to future space exploration. Plans are underway for convening interdisciplinary work groups to explore and deliberate on the values (e.g., intrinsic and instrumental) and ethical foundations that are appropriate for use in deliberations involving potential indigenous extraterrestrial life and the different classes of target objects and environments in our solar system. More than ever, information on bioethics, environmental ethics and geoethics will provide helpful guidance and foundational approaches of relevance to future policy deliberations that seek to go beyond science protection per se.

  5. Synchronous separation, seaming, sealing and sterilization (S4) using brazing for sample containerization and planetary protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Sherrit, Stewart; Freeman, David; Campos, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    The potential return of samples back to Earth in a future NASA mission would require protection of our planet from the risk of bringing uncontrolled biological materials back with the samples. In order to ensure this does not happen, it would be necessary to "break the chain of contact (BTC)", where any material reaching Earth would have to be inside a container that is sealed with extremely high confidence. Therefore, it would be necessary to contain the acquired samples and destroy any potential biological materials that may contaminate the external surface of their container while protecting the sample itself for further analysis. A novel synchronous separation, seaming, sealing and sterilization (S4) process for sample containerization and planetary protection has been conceived and demonstrated. A prototype double wall container with inner and outer shells and Earth clean interstitial space was used for this demonstration. In a potential future mission, the double wall container would be split into two halves and prepared on Earth, while the potential on-orbit execution would consist of inserting the sample into one of the halves and then mating to the other half and brazing. The use of brazing material that melts at temperatures higher than 500°C would assure sterilization of the exposed areas since all carbon bonds are broken at this temperature. The process would be executed in two-steps, Step-1: the double wall container halves would be fabricated and brazed on Earth; and Step-2: the containerization and sterilization process would be executed on-orbit. To prevent potential jamming during the process of mating the two halves of the double wall container and the extraction of the brazed inner container, a cone-within-cone approach has been conceived and demonstrated. The results of this study will be described and discussed.

  6. Planetary Protection, Sample Return Missions and Mars Exploration: History, Status, and Future Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVincenzi, Donald L.; Race, Margaret S.; Klein, Harold P.

    1998-01-01

    As the prospect grows for a Mars sample return mission early in the next millennium, it will be important to ensure that appropriate planetary protection (PP) controls are incorporated into the mission design and implementation from the start. The need for these PP controls is firmly based on scientific considerations and backed by a number of national and international agreements and guidelines aimed at preventing harmful cross contamination of planets and extraterrestrial bodies. The historical precedent for the use of PP measures on both unmanned and manned missions traces from post-Sputnik missions to the present, with periodic modifications as new information was obtained. In consideration of the anticipated attention to PP questions by both the scientific/technical community and the public, this paper presents a comprehensive review of the major issues and problems surrounding PP for a Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission, including an analysis of arguments that have been raised for and against the imposition of PP measures. Also discussed are the history and foundations for PP policies and requirements; important research areas needing attention prior to defining detailed PP requirements for a MSR mission; and legal and public awareness issues that must be considered with mission planning.

  7. Using Artificial Life to Assess the Typicality of Terrestrial Life: Implications for Human Mission Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupisella, Mark; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The extent to which extraterrestrial life questions can be addressed, in the absence of an actual example, rests in some measure on the extent to which terrestrial life is representative of life in general since we will likely have to draw heavily, if not completely, from terrestrial life research. One example of a practical question involving extraterrestrial life that arises in preparing for a human mission to another planet such as Mars, is trying to assess and minimize the possible adverse effects of the presence of humans on possible indigenous extraterrestrial life-forms. This paper will present some key planetary protection challenges for a human Mars mission and then focus on one possible approach for assessing the extent to which terrestrial life is representative of biological phenomena in general, informing perhaps, the level of confidence we might have in applying terrestrial research - to extraterrestrial life issues. The approach involves appealing to the relatively new field of Artificial Life (A-Life) to: (1) use what might be the most basic minimal set of life-defining characteristics in (2) a large number of open-ended Artificial Life simulations to generate a "life possibility space" (3) the products of which can be examined for their plausibility within the context of relevant constraining knowledge, so that (4) the remaining possibility space can be examined for its variability relative to terrestrial life, where low variability might suggest that terrestrial life is representative of life in general, and high variability would indicate otherwise.

  8. Planetary Protection: X-ray Super-Flares Aid Formation of "Solar Systems"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    form. Specifically, this turbulence can help prevent planets from rapidly migrating towards the young star. "Although these flares may be creating havoc in the disks, they ultimately could do more good than harm," said Feigelson. "These flares may be acting like a planetary protection program." About half of the young suns in Orion show evidence for disks, likely sites for current planet formation, including four lying at the center of proplyds (proto-planetary disks) imaged by Hubble Space Telescope. X-ray flares bombard these planet-forming disks, likely giving them an electric charge. This charge, combined with motion of the disk and the effects of magnetic fields should create turbulence in the disk. handra X-ray Image of Orion Nebula, Full-Field Chandra X-ray Image of Orion Nebula, Full-Field The numerous results from the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project will appear in a dedicated issue of The Astrophysical Journal Supplement in October, 2005. The team contains 37 scientists from institutions across the world including the US, Italy, France, Germany, Taiwan, Japan and the Netherlands. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Northrop Grumman of Redondo Beach, Calif., was the prime development contractor for the observatory. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images are available at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  9. Planetary protection, bioresources and symbiotechnical systems of nature management in the scientific heritage of Klim Ivanovich Churyumov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steklov, A. F.; Kolotilov, N. N.; Kruchinenko, V. G.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Dashkiev, G. N.; Grudinin, B. A.; Steklov, E. A.

    2017-04-01

    In this article presents an overview of the main ideas of Klim Ivanovich Churyumov on the deployment of control systems, and of the creation of technical devices of planetary protection in general, and in particular, of the planet’s biological resources. For this purposes it is proposed to use research and development of authors work in the field of symbio-engineering and applied symbio-technical planetology

  10. In Situ Biological Contamination Studies of the Moon: Implications for Future Planetary Protection and Life Detection Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Lupisella, Mark; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA and ESA have outlined visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic precursor missions to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moon, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of life. The search for life on objects such as Mars will require that all spacecraft and instrumentation be sufficiently cleaned and sterilized prior to launch to ensure that the scientific integrity of extraterrestrial samples is not jeopardized by terrestrial organic contamination. Under the Committee on Space Research's (COSPAR's) current planetary protection policy for the Moon, no sterilization procedures are required for outbound lunar spacecraft, nor is there yet a planetary protection category for human missions. Future in situ investigations of a variety of locations on the Moon by highly sensitive instruments designed to search for biologically derived organic compounds would help assess the contamination of the Moon by lunar spacecraft. These studies could also provide valuable "ground truth" data for Mars sample return missions and help define planetary protection requirements for future Mars bound spacecraft carrying life detection experiments. In addition, studies of the impact of terrestrial contamination of the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts could provide valuable data to help refine future Mars surface exploration plans for a human mission to Mars.

  11. Exploration of Icy Moons in the Outer Solar System: Updated Planetary Protection Requirements for Missions to Enceladus and Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, J. D.; Race, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Enceladus and Europa are bodies with icy/watery environments and potential habitable conditions for life, making both of great interest in astrobiological studies of chemical evolution and /or origin of life. They are also of significant planetary protection concern for spacecraft missions because of the potential for harmful contamination during exploration. At a 2015 COSPAR colloquium in Bern Switzerland, international scientists identified an urgent need to establish planetary protection requirements for missions proposing to return samples to Earth from Saturn's moon Enceladus. Deliberations at the meeting resulted in recommended policy updates for both forward and back contamination requirements for missions to Europa and Enceladus, including missions sampling plumes originating from those bodies. These recently recommended COSPAR policy revisions and biological contamination requirements will be applied to future missions to Europa and Encealadus, particularly noticeable in those with plans for in situ life detection and sample return capabilities. Included in the COSPAR policy are requirementsto `break the chain of contact' with Europa or Enceladus, to keep pristine returned materials contained, and to complete required biohazard analyses, testing and/or sterilization upon return to Earth. Subsequent to the Bern meeting, additional discussions of Planetary Protection of Outer Solar System bodies (PPOSS) are underway in a 3-year study coordinated by the European Science Foundation and involving multiple international partners, including Japan, China and Russia, along with a US observer. This presentation will provide science and policy updates for those whose research or activities will involve icy moon missions and exploration.

  12. Towards a rapid and comprehensive microbial detection and identification system for life support and planetary protection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasseur, Christophe

    Long term manned missions of our Russian colleagues have demonstrated the risks associated with microbial contamination. These risks concern both crew health via the metabolic consumables contamination (water, air,.) but and also the hardware degradation. In parallel to these life support issues, planetary protection experts have agreed to place clear specifications of the microbial quality of future hardware landing on extraterrestrial planets as well as elaborate the requirements of contamination for manned missions on surface. For these activities, it is necessary to have a better understanding of microbial activity, to create culture collections and to develop on-line detection tools. . In this respect, over the last 6 years , ESA has supported active scientific research on the choice of critical genes and functions, including those linked to horizontal gene pool of bacteria and its dissemination. In parallel, ESA and European industries have been developing an automated instrument for rapid microbial detection on air and surface samples. Within this paper, we first present the life support and planetary protection requirements, and the state of the art of the instrument development. Preliminary results at breadboard level, including a mock-up view of the final instrument are also presented. Finally, the remaining steps required to reach a functional instrument for planetary hardware integration and life support flight hardware are also presented.

  13. Developing Planetary Protection Technology: Recurrence of Hydrogen Peroxide Resistant Microbes from Spacecraft Assembly Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, M. J.; Chen, F.; Quigley, M. S.; Pillai, S.; Kern, R.; Venkateswaran, K.

    2001-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide vapor is currently the sterilant-of-choice for flight hardware because it is a low-heat sterilization process suitable for use with various spacecraft components. Hydrogen peroxide is a strong oxidizing agent that produces hydroxyl free radicals ( .OH) which attack essential cell components, including lipids, proteins, and DNA. Planetary protection research efforts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are focused on developing cleaning and sterilization technologies for spacecraft preparation prior to launch. These efforts include research to assess the microbial diversity of spacecraft assembly areas and any extreme characteristics these microbes might possess. Previous studies have shown that some heat-tolerant Bacillus species isolated from the JPL Spacecraft Assembly Facility (SAF) are resistant to recommended hydrogen peroxide vapor sterilization exposures. A Bacillus species, which was related to a hydrogen peroxide resistant strain, was repeatedly isolated from various locations in the JPL-SAF. This species was found in both unclassified (entrance floors, ante-room, and air-lock) and classified (class 100K) (floors, cabinet tops, and air) areas. The phylogenetic affiliation of these strains was carried out using biochemical tests and 16S rDNA sequencing. The 16S rDNA analysis showed >99% sequence similarity to Bacillus pumilus. In order to understand the epidemiology of these strains, a more highly evolved gene (topoisomerase II β -subunit, gyrB) was also sequenced. Among 4 clades, one cluster, comprised of 3 strains isolated from the air-lock area, tightly aligned with the B. pumilus ATCC 7061 type strain (97%). The gyrB sequence similarity of this clade was only 91% with the 3 other clades. The genetic relatedness of these strains, as per pulse field gel electrophoresis patterns, will be presented. The vegetative cells and spores of a number of isolates were tested for their hydrogen peroxide resistance. Cells and spores were

  14. Planetary Protection Provisions for the Mars 2020 Mission: Enabling Discovery by Constraining Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, J. D.; Conley, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The 2013-2022 NRC Decadal Survey named its #1 Flagship priority as a large, capable Mars rover that would be the first of a three-mission, multi-decadal effort to return samples from Mars. More recently, NASA's Mars Program has stated that a Mars rover mission known as 'Mars 2020' would be flown to Mars (in 2020) to accomplish a subset of the goals specified by the NRC, and the recent report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team (SDT) has recommended that the mission accomplish broad and rigorous in situ science, including seeking biosignatures, acquiring a diverse set of samples intended to address a range of Mars science questions and storing them in a cache for potential return to Earth at a later time, and other engineering goals to constrain costs and support future human exploration. In some ways Mars 2020 will share planetary protection requirements with the Mars Science Laboratory mission that landed in 2012, which included landing site constraints based on the presence of a perennial heat source (the MMRTG) aboard the lander/rover. In a very significant way, however, the presence of a sample-cache and the potential that Mars 2020 will be the first mission in the chain that will return a sample from Mars to Earth. Thus Mars 2020 will face more stringent requirements aimed at keeping the mission from returning Earth contamination with the samples from Mars. Mars 2020 will be looking for biosignatures of ancient life, on Mars, but will also need to be concerned with the potential to detect extant biosignatures or life itself within the sample that is eventually returned. If returned samples are able to unlock wide-ranging questions about the geology, surface processes, and habitability of Mars that cannot be answered by study of meteorites or current mission data, then either the returned samples must be free enough of Earth organisms to be releasable from a quarantine facility or the planned work of sample scientists, including high- and low

  15. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Arnold, J.; Gasch, M.; Stackpole, M.; Wercinski, R.; Venkatapathy, E.; Fan, W.; Thornton, J; Szalai, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Office of Chief Technologist (OCT), NASA has identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASAs Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASAs exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) is a primary avenue to achieve the Agencys 2011 strategic goal to Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future. In addition, recently released NASA Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities, by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences stresses the need for NASA to invest in the very near term in specific EDL technologies. The report points out the following challenges (Page 2-38 of the pre-publication copy released on February 1, 2012): Mass to Surface: Develop the ability to deliver more payload to the destination. NASA's future missions will require ever-greater mass delivery capability in order to place scientifically significant instrument packages on distant bodies of interest, to facilitate sample returns from bodies of interest, and to enable human exploration of planets such as Mars. As the maximum mass that can be delivered to an entry interface is fixed for a given launch system and trajectory design, the mass delivered to the surface will require reductions in spacecraft structural mass more efficient, lighter thermal protection systems more efficient lighter propulsion systems and lighter, more efficient deceleration systems. Surface Access: Increase the ability to land at a variety of planetary locales and at a variety of times. Access to specific sites can be achieved via landing at a specific location(s) or transit from a single designated landing location, but it is currently infeasible to transit long distances and through extremely rugged terrain, requiring landing close to the site of

  16. Initial Sample Analyses inside a Capsule: A Strategy of Life Detection and Planetary Protection for Ocean World Sample Return Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Hajime; Takano, Yoshinori; Sekine, Yasuhito; Takai, Ken; Funase, Ryu; Fujishima, Kosuke; Shibuya, Takazo

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection is considered to be one of the most crucial challenges to enable sample return missions from "Ocean Worlds", internal oceans of icy satellites as potential deep habitat such as Enceladus and Europa, due to the risk of backward contamination of bringing back potential biology-related matters or at most, possible extraterrestrial living signatures to the Earth. Here we propose an innovative technological solution for both life detection and planetary protection of such returned samples, namely by conducting all major life signature searches, which are also a critical path of quarantine processes of planetary protection, inside the Earth return capsule, prior to open the canister and expose to the terrestrial environment. We plan to test the latest sample capture and recovery methods of preparing multiple aliquot chambers in the sample return capsule. Each aliquot chamber will trap, for instance, plume particles and ambient volatiles during the spacecraft flying through Enceladus plumes so that respective analyses can be performed focusing on volatiles and minerals (i.e., habitability for life), organics (i.e., ingredients for life), biosignatures (i.e., activity of life) and for archiving the samples for future investigations at the same time. In-situ analysis will be conducted under complete containment through an optical interface port that allows pre-installed fiber optic cables to perform non-contact measurements and capillary tubing for extraction/injection of gas and liquids through metal barriers to be punctuated inside a controlled environment. Once primary investigations are completed, the interior of the capsule will be sterilized by gamma rays and UV irradiation. Post-sterilized aliquot chambers will be further analyzed under enclosed and ultraclean environment at BAL 2-3 facilities, rather than BSL4. We consider that this is an unique solution that can cope with severe requirements set for the Category-V sample returns for

  17. Implementing planetary protection on the Atlas V fairing and ground systems used to launch the Mars Science Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Benardini, James N; La Duc, Myron T; Ballou, David; Koukol, Robert

    2014-01-01

    On November 26, 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) launched from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard an Atlas V 541 rocket, taking its first step toward exploring the past habitability of Mars' Gale Crater. Because microbial contamination could profoundly impact the integrity of the mission, and compliance with international treaty was a necessity, planetary protection measures were implemented on all MSL hardware to verify that bioburden levels complied with NASA regulations. The cleanliness of the Atlas V payload fairing (PLF) and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL were also evaluated. By applying proper recontamination countermeasures early and often in the encapsulation process, the PLF was kept extremely clean and was shown to pose little threat of recontaminating the enclosed MSL flight system upon launch. Contrary to prelaunch estimates that assumed that the interior PLF spore burden ranged from 500 to 1000 spores/m², the interior surfaces of the Atlas V PLF were extremely clean, housing a mere 4.65 spores/m². Reported here are the practices and results of the campaign to implement and verify planetary protection measures on the Atlas V launch vehicle and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL. All these facilities and systems were very well kept and exceeded the levels of cleanliness and rigor required in launching the MSL payload.

  18. Electric solar-wind sail for asteroid touring missions and planetary protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janhunen, P.

    2014-07-01

    long time, moving from asteroid to asteroid in a bit similar way as, e.g., Mars rovers move from rock to rock on the planet's surface. After starting from the Earth, the mission would slowly spiral outward, making rendezvous with interesting asteroids along the way, as well as flybys or even a larger number of asteroids as opportunities arise. The spacecraft would do remote sensing of the bodies and perhaps also deploy small CubeSat-sized expendable landers on them (the mother spacecraft cannot land on an asteroid or else it would lose the E-sail tethers). The mission would first explore near-Earth objects, then pass through the main belt and end up with the Trojans, exploring asteroids in rendezvous and flyby modes all the time. Asteroids in roughly circular orbits and at low inclination would be the easiest and most likely targets for rendezvous mode encounters, while there would be less restrictions for flyby mode observations. Besides for pure asteroid science, the E-sail could also be used for planetary protection, either through direct propulsive deflection of a dangerous asteroid [4] or by accelerating a relatively lightweight impactor spacecraft to a retrograde orbit and in that way maximizing the available deflecting impact energy for given impactor mass. E-sails could take a number of such impactors to retrograde storage orbits from which they could be commanded to impact a dangerous asteroid with relatively short warning time. Such impactor fleet would not be dangerous to the Earth because the vehicles can be designed to burn completely in the atmosphere, in the unlikely event that due to some mishap one of them would collide with the Earth. The E-sail has potentially large applicability to asteroids as it promises ''free'' transportation in the solar system. As a next step, a solar-wind test mission is needed to demonstrate the technology in the authentic environment.

  19. 76 FR 69768 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ...) 358-4118, or [email protected]nasa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The meeting will be open to the public up... November 18, 2011, to Marian Norris via email at [email protected]nasa.gov or by telephone at (202) 358-4452... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 11-114] NASA Advisory Council; Science...

  20. 75 FR 39974 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ..., DC 20546, (202) 358-4452, fax (202) 358-4118, or [email protected]nasa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The... identifying information 3 working days in advance by contacting Marian Norris via e-mail at [email protected]nasa.gov... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (10-075)] NASA Advisory Council; Science...

  1. 76 FR 21411 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ..., Washington, DC 20546, (202) 358-4452, fax (202) 358-4118, or [email protected]nasa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... advance by contacting Marian Norris via e-mail at [email protected]nasa.gov or by telephone at (202) 358-4452... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (11-041)] NASA Advisory Council; Science...

  2. 75 FR 80850 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ...) 358-4452, fax (202) 358-4118, or [email protected]nasa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The meeting will be... identifying information 3 working days in advance by contacting Marian Norris via e-mail at [email protected]nasa.gov... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (10-168)] NASA Advisory Council; Science...

  3. Interoperability in the Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios Diaz, C.

    2017-09-01

    The protocols and standards currently being supported by the recently released new version of the Planetary Science Archive at this time are the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP), the EuroPlanet- Table Access Protocol (EPN-TAP) and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. We explore these protocols in more detail providing scientifically useful examples of their usage within the PSA.

  4. Protecting Privacy and Securing the Gathering of Location Proofs - The Secure Location Verification Proof Gathering Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Michelle; Gray, David

    As wireless networks become increasingly ubiquitous, the demand for a method of locating a device has increased dramatically. Location Based Services are now commonplace but there are few methods of verifying or guaranteeing a location provided by a user without some specialised hardware, especially in larger scale networks. We propose a system for the verification of location claims, using proof gathered from neighbouring devices. In this paper we introduce a protocol to protect this proof gathering process, protecting the privacy of all involved parties and securing it from intruders and malicious claiming devices. We present the protocol in stages, extending the security of this protocol to allow for flexibility within its application. The Secure Location Verification Proof Gathering Protocol (SLVPGP) has been designed to function within the area of Vehicular Networks, although its application could be extended to any device with wireless & cryptographic capabilities.

  5. A secure protocol for protecting the identity of providers when disclosing data for disease surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Mercer, Jay; Peyton, Liam; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Malin, Bradley; Buckeridge, David; Samet, Saeed; Earle, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Background Providers have been reluctant to disclose patient data for public-health purposes. Even if patient privacy is ensured, the desire to protect provider confidentiality has been an important driver of this reluctance. Methods Six requirements for a surveillance protocol were defined that satisfy the confidentiality needs of providers and ensure utility to public health. The authors developed a secure multi-party computation protocol using the Paillier cryptosystem to allow the disclosure of stratified case counts and denominators to meet these requirements. The authors evaluated the protocol in a simulated environment on its computation performance and ability to detect disease outbreak clusters. Results Theoretical and empirical assessments demonstrate that all requirements are met by the protocol. A system implementing the protocol scales linearly in terms of computation time as the number of providers is increased. The absolute time to perform the computations was 12.5 s for data from 3000 practices. This is acceptable performance, given that the reporting would normally be done at 24 h intervals. The accuracy of detection disease outbreak cluster was unchanged compared with a non-secure distributed surveillance protocol, with an F-score higher than 0.92 for outbreaks involving 500 or more cases. Conclusion The protocol and associated software provide a practical method for providers to disclose patient data for sentinel, syndromic or other indicator-based surveillance while protecting patient privacy and the identity of individual providers. PMID:21486880

  6. Validation of a Rapid Bacteria Endospore Enumeration System for Planetary Protection Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Kern, Roger; Kazarians, Gayane; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    NASA monitors spacecraft surfaces to assure that the presence of bacterial endospores meets strict criteria at launch, to minimize the risk of inadvertent contamination of the surface of Mars. Currently, the only approved method for enumerating the spores is a culture based assay that requires three days to produce results. In order to meet the demanding schedules of spacecraft assembly, a more rapid spore detection assay is being considered as an alternate method to the NASA standard culture-based assay. The Millipore Rapid Microbiology Detection System (RMDS) has been used successfully for rapid bioburden enumeration in the pharmaceutical and food industries. The RMDS is rapid and simple, shows high sensitivity (to 1 colony forming unit [CFU]/sample), and correlates well with traditional culture-based methods. It combines membrane filtration, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence chemistry, and image analysis based on photon detection with a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera. In this study, we have optimized the assay conditions and evaluated the use of the RMDS as a rapid spore detection tool for NASA applications. In order to select for spores, the samples were subjected to a heat shock step before proceeding with the RMDS incubation protocol. Seven species of Bacillus (nine strains) that have been repeatedly isolated from clean room environments were assayed. All strains were detected by the RMDS in 5 hours and these assay times were repeatedly demonstrated along with low image background noise. Validation experiments to compare the Rapid Sore Assay (RSA) and NASA standard assay (NSA) were also performed. The evaluation criteria were modeled after the FDA Guideline of Process Validation, and Analytical Test Methods. This body of research demonstrates that the Rapid Spore Assay (RSA) is quick, and of equivalent sensitivity to the NASA standard assay, potentially reducing the assay time for bacterial endospores from over 72 hours to less than 8 hours

  7. Survival and germinability of Bacillus subtilis spores exposed to simulated Mars solar radiation: implications for life detection and planetary protection.

    PubMed

    Tauscher, Courtney; Schuerger, Andrew C; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2006-08-01

    Bacterial spores have been considered as microbial life that could survive interplanetary transport by natural impact processes or human spaceflight activity. Deposition of terrestrial microbes or their biosignature molecules onto the surface of Mars could negatively impact life detection experiments and planetary protection measures. Simulated Mars solar radiation, particularly the ultraviolet component, has been shown to reduce spore viability, but its effect on spore germination and resulting production of biosignature molecules has not been explored. We examined the survival and germinability of Bacillus subtilis spores exposed to simulated martian conditions that include solar radiation. Spores of B. subtilis that contain luciferase resulting from expression of an sspB-luxAB gene fusion were deposited on aluminum coupons to simulate deposition on spacecraft surfaces and exposed to simulated Mars atmosphere and solar radiation. The equivalent of 42 min of simulated Mars solar radiation exposure reduced spore viability by nearly 3 logs, while germination-induced bioluminescence, a measure of germination metabolism, was reduced by less than 1 log. The data indicate that spores can retain the potential to initiate germination-associated metabolic processes and produce biological signature molecules after being rendered nonviable by exposure to Mars solar radiation.

  8. Synchronous separation, seaming, sealing and sterilization (S4) using brazing for sample containerization and planetary protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Lindsey, Cameron; Kutzer, Thomas; Salazar, Eduardo

    2018-03-01

    The return of samples back to Earth in future missions would require protection of our planet from the risk of bringing uncontrolled biological materials back with the samples. This protection would require "breaking the chain of contact (BTC)", where any returned material reaching Earth for further analysis would have to be sealed inside a container with extremely high confidence. Therefore, the acquired samples would need to be contained while destroying any potential biological materials that may contaminate the external surface of the container. A novel process that could be used to contain returning samples has been developed and demonstrated in a quarter scale size. The process consists of brazing using non-contact induction heating that synchronously separates, seams, seals and sterilizes (S4) the container. The use of brazing involves melting at temperatures higher than 500°C and this level of heating assures sterilization of the exposed areas since all carbon bonds (namely, organic materials) are broken at this temperature. The mechanism consists of a double wall container with inner and outer shells having Earth-clean interior surfaces. The process consists of two-steps, Step-1: the double wall container halves are fabricated and brazed (equivalent to production on Earth); and Step-2 is the S4 process and it is the equivalent to the execution on-orbit around Mars. In a potential future mission, the double wall container would be split into two halves and prepared on Earth. The potential on-orbit execution would consist of inserting the orbiting sample (OS) container into one of the halves and then mated to the other half and brazed. The latest results of this effort will be described and discussed in this manuscript.

  9. Resistance of spacecraft isolates to outer space for planetary protection purposes -first results of the experiment PROTECT of the EXPOSE-E mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, Gerda; Moeller, Ralf

    Spore-forming microbes are of particular concern in the context of planetary protection, be-cause their endospores are highly resistant to a variety of environmental extremes, including certain sterilization procedures and the harsh environment of outer space or planetary sur-faces (Nicholson et al., 2000; Horneck et al. 2009). Furthermore, isolates from space craft and space craft assembly facilities have been identified that form spores of an elevated resistance to various physical and chemical conditions, such as ionizing and UV radiation, desiccation and oxidative stress (La Duc et al., 2007). This observation led to the supposition that the spe-cial conditions of ultraclean spacecraft assembly facilities and the applied spacecraft cleaning and decontamination measures cause a selection of the most resistant organisms as survivors. To test this hypothesis, spores of B. pumilus SAFR-032 isolated from these environments as well as spores of the laboratory strain B. subtilis 168 were subjected to selected parameters of space in the experiment PROTECT during the EXPOSE-E mission (February 7, 2008 -September 12, 2009), attached to the EuTEF platform outside of the Columbus module of the International Space Station. The spores were mounted as dry layers onto spacecraft-qualified material (aluminum coupons) and exposed to the following parameters of space, applied sep-arately or in selected combinations: (i) space vacuum, (ii) solar extraterrestrial UV radiation including vacuum-UV, (iii) simulated Mars atmosphere and UV radiation climate, and (iv) galactic cosmic radiation. After recovery, visual inspection showed color changes of the sun-exposed spore samples from white to brownish demonstrating photochemical damage caused by solar extraterrestrial UV radiation. On-going analyses include studies of viability and capabil-ity of repair of damage, mutagenic spectrum, e.g. trp-revertants, rifampicin-resistant mutants, DNA lesion, global gene expression, and genomic and

  10. Supercritical CO2 Cleaning System for Planetary Protection and Contamination Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying; Zhong, Fang; Aveline, David C.; Anderson, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Current spacecraft-compatible cleaning protocols involve a vapor degreaser, liquid sonication, and alcohol wiping. These methods are not very effective in removing live and dead microbes from spacecraft piece parts of slightly complicated geometry, such as tubing and loosely fitted nuts and bolts. Contamination control practices are traditionally focused on cleaning and monitoring of particulate and oily residual. Vapor degreaser and outgassing bakeout have not been proven to be effective in removing some less volatile, hydrophilic biomolecules of significant relevance to life detection. A precision cleaning technology was developed using supercritical CO2 (SCC). SCC is used as both solvent and carrier for removing organic and particulate contaminants. Supercritical fluid, like SCC, is characterized by physical and thermal properties that are between those of the pure liquid and gas phases. The fluid density is a function of the temperature and pressure. Its solvating power can be adjusted by changing the pressure or temperature, or adding a secondary solvent such as alcohol or water. Unlike a regular organic solvent, SCC has higher diffusivities, lower viscosity, and lower surface tension. It readily penetrates porous and fibrous solids and can reach hard-to-reach surfaces of the parts with complex geometry. Importantly, the CO2 solvent does not leave any residue. The results using this new cleaning device demonstrated that both supercritical CO2 with 5% water as a co-solvent can achieve cleanliness levels of 0.01 mg/cm2 or less for contaminants of a wide range of hydrophobicities. Experiments under the same conditions using compressed Martian air mix, which consists of 95% CO2, produced similar cleaning effectiveness on the hydrophobic compounds. The main components of the SCC cleaning system are a high-pressure cleaning vessel, a boil-off vessel located downstream from the cleaning vessel, a syringe-type high-pressure pump, a heat exchanger, and a back pressure

  11. Indicators and protocols for monitoring impacts of formal and informal trails in protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Leung, Yu-Fai

    2011-01-01

    Trails are a common recreation infrastructure in protected areas and their conditions affect the quality of natural resources and visitor experiences. Various trail impact indicators and assessment protocols have been developed in support of monitoring programs, which are often used for management decision-making or as part of visitor capacity management frameworks. This paper reviews common indicators and assessment protocols for three types of trails, surfaced formal trails, unsurfaced formal trails, and informal (visitor-created) trails. Monitoring methods and selected data from three U.S. National Park Service units are presented to illustrate some common trail impact indicators and assessment options.

  12. Reducing recurrence in child protective services: impact of a targeted safety protocol.

    PubMed

    Fluke, J; Edwards, M; Bussey, M; Wells, S; Johnson, W

    2001-08-01

    Statewide implementation of a child safety assessment protocol by the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS) in 1995 is assessed to determine its impact on near-term recurrence of child maltreatment. Literature on the use of risk and safety assessment as a decision-making tool supports the DCFS's approach. The literature on the use of recurrence as a summative measure for evaluation is described. Survival analysis is used with an administrative data set of 400,000 children reported to DCFS between October 1994 and November 1997. An ex-post facto design tests the hypothesis that the use of the protocol cannot be ruled out as an explanation for the observed decline in recurrence following implementation. Several alternative hypotheses are tested: change in use of protective custody, other concurrent changes in state policy, and the concurrent experience of other states. The impact of the protocol to reduce recurrence was not ruled out.

  13. Watermarking protocols for authentication and ownership protection based on timestamps and holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Jana; Steinebach, Martin; Croce Ferri, Lucilla

    2002-04-01

    Digital watermarking has become an accepted technology for enabling multimedia protection schemes. One problem here is the security of these schemes. Without a suitable framework, watermarks can be replaced and manipulated. We discuss different protocols providing security against rightful ownership attacks and other fraud attempts. We compare the characteristics of existing protocols for different media like direct embedding or seed based and required attributes of the watermarking technology like robustness or payload. We introduce two new media independent protocol schemes for rightful ownership authentication. With the first scheme we ensure security of digital watermarks used for ownership protection with a combination of two watermarks: first watermark of the copyright holder and a second watermark from a Trusted Third Party (TTP). It is based on hologram embedding and the watermark consists of e.g. a company logo. As an example we use digital images and specify the properties of the embedded additional security information. We identify components necessary for the security protocol like timestamp, PKI and cryptographic algorithms. The second scheme is used for authentication. It is designed for invertible watermarking applications which require high data integrity. We combine digital signature schemes and digital watermarking to provide a public verifiable integrity. The original data can only be reproduced with a secret key. Both approaches provide solutions for copyright and authentication watermarking and are introduced for image data but can be easily adopted for video and audio data as well.

  14. The Importance of the Montreal Protocol in Protecting the Earth's Hydroclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seager, R.; Wu, Y.; Polvani, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    The 1987 Montreal Protocol regulating emissions of ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) was motivated primarily by the harm to human health and ecosystems arising from increased exposure to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation associated with depletion from the ozone layer. It is now known that the Montreal Protocol has reduced global warming since CFCs are greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this paper we show that the Montreal Protocol also significantly protects the Earth's hydroclimate, even though this was also not a motivating factor in the decision-making that led to the Protocol. General Circulation Model (GCM) results show that in the coming decade (2020-29), under the 'World Avoided' scenario of no regulations on CFC emissions, the subtropical dry zones would in general get drier, and the middle and high latitude regions wetter. This change is similar, in both pattern and magnitude, to that in the coming decade caused by projected increases in carbon dioxide concentrations. This implies that because of the Montreal Protocol, and the ozone depletion and global warming associated with CFCs thus avoided, the hydrological cycle changes in the coming decade will be significantly less than what they otherwise would have been.

  15. Planetary Protection Progress of Hayabusa2 and Its Piggyback PROCYON: Launch, Earth Swingby and Outbound Cruising Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Hajime; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Sarli, Bruno; Ozaki, Naoya; Funase, Ryu; Tsuda, Yuichi; Chujo, Toshihiro; Ariu, Kaito

    2016-07-01

    Hayabusa-2 is Japan's second asteroid sample return mission which was successfully launched into the planned Earth departure trajectory with the H-IIA rocket on December 3rd, 2014, together with a group of its interplanetary piggyback micro- spacecraft, including the PROCYON(Proximate Object Close flYby with Optical Navigation)spacecraft, the world's first 50 kg-class deep space micro-spacecraft developed by the University of Tokyo and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. The Hayabusa-2 spacecraft will go to Rug, a C-type NEO, and attempt surface investigations with daughter rovers (MINERVA-II series and MASCOT), artificial impact cratering experiment (SCI) and both surface and sub-surface sampling (Sampler) in 2018-2019 and plans to return to the Earth in December 2020. The PROCYON mission objective was to demonstrate a micro-spacecraft bus technology for deep space exploration and proximity flyby to asteroids performing optical measurements. Both of the above missions were fully evaluated by the COSPAR Planetary Protection Panel at the dedicated COSPAR colloquium and scientific assembly in 2014 and the COSPAR PPP has endorsed the Category-2 for their outbound trajectories and the non-restricted Earth return for the inbound trajectory of Hayabusa-2. As a part of the fulfillments of the Category-2 classification, both spacecraft must be compliant with the COSPAR PPP requirements of non-impact probability to Mars since they would have enough energy to reach and beyond the orbit of Mars, due to the Earth swing-by and ion engine operations for their outbound cruising. As for the Hayabusa-2 spacecraft, it successfully performed its Earth gravity assist in December 2015, resulting on accurate orbit determination for the post-swing-by orbit to be ready to restart the ion engine operation. Thus the non-impact probability to Mars did not change from the estimate given by Chujo, et al. (2015). As for the PROCYON spacecraft after the completion of the bus system

  16. The impact of firefighter personal protective equipment and treadmill protocol on maximal oxygen uptake.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Bakri, Ilham; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Su-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of firefighter personal protective equipment (PPE) on the determination of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) while using two different treadmill protocols: a progressive incline protocol (PIP) and a progressive speed protocol (PSP), with three clothing conditions (Light-light clothing; Boots-PPE with rubber boots; Shoes-PPE with running shoes). Bruce protocol with Light was performed for a reference test. Results showed there was no difference in VO(2max) between Bruce Light, PIP Light, and PSP Light. However, VO(2max) was reduced in Boots and Shoes with shortened maximal performance time (7 and 6 min reduced for PIP Boots and Shoes, respectively; 11 and 9 min reduced for PSP Boots and Shoes, respectively), whereas the increasing rate of VO(2) in Boots and Shoes during submaximal exercise was greater compared with Light. Wearing firefighter boots compared with wearing running shoes also significantly affected submaximal VO(2) but not VO(2max). These results suggest that firefighters' maximal performance determined from a typical VO(2max) test without wearing PPE may overestimate the actual performance capability of firefighters wearing PPE.

  17. The Impact of Firefighter Personal Protective Equipment and Treadmill Protocol on Maximal Oxygen Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joo-Young; Bakri, Ilham; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Su-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of firefighter personal protective equipment (PPE) on the determination of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) while using two different treadmill protocols: a progressive incline protocol (PIP) and a progressive speed protocol (PSP), with three clothing conditions (Light-light clothing; Boots-PPE with rubber boots; Shoes-PPE with running shoes). Bruce protocol with Light was performed for a reference test. Results showed there was no difference in VO2max between Bruce Light, PIP Light, and PSP Light. However, VO2max was reduced in Boots and Shoes with shortened maximal performance time (7 and 6 min reduced for PIP Boots and Shoes, respectively; 11 and 9 min reduced for PSP Boots and Shoes, respectively), whereas the increasing rate of VO2 in Boots and Shoes during submaximal exercise was greater compared with Light. Wearing firefighter boots compared with wearing running shoes also significantly affected submaximal VO2 but not VO2max. These results suggest that firefighters’ maximal performance determined from a typical VO2max test without wearing PPE may overestimate the actual performance capability of firefighters wearing PPE. PMID:23668854

  18. "International Criminalisation and Child Welfare Protection": The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography has two overall aims: (i) to strengthen international criminalisation and (ii) to provide welfare protection for child victims. This article reviews the context of the Protocol including the work of the Special…

  19. Planetary Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  20. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    PubMed

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  1. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry

    2014-03-01

    Preface: a personal view of planetary rings; 1. Introduction: the allure of the ringed planets; 2. Studies of planetary rings 1610-2013; 3. Diversity of planetary rings; 4. Individual ring particles and their collisions; 5. Large-scale ring evolution; 6. Moons confine and sculpt rings; 7. Explaining ring phenomena; 8. N-body simulations; 9. Stochastic models; 10. Age and evolution of rings; 11. Saturn's mysterious F ring; 12. Uranus' rings and moons; 13. Neptune's partial rings; 14. Jupiter's ring-moon system after Galileo and New Horizons; 15. Ring photometry; 16. Dusty rings; 17. Concluding remarks; Afterword; Glossary; References; Index.

  2. Planetary maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    An important goal of the USGS planetary mapping program is to systematically map the geology of the Moon, Mars, Venus, and Mercury, and the satellites of the outer planets. These geologic maps are published in the USGS Miscellaneous Investigations (I) Series. Planetary maps on sale at the USGS include shaded-relief maps, topographic maps, geologic maps, and controlled photomosaics. Controlled photomosaics are assembled from two or more photographs or images using a network of points of known latitude and longitude. The images used for most of these planetary maps are electronic images, obtained from orbiting television cameras, various optical-mechanical systems. Photographic film was only used to map Earth's Moon.

  3. LOPP: A Location Privacy Protected Anonymous Routing Protocol for Disruption Tolerant Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Hui, Pan; Towsley, Don; Pu, Juhua; Xiong, Zhang

    In this paper, we propose an anonymous routing protocol, LOPP, to protect the originator's location privacy in Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN). The goals of our study are to minimize the originator's probability of being localized (Pl) and maximize the destination's probability of receiving the message (Pr). The idea of LOPP is to divide a sensitive message into k segments and send each of them to n different neighbors. Although message fragmentation could reduce the destination's probability to receive a complete message, LOPP can decrease the originator's Pl. We validate LOPP on a real-world human mobility dataset. The simulation results show that LOPP can decrease the originator's Pl by over 54% with only 5.7% decrease in destination's Pr. We address the physical localization issue of DTN, which was not studied in the literature.

  4. Planetary Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. Bruce; Abercrombie, Rachel; Keddie, Susan; Mizutani, Hitoshi; Nagihara, Seiichi; Nakamura, Yosio; Pike, W. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies two main themes to guide planetary science in the next two decades: understanding planetary origins, and understanding the constitution and fundamental processes of the planets themselves. Within the latter theme, four specific goals related to interior measurements addressing the theme. These are: (1) Understanding the internal structure and dynamics of at least one solid body, other than the Earth or Moon, that is actively convecting, (2) Determine the characteristics of the magnetic fields of Mercury and the outer planets to provide insight into the generation of planetary magnetic fields, (3) Specify the nature and sources of stress that are responsible for the global tectonics of Mars, Venus, and several icy satellites of the outer planets, and (4) Advance significantly our understanding of crust-mantle structure for all the solid planets. These goals can be addressed almost exclusively by measurements made on the surfaces of planetary bodies.

  5. Planetary Magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.

    2007-01-01

    The chapter on Planetary Magnetism by Connerney describes the magnetic fields of the planets, from Mercury to Neptune, including the large satellites (Moon, Ganymede) that have or once had active dynamos. The chapter describes the spacecraft missions and observations that, along with select remote observations, form the basis of our knowledge of planetary magnetic fields. Connerney describes the methods of analysis used to characterize planetary magnetic fields, and the models used to represent the main field (due to dynamo action in the planet's interior) and/or remnant magnetic fields locked in the planet's crust, where appropriate. These observations provide valuable insights into dynamo generation of magnetic fields, the structure and composition of planetary interiors, and the evolution of planets.

  6. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2011-07-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction: the allure of ringed planets; 2. Studies of planetary rings 1610-2004; 3. Diversity of planetary rings; 4. Individual ring particles and their collisions; 5. Large-scale ring evolution; 6. Moons confine and sculpt rings; 7. Explaining ring phenomena; 8. N-Body simulations; 9. Stochastic models; 10. Age and evolution of rings; 11. Saturn's mysterious F ring; 12. Neptune's partial rings; 13. Jupiter's ring-moon system after Galileo; 14. Ring photometry; 15. Dusty rings; 16. Cassini observations; 17. Summary: the big questions; Glossary; References; Index.

  7. Planetary magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, T. W.; Michel, F. C.

    1975-01-01

    Space-probe observations of planetary magnetospheres are discussed. Three different categories of planetary magnetospheres are identified (intrinsic slowly rotating, intrinsic rapidly rotating, and induced), and the characteristics of each type are outlined. The structure and physical processes of the magnetospheres of Mercury, Mars, and Jupiter are described, and possible configurations are presented for the Martian and Jovian ones. Expected magnetic moments are derived for Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Models are constructed for possible induced magnetospheres of the moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Io.

  8. Planetary astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, David; Hunten, Donald; Ahearn, Michael F.; Belton, Michael J. S.; Black, David; Brown, Robert A.; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Cochran, Anita L.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Depater, Imke

    1991-01-01

    The authors profile the field of astronomy, identify some of the key scientific questions that can be addressed during the decade of the 1990's, and recommend several facilities that are critically important for answering these questions. Scientific opportunities for the 1990' are discussed. Areas discussed include protoplanetary disks, an inventory of the solar system, primitive material in the solar system, the dynamics of planetary atmospheres, planetary rings and ring dynamics, the composition and structure of the atmospheres of giant planets, the volcanoes of IO, and the mineralogy of the Martian surface. Critical technology developments, proposed projects and facilities, and recommendations for research and facilities are discussed.

  9. Planetary Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    1994-01-01

    Just over two decades ago, Jim Pollack made a critical contribution to our understanding of planetary ring particle properties, and resolved a major apparent paradox between radar reflection and radio emission observations. At the time, particle properties were about all there were to study about planetary rings, and the fundamental questions were, why is Saturn the only planet with rings, how big are the particles, and what are they made of? Since then, we have received an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Meanwhile, we have seen steady progress in our understanding of the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron-to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems into the complex webs of structure that we now know them to display. Insights gained from studies of these giant dynamical analogs have carried over into improved understanding of the formation of the planets themselves from particle disks, a subject very close to Jim's heart. The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems are invariably found in association with families of regular satellites, and there is ark emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system

  10. Planetary quarantine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Developed methodologies and procedures for the reduction of microbial burden on an assembled spacecraft at the time of encapsulation or terminal sterilization are reported. This technology is required for reducing excessive microbial burden on spacecraft components for the purposes of either decreasing planetary contamination probabilities for an orbiter or minimizing the duration of a sterilization process for a lander.

  11. Planetary Geomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Victor R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various topics related to planetary geomorphology, including: research techniques; such geomorphic processes as impact, volcanic, degradational, eolian, and hillslope/mass movement processes; and channels and valleys. Indicates that the subject should be taught as a series of scientific questions rather than scientific results of…

  12. Planetary quarantine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The overall objective is to identify those areas of future missions which will be impacted by planetary quarantine (PQ) constraints. The objective of the phase being described was to develop an approach for using decision theory in performing a PQ analysis for a Mariner Jupiter Uranus Mission and to compare it with the traditional approach used for other missions.

  13. Variability in usual care mechanical ventilation for pediatric acute lung injury: the potential benefit of a lung protective computer protocol.

    PubMed

    Khemani, Robinder G; Sward, Katherine; Morris, Alan; Dean, J Michael; Newth, Christopher J L

    2011-11-01

    Although pediatric intensivists claim to embrace lung protective ventilation for acute lung injury (ALI), ventilator management is variable. We describe ventilator changes clinicians made for children with hypoxemic respiratory failure, and evaluate the potential acceptability of a pediatric ventilation protocol. This was a retrospective cohort study performed in a tertiary care pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The study period was from January 2000 to July 2007. We included mechanically ventilated children with PaO(2)/FiO(2) (P/F) ratio less than 300. We assessed variability in ventilator management by evaluating actual changes to ventilator settings after an arterial blood gas (ABG). We evaluated the potential acceptability of a pediatric mechanical ventilation protocol we adapted from National Institutes of Health/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NIH/NHLBI) Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Network protocols by comparing actual practice changes in ventilator settings to changes that would have been recommended by the protocol. A total of 2,719 ABGs from 402 patients were associated with 6,017 ventilator settings. Clinicians infrequently decreased FiO(2), even when the PaO(2) was high (>68 mmHg). The protocol would have recommended more positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) than was used in actual practice 42% of the time in the mid PaO(2) range (55-68 mmHg) and 67% of the time in the low PaO(2) range (<55 mmHg). Clinicians often made no change to either peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) or ventilator rate (VR) when the protocol would have recommended a change, even when the pH was greater than 7.45 with PIP at least 35 cmH(2)O. There may be lost opportunities to minimize potentially injurious ventilator settings for children with ALI. A reproducible pediatric mechanical ventilation protocol could prompt clinicians to make ventilator changes that are consistent with lung protective ventilation.

  14. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.

    Planetary rings are the only nearby astrophysical disks and the only disks that have been investigated by spacecraft (especially the Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn). Although there are significant differences between rings and other disks, chiefly the large planet/ring mass ratio that greatly enhances the flatness of rings (aspect ratios as small as 10- 7), understanding of disks in general can be enhanced by understanding the dynamical processes observed at close range and in real time in planetary rings.We review the known ring systems of the four giant planets, as well as the prospects for ring systems yet to be discovered. We then review planetary rings by type. The A, B, and C rings of Saturn, plus the Cassini Division, comprise our solar system's only dense broad disk and host many phenomena of general application to disks including spiral waves, gap formation, self-gravity wakes, viscous overstability and normal modes, impact clouds, and orbital evolution of embedded moons. Dense narrow rings are found both at Uranus (where they comprise the main rings entirely) and at Saturn (where they are embedded in the broad disk) and are the primary natural laboratory for understanding shepherding and self-stability. Narrow dusty rings, likely generated by embedded source bodies, are surprisingly found to sport azimuthally confined arcs at Neptune, Saturn, and Jupiter. Finally, every known ring system includes a substantial component of diffuse dusty rings.Planetary rings have shown themselves to be useful as detectors of planetary processes around them, including the planetary magnetic field and interplanetary impactors as well as the gravity of nearby perturbing moons. Experimental rings science has made great progress in recent decades, especially numerical simulations of self-gravity wakes and other processes but also laboratory investigations of coefficient of restitution and spectroscopic ground truth. The age of self-sustained ring systems is a matter of

  15. Effect of a two-year fluoride decay protection protocol on titanium brackets.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Elie S; Abboud, Maher; Bassil-Nassif, Nayla; Bouserhal, Joseph

    2011-12-01

    Fluoride ion can attack titanium, causing its corrosion. Orthodontic patients being high-risk caries developers and in need of fluoride protection, the Center for Disease Control has developed a Fluoride Decay Prevention (FDP) protocol, consisting of a 6-minute tooth-brushing, followed by a 1-minute daily mouthwash, in addition to an in-clinic trimestrial topical fluoride gel application. This study aimed at evaluating gravimetrically, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and by sliding mechanics analysis, the consequences of FDP at 6, 12, 18, and 24months on titanium brackets corrosion. One hundred and fifty titanium brackets were randomly divided into five groups of 30. Group 1 was the control group. Groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 each received an equivalent of 6, 12, 18, and 24months of FDP treatment respectively. All groups were placed in artificial saliva for 2months and then rinsed. Subsequently, the brackets were dried, for 48hours, using Silica gel in a desiccator maintained at 37°C before testing. SEM analysis showed that numbers and dimensions of pits gradually increased due to corrosion as we moved from group 1 to group 5. Gravimetrical and sliding mechanics results revealed no statistical difference between groups 2 and 3, and a significant difference between groups 4 and 5 upon comparison with the control group. Surface changes due to corrosion were detected at 6 and 12months of FDP but had no clinical effects. However, the increase in sliding resistance and bracket weight loss became significant at 18 and 24months of FDP. Copyright © 2011 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Planetary programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, R. A.; Bourke, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    The goals of the NASA planetary exploration program are to understand the origin and evolution of the solar system and the earth, and the extent and nature of near-earth space resources. To accomplish this, a number of missions have been flown to the planets, and more are in active preparation or in the planning stage. This paper describes the current and planned planetary exploration program starting with the spacecraft now in flight (Pioneers and Voyagers), those in preparation for launch this decade (Galileo, Magellan, and Mars Observer), and those recommended by the Solar System Exploration Committee for the future. The latter include a series of modest objective Observer missions, a more ambitious set of Mariner Mark IIs, and the very challenging but scientifically rewarding sample returns.

  17. 75 FR 4323 - Additional Quantitative Fit-testing Protocols for the Respiratory Protection Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... respirators (500 and 1000 for protocols 1 and 2, respectively). However, OSHA could not evaluate the results... the values of these descriptive statistics for revised PortaCount[supreg] QNFT protocols 1 (at RFFs of 100 and 500) and 2 (at RFFs of 200 and 1000). Table 2--Descriptive Statistics for RFFs of 100 and 200...

  18. Planetary quarantine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Those areas of future missions which will be impacted by planetary quarantine (PQ) constraints were identified. The specific objectives for this reporting period were (1) to perform an analysis of the effects of PQ on an outer planet atmospheric probe, and (2) to prepare a quantitative illustration of spacecraft microbial reduction resulting from exposure to space environments. The Jupiter Orbiter Probe mission was used as a model for both of these efforts.

  19. Planetary Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  20. Planetary Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    is very likely that they may develop a solution for planetary defense. 8 United States is leading in space private investments. SpaceX , for...technology, with the ultimate goal of enabling people to live on other planets.5 SpaceX is the only private company ever to return a spacecraft from low...a technically challenging feat previously accomplished only by governments.6 Contracted by NASA and commercial companies, SpaceX already did 50

  1. Planetary engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  2. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, M. K.; Araki, S.; Black, G. J.; Bosh, A. S.; Brahic, A.; Brooks, S. M.; Charnoz, S.; Colwell, J. E.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Dones, L.; Durisen, R. H.; Esposito, L. W.; Ferrari, C.; Festou, M.; French, R. G.; Giuliatti-Winter, S. M.; Graps, A. L.; Hamilton, D. P.; Horanyi, M.; Karjalainen, R. M.; Krivov, A. V.; Krueger, H.; Larson, S. M.; Levison, H. F.; Lewis, M. C.; Lissauer, J. J.; Murray, C. D.; Namouni, F.; Nicholson, P. D.; Olkin, C. B.; Poulet, F.; Rappaport, N. J.; Salo, H. J.; Schmidt, J.; Showalter, M. R.; Spahn, F.; Spilker, L. J.; Srama, R.; Stewart, G. R.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.

    2002-08-01

    The past two decades have witnessed dramatic changes in our view and understanding of planetary rings. We now know that each of the giant planets in the Solar System possesses a complex and unique ring system. Recent studies have identified complex gravitational interactions between the rings and their retinues of attendant satellites. Among the four known ring systems, we see elegant examples of Lindblad and corotation resonances (first invoked in the context of galactic disks), electromagnetic resonances, spiral density waves and bending waves, narrow ringlets which exhibit internal modes due to collective instabilities, sharp-edged gaps maintained via tidal torques from embedded moonlets, and tenuous dust belts created by meteoroid impact onto, or collisions between, parent bodies. Yet, as far as we have come, our understanding is far from complete. The fundamental questions confronting ring scientists at the beginning of the twenty-first century are those regarding the origin, age and evolution of the various ring systems, in the broadest context. Understanding the origin and age requires us to know the current ring properties, and to understand the dominant evolutionary processes and how they influence ring properties. Here we discuss a prioritized list of the key questions, the answers to which would provide the greatest improvement in our understanding of planetary rings. We then outline the initiatives, missions, and other supporting activities needed to address those questions, and recommend priorities for the coming decade in planetary ring science.

  3. Assessment of Healthcare Worker Protocol Deviations and Self-Contamination During Personal Protective Equipment Donning and Doffing.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jennie H; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Reske, Kimberly A; Liang, Stephen Y; Hink, Tiffany; Wallace, Meghan A; Shupe, Angela; Seiler, Sondra; Cass, Candice; Fraser, Victoria J; Dubberke, Erik R

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate healthcare worker (HCW) risk of self-contamination when donning and doffing personal protective equipment (PPE) using fluorescence and MS2 bacteriophage. DESIGN Prospective pilot study. SETTING Tertiary-care hospital. PARTICIPANTS A total of 36 HCWs were included in this study: 18 donned/doffed contact precaution (CP) PPE and 18 donned/doffed Ebola virus disease (EVD) PPE. INTERVENTIONS HCWs donned PPE according to standard protocols. Fluorescent liquid and MS2 bacteriophage were applied to HCWs. HCWs then doffed their PPE. After doffing, HCWs were scanned for fluorescence and swabbed for MS2. MS2 detection was performed using reverse transcriptase PCR. The donning and doffing processes were videotaped, and protocol deviations were recorded. RESULTS Overall, 27% of EVD PPE HCWs and 50% of CP PPE HCWs made ≥1 protocol deviation while donning, and 100% of EVD PPE HCWs and 67% of CP PPE HCWs made ≥1 protocol deviation while doffing (P=.02). The median number of doffing protocol deviations among EVD PPE HCWs was 4, versus 1 among CP PPE HCWs. Also, 15 EVD PPE protocol deviations were committed by doffing assistants and/or trained observers. Fluorescence was detected on 8 EVD PPE HCWs (44%) and 5 CP PPE HCWs (28%), most commonly on hands. MS2 was recovered from 2 EVD PPE HCWs (11%) and 3 CP PPE HCWs (17%). CONCLUSIONS Protocol deviations were common during both EVD and CP PPE doffing, and some deviations during EVD PPE doffing were committed by the HCW doffing assistant and/or the trained observer. Self-contamination was common. PPE donning/doffing are complex and deserve additional study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1077-1083.

  4. Phobos-Grunt Mission: Planetary Protection Issues and how to Solve Them (the Approaches Based on the Exobiological Experiments Results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, Nataliya; Orlov, Oleg; Deshevaya, Elena; Sychev, Vladimir; Khamidullina, N.; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Martynov, Maxim

    The launch of a Russian spaceship to Phobos is being planned in 2011 as a part of the project "Phobos-Soil". Major goals of the mission are: -Landing of the orbital vehicle (transport module) on the Phobos surface, collecting soil samples for delivery to Earth in a sealed inde-structible container; -Some experiments, including exobiological experiment aimed to evaluate viability of dormant organisms-representatives of a variety of taxonomic groups after extended interplanetary trip. According to COSPAR classification the orbital Mars spaceship flight is related to the category III and the mission of Phobos soil delivery to the Earth in a capsule on a descent vehicle is related to the category V to which any missions of return to the Earth are related. In order to supply Mars and Earth protection a number of actions is worked out: -The probability of space craft destruction and its falling down on the Mars surface is limited, and that is proved by the calculations; -The proposals to break the "chain of contact" with Earth of equipment used on the Phobos surface; -Preservation of tightness of the containers with Phobos soil and biological samples should be provided at all the stages of the mission up to the landing onto the Earth; -Phobos soil and biological samples delivery to specialized organiza-tion licensed to carry out works with highly dangerous microorganisms should be organized. So severe measures of the planet protection are based not only on the COSPAR demands, but also on the results of the Russian exobiological experiments, which proved that ability of survival in outer space was shown experimentally not only for spores of bacteria and microscopic fungi, but also for resting stages of higher organisms.

  5. Planetary Volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonenko, I.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C. W.

    1998-01-01

    The final report consists of 10 journal articles concerning Planetary Volcanism. The articles discuss the following topics: (1) lunar stratigraphy; (2) cryptomare thickness measurements; (3) spherical harmonic spectra; (4) late stage activity of volcanoes on Venus; (5) stresses and calderas on Mars; (6) magma reservoir failure; (7) lunar mare basalt volcanism; (8) impact and volcanic glasses in the 79001/2 Core; (9) geology of the lunar regional dark mantle deposits; and (10) factors controlling the depths and sizes of magma reservoirs in Martian volcanoes.

  6. Planetary magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D. P.; Ness, N. F.

    1981-01-01

    A concise overview is presented of our understanding of planetary magnetospheres (and in particular, of that of the Earth), as of the end of 1981. Emphasis is placed on processes of astrophysical interest, e.g., on particle acceleration, collision-free shocks, particle motion, parallel electric fields, magnetic merging, substorms, and large scale plasma flows. The general morphology and topology of the Earth's magnetosphere are discussed, and important results are given about the magnetospheres of Jupiter, Saturn and Mercury, including those derived from the Voyager 1 and 2 missions and those related to Jupiter's satellite Io. About 160 references are cited, including many reviews from which additional details can be obtained.

  7. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions:An Overview of the Technology Maturation Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Robin A S.; Arnold, James O.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Szalai, Christine E.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    The Office of Chief Technologist, NASA identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASAs Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASAs exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program is a primary avenue to achieve the Agencys 2011 strategic goal to Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future. The National Research Council (NRC) Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities report highlights six challenges and they are: Mass to Surface, Surface Access, Precision Landing, Surface Hazard Detection and Avoidance, Safety and Mission Assurance, and Affordability. In order for NASA to meet these challenges, the report recommends immediate focus on Rigid and Flexible Thermal Protection Systems. Rigid TPS systems such as Avcoat or SLA are honeycomb based and PICA is in the form of tiles. The honeycomb systems are manufactured using techniques that require filling of each (38 cell) by hand, and in a limited amount of time all of the cells must be filled and the heatshield must be cured. The tile systems such as PICA pose a different challenge as the low strain-to-failure and manufacturing size limitations require large number of small tiles with gap-fillers between the tiles. Recent investments in flexible ablative systems have given rise to the potential for conformal ablative TPS. A conformal TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials. The high strain-to-failure nature of the conformal ablative materials will allow integration of the TPS with the underlying aeroshell structure much easier and enable monolithic-like configuration and larger segments (or parts) to be used. By reducing the overall part count, the cost of installation (based on cost comparisons between blanket

  8. Planetary Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1998-01-01

    This 1-year project was an augmentation grant to my NASA Planetary Astronomy grant. With the awarded funding, we accomplished the following tasks: (1) Conducted two NVK imaging runs in conjunction with the ILAW (International Lunar Atmosphere Week) Observing Campaigns in 1995 and 1997. In the first run, we obtained repeated imaging sequences of lunar Na D-line emission to better quantify the temporal variations detected in earlier runs. In the second run we obtained extremely high resolution (R=960.000) Na line profiles using the 4m AAT in Australia. These data are being analyzed under our new 3-year Planetary Astronomy grant. (2) Reduced, analyzed, and published our March 1995 spectroscopic dataset to detect (or set stringent upper limits on) Rb. Cs, Mg. Al. Fe, Ba, Ba. OH, and several other species. These results were reported in a talk at the LPSC and in two papers: (1) A Spectroscopic Survey of Metallic Abundances in the Lunar Atmosphere. and (2) A Search for Magnesium in the Lunar Atmosphere. Both reprints are attached. Wrote up an extensive, invited Reviews of Geophysics review article on advances in the study of the lunar atmosphere. This 70-page article, which is expected to appear in print in 1999, is also attached.

  9. Planetary Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, James F.

    1997-01-01

    This grant was entitled 'Planetary Habitability' and the work performed under it related to elucidating the conditions that lead to habitable, i.e. Earth-like, planets. Below are listed publications for the past two and a half years that came out of this work. The main thrusts of the research involved: (1) showing under what conditions atmospheric O2 and O3 can be considered as evidence for life on a planet's surface; (2) determining whether CH4 may have played a role in warming early Mars; (3) studying the effect of varying UV levels on Earth-like planets around different types of stars to see whether this would pose a threat to habitability; and (4) studying the effect of chaotic obliquity variations on planetary climates and determining whether planets that experienced such variations might still be habitable. Several of these topics involve ongoing research that has been carried out under a new grant number, but which continues to be funded by NASA's Exobiology program.

  10. Advanced planetary analyses. [for planetary mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The results are summarized of research accomplished during this period concerning planetary mission planning are summarized. The tasks reported include the cost estimations research, planetary missions handbook, and advanced planning activities.

  11. Planetary Dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, Vinod K.

    The article begins with a reference to the first rational approaches to explaining the earth's magnetic field notably Elsasser's application of magneto-hydrodynamics, followed by brief outlines of the characteristics of planetary magnetic fields and of the potentially insightful homopolar dynamo in illuminating the basic issues: theoretical requirements of asymmetry and finite conductivity in sustaining the dynamo process. It concludes with sections on Dynamo modeling and, in particular, the Geo-dynamo, but not before some of the evocative physical processes mediated by the Lorentz force and the behaviour of a flux tube embedded in a perfectly conducting fluid, using Alfvén theorem, are explained, as well as the traditional intermediate approaches to investigating dynamo processes using the more tractable Kinematic models.

  12. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, P. D.

    2001-11-01

    A revolution in the studies in planetary rings studies occurred in the period 1977--1981, with the serendipitous discovery of the narrow, dark rings of Uranus, the first Voyager images of the tenuous jovian ring system, and the many spectacular images returned during the twin Voyager flybys of Saturn. In subsequent years, ground-based stellar occultations, HST observations, and the Voyager flybys of Uranus (1986) and Neptune (1989), as well as a handful of Galileo images, provided much additional information. Along with the completely unsuspected wealth of detail these observations revealed came an unwelcome problem: are the rings ancient or are we privileged to live at a special time in history? The answer to this still-vexing question may lie in the complex gravitational interactions recent studies have revealed between the rings and their retinues of attendant satellites. Among the four known ring systems, we see elegant examples of Lindblad and corotation resonances (first invoked in the context of galactic disks), electromagnetic resonances, spiral density waves and bending waves, narrow ringlets which exhibit internal modes due to collective instabilities, sharp-edged gaps maintained via tidal torques from embedded moonlets, and tenuous dust belts created by meteoroid impact onto parent bodies. Perhaps most puzzling is Saturn's multi-stranded, clumpy F ring, which continues to defy a simple explanation 20 years after it was first glimpsed in grainy images taken by Pioneer 11. Voyager and HST images reveal a complex, probably chaotic, dynamical interaction between unseen parent bodies within this ring and its two shepherd satellites, Pandora and Prometheus. The work described here reflects contributions by Joe Burns, Jeff Cuzzi, Luke Dones, Dick French, Peter Goldreich, Colleen McGhee, Carolyn Porco, Mark Showalter, and Bruno Sicardy, as well as those of the author. This research has been supported by NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics program and the

  13. Planetary Surface Instruments Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Charles (Editor); Treiman, Allan H. (Editor); Kostiuk, Theodor (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This report on planetary surface investigations and planetary landers covers: (1) the precise chemical analysis of solids; (2) isotopes and evolved gas analyses; (3) planetary interiors; planetary atmospheres from within as measured by landers; (4) mineralogical examination of extraterrestrial bodies; (5) regoliths; and (6) field geology/processes.

  14. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions: Overview of the Technology Maturation Efforts Funded by NASA's Game Changing Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Robin A.; Arnold, James O.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Fan, Wendy; Szalai, Christine E.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2012-01-01

    The Office of Chief Technologist (OCT), NASA has identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASA's Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASA's exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) is a primary avenue to achieve the Agency's 2011 strategic goal to "Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future." In addition, recently released "NASA space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities," by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences stresses the need for NASA to invest in the very near term in specific EDL technologies. The report points out the following challenges (Page 2-38 of the pre-publication copy released on February 1, 2012): Mass to Surface: Develop the ability to deliver more payload to the destination. NASA's future missions will require ever-greater mass delivery capability in order to place scientifically significant instrument packages on distant bodies of interest, to facilitate sample returns from bodies of interest, and to enable human exploration of planets such as Mars. As the maximum mass that can be delivered to an entry interface is fixed for a given launch system and trajectory design, the mass delivered to the surface will require reduction in spacecraft structural mass; more efficient, lighter thermal protection systems; more efficient lighter propulsion systems; and lighter, more efficient deceleration systems. Surface Access: Increase the ability to land at a variety of planetary locales and at a variety of times. Access to specific sites can be achieved via landing at a specific location (s) or transit from a single designated landing location, but it is currently infeasible to transit long distances and through extremely rugged terrain, requiring landing close to the

  15. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Small and Large Scale Missions: Approaching TRL 6 for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions and TRL 9 for Small Probe Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R. A. S.; Gasch, M. J.; Milos, F. S.; Stackpoole, M. M.; Smith, B. P.; Switzer, M. R.; Venkatapathy, E.; Wilder, M. C.; Boghhozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, NASAs Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) funded an effort to develop an ablative thermal protection system (TPS) material that would have improved properties when compared to Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) and AVCOAT. Their goal was a conformal material, processed with a flexible reinforcement that would result in similar or better thermal characteristics and higher strain-to-failure characteristics that would allow for easier integration on flight aeroshells than then-current rigid ablative TPS materials. In 2012, NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) began funding the maturation of the best formulation of the game changing conformal ablator, C-PICA. Progress has been reported at IPPW over the past three years, describing C-PICA with a density and recession rates similar to PICA, but with a higher strain-to-failure which allows for direct bonding and no gap fillers, and even more important, with thermal characteristics resulting in half the temperature rise of PICA. Overall, C-PICA should be able to replace PICA with a thinner, lighter weight, less complicated design. These characteristics should be particularly attractive for use as backshell TPS on high energy planetary entry vehicles. At the end of this year, the material should be ready for missions to consider including in their design, in fact, NASAs Science Mission Directorate (SMD) is considering incentivizing the use of C-PICA in the next Discovery Proposal call. This year both scale up of the material to large (1-m) sized pieces and the design and build of small probe heatshields for flight tests will be completed. NASA, with an industry partner, will build a 1-m long manufacturing demonstration unit (MDU) with a shape based on a mid LD lifting body. In addition, in an effort to fly as you test and test as you fly, NASA, with a second industry partner, will build a small probe to test in the Interactive Heating Facility (IHF) arc jet and, using nearly the

  16. Microbial Ecology of a Crewed Rover Traverse in the Arctic: Low Microbial Dispersal and Implications for Planetary Protection on Human Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Lee, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Between April 2009 and July 2011, the NASA Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) led the Northwest Passage Drive Expedition (NWPDX), a multi-staged long-distance crewed rover traverse along the Northwest Passage in the Arctic. In April 2009, the HMP Okarian rover was driven 496 km over sea ice along the Northwest Passage, from Kugluktuk to Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, Canada. During the traverse, crew members collected samples from within the rover and from undisturbed snow-covered surfaces around the rover at three locations. The rover samples and snow samples were stored at subzero conditions (-20C to -1C) until processed for microbial diversity in labs at the NASA Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The objective was to determine the extent of microbial dispersal away from the rover and onto undisturbed snow. Interior surfaces of the rover were found to be associated with a wide range of bacteria (69 unique taxa) and fungi (16 unique taxa). In contrast, snow samples from the upwind, downwind, uptrack, and downtrack sample sites exterior to the rover were negative for both bacteria and fungi except for two colony-forming units (cfus) recovered from one downwind (1 cfu; site A4) and one uptrack (1 cfu; site B6) sample location. The fungus, Aspergillus fumigatus (GenBank JX517279), and closely related bacteria in the genus Brevibacillus were recovered from both snow (B. agri, GenBank JX517278) and interior rover surfaces. However, it is unknown whether the microorganisms were deposited onto snow surfaces at the time of sample collection (i.e., from the clothing or skin of the human operator) or via airborne dispersal from the rover during the 12-18 h layovers at the sites prior to collection. Results support the conclusion that a crewed rover traveling over previously undisturbed terrain may not significantly contaminate the local terrain via airborne dispersal of propagules from the vehicle. Key Words: Planetary protection-Contamination-Habitability-Haughton Crater-Mars. Astrobiology

  17. Planetary nomenclature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobell, M. E.; Masursky, Harold

    1987-05-01

    In fiscal 1986, names were chosen for prominent features on the five previously known Uranian satellites and for features on the largest of the 10 satellites discovered by Voyager 2. The names of the five large satellites are taken mostly from Shakespeare, and most are spirits; therefore, Shakespearean and spirit themes were used to choose names for topographic features on the satellites. Crater names and most other feature names on Miranda, Oberon, and Titania are from Shakespeare; features on Ariel are named for bright spirits and those on Umbriel for dark, all taken from universal mythology. Preliminary coordinates for these features are derived from shaded relief maps of the satellites to be published in 1987. Orbital elements have been established for the 10 new satellites, and a paper describing this work is in progress; satellite positions are under review by Commission 16 of the IAU. The moon 1985 U1 is informally designated Puck. The nine small satellites discovered in 1986 are to be named for Shakespearean heroines; these names are to be listed in the 1987 edition of the Annual Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature.

  18. Planetary nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobell, M. E.; Masursky, Harold

    1987-01-01

    In fiscal 1986, names were chosen for prominent features on the five previously known Uranian satellites and for features on the largest of the 10 satellites discovered by Voyager 2. The names of the five large satellites are taken mostly from Shakespeare, and most are spirits; therefore, Shakespearean and spirit themes were used to choose names for topographic features on the satellites. Crater names and most other feature names on Miranda, Oberon, and Titania are from Shakespeare; features on Ariel are named for bright spirits and those on Umbriel for dark, all taken from universal mythology. Preliminary coordinates for these features are derived from shaded relief maps of the satellites to be published in 1987. Orbital elements have been established for the 10 new satellites, and a paper describing this work is in progress; satellite positions are under review by Commission 16 of the IAU. The moon 1985 U1 is informally designated Puck. The nine small satellites discovered in 1986 are to be named for Shakespearean heroines; these names are to be listed in the 1987 edition of the Annual Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature.

  19. EVALUATION OF A PROTOCOL FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT DATA REQUIRED BY THE FOOD QUALITY PROTECTION ACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA), the USEPA Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) considers drinking water as a route for pesticide exposure in its human health risk assessments, and may require data on the fate of a pesticide in drinking water be supplied to OPP by the ...

  20. Planetary Nebula

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    This planetary nebula's simple, graceful appearance is thought to be due to perspective: our view from Earth looking straight into what is actually a barrel-shaped cloud of gas shrugged off by a dying central star. Hot blue gas near the energizing central star gives way to progressively cooler green and yellow gas at greater distances with the coolest red gas along the outer boundary. Credit: NASA/Hubble Heritage Team ---- The Ring Nebula's distinctive shape makes it a popular illustration for astronomy books. But new observations by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope of the glowing gas shroud around an old, dying, sun-like star reveal a new twist. "The nebula is not like a bagel, but rather, it's like a jelly doughnut, because it's filled with material in the middle," said C. Robert O'Dell of Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tenn. He leads a research team that used Hubble and several ground-based telescopes to obtain the best view yet of the iconic nebula. The images show a more complex structure than astronomers once thought and have allowed them to construct the most precise 3-D model of the nebula. "With Hubble's detail, we see a completely different shape than what's been thought about historically for this classic nebula," O'Dell said. "The new Hubble observations show the nebula in much clearer detail, and we see things are not as simple as we previously thought." The Ring Nebula is about 2,000 light-years from Earth and measures roughly 1 light-year across. Located in the constellation Lyra, the nebula is a popular target for amateur astronomers. Read more: 1.usa.gov/14VAOMk NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  1. Protocol of a randomized controlled trial of sun protection interventions for operating engineers.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Sonia A; Ronis, David L; Waltje, Andrea H; Choi, Seung Hee

    2013-03-26

    Skin cancer are increasing and some types of skin cancer are among the most lethal cancers yet are easily preventable. However, sun protection interventions are rarely implemented among outdoor workers. Our prior work shows that Michigan Operating Engineers (heavy equipment operators) spend an average of 4-5 hours in the sun, about one-third reported getting sun burned at least once a summer, and over half burned more than once a summer. About three-quarters of the sample never or only sometimes used sun block. Using the Health Belief Model as a guide, this randomized controlled trial (RCT) will test the efficacy of four sun protection interventions targeting Operating Engineers: a) education only; b) education and mailed sunscreen; c) education and text message reminders; and, d) education, mailed sunscreen, and text message reminders. Participations in the study will be offered during regularly scheduled safety trainings at the Local 324 Training Center. Pre- and post-intervention surveys will be collected to determine changes in sunscreen use and sun burning, the primary dependent variables. The analyses will include: a) paired t-tests to determine changes over time (from pre-intervention to post-intervention) in outcome variables (sunscreen use and burning) separately in the 4 intervention groups, b) Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (RM-ANOVA) to compare the changes in outcomes across the 4 groups, and c) t-tests on change scores as follow-ups to the RM-ANOVA to determine exactly which groups differ from each other. Based on the outcome of this study, we will develop a RO1 for wider scale testing and dissemination in conjunction with the International Training Center which services North America (including the US, Mexico, and Canada). Wide scale dissemination of an efficacious sun protection intervention has the potential to substantially impact skin cancer rates among this population. The ultimate goal is for high reach, high efficacy, and low cost. NCT

  2. Management and protection protocols for nesting sea turtles on Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary 1. The southeast U.S. population of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) has increased since the species was listed as federally threatened in 1978. Since standardized monitoring began in North Carolina in 1995, the number of nests at Cape Hatteras National Seashore (CAHA) fluctuated from year to year, and was lowest in 1996 and 1997 (39 nests) and highest in 2003 (101 nests). Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) have nested in small numbers at CAHA, sporadically over time. 2. Hatching success of sea turtle nests typically approaches 80%. At CAHA hatching success from 1999-2003 was low when hurricanes hit during the nesting season (30%-38%), and ranged from 52%-70% otherwise. Hatching success at CAHA is usually correlated with hatching success in the surrounding subpopulation (north Florida to North Carolina). 3. Inclement weather, predation, and human recreation can negatively impact nesting rate and hatching success. 4. Currently there is little protection from recreation at CAHA for nesting females and nests that have not been found by monitors. We propose three management options to provide such protection, and to increase protection for known nests and hatchlings. We propose an adaptive management framework for assessing the effectiveness of these management options in improving sea turtle nesting rate and nest and hatchling survival. 5. We recommend continued efforts to trap and remove mammalian predators from all sea turtle habitat. We further recommend intensive monitoring and surveillance of protected areas to determine the extent and timing of threats to nests and broods, including nest overwash, predation, and disturbance or vandalism by humans. 6. Continue to relocate nests and assist stranded turtles according to North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission guidelines. 7. Artificial light sources pose a serious threat to sea turtles in some parts of CAHA, which must be remedied immediately

  3. Asteroid, Lunar and Planetary Regolith Management A Layered Engineering Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    During missions on asteroid and lunar and planetary surfaces, space systems and crew health may be degraded by exposure to dust and dirt. Furthermore, for missions outside the Earth-Moon system, planetary protection must be considered in efforts to minimize forward and backward contamination. This paper presents an end-to-end approach to ensure system reliability, crew health, and planetary protection in regolith environments. It also recommends technology investments that would be required to implement this layered engineering defense.

  4. Improving accessibility and discovery of ESA planetary data through the new planetary science archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macfarlane, A. J.; Docasal, R.; Rios, C.; Barbarisi, I.; Saiz, J.; Vallejo, F.; Besse, S.; Arviset, C.; Barthelemy, M.; De Marchi, G.; Fraga, D.; Grotheer, E.; Heather, D.; Lim, T.; Martinez, S.; Vallat, C.

    2018-01-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific data sets through various interfaces at http://psa.esa.int. Mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standards which all new ESA planetary missions shall follow and the need to update the interfaces to the archive, the PSA has undergone an important re-engineering. In order to maximise the scientific exploitation of ESA's planetary data holdings, significant improvements have been made by utilising the latest technologies and implementing widely recognised open standards. To facilitate users in handling and visualising the many products stored in the archive which have spatial data associated, the new PSA supports Geographical Information Systems (GIS) by implementing the standards approved by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The modernised PSA also attempts to increase interoperability with the international community by implementing recognised planetary science specific protocols such as the PDAP (Planetary Data Access Protocol) and EPN-TAP (EuroPlanet-Table Access Protocol). In this paper we describe some of the methods by which the archive may be accessed and present the challenges that are being faced in consolidating data sets of the older PDS3 version of the standards with the new PDS4 deliveries into a single data model mapping to ensure transparent access to the data for users and services whilst maintaining a high performance.

  5. Protocol of a randomized controlled trial of sun protection interventions for operating engineers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Skin cancer are increasing and some types of skin cancer are among the most lethal cancers yet are easily preventable. However, sun protection interventions are rarely implemented among outdoor workers. Our prior work shows that Michigan Operating Engineers (heavy equipment operators) spend an average of 4–5 hours in the sun, about one-third reported getting sun burned at least once a summer, and over half burned more than once a summer. About three-quarters of the sample never or only sometimes used sun block. Methods/design Using the Health Belief Model as a guide, this randomized controlled trial (RCT) will test the efficacy of four sun protection interventions targeting Operating Engineers: a) education only; b) education and mailed sunscreen; c) education and text message reminders; and, d) education, mailed sunscreen, and text message reminders. Participations in the study will be offered during regularly scheduled safety trainings at the Local 324 Training Center. Pre- and post-intervention surveys will be collected to determine changes in sunscreen use and sun burning, the primary dependent variables. The analyses will include: a) paired t-tests to determine changes over time (from pre-intervention to post–intervention) in outcome variables (sunscreen use and burning) separately in the 4 intervention groups, b) Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (RM-ANOVA) to compare the changes in outcomes across the 4 groups, and c) t-tests on change scores as follow-ups to the RM-ANOVA to determine exactly which groups differ from each other. Discussion Based on the outcome of this study, we will develop a RO1 for wider scale testing and dissemination in conjunction with the International Training Center which services North America (including the US, Mexico, and Canada). Wide scale dissemination of an efficacious sun protection intervention has the potential to substantially impact skin cancer rates among this population. The ultimate goal is for

  6. Planetary Surface Instruments Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Charles; Treiman, Allanh; Kostiuk, Theodor,

    1996-01-01

    This report on planetary surface investigations an d planetary landers covers: (1) the precise chemic al analysis of solids; (2) isotopes and evolved ga s analyses; (3) planetary interiors; planetary atm ospheres from within as measured by landers; (4) m ineralogical examination of extraterrestrial bodie s; (5) regoliths; and (6) field geology/processes . For individual titles, see N96-34812 through N96-34819. (Derived from text.)

  7. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    This second issue in a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications includes (1) a catalog of terrestrial craterform structures for northern Europe; (2) abstracts of results of the Planetary Geology Program, and (3) a list of the photographic holdings of regional planetary image facilities.

  8. Protocol of a randomized controlled trial of hearing protection interventions for farm operators.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, Marjorie C; Ronis, David L

    2015-04-18

    Hearing loss and tinnitus are prevalent in America, and noise-induced hearing loss is a leading cause of hearing loss. Noise-induced hearing loss has negative impact on quality of life, physical and emotional functioning, social life, and employment. In addition, noise-induced hearing loss results in heavy social and economic burdens on families and communities from all ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Farmers are a group that is particularly high risk for noise-induced hearing loss, and is underserved by programs designed to limit that risk. They are among the most noise-exposed group of workers, and experience the second highest prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss among all occupational categories. In agriculture, 1.5 million workers (43.3%) report exposure to hazardous noise. Although use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) would protect them from noise-induced hearing loss, use among farmers is low. The purpose of this project is to compare the effectiveness of several approaches to influencing hearing protector use. Approaches include: a) an interactive, predictors-based intervention delivered via the Internet; b) a static informational web site; and c) a mailed sampler of hearing protectors. The goals are to further develop an intervention to promote farmers' use of HPDs, and compare the effectiveness of the interventions delivered in various combinations. Participants will include 701 farmers. Sites will be affiliates of a major farmer organization. Data will be collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months. A random intercept mixed model will be used to explore the fixed effects of the three NIHL prevention interventions over time while adjusting for age and gender. This project will involve a partnership between the University of Michigan and a major farmer organization to accomplish project aims. Results of this study will be used to inform future research-to-practice studies to increase hearing protector use. Increased use of hearing protectors is

  9. Protection of pregnant women at work in Switzerland: practices, obstacles and resources. A mixed-methods study protocol.

    PubMed

    Krief, Peggy; Zellweger, Alessia; Politis Mercier, Maria-Pia; Danuser, Brigitta; Wild, Pascal; Zenoni, Michela; Probst, Isabelle

    2018-06-14

    Like most industrialised countries, Switzerland has introduced legislation to protect the health of pregnant workers and their unborn children from workplace exposure. This legislation provides for a risk assessment, adaptations to workplaces and, if the danger is not eliminated, preventive leave (prescribed by a gynaecologist). This study's first objective is to analyse the degree to which companies, gynaecologists and midwives implement the law. Its second objective is to understand the obstacles and resources of this implementation, with a focus on how relevant stakeholders perceive protective measures and their involvement with them. Data will be collected using mixed methods: (1) online questionnaires for gynaecologists and midwives; telephone questionnaires with company human resources (HR) managers in the healthcare and food production sectors; (2a) case studies of 6-8 companies in each sector, including interviews with stakeholders such as women workers, HR managers and occupational health physicians; (2b) two focus groups, one involving occupational physicians and hygienists, one involving labour inspectors.Quantitative data will be analysed statistically using STATA software V.15. Qualitative data will be transcribed and thematically analysed using MaxQDA software. The Human Research Ethics Committee of the Canton Vaud (CER-VD) has certified that this research study protocol falls outside of the field of application of the Swiss Federal Act on Research Involving Humans.The publications and recommendations resulting from this study will form the starting point for future improvements to the protection of pregnant women at work and their unborn children.This study started in February 2017 and will continue until January 2020. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. A Draft Test Protocol for Detecting Possible Biohazards in Martian Samples Returned to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D. (Editor); Race, Margaret S.; DeVincenzi, Donald L.; Schad, P. Jackson; Stabekis, Pericles D.; Viso, Michel; Acevedo, Sara E.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the first complete draft of a protocol for detecting possible biohazards in Mars samples returned to Earth: it is the final product of the Mars Sample Handling Protocol Workshop Series. convened in 2000-2001 by NASA's Planetary Protection Officer. The goal of the five-workshop Series vas to develop a comprehensive protocol by which returned martian sample materials could be assessed k r the presence of any biological hazard(s) while safeguarding the purity of the samples from possible terrestrial contamination.

  11. A Draft Test Protocol for Detecting Possible Biohazards in Martian Samples Returned to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D.; Race, Margaret S.; DeVinenzi, Donald L.; Schad, P. Jackson; Stabekis, Pericles D.; Viso, Michel; Acevedo, Sara E.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the first complete draft of a protocol for detecting possible biohazards in Mars samples returned to Earth; it is the final product of the Mars Sample Handling Protocol Workshop Series, convened in 2000-2001 by NASA's Planetary Protection Officer. The goal of the five-workshop Series vas to develop a comprehensive protocol by which returned martian sample materials could be assessed for the presence of any biological hazard(s) while safeguarding the purity of the samples from possible terrestrial contamination The reference numbers for the proceedings from the five individual Workshops.

  12. Space and Planetary Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel

    2018-02-01

    The space and multitude of celestial bodies surrounding Earth hold a vast wealth of resources for a variety of space and terrestrial applications. The unlimited solar energy, vacuum, and low gravity in space, as well as the minerals, metals, water, atmospheric gases, and volatile elements on the Moon, asteroids, comets, and the inner and outer planets of the Solar System and their moons, constitute potential valuable resources for robotic and human space missions and for future use in our own planet. In the short term, these resources could be transformed into useful materials at the site where they are found to extend mission duration and to reduce the costly dependence from materials sent from Earth. Making propellants and human consumables from local resources can significantly reduce mission mass and cost, enabling longer stays and fueling transportation systems for use within and beyond the planetary surface. Use of finely grained soils and rocks can serve for habitat construction, radiation protection, solar cell fabrication, and food growth. The same material could also be used to develop repair and replacement capabilities using advanced manufacturing technologies. Following similar mining practices utilized for centuries on Earth, identifying, extracting, and utilizing extraterrestrial resources will enable further space exploration, while increasing commercial activities beyond our planet. In the long term, planetary resources and solar energy could also be brought to Earth if obtaining these resources locally prove to be no longer economically or environmentally acceptable. Throughout human history, resources have been the driving force for the exploration and settling of our planet. Similarly, extraterrestrial resources will make space the next destination in the quest for further exploration and expansion of our species. However, just like on Earth, not all challenges are scientific and technological. As private companies start working toward

  13. Human Factors Risk Analyses of a Doffing Protocol for Ebola-Level Personal Protective Equipment: Mapping Errors to Contamination.

    PubMed

    Mumma, Joel M; Durso, Francis T; Ferguson, Ashley N; Gipson, Christina L; Casanova, Lisa; Erukunuakpor, Kimberly; Kraft, Colleen S; Walsh, Victoria L; Zimring, Craig; DuBose, Jennifer; Jacob, Jesse T

    2018-03-05

    Doffing protocols for personal protective equipment (PPE) are critical for keeping healthcare workers (HCWs) safe during care of patients with Ebola virus disease. We assessed the relationship between errors and self-contamination during doffing. Eleven HCWs experienced with doffing Ebola-level PPE participated in simulations in which HCWs donned PPE marked with surrogate viruses (ɸ6 and MS2), completed a clinical task, and were assessed for contamination after doffing. Simulations were video recorded, and a failure modes and effects analysis and fault tree analyses were performed to identify errors during doffing, quantify their risk (risk index), and predict contamination data. Fifty-one types of errors were identified, many having the potential to spread contamination. Hand hygiene and removing the powered air purifying respirator (PAPR) hood had the highest total risk indexes (111 and 70, respectively) and number of types of errors (9 and 13, respectively). ɸ6 was detected on 10% of scrubs and the fault tree predicted a 10.4% contamination rate, likely occurring when the PAPR hood inadvertently contacted scrubs during removal. MS2 was detected on 10% of hands, 20% of scrubs, and 70% of inner gloves and the predicted rates were 7.3%, 19.4%, 73.4%, respectively. Fault trees for MS2 and ɸ6 contamination suggested similar pathways. Ebola-level PPE can both protect and put HCWs at risk for self-contamination throughout the doffing process, even among experienced HCWs doffing with a trained observer. Human factors methodologies can identify error-prone steps, delineate the relationship between errors and self-contamination, and suggest remediation strategies.

  14. Trends in Planetary Data Analysis. Executive summary of the Planetary Data Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, N.

    1984-01-01

    Planetary data include non-imaging remote sensing data, which includes spectrometric, radiometric, and polarimetric remote sensing observations. Also included are in-situ, radio/radar data, and Earth based observation. Also discussed is development of a planetary data system. A catalog to identify observations will be the initial entry point for all levels of users into the data system. There are seven distinct data support services: encyclopedia, data index, data inventory, browse, search, sample, and acquire. Data systems for planetary science users must provide access to data, process, store, and display data. Two standards will be incorporated into the planetary data system: Standard communications protocol and Standard format data unit. The data system configuration must combine a distributed system with those of a centralized system. Fiscal constraints have made prioritization important. Activities include saving previous mission data, planning/cost analysis, and publishing of proceedings.

  15. An ecological compass for planetary engineering.

    PubMed

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2012-10-01

    Proposals to address present-day global warming through the large-scale application of technology to the climate system, known as geoengineering, raise questions of environmental ethics relevant to the broader issue of planetary engineering. These questions have also arisen in the scientific literature as discussions of how to terraform a planet such as Mars or Venus in order to make it more Earth-like and habitable. Here we draw on insights from terraforming and environmental ethics to develop a two-axis comparative tool for ethical frameworks that considers the intrinsic or instrumental value placed upon organisms, environments, planetary systems, or space. We apply this analysis to the realm of planetary engineering, such as terraforming on Mars or geoengineering on present-day Earth, as well as to questions of planetary protection and space exploration.

  16. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support provided by Science Applications, Inc. staff members to Earth and Planetary Exploration Division, OSSA/NASA, for the period 1 February 1981 to 30 April 1982 are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation, planetary missions performance, solar system exploration committee support, Mars program planning, Galilean satellite mission concepts, and advanced propulsion data base. The work covers 80 man-months of research. Study reports and related publications are included in a bibliography section.

  17. Planetary geosciences, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T. (Editor); Plescia, Jeff L. (Editor); James, Odette B. (Editor); Macpherson, Glenn (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Research topics within the NASA Planetary Geosciences Program are presented. Activity in the fields of planetary geology, geophysics, materials, and geochemistry is covered. The investigator's current research efforts, the importance of that work in understanding a particular planetary geoscience problem, the context of that research, and the broader planetary geoscience effort is described. As an example, theoretical modelling of the stability of water ice within the Martian regolith, the applicability of that work to understanding Martian volatiles in general, and the geologic history of Mars is discussed.

  18. From Planetary Intelligence to Planetary Wisdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    "Planetary intelligence" - when understood as an input into the processes of "managing" Earth - hints at an instrumental understanding of scientific information. At minimum it is a call for useful data of political (and even military) value; at best it speaks to an ability to collect, integrate and apply such information. In this sense, 21st century society has more "intelligence" than any generation of humans before, begging the question whether just more or better "planetary intelligence" will do anything at all to move us off the path of planetary destruction (i.e., beyond planetary boundaries) that it has been on for decades if not centuries. Social scientists have argued that there are at least four shortcomings in this way of thinking that - if addressed - could open up 1) what is being researched; 2) what is considered socially robust knowledge; 3) how science interacts with policy-makers and other "planet managers"; and 4) what is being done in practice with the "intelligence" given to those positioned at the levers of change. To the extent "planetary management" continues to be approached from a scientistic paradigm alone, there is little hope that Earth's future will remain in a safe operating space in this or coming centuries.

  19. General protocol for the synthesis of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging from protected metal-organic precursors.

    PubMed

    Hu, He; Zhang, Chongkun; An, Lu; Yu, Yanrong; Yang, Hong; Sun, Jin; Wu, Huixia; Yang, Shiping

    2014-06-02

    The development of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with functional groups has been intensively pursued in recent years. Herein, a simple, versatile, and cost-effective strategy to synthesize water-soluble and amino-functionalized MNPs, based on the thermal decomposition of phthalimide-protected metal-organic precursors followed by deprotection, was developed. The resulting amino-functionalized Fe3O4, MnFe2O4, and Mn3O4 MNPs with particle sizes of about 14.3, 7.5, and 6.6 nm, respectively, had narrow size distributions and good dispersibility in water. These MNPs also exhibited high magnetism and relaxivities of r2 = 107.25 mM(-1)  s(-1) for Fe3O4, r2 = 245.75 mM(-1)  s(-1) for MnFe2O4, and r1 = 2.74 mM(-1)  s(-1) for Mn3O4. The amino-functionalized MNPs were further conjugated with a fluorescent dye (rhodamine B) and a targeting ligand (folic acid: FA) and used as multifunctional probes. Magnetic resonance imaging and flow-cytometric studies showed that these probes could specifically target cancer cells overexpressing FA receptors. This new protocol opens a new way for the synthesis and design of water-soluble and amino-functionalized MNPs by an easy and versatile route. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

  1. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation research, planetary mission performance, penetrator advanced studies, Mercury mission transport requirements, definition of super solar electric propulsion/solar sail mission discriminators, and advanced planning activities.

  2. Multistage Planetary Power Transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, G. B.; Dyba, G. J.; Ragen, M. A.; Kleckner, R. J.; Sheynin, L.

    1986-01-01

    PLANETSYS simulates thermomechanical performance of multistage planetary performance of multistage planetary power transmission. Two versions of code developed, SKF version and NASA version. Major function of program: compute performance characteristics of planet bearing for any of six kinematic inversions. PLANETSYS solves heat-balance equations for either steadystate or transient thermal conditions, and produces temperature maps for mechanical system.

  3. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation research, planetary mission performance, penetrator mission concepts for airless planets/satellites, geology orbiter payload adaptability, lunar mission performance, and advanced planning activities. Study reports and related publications are included in a bibliography section.

  4. Mars Sample Handling Protocol Workshop Series: Workshop 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race Margaret S. (Editor); DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Editor); Rummel, John D. (Editor); Acevedo, Sara E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    In preparation for missions to Mars that will involve the return of samples to Earth, it will be necessary to prepare for the receiving, handling, testing, distributing, and archiving of martian materials here on Earth. Previous groups and committees have studied selected aspects of sample return activities, but specific detailed protocols for the handling and testing of returned samples must still be developed. To further refine the requirements for sample hazard testing and to develop the criteria for subsequent release of sample materials from quarantine, the NASA Planetary Protection Officer convened a series of workshops in 2000-2001. The overall objective of the Workshop Series was to produce a Draft Protocol by which returned martian sample materials can be assessed for biological hazards and examined for evidence of life (extant or extinct) while safeguarding the purity of the samples from possible terrestrial contamination. This report also provides a record of the proceedings of Workshop 4, the final Workshop of the Series, which was held in Arlington, Virginia, June 5-7, 2001. During Workshop 4, the sub-groups were provided with a draft of the protocol compiled in May 2001 from the work done at prior Workshops in the Series. Then eight sub-groups were formed to discuss the following assigned topics: Review and Assess the Draft Protocol for Physical/Chemical Testing Review and Assess the Draft Protocol for Life Detection Testing Review and Assess the Draft Protocol for Biohazard Testing Environmental and Health/Monitoring and Safety Issues Requirements of the Draft Protocol for Facilities and Equipment Contingency Planning for Different Outcomes of the Draft Protocol Personnel Management Considerations in Implementation of the Draft Protocol Draft Protocol Implementation Process and Update Concepts This report provides the first complete presentation of the Draft Protocol for Mars Sample Handling to meet planetary protection needs. This Draft Protocol

  5. A new protocol for evaluating the efficacy of some dispensing systems of a packaging in the microbial protection of water-based preservative-free cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Devlieghere, F; De Loy-Hendrickx, A; Rademaker, M; Pipelers, P; Crozier, A; De Baets, B; Joly, L; Keromen, S

    2015-12-01

    A new protocol is described for assessing the efficacy of the dispenser of some packaging systems (PSs) of preservative-free cosmetic products in protecting both their contained formula and their delivered doses. Practically, aiming at mimicking contacts with a non-sterile skin or fingers, the dispensing system is put into contact with a pre-contaminated fabric by a standardized colonization of P. aeruginosa. When applied to three different types of packaging, results show clear differences in both criteria between these conditioning articles, that is variable efficacies in protecting the contained product and the delivered doses, knowing that the first aspect is of paramount importance. The proposed protocol is proved being able to discriminate between different PSs and provides information on strong and weak features of certain types dispensing technologies prone to efficiently decrease either the dose contamination or to prevent contamination in reaching the contained product. Therefore, the proposed protocol can contribute to an objective selection of a PS for protecting a cosmetic care product with a low content of preservative or preservative free. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  6. A randomised controlled trial of a theory-based intervention to improve sun protective behaviour in adolescents ('you can still be HOT in the shade'): study protocol.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Anna L; Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M; McD Young, Ross

    2012-01-03

    Most skin cancers are preventable by encouraging consistent use of sun protective behaviour. In Australia, adolescents have high levels of knowledge and awareness of the risks of skin cancer but exhibit significantly lower sun protection behaviours than adults. There is limited research aimed at understanding why people do or do not engage in sun protective behaviour, and an associated absence of theory-based interventions to improve sun safe behaviour. This paper presents the study protocol for a school-based intervention which aims to improve the sun safe behaviour of adolescents. Approximately 400 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) will be recruited through Queensland, Australia public and private schools and randomized to the intervention (n = 200) or 'wait-list' control group (n = 200). The intervention focuses on encouraging supportive sun protective attitudes and beliefs, fostering perceptions of normative support for sun protection behaviour, and increasing perceptions of control/self-efficacy over using sun protection. It will be delivered during three × one hour sessions over a three week period from a trained facilitator during class time. Data will be collected one week pre-intervention (Time 1), and at one week (Time 2) and four weeks (Time 3) post-intervention. Primary outcomes are intentions to sun protect and sun protection behaviour. Secondary outcomes include attitudes toward performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., attitudes), perceptions of normative support to sun protect (i.e., subjective norms, group norms, and image norms), and perceived control over performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., perceived behavioural control). The study will provide valuable information about the effectiveness of the intervention in improving the sun protective behaviour of adolescents. © 2011 Hawkes et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  7. Microbial Ecology of a Crewed Rover Traverse in the Arctic: Low Microbial Dispersal and Implications for Planetary Protection on Human Mars Missions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Between April 2009 and July 2011, the NASA Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) led the Northwest Passage Drive Expedition (NWPDX), a multi-staged long-distance crewed rover traverse along the Northwest Passage in the Arctic. In April 2009, the HMP Okarian rover was driven 496 km over sea ice along the Northwest Passage, from Kugluktuk to Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, Canada. During the traverse, crew members collected samples from within the rover and from undisturbed snow-covered surfaces around the rover at three locations. The rover samples and snow samples were stored at subzero conditions (−20°C to −1°C) until processed for microbial diversity in labs at the NASA Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The objective was to determine the extent of microbial dispersal away from the rover and onto undisturbed snow. Interior surfaces of the rover were found to be associated with a wide range of bacteria (69 unique taxa) and fungi (16 unique taxa). In contrast, snow samples from the upwind, downwind, uptrack, and downtrack sample sites exterior to the rover were negative for both bacteria and fungi except for two colony-forming units (cfus) recovered from one downwind (1 cfu; site A4) and one uptrack (1 cfu; site B6) sample location. The fungus, Aspergillus fumigatus (GenBank JX517279), and closely related bacteria in the genus Brevibacillus were recovered from both snow (B. agri, GenBank JX517278) and interior rover surfaces. However, it is unknown whether the microorganisms were deposited onto snow surfaces at the time of sample collection (i.e., from the clothing or skin of the human operator) or via airborne dispersal from the rover during the 12–18 h layovers at the sites prior to collection. Results support the conclusion that a crewed rover traveling over previously undisturbed terrain may not significantly contaminate the local terrain via airborne dispersal of propagules from the vehicle. Key Words: Planetary protection

  8. Rise of planetary bodies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czechowski, Z.; Leliwa-Kopystyński, J.; Teisseyre, R.

    Contents: 1. On the probability of the formation of planetary systems. 2. Condensation triggered by supernova explosion and tidal capture theory. 3. Foundations of accretion theory. 4. The structure and evolution of the protoplanetary disk. 5. Coagulation of orbiting bodies. 6. Collision phenomena related to planetology: accretion, fragmentation, cratering. 7. Dynamics of planetesimals: Introduction, Safronov's approach, elements of the kinetic theory of gases, Nakagawa's approach, approaches considering inelastic collisions and gravitational encounters of planetesimals, Hämeen-Anttila approach, planetesimals with different masses. 8. Growth of the planetary embryo: Basic equations, model of growth of planetary embryos. 9. Origin of the Moon and the satellites.

  9. Planetary Magnetic Fields: Planetary Interiors and Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Shkolnik, Evgenya; Hallinan, Gregg; Planetary Habitability Study Team

    2016-06-01

    The W. M. Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) sponsored the Planetary Magnetic Fields: Planetary Interiors and Habitability Study to review the state of knowledge of extrasolar planetary magnetic fields and the prospects for their detection. There were multiple motivations for this Study. Planetary-scale magnetic fields are a window to a planet's interior and provide shielding of the planet's atmosphere. The Earth, Mercury, Ganymede, and the giant planets of the solar system all contain internal dynamo currents that generate planetary-scale magnetic fields. In turn, these internal dynamo currents arise from differential rotation, convection, compositional dynamics, or a combination of these in objects' interiors. If coupled to an energy source, such as the incident kinetic or magnetic energy from the solar wind or an orbiting satellite, a planet's magnetic field can produce intense electron cyclotron masers in its magnetic polar regions. The most well known example of this process in the solar system is the Jovian decametric emission, but all of the giant planets and the Earth contain similar electron cyclotron masers within their magnetospheres. Extrapolated to extrasolar planets, the remote detection of the magnetic field of an extrasolar planet would provide a means of obtaining constraints on the thermal state, composition, and dynamics of its interior--all of which will be difficult to determine by other means--as well as improved understanding of the basic planetary dynamo process. This report presents the findings from the Study, including potential mission concepts that emerged and future work in both modeling and observations. There was also an identification of that radio wavelength observations would likely be key to making significant progress in this field. The entire Study program would not have been possible without the generous support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. We thank Michele Judd, Tom Prince, and the staff of the W. M. Keck Institute for

  10. Lunar & Planetary Science, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents a summary of each paper presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference at the Johnson Space Center, Houston in March 1980. Topics relate to Venus, Jupiter, Mars, asteroids, meteorites, regoliths, achondrites, remote sensing, and cratering studies. (SA)

  11. Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

  12. Toward a bioethical framework for antibiotic use, antimicrobial resistance and for empirically designing ethically robust strategies to protect human health: a research protocol

    PubMed Central

    Martins Pereira, Sandra; de Sá Brandão, Patrícia Joana; Araújo, Joana; Carvalho, Ana Sofia

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a challenging global and public health issue, raising bioethical challenges, considerations and strategies. Objectives This research protocol presents a conceptual model leading to formulating an empirically based bioethics framework for antibiotic use, AMR and designing ethically robust strategies to protect human health. Methods Mixed methods research will be used and operationalized into five substudies. The bioethical framework will encompass and integrate two theoretical models: global bioethics and ethical decision-making. Results Being a study protocol, this article reports on planned and ongoing research. Conclusions Based on data collection, future findings and using a comprehensive, integrative, evidence-based approach, a step-by-step bioethical framework will be developed for (i) responsible use of antibiotics in healthcare and (ii) design of strategies to decrease AMR. This will entail the analysis and interpretation of approaches from several bioethical theories, including deontological and consequentialist approaches, and the implications of uncertainty to these approaches. PMID:28459355

  13. Biological quarantine on international waters: an initiative for onboard protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yoshinori; Yano, Hajime; Funase, Ryu; Sekine, Yasuhito; Takai, Ken

    2012-07-01

    The research vessel Chikyu is expanding new frontiers in science, technology, and international collaboration through deep-sea expedition. The Chikyu (length: 210 m, gross tonnage: 56752 tons) has advanced and comprehensive scientific research facilities. One of the scientific purposes of the vessel is to investigate into unexplored biosphere (i.e., undescribed extremophiles) on the Earth. Therefore, "the onboard laboratory" provides us systematic microbiological protocols with a physical containment situation. In parallel, the onboard equipments provide sufficient space for fifty scientists and technical support staff. The helicopter deck also supports various logistics through transporting by a large scale helicopter (See, http://www.jamstec.go.jp/chikyu/eng/). Since the establishment of Panel on Planetary Protection (PPP) in Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), we have an international consensus about the development and promulgation of planetary protection knowledge, policy, and plans to prevent the harmful effects of biological contamination on the Earth (e.g., Rummel, 2002). However, the matter to select a candidate location of initial quarantine at BSL4 level is often problematic. To answer the key issue, we suggest that international waters can be a meaningful option with several advantages to conduct initial onboard-biological quarantine investigation. Hence, the research vessel Chikyu is promising for further PPP requirements (e.g., Enceladus sample return project: Tsou et al., 2012). Rummel, J., Seeking an international consensus in planetary protection: COSPAR's planetary protection panel. Advances in Space Research, 30, 1573-1575 (2002). Tsou, P. et al. LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus - A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life. Astrobiology, in press.

  14. Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksanfomaliti, L. V.

    2000-11-01

    The discovery of planetary systems around alien stars is an outstanding achievement of recent years. The idea that the Solar System may be representative of planetary systems in the Galaxy in general develops upon the knowledge, current until the last decade of the 20th century, that it is the only object of its kind. Studies of the known planets gave rise to a certain stereotype in theoretical research. Therefore, the discovery of exoplanets, which are so different from objects of the Solar System, alters our basic notions concerning the physics and very criteria of normal planets. A substantial factor in the history of the Solar System was the formation of Jupiter. Two waves of meteorite bombardment played an important role in that history. Ultimately there arose a stable low-entropy state of the Solar System, in which Jupiter and the other giants in stable orbits protect the inner planets from impacts by dangerous celestial objects, reducing this danger by many orders of magnitude. There are even variants of the anthropic principle maintaining that life on Earth owes its genesis and development to Jupiter. Some 20 companions more or less similar to Jupiter in mass and a few ``infrared dwarfs,'' have been found among the 500 solar-type stars belonging to the main sequence. Approximately half of the exoplanets discovered are of the ``hot-Jupiter'' type. These are giants, sometimes of a mass several times that of Jupiter, in very low orbits and with periods of 3-14 days. All of their parent stars are enriched with heavy elements, [Fe/H] = 0.1-0.2. This may indicate that the process of exoplanet formation depends on the chemical composition of the protoplanetary disk. The very existence of exoplanets of the hot-Jupiter type considered in the context of new theoretical work comes up against the problem of the formation of Jupiter in its real orbit. All the exoplanets in orbits with a semimajor axis of more than 0.15-0.20 astronomical units (AU) have orbital

  15. Planetary mass function and planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominik, M.

    2011-02-01

    With planets orbiting stars, a planetary mass function should not be seen as a low-mass extension of the stellar mass function, but a proper formalism needs to take care of the fact that the statistical properties of planet populations are linked to the properties of their respective host stars. This can be accounted for by describing planet populations by means of a differential planetary mass-radius-orbit function, which together with the fraction of stars with given properties that are orbited by planets and the stellar mass function allows the derivation of all statistics for any considered sample. These fundamental functions provide a framework for comparing statistics that result from different observing techniques and campaigns which all have their very specific selection procedures and detection efficiencies. Moreover, recent results both from gravitational microlensing campaigns and radial-velocity surveys of stars indicate that planets tend to cluster in systems rather than being the lonely child of their respective parent star. While planetary multiplicity in an observed system becomes obvious with the detection of several planets, its quantitative assessment however comes with the challenge to exclude the presence of further planets. Current exoplanet samples begin to give us first hints at the population statistics, whereas pictures of planet parameter space in its full complexity call for samples that are 2-4 orders of magnitude larger. In order to derive meaningful statistics, however, planet detection campaigns need to be designed in such a way that well-defined fully deterministic target selection, monitoring and detection criteria are applied. The probabilistic nature of gravitational microlensing makes this technique an illustrative example of all the encountered challenges and uncertainties.

  16. Non-planetary Science from Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, M.; Rabe, K.; Daniels, K.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary science is naturally focussed on the issues of the origin and history of solar systems, especially our own. The implications of an early turbulent history of our solar system reach into many areas including the origin of Earth's oceans, of ores in the Earth's crust and possibly the seeding of life. There are however other areas of science that stand to be developed greatly by planetary missions, primarily to small solar system bodies. The physics of granular materials has been well-studied in Earth's gravity, but lacks a general theory. Because of the compacting effects of gravity, some experiments desired for testing these theories remain impossible on Earth. Studying the behavior of a micro-gravity rubble pile -- such as many asteroids are believed to be -- could provide a new route towards exploring general principles of granular physics. These same studies would also prove valuable for planning missions to sample these same bodies, as techniques for anchoring and deep sampling are difficult to plan in the absence of such knowledge. In materials physics, first-principles total-energy calculations for compounds of a given stoichiometry have identified metastable, or even stable, structures distinct from known structures obtained by synthesis under laboratory conditions. The conditions in the proto-planetary nebula, in the slowly cooling cores of planetesimals, and in the high speed collisions of planetesimals and their derivatives, are all conditions that cannot be achieved in the laboratory. Large samples from comets and asteroids offer the chance to find crystals with these as-yet unobserved structures as well as more exotic materials. Some of these could have unusual properties important for materials science. Meteorites give us a glimpse of these exotic materials, several dozen of which are known that are unique to meteorites. But samples retrieved directly from small bodies in space will not have been affected by atmospheric entry, warmth or

  17. A protocol for treatment of unstable ankle fractures using transarticular fixation in patients with diabetes mellitus and loss of protective sensibility.

    PubMed

    Jani, Mihir M; Ricci, William M; Borrelli, Joseph; Barrett, Susan E; Johnson, Jeffrey E

    2003-11-01

    Surgical treatment of ankle fractures in patients with diabetes mellitus is associated with a high complication rate. Diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy are a particularly difficult group to treat because of their inability to sense deep infection, repeat trauma, and wound complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a protocol that included transarticular fixation and prolonged, protected weightbearing in the treatment of unstable ankle fractures in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy and loss of protective sensibility. The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 15 patients with diabetes mellitus, unstable ankle fractures (AO classification 44B), and loss of protective sensibility confirmed via testing with a 5.07 Semmes-Weinstein monofilament. Retrograde transcalcaneal-talar-tibial fixation using large Steinmann pins or screws in conjunction with standard techniques of open reduction and internal fixation was used. The postoperative treatment protocol included: 1) short leg, total contact casting and nonweightbearing status for 12 weeks; 2) removal of the intramedullary implants between 12 and 16 weeks; 3) application of a walker boot or short leg cast with partial weightbearing for an additional 12 weeks; and 4) transition to a custom-molded ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) or custom total-contact inserts in appropriate diabetic footwear. The major complication rate for all fractures was 25% (4/16) and for closed fractures was 23% (3/13). These are lower than previously reported rates between 30% (3/10) and 43% (9/21) for diabetic patients with and without neuropathy. The amputation rate for all fractures was 13% (2/16) and for closed fractures alone was 8% (1/13). These are similar to previously reported rates of 10% (2/10) to 20% (2/21). There were no deaths or Charcot malunions in this series. The combination of transarticular fixation and prolonged, protected weightbearing provided 13 of 15 patients with a stable ankle for

  18. Extrasolar planetary systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, S.-S.

    1973-01-01

    The terms 'planet' and 'planet-like objects' are defined. The observational search for extrasolar planetary systems is described, as performable by earthbound optical telescopes, by space probes, by long baseline radio interferometry, and finally by inference from the reception of signals sent by intelligent beings in other worlds. It is shown that any planetary system must be preceded by a rotating disk of gas and dust around a central mass. A brief review of the theories of the formation of the solar system is given, along with a proposed scheme for classification of these theories. The evidence for magnetic activity in the early stages of stellar evolution is presented. The magnetic braking theories of solar and stellar rotation are discussed, and an estimate is made for the frequency of occurrence of planetary systems in the universe.

  19. Foundations of planetary quarantine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, L. B.; Lyle, R. G.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of some of the problems in microbiology and engineering involved in the implementation of planetary quarantine. It is shown that the solutions require new knowledge in both disciplines for success at low cost in terms of both monetary outlay and man's further exploration of the planets. A related problem exists in that engineers are not accustomed to the wide variation of biological data and microbiologists must learn to work and think in more exact terms. Those responsible for formulating or influencing national and international policies must walk a tightrope with delicate balance between unnecessarily stringent requirements for planetary quarantine on the one hand and prevention of contamination on the other. The success of planetary quarantine measures can be assured only by rigorous measures, each checked, rechecked, and triple-checked to make sure that no errors have been made and that no factor has been overlooked.

  20. Infrastructure for Planetary Sciences: Universal planetary database development project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasaba, Yasumasa; Capria, M. T.; Crichton, D.; Zender, J.; Beebe, R.

    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), formally formed under COSPAR (Formal start: from the COSPAR 2008 at Montreal), is a joint international effort to enable global access and exchange of high quality planetary science data, and to establish archive stan-dards that make it easier to share the data across international boundaries. In 2008-2009, thanks to the many players from several agencies and institutions, we got fruitful results in 6 projects: (1) Inter-operable Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP) implementations [led by J. Salgado@ESA], (2) Small bodies interoperability [led by I. Shinohara@JAXA N. Hirata@U. Aizu], (3) PDAP assessment [led by Y. Yamamoto@JAXA], (4) Architecture and standards definition [led by D. Crichton@NASA], (5) Information model and data dictionary [led by S. Hughes@NASA], and (6) Venus Express Interoperability [led by N. Chanover@NMSU]. 'IPDA 2009-2010' is important, especially because the NASA/PDS system reformation is now reviewed as it develops for application at the international level. IPDA is the gate for the establishment of the future infrastructure. We are running 8 projects: (1) IPDA Assessment of PDS4 Data Standards [led by S. Hughes (NASA/JPL)], (2) IPDA Archive Guide [led by M.T. Capria (IASF/INAF) and D. Heather (ESA/PSA)], (3) IPDA Standards Identification [led by E. Rye (NASA/PDS) and G. Krishna (ISRO)], (4) Ancillary Data Standards [led by C. Acton (NASA/JPL)], (5) IPDA Registries Definition [led by D. Crichton (NASA/JPL)], (6) PDAP Specification [led by J. Salgado (ESA/PSA) and Y. Yamamoto (JAXA)], (7) In-teroperability Assessment [R. Beebe (NMSU) and D. Heather (ESA/PSA)], and (8) PDAP Geographic Information System (GIS) extension [N. Hirata (Univ. Aizu) and T. Hare (USGS: thare@usgs.gov)]. This paper presents our achievements and plans summarized in the IPDA 5th Steering Com-mittee meeting at DLR in July 2010. We are now just the gate for the establishment of the Infrastructure.

  1. Variety in planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, George W.

    1993-01-01

    Observation of circumstellar disks, regular satellite systems of outer planets, and planet-size objects orbiting pulsars support the supposition that formation of planetary systems is a robust, rather than a fragile, byproduct of the formation and evolution of stars. The extent to which these systems may be expected to resemble one another and our Solar System, either in overall structure or in detail remains uncertain. When the full range of possible stellar masses, disk masses, and initial specific angular momenta are considered, the possible variety of planetary configurations is very large. Numerical modeling indicates a difference between the formation of small, inner, terrestrial planets and the outer planets.

  2. Airships for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing an airship for planetary atmospheric exploration was assessed. The environmental conditions of the planets and moons within our solar system were evaluated to determine their applicability for airship flight. A station-keeping mission of 50 days in length was used as the baseline mission. Airship sizing was performed utilizing both solar power and isotope power to meet the baseline mission goal at the selected planetary location. The results show that an isotope-powered airship is feasible within the lower atmosphere of Venus and Saturn s moon Titan.

  3. Planetary science comes to Nantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Robert

    2011-12-01

    MEETING REPORT Robert Massey reports on highlights of the first joint meeting of the European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) and the AAS Division of Planetary Scientists (DPS) in Nantes in October.

  4. Conference on Planetary Volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrametz, K.; Kofler, L.

    1982-10-01

    Initial and present volatile inventories and distributions in the Earth, other planets, meteorites, and comets; observational evidence on the time history of volatile transfer among reservoirs; and volatiles in planetary bodies, their mechanisms of transport, and their relation to thermal, chemical, geological and biological evolution were addressed.

  5. Conference on Planetary Volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, R. O.; Oconnell, R.

    Initial and present volatile inventories and distributions in the Earth, other planets, meteorites, and comets; observational evidence on the time history of volatile transfer among reservoirs; and volatiles in planetary bodies, their mechanisms of transport, and their relation to thermal, chemical, geological and biological evolution are addressed.

  6. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A wide variety of topics on planetary geology are presented. Subjects include stratigraphy and geomorphology of Copernicus, the Mamers valle region, and other selected regions of Mars and the Moon. Crater density and distribution are discussed for Callisto and the lunar surface. Spectroscopic analysis is described for Europa and Ganymede.

  7. Contemporary Planetary Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belton, Michael J. S.; Levy, Eugene H.

    1982-01-01

    Presents an overview of planetary science and the United States program for exploration of the planets, examining the program's scientific objectives, its current activities, and the diversity of its methods. Also discusses the program's lack of continuity, especially in personnel. (Author/JN)

  8. Conference on Planetary Volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrametz, K.; Kofler, L.

    1982-01-01

    Initial and present volatile inventories and distributions in the Earth, other planets, meteorites, and comets; observational evidence on the time history of volatile transfer among reservoirs; and volatiles in planetary bodies, their mechanisms of transport, and their relation to thermal, chemical, geological and biological evolution were addressed.

  9. Conference on Planetary Volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, R. O. (Compiler); Oconnell, R. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Initial and present volatile inventories and distributions in the Earth, other planets, meteorites, and comets; observational evidence on the time history of volatile transfer among reservoirs; and volatiles in planetary bodies, their mechanisms of transport, and their relation to thermal, chemical, geological and biological evolution are addressed.

  10. Asteroidal and planetary analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, W. K.

    1975-01-01

    Photometric, spectrophotometric, and radiometric investigations of asteroids and planets are reported. Profiles of the planetary disk were used to study the physical structure of the Uranus atmosphere, and thermal and photographic properties of Saturn rings were theoretically modelled. Ground-based Mars observations were made for long-term comparison with Mariner 9 results.

  11. Planetary Quarantine Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The activities of the Planetary Quarantine Department at Sandia Laboratories during the period April 1965 through June 1972 are summarized. Included are the rationale, the methods, and the results of modeling and experimentation used in dry heat, radiation, thermoradiation, and chemical sterilization studies. Publications describing these activities and accounts of closely related research are also furnished.

  12. Planetary quarantine computer applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rafenstein, M.

    1973-01-01

    The computer programs are identified pertaining to planetary quarantine activities within the Project Engineering Division, both at the Air Force Eastern Test Range and on site at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief description of each program and program inputs are given and typical program outputs are shown.

  13. Catalogues of planetary nebulae.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acker, A.

    Firstly, the general requirements concerning catalogues are studied for planetary nebulae, in particular concerning the objects to be included in a catalogue of PN, their denominations, followed by reflexions about the afterlife and comuterized versions of a catalogue. Then, the basic elements constituting a catalogue of PN are analyzed, and the available data are looked at each time.

  14. Planetary rings - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borderies, Nicole

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical models of planetary-ring dynamics are examined in a brief analytical review. The mathematical description of streamlines and streamline interactions is outlined; the redistribution of angular momentum due to collisions between particles is explained; and problems in the modeling of broad, narrow, and arc rings are discussed.

  15. Planetary Protection for Polar Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    The picture of Mars that is emerging from the Mars Global Surveyor and Odyssey results contrasts markedly from that portrayed shortly after the Viking missions ended. Particularly intriguing is the abundance of water ice seen both in the polar caps themselves, and in lower latitudes outside of the polar regions. Along with the new data comes a heightened consideration of the potential for biological contamination that may be carried by future missions, and its possible effects. Particularly challenging are scenarios where missions carrying perennial heat sources of high capacity and longevity (e.g., Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators) could, by non-nominal landings or other mission operations be introduced to close contact with water ice on Mars - potentially forming Earthlike environments that could accommodate the growth of contaminant organisms.

  16. Planetary science: A lunar perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    An interpretative synthesis of current knowledge on the moon and the terrestrial planets is presented, emphasizing the impact of recent lunar research (using Apollo data and samples) on theories of planetary morphology and evolution. Chapters are included on the exploration of the solar system; geology and stratigraphy; meteorite impacts, craters, and multiring basins; planetary surfaces; planetary crusts; basaltic volcanism; planetary interiors; the chemical composition of the planets; the origin and evolution of the moon and planets; and the significance of lunar and planetary exploration. Photographs, drawings, graphs, tables of quantitative data, and a glossary are provided.

  17. Reconfigurable Autonomy for Future Planetary Rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burroughes, Guy

    Extra-terrestrial Planetary rover systems are uniquely remote, placing constraints in regard to communication, environmental uncertainty, and limited physical resources, and requiring a high level of fault tolerance and resistance to hardware degradation. This thesis presents a novel self-reconfiguring autonomous software architecture designed to meet the needs of extraterrestrial planetary environments. At runtime it can safely reconfigure low-level control systems, high-level decisional autonomy systems, and managed software architecture. The architecture can perform automatic Verification and Validation of self-reconfiguration at run-time, and enables a system to be self-optimising, self-protecting, and self-healing. A novel self-monitoring system, which is non-invasive, efficient, tunable, and autonomously deploying, is also presented. The architecture was validated through the use-case of a highly autonomous extra-terrestrial planetary exploration rover. Three major forms of reconfiguration were demonstrated and tested: first, high level adjustment of system internal architecture and goal; second, software module modification; and third, low level alteration of hardware control in response to degradation of hardware and environmental change. The architecture was demonstrated to be robust and effective in a Mars sample return mission use-case testing the operational aspects of a novel, reconfigurable guidance, navigation, and control system for a planetary rover, all operating in concert through a scenario that required reconfiguration of all elements of the system.

  18. Variable versus conventional lung protective mechanical ventilation during open abdominal surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Spieth, Peter M; Güldner, Andreas; Uhlig, Christopher; Bluth, Thomas; Kiss, Thomas; Schultz, Marcus J; Pelosi, Paolo; Koch, Thea; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo

    2014-05-02

    General anesthesia usually requires mechanical ventilation, which is traditionally accomplished with constant tidal volumes in volume- or pressure-controlled modes. Experimental studies suggest that the use of variable tidal volumes (variable ventilation) recruits lung tissue, improves pulmonary function and reduces systemic inflammatory response. However, it is currently not known whether patients undergoing open abdominal surgery might benefit from intraoperative variable ventilation. The PROtective VARiable ventilation trial ('PROVAR') is a single center, randomized controlled trial enrolling 50 patients who are planning for open abdominal surgery expected to last longer than 3 hours. PROVAR compares conventional (non-variable) lung protective ventilation (CV) with variable lung protective ventilation (VV) regarding pulmonary function and inflammatory response. The primary endpoint of the study is the forced vital capacity on the first postoperative day. Secondary endpoints include further lung function tests, plasma cytokine levels, spatial distribution of ventilation assessed by means of electrical impedance tomography and postoperative pulmonary complications. We hypothesize that VV improves lung function and reduces systemic inflammatory response compared to CV in patients receiving mechanical ventilation during general anesthesia for open abdominal surgery longer than 3 hours. PROVAR is the first randomized controlled trial aiming at intra- and postoperative effects of VV on lung function. This study may help to define the role of VV during general anesthesia requiring mechanical ventilation. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01683578 (registered on September 3 3012).

  19. Spectroscopic planetary detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Drake

    1991-01-01

    One of the most promising methods for the detection of extra-solar planets is the spectroscopic method, where a small Doppler shift (approx. 10 meter/sec) in the spectrum of the parent star reveals the presence of planetary companions. However, solar type stars may show spurious Doppler shifts due to surface activity. If these effects are periodic, as is the solar activity cycle, then they may masquerade as planetary companions. The goal of this study was to determine whether the solar cycle affects the Doppler stability of integrated sunlight. Observations of integrated sunlight were made in the near infrared (approx. 2 micron), using the Kitt Peak McMath Fourier transform spectrometer, with a N2O gas absorption cell for calibration. An accuracy of approx. 5 meter/sec was achieved.

  20. Planetary atmospheres and aurorae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moos, H. W.; Encrenaz, TH.

    1987-01-01

    Observations of planetary atmospheres and auroras obtained by the IUE satellite observatory during the first 10 years of its operation are reviewed. Topics examined include the value of UV studies of atmospheric phenomena, the kinds of observations available prior to the launch of IUE in 1978, the composition and structure of the upper atmospheres below the homopause, the effects of the magnetosphere on the atmosphere above the homopause, excitation processes, and fundamental questions and scientific goals. Data on Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus, and the Io plasma torus are presented in tables and graphs and briefly characterized. It is pointed out that the IUE has greatly advanced knowledge of the plantary atmospheres, despite the fact that its design was not optimized for planetary observations.

  1. NASA Planetary Rover Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, David; Bedard, Roger J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Planetary Rover Project was initiated in 1989. The emphasis of the work to date has been on development of autonomous navigation technology within the context of a high mobility wheeled vehicle at the JPL and an innovative legged locomotion concept at Carnegie Mellon University. The status and accomplishments of these two efforts are discussed. First, however, background information is given on the three rover types required for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) whose objective is a manned mission to Mars.

  2. Jovian Planetary Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, J.; Deming, D.

    1997-07-01

    We have found over two dozen discrete, linearly-propagating, periodic features in 5-{\\micron} images of Jovian cloud opacities (J. Harrington et al. 1996, Icarus 124, 32--44). Numerous spatially-sinusoidal temperature oscillations also appear in several passbands between 7 and 19 {\\microns} (D. Deming et al. 1997, Icarus 126, 301--312). Both types of Jovian planetary-scale features are zonally-oriented. They have always been detected when sought (1989, '91, '92, '93), and some individual features persist 100 Earth days or longer. These features are superficially consistent with Rossby waves, but they do not follow a simplistic dispersion relation based on cloud-top wind speeds. Planetary wavenumbers are never larger than 15, consistent with predictions based on the Rhines scale for Jupiter. There are many outstanding phenomenological questions: Where and how are the waves driven? How are waves at different atmospheric levels related? What are their true dispersion properties? How long do they last? We are continuing observations and will conduct a search of the Hubble Space Telescope archive for the \\sim 1{°ee} meridional cloud-belt deviations expected for Rossby waves. We are in the process of correlating wave detections of various types, times, and wavelengths with each other. Our goal is to constrain atmospheric stratification and vertical energy transport. Because Rossby waves propagate vertically, these features may probe conditions at the interface between the meteorological atmosphere and the planetary interior. Work supported by NASA Planetary Astronomy RTOP 196-41-54. Work performed while J. H. held a National Research Council - NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Research Associateship.

  3. Galactic planetary science

    PubMed Central

    Tinetti, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Planetary science beyond the boundaries of our Solar System is today in its infancy. Until a couple of decades ago, the detailed investigation of the planetary properties was restricted to objects orbiting inside the Kuiper Belt. Today, we cannot ignore that the number of known planets has increased by two orders of magnitude nor that these planets resemble anything but the objects present in our own Solar System. Whether this fact is the result of a selection bias induced by the kind of techniques used to discover new planets—mainly radial velocity and transit—or simply the proof that the Solar System is a rarity in the Milky Way, we do not know yet. What is clear, though, is that the Solar System has failed to be the paradigm not only in our Galaxy but even ‘just’ in the solar neighbourhood. This finding, although unsettling, forces us to reconsider our knowledge of planets under a different light and perhaps question a few of the theoretical pillars on which we base our current ‘understanding’. The next decade will be critical to advance in what we should perhaps call Galactic planetary science. In this paper, I review highlights and pitfalls of our current knowledge of this topic and elaborate on how this knowledge might arguably evolve in the next decade. More critically, I identify what should be the mandatory scientific and technical steps to be taken in this fascinating journey of remote exploration of planets in our Galaxy. PMID:24664916

  4. Galactic planetary science.

    PubMed

    Tinetti, Giovanna

    2014-04-28

    Planetary science beyond the boundaries of our Solar System is today in its infancy. Until a couple of decades ago, the detailed investigation of the planetary properties was restricted to objects orbiting inside the Kuiper Belt. Today, we cannot ignore that the number of known planets has increased by two orders of magnitude nor that these planets resemble anything but the objects present in our own Solar System. Whether this fact is the result of a selection bias induced by the kind of techniques used to discover new planets--mainly radial velocity and transit--or simply the proof that the Solar System is a rarity in the Milky Way, we do not know yet. What is clear, though, is that the Solar System has failed to be the paradigm not only in our Galaxy but even 'just' in the solar neighbourhood. This finding, although unsettling, forces us to reconsider our knowledge of planets under a different light and perhaps question a few of the theoretical pillars on which we base our current 'understanding'. The next decade will be critical to advance in what we should perhaps call Galactic planetary science. In this paper, I review highlights and pitfalls of our current knowledge of this topic and elaborate on how this knowledge might arguably evolve in the next decade. More critically, I identify what should be the mandatory scientific and technical steps to be taken in this fascinating journey of remote exploration of planets in our Galaxy.

  5. Planetary System Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peale, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    Contents include a summary of publications followed by their abstracts titeled: 1. On microlensing rates and optical depth toward the Galactic center. 2. Newly discovered brown dwarfs not seen in microlensing timescale frequency distribution? 3. Origin and evolution of the natural satellites. 4. Probing the structure of the galaxy with microlensing. 5. Tides, Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 6. The Puzzle of the Titan-Hyperion 4:3 Orbital Resonance. 7. On the Validity of the Coagulation Equation and the Nature of Runaway Growth. 8. Making Hyperion. 9. The MESSENGER mission to Mercury: Scientific objectives and implementation. 10. A Survey of Numerical Solutions to the Coagulation. 11. Probability of detecting a planetary companion during a microlensing event. 12. Dynamics and origin of the 2:l orbital resonances of the GJ876 planets. 13. Planetary Interior Structure Revealed by Spin Dynamics. 14. A primordial origin of the Laplace relation among the Galilean Satellites. 15. A procedure for determining the nature of Mercury's core. 16. Secular evolution of hierarchical planetary systems. 17. Tidally induced volcanism. 18. Extrasolar planets and mean motion resonances. 19. Comparison of a ground-based microlensing search for planets with a search from space.

  6. Interoperability In The New Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, C.; Barbarisi, I.; Docasal, R.; Macfarlane, A. J.; Gonzalez, J.; Arviset, C.; Grotheer, E.; Besse, S.; Martinez, S.; Heather, D.; De Marchi, G.; Lim, T.; Fraga, D.; Barthelemy, M.

    2015-12-01

    As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, there is a greater need to provide interoperability with software and applications that are commonly being used globally. For this purpose, the development of the new Planetary Science Archive (PSA), by the European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) Science Data Centre (ESDC), is focused on building a modern science archive that takes into account internationally recognised standards in order to provide access to the archive through tools from third parties, for example by the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS), the VESPA project from the Virtual Observatory of Paris as well as other international institutions. The protocols and standards currently being supported by the new Planetary Science Archive at this time are the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP), the EuroPlanet-Table Access Protocol (EPN-TAP) and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The architecture of the PSA consists of a Geoserver (an open-source map server), the goal of which is to support use cases such as the distribution of search results, sharing and processing data through a OGC Web Feature Service (WFS) and a Web Map Service (WMS). This server also allows the retrieval of requested information in several standard output formats like Keyhole Markup Language (KML), Geography Markup Language (GML), shapefile, JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) and Comma Separated Values (CSV), among others. The provision of these various output formats enables end-users to be able to transfer retrieved data into popular applications such as Google Mars and NASA World Wind.

  7. Developing the Planetary Science Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erard, Stéphane; Cecconi, Baptiste; Le Sidaner, Pierre; Henry, Florence; Chauvin, Cyril; Berthier, Jérôme; André, Nicolas; Génot, Vincent; Schmitt, Bernard; Capria, Teresa; Chanteur, Gérard

    2015-08-01

    In the frame of the Europlanet-RI program, a prototype Virtual Observatory dedicated to Planetary Science has been set up. Most of the activity was dedicated to the definition of standards to handle data in this field. The aim was to facilitate searches in big archives as well as sparse databases, to make on-line data access and visualization possible, and to allow small data providers to make their data available in an interoperable environment with minimum effort. This system makes intensive use of studies and developments led in Astronomy (IVOA), Solar Science (HELIO), and space archive services (IPDA).The current architecture connects existing data services with IVOA or IPDA protocols whenever relevant. However, a more general standard has been devised to handle the specific complexity of Planetary Science, e.g. in terms of measurement types and coordinate frames. This protocol, named EPN-TAP, is based on TAP and includes precise requirements to describe the contents of a data service (Erard et al Astron & Comp 2014). A light framework (DaCHS/GAVO) and a procedure have been identified to install small data services, and several hands-on sessions have been organized already. The data services are declared in standard IVOA registries. Support to new data services in Europe will be provided during the proposed Europlanet H2020 program, with a focus on planetary mission support (Rosetta, Cassini…).A specific client (VESPA) has been developed at VO-Paris (http://vespa.obspm.fr). It is able to use all the mandatory parameters in EPN-TAP, plus extra parameters from individual services. A resolver for target names is also available. Selected data can be sent to VO visualization tools such as TOPCAT or Aladin though the SAMP protocol.Future steps will include the development of a connection between the VO world and GIS tools, and integration of heliophysics, planetary plasma and reference spectroscopic data.The EuroPlaNet-RI project was funded by the European

  8. Management and protection protocols for the threatened Piping Plover (Charadrius Melodus) on Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary 1. The breeding population of the piping plover (Charadrius melodus), a federally-threatened shorebird, at Cape Hatteras National Seashore (CAHA) declined from 15 pairs/yr to 3 pairs/yr from 1989-2004. A population of this size may face immediate risk of extirpation from several sources. At several former breeding sites at CAHA, there have been no nesting pairs in recent years. 2. Only one plover chick has survived to fledging at CAHA, 2001-2004. While survival of eggs has often been moderate to high since 1989, survival of chicks has generally been low. Reproductive rate improved in 2005, with 6 chicks fledging from 2 pairs in conjunction with more actively managed closures in brood-rearing areas. 3. Inclement weather, predation, and recreational disturbance may negatively impact reproductive success of piping plovers at CAHA. Recreational disturbance and habitat loss caused by ORVs may discourage pairs from attempting to nest. 4. To recover the breeding plover population at CAHA, it will be necessary to create disturbance-free areas containing high-quality nesting and foraging habitat from the territory-establishment phase to the brood-rearing phase of the breeding cycle. We provide three management options to reduce risk of disturbance and mortality. They entail full closure of the seashore to recreation, closure of historical breeding sites to ORVs, or restriction of recreation to an oceanside corridor. 5. To reduce the risk of egg and chick mortality, we recommend continued efforts to trap and remove mammalian predators from all aforementioned sites and the continued use of predator exclosures around nests. We further recommend intensive monitoring and surveillance of protected areas to determine the extent and timing of threats to nests and broods, including nest overwash, predation, and disturbance or vandalism by humans. 6. Even if reproductive success improves under our recommendations, however, a population of this size will take several

  9. A randomized efficacy trial of a cognitive-behavioral group intervention to prevent Internet Use Disorder onset in adolescents: The PROTECT study protocol.

    PubMed

    Lindenberg, Katajun; Halasy, Katharina; Schoenmaekers, Sophie

    2017-06-01

    The reduction of prevalence rates of Internet Use Disorder (IUD) and its effective treatment are at high priority in both public health and educational policies. School-based preventive interventions facilitate a low-threshold approach for individuals with IUD, who are typically characterized by high therapy avoidance. Moreover, indicated approaches which target adolescents at high-risk show larger effects than universal prevention programs. Simultaneously, they reduce unnecessary burden for the majority of high-school students that is not at-risk. The PROTECT group intervention for indicated prevention of IUD in school settings was developed based on these preventive strategies. Three-hundred and forty adolescents, aged 12-18 years, from 40 secondary schools in Germany, screened for high-risk of IUD onset, are randomly assigned to a) PROTECT preventive intervention group or b) assessment only control group. The tested intervention consists of a cognitive-behavioral 4-session brief-protocol. Follow-up assessments are at 1, 4 and 12 months after admission. Primary outcome is the 12-months incidence rate of IUD. Secondary outcomes are the reduction of IUD and comorbid symptoms as well as the promotion of problem solving, cognitive restructuring and emotion regulation skills. The indicated preventive intervention PROTECT follows the APA-guidelines for psychological prevention, i.e., it is theory- and evidence-based and addresses both risk-reduction and strength-promotion, it considers current research and epidemiology and ethical standards such as professional secrecy and is designed as a systemic intervention at the school-level. It is expected that the intervention decreases risk of IUD onset (incidence rate). ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02907658.

  10. Cosmological Effects in Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, H. J.; Wilson, T. L.

    2010-01-01

    In an earlier discussion of the planetary flyby anomaly, a preliminary assessment of cosmological effects upon planetary orbits exhibiting the flyby anomaly was made. A more comprehensive investigation has since been published, although it was directed at the Pioneer anomaly and possible effects of universal rotation. The general subject of Solar System anomalies will be examined here from the point of view of planetary science.

  11. Psychosocial risk and protective factors of secondary school dropout in Luxembourg: the protocol of an exploratory case-control study.

    PubMed

    Esch, Pascale; Bocquet, Valéry; Pull, Charles; Couffignal, Sophie; Graas, Marc; Lair, Marie-Lise; Lehnert, Torsten; Fond-Harmant, Laurence; Ansseau, Marc

    2011-07-13

    In Luxembourg, the extensive phenomenon of school dropout is a prime policy concern in the light of individual, social and economic consequences. Although the authorities report an overall decrease of the national dropout rate, the proportion of early school leavers who remain without any specific occupation is still alarming. Therefore, this study intends a shift of focus from system-inherent to individual factors, including mental health and family correlates, to provide a more comprehensive analysis of the dropout phenomenon. The objectives of this study are to investigate the type and prevalence of psychiatric disorders among school dropouts and to compare the findings with those by a matched control group of regularly enrolled students. Furthermore, family variables and socioeconomic status will be analysed, as they are factors likely to interfere with both educational attainment and mental health. A trained psychologist will use structured interviews and self-report forms to investigate for mental health issues, information on schooling, socioeconomic situation and family life. Controls will be matched for gender, age, school type and educational grade. As school dropouts face a serious risk of long term professional and social marginalization, there is an evident need for action. Identifying psychosocial risk and protective factors of school dropout will deliver solid insight on how to conceive public health strategies for young people who may need a more customized support to carry out their academic potential. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01354236.

  12. Universal planetary tectonics (supertectonics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    Universal planetary tectonics (supertectonics) G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, kochem.36@mail.ru The wave planetology [1-3 & others] proceeds from the following: "planetary structures are made by orbits and rotations". A uniform reason makes uniform structures. Inertia-gravity waves arising in planetary bodies due to their movements in Keplerian elliptical orbits with periodically changing accelerations warp these bodies in such way that they acquire polyhedron shapes (after interference of standing waves of four directions). Strong Newtonian gravity makes bodies larger than ~400 to 500 km in diameter globular and polyhedra are rarely seen. Only geomorphologic, geologic and geophysical mapping can develop these hidden structures. But small bodies, normally less than ~ 300 to 400 km in diameter, often show parts of the polyhedra, rarely fully developed forms (the asteroid Steins and satellite Amalthea present rather perfect forms of "diamond"). Depending on warping wavelengths (they make harmonics) various Plato's figures superimposed on each other can be distinguished. The fundamental wave 1 produces a tetrahedron, intrinsically dichotomic figure in which a vertex (contraction) always is opposed to a face (expansion). From the recent examples the best is the saturnian northern hexagon (a face) opposed to the southern hurricane (a vertex). The first overtone wave 2 is responsible for creation of structural octahedra. Whole ‘diamonds" and their parts are known [4, 5]. Other overtones produce less developed (because of smaller wave amplitudes) planetary shapes complicating main forms. Thus, the first common structural peculiarity of planetary bodies is their polyhedron nature. Not less important is the second common structural peculiarity. As all globular or smaller more or less isometric bodies rotate, they have an angular momentum. It is inevitably different in tropic and extra-tropic belts having uneven radii or distances to

  13. Thermal Modeling on Planetary Regoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, A. S.; Hapke, B.W.

    2002-01-01

    The thermal region of the spectrum is one of special interest in planetary science as it is the only region where planetary emission is significant. Studying how planetary surfaces emit in the thermal infrared can tell us about their physical makeup and chemical composition, as well as their temperature profile with depth. This abstract will discuss a model of thermal energy transfer in planetary regoliths on airless bodies which includes both conductive and radiative processes while including the time dependence of the solar input function.

  14. Flash Lidars for Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissly, R. W.; Weimer, C.; Masciarelli, J.; Weinberg, J.; Miller, K. L.; Rohrschneider, R.

    2012-10-01

    Ball Aerospace has developed multiple flash lidar technologies which can benefit planetary exploration missions. This paper describes these developments, culminating in a successful flight demonstration on STS-134.

  15. Decadal Survey: Planetary Rings Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, M. K.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Lissauer, J. J.; Poulet, F.; Brahic, A.; Charnoz, S.; Ferrari, C.; Burns, J. A.; Nicholson, P. D.; Durisen, R. H.; Rappaport, N. J.; Spilker, L. J.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Bosh, A. S.; Olkin, C.; Larson, S. M.; Graps, A. L.; Krueger, H.; Black, G. J.; Festou, M.; Karjalainen, R.; Salo, H. J.; Murray, C. D.; Showalter, M. R.; Dones, L.; Levison, H. F.; Namouni, F.; Araki, S.; Lewis, M. C.; Brooks, S.; Colwell, J. E.; Esposito, L. W.; Horanyi, M.; Stewart, G. R.; Krivov, A.; Schmidt, J.; Spahn, F.; Hamilton, D. P.; Giuliatti-Winter, S.; French, R. G.

    2001-11-01

    The National Research Council's Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration(COMPLEX) met earlier this year to begin the organization of a major activity, "A New Strategy for Solar System Exploration." Several members of the planetary rings community formed an ad hoc panel to discuss the current state and future prospects for the study of planetary rings. In this paper we summarize fundamental questions of ring science, list the key science questions expected to occupy the planetary rings community for the decade 2003-2013, outline the initiatives, missions, and other supporting activities needed to address those questions, and recommend priorities.

  16. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  17. Autonomous planetary rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkov, Eric; Simmons, Reid; Whittaker, William

    1992-02-01

    This report describes progress in research on an autonomous robot for planetary exploration performed during 1991 at the Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University. The report summarizes the achievements during calendar year 1991, and lists personnel and publications. In addition, it includes several papers resulting from the research. Research in 1991 focused on understanding the unique capabilities of the Ambler mechanism and on autonomous walking in rough, natural terrain. We also designed a sample acquisition system, and began to configure a successor to the Ambler.

  18. Planetary cratering mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, John D.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    To obtain a quantitative understanding of the cratering process over a broad range of conditions, we have numerically computed the evolution of impact induced flow fields and calculated the time histories of the major measures of crater geometry (e.g., depth diameter, lip height ...) for variations in planetary gravity (0 to 10 exp 9 cm/sq seconds), material strength (0 to 140 kbar), thermodynamic properties, and impactor radius (0.05 to 5000 km). These results were fit into the framework of the scaling relations of Holsapple and Schmidt (1987). We describe the impact process in terms of four regimes: (1) penetration; (2) inertial; (3) terminal; and (4) relaxation.

  19. Planetary Spatial Analyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keely, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    This is a status report for the project entitled Planetary Spatial Analyst (PSA). This report covers activities from the project inception on October 1, 2007 to June 1, 2008. Originally a three year proposal, PSA was awarded funding for one year and required a revised work statement and budget. At the time of this writing the project is well on track both for completion of work as well as budget. The revised project focused on two objectives: build a solid connection with the target community and implement a prototype software application that provides 3D visualization and spatial analysis technologies for that community. Progress has been made for both of these objectives.

  20. Dynamics of planetary rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Araki, Suguru

    1991-01-01

    The modeling of the dynamics of particle collisions within planetary rings is discussed. Particles in the rings collide with one another because they have small random motions in addition to their orbital velocity. The orbital speed is roughly 10 km/s, while the random motions have an average speed of about a tenth of a millimeter per second. As a result, the particle collisions are very gentle. Numerical analysis and simulation of the ring dynamics, performed with the aid of a supercomputer, is outlined.

  1. Planetary submillimeter spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    The aim is to develop a comprehensive observational and analytical program to study solar system physics and meterology by measuring molecular lines in the millimeter and submillimeter spectra of planets and comets. A primary objective is to conduct observations with new JPL and Caltech submillimeter receivers at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. A secondary objective is to continue to monitor the time variable planetary phenomena (e.g., Jupiter and Uranus) at centimeter wavelength using the NASA antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN).

  2. Volcanoes. A planetary perspective.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, P.

    In this book, the author gives an account of the familiar violent aspects of volcanoes and the various forms that eruptions can take. He explores why volcanoes exist at all, why volcanoes occur where they do, and how examples of major historical eruptions can be interpreted in terms of physical processes. Throughout he attempts to place volcanism in a planetary perspective, exploring the pre-eminent role of submarine volcanism on Earth and the stunning range of volcanic phenomena revealed by spacecraft exploration of the solar system.

  3. Planetary entry experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roger A.

    1994-01-01

    The final report summarizes the results from three research areas: (1) window design for the radiometric measurement of the forebody radiative heating experienced by atmospheric entry spaceraft; (2) survey of the current understanding of chemical species on selected solar system bodies and assess the importance of measurements with regard to vehicle environment and with regard to understanding of planetary atmospheres with emphasis on Venus, Mars, and Titan; and (3) measure and analyze the radiation (VUV to near-IR) from the shock heated gas cap of a blunt body in an Ames arc Jet wind-tunnel facility.

  4. A Model-Based Product Evaluation Protocol for Comparison of Safety-Engineered Protection Mechanisms of Winged Blood Collection Needles.

    PubMed

    Haupt, C; Spaeth, J; Ahne, T; Goebel, U; Steinmann, D

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate differences in product characteristics and user preferences of safety-engineered protection mechanisms of winged blood collection needles. Randomized model-based simulation study. University medical center. A total of 33 third-year medical students. Venipuncture was performed using winged blood collection needles with 4 different safety mechanisms: (a) Venofix Safety, (b) BD Vacutainer Push Button, (c) Safety-Multifly, and (d) Surshield Surflo. Each needle type was used in 3 consecutive tries: there was an uninstructed first handling, then instructions were given according to the operating manual; subsequently, a first trial and second trial were conducted. Study end points included successful activation, activation time, single-handed activation, correct activation, possible risk of needlestick injury, possibility of deactivation, and preferred safety mechanism. The overall successful activation rate during the second trial was equal for all 4 devices (94%-100%). Median activation time was (a) 7 s, (b) 2 s, (c) 9 s, and (d) 7 s. Single-handed activation during the second trial was (a) 18%, (b) 82%, (c) 15%, and (d) 45%. Correct activation during the second trial was (a) 3%, (b) 64%, (c) 15%, and (d) 39%. Possible risk of needlestick injury during the second trial was highest with (d). Possibility of deactivation was (a) 0%, (b) 12%, (c) 9%, and (d) 18%. Individual preferences for each system were (a) 11, (b) 17, (c) 5, and (d) 0. The main reason for preference was the comprehensive safety mechanism. Significant differences exist between safety mechanisms of winged blood collection needles.

  5. Europlanet Research Infrastructure: Planetary Simulation Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G. R.; Mason, N. J.; Green, S.; Gómez, F.; Prieto, O.; Helbert, J.; Colangeli, L.; Srama, R.; Grande, M.; Merrison, J.

    2008-09-01

    EuroPlanet The Europlanet Research Infrastructure consortium funded under FP7 aims to provide the EU Planetary Science community greater access for to research infrastructure. A series of networking and outreach initiatives will be complimented by joint research activities and the formation of three Trans National Access distributed service laboratories (TNA's) to provide a unique and comprehensive set of analogue field sites, laboratory simulation facilities, and extraterrestrial sample analysis tools. Here we report on the infrastructure that comprises the second TNA; Planetary Simulation Facilities. 11 laboratory based facilities are able to recreate the conditions found in the atmospheres and on the surfaces of planetary systems with specific emphasis on Martian, Titan and Europa analogues. The strategy has been to offer some overlap in capabilities to ensure access to the highest number of users and to allow for progressive and efficient development strategies. For example initial testing of mobility capability prior to the step wise development within planetary atmospheres that can be made progressively more hostile through the introduction of extreme temperatures, radiation, wind and dust. Europlanet Research Infrastructure Facilties: Mars atmosphere simulation chambers at VUA and OU These relatively large chambers (up to 1 x 0.5 x 0.5 m) simulate Martian atmospheric conditions and the dual cooling options at VUA allows stabilised instrument temperatures while the remainder of the sample chamber can be varied between 220K and 350K. Researchers can therefore assess analytical protocols for instruments operating on Mars; e.g. effect of pCO2, temperature and material (e.g., ± ice) on spectroscopic and laser ablation techniques while monitoring the performance of detection technologies such as CCD at low T & variable p H2O & pCO2. Titan atmosphere and surface simulation chamber at OU The chamber simulates Titan's atmospheric composition under a range of

  6. Planetary Ringmoon Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The last decade has seen an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Much of the structure revealed was thoroughly puzzling and fired the imagination of workers in a variety of disciplines. Consequently, we have also seen steady progress in our understanding of these systems as our intuitions (and our computers) catch up with the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems (refs 1-5). The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems and families of regular satellites are invariably found together, and there is an emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system.

  7. Planetary image conversion task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. D.; Stanley, C. L.; Laughlin, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Planetary Image Conversion Task group processed 12,500 magnetic tapes containing raw imaging data from JPL planetary missions and produced an image data base in consistent format on 1200 fully packed 6250-bpi tapes. The output tapes will remain at JPL. A copy of the entire tape set was delivered to US Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz. A secondary task converted computer datalogs, which had been stored in project specific MARK IV File Management System data types and structures, to flat-file, text format that is processable on any modern computer system. The conversion processing took place at JPL's Image Processing Laboratory on an IBM 370-158 with existing software modified slightly to meet the needs of the conversion task. More than 99% of the original digital image data was successfully recovered by the conversion task. However, processing data tapes recorded before 1975 was destructive. This discovery is of critical importance to facilities responsible for maintaining digital archives since normal periodic random sampling techniques would be unlikely to detect this phenomenon, and entire data sets could be wiped out in the act of generating seemingly positive sampling results. Reccomended follow-on activities are also included.

  8. Spectroscopic planetary detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, D.; Espenak, F.; Hillman, J. J.; Kostiuk, T.; Mumma, M. J.; Jennings, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    The Sun-as-a-star was monitored using the McMath Fourier transform spectometer (FTS) on Kitt Peak in 1983. In 1985 the first measurement was made using the laser heterodyne technique. The FTS measurements now extend for three years, with errors of order 3 meters/sec at a given epoch. Over this 3 year period, a 33 meter/sec change was measured in the apparent velocity of integrated sunlight. The sense of the effect is that a greater blueshift is seen near solar minimum, which is consistent with expectations based on considering the changing morphology of solar granular convection. Presuming this effect is solar-cycle-related, it will mimic the Doppler reflex produced by a planetary companion of approximately two Jupiter masses, with an 11 year orbital period. Thus, Jupiter itself is below the threshold for detection by spectroscopic means, without an additional technique for discrimination. However, for planetary companions in shorter period orbits (P approx. 3 years) the threshold for unambiguous detection is well below one Jupiter mass.

  9. Lunar and Planetary Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilevsky, Alexander T.

    2018-05-01

    Lunar and planetary geology can be described using examples such as the geology of Earth (as the reference case) and geologies of the Earth's satellite the Moon; the planets Mercury, Mars and Venus; the satellite of Saturn Enceladus; the small stony asteroid Eros; and the nucleus of the comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Each body considered is illustrated by its global view, with information given as to its position in the solar system, size, surface, environment including gravity acceleration and properties of its atmosphere if it is present, typical landforms and processes forming them, materials composing these landforms, information on internal structure of the body, stages of its geologic evolution in the form of stratigraphic scale, and estimates of the absolute ages of the stratigraphic units. Information about one body may be applied to another body and this, in particular, has led to the discovery of the existence of heavy "meteoritic" bombardment in the early history of the solar system, which should also significantly affect Earth. It has been shown that volcanism and large-scale tectonics may have not only been an internal source of energy in the form of radiogenic decay of potassium, uranium and thorium, but also an external source in the form of gravity tugging caused by attractions of the neighboring bodies. The knowledge gained by lunar and planetary geology is important for planning and managing space missions and for the practical exploration of other bodies of the solar system and establishing manned outposts on them.

  10. The planetary data system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acton, Charles; Slavney, Susan; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Gaddis, Lisa R.; Gordon, Mitchell; Lavoie, Susan

    2017-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the Space Science Board (SSB) of the National Research Council was concerned about the poor and inconsistent treatment of scientific information returned from NASA’s space science missions. The SSB formed a panel [The Committee on Data Management and Computation (CODMAC)] to assess the situation and make recommendations to NASA for improvements. The CODMAC panel issued a report [1,2] that led to a number of actions, one of which was the convening of a Planetary Data Workshop in November 1983 [3]. The key findings of that workshop were that (1) important datasets were being irretrievably lost, and (2) the use of planetary data by the wider community is constrained by inaccessibility and a lack of commonality in format and documentation. The report further stated, “Most participants felt the present system (of data archiving and access) is inadequate and immediate changes are necessary to insure retention of and access to these and future datasets.”

  11. Reports of planetary astronomy, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A collection is presented of summaries designed to provide information about scientific research projects conducted in the Planetary Astronomy Program in 1990 and 1991, and to facilitate communication and coordination among concerned scientists and interested persons in universities, government, and industry. Highlights of recent accomplishments in planetary astronomy are included.

  12. Fourier spectroscopy in planetary research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanel, R. A.; Kunde, V. G.

    1975-01-01

    The application of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FTS) to planetary research is reviewed. The survey includes FTS observations of the sun, all the planets except Uranus and Pluto, The Galilean satellites and Saturn's rings. Instrumentation and scientific results are considered. The prospects and limitations of FTS for planetary research in the forthcoming years are discussed.

  13. Fourier spectroscopy and planetary research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanel, R. A.; Kunde, V. G.

    1974-01-01

    The application of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FTS) to planetary research is reviewed. The survey includes FTS observations of the sun, all the planets except Uranus and Pluto, the Galilean satellites and Saturn's rings. Instrumentation and scientific results are considered and the prospects and limitations of FTS for planetary research in the forthcoming years are discussed.

  14. The Birth of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    1997-01-01

    Models of planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are described and used to discuss possible characteristics of undiscovered planetary systems. Modern theories of star and planet formation, which are based upon observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large- enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. Another potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path. The implications of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches for the abundances of habitable planets are discussed.

  15. Formation of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    An overview of current theories of star and planet formation is presented. These models are based upon observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments. They predict that rocky planets should form around most single stars, although it is possible that in some cases such planets are lost to orbital decay within the protoplanetary disk. The frequency of formation of gas giant planets is more difficult to predict theoretically. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth like terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates.

  16. Planetary Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, M.

    2012-04-01

    Invited Talk - Space weather at other planets While discussion of space weather effects has so far largely been confined to the near-Earth environment, there are significant present and future applications to the locations beyond, and to other planets. Most obviously, perhaps, are the radiation hazards experienced by astronauts on the way to, and on the surface of, the Moon and Mars. Indeed, the environment experienced by planetary spacecraft in transit and at their destinations is of course critical to their design and successful operation. The case of forthcoming missions to Jupiter and Europa is an exreme example. Moreover, such craft can provide information which in turn increases our understanding of geospace. Indeed, space weather may be a significant factor in the habitability of other solar system and extrasolar planets, and the ability of life to travel between them.

  17. Planetary Moon Cycler Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Ryan P.; Strange, Nathan J.

    2007-01-01

    Free-return cycler trajectories repeatedly shuttle a spacecraft between two bodies using little or no fuel. Here, the cycler architecture is proposed as a complementary and alternative method for designing planetary moon tours. Previously applied enumerative cycler search and optimization techniques are generalized and specifically implemented in the Jovian and Saturnian moon systems. In addition, the algorithms are tested for general use to find non-Earth heliocentric cyclers. Overall, hundreds of ideal model ballistic cycler geometries are found and several representative cases are documented and discussed. Many of the ideal model solutions are found to remain ballistic in a zero radius sphere of influence patched conic ephemeris model, and preliminary work in a high-fidelity fully integrated model demonstrates near-ballistic cycles for several example cases.

  18. Spectroscopic planetary detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Drake

    1988-01-01

    One of the most promising methods for the detection of extra-solar planets is the spectroscopic method, where a small Doppler shift (approximately 10 meters/sec) in the spectrum of the parent star reveals the presence of planetary companions. However, solar-type stars may show spurious Doppler shifts due to surface activity. If these effects are periodic, as is the solar activity cycle, then they may masquerade as planetary companions. The goal of this investigation is to determine whether the solar cycle affects the Doppler stability of integrated sunlight. Observations of integrated sunlight are made in the near infrared (approximately 2 micrometer), using the Kitt Peak McMath Fourier transform spectrometer, with an N2O gas absorption cell for calibration. Researchers currently achieve an accuracy of approximately 5 meters/sec. Solar rotation velocities vary by plus or minus 2000 meters/sec across the solar disk, and imperfect optical integration of these velocities is the principal source of error. We have been monitoring the apparent velocity of integrated sunlight since 1983. They initially saw a decrease of approximately 30 meters/sec in the integrated light velocity from 1983 through 1985, but in 1987 to 1988 the integrated light velocity returned to its 1983 level. It is too early to say whether these changes are solar-cycle related. Although the FTS, unlike a slit spectrograph, has a large field of view, researchers are always looking for ways to improve the optical integration of the solar disk. They recently made an improvement in the method used to optically collimate the FTS, and this has reduced the error level, eliminating some systematic effects seen earlier.

  19. Planetary heat flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Hagermann, Axel

    2005-12-15

    The year 2005 marks the 35th anniversary of the Apollo 13 mission, probably the most successful failure in the history of manned spaceflight. Naturally, Apollo 13's scientific payload is far less known than the spectacular accident and subsequent rescue of its crew. Among other instruments, it carried the first instrument designed to measure the flux of heat on a planetary body other than Earth. The year 2005 also should have marked the launch of the Japanese LUNAR-A mission, and ESA's Rosetta mission is slowly approaching comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Both missions carry penetrators to study the heat flow from their target bodies. What is so interesting about planetary heat flow? What can we learn from it and how do we measure it?Not only the Sun, but all planets in the Solar System are essentially heat engines. Various heat sources or heat reservoirs drive intrinsic and surface processes, causing 'dead balls of rock, ice or gas' to evolve dynamically over time, driving convection that powers tectonic processes and spawns magnetic fields. The heat flow constrains models of the thermal evolution of a planet and also its composition because it provides an upper limit for the bulk abundance of radioactive elements. On Earth, the global variation of heat flow also reflects the tectonic activity: heat flow increases towards the young ocean ridges, whereas it is rather low on the old continental shields. It is not surprising that surface heat flow measurements, or even estimates, where performed, contributed greatly to our understanding of what happens inside the planets. In this article, I will review the results and the methods used in past heat flow measurements and speculate on the targets and design of future experiments.

  20. Reconnection in Planetary Magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    2000-01-01

    Current sheets in planetary magnetospheres that lie between regions of "oppositely-directed" magnetic field are either magnetopause-like, separating plasmas with different properties, or tail-like, separating plasmas of rather similar properties. The magnetopause current sheets generally have a nearly limitless supply of magnetized plasma that can reconnect, possibly setting up steady-state reconnection. In contrast, the plasma on either side of a tail current sheet is stratified so that, as reconnection occurs, the plasma properties, in particular the Alfven velocity, change. If the density drops and the magnetic field increases markedly perpendicular to the sheet, explosive reconnection can occur. Even though steady state reconnection can take place at magnetopause current sheets, the process often appears to be periodic as if a certain low average rate was demanded by the conditions but only a rapid rate was available. Reconnection of sheared fields has been postulated to create magnetic ropes in the solar corona, at the Earth's magnetopause, and in the magnetotail. However, this is not the only way to produce magnetic ropes as the Venus ionosphere shows. The geometry of the reconnecting regions and the plasma conditions both can affect the rate of reconnection. Sorting out the various controlling factors can be assisted through the examination of reconnection in planetary settings. In particular we observe similar small-scale tearing in the magnetopause current layers of the Earth, Saturn. Uranus and Neptune and the magnetodisk current sheet at Jupiter. These sites may be seeds for rapid reconnection if the reconnection site reaches a high Alfven velocity region. In the Jupiter magnetosphere this appears to be achieved with resultant substorm activity. Similar seeds may be present in the Earth's magnetotail with the first one to reach explosive growth dominating the dynamics of the tail.

  1. Planetary surface reactor shielding using indigenous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, Michael G.; Poston, David I.; Trellue, Holly R.

    The exploration and development of Mars will require abundant surface power. Nuclear reactors are a low-cost, low-mass means of providing that power. A significant fraction of the nuclear power system mass is radiation shielding necessary for protecting humans and/or equipment from radiation emitted by the reactor. For planetary surface missions, it may be desirable to provide some or all of the required shielding from indigenous materials. This paper examines shielding options that utilize either purely indigenous materials or a combination of indigenous and nonindigenous materials.

  2. Planetary surface reactor shielding using indigenous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, Michael G.; Poston, David I.; Trellue, Holly R.

    The exploration and development of Mars will require abundant surface power. Nuclear reactors are a low-cost, low-mass means of providing that power. A significant fraction of the nuclear power system mass is radiation shielding necessary for protecting humans and/or equipment from radiation emitted by the reactor. For planetary surface missions, it may be desirable to provide some or all of the required shielding from indigenous materials. This paper examines shielding options that utilize either purely indigenous materials or a combination of indigenous and nonindigenous materials. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Physics of planetary rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorkavyi, N.

    2007-08-01

    It is difficult to enumerate all the surprises presented by the planetary rings. The Saturnian rings are stratified into thousands of ringlets and the Uranian rings are compressed into narrow streams, which for some reason or other differ from circular orbits like the wheel of an old bicycle. The edge of the rings is jagged and the rings themselves are pegged down under the gravitational pressure of the satellites, bending like a ship's wake. There are spiral waves, elliptical rings, strange interlacing of narrow ringlets, and to cap it all one has observed in the Neptunian ring system three dense, bright arcs - like bunches of sausages on a transparent string. For celestial mechanics this is a spectacle as unnatural as a bear's tooth in the necklace of the English queen. In the dynamics of planetary rings the physics of collective interaction was supplemented by taking collisions between particles into account. One was led to study a kinetic equation with a rather complex collision integral - because the collisions are inelastic - which later on made it possible, both by using the Chapman-Enskog method and by using the solution of the kinetic equation for a plasma in a magnetic field, to reduce it to a closed set of (hydrodynamical) moment equations [1]. The hydrodynamical instabilities lead to the growth of short-wavelength waves and large-scale structures of the Saturnian rings [1]. We have shown that the formation of the existing dense Uranian rings is connected with the capture of positively drifting ring particles in inner Lindblad resonances which arrest this drift [1]. After the formation of dense rings at the positions of satellite resonances the collective interaction between resonant particles is amplified and the rings can leave the resonance and drift away from the planet and the parent resonance. We can expect in the C ring an appreciable positive ballistic particle drift caused by the erosion of the B ring by micrometeorites. It is therefore natural

  4. HUBBLE'S PLANETARY NEBULA GALLERY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [Top left] - IC 3568 lies in the constellation Camelopardalis at a distance of about 9,000 light-years, and has a diameter of about 0.4 light-years (or about 800 times the diameter of our solar system). It is an example of a round planetary nebula. Note the bright inner shell and fainter, smooth, circular outer envelope. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA [Top center] - NGC 6826's eye-like appearance is marred by two sets of blood-red 'fliers' that lie horizontally across the image. The surrounding faint green 'white' of the eye is believed to be gas that made up almost half of the star's mass for most of its life. The hot remnant star (in the center of the green oval) drives a fast wind into older material, forming a hot interior bubble which pushes the older gas ahead of it to form a bright rim. (The star is one of the brightest stars in any planetary.) NGC 6826 is 2,200 light- years away in the constellation Cygnus. The Hubble telescope observation was taken Jan. 27, 1996 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Jason Alexander (University of Washington), Arsen Hajian (U.S. Naval Observatory), Yervant Terzian (Cornell University), Mario Perinotto (University of Florence, Italy), Patrizio Patriarchi (Arcetri Observatory, Italy) and NASA [Top right ] - NGC 3918 is in the constellation Centaurus and is about 3,000 light-years from us. Its diameter is about 0.3 light-year. It shows a roughly spherical outer envelope but an elongated inner balloon inflated by a fast wind from the hot central star, which is starting to break out of the spherical envelope at the top and bottom of the image. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA [Bottom left] - Hubble 5 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or bipolar (two-lobed) nebula. The heat generated by fast winds causes

  5. The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Thomas; Gopala Krishna, Barla; Crichton, Daniel J.

    2016-07-01

    projects and coordinates international collaboration. In executing its mission, the IPDA conducts a number of focused projects to enable interoperability, construction of compatible archives, and the operation of the IPDA as a whole. These projects have helped to establish the IPDA and to move the collaboration forward. A key project that is currently underway is the implementation of the PDS4 data standard. Given the international focus, it has been critical that the PDS and the IPDA collaborate on its development. Also, many other projects have been conducted successfully, including the IPDA Requirements Document, Data Dictionary Modelling, ESA Registry Integration, the Tools Registry, and several demonstrations of interoperability protocols applied to specific missions and data sets (PDS4/PDAP (Planetary Data Access Protocol), Venus Express Interoperability). The IPDA has grown significantly since its first meetings back in November 2006. The steering committee is composed today of 28 members from 24 countries or international organizations. In addition, a technical expert group composed of 20 members from participating countries provides supportive input on technical and compatibility issues. A number of IPDA projects are ongoing, including the creation of the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) template for international missions; the investigation of IVOA/IPDA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance-IVOA) interaction; PDS4 implementation project; the development of international registries to enable registration and search of data, tools and services; and Chandrayaan-1 interoperability project with PDAP. In addition, the IPDA continues with outreach activities, being present or represented at national and international levels and at meetings such as COSPAR, AGU, EPSC, and EGU. Further information on IPDA activities, standards, and tools are available at the web page http://www.planetarydata.org. Tool and service developers are encouraged to register their products

  6. Planetary Landscape Geography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargitai, H.

    INTRODUCTION Landscape is one of the most often used category in physical ge- ography. The term "landshap" was introduced by Dutch painters in the 15-16th cen- tury. [1] The elements that build up a landscape (or environment) on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements. The same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. Landscapes build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface. On Earth, landscapes can be classified and qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered. Using the data from landers and data from orbiters we can now classify planetary landscapes (these can be used as geologic mapping units as well). By looking at a unknown landscape, we can determine the processes that created it and its development history. This was the case in the Pathfinder/Sojourner panoramas. [2]. DISCUSSION Planetary landscape evolution. We can draw a raw landscape develop- ment history by adding the different landscape building elements to each other. This has a strong connection with the planet's thermal evolution (age of the planet or the present surface materials) and with orbital parameters (distance from the central star, orbit excentricity etc). This way we can build a complex system in which we use differ- ent evolutional stages of lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic and biogenic conditions which determine the given - Solar System or exoplanetary - landscape. Landscape elements. "Simple" landscapes can be found on asteroids: no linear horizon is present (not differentiated body, only impact structures), no atmosphere (therefore no atmospheric scattering - black sky as part of the landscape) and no

  7. Spatial Query for Planetary Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Khawaja S.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Powell, Mark W.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Fox, Jason M.

    2011-01-01

    Science investigators need to quickly and effectively assess past observations of specific locations on a planetary surface. This innovation involves a location-based search technology that was adapted and applied to planetary science data to support a spatial query capability for mission operations software. High-performance location-based searching requires the use of spatial data structures for database organization. Spatial data structures are designed to organize datasets based on their coordinates in a way that is optimized for location-based retrieval. The particular spatial data structure that was adapted for planetary data search is the R+ tree.

  8. Planetary Geophysics and Tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmentier, E. M.

    1997-01-01

    Research supported by grant NAGW-1928 has addressed a variety of problems related to planetary evolution. One important focus has been on questions related to the role of chemical buoyancy in planetary evolution with application to both Venus and the Moon. We have developed a model for the evolution of the Moon (Hess and Parmentier, 1995) in which dense, highly radioactive, late stage magma ocean cumulates sink forming a core. This core heats the overlying, chemically layered mantle giving rise to a heated, chemically well-mixed layer that thickens with time. This Mixed layer eventually becomes hot enough and thick enough that its top begins to melt at a pressure low enough that melt is buoyant, thus creating mare basalts from a high pressure source of the correct composition and at an appropriate time in lunar evolution. In work completed during the last year, numerical experiments on convection in a chemically stably stratified fluid layer heated from below have been completed. These results show us how to calculate the evolution of a mixed layer in the Moon, depending on the heat production in the ilmenite- cumulate core and the chemical stratification of the overlying mantle. Chemical stratification of the mantle after its initial differentiation is would trap heat in the deep interior and prevent the rapid rise of plumes with accompanying volcanism. This trapping of heat in the interior can explain the thickness of the lunar lithosphere as a function of time as well as the magmatic evolution. We show that heat transported to the base of the lithosphere at a rate determined by current estimates of radioactivity in the Moon would not satisfy constraints on elastic lithosphere thickness from tectonic feature associated with basin loading. Trapping heat at depth by a chemically stratified mantle may also explain the absence of global compressional features on the surface that previous models predict for an initially hot lunar interior. For Venus, we developed a

  9. Planetary Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Ulrich R.

    2017-06-01

    The Earth's magnetic field has been known for centuries. Since the mid-20th century space missions carrying vector magnetometers showed that most, but not all, solar system planets have a global magnetic field of internal origin. They also revealed a surprising diversity in terms of field strength and morphology. While Jupiter's field, like that of Earth, is dominated by a dipole moderately tilted relative to the planet's spin axis, with multipole components being subordinate but not negligible, the fields of Uranus and Neptune are multipole-dominated, whereas those of Saturn und Mercury are highly symmetric relative to the rotation axis. Planetary magnetism originates from a dynamo process, which requires a fluid and electrically conducting region in the interior with sufficiently rapid and complex flow. The magnetic fields are of interest for three reasons: (1) They provide ground truth for dynamo theory, which is a fundamental and not completely solved physical problem; (2) the magnetic field controls how the planet interacts with its space environment, for example, the solar wind; and (3) the existence (or nonexistence) and the properties of the field allow us to draw inferences on the constitution, dynamics, and thermal evolution of the planet's interior. For example, the lack of global magnetic fields at Mars and Venus can be explained if their iron cores, although liquid, are stably stratified. Numerical simulations of the geodynamo—in which convective flow in a rapidly rotating spherical shell representing the outer liquid iron core of the Earth leads to induction of electric currents and the associated magnetic field—have successfully reproduced many observed properties of the geomagnetic field. They have also provided guidelines on the factors controlling magnetic field strength and, tentatively, their morphology. For numerical reasons the simulations must employ viscosities far greater than those inside planets, and it is debatable whether they truly

  10. China's roadmap for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yong; Yao, Zhonghua; Wan, Weixing

    2018-05-01

    China has approved or planned a string of several space exploration missions to be launched over the next decade. A new generation of planetary scientists in China is playing an important role in determining the scientific goals of future missions.

  11. Magnetic Helicity and Planetary Dynamos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2012-01-01

    A model planetary dynamo based on the Boussinesq approximation along with homogeneous boundary conditions is considered. A statistical theory describing a large-scale MHD dynamo is found, in which magnetic helicity is the critical parameter

  12. Mini Planetary System Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-11

    This artist concept, based on data from NASA Kepler mission and ground-based telescopes, depicts an itsy bitsy planetary system -- so compact, in fact, that it more like Jupiter and its moons than a star and its planets.

  13. Calcium signals in planetary embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    The calcium-isotope composition of planetary bodies in the inner Solar System correlates with the masses of such objects. This finding could have implications for our understanding of how the Solar System formed.

  14. Induction heating of planetary interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislyakova, K.; Noack, L.; Johnstone, C. P.; Zaitsev, V. V.; Fossati, L.; Lammer, H.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Odert, P.; Güdel, M.

    2017-09-01

    We present a calculation of the energy release in planetary interiors caused by induction heating. If an exoplanet orbits a host star with a strong magnetic field, it will be embedded in periodically varying magnetic environment. In our work, we consider only a dipole field of the host star and assume the dipole axis to be inclined with respect to the stellar rotational axis, which causes the magnetic field to vary. In this case, the varying magnetic field surrounding the planet will generate induction currents inside the planetary mantle, which will dissipate in the planetary interiors. We show that this energy release can be very substantial and in some cases even lead to complete melting of the planetary mantle over geological timescales, accompanied by the enhanced magnetic activity.

  15. Planetary Surface Visualization and Analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, E. S.; Solar System Treks Team

    2018-04-01

    An introduction and update of the Solar System Treks Project which provides a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable users (engineers, scientists, public) to access large amounts of mapped planetary data products.

  16. Planetary geosciences, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T. (Editor); James, Odette B. (Editor); Lunine, Jonathan I. (Editor); Macpherson, Glenn J. (Editor); Phillips, Roger J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Planetary Geosciences Programs (the Planetary Geology and Geophysics and the Planetary Material and Geochemistry Programs) provide support and an organizational framework for scientific research on solid bodies of the solar system. These research and analysis programs support scientific research aimed at increasing our understanding of the physical, chemical, and dynamic nature of the solid bodies of the solar system: the Moon, the terrestrial planets, the satellites of the outer planets, the rings, the asteroids, and the comets. This research is conducted using a variety of methods: laboratory experiments, theoretical approaches, data analysis, and Earth analog techniques. Through research supported by these programs, we are expanding our understanding of the origin and evolution of the solar system. This document is intended to provide an overview of the more significant scientific findings and discoveries made this year by scientists supported by the Planetary Geosciences Program. To a large degree, these results and discoveries are the measure of success of the programs.

  17. Planetary Differentiation by Aerial Metasomatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. R.

    2018-05-01

    Dissolution of surficial rocks will occur on planetary bodies with steam atmospheres. Although the amount of dissolved material is small, metasomatism of chondritic compositions produces siliceous crustal materials and enriches residual rocks.

  18. Planetary Vital Signs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennel, Charles; Briggs, Stephen; Victor, David

    2016-07-01

    The climate is beginning to behave in unusual ways. The global temperature reached unprecedented highs in 2015 and 2016, which led climatologists to predict an enormous El Nino that would cure California's record drought. It did not happen the way they expected. That tells us just how unreliable temperature has become as an indicator of important aspects of climate change. The world needs to go beyond global temperature to a set of planetary vital signs. Politicians should not over focus policy on one indicator. They need to look at the balance of evidence. A coalition of scientists and policy makers should start to develop vital signs at once, since they should be ready at the entry into force of the Paris Agreement in 2020. But vital signs are only the beginning. The world needs to learn how to use the vast knowledge we will be acquiring about climate change and its impacts. Is it not time to use all the tools at hand- observations from space and ground networks; demographic, economic and societal measures; big data statistical techniques; and numerical models-to inform politicians, managers, and the public of the evolving risks of climate change at global, regional, and local scales? Should we not think in advance of an always-on social and information network that provides decision-ready knowledge to those who hold the responsibility to act, wherever they are, at times of their choosing?

  19. Lunar and planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhleman, Duane O.; Goldreich, P.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Westphal, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    This grant supports the core program in planetary astronomy at Caltech. The research includes observations in the IR, sub-mm, mm and cm wavelengths at national and Caltech observatories with a strong emphasis on integrating the observations with spacecraft data and with models of atmospheric structure, dynamics and chemistry. Muhleman's group made extensive observations of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune which are being interpreted in terms of deep atmospheric structures which are obvious in the 2 and 6 cm maps of Saturn and Uranus. The microwave measurements are one of the few sources of information below the 2 bar level. Goldreich is investigating the dynamics of narrow rings with postdoctoral fellow, Pierre-Yves Longaretti. Their work has focused on the role of collisional stresses on the precession of the rings, since the Voyager radio science results imply that the previous model based on the ring's self-gravity is not the entire story. In addition Borderies, Goldreich and Tremaine have completed an investigation of the dynamics of the Encke division in Saturn's A ring.

  20. Planetary Photojournal Home Page Graphic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image is an unannotated version of the Planetary Photojournal Home Page graphic. This digital collage contains a highly stylized rendition of our solar system and points beyond. As this graphic was intended to be used as a navigation aid in searching for data within the Photojournal, certain artistic embellishments have been added (color, location, etc.). Several data sets from various planetary and astronomy missions were combined to create this image.

  1. Planetary Data Workshop, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The community of planetary scientists addresses two general problems regarding planetary science data: (1) important data sets are being permanently lost; and (2) utilization is constrainted by difficulties in locating and accessing science data and supporting information necessary for its use. A means to correct the problems, provide science and functional requirements for a systematic and phased approach, and suggest technologies and standards appropriate to the solution were explored.

  2. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces (e.g., Varnes, 1974). Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962 (Hackman, 1962). Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete

  3. Implementing an Internet-Delivered Skin Cancer Genetic Testing Intervention to Improve Sun Protection Behavior in a Diverse Population: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Hay, Jennifer L; Berwick, Marianne; Zielaskowski, Kate; White, Kirsten Am; Rodríguez, Vivian M; Robers, Erika; Guest, Dolores D; Sussman, Andrew; Talamantes, Yvonne; Schwartz, Matthew R; Greb, Jennie; Bigney, Jessica; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Hunley, Keith; Buller, David B

    2017-04-25

    average-risk personalized genomic testing for melanoma risk findings, and examine predictors of sun protection at 3 months as the outcome. These findings will be used to develop messages for groups that receive average-risk feedback. Aim 2 will compare rates of test consideration in Hispanics versus non-Hispanics, including consideration of testing pros and cons and registration of a decision to either accept or decline testing. Aim 3 will examine personalized genomic testing for melanoma risk feedback comprehension, recall, satisfaction, and cancer-related distress in those who undergo testing, and whether these outcomes differ by ethnicity (Hispanic vs non-Hispanic), or sociocultural or demographic factors. Final outcome data collection is anticipated to be complete by October 2017, at which point data analysis will commence. This study has important implications for personalized genomics in the context of melanoma risk, and may be broadly applicable as a model for delivery of personalized genomic feedback for other health conditions. ©Jennifer L Hay, Marianne Berwick, Kate Zielaskowski, Kirsten AM White, Vivian M Rodríguez, Erika Robers, Dolores D Guest, Andrew Sussman, Yvonne Talamantes, Matthew R Schwartz, Jennie Greb, Jessica Bigney, Kimberly A Kaphingst, Keith Hunley, David B Buller. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 25.04.2017.

  4. The OpenPlanetary initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaud, Nicolas; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Hare, Trent; Aye, Michael; Galluzzi, Valentina; van Gasselt, Stephan; Martinez, Santa; McAuliffe, Jonathan; Million, Chase; Nass, Andrea; Zinzi, Angelo

    2016-10-01

    "Open" has become attached to several concepts: science, data, and software are some of the most obvious. It is already common practice within the planetary science community to share spacecraft missions data freely and openly [1]. However, this is not historically the case for software tools, source code, and derived data sets, which are often reproduced independently by multiple individuals and groups. Sharing data, tools and overall knowledge would increase scientific return and benefits [e.g. 2], and recent projects and initiatives are helping toward this goal [e.g. 3,4,5,6].OpenPlanetary is a bottom-up initiative to address the need of the planetary science community for sharing ideas and collaborating on common planetary research and data analysis problems, new challenges, and opportunities. It started from an initial participants effort to stay connected and share information related to and beyond the ESA's first Planetary GIS Workshop [7]. It then continued during the 2nd (US) Planetary Data Workshop [8], and aggregated more people.Our objective is to build an online distributed framework enabling open collaborations within the planetary science community. We aim to co-create, curate and publish resource materials and data sets; to organise online events, to support community-based projects development; and to offer a real-time communication channel at and between conferences and workshops.We will present our current framework and resources, developing projects and ideas, and solicit for feedback and participation. OpenPlanetary is intended for research and education professionals: scientists, engineers, designers, teachers and students, as well as the general public that includes enthusiasts and citizen scientists. All are welcome to join and contribute at openplanetary.co[1] International Planetary Data Alliance, planetarydata.org. [2] Nosek et al (2015), dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aab2374. [3] Erard S. et al. (2016), EGU2016-17527. [4] Proposal for a PDS

  5. NASA Planetary Visualization Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, P.; Kim, R.

    2004-12-01

    NASA World Wind allows one to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging the combination of high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience Earth in visually rich 3D, just as if they were really there. NASA World Wind combines LandSat 7 imagery with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data, for a dramatic view of the Earth at eye level. Users can literally fly across the world's terrain from any location in any direction. Particular focus was put into the ease of usability so people of all ages can enjoy World Wind. All one needs to control World Wind is a two button mouse. Additional guides and features can be accessed though a simplified menu. Navigation is automated with single clicks of a mouse as well as the ability to type in any location and automatically zoom to it. NASA World Wind was designed to run on recent PC hardware with the same technology used by today's 3D video games. NASA World Wind delivers the NASA Blue Marble, spectacular true-color imagery of the entire Earth at 1-kilometer-per-pixel. Using NASA World Wind, you can continue to zoom past Blue Marble resolution to seamlessly experience the extremely detailed mosaic of LandSat 7 data at an impressive 15-meters-per-pixel resolution. NASA World Wind also delivers other color bands such as the infrared spectrum. The NASA Scientific Visualization Studio at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has produced a set of visually intense animations that demonstrate a variety of subjects such as hurricane dynamics and seasonal changes across the globe. NASA World Wind takes these animations and plays them directly on the world. The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) produces a set of time relevant planetary imagery that's updated every day. MODIS catalogs fires, floods, dust, smoke, storms and volcanic activity. NASA World Wind produces an easily customized view of this information and marks them directly on the globe. When one

  6. Planetary Geophysics and Tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The broad objective of this work is to improve understanding of the internal structures and thermal and stress histories of the solid planets by combining results from analytical and computational modeling, and geophysical data analysis of gravity, topography and tectonic surface structures. During the past year we performed two quite independent studies in the attempt to explain the Mariner 10 magnetic observations of Mercury. In the first we revisited the possibility of crustal remanence by studying the conditions under which one could break symmetry inherent in Runcorn's model of a uniformly magnetized shell to produce a remanent signal with a dipolar form. In the second we applied a thin shell dynamo model to evaluate the range of intensity/structure for which such a planetary configuration can produce a dipole field consistent with Mariner 10 results. In the next full proposal cycle we will: (1) develop numerical and analytical and models of thin shell dynamos to address the possible nature of Mercury s present-day magnetic field and the demise of Mars magnetic field; (2) study the effect of degree-1 mantle convection on a core dynamo as relevant to the early magnetic field of Mars; (3) develop models of how the deep mantles of terrestrial planets are perturbed by large impacts and address the consequences for mantle evolution; (4) study the structure, compensation, state of stress, and viscous relaxation of lunar basins, and address implications for the Moon s state of stress and thermal history by modeling and gravity/topography analysis; and (5) use a three-dimensional viscous relaxation model for a planet with generalized vertical viscosity distribution to study the degree-two components of the Moon's topography and gravity fields to constrain the primordial stress state and spatial heterogeneity of the crust and mantle.

  7. Planetary Transmission Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the

  8. Mars Sample Handling Protocol Workshop Series: Workshop 2a (Sterilization)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D. (Editor); Brunch, Carl W. (Editor); Setlow, Richard B. (Editor); DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Studies Board of the National Research Council provided a series of recommendations to NASA on planetary protection requirements for future Mars sample return missions. One of the Board's key findings suggested, although current evidence of the martian surface suggests that life as we know it would not tolerate the planet's harsh environment, there remain 'plausible scenarios for extant microbial life on Mars.' Based on this conclusion, all samples returned from Mars should be considered potentially hazardous until it has been demonstrated that they are not. In response to the National Research Council's findings and recommendations, NASA has undertaken a series of workshops to address issues regarding NASA's proposed sample return missions. Work was previously undertaken at the Mars Sample Handling and Protocol Workshop 1 (March 2000) to formulate recommendations on effective methods for life detection and/or biohazard testing on returned samples. The NASA Planetary Protection Officer convened the Mars Sample Sterilization Workshop, the third in the Mars Sample Handling Protocol Workshop Series, on November 28-30, 2000 at the Holiday Inn Rosslyn Westpark, Arlington, Virginia. Because of the short timeframe between this Workshop and the second Workshop in the Series, which was convened in October 2000 in Bethesda, Maryland, they were developed in parallel, so the Sterilization Workshop and its report have therefore been designated as '2a'). The focus of Workshop 2a was to make recommendations for effective sterilization procedures for all phases of Mars sample return missions, and to answer the question of whether we can sterilize samples in such a way that the geological characteristics of the samples are not significantly altered.

  9. Europlanet/IDIS: Combining Diverse Planetary Observations and Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Walter; Capria, Maria Teresa; Chanteur, Gerard

    2013-04-01

    Planetary research involves a diversity of research fields from astrophysics and plasma physics to atmospheric physics, climatology, spectroscopy and surface imaging. Data from all these disciplines are collected from various space-borne platforms or telescopes, supported by modelling teams and laboratory work. In order to interpret one set of data often supporting data from different disciplines and other missions are needed while the scientist does not always have the detailed expertise to access and utilize these observations. The Integrated and Distributed Information System (IDIS) [1], developed in the framework of the Europlanet-RI project, implements a Virtual Observatory approach ([2] and [3]), where different data sets, stored in archives around the world and in different formats, are accessed, re-formatted and combined to meet the user's requirements without the need of familiarizing oneself with the different technical details. While observational astrophysical data from different observatories could already earlier be accessed via Virtual Observatories, this concept is now extended to diverse planetary data and related model data sets, spectral data bases etc. A dedicated XML-based Europlanet Data Model (EPN-DM) [4] was developed based on data models from the planetary science community and the Virtual Observatory approach. A dedicated editor simplifies the registration of new resources. As the EPN-DM is a super-set of existing data models existing archives as well as new spectroscopic or chemical data bases for the interpretation of atmospheric or surface observations, or even modeling facilities at research institutes in Europe or Russia can be easily integrated and accessed via a Table Access Protocol (EPN-TAP) [5] adapted from the corresponding protocol of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance [6] (IVOA-TAP). EPN-TAP allows to search catalogues, retrieve data and make them available through standard IVOA tools if the access to the archive

  10. A feasibility study comparing UK older adult mental health inpatient wards which use protected engagement time with other wards which do not: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Fiona M; Fox, Chris; Cheston, Richard; Turner, David; Clark, Allan; Dodd, Emily; Khoo, Mary-Ellen; Gray, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Protected engagement time (PET) is a concept of managing staff time on mental health inpatient wards with the aim of increasing staff and patient interaction. Despite apparent widespread use of PET, there remains a dearth of evidence as to how it is implemented and whether it carries benefits for staff or patients. This protocol describes a study which is being carried out on mental health wards caring for older adults (aged over 65) in England. The study shares a large proportion of the procedures, measures and study team membership of a recently completed investigation of the impact of PET in adult acute mental health wards. The study aims to identify prevalence and components of PET to construct a model for the intervention, in addition to testing the feasibility of the measures and procedures in preparation for a randomised trial. The study comprises four modules and uses a mixed methods approach. Module 1 involves mapping all inpatient wards in England which provide care for older adults, including those with dementia, ascertaining how many of these provide PET and in what way. Module 2 uses a prospective cohort method to compare five older adult mental health wards that use PET with five that do not across three National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust sites. The comparison comprises questionnaires, observation tools and routinely collected clinical service data and combines validated measures with questions developed specifically for the study. Module 3 entails an in-depth case study evaluation of three of the participating PET wards (one from each NHS Trust site) using semi-structured interviews with patients, carers and staff. Module 4 describes the development of a model and fidelity scale for PET using the information derived from the other modules with a working group of patients, carers and staff. This is a feasibility study to test the application of the measures and methods in inpatient wards for older adults and develop a draft model for the

  11. Stellar Ablation of Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Horwitz, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    We review observations and theories of the solar ablation of planetary atmospheres, focusing on the terrestrial case where a large magnetosphere holds off the solar wind, so that there is little direct atmospheric impact, but also couples the solar wind electromagnetically to the auroral zones. We consider the photothermal escape flows known as the polar wind or refilling flows, the enhanced mass flux escape flows that result from localized solar wind energy dissipation in the auroral zones, and the resultant enhanced neutral atom escape flows. We term these latter two escape flows the "auroral wind." We review observations and theories of the heating and acceleration of auroral winds, including energy inputs from precipitating particles, electromagnetic energy flux at magnetohydrodynamic and plasma wave frequencies, and acceleration by parallel electric fields and by convection pickup processes also known as "centrifugal acceleration." We consider also the global circulation of ionospheric plasmas within the magnetosphere, their participation in magnetospheric disturbances as absorbers of momentum and energy, and their ultimate loss from the magnetosphere into the downstream solar wind, loading reconnection processes that occur at high altitudes near the magnetospheric boundaries. We consider the role of planetary magnetization and the accumulating evidence of stellar ablation of extrasolar planetary atmospheres. Finally, we suggest and discuss future needs for both the theory and observation of the planetary ionospheres and their role in solar wind interactions, to achieve the generality required for a predictive science of the coupling of stellar and planetary atmospheres over the full range of possible conditions.

  12. Packed Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R.; Greenberg, R.

    2005-08-01

    Planetary systems display a wide range of appearances, with apparently arbitrary values of semi-major axis, eccentricity, etc. We reduce the complexity of orbital configurations to a single value, δ , which is a measure of how close, over secular timescales ( ˜10,000 orbits), two consecutive planets come to each other. We measure this distance relative to the sum of the radii of their Hill spheres, sometimes referred to as mutual Hill radii (MHR). We determine the closest approach distance by numerically integrating the entire system on coplanar orbits, using minimum masses. For non-resonant systems, close approach occurs during apsidal alignment, either parallel or anti-parallel. For resonant pairs the distance at conjunction determines the closest approach distance. Previous analytic work found that planets on circular orbits were assuredly unstable if they came within 3.5 MHR (i.e. Gladman 1993; Chambers, Wetherill & Boss 1996). We find that most known pairs of jovian planets (including those in our solar system) come within 3.5 -- 7 MHR of each other. We also find that several systems are unstable (their closest approach distance is less than 3.5 MHR). These systems, if they are real, probably exist in an observationally permitted location somewhat different from the current best fit. In these cases, the planets' closest approach distance will most likely also be slightly larger than 3.5 MHR. Most pairs beyond 7 MHR probably experienced post-formation migration (i.e. tidal circularization, inward scattering of small bodies) which moved them further apart. This result is even more remarkable since we have used the minimum masses; most likely the systems are inclined to the line of sight, making the Hill spheres larger, and shrinking δ . This dense packing may reflect a tendency for planets to form as close together as they can without being dynamically unstable. This result further implies there may be a large number of smaller, currently undetectable

  13. The Planetary Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penteado, Paulo F.; Trilling, David; Szalay, Alexander; Budavári, Tamás; Fuentes, César

    2014-11-01

    We are building the first system that will allow efficient data mining in the astronomical archives for observations of Solar System Bodies. While the Virtual Observatory has enabled data-intensive research making use of large collections of observations across multiple archives, Planetary Science has largely been denied this opportunity: most astronomical data services are built based on sky positions, and moving objects are often filtered out.To identify serendipitous observations of Solar System objects, we ingest the archive metadata. The coverage of each image in an archive is a volume in a 3D space (RA,Dec,time), which we can represent efficiently through a hierarchical triangular mesh (HTM) for the spatial dimensions, plus a contiguous time interval. In this space, an asteroid occupies a curve, which we determine integrating its orbit into the past. Thus when an asteroid trajectory intercepts the volume of an archived image, we have a possible observation of that body. Our pipeline then looks in the archive's catalog for a source with the corresponding coordinates, to retrieve its photometry. All these matches are stored into a database, which can be queried by object identifier.This database consists of archived observations of known Solar System objects. This means that it grows not only from the ingestion of new images, but also from the growth in the number of known objects. As new bodies are discovered, our pipeline can find archived observations where they could have been recorded, providing colors for these newly-found objects. This growth becomes more relevant with the new generation of wide-field surveys, particularly LSST.We also present one use case of our prototype archive: after ingesting the metadata for SDSS, 2MASS and GALEX, we were able to identify serendipitous observations of Solar System bodies in these 3 archives. Cross-matching these occurrences provided us with colors from the UV to the IR, a much wider spectral range than that

  14. Planetary Image Geometry Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert C.; Pariser, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    The Planetary Image Geometry (PIG) library is a multi-mission library used for projecting images (EDRs, or Experiment Data Records) and managing their geometry for in-situ missions. A collection of models describes cameras and their articulation, allowing application programs such as mosaickers, terrain generators, and pointing correction tools to be written in a multi-mission manner, without any knowledge of parameters specific to the supported missions. Camera model objects allow transformation of image coordinates to and from view vectors in XYZ space. Pointing models, specific to each mission, describe how to orient the camera models based on telemetry or other information. Surface models describe the surface in general terms. Coordinate system objects manage the various coordinate systems involved in most missions. File objects manage access to metadata (labels, including telemetry information) in the input EDRs and RDRs (Reduced Data Records). Label models manage metadata information in output files. Site objects keep track of different locations where the spacecraft might be at a given time. Radiometry models allow correction of radiometry for an image. Mission objects contain basic mission parameters. Pointing adjustment ("nav") files allow pointing to be corrected. The object-oriented structure (C++) makes it easy to subclass just the pieces of the library that are truly mission-specific. Typically, this involves just the pointing model and coordinate systems, and parts of the file model. Once the library was developed (initially for Mars Polar Lander, MPL), adding new missions ranged from two days to a few months, resulting in significant cost savings as compared to rewriting all the application programs for each mission. Currently supported missions include Mars Pathfinder (MPF), MPL, Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Phoenix, and Mars Science Lab (MSL). Applications based on this library create the majority of operational image RDRs for those missions. A

  15. An Introduction to Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Jason J.

    2018-05-01

    In this book we will look at what planetary nebulae are, where they come from and where they go. We will discuss what mechanisms cause these beautiful markers of stellar demise as well as what causes them to form their variety of shapes. How we measure various aspects of planetary nebulae such as what they are made of will also be explored. Though we will give some aspects of planetary nebulae mathematical treatment, the main points should be accessible to people with only a limited background in mathematics. A short glossary of some of the more arcane astronomical terms is at the end of the book to help in understanding. Included at the end of each chapter is an extensive bibliography to the peer reviewed research on these objects and I would encourage the reader interested in an even deeper understanding to read these articles.

  16. Robotic vehicles for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Brian; Matthies, Larry; Gennery, Donald; Cooper, Brian; Nguyen, Tam; Litwin, Todd; Mishkin, Andrew; Stone, Henry

    A program to develop planetary rover technology is underway at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) under sponsorship of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Developmental systems with the necessary sensing, computing, power, and mobility resources to demonstrate realistic forms of control for various missions have been developed, and initial testing has been completed. These testbed systems and the associated navigation techniques used are described. Particular emphasis is placed on three technologies: Computer-Aided Remote Driving (CARD), Semiautonomous Navigation (SAN), and behavior control. It is concluded that, through the development and evaluation of such technologies, research at JPL has expanded the set of viable planetary rover mission possibilities beyond the limits of remotely teleoperated systems such as Lunakhod. These are potentially applicable to exploration of all the solid planetary surfaces in the solar system, including Mars, Venus, and the moons of the gas giant planets.

  17. Dynamical Evolution of Planetary Embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, George W.

    2002-01-01

    During the past decade, progress has been made by relating the 'standard model' for the formation of planetary systems to computational and observational advances. A significant contribution to this has been provided by this grant. The consequence of this is that the rigor of the physical modeling has improved considerably. This has identified discrepancies between the predictions of the standard model and recent observations of extrasolar planets. In some cases, the discrepancies can be resolved by recognition of the stochastic nature of the planetary formation process, leading to variations in the final state of a planetary system. In other cases, it seems more likely that there are major deficiencies in the standard model, requiring our identifying variations to the model that are not so strongly constrained to our Solar System.

  18. Electrostatic Phenomena on Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2017-02-01

    The diverse planetary environments in the solar system react in somewhat different ways to the encompassing influence of the Sun. These different interactions define the electrostatic phenomena that take place on and near planetary surfaces. The desire to understand the electrostatic environments of planetary surfaces goes beyond scientific inquiry. These environments have enormous implications for both human and robotic exploration of the solar system. This book describes in some detail what is known about the electrostatic environment of the solar system from early and current experiments on Earth as well as what is being learned from the instrumentation on the space exploration missions (NASA, European Space Agency, and the Japanese Space Agency) of the last few decades. It begins with a brief review of the basic principles of electrostatics.

  19. Robotic vehicles for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian; Matthies, Larry; Gennery, Donald; Cooper, Brian; Nguyen, Tam; Litwin, Todd; Mishkin, Andrew; Stone, Henry

    1992-01-01

    A program to develop planetary rover technology is underway at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) under sponsorship of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Developmental systems with the necessary sensing, computing, power, and mobility resources to demonstrate realistic forms of control for various missions have been developed, and initial testing has been completed. These testbed systems and the associated navigation techniques used are described. Particular emphasis is placed on three technologies: Computer-Aided Remote Driving (CARD), Semiautonomous Navigation (SAN), and behavior control. It is concluded that, through the development and evaluation of such technologies, research at JPL has expanded the set of viable planetary rover mission possibilities beyond the limits of remotely teleoperated systems such as Lunakhod. These are potentially applicable to exploration of all the solid planetary surfaces in the solar system, including Mars, Venus, and the moons of the gas giant planets.

  20. Science and outreach for planetary defence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, M.

    2011-10-01

    The recent IAA Planetary Defence Conference held in Romania, focused on a hot topic: from Threat to Action. It is true that we ought to protect the planet but also educate the population in this direction. Increasing rumours about pseudo-scientific issues, such as the impact with asteroids, comets or debris of spatial missions, the effects of the growing solar activity, the displacement of the terrestrial rotation axis following major earthquakes, let alone spreading news about the end-of-the-world, show how crucial it is to prepare people to understand what is going on in the universe and, in particular, on our planet, and how to deal with inevitable events. Another central question is in order: who should be in charge of this education? Perhaps the journalists, but they lack the necessary preparation to present correct and updated information to the public. Or the scientists, but they are extremely busy and concentrated on their projects aimed at defending the planet and at answering the vast array of questions that their research stirs up. Our goal is to answer the following question: to what extent is it the scientist's responsibility and to what extent the journalist's to educate people for the planetary defence? In addition, we shall suggest how they can effectively co-ordinate efforts to solve the current problems of a society submerged in increasingly sophisticated but decreasingly informed technologies.

  1. From Planetary Mapping to Map Production: Planetary Cartography as integral discipline in Planetary Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nass, Andrea; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hargitai, Hendrik; Hare, Trent; Manaud, Nicolas; Karachevtseva, Irina; Kersten, Elke; Roatsch, Thomas; Wählisch, Marita; Kereszturi, Akos

    2016-04-01

    Cartography is one of the most important communication channels between users of spatial information and laymen as well as the open public alike. This applies to all known real-world objects located either here on Earth or on any other object in our Solar System. In planetary sciences, however, the main use of cartography resides in a concept called planetary mapping with all its various attached meanings: it can be (1) systematic spacecraft observation from orbit, i.e. the retrieval of physical information, (2) the interpretation of discrete planetary surface units and their abstraction, or it can be (3) planetary cartography sensu strictu, i.e., the technical and artistic creation of map products. As the concept of planetary mapping covers a wide range of different information and knowledge levels, aims associated with the concept of mapping consequently range from a technical and engineering focus to a scientific distillation process. Among others, scientific centers focusing on planetary cartography are the United State Geological Survey (USGS, Flagstaff), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK, Moscow), Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE, Hungary), and the German Aerospace Center (DLR, Berlin). The International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Commission Planetary Cartography within International Cartographic Association (ICA), the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), the WG IV/8 Planetary Mapping and Spatial Databases within International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) and a range of other institutions contribute on definition frameworks in planetary cartography. Classical cartography is nowadays often (mis-)understood as a tool mainly rather than a scientific discipline and an art of communication. Consequently, concepts of information systems, mapping tools and cartographic frameworks are used interchangeably, and cartographic workflows and visualization of spatial information in thematic maps have often been

  2. NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.

    2001-01-01

    The Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF) provided access to data from NASA planetary missions and expert assistance about the data sets and how to order subsets of the collections. This ensures that the benefit/cost of acquiring the data is maximized by widespread dissemination and use of the observations and resultant collections. The RPIF provided education and outreach functions that ranged from providing data and information to teachers, involving small groups of highly motivated students in its activities, to public lectures and tours. These activities maximized dissemination of results and data to the educational and public communities.

  3. Density in a Planetary Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Jackson; Kyle, Herbert L.

    1961-01-01

    A discussion of the Opik-Singer theory of the density of a planetary exosphere is presented. Their density formula permits the calculation of the depth of the exosphere. Since the correctness of their derivation of the basic formula for the density distribution has been questioned, an alternate method based directly on Liouville's theorem is given. It is concluded that the Opik-Singer formula seems valid for the ballistic component of the exosphere; but for a complete description of the planetary exosphere, the ionized and bound-orbit components must also be included.

  4. Virtual reality and planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Ames is intensively developing virtual-reality (VR) capabilities that can extend and augment computer-generated and remote spatial environments. VR is envisioned not only as a basis for improving human/machine interactions involved in planetary exploration, but also as a medium for the more widespread sharing of the experience of exploration, thereby broadening the support-base for the lunar and planetary-exploration endeavors. Imagery representative of Mars are being gathered for VR presentation at such terrestrial sites as Antarctica and Death Valley.

  5. Activities at the Lunar and Planetary Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, K.

    1984-01-01

    The scientific and administrative activities of the Lunar and Planetary Institute are summarized. Recent research relating to geophysics, planetary geology, the origin of the Earth and Moon, the lunar surface, Mars, meteorites, and image processing techniques is discussed.

  6. Planetary quarantine. Space research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Planetary quarantine strategies for advanced spacecraft consider effects of satellite encounter, Jupiter atmosphere entry, space radiation, and cleaning and decontamination techniques on microbiological growth probability. Analytical restructuring is developed for microbial burden prediction and planetary contamination.

  7. Envisioning a Planetary Spatial Data Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laura, J. R.; Fergason, R. L.; Skinner, J.; Gaddis, L.; Hare, T.; Hagerty, J.

    2017-02-01

    We present a vision of a codified Planetary Spatial Data Infrastructure to support vertical and horizontal data integration and reduce the burden of spatial data expertise from the planetary science expert.

  8. EPA Protocol Gas Verification Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate compressed gas calibration standards are needed to calibrate continuous emission monitors (CEMs) and ambient air quality monitors that are being used for regulatory purposes. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established its traceability protocol to ensure that co...

  9. Virtual reality and planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    Exploring planetary environments is central to NASA's missions and goals. A new computing technology called Virtual Reality has much to offer in support of planetary exploration. This technology augments and extends human presence within computer-generated and remote spatial environments. Historically, NASA has been a leader in many of the fundamental concepts and technologies that comprise Virtual Reality. Indeed, Ames Research Center has a central role in the development of this rapidly emerging approach to using computers. This ground breaking work has inspired researchers in academia, industry, and the military. Further, NASA's leadership in this technology has spun off new businesses, has caught the attention of the international business community, and has generated several years of positive international media coverage. In the future, Virtual Reality technology will enable greatly improved human-machine interactions for more productive planetary surface exploration. Perhaps more importantly, Virtual Reality technology will democratize the experience of planetary exploration and thereby broaden understanding of, and support for, this historic enterprise.

  10. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This CD-ROM presents papers presented to the Thirty-first Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, March 13-17, 2000, Houston, Texas. Eighty-one conference sessions, and over one thousand extended abstracts are included. Abstracts cover topics such as Martian surface properties and geology, meteoritic composition, Martian landing sites and roving vehicles, planned Mars Sample Return Missions, and general astrobiology.

  11. Investigations of planetary ring phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Joseph A.

    1987-01-01

    Faint planetary rings, their dynamical behavior and physical properties, were the main focus of the research efforts. The motion of weakly-charged dust through the gravitational and magnetic fields of Jupiter were examined. Several topics concerning features of Saturn's rings were addressed. The origin and fate of the Uranian ring dust is presently being studied.

  12. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This CD-ROM publication contains the extended abstracts that were accepted for presentation at the 33rd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference held in Houston, TX, March 11-15, 2002. The papers are presented in PDF format and are indexed by author, keyword, meteorite, program and samples for quick reference.

  13. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM publication contains the extended abstracts that were accepted for presentation at the 32nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference held at Houston, TX, March 12-16, 2001. The papers are presented in PDF format and are indexed by author, keyword, meteorite, program and samples for quick reference.

  14. Virtual reality and planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGreevy, Michael W.

    Exploring planetary environments is central to NASA's missions and goals. A new computing technology called Virtual Reality has much to offer in support of planetary exploration. This technology augments and extends human presence within computer-generated and remote spatial environments. Historically, NASA has been a leader in many of the fundamental concepts and technologies that comprise Virtual Reality. Indeed, Ames Research Center has a central role in the development of this rapidly emerging approach to using computers. This ground breaking work has inspired researchers in academia, industry, and the military. Further, NASA's leadership in this technology has spun off new businesses, has caught the attention of the international business community, and has generated several years of positive international media coverage. In the future, Virtual Reality technology will enable greatly improved human-machine interactions for more productive planetary surface exploration. Perhaps more importantly, Virtual Reality technology will democratize the experience of planetary exploration and thereby broaden understanding of, and support for, this historic enterprise.

  15. Priority Planetary Science Missions Identified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. National Research Council's (NRC) planetary science decadal survey report, released on 7 March, lays out a grand vision for priority planetary science missions for 2013-2022 within a tightly constrained fiscal environment. The cost-conscious report, issued by NRC's Committee on the Planetary Science Decadal Survey, identifies high-priority flagship missions, recommends a number of potential midsized missions, and indicates support for some smaller missions. The report states that the highest-priority flagship mission for the decade is the Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C)—the first of three components of a NASA/European Space Agency Mars sample return campaign—provided that the mission scope can be reduced so that MAX-C costs no more than $2.5 billion. The currently estimated mission cost of $3.5 billion “would take up a disproportionate near-term share of the overall budget for NASA's Planetary Science Division,” the report notes.

  16. Reports of planetary astronomy - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahe, Jurgen (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This publication provides information about currently funded scientific research projects conducted in the Planetary Astronomy Program during 1991, and consists of two main sections. The first section gives a summary of research objectives, past accomplishments, and projected future investigations, as submitted by each principal investigator. In the second section, recent scientifically significant accomplishments within the Program are highlighted.

  17. Reports of planetary astronomy, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This is a compilation of abstracts of reports from Principal Investigators funded through NASA's Planetary Astronomy Office. It provides a summarization of work conducted in this program in 1989. Each report contains a brief statement on the strategy of investigation and lists significant accomplishments within the area of the author's funded grant or contract, plans for future work, and publications.

  18. Gondola for High Altitude Planetary Science (GHAPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmann, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Description of the NASA Gondola for High Altitude Planetary Science (GHAPS) balloon project and its planetary science capabilities provided in a poster or fact sheet format as needed. The ability of GHAPS to provide a re-useable platform to collect planetary information is described.

  19. A quasi-experimental, before-after trial examining the impact of an emergency department mechanical ventilator protocol on clinical outcomes and lung-protective ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Brian M.; Ferguson, Ian T.; Mohr, Nicholas M.; Drewry, Anne M.; Palmer, Christopher; Wessman, Brian T.; Ablordeppey, Enyo; Keeperman, Jacob; Stephens, Robert J.; Briscoe, Cristopher C.; Kolomiets, Angelina A.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Kollef, Marin H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of an emergency department (ED) mechanical ventilation protocol on clinical outcomes and adherence to lung-protective ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Design Quasi-experimental, before-after trial. Setting ED and intensive care units (ICU) of an academic center. Patients Mechanically ventilated ED patients experiencing ARDS while in the ED or after admission to the ICU. Interventions An ED ventilator protocol which targeted parameters in need of quality improvement, as identified by prior work: 1) lung-protective tidal volume; 2) appropriate setting of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP); 3) oxygen weaning; and 4) head-of-bed elevation. Measurements and Main Results A total of 229 patients (186 pre-intervention group, 43 intervention group) were studied. In the ED, the intervention was associated with significant changes (P < 0.01 for all) in tidal volume, PEEP, respiratory rate, oxygen administration, and head-of-bed elevation. There was a reduction in ED tidal volume from 8.1 mL/kg PBW (7.0 – 9.1) to 6.4 mL/kg PBW (6.1 – 6.7), and an increase in lung-protective ventilation from 11.1% to 61.5%, P < 0.01. The intervention was associated with a reduction in mortality from 54.8% to 39.5% (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.17 – 0.83, P = 0.02), and a 3.9 day increase in ventilator-free days, P = 0.01. Conclusions This before-after study of mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS demonstrates that implementing a mechanical ventilator protocol in the ED is feasible, and associated with improved clinical outcomes. PMID:28157140

  20. A Quasi-Experimental, Before-After Trial Examining the Impact of an Emergency Department Mechanical Ventilator Protocol on Clinical Outcomes and Lung-Protective Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Brian M; Ferguson, Ian T; Mohr, Nicholas M; Drewry, Anne M; Palmer, Christopher; Wessman, Brian T; Ablordeppey, Enyo; Keeperman, Jacob; Stephens, Robert J; Briscoe, Cristopher C; Kolomiets, Angelina A; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Kollef, Marin H

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of an emergency department mechanical ventilation protocol on clinical outcomes and adherence to lung-protective ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Quasi-experimental, before-after trial. Emergency department and ICUs of an academic center. Mechanically ventilated emergency department patients experiencing acute respiratory distress syndrome while in the emergency department or after admission to the ICU. An emergency department ventilator protocol which targeted variables in need of quality improvement, as identified by prior work: 1) lung-protective tidal volume, 2) appropriate setting of positive end-expiratory pressure, 3) oxygen weaning, and 4) head-of-bed elevation. A total of 229 patients (186 preintervention group, 43 intervention group) were studied. In the emergency department, the intervention was associated with significant changes (p < 0.01 for all) in tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure, respiratory rate, oxygen administration, and head-of-bed elevation. There was a reduction in emergency department tidal volume from 8.1 mL/kg predicted body weight (7.0-9.1) to 6.4 mL/kg predicted body weight (6.1-6.7) and an increase in lung-protective ventilation from 11.1% to 61.5%, p value of less than 0.01. The intervention was associated with a reduction in mortality from 54.8% to 39.5% (odds ratio, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.17-0.83; p = 0.02) and a 3.9 day increase in ventilator-free days, p value equals to 0.01. This before-after study of mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome demonstrates that implementing a mechanical ventilator protocol in the emergency department is feasible and associated with improved clinical outcomes.

  1. Planetary Evolution, Habitability and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilman, Spohn; Breuer, Doris; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Jaumann, Ralf; Kuehrt, Ekkehard; Möhlmann, Diedrich; Rauer, Heike; Richter, Lutz

    A Helmholtz Alliance has been established to study the interactions between life and the evo-lution of planets. The approach goes beyond current studies in Earth-System Sciences by including the entire planet from the atmosphere to the deep interior, going beyond Earth to include other Earth-like planets such as Mars and Venus and satellites in the solar system where ecosystems may exist underneath thick ice shells,considering other solar systems. The approach includes studies of the importance of plate tectonics and other tectonic regimes such as single plate tectonics for the development and for sustaining life and asks the question: If life can adapt to a planet, can a planet adapt to life? Can life be seen as a geological process and if so, can life shape the conditions on a planet such that life can flourish? The vision goes beyond the solar system by including the challenges that life would face in other solar systems. The Alliance uses theoretical modelling of feedback cycles and coupled planetary atmosphere and interior processes. These models are based on the results of remote sensing of planetary surfaces and atmospheres, laboratory studies on (meteorite) samples from other planets and on studies of life under extreme conditions. The Alliance uses its unique capabilities in remote sensing and in-situ exploration to prepare for empirical studies of the parameters affecting habitability. The Alliance aims to establish a network infrastructure in Germany to enable the most ad-vanced research in planetary evolution studies by including life as a planetary process. Finding extraterrestrial life is a task of fundamental importance to mankind, and its fulfilment will be philosophically profound. Evaluating the interactions between planetary evolution and life will help to put the evolution of our home planet (even anthropogenic effects) into perspective.

  2. A Planetary Park system for the Moon and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockell, Charles; Horneck, Gerda

    Deutschland International space exploration programs foresee the establishment of human settlements on the Moon and on Mars within the next decades, following a series of robotic precursor missions. These increasing robotic visits and eventual human exploration and settlements may have an environmental impact on scientifically important sites and sites of natural beauty in the form of contamination with microorganisms and spacecraft parts, or even pollution as a consequence of in situ resource use. This concern has already been reflected in the Moon Treaty, "The Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies" of the United Nations, which follows the Outer Space Treaty of the UN. However, so far, the Moon Treaty has not been ratified by any nation which engages in human space programs or has plans to do so. Planetary protection guidelines as formulated by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) are based on the Outer Space Treaty and follow the objectives: (i) to prevent contamination by terrestrial microorganisms if this might jeopardize scientific investi-gations of possible extraterrestrial life forms, and (ii) to protect the Earth from the potential hazard posed by extraterrestrial material brought back to the Earth. As a consequence, they group exploratory missions according to the type of mission and target body in five different categories, requesting specific means of cleaning and sterilization. However, the protection of extraterrestrial environments might also encompass ethical and other non-instrumental reasons. In order to allow intense scientific research and exploitation, and on the other hand to preserve regions of the Moon for research and use by future generations, we proposed the introduction of a planetary (or lunar) park system, which would protect areas of scientific, historic and intrinsic value under a common scheme. A similar placePlaceNamePlanetary PlaceTypePark system could be established on Mars well

  3. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Origin of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session titled Origin of Planetary Systems" included the following reports:Convective Cooling of Protoplanetary Disks and Rapid Giant Planet Formation; When Push Comes to Shove: Gap-opening, Disk Clearing and the In Situ Formation of Giant Planets; Late Injection of Radionuclides into Solar Nebula Analogs in Orion; Growth of Dust Particles and Accumulation of Centimeter-sized Objects in the Vicinity of a Pressure enhanced Region of a Solar Nebula; Fast, Repeatable Clumping of Solid Particles in Microgravity ; Chondrule Formation by Current Sheets in Protoplanetary Disks; Radial Migration of Phyllosilicates in the Solar Nebula; Accretion of the Outer Planets: Oligarchy or Monarchy?; Resonant Capture of Irregular Satellites by a Protoplanet ; On the Final Mass of Giant Planets ; Predicting the Atmospheric Composition of Extrasolar Giant Planets; Overturn of Unstably Stratified Fluids: Implications for the Early Evolution of Planetary Mantles; and The Evolution of an Impact-generated Partially-vaporized Circumplanetary Disk.

  4. 40 CFR 766.14 - Contents of protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contents of protocols. 766.14 Section 766.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS General Provisions § 766.14 Contents of protocols. Protocols...

  5. Communications protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Xiaoming (Inventor); Baras, John S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved communications protocol which increases the efficiency of transmission in return channels on a multi-channel slotted Alohas system by incorporating advanced error correction algorithms, selective retransmission protocols and the use of reserved channels to satisfy the retransmission requests.

  6. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Origin of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Origin of Planetary Systems" included the following reports: (12753) Povenmire - Standard Comparison Small Main Belt Asteroid?; Gravitational Frequencies of Extra-Solar Planets; 'Jumping Jupiters' in Binary Star Systems; Hermes, Asteroid 2002 SY50 and the Northern Cetids - No Link Found!; What Kind of Accretion Model is Required for the Solar System; and Use of an Orbital Phase Curve of Extrasolar Planet for Specification of its Mass.

  7. The Anthropocene: A Planetary Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbar, A. D.; Hartnett, H. E.; York, A.; Selin, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Anthropocene is a new planetary epoch defined by the emergence of human activity as one of the most important driving forces on Earth, rivaling and also stressing the other systems that govern the planet's habitability. Public discussions and debates about the challenges of this epoch tend to be polarized. One extreme denies that humans have a planetary-scale impact, while the other wishes that this impact could disappear. The tension between these perspectives is often paralyzing. Effective adaptation and mitigation requires a new perspective that reframes the conversation. We propose a planetary perspective according to which this epoch is the result of a recent major innovation in the 4 ­billion ­year history of life on Earth: the emergence of an energy-intensive planetary civilization. The rate of human energy use is already within an order of magnitude of that of the rest of the biosphere, and rising rapidly, and so this innovation is second only to the evolution of photosynthesis in terms of energy capture and utilization by living systems. Such energy use has and will continue to affect Earth at planetary scale. This reality cannot be denied nor wished away. From this pragmatic perspective, the Anthropocene is not an unnatural event that can be reversed, as though humanity is separate from the Earth systems with which we are co-evolving. Rather, it is an evolutionary transition to be managed. This is the challenge of turning a carelessly altered planet into a carefully designed and managed world, maintaining a "safe operating space" for human civilization (Steffen et al., 2011). To do so, we need an integrated approach to Earth systems science that considers humans as a natural and integral component of Earth's systems. Insights drawn from the humanities and the social sciences must be integrated with the natural sciences in order to thrive in this new epoch. This type of integrated perspective is relatively uncontroversial on personal, local, and even

  8. Planetary geology and terrestrial analogs in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Goro; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2012-04-01

    2011 PERC Planetary Geology Field Symposium;Kitakyushu City, Japan, 5-6 November 2011 In spite of the extremely diverse geological settings that exist in Asia, relatively little attention has previously been paid to this region in terms of terrestrial analog studies for planetary application. Asia is emerging as a major center of studies in planetary geology, but no attempt had been made in the past to organize a broadly based meeting that would allow planetary geologists in Asia to meet with ones from more advanced centers, such as the United States and Europe, and that would include the participation of many geologists working primarily on terrestrial research. The Planetary Exploration Research Center (PERC) of the Chiba Institute of Technology hosted the first planetary geology field symposium in Asia to present results from recent planetary geology studies and to exchange ideas regarding terrestrial analogs (http://www.perc.it-chiba.ac.jp/meetings/pgfs2011/index.html).

  9. Overview of Microbial Monitoring Technologies Considered for Use Inside Long Duration Spaceflights and Planetary Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Ott, C. Mark

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to start a conversation including the Crew Health, ECLSS, and Planetary Protection communities about the best approach for inflight microbial monitoring as part of a risk mitigation strategy to prevent forward and back contamination while protecting the crew and vehicle.

  10. Evolution of Planetary Ringmoon Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    1995-01-01

    The last few decades have seen an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Meanwhile, we have seen steady progress in our understanding of these systems as our intuition (and our computers) catch up with the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron-to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems. The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems are invariably found in association with families of regular satellites, and there is an emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system.

  11. Planetary spectra for anisotropic scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    Some effects on planetary spectra that would be produced by departures from isotropic scattering are examined. The phase function is the simplest departure to handle analytically and the only phase function, other than the isotropic one, that can be incorporated into a Chandrasekhar first approximation. This approach has the advantage of illustrating effects resulting from anisotropies while retaining the simplicity that yields analytic solutions. The curve of growth is the sine qua non of planetary spectroscopy. The discussion emphasizes the difficulties and importance of ascertaining curves of growth as functions of observing geometry. A plea is made to observers to analyze their empirical curves of growth, whenever it seems feasible, in terms of coefficients of which are the leading terms in radiative-transfer analysis. An algebraic solution to the two sets of anisotropic H functions is developed which gives emergent intensities accurate to 0.3%.

  12. Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    This is the final report of a program that examined the fundamentals of education associated with space activities, promoted educational policy development in appropriate forums, and developed pathfinder products and services to demonstrate the utility of advanced communication technologies for space-based education. Our focus was on space astrophysics and planetary exploration, with a special emphasis on the themes of the Origins Program, with which the Principal Investigator (PI) had been involved from the outset. Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration was also the core funding of the Space Telescope Science Institute's (ST ScI) Special Studies Office (SSO), and as such had provided basic support for such important NASA studies as the fix for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spherical aberration, scientific conception of the HST Advanced Camera, specification of the Next-Generation Space Telescope (NGST), and the strategic plan for the second decade of the HST science program.

  13. Curie-Montgolfiere Planetary Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Chris Y.; Hansen, Jeremiah

    2007-01-01

    Hot-air balloons, also known as Montgolfiere balloons, powered by heat from radioisotope decay are a potentially useful tool for exploring planetary atmospheres and augmenting the capabilities of other exploration technologies. This paper describes the physical equations and identifies the key engineering parameters that drive radioisotope-powered balloon performance. These parameters include envelope strength-to-weight, envelope thermal conductivity, heater power-to-weight, heater temperature, and balloon shape. The design space for these parameters are shown for varying atmospheric compositions to illustrate the performance needed to build functioning ``Curie-Montgolfiere'' balloons for various planetary atmospheres. Methods to ease the process of Curie-Montgolfiere conceptual design and sizing of are also introduced.

  14. SPICE for ESA Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, M.

    2017-09-01

    SPICE is an information system that provides the geometry needed to plan scientific observations and to analyze the obtained. The ESA SPICE Service generates the SPICE Kernel datasets for missions in all the active ESA Missions. This contribution describes the current status of the datasets, the extended services and the SPICE support provided to the ESA Planetary Missions (Mars-Express, ExoMars2016, BepiColombo, JUICE, Rosetta, Venus-Express and SMART-1) for the benefit of the science community.

  15. Planetary Surface-Atmosphere Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrison, J. P.; Bak, E.; Finster, K.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Knak Jensen, S.; Nørnberg, P.

    2013-09-01

    Planetary bodies having an accessible solid surface and significant atmosphere, such as Earth, Mars, Venus, Titan, share common phenomenology. Specifically wind induced transport of surface materials, subsequent erosion, the generation and transport of solid aerosols which leads both to chemical and electrostatic interaction with the atmosphere. How these processes affect the evolution of the atmosphere and surface will be discussed in the context of general planetology and the latest laboratory studies will be presented.

  16. Planetary Data Workshop, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Technical aspects of the Planetary Data System (PDS) are addressed. Methods and tools for maintaining and accessing large, complex sets of data are discussed. The specific software and applications needed for processing imaging and non-imaging science data are reviewed. The need for specific software that provides users with information on the location and geometry of scientific observations is discussed. Computer networks and user interface to the PDS are covered along with Computer hardware available to this data system.

  17. Reports of planetary astronomy, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This is a compilation of abstracts of reports from Principal Investigators funded through NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program, Office of Space Science and Applications. The purpose is to provide a document which succinctly summarizes work conducted in this program for 1985. Each report contains a brief statement on the strategy of investigation and lists significant accomplishments within the area of the author's funded grant or contract, plans for future work, and publications.

  18. Reports of planetary astronomy, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A compilation of abstracts of reports from Principal Investigators funded through NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program, Office of Space Science and Applications, is presented. The purpose is to provide a document which succinctly summarizes work conducted in this program for 1986. Each report contains a brief statement on the strategy of investigation and lists significant accomplishments within the area of the author's funded grant or contract, plans for future work, and publications.

  19. Stream Lifetimes Against Planetary Encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valsecchi, G. B.; Lega, E.; Froeschle, Cl.

    2011-01-01

    We study, both analytically and numerically, the perturbation induced by an encounter with a planet on a meteoroid stream. Our analytical tool is the extension of pik s theory of close encounters, that we apply to streams described by geocentric variables. The resulting formulae are used to compute the rate at which a stream is dispersed by planetary encounters into the sporadic background. We have verified the accuracy of the analytical model using a numerical test.

  20. Northeast Regional Planetary Data Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Peter H.; Saunders, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    In 1980, the Northeast Planetary Data Center (NEPDC) was established with Tim Mutch as its Director. The Center was originally located in the Sciences Library due to space limitations but moved to the Lincoln Field Building in 1983 where it could serve the Planetary Group and outside visitors more effectively. In 1984 Dr. Peter Schultz moved to Brown University and became its Director after serving in a similar capacity at the Lunar and Planetary Institute since 1976. Debbie Glavin has served as the Data Center Coordinator since 1982. Initially the NEPDC was build around Tim Mutch's research collection of Lunar Orbiter and Mariner 9 images with only partial sets of Apollo and Viking materials. Its collection was broadened and deepened as the Director (PHS) searched for materials to fill in gaps. Two important acquisitions included the transfer of a Viking collection from a previous PI in Tucson and the donation of surplused lunar materials (Apollo) from the USGS/Menlo Park prior to its building being torn down. Later additions included the pipeline of distributed materials such as the Viking photomosaic series and certain Magellan products. Not all materials sent to Brown, however, found their way to the Data Center, e.g., Voyager prints and negatives. In addition to the NEPDC, the planetary research collection is separately maintained in conjunction with past and ongoing mission activities. These materials (e.g., Viking, Magellan, Galileo, MGS mission products) are housed elsewhere and maintained independently from the NEPDC. They are unavailable to other researchers, educators, and general public. Consequently, the NEPDC represents the only generally accessible reference collection for use by researchers, students, faculty, educators, and general public in the Northeast corridor.

  1. Planetary basalts - Chemistry and petrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papike, J. J.; Bence, A. E.

    1979-01-01

    Recent literature (1975-1978) on planetary basalts is reviewed. Terrestrial basalts are considered in relation to Nd and Sm isotopic studies, magma mixing, chemical and mineralogical heterogeneities in basalt source regions, and partial melting controls on basalt chemistry. Attention is also given to features of mare basalts, eucrites, and comparisons of basalts for the earth, the moon, and the parent body of basaltic achondrites.

  2. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (< 100 kg) can be used in a variety of architectures consisting of orbiters, landers, rovers, atmospheric probes, and penetrators. A few such vehicles have been flown in the past as technology demonstrations. However, technologies such as new miniaturized science-grade sensors and electronics, advanced manufacturing for lightweight structures, and innovative propulsion are making it possible to fly much more capable micro spacecraft for planetary exploration. While micro spacecraft, such as CubeSats, offer significant cost reductions with added capability from advancing technologies, the technical challenges for deep space missions are very different than for missions conducted in low Earth orbit. Micro spacecraft must be able to sustain a broad range of planetary environments (i.e., radiations, temperatures, limited power generation) and offer long-range telecommunication performance on a par with science needs. Other capabilities needed for planetary missions, such as fine attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  3. INPOP17a planetary ephemerides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, V.; Fienga, A.; Gastineau, M.; Laskar, J.

    2017-08-01

    Based on the use of Cassini radio tracking data and the introduction of LLR data obtained at 1064 nm, a new planetary ephemerides INPOP17a was built including improvements for the planet orbits as well as for Moon ephemerides. Besides new asteroid masses, new parameters related to the inner structure of the Moon were obtained and presented here. Comparisons with values found in the literature are also discussed. LLR Residuals reach the centimeter level for the new INPOP17a ephemerides.

  4. Discovery Planetary Mission Operations Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffin, R.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Discovery Program of small planetary missions will provide opportunities to continue scientific exploration of the solar system in today's cost-constrained environment. Using a multidisciplinary team, JPL has developed plans to provide mission operations within the financial parameters established by the Discovery Program. This paper describes experiences and methods that show promise of allowing the Discovery Missions to operate within the program cost constraints while maintaining low mission risk, high data quality, and reponsive operations.

  5. [International regulation of ethics committees on biomedical research as protection mechanisms for people: analysis of the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, concerning Biomedical Research of the Council of Europe].

    PubMed

    de Lecuona, Itziar

    2013-01-01

    The article explores and analyses the content of the Council of Europe's Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine concerning Biomedical Research regarding the standard legal instrument in biomedical research, issued by an international organization with leadership in bioethics. This implies ethics committees are mechanisms of protection of humans in biomedical research and not mere bureaucratic agencies and that a sound inescapable international regulatory framework exists for States to regulate biomedical research. The methodology used focuses on the analysis of the background, the context in which it is made and the nature and scope of the Protocol. It also identifies and analyses the characteristics and functions of ethics committees in biomedical research and, in particular, the information that should be provided to this bodies to develop their functions previously, during and at the end of research projects. This analysis will provide guidelines, suggestions and conclusions for the awareness and training of members of these committees in order to influence the daily practice. This paper may also be of interest to legal practitioners who work in different areas of biomedical research. From this practical perspective, the article examines the legal treatment of the Protocol to meet new challenges and classic issues in research: the treatment of human biological samples, the use of placebos, avoiding double standards, human vulnerability, undue influence and conflicts of interest, among others. Also, from a critical view, this work links the legal responses to develop work procedures that are required for an effective performance of the functions assigned of ethics committees in biomedical research. An existing international legal response that lacks doctrinal standards and provides little support should, however, serve as a guide and standard to develop actions that allow ethics committees -as key bodies for States- to advance in

  6. Planetary Exploration in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slivan, S. M.; Binzel, R. P.

    1997-07-01

    We have developed educational materials to seed a series of undergraduate level exercises on "Planetary Exploration in the Classroom." The goals of the series are to teach modern methods of planetary exploration and discovery to students having both science and non-science backgrounds. Using personal computers in a "hands-on" approach with images recorded by planetary spacecraft, students working through the exercises learn that modern scientific images are digital objects that can be examined and manipulated in quantitative detail. The initial exercises we've developed utilize NIH Image in conjunction with images from the Voyager spacecraft CDs. Current exercises are titled "Using 'NIH IMAGE' to View Voyager Images", "Resolving Surface Features on Io", "Discovery of Volcanoes on Io", and "Topography of Canyons on Ariel." We expect these exercises will be released during Fall 1997 and will be available via 'anonymous ftp'; detailed information about obtaining the exercises will be on the Web at "http://web.mit.edu/12s23/www/pec.html." This curriculum development was sponsored by NSF Grant DUE-9455329.

  7. Gazetteer of planetary nomenclature 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batson, Raymond M.; Russell, Joel F.

    1995-01-01

    Planetary nomenclature, like terrestrial nomenclature, is used to uniquely identify a feature on the surface of a planet or satellite so that the feature can be easily located, described, and discussed. This volume contains detailed information about all names of topographic and albedo features on planets and satellites (and some planetary ring and ring-gap systems) that the International Astronomical Union has named and approved from its founding in 1919 through its triennial meeting in 1994.This edition of the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature supersedes an earlier informal volume distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1986 as Open-File Report 84-692 (Masursky and others, 1986). Named features are depicted on maps of the Moon published first by the U.S. Defense Mapping Agency or the Aeronautical Chart and Information Center and more recently by the U.S. Geological Survey; on maps of Mercury, Venus, Mars, and the satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus published by the U.S. Geological Survey; and on maps of the Moon, Venus, and Mars produced by the U.S.S.R.Although we have attempted to check the accuracy of all data in this volume, we realize that some errors will remain in a work of this size. Readers noting errors or omissions are urged to communicate them to the U.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Astrogeology, Rm. 409, 2255 N. Gemini Drive, Flagstaff, AZ 86001.

  8. Collisional stripping of planetary crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Philip J.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Elliott, Tim; Stewart, Sarah T.; Walter, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Geochemical studies of planetary accretion and evolution have invoked various degrees of collisional erosion to explain differences in bulk composition between planets and chondrites. Here we undertake a full, dynamical evaluation of 'crustal stripping' during accretion and its key geochemical consequences. Crusts are expected to contain a significant fraction of planetary budgets of incompatible elements, which include the major heat producing nuclides. We present smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of collisions between differentiated rocky planetesimals and planetary embryos. We find that the crust is preferentially lost relative to the mantle during impacts, and we have developed a scaling law based on these simulations that approximates the mass of crust that remains in the largest remnant. Using this scaling law and a recent set of N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation, we have estimated the maximum effect of crustal stripping on incompatible element abundances during the accretion of planetary embryos. We find that on average approximately one third of the initial crust is stripped from embryos as they accrete, which leads to a reduction of ∼20% in the budgets of the heat producing elements if the stripped crust does not reaccrete. Erosion of crusts can lead to non-chondritic ratios of incompatible elements, but the magnitude of this effect depends sensitively on the details of the crust-forming melting process on the planetesimals. The Lu/Hf system is fractionated for a wide range of crustal formation scenarios. Using eucrites (the products of planetesimal silicate melting, thought to represent the crust of Vesta) as a guide to the Lu/Hf of planetesimal crust partially lost during accretion, we predict the Earth could evolve to a superchondritic 176Hf/177Hf (3-5 parts per ten thousand) at present day. Such values are in keeping with compositional estimates of the bulk Earth. Stripping of planetary crusts during accretion can lead to

  9. Quarantine and protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the Orbiting Quarantine Facility is to provide maximum protection of the terrestrial biosphere by ensuring that the returned Martian samples are safe to bring to Earth. The protocol designed to detect the presence of biologically active agents in the Martian soil is described. The protocol determines one of two things about the sample: (1) that it is free from nonterrestrial life forms and can be sent to a terrestrial containment facility where extensive chemical, biochemical, geological, and physical investigations can be conducted; or (2) that it exhibits "biological effects" of the type that dictate second order testing. The quarantine protocol is designed to be conducted on a small portion of the returned sample, leaving the bulk of the sample undisturbed for study on Earth.

  10. Implementation of an EPN-TAP Service to Improve Accessibility to the Planetary Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macfarlane, A.; Barabarisi, I.; Docasal, R.; Rios, C.; Saiz, J.; Vallejo, F.; Martinez, S.; Arviset, C.; Besse, S.; Vallat, C.

    2017-09-01

    The re-engineered PSA has a focus on improved access and search-ability to ESA's planetary science data. In addition to the new web interface released in January 2017, the new PSA supports several common planetary protocols in order to increase the visibility and ways in which the data may be queried and retrieved. Work is on-going to provide an EPN-TAP service covering as wide a range of parameters as possible to facilitate the discovery of scientific data and interoperability of the archive.

  11. Validation of a Nylon-Flocked-Swab Protocol for Efficient Recovery of Bacterial Spores from Smooth and Rough Surfaces▿

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Alexander; Facius, Rainer; Wirth, Reinhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet planetary-protection requirements, culturable bacterial spore loads are measured representatively for the total microbial contamination of spacecraft. However, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) cotton swab protocols for spore load determination have not changed for decades. To determine whether a more efficient alternative was available, a novel swab was evaluated for recovery of different Bacillus atrophaeus spore concentrations on stainless steel and other surfaces. Two protocols for the nylon-flocked swab (NFS) were validated and compared to the present NASA standard protocol. The results indicate that the novel swab protocols recover 3- to 4-fold more (45.4% and 49.0% recovery efficiency) B. atrophaeus spores than the NASA standard method (13.2%). Moreover, the nylon-flocked-swab protocols were superior in recovery efficiency for spores of seven different Bacillus species, including Bacillus anthracis Sterne (recovery efficiency, 20%). The recovery efficiencies for B. atrophaeus spores from different surfaces showed a variation from 5.9 to 62.0%, depending on the roughness of the surface analyzed. Direct inoculation of the swab resulted in a recovery rate of about 80%, consistent with the results of scanning electron micrographs that allowed detailed comparisons of the two swab types. The results of this investigation will significantly contribute to the cleanliness control of future life detection missions and will provide significant improvement in detection of B. anthracis contamination for law enforcement and security efforts. PMID:20543054

  12. Ordinary planetary systems - Architecture and formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, E. H.

    1993-01-01

    Today we believe ordinary planetary systems to be an unremarkable consequence of star formation. The solar system, so far the only confidently known example in the universe of a planetary system, displays a set of striking structural regularities. These structural regularities provide fossil clues about the conditions and mechanisms that gave rise to the planets. The formation of our planetary system, as well as its general characteristics, resulted from the physical environment in the disk-shaped nebula that accompanied the birth of the sun. Observations of contemporary star formation indicate that the very conditions and mechanisms thought to have produced our own planetary system are widely associated with the birth of stars elsewhere. Consequently, it is reasonable to believe that planetary systems occur commonly, at least in association with single, sunlike stars. Moreover, it is reasonable to believe that many planetary systems have gross characteristics resembling those of our own solar system.

  13. Planetary Geology: Goals, Future Directions, and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Planetary exploration has provided a torrent of discoveries and a recognition that planets are not inert objects. This expanded view has led to the notion of comparative planetology, in which the differences and similarities among planetary objects are assessed. Solar system exploration is undergoing a change from an era of reconnaissance to one of intensive exploration and focused study. Analyses of planetary surfaces are playing a key role in this transition, especially as attention is focused on such exploration goals as returned samples from Mars. To assess how the science of planetary geology can best contribute to the goals of solar system exploration, a workshop was held at Arizona State University in January 1987. The participants discussed previous accomplishments of the planetary geology program, assessed the current studies in planetary geology, and considered the requirements to meet near-term and long-term exploration goals.

  14. The Planetary Data System— Archiving Planetary Data for the use of the Planetary Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Thomas H.; McLaughlin, Stephanie A.; Grayzeck, Edwin J.; Vilas, Faith; Knopf, William P.; Crichton, Daniel J.

    2014-11-01

    NASA’s Planetary Data System (PDS) archives, curates, and distributes digital data from NASA’s planetary missions. PDS provides the planetary science community convenient online access to data from NASA’s missions so that they can continue to mine these rich data sets for new discoveries. The PDS is a federated system consisting of nodes for specific discipline areas ranging from planetary geology to space physics. Our federation includes an engineering node that provides systems engineering support to the entire PDS.In order to adequately capture complete mission data sets containing not only raw and reduced instrument data, but also calibration and documentation and geometry data required to interpret and use these data sets both singly and together (data from multiple instruments, or from multiple missions), PDS personnel work with NASA missions from the initial AO through the end of mission to define, organize, and document the data. This process includes peer-review of data sets by members of the science community to ensure that the data sets are scientifically useful, effectively organized, and well documented. PDS makes the data in PDS easily searchable so that members of the planetary community can both query the archive to find data relevant to specific scientific investigations and easily retrieve the data for analysis. To ensure long-term preservation of data and to make data sets more easily searchable with the new capabilities in Information Technology now available (and as existing technologies become obsolete), the PDS (together with the COSPAR sponsored IPDA) developed and deployed a new data archiving system known as PDS4, released in 2013. The LADEE, MAVEN, OSIRIS REx, InSight, and Mars2020 missions are using PDS4. ESA has adopted PDS4 for the upcoming BepiColumbo mission. The PDS is actively migrating existing data records into PDS4 and developing tools to aid data providers and users. The PDS is also incorporating challenge

  15. Effectiveness of the Preservation Protocol within the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 200.8 for Soluble and Particulate Lead Recovery in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic trace metal that is regulated in drinking water. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) issued the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR), which defines the action level for lead at the tap as 0.015 mg/L. Researchers and drinking water utilities typically emplo...

  16. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: A Fast, Non-Destructive Method for Classifying Ordinary Chondrite Falls Using Density and Magnetic Susceptibility. An Update on Results from the Magnetic Properties Experiments on the Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. Measurement Protocols for In Situ Analysis of Organic Compounds at Mars and Comets. Piping Structures on Earth and Possibly Mars: Astrobiological Implications. Uranium and Lead in the Early Planetary Core Formation: New Insights Given by High Pressure and Temperature Experiments. The Mast Cameras and Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) for the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory. MGS MOC: First Views of Mars at Sub-Meter Resolution from Orbit. Analysis of Candor Chasma Interior Layered Deposits from OMEGA/MEX Spectra. Analysis of Valley Networks on Valles Marineris Plateau Using HRSC/MEX Data. Solar Abundance of Elements from Neutron-Capture Cross Sections. Preliminary Evaluation of the Secondary Ion/Accelerator Mass Spectrometer, MegaSIMS. Equilibrium Landforms in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica: Implications for Landscape Evolution and Climate Change on Mars. Continued Study of Ba Isotopic Compositions of Presolar Silicon Carbide Grains from Supernovae. Paleoenviromental Evolution of the Holden-Uzboi Area. Stability of Magnesium Sulfate Minerals in Martian Environments. Tungsten Isotopic Constraints on the Formation and Evolution of Iron Meteorite Parent Bodies. Migration of Dust Particles and Volatiles Delivery to the Inner Planets. On the Sitting of Trapped Noble Gases in Insoluble Organic Matter of Primitive Meteorites. Trapping of Xenon Upon Evaporation-Condensation of Organic Matter Under UV Irradiation: Isotopic Fractionation and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Analysis. Stability of Water on Mars. A Didactic Activity. Analysis of Coronae in the Parga Chasma Region, Venus. Photometric and Compositional Surface Properties of the Gusev Crater Region, Mars, as Derived from Multi-Angle, Multi-Spectral Investigation of

  17. Activities at the Lunar and Planetary Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The activities of the Lunar and Planetary Institute for the period July to December 1984 are discussed. Functions of its departments and projects are summarized. These include: planetary image center; library information center; computer center; production services; scientific staff; visitors program; scientific projects; conferences; workshops; seminars; publications and communications; panels, teams, committees and working groups; NASA-AMES vertical gun range (AVGR); and lunar and planetary science council.

  18. Planetary Science Training for NASA's Astronauts: Preparing for Future Human Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Evans, C. A.; Graff, T. G.; Young, K. E.; Zeigler, R.

    2017-02-01

    Astronauts selected in 2017 and in future years will carry out in situ planetary science research during exploration of the solar system. Training to enable this goal is underway and is flexible to accommodate an evolving planetary science vision.

  19. Nasa's Planetary Geologic Mapping Program: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division supports the geologic mapping of planetary surfaces through a distinct organizational structure and a series of research and analysis (R&A) funding programs. Cartography and geologic mapping issues for NASA's planetary science programs are overseen by the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT), which is an assessment group for cartography similar to the Mars Exploration Program Assessment Group (MEPAG) for Mars exploration. MAPSIT's Steering Committee includes specialists in geological mapping, who make up the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS). I am the GEMS Chair, and with a group of 3-4 community mappers we advise the U.S. Geological Survey Planetary Geologic Mapping Coordinator (Dr. James Skinner) and develop policy and procedures to aid the planetary geologic mapping community. GEMS meets twice a year, at the Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in March, and at the Annual Planetary Mappers' Meeting in June (attendance is required by all NASA-funded geologic mappers). Funding programs under NASA's current R&A structure to propose geological mapping projects include Mars Data Analysis (Mars), Lunar Data Analysis (Moon), Discovery Data Analysis (Mercury, Vesta, Ceres), Cassini Data Analysis (Saturn moons), Solar System Workings (Venus or Jupiter moons), and the Planetary Data Archiving, Restoration, and Tools (PDART) program. Current NASA policy requires all funded geologic mapping projects to be done digitally using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software. In this presentation we will discuss details on how geologic mapping is done consistent with current NASA policy and USGS guidelines.

  20. Planetary sample rapid recovery and handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Methods for recovering and cost effectively handling planetary samples following return to the vicinity of Earth were designed for planetary mission planners. Three topics are addressed: (1) a rough cost estimate was produced for each of a series of options for the handling of planetary samples following their return to the vicinity of Earth; (2) the difficulty of quickly retrieving planetary samples from low circular and high elliptical Earth orbit is assessed; and (3) a conceptual design for a biological isolation and thermal control system for the returned sample and spacecraft is developed.

  1. Teaching, learning, and planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    The progress accomplished in the first five months of the three-year grant period of Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration is presented. The objectives of this project are to discover new education products and services based on space science, particularly planetary exploration. An Exploration in Education is the umbrella name for the education projects as they are seen by teachers and the interested public. As described in the proposal, our approach consists of: (1) increasing practical understanding of the potential role and capabilities of the research community to contribute to basic education using new discoveries; (2) developing an intellectual framework for these contributions by supplying criteria and templates for the teacher's stories; (3) attracting astronomers, engineers, and technical staff to the project and helping them form productive education partnerships for the future, (4) exploring relevant technologies and networks for authoring and communicating the teacher's stories; (5) enlisting the participation of potential user's of the teacher's stories in defining the products; (6) actually producing and delivering many educationally useful teacher's stories; and (7) reporting the pilot study results with critical evaluation. Technical progress was made by assembling our electronic publishing stations, designing electronic publications based on space science, and developing distribution approaches for electronic products. Progress was made addressing critical issues by developing policies and procedures for securing intellectual property rights and assembling a focus group of teachers to test our ideas and assure the quality of our products. The following useful materials are being produced: the TOPS report; three electronic 'PictureBooks'; one 'ElectronicArticle'; three 'ElectronicReports'; ten 'PrinterPosters'; and the 'FaxForum' with an initial complement of printed materials. We have coordinated with planetary scientists and astronomers

  2. Twenty-Second Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The papers in this collection were written for general presentation, avoiding jargon and unnecessarily complex terms. Some of the topics covered include: planetary evolution, planetary satellites, planetary composition, planetary surfaces, planetary geology, volcanology, meteorite impacts and composition, and cosmic dust. Particular emphasis is placed on Mars and the Moon.

  3. Plasma motions in planetary magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, T. W.; Dessler, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    Interplanetary space is pervaded by a supersonic 'solar wind' plasma; five planets, in addition to the earth, have magnetic fields of sufficient strength to form the cometlike cavities called 'magnetospheres'. Comparative studies of these structures have indicated the specific environmental factor that can result in dramatic differences in the behavior of any pair of magnetospheres. Although planetary magnetospheres are large enough to serve as laboratories for in situ study of cosmic plasma and magnetic field behavior effects on particle acceleration and EM emission, much work remains to be done toward relating magnetospheric physics results to the study of remote astrophysical plasmas.

  4. Planetary rings and astrophysical discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latter, Henrik

    2016-05-01

    Disks are ubiquitous in astrophysics and participate in some of its most important processes. Of special interest is their role in star, planet and moon formation, the growth of supermassive black holes, and the launching of jets. Although astrophysical disks can be up to ten orders of magnitude larger than planetary rings and differ hugely in composition, all disks share to some extent the same basic dynamics and many physical phenomena. This review explores these areas of overlap. Topics covered include disk formation, accretion, collisions, instabilities, and satellite-disk interactions.

  5. Toward remotely controlled planetary rovers.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Studies of unmanned planetary rovers have emphasized a Mars mission. Relatively simple rovers, weighing about 50 kg and tethered to the lander, may precede semiautonomous roving vehicles. It is conceivable that the USSR will deploy a rover on Mars before Viking lands. The feasibility of the roving vehicle as an explorational tool hinges on its ability to operate for extended periods of time relatively independent of earth, to withstand the harshness of the Martian environment, and to travel hundreds of kilometers independent of the spacecraft that delivers it.

  6. PSUP: A Planetary SUrface Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, F.; Quantin-Nataf, C.; Ballans, H.; Dassas, K.; Audouard, J.; Carter, J.; Gondet, B.; Lozac'h, L.; Malapert, J.-C.; Marmo, C.; Riu, L.; Séjourné, A.

    2018-01-01

    The large size and complexity of planetary data acquired by spacecraft during the last two decades create a demand within the planetary community for access to the archives of raw and high level data and for the tools necessary to analyze these data. Among the different targets of the Solar System, Mars is unique as the combined datasets from the Viking, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter missions provide a tremendous wealth of information that can be used to study the surface of Mars. The number and the size of the datasets require an information system to process, manage and distribute data. The Observatories of Paris Sud (OSUPS) and Lyon (OSUL) have developed a portal, called PSUP (Planetary SUrface Portal), for providing users with efficient and easy access to data products dedicated to the Martian surface. The objectives of the portal are: 1) to allow processing and downloading of data via a specific application called MarsSI (Martian surface data processing Information System); 2) to provide the visualization and merging of high level (image, spectral, and topographic) products and catalogs via a web-based user interface (MarsVisu), and 3) to distribute some of these specific high level data with an emphasis on products issued by the science teams of OSUPS and OSUL. As the MarsSI service is extensively described in a companion paper (Quantin-Nataf et al., companion paper, submitted to this special issue), the present paper focus on the general architecture and the functionalities of the web-based user interface MarsVisu. This service provides access to many data products for Mars: albedo, mineral and thermal inertia global maps from spectrometers; mosaics from imagers; image footprints and rasters from the MarsSI tool; high level specific products (defined as catalogs or vectors). MarsVisu can be used to quickly assess the visualized processed data and maps as well as identify areas that have not been mapped yet

  7. Pioneering Concepts of Planetary Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin Cerceau, Florence

    Famous astronomers such as Richard A. Proctor (1837-1888), Jules Janssen (1824-1907), and Camille Flammarion (1842-1925) studied the concept of planetary habitability a century before this concept was updated in the context of the recent discoveries of exoplanets and the development of planetary exploration in the solar system. They independently studied the conditions required for other planets to be inhabited, and these considerations led them to specify the term "habitability." Naturally, the planet Mars was at the heart of the discussion. Our neighboring planet, regarded as a sister planet of Earth, looked like a remarkable abode for life. During the second part of the nineteenth century, the possibility of Martian intelligent life was intensively debated, and hopes were still ardent to identify a kind of vegetation specific to the red planet. In such a context, the question of Mars' habitability seemed to be very valuable, especially when studying hypothetical Martian vegetation. At the dawn of the Space Age, German-born physician and pioneer of space medicine Hubertus Strughold (1898-1987) proposed in the book The Green and Red Planet: A Physiological Study of the Possibility of Life on Mars (1954) to examine the planets of the solar system through a "planetary ecology." This innovative notion, which led to a fresh view of the concept of habitability, was supposed to designate a new field involving biology: "the science of planets as an environment for life" (Strughold 1954). This notion was very close to the concept of habitability earlier designated by our nineteenth-century pioneers. Strughold also coined the term "ecosphere" to name the region surrounding a star where conditions allowed life-bearing planets to exist. We highlight in this chapter the historical aspects of the emergence of the (modern) concept of habitability. We will consider the different formulations proposed by the pioneers, and we will see in what way it can be similar to our

  8. Economic evaluation of the prophylaxis for thromboembolism in critical care trial (E-PROTECT): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Robert A; Mittmann, Nicole; Geerts, William H; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Gould, Michael K; Guyatt, Gordon; Krahn, Murray; Finfer, Simon; Pinto, Ruxandra; Chan, Brian; Ormanidhi, Orges; Arabi, Yaseen; Qushmaq, Ismael; Rocha, Marcelo G; Dodek, Peter; McIntyre, Lauralyn; Hall, Richard; Ferguson, Niall D; Mehta, Sangeeta; Marshall, John C; Doig, Christopher James; Muscedere, John; Jacka, Michael J; Klinger, James R; Vlahakis, Nicholas; Orford, Neil; Seppelt, Ian; Skrobik, Yoanna K; Sud, Sachin; Cade, John F; Cooper, Jamie; Cook, Deborah

    2014-12-20

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication of critical illness with important clinical consequences. The Prophylaxis for ThromboEmbolism in Critical Care Trial (PROTECT) is a multicenter, blinded, randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of the two most common pharmocoprevention strategies, unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) dalteparin, in medical-surgical patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). E-PROTECT is a prospective and concurrent economic evaluation of the PROTECT trial. The primary objective of E-PROTECT is to identify and quantify the total (direct and indirect, variable and fixed) costs associated with the management of critically ill patients participating in the PROTECT trial, and, to combine costs and outcome results to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of LMWH versus UFH, from the acute healthcare system perspective, over a data-rich time horizon of ICU admission and hospital admission. We derive baseline characteristics and probabilities of in-ICU and in-hospital events from all enrolled patients. Total costs are derived from centers, proportional to the numbers of patients enrolled in each country. Direct costs include medication, physician and other personnel costs, diagnostic radiology and laboratory testing, operative and non-operative procedures, costs associated with bleeding, transfusions and treatment-related complications. Indirect costs include ICU and hospital ward overhead costs. Outcomes are the ratio of incremental costs per incremental effects of LMWH versus UFH during hospitalization; incremental cost to prevent a thrombosis at any site (primary outcome); incremental cost to prevent a pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, major bleeding event or episode of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (secondary outcomes) and incremental cost per life-year gained (tertiary outcome). Pre-specified subgroups and sensitivity analyses will be performed and confidence

  9. Control technique for planetary rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakatani, Ichiro; Kubota, Takashi; Adachi, Tadashi; Saitou, Hiroaki; Okamoto, Sinya

    1994-01-01

    Beginning next century, several schemes for sending a planetary rover to the moon or Mars are being planned. As part of the development program, autonomous navigation technology is being studied to allow the rover the ability to move autonomously over a long range of unknown planetary surface. In the previous study, we ran the autonomous navigation experiment on an outdoor test terrain by using a rover test-bed that was controlled by a conventional sense-plan-act method. In some cases during the experiment, a problem occurred with the rover moving into untraversable areas. To improve this situation, a new control technique has been developed that gives the rover the ability of reacting to the outputs of the proximity sensors, a reaction behavior if you will. We have developed a new rover test-bed system on which an autonomous navigation experiment was performed using the newly developed control technique. In this outdoor experiment, the new control technique effectively produced the control command for the rover to avoid obstacles and be guided to the goal point safely.

  10. Interactive investigations into planetary interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, I.

    2015-12-01

    Many processes in Earth science are difficult to observe or visualize due to the large timescales and lengthscales over which they operate. The dynamics of planetary mantles are particularly challenging as we cannot even look at the rocks involved. As a result, much teaching material on mantle dynamics relies on static images and cartoons, many of which are decades old. Recent improvements in computing power and technology (largely driven by game and web development) have allowed for advances in real-time physics simulations and visualizations, but these have been slow to affect Earth science education.Here I demonstrate a teaching tool for mantle convection and seismology which solves the equations for conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in real time, allowing users make changes to the simulation and immediately see the effects. The user can ask and answer questions about what happens when they add heat in one place, or take it away from another place, or increase the temperature at the base of the mantle. They can also pause the simulation, and while it is paused, create and visualize seismic waves traveling through the mantle. These allow for investigations into and discussions about plate tectonics, earthquakes, hot spot volcanism, and planetary cooling.The simulation is rendered to the screen using OpenGL, and is cross-platform. It can be run as a native application for maximum performance, but it can also be embedded in a web browser for easy deployment and portability.

  11. Theory of Planetary System Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassen, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Observations and theoretical considerations support the idea that the Solar System formed by the collapse of tenuous interstellar matter to a disk of gas and dust (the primitive solar nebula), from which the Sun and other components separated under the action of dissipative forces and by the coagulation of solid material. Thus, planets are understood to be contemporaneous byproducts of star formation. Because the circumstellar disks of new stars are easier to observe than mature planetary systems, the possibility arises that the nature and variety of planets might be studied from observations of the conditions of their birth. A useful theory of planetary system formation would therefore relate the properties of circumstellar disks both to the initial conditions of star formation and to the consequent properties of planets to those of the disk. Although the broad outlines of such a theory are in place, many aspects are either untested, controversial, or otherwise unresolved; even the degree to which such a comprehensive theory is possible remains unknown.

  12. Molecular studies of Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong

    2017-10-01

    Circumstellar envelopes (CEs) around evolved stars are an active site for the production of molecules. After evolving through the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), proto-planetary nebula (PPN), to planetary nebula (PN) phases, CEs ultimately merge with the interstellar medium (ISM). The study of molecules in PNe, therefore, is essential to understanding the transition from stellar to interstellar materials. So far, over 20 molecular species have been discovered in PNe. The molecular composition of PNe is rather different from those of AGB and PPNe, suggesting that the molecules synthesized in PN progenitors have been heavily processed by strong ultraviolet radiation from the central star. Intriguingly, fullerenes and complex organic compounds having aromatic and aliphatic structures can be rapidly formed and largely survive during the PPN/PN evolution. The similar molecular compositions in PNe and diffuse clouds as well as the detection of C60 + in the ISM reinforce the view that the mass-loss from PNe can significantly enrich the ISM with molecular species, some of which may be responsible for the diffuse interstellar bands. In this contribution, I briefly summarize some recent observations of molecules in PNe, with emphasis on their implications on circumstellar chemistry.

  13. Energetic Techniques For Planetary Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbee, B.; Bambacus, M.; Bruck Syal, M.; Greenaugh, K. C.; Leung, R. Y.; Plesko, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets whose heliocentric orbits tend to approach or cross Earth's heliocentric orbit. NEOs of various sizes periodically collide with Earth, and efforts are currently underway to discover, track, and characterize NEOs so that those on Earth-impacting trajectories are discovered far enough in advance that we would have opportunities to deflect or destroy them prior to Earth impact, if warranted. We will describe current efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to assess options for energetic methods of deflecting or destroying hazardous NEOs. These methods include kinetic impactors, which are spacecraft designed to collide with an NEO and thereby alter the NEO's trajectory, and nuclear engineering devices, which are used to rapidly vaporize a layer of NEO surface material. Depending on the amount of energy imparted, this can result in either deflection of the NEO via alteration of its trajectory, or robust disruption of the NEO and dispersal of the remaining fragments. We have studied the efficacies and limitations of these techniques in simulations, and have combined the techniques with corresponding spacecraft designs and mission designs. From those results we have generalized planetary defense mission design strategies and drawn conclusions that are applicable to a range of plausible scenarios. We will present and summarize our research efforts to date, and describe approaches to carrying out planetary defense missions with energetic NEO deflection or disruption techniques.

  14. New Tools to Search for Data in the European Space Agency's Planetary Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotheer, E.; Macfarlane, A. J.; Rios, C.; Arviset, C.; Heather, D.; Fraga, D.; Vallejo, F.; De Marchi, G.; Barbarisi, I.; Saiz, J.; Barthelemy, M.; Docasal, R.; Martinez, S.; Besse, S.; Lim, T.

    2016-12-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) Planetary Science Archive (PSA), which can be accessed at http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa, provides public access to the archived data of Europe's missions to our neighboring planets. These datasets are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Recently, a new interface has been released, which includes upgrades to make PDS4 data available from newer missions such as ExoMars and BepiColombo. Additionally, the PSA development team has been working to ensure that the legacy PDS3 data will be more easily accessible via the new interface as well. In addition to a new querying interface, the new PSA also allows access via the EPN-TAP and PDAP protocols. This makes the PSA data sets compatible with other archive-related tools and projects, such as the Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access (VESPA) project for creating a virtual observatory.

  15. Impact erosion of terrestrial planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    I review current ideas about the nature of the planetesimals - composition, size distribution, and the planetary encounter velocity. Previous papers on accretion and erosion of planetary atmospheres as a result of multiple impacts are reviewed. Finally, the effects of blowing off a substantial fraction of the atmosphere from a terrestrial planet due to a single giant body impact are discussed.

  16. Preparing Planetary Scientists to Engage Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupla, C. B.; Shaner, A. J.; Hackler, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    While some planetary scientists have extensive experience sharing their science with audiences, many can benefit from guidance on giving presentations or conducting activities for students. The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) provides resources and trainings to support planetary scientists in their communication efforts. Trainings have included sessions for students and early career scientists at conferences (providing opportunities for them to practice their delivery and receive feedback for their poster and oral presentations), as well as separate communication workshops on how to engage various audiences. LPI has similarly begun coaching planetary scientists to help them prepare their public presentations. LPI is also helping to connect different audiences and their requests for speakers to planetary scientists. Scientists have been key contributors in developing and conducting activities in LPI education and public events. LPI is currently working with scientists to identify and redesign short planetary science activities for scientists to use with different audiences. The activities will be tied to fundamental planetary science concepts, with basic materials and simple modifications to engage different ages and audience size and background. Input from the planetary science community on these efforts is welcome. Current results and resources, as well as future opportunities will be shared.

  17. Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement. Volume 35

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, Derek W. G. (Editor); Binzel, Richard P. (Editor); Gaffey, Michael J. (Editor); Kraehenbuehl, Urs (Editor); Pieters, Carle M. (Editor); Shaw, Denis (Editor); Wieler, Rainer (Editor); Brownlee, Donald E. (Editor); Goldstein, Joseph I. (Editor); Lyon, Ian C. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This special supplement of the Meteoritics and Planetary Science Society Journal contains the abstracts of 324 technical presentations, and the presentations of awards during the Annual meeting of the Meteoritical Society. The abstracts review current research on meteors and planetary sciences.

  18. Impact erosion of terrestrial planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    I review current ideas about the nature of the planetesimals - composition, size distribution, and the planetary encounter velocity. Previous papers on accretion and erosion of planetary atmospheres as a result of multiple impacts are reviewed. Finally, the effects of blowing off a substantial fraction of the atmosphere from a terrestrial planet due to a single giant body impact are discussed.

  19. Viking planetary quarantine procedures and implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, R.

    1974-01-01

    Some of the techniques and methodology that were used on Viking to implement planetary quarantine requirements are reported. Special attention was given to techniques and approaches used to implement sterilization of the Viking probe. Quarantine procedures for unmanned planetary missions and procedures for microbiological contamination of space hardware are included. A probability of contamination of the biological instruments onboard by terrestrial organisms was examined.

  20. Planetary quarantine: Principles, methods, and problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    Requirements for planetary quarantine programs focus on microbial life forms as the primary contamination threat carried by spacecraft to a planet, or back to earth from another planet or outer space. Constraints on planetary flight missions and forthcoming Martian landings are depicted.

  1. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Education" includes the following topics: 1) Convection, Magnetism, Orbital Resonances, Impacts, and Volcanism: Energies and Processes in the Solar System: Didactic Activities; 2) Knowledge Management in Aerospace-Education and Training Issues; 3) Creating Easy-to-Understand Planetary Maps; 4) Planetary Environment comparison in the Education of Astrobiology; and 5) Design and Construction of a Mechanism for the Orbital Resonances Simulation.

  2. The Formation of a Planetary Nebula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpaz, Amos

    1991-01-01

    Proposes a scenario to describe the formation of a planetary nebula, a cloud of gas surrounding a very hot compact star. Describes the nature of a planetary nebula, the number observed to date in the Milky Way Galaxy, and the results of research on a specific nebula. (MDH)

  3. Visualization of Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Meishu; Su, Jun; Wang, Weiguo; Lu, Jianlong

    2017-01-01

    For this article, we use a 3D printer to print a surface similar to universal gravitation for demonstrating and investigating Kepler's laws of planetary motion describing the motion of a small ball on the surface. This novel experimental method allows Kepler's laws of planetary motion to be visualized and will contribute to improving the…

  4. An outline of planetary geoscience. [philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A philosophy for planetary geoscience is presented to aid in addressing a number of major scientific questions; answers to these questions should constitute the basic geoscientific knowledge of the solar system. However, any compilation of major questions or basic knowledge in planetary geoscience involves compromises and somewhat arbitrary boundaries that reflect the prevalent level of understanding at the time.

  5. Expanding the Planetary Analog Test Sites in Hawaii - Planetary Basalt Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems (PISCES) is one of the very few planetary surface research test sites in the country that is totally funded by the state legislature. In recent expansions, PISCES is broadening its work in planetary test sites to include much more R&D work in the planetary surface systems, and the manipulation of basalt materials. This is to include laser 3D printing of basalt, 'lunar-concrete' construction in state projects for Hawaii, renewable energy, and adding lava tubes/skylights to their mix of high-quality planetary analog test sites. PISCES Executive Director, Rob Kelso, will be providing program updates on the interest of the Hawaii State Legislature in planetary surface systems, new applied research initiatives in planetary basalts and interests in planetary construction.

  6. Planetary Dust: Cross-Functional Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Apollo astronauts learned first hand how problems with dust impact lunar surface missions. After three days, lunar dust contaminating on EVA suit bearings led to such great difficulty in movement that another EVA would not have been possible. Dust clinging to EVA suits was transported into the Lunar Module. During the return trip to Earth, when microgravity was reestablished, the dust became airborne and floated through the cabin. Crews inhaled the dust and it irritated their eyes. Some mechanical systems aboard the spacecraft were damaged due to dust contamination. Study results obtained by Robotic Martian missions indicate that Martian surface soil is oxidative and reactive. Exposures to the reactive Martian dust will pose an even greater concern to the crew health and the integrity of the mechanical systems. As NASA embarks on planetary surface missions to support its Exploration Vision, the effects of these extraterrestrial dusts must be well understood and systems must be designed to operate reliably and protect the crew in the dusty environments of the Moon and Mars. The AIM Dust Assessment Team was tasked to identify systems that will be affected by the respective dust, how they will be affected, associated risks of dust exposure, requirements that will need to be developed, identified knowledge gaps, and recommended scientific measurements to obtain information needed to develop requirements, and design and manufacture the surface systems that will support crew habitation in the lunar and Martian outposts.

  7. A hypersonic vehicle approach to planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murbach, Marcus S.

    1993-01-01

    An enhanced Mars network class mission using a lifting hypersonic entry vehicle is proposed. The basic vehicle, derived from a mature hypersonic flight system called SWERVE, offers several advantages over more conventional low L/D or ballistic entry systems. The proposed vehicle has greatly improved lateral and cross range capability (e.g., it is capable of reaching the polar regions during less than optimal mission opportunities), is not limited to surface target areas of low elevation, and is less susceptible to problems caused by Martian dust storms. Further, the integrated vehicle has attractive deployment features and allows for a much improved evolutionary path to larger vehicles with greater science capability. Analysis of the vehicle is aided by the development of a Mars Hypersonic Flight Simulator from which flight trajectories are obtained. Atmospheric entry performance of the baseline vehicle is improved by a deceleration skirt and transpiration cooling system which significantly reduce TPS (Thermal Protection System) and flight battery mass. The use of the vehicle is also attractive in that the maturity of the flight systems make it cost-competitive with the development of a conventional low L/D entry system. Finally, the potential application of similar vehicles to other planetary missions is discussed.

  8. Considerations on communications network protocols in deep space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clare, L. P.; Agre, J. R.; Yan, T.

    2001-01-01

    Communications supporting deep space missions impose numerous unique constraints that impact the architectural choices made for cost-effectiveness. We are entering the era where networks that exist in deep space are needed to support planetary exploration. Cost-effective performance will require a balanced integration of applicable widely used standard protocols with new and innovative designs.

  9. On the Diversity of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Models of planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are described and used to discuss possible characteristics of undiscovered planetary systems. Modern theories of star and planet formation, which are based upon observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. A potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path. The implications of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches for the abundances of habitable planets are discussed.

  10. Automatic quality assessment of planetary images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidiropoulos, P.; Muller, J.-P.

    2015-10-01

    A significant fraction of planetary images are corrupted beyond the point that much scientific meaning can be extracted. For example, transmission errors result in missing data which is unrecoverable. The available planetary image datasets include many such "bad data", which both occupy valuable scientific storage resources and create false impressions about planetary image availability for specific planetary objects or target areas. In this work, we demonstrate a pipeline that we have developed to automatically assess the quality of planetary images. Additionally, this method discriminates between different types of image degradation, such as low-quality originating from camera flaws or low-quality triggered by atmospheric conditions, etc. Examples of quality assessment results for Viking Orbiter imagery will be also presented.

  11. Planetary CubeSats Come of Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent; Spangelo, Sara; Frick, Andreas; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Klesh, Andrew; Wyatt, E. Jay; Reh, Kim; Baker, John

    2015-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory initiatives in developing and formulating planetary CubeSats are described. Six flight systems already complete or underway now at JPL for missions to interplanetary space, the Moon, a near-Earth asteroid, and Mars are described at the subsystem level. Key differences between interplanetary nanospacecraft and LEO CubeSats are explained, as well as JPL's adaptation of vendor components and development of system solutions to meet planetary-mission needs. Feasible technology-demonstration and science measurement objectives are described for multiple modes of planetary mission implementation. Seven planetary-science demonstration mission concepts, already proposed to NASA by Discovery-2014 PIs partnered with JPL, are described for investigations at Sun-Earth L5, Venus, NEA 1999 FG3, comet Tempel 2, Phobos, main-belt asteroid 24 Themis, and metal asteroid 16 Psyche. The JPL staff and facilities resources available to PIs for analysis, design, and development of planetary nanospacecraft are catalogued.

  12. Mars Sample Handling Protocol Workshop Series: Workshop 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D. (Editor); Acevedo, Sara E. (Editor); Kovacs, Gregory T. A. (Editor); Race, Margaret S. (Editor); DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Numerous NASA reports and studies have identified Planetary Protection (PP) as an important part of any Mars sample return mission. The mission architecture, hardware, on-board experiments, and related activities must be designed in ways that prevent both forward- and back-contamination and also ensure maximal return of scientific information. A key element of any PP effort for sample return missions is the development of guidelines for containment and analysis of returned sample(s). As part of that effort, NASA and the Space Studies Board (SSB) of the National Research Council (NRC) have each assembled experts from a wide range of scientific fields to identify and discuss issues pertinent to sample return. In 1997, the SSB released its report on recommendations for handling and testing of returned Mars samples. In particular, the NRC recommended that: a) samples returned from Mars by spacecraft should be contained and treated as potentially hazardous until proven otherwise, and b) rigorous physical, chemical, and biological analyses [should] confirm that there is no indication of the presence of any exogenous biological entity. Also in 1997, a Mars Sample Quarantine Protocol workshop was convened at NASA Ames Research Center to deal with three specific aspects of the initial handling of a returned Mars sample: 1) biocontainment, to prevent 'uncontrolled release' of sample material into the terrestrial environment; 2) life detection, to examine the sample for evidence of organisms; and 3) biohazard testing, to determine if the sample poses any threat to terrestrial life forms and the Earth's biosphere. In 1999, a study by NASA's Mars Sample Handling and Requirements Panel (MSHARP) addressed three other specific areas in anticipation of returning samples from Mars: 1) sample collection and transport back to Earth; 2) certification of the samples as non-hazardous; and 3) sample receiving, curation, and distribution. To further refine the requirements for sample

  13. Protective intraoperative ventilation with higher versus lower levels of positive end-expiratory pressure in obese patients (PROBESE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bluth, T; Teichmann, R; Kiss, T; Bobek, I; Canet, J; Cinnella, G; De Baerdemaeker, L; Gregoretti, C; Hedenstierna, G; Hemmes, S N; Hiesmayr, M; Hollmann, M W; Jaber, S; Laffey, J G; Licker, M J; Markstaller, K; Matot, I; Müller, G; Mills, G H; Mulier, J P; Putensen, C; Rossaint, R; Schmitt, J; Senturk, M; Serpa Neto, A; Severgnini, P; Sprung, J; Vidal Melo, M F; Wrigge, H; Schultz, M J; Pelosi, P; Gama de Abreu, M

    2017-04-28

    Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) increase the morbidity and mortality of surgery in obese patients. High levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) with lung recruitment maneuvers may improve intraoperative respiratory function, but they can also compromise hemodynamics, and the effects on PPCs are uncertain. We hypothesized that intraoperative mechanical ventilation using high PEEP with periodic recruitment maneuvers, as compared with low PEEP without recruitment maneuvers, prevents PPCs in obese patients. The PRotective Ventilation with Higher versus Lower PEEP during General Anesthesia for Surgery in OBESE Patients (PROBESE) study is a multicenter, two-arm, international randomized controlled trial. In total, 2013 obese patients with body mass index ≥35 kg/m 2 scheduled for at least 2 h of surgery under general anesthesia and at intermediate to high risk for PPCs will be included. Patients are ventilated intraoperatively with a low tidal volume of 7 ml/kg (predicted body weight) and randomly assigned to PEEP of 12 cmH 2 O with lung recruitment maneuvers (high PEEP) or PEEP of 4 cmH 2 O without recruitment maneuvers (low PEEP). The occurrence of PPCs will be recorded as collapsed composite of single adverse pulmonary events and represents the primary endpoint. To our knowledge, the PROBESE trial is the first multicenter, international randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of two different levels of intraoperative PEEP during protective low tidal volume ventilation on PPCs in obese patients. The results of the PROBESE trial will support anesthesiologists in their decision to choose a certain PEEP level during general anesthesia for surgery in obese patients in an attempt to prevent PPCs. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02148692. Registered on 23 May 2014; last updated 7 June 2016.

  14. A system architecture for a planetary rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. B.; Matijevic, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Each planetary mission requires a complex space vehicle which integrates several functions to accomplish the mission and science objectives. A Mars Rover is one of these vehicles, and extends the normal spacecraft functionality with two additional functions: surface mobility and sample acquisition. All functions are assembled into a hierarchical and structured format to understand the complexities of interactions between functions during different mission times. It can graphically show data flow between functions, and most importantly, the necessary control flow to avoid unambiguous results. Diagrams are presented organizing the functions into a structured, block format where each block represents a major function at the system level. As such, there are six blocks representing telecomm, power, thermal, science, mobility and sampling under a supervisory block called Data Management/Executive. Each block is a simple collection of state machines arranged into a hierarchical order very close to the NASREM model for Telerobotics. Each layer within a block represents a level of control for a set of state machines that do the three primary interface functions: command, telemetry, and fault protection. This latter function is expanded to include automatic reactions to the environment as well as internal faults. Lastly, diagrams are presented that trace the system operations involved in moving from site to site after site selection. The diagrams clearly illustrate both the data and control flows. They also illustrate inter-block data transfers and a hierarchical approach to fault protection. This systems architecture can be used to determine functional requirements, interface specifications and be used as a mechanism for grouping subsystems (i.e., collecting groups of machines, or blocks consistent with good and testable implementations).

  15. Diurnal forcing of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houben, Howard C.

    1991-01-01

    The utility of the Mars Planetary Boundary Layer Model (MPBL) for calculations in support of the Mars 94 balloon mission was substantially enhanced by the introduction of a balloon equation of motion into the model. Both vertical and horizontal excursions of the balloon are calculated along with its volume, temperature, and pressure. The simulations reproduce the expected 5-min vertical oscillations of a constant density balloon at altitude on Mars. The results of these calculations are presented for the nominal target location of the balloon. A nonlinear balanced model was developed for the Martian atmosphere. It was used to initialize a primitive equation model for the simulations of the Earth's atmosphere at the time of the El Chichon eruption in 1982. It is also used as an assimilation model to update the temperature and wind fields at frequent intervals.

  16. The Birth of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    An overview of current theories of star and planet formation is presented. These models are based upon observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, and they predict that rocky planets should form around most single stars, although it is possible that in some cases such planets are lost to orbital decay within the protoplanetary disk. The frequency of formation of gas giant planets is more difficult to predict theoretically. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth like terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates.

  17. The Birth of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissaur, Jack L.

    1997-01-01

    An overview of current theories of star and planet formation is presented. These models are based upon observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments. They predict that rocky planets should form around most single stars, although it is possible that in some cases such planets are lost to orbital decay within the protoplanetary disk. The frequency of formation of gas giant planets is more difficult to predict theoretically. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth like terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates.

  18. Planetary system detection by POINTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasenberg, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    The final report and semiannual reports 1, 2, and 3 in response to the study of 'Planetary System Detection by POINTS' is presented. The grant covered the period from 15 Jun. 1988 through 31 Dec. 1989. The work during that period comprised the further development and refinement of the POINTS concept. The status of the POINTS development at the end of the Grant period was described by Reasenberg in a paper given at the JPL Workshop on Space Interferometry, 12-13 Mar. 1990, and distributed as CfA Preprint 3138. That paper, 'POINTS: a Small Astrometric Interferometer,' follows as Appendix-A. Our proposal P2276-7-09, dated July 1990, included a more detailed description of the state of the development of POINTS at the end of the tenure of Grant NAGW-1355. That proposal, which resulted in Grant NAGW-2497, is included by reference.

  19. Planetary explorer liquid propulsion study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckevitt, F. X.; Eggers, R. F.; Bolz, C. W.

    1971-01-01

    An analytical evaluation of several candidate monopropellant hydrazine propulsion system approaches is conducted in order to define the most suitable configuration for the combined velocity and attitude control system for the Planetary Explorer spacecraft. Both orbiter and probe-type missions to the planet Venus are considered. The spacecraft concept is that of a Delta launched spin-stabilized vehicle. Velocity control is obtained through preprogrammed pulse-mode firing of the thrusters in synchronism with the spacecraft spin rate. Configuration selection is found to be strongly influenced by the possible error torques induced by uncertainties in thruster operation and installation. The propulsion systems defined are based on maximum use of existing, qualified components. Ground support equipment requirements are defined and system development testing outlined.

  20. A study of planetary meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohring, G.

    1973-01-01

    Inversion techniques are applied to the few earth based observations of the Jovian emission spectrum to obtain directly the profiles of atmospheric temperature and ammonia abundance. The temperature profile is characterized by a definite tropopause region with a temperature of about 115K and a stratospheric region in which the temperature slowly increases with altitude. The derived ammonia profile indicates the presence of a saturated ammonia layer with a base temperature of approximately 14OK. The concept is described deducing the temperature and constituent profile of a planetary atmosphere from orbiter measurements of the planet's IR limb radiance profile. Analysis of the weighting functions for the Martian atmosphere indicates that a limb radiance profile in the 15 micron CO2 band can be used to determine the Martian atmospheric temperature profile from 20 to 60 km.

  1. Observability during planetary approach navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Robert H.; Burkhart, P. Daniel; Thurman, Sam W.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the research is to develop an analytic technique to predict the relative navigation capability of different Earth-based radio navigation measurements. In particular, the problem is to determine the relative ability of geocentric range and Doppler measurements to detect the effects of the target planet gravitational attraction on the spacecraft during the planetary approach and near-encounter mission phases. A complete solution to the two-dimensional problem has been developed. Relatively simple analytic formulas are obtained for range and Doppler measurements which describe the observability content of the measurement data along the approach trajectories. An observability measure is defined which is based on the observability matrix for nonlinear systems. The results show good agreement between the analytic observability analysis and the computational batch processing method.

  2. The International Planetary Data Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, T.; Arviset, C.; Crichton, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) is an association of partners with the aim of improving the quality of planetary science data and services to the end users of space based instrumentation. The specific mission of the IPDA is to facilitate global access to, and exchange of, high quality scientific data products managed across international boundaries. Ensuring proper capture, accessibility and availability of the data is the task of the individual member space agencies. The IPDA was formed in 2006 with the purpose of adopting standards and developing collaborations across agencies to ensure data is captured in common formats. Member agencies include: Armenian Astronomical Society, China National Space Agency (CNSA), European Space Agency (ESA), German Aerospace Center (DLR), Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Italian Space Agency (ASI), Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), National Air and Space Administration (NASA), National Centre for Space Studies (CNES), Space Research Institute (IKI), UAE Space Agency, and UK Space Agency. The IPDA Steering Committee oversees the execution of projects and coordinates international collaboration. The IPDA conducts a number of focused projects to enable interoperability, construction of compatible archives, and the operation of the IPDA as a whole. These projects have helped to establish the IPDA and to move the collaboration forward. A key project that is currently underway is the implementation of the PDS4 data standard. Given the international focus, it has been critical that the PDS and the IPDA collaborate on its development. Also, other projects have been conducted successfully, including developing the IPDA architecture and corresponding requirements, developing shared registries for data and tools across international boundaries, and common templates for supporting agreements for archiving and sharing data for international missions. Several projects demonstrating interoperability across

  3. Orion Nebula and Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, Reginald J.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the research performed at Rice University related to NASA-Ames University consortium grant NCC2-5199 during the two year period 1996 September 1 through 1998 August 31. The research program, titled Orion Nebula and Planetary Nebulae, involved the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imagery and spectroscopy of the Orion Nebula and of the planetary nebulae NGC 6818 and NGC 6210. In addition, we analyzed infrared spectra of the Orion Nebula taken with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) The primary collaborators at NASA-Ames were Drs. R. H. Rubin, A. G. C. M. Tielens, S. W. J. Colgan, and S. D. Lord (Tielens & Lord has since changed institutions). Other collaborators include Drs. P. G. Martin (CITA, Toronto), G. J. Ferland (U. KY), J. A. Baldwin (CTIO, Chile), J. J. Hester (ASU), D. K. Walter (SCSU), and P. Harrington (U. MD). In addition to the Principal Investigator, Professor Reginald J. Dufour of the Department of Space Physics & Astronomy, the research also involved two students, Mr. Matthew Browning and Mr. Brent Buckalew. Mr. Browning will be graduating from Rice in 1999 May with a B.A. degree in Physics and Mr. Buckalew continues as a graduate student in our department, having recently received a NASA GSRP research fellowship (sponsored by Ames). The collaboration was very productive, with two refereed papers already appearing in the literature, several others in preparation, numerous meeting presentations and two press releases. Some of our research accomplishments are highlighted below. Attached to the report are copies of the two major publications. Note that this research continues to date and related extensions of it recently has been awarded time with the HST for 1999-2000.

  4. Voyager planetary radio astronomy studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, David H.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of nonthermal radio emission data obtained by the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) spectrometers on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft was performed. This PRA data provided unique insights into the radio emission characteristics of the outer planets because of PRA's unique spectral response below the terrestrial ionospheric plasma frequency and its unprecedented proximity to the source. Of those results which were documented or published, this final report surveys only the highlights and cites references for more complete discussions. Unpublished results for Uranus, Neptune, and theoretical Ionian current distributions are presented at greater length. The most important conclusion to be drawn from these observations is that banded spectral emission is common to the radio emission below 1-2 MHz observed from all four Jovian planets. In every case multiple spectral features evolve on time scales of seconds to minutes. To the extent these features drift in frequency, they appear never to cross one another. The Neptunian spectral features appear to drift little or not at all, their evolution consisting principally of waxing and waning. Since other evidence strongly suggests that most or all of this radio emission is occurring near the local magnetospheric electron cyclotron frequency, this implies that this emission preferentially occurs at certain continually changing planetary radii. It remains unknown why certain radii might be favored, unless radial electric field components or other means serve to differentiate radially the magnetospheric plasma density, particle energy vectors, or particle coherence. Calculation of the spatial distribution and intensity of the Io-generated magnetospheric currents are also presented; these currents may be limited principally by wave impedance and local field strengths.

  5. Heat transfer and planetary evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozer, D. C.

    1985-06-01

    The object of this account is to show how much one can interprete and predict about the present state of material forming planet size objects, despite the fact we do not and could never have the kind of exact or prior knowledge of initial conditions and in situ material behaviour that would make a formal mathematical analysis of the dynamical problems of planetary evolution an efficient or meaningful exercise The interest and usefulness of results obtained within these limitations stem from the highly non linear nature of planetary scale heat transfer problems when posed in any physically plausible form. The non linearity arising from a strongly temperature dependent rheology assumed for in situ planetary material is particularly valuable in deriving results insensitive to such uncertainties. Qualitatively, the thermal evolution of a planet is quite unlike that given by heat conduction calculation below a very superficial layer, and much unnecessary argument and confusion results from a persistent failure to recognise that fact. At depths that are no greater on average than a few tens of kilometres in the case of Earth, the temperature distribution is determined by a convective flow regime inaccessble to the laboratory experimenter and to the numerical methods regularly employed to study convective movement. A central and guiding quantitative result is the creation in homogeneous planet size objects having surface temperatures less than about half the absolute melting temperature of their material, of internal states with horizontally a veraged viscosity values ˜1021 poise. This happens in times short compared with the present Solar System age. The significance of this result for an understanding of such processes and features as isostasy, continental drift, a minimum in seismic S wave velocity in Earth's upper mantle, a uniformity of mantle viscosity values, the survival of liquid planetary cores and the differentiation of terrestrial planet material is examined

  6. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: planetary geology, meteorites, planetary composition, meteoritic composition, planetary craters, lunar craters, meteorite craters, petrology, petrography, volcanology, planetary crusts, geochronology, geomorphism, mineralogy, lithology, planetary atmospheres, impact melts, volcanoes, planetary evolution, tectonics, planetary mapping, asteroids, comets, lunar soil, lunar rocks, lunar geology, metamorphism, chemical composition, meteorite craters, and planetary mantles.

  7. Implementing an Internet-Delivered Skin Cancer Genetic Testing Intervention to Improve Sun Protection Behavior in a Diverse Population: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zielaskowski, Kate; White, Kirsten AM; Rodríguez, Vivian M; Robers, Erika; Guest, Dolores D; Sussman, Andrew; Talamantes, Yvonne; Schwartz, Matthew R; Greb, Jennie; Bigney, Jessica; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Hunley, Keith; Buller, David B

    2017-01-01

    Background Limited translational genomic research currently exists to guide the availability, comprehension, and appropriate use of personalized genomics in diverse general population subgroups. Melanoma skin cancers are preventable, curable, common in the general population, and disproportionately increasing in Hispanics. Objective Variants in the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene are present in approximately 50% of the population, are major factors in determining sun sensitivity, and confer a 2-to-3-fold increase in melanoma risk in the general population, even in populations with darker skin. Therefore, feedback regarding MC1R risk status may raise risk awareness and protective behavior in the general population. Methods We are conducting a randomized controlled trial examining Internet presentation of the risks and benefits of personalized genomic testing for MC1R gene variants that are associated with increased melanoma risk. We will enroll a total of 885 participants (462 participants are currently enrolled), who will be randomized 6:1 to personalized genomic testing for melanoma risk versus waiting list control. Control participants will be offered testing after outcome assessments. Participants will be balanced across self-reported Hispanic versus non-Hispanic ethnicity (n=750 in personalized genomic testing for melanoma risk arm; n=135 in control arm), and will be recruited from a general population cohort in Albuquerque, New Mexico, which is subject to year-round sun exposure. Baseline surveys will be completed in-person with study staff and follow-up measures will be completed via telephone. Results Aim 1 of the trial will examine the personal utility of personalized genomic testing for melanoma risk in terms of short-term (3-month) sun protection and skin screening behaviors, family and physician communication, and melanoma threat and control beliefs (ie, putative mediators of behavior change). We will also examine potential unintended consequences of

  8. Sun Safety at Work Canada: a multiple case-study protocol to develop sun safety and heat protection programs and policies for outdoor workers.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Desre M; Tenkate, Thomas; Strahlendorf, Peter; Kushner, Rivka; Gardner, Audrey; Holness, D Linn

    2015-07-10

    CAREX Canada has identified solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) as the second most prominent carcinogenic exposure in Canada, and over 75 % of Canadian outdoor workers fall within the highest exposure category. Heat stress also presents an important public health issue, particularly for outdoor workers. The most serious form of heat stress is heat stroke, which can cause irreversible damage to the heart, lungs, kidneys, and liver. Although the need for sun and heat protection has been identified, there is no Canada-wide heat and sun safety program for outdoor workers. Further, no prevention programs have addressed both skin cancer prevention and heat stress in an integrated approach. The aim of this partnered study is to evaluate whether a multi-implementation, multi-evaluation approach can help develop sustainable workplace-specific programs, policies, and procedures to increase the use of UV safety and heat protection. This 2-year study is a theory-driven, multi-site, non-randomized study design with a cross-case analysis of 13 workplaces across four provinces in Canada. The first phase of the study includes the development of workplace-specific programs with the support of the intensive engagement of knowledge brokers. There will be a three-points-in-time evaluation with process and impact components involving the occupational health and safety (OHS) director, management, and workers with the goal of measuring changes in workplace policies, procedures, and practices. It will use mixed methods involving semi-structured key informant interviews, focus groups, surveys, site observations, and UV dosimetry assessment. Using the findings from phase I, in phase 2, a web-based, interactive, intervention planning tool for workplaces will be developed, as will the intensive engagement of intermediaries such as industry decision-makers to link to policymakers about the importance of heat and sun safety for outdoor workers. Solar UV and heat are both health and safety hazards

  9. Where Do Messy Planetary Nebulae Come From?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-03-01

    If you examined images of planetary nebulae, you would find that many of them have an appearance that is too messy to be accounted for in the standard model of how planetary nebulae form. So what causes these structures?Examples of planetary nebulae that have a low probability of having beenshaped by a triple stellar system. They are mostly symmetric, with only slight departures (labeled) that can be explained by instabilities, interactions with the interstellar medium, etc. [Bear and Soker 2017]A Range of LooksAt the end of a stars lifetime, in the red-giant phase, strong stellar winds can expel the outer layers of the star. The hot, luminous core then radiates in ultraviolet, ionizing the gas of the ejected stellar layers and causing them to shine as a brightly colored planetary nebula for a few tens of thousands of years.Planetary nebulae come in a wide variety of morphologies. Some are approximately spherical, but others can be elliptical, bipolar, quadrupolar, or even more complex.Its been suggested that non-spherical planetary nebulae might be shaped by the presence of a second star in a binary system with the source of the nebula but even this scenario should still produce a structure with axial or mirror symmetry.A pair of scientists from Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Ealeal Bear and Noam Soker, argue that planetary nebulae with especially messy morphologies those without clear axial or point symmetries may have been shaped by an interacting triple stellar system instead.Examples of planetary nebulae that might have been shaped by a triple stellar system. They have some deviations from symmetry but also show signs of interacting with the interstellar medium. [Bear and Soker 2017]Departures from SymmetryTo examine this possibility more closely, Bear and Soker look at a sample of thousands planetary nebulae and qualitatively classify each of them into one of four categories, based on the degree to which they show signs of having been shaped by a

  10. Protection of xenon against postoperative oxygen impairment in adults undergoing Stanford Type-A acute aortic dissection surgery: Study protocol for a prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Jin, Mu; Cheng, Yi; Yang, Yanwei; Pan, Xudong; Lu, Jiakai; Cheng, Weiping

    2017-08-01

    The available evidence shows that hypoxemia after Stanford Type-A acute aortic dissection (AAD) surgery is a frequent cause of several adverse consequences. The pathogenesis of postoperative hypoxemia after AAD surgery is complex, and ischemia/reperfusion and inflammation are likely to be underlying risk factors. Xenon, recognized as an ideal anesthetic and anti-inflammatory treatment, might be a possible treatment for these adverse effects. The trial is a prospective, double-blind, 4-group, parallel, randomized controlled, a signal-center clinical trial. We will recruit 160 adult patients undergoing Stanford type-A AAD surgery. Patients will be allocated a study number and will be randomized on a 1:1:1:1 basis to receive 1 of the 3 treatment options (pulmonary inflated with 50% xenon, 75% xenon, or 100% xenon) or no treatment (control group, pulmonary inflated with 50% nitrogen). The aims of this study are to clarify the lung protection capability of xenon and its possible mechanisms in patients undergoing the Stanford type-A AAD surgery. This trial uses an innovative design to account for the xenon effects of postoperative oxygen impairment, and it also delineates the mechanism for any benefit from xenon. The investigational xenon group is considered a treatment intervention, as it includes 3 groups of pulmonary static inflation with 50%, 75%, and 100% xenon. It is suggested that future trials might define an appropriate concentration of xenon for the best practice intervention.

  11. Planetary Data Archiving Plan at JAXA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Iku; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Yamamoto, Yukio; Abe, Masanao; Okada, Tatsuaki; Imamura, Takeshi; Sobue, Shinichi; Takashima, Takeshi; Terazono, Jun-Ya

    After the successful rendezvous of Hayabusa with the small-body planet Itokawa, and the successful launch of Kaguya to the moon, Japanese planetary community has gotten their own and full-scale data. However, at this moment, these datasets are only available from the data sites managed by each mission team. The databases are individually constructed in the different formats, and the user interface of these data sites is not compatible with foreign databases. To improve the usability of the planetary archives at JAXA and to enable the international data exchange smooth, we are investigating to make a new planetary database. Within a coming decade, Japan will have fruitful datasets in the planetary science field, Venus (Planet-C), Mercury (BepiColombo), and several missions in planning phase (small-bodies). In order to strongly assist the international scientific collaboration using these mission archive data, the planned planetary data archive at JAXA should be managed in an unified manner and the database should be constructed in the international planetary database standard style. In this presentation, we will show the current status and future plans of the planetary data archiving at JAXA.

  12. Formation and Detection of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Modern theories of star and planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are described and used to discuss possible characteristics of undiscovered planetary systems. The most detailed models of planetary growth are based upon observations of planets and smaller bodies within our own Solar System and of young stars and their environments. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth as do terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. These models predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. A potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path. The implications of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches for the abundances of habitable planets are discussed, and the methods that are being used and planned for detecting and characterizing extrasolar planets are reviewed.

  13. Process engineering with planetary ball mills.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Christine Friederike; Kwade, Arno

    2013-09-21

    Planetary ball mills are well known and used for particle size reduction on laboratory and pilot scales for decades while during the last few years the application of planetary ball mills has extended to mechanochemical approaches. Processes inside planetary ball mills are complex and strongly depend on the processed material and synthesis and, thus, the optimum milling conditions have to be assessed for each individual system. The present review focuses on the insight into several parameters like properties of grinding balls, the filling ratio or revolution speed. It gives examples of the aspects of grinding and illustrates some general guidelines to follow for modelling processes in planetary ball mills in terms of refinement, synthesis' yield and contamination from wear. The amount of energy transferred from the milling tools to the powder is significant and hardly measurable for processes in planetary ball mills. Thus numerical simulations based on a discrete-element-method are used to describe the energy transfer to give an adequate description of the process by correlation with experiments. The simulations illustrate the effect of the geometry of planetary ball mills on the energy entry. In addition the imaging of motion patterns inside a planetary ball mill from simulations and video recordings is shown.

  14. Regolith-Derived Heat Shield for Planetary Body Entry and Descent System with In-Situ Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    High-mass planetary surface access is one of NASA's Grand Challenges involving entry, descent, and landing (EDL). Heat shields fabricated in-situ can provide a thermal protection system for spacecraft that routinely enter a planetary atmosphere. Fabricating the heat shield from extraterrestrial regolith will avoid the costs of launching the heat shield mass from Earth. This project will investigate three methods to fabricate heat shield using extraterrestrial regolith.

  15. Regolith-Derived Heat Shield for Planetary Body Entry and Descent System with In-Situ Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    High-mass planetary surface access is one of NASA's Grand Challenges involving entry, descent, and landing (EDL). Heat shields fabricated in-situ can provide a thermal protection system for spacecraft that routinely enter a planetary atmosphere. Fabricating the heat shield from extraterrestrial regolith will avoid the costs of launching the heat shield mass from Earth. This project investigated three methods to fabricate heat shield using extraterrestrial regolith and performed preliminary work on mission architectures.

  16. VESPA: Developing the Planetary Science Virtual Observatory in H2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erard, S.; Cecconi, B.; Le Sidaner, P.; Capria, M. T.; Rossi, A. P.; Schmitt, B.; Andre, N.; Vandaele, A. C.; Scherf, M.; Hueso, R.; Maattanen, A. E.; Thuillot, W.; Achilleos, N.; Marmo, C.; Santolik, O.; Benson, K.

    2015-12-01

    In the frame of the Europlanet-RI program, a prototype Virtual Observatory dedicated to Planetary Science has been set up. Most of the activity was dedicated to the definition of standards to handle data in this field. The aim was to facilitate searches in big archives as well as sparse databases, to make on-line data access and visualization possible, and to allow small data providers to make their data available in an interoperable environment with minimum effort. This system makes intensive use of studies and developments led in Astronomy (IVOA), Solar Science (HELIO), and space archive services (IPDA). A general standard has been devised to handle the specific complexity of Planetary Science, e.g. in terms of measurement types and coordinate frames [1]. A procedure has been identified to install small data services, and several hands-on sessions have been organized already. A specific client (VESPA) has been developed at VO-Paris (http://vespa.obspm.fr), using a resolver for target names. Selected data can be sent to VO visualization tools such as TOPCAT or Aladin though the SAMP protocol. The Europlanet H2020 program started in Sept 2015 will provide support to new data services in Europe (30 to 50 expected), and focus on the improvement of the infrastructure. Future steps will include the development of a connection between the VO world and GIS tools, and integration of heliophysics, planetary plasma and reference spectroscopic data. The Europlanet H2020 project is funded by the European Commission under the H2020 Program, grant 654208. [1] Erard et al Astron & Comp 2014

  17. Gravitational effects on planetary neutron flux spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, W. C.; Drake, D. M.; O'dell, R. D.; Brinkley, F. W.; Anderson, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of gravity on the planetary neutron flux spectra for planet Mars, and the lifetime of the neutron, were investigated using a modified one-dimensional diffusion accelerated neutral-particle transport code, coupled with a multigroup cross-section library tailored specifically for Mars. The results showed the presence of a qualitatively new feature in planetary neutron leakage spectra in the form of a component of returning neutrons with kinetic energies less than the gravitational binding energy (0.132 eV for Mars). The net effect is an enhancement in flux at the lowest energies that is largest at and above the outermost layer of planetary matter.

  18. A new catalog of planetary maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Inge, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    A single, concise reference to all existing planetary maps, including lunar ones, is being prepared that will allow map users to identify and locate maps of their areas of interest. This will be the first such comprehensive listing of planetary maps. Although the USGS shows index maps on the collar of each map sheet, periodically publishes index maps of Mars, and provides informal listings of the USGS map database, no tabulation exists that identifies all planetary maps, including those published by DMA and other organizations. The catalog will consist of a booklet containing small-scale image maps with superimposed quadrangle boundaries and map data tabulations.

  19. An online planetary exploration tool: ;Country Movers;

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gede, Mátyás; Hargitai, Henrik

    2017-08-01

    Results in astrogeologic investigations are rarely communicated towards the general public by maps despite the new advances in planetary spatial informatics and new spatial datasets in high resolution and more complete coverage. Planetary maps are typically produced by astrogeologists for other professionals, and not by cartographers for the general public. We report on an application designed for students, which uses cartography as framework to aid the virtual exploration of other planets and moons, using the concepts of size comparison and travel time calculation. We also describe educational activities that build on geographic knowledge and expand it to planetary surfaces.

  20. Impact of family-friendly prison policies on health, justice and child protection outcomes for incarcerated mothers and their dependent children: a cohort study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Leonie; Lopez, Derrick; Li, Ian W; Preen, David B

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Female imprisonment has numerous health and social sequelae for both women prisoners and their children. Examples of comprehensive family-friendly prison policies that seek to improve the health and social functioning of women prisoners and their children exist but have not been evaluated. This study will determine the impact of exposure to a family-friendly prison environment on health, child protection and justice outcomes for incarcerated mothers and their dependent children. Methods and analysis A longitudinal retrospective cohort design will be used to compare outcomes for mothers incarcerated at Boronia Pre-release Centre, a women’s prison with a dedicated family-friendly environment, and their dependent children, with outcomes for mothers incarcerated at other prisons in Western Australia (that do not offer this environment) and their dependent children. Routinely collected administrative data from 1985 to 2013 will be used to determine child and mother outcomes such as hospital admissions, emergency department presentations, custodial sentences, community service orders and placement in out-of home care. The sample consists of all children born in Western Australia between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2011 who had a mother in a West Australian prison between 1990 and 2012 and their mothers. Children are included if they were alive and aged less than 18 years at the time of their mother’s incarceration. The sample comprises an exposed group of 665 women incarcerated at Boronia and their 1714 dependent children and a non-exposed comparison sample of 2976 women incarcerated at other West Australian prisons and their 7186 dependent children, creating a total study sample of 3641 women and 8900 children. Ethics and dissemination This project received ethics approval from the Western Australian Department of Health Human Research Ethics Committee, the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Ethics Committee and the University of Western Australia

  1. Impact of family-friendly prison policies on health, justice and child protection outcomes for incarcerated mothers and their dependent children: a cohort study protocol.

    PubMed

    Myers, Helen; Segal, Leonie; Lopez, Derrick; Li, Ian W; Preen, David B

    2017-08-23

    Female imprisonment has numerous health and social sequelae for both women prisoners and their children. Examples of comprehensive family-friendly prison policies that seek to improve the health and social functioning of women prisoners and their children exist but have not been evaluated. This study will determine the impact of exposure to a family-friendly prison environment on health, child protection and justice outcomes for incarcerated mothers and their dependent children. A longitudinal retrospective cohort design will be used to compare outcomes for mothers incarcerated at Boronia Pre-release Centre, a women's prison with a dedicated family-friendly environment, and their dependent children, with outcomes for mothers incarcerated at other prisons in Western Australia (that do not offer this environment) and their dependent children. Routinely collected administrative data from 1985 to 2013 will be used to determine child and mother outcomes such as hospital admissions, emergency department presentations, custodial sentences, community service orders and placement in out-of home care. The sample consists of all children born in Western Australia between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2011 who had a mother in a West Australian prison between 1990 and 2012 and their mothers. Children are included if they were alive and aged less than 18 years at the time of their mother's incarceration. The sample comprises an exposed group of 665 women incarcerated at Boronia and their 1714 dependent children and a non-exposed comparison sample of 2976 women incarcerated at other West Australian prisons and their 7186 dependent children, creating a total study sample of 3641 women and 8900 children. This project received ethics approval from the Western Australian Department of Health Human Research Ethics Committee, the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Ethics Committee and the University of Western Australia Human Research Ethics Committee. © Article author(s) (or their

  2. Planetary Protection Trajectory Analysis for the Juno Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Try; Johannesen, Jennie R.; Kowalkowski, Theresa D.

    2008-01-01

    Juno is an orbiter mission expected to launch in 2011 to Jupiter. Juno's science orbit is a highly eccentric orbit with a period of about 11 days and a nominal duration of one year. Initially, the equatorial crossing near apojove occurs outside Callisto's orbit, but as the mission evolves the apsidal rotation causes this distance to move much closer to Jupiter. This motion could lead to potential impacts with the Galilean satellites as the ascending node crosses the satellite orbits. In this paper, we describe the method to estimate impact probabilities with the satellites and investigate ways of reducing the probabilities for the Juno mission.

  3. Supercritical CO2 Cleaning for Planetary Protection and Contamination Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying; Zhong, Fang; Aveline, David; Anderson, Mark; Chung, Shirley; Mennella, Jerami; Schubert, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    We have designed and built a prototype Supercritical CO? Cleaning (SCC) system at JPL. The key features of the system are: 1) the parts inside a high-pressure vessel can be rotated at high speeds; 2) the same thermodynamic condition is maintained during First-In First-Out flushing to keep solvent power constant; and 3) the boil-off during decompression is induced in a separate vessel downstream. Our goal is to demonstrate SCC's ability to remove trace amounts of microbial and organic contaminants down to parts per billion levels from spacecraft material surfaces for future astrobiology missions. The initial cleaning test results showed that SCC can achieve cleanliness levels of 0.01 microgram/cm(sup 2) or less for hydrophobic contaminants such as dioctyl phthalate and silicone and it is less effective in the removal and inactivation of the hydrophilic bacterial spores as expected. However, with the use of a polar co-solvent, the efficacy may improve dramatically. The same results were obtained using liquid CO?. This opens up the possibility of using subcritical cleaning conditions, which may prove to be more compatible with certain spacecraft hardware.

  4. Ciclosporin to Protect Renal function In Cardiac Surgery (CiPRICS): a study protocol for a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept study

    PubMed Central

    Grins, Edgars; Dardashti, Alain; Brondén, Björn; Metzsch, Carsten; Erdling, André; Nozohoor, Shahab; Mokhtari, Arash; Hansson, Magnus J; Elmér, Eskil; Algotsson, Lars; Jovinge, Stefan; Bjursten, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is common and results in increased morbidity and mortality. One possible mechanism for AKI is ischaemia–reperfusion injury caused by the extracorporeal circulation (ECC), resulting in an opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in the kidneys, which can lead to cell injury or cell death. Ciclosporin may block the opening of mPTP if administered before the ischaemia–reperfusion injury. We hypothesised that ciclosporin given before the start of ECC in cardiac surgery can decrease the degree of AKI. Methods and analysis Ciclosporin to Protect Renal function In Cardiac Surgery (CiPRICS) study is an investigator-initiated double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel design, single-centre study performed at a tertiary university hospital. The primary objective is to assess the safety and efficacy of ciclosporin to limit the degree of AKI in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. We aim to evaluate 150 patients with a preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15–90 mL/min/1.73 m2. Study patients are randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive study drug 2.5 mg/kg ciclosporin or placebo as an intravenous injection after anaesthesia induction but before start of surgery. The primary end point consists of relative P-cystatin C changes from the preoperative day to postoperative day 3. The primary variable will be tested using an analysis of covariance method. Secondary end points include evaluation of P-creatinine and biomarkers of kidney, heart and brain injury. Ethics and dissemination The trial is conducted in compliance with the current version of the Declaration of Helsinki and the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) Good Clinical Practice guidelines E6 (R1) and was approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board, Lund and the Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA). Written and oral informed consent is obtained before enrolment into

  5. Pilot randomised controlled trial of protective socks against usual care to reduce skin tears in high risk people "STOPCUTS": study protocol.

    PubMed

    Powell, Roy J; Hayward, Christopher J; Snelgrove, Caroline L; Polverino, Kathleen; Park, Linda; Chauhan, Rohan; Evans, Philip H; Byford, Rachel; Charman, Carolyn; Foy, Christopher J W; Kingsley, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Skin tears are traumatic injuries occurring mostly on the extremities due to shearing and friction forces that separate the epidermis and the dermis from underlying tissues. They are common and occur mostly in older adults and those taking medications that compromise skin integrity. Pretibial skin tears can develop into leg ulcers, which require lengthy, expensive treatment to heal. Traumatic injuries are the second most common type of wounds after pressure ulcers in care homes and are the commonest reason for older adults to require the attention of a community nurse. Common causes of skin tear injuries are bumping into furniture and other obstacles, using mobility aids, transfer to/from wheelchairs, getting in and out of bed and falls. No effective preventative measures currently exist but knee-length, protective socks are now available that contain impact-resistant Kevlar fibres (of the type used in stab-proof vests) and cushioning layers underneath. In this pilot parallel group, randomised controlled trial, 90 people at risk of skin-tear injury will be randomised with equal allocation to receive the intervention or usual care. They will be recruited from care homes and from the community via general practices and a research volunteer database. Pilot outcomes include recruitment, eligibility, attrition, ascertainment of injuries and completion of outcome measures. Acceptability of the intervention and of study participation will be explored using semi-structured interviews. The proposed primary outcome for the future definitive trial is skin tear-free days. Secondary outcomes are skin tear severity, health status, specific skin-tears quality of life, capability and fear of falling, measured at baseline and the end of the study and in the event of a skin tear. The results of this study will be used to inform the development and design of a future randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a unique and innovative approach to

  6. Hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Feng

    Hydrodynamic escape is an important process in the formation and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Due to the existence of a singularity point near the transonic point, it is difficult to find transonic steady state solutions by solving the time-independent hydrodynamic equations. In addition to that, most previous works assume that all energy driving the escape flow is deposited in one narrow layer. This assumption not only results in less accurate solutions to the hydrodynamic escape problem, but also makes it difficult to include other chemical and physical processes in the hydrodynamic escape models. In this work, a numerical model describing the transonic hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres is developed. A robust solution technique is used to solve the time dependent hydrodynamic equations. The method has been validated in an isothermal atmosphere where an analytical solution is available. The hydrodynamic model is applied to 3 cases: hydrogen escape from small orbit extrasolar planets, hydrogen escape from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere, and nitrogen/methane escape from Pluto's atmosphere. Results of simulations on extrasolar planets are in good agreement with the observations of the transiting extrasolar planet HD209458b. Hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from other hypothetical close-in extrasolar planets are simulated and the influence of hydrogen escape on the long-term evolution of these extrasolar planets are discussed. Simulations on early Earth suggest that hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere is about two orders magnitude slower than the diffusion limited escape rate. A hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere could have been maintained by the balance between the hydrogen escape and the supply of hydrogen into the atmosphere by volcanic outgassing. Origin of life may have occurred in the organic soup ocean created by the efficient formation of prebiotic molecules in the hydrogen rich early

  7. Creating a Road Map for Planetary Data Spatial Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naß, A.; Archinal, B.; Beyer, R.; DellaGiustina, D.; Fassett, C.; Gaddis, L.; Hagerty, J.; Hare, T.; Laura, J.; Lawrence, S.; Mazarico, E.; Patthoff, A.; Radebaugh, J.; Skinner, J.; Sutton, S.; Thomson, B. J.; Williams, D.

    2017-09-01

    There currently exists a clear need for long-range planning in regard to planetary spatial data and the development of infrastructure to support its use. Planetary data are the hard-earned fruits of planetary exploration, and the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT) mission is to ensure their availability for any conceivable investigation, now or in the future.

  8. The Planetary Science Workforce: Goals Through 2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathbun, J. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Turtle, E. P.; Vertesi, J. A.; Rivkin, A. S.; Hörst, S. M.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Marchis, F.; Milazzo, M.; Diniega, S.; Lakdawalla, E.; Zellner, N.

    2017-02-01

    The planetary science workforce is not nearly as diverse as the society from which its membership is drawn and from which the majority of our funding comes. We discuss the current state and recommendations for improvement.

  9. Planetary Sample Analysis Laboratory at DLR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbert, J.; Maturilli, A.; de Vera, J. P.

    2018-04-01

    Building on the available infrastructure and the long heritage, DLR is planning to create a Planetary Sample Analysis laboratory (PSA), which can be later extended to a full sample curation facility in collaboration with the Robert-Koch Institute.

  10. 3D Visualization for Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWolfe, A. W.; Larsen, K.; Brain, D.

    2018-04-01

    We have developed visualization tools for viewing planetary orbiters and science data in 3D for both Earth and Mars, using the Cesium Javascript library, allowing viewers to visualize the position and orientation of spacecraft and science data.

  11. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planetary bodies, to techniques and instrument development for exploration.

  12. 2nd International Planetary Probe Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Martinez, Ed; Arcadi, Marla

    2005-01-01

    Included are presentations from the 2nd International Planetary Probe Workshop. The purpose of the second workshop was to continue to unite the community of planetary scientists, spacecraft engineers and mission designers and planners; whose expertise, experience and interests are in the areas of entry probe trajectory and attitude determination, and the aerodynamics/aerothermodynamics of planetary entry vehicles. Mars lander missions and the first probe mission to Titan made 2004 an exciting year for planetary exploration. The Workshop addressed entry probe science, engineering challenges, mission design and instruments, along with the challenges of reconstruction of the entry, descent and landing or the aerocapture phases. Topics addressed included methods, technologies, and algorithms currently employed; techniques and results from the rich history of entry probe science such as PAET, Venera/Vega, Pioneer Venus, Viking, Galileo, Mars Pathfinder and Mars MER; upcoming missions such as the imminent entry of Huygens and future Mars entry probes; and new and novel instrumentation and methodologies.

  13. Fourier transform spectroscopy for future planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasunas, John; Kolasinski, John; Kostiuk, Ted; Hewagama, Tilak

    2017-01-01

    Thermal-emission infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool for exploring the composition, temperature structure, and dynamics of planetary atmospheres; and the temperature of solid surfaces. A host of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) such as Mariner IRIS, Voyager IRIS, and Cassini CIRS from NASA Goddard have made and continue to make important new discoveries throughout the solar system. Future FTS instruments will have to be more sensitive (when we concentrate on the colder, outer reaches of the solar system), and less massive and less power-hungry as we cope with decreasing resource allotments for future planetary science instruments. With this in mind, we have developed CIRS-lite, a smaller version of the CIRS FTS for future planetary missions. We discuss the roadmap for making CIRS-lite a viable candidate for future planetary missions, including the recent increased emphasis on ocean worlds (Europa, Encelatus, Titan) and also on smaller payloads such as CubeSats and SmallSats.

  14. Planetary quarantine impacts on probe design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defrees, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The design of space probes for Saturn and Uranus and the effects of imposing planetary quarantine constraints on that design are discussed. Special attention was given to probability of contamination and procedures for eliminating contamination including dry heat.

  15. Reports of planetary geology program, 1980. [Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Compiler); Kosters, E. C. (Compiler)

    1980-01-01

    This is a compilation of abstracts of reports which summarize work conducted in the Planetary Geology Program. Each report reflects significant accomplishments within the area of the author's funded grant or contract.

  16. Reports of planetary geology program, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Several areas of the Planetary Geology Program were addressed including outer solar system satellites, asteroids, comets, Venus, cratering processes and landform development, volcanic processes, aeolian processes, fluvial processes, periglacial and permafrost processes, geomorphology, remote sensing, tectonics and stratigraphy, and mapping.

  17. NASA's Planetary Aeolian Laboratory: Status and Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. A.; Smith, J. K.

    2017-05-01

    This presentation provides a status update on the operational capabilities and funding plans by NASA for the Planetary Aeolian Laboratory located at NASA Ames Research Center, including details for those proposing future wind tunnel experiments.

  18. Planetary Regolith Delivery Systems for ISRU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantovani, James G.; Townsend, Ivan I., III

    2012-01-01

    The challenges associated with collecting regolith on a planetary surface and delivering it to an in-situ resource utilization system differ significantly from similar activities conducted on Earth. Since system maintenance on a planetary body can be difficult or impossible to do, high reliability and service life are expected of a regolith delivery system. Mission costs impose upper limits on power and mass. The regolith delivery system must provide a leak-tight interface between the near-vacuum planetary surface and the pressurized ISRU system. Regolith delivery in amounts ranging from a few grams to tens of kilograms may be required. Finally, the spent regolith must be removed from the ISRU chamber and returned to the planetary environment via dust tolerant valves capable of operating and sealing over a large temperature range. This paper will describe pneumatic and auger regolith transfer systems that have already been field tested for ISRU, and discuss other systems that await future field testing.

  19. Precise Chemical Analyses of Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kring, David; Schweitzer, Jeffrey; Meyer, Charles; Trombka, Jacob; Freund, Friedemann; Economou, Thanasis; Yen, Albert; Kim, Soon Sam; Treiman, Allan H.; Blake, David; hide

    1996-01-01

    We identify the chemical elements and element ratios that should be analyzed to address many of the issues identified by the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX). We determined that most of these issues require two sensitive instruments to analyze the necessary complement of elements. In addition, it is useful in many cases to use one instrument to analyze the outermost planetary surface (e.g. to determine weathering effects), while a second is used to analyze a subsurface volume of material (e.g., to determine the composition of unaltered planetary surface material). This dual approach to chemical analyses will also facilitate the calibration of orbital and/or Earth-based spectral observations of the planetary body. We determined that in many cases the scientific issues defined by COMPLEX can only be fully addressed with combined packages of instruments that would supplement the chemical data with mineralogic or visual information.

  20. The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library (PTAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, S. C.; Dypvik, H.; Poulet, F.; Rull Perez, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bultel, B.; Casanova Roque, C.; Carter, J.; Cousin, A.; Guzman, A.; Hamm, V.; Hellevang, H.; Lantz, C.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Manrique, J. A.; Maurice, S.; Medina Garcia, J.; Navarro, R.; Negro, J. I.; Neumann, E. R.; Pilorget, C.; Riu, L.; Sætre, C.; Sansano Caramazana, A.; Sanz Arranz, A.; Sobron Grañón, F.; Veneranda, M.; Viennet, J.-C.; PTAL Team

    2018-04-01

    The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library project aims to build and exploit a spectral data base for the characterisation of the mineralogical and geological evolution of terrestrial planets and small solar system bodies.

  1. A survey for PAH emission in H II regions, planetary and proto-planetary nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuizon, M.; Cox, P.; Lequeux, J.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a systematic investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in H II regions, planetary nebulae (PN), and proto-planetary nebulae (PNN), are reported. Data is obtained from the low resolution spectra (LRS) of IRAS. The results show that: PAHs are formed in carbon rich objects; and PAH emission is ubiquitous in general interstellar medium and requires the presence of ultraviolet photons, in planetary and proto-planetary nebulae, PAH emission is seen only where an ionizing flux is present and in carbon rich objects.

  2. Field Geologic Observation and Sample Collection Strategies for Planetary Surface Exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS Geologist Crewmembers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurtado, Jose M., Jr.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic field- work, the Desert RATS(Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crew members who participated in the 2010 field test.We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies relatedtoduplicationofsamplesandobservations;logisticalconstraintson the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to flexibly execute their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  3. Tools and Technologies Needed for Conducting Planetary Field Geology While On EVA: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS Geologist Crewmembers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Kelsey; Hurtado, Jose M., Jr.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Bleisath, Scott; Buffington, Jesse; Rice, James W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic fieldwork, the Desert RATS (Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crewmembers who participated in the 2010 field test. We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies related to duplication of samples and observations; logistical constraints on the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to "flexibly execute" their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  4. The Origin of Planetary Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.; Niemann, H.; Mahaffy, P.; Atreya, S.

    2006-01-01

    The nitrogen found today in planetary atmospheres appears to come from two sources: N2 and condensed, nitrogen-containing compounds. On Jupiter and thus presumably on the other giant planets, the nitrogen is present mainly as ammonia but was apparently delivered primarily in the form of N2, whereas on the inner planets and Titan, the nitrogen is present as N2 but was delivered as condensed compounds, dominated by ammonia. This analysis is consistent with abundance data from the Interstellar Medium and models for the solar nebula. For Jupiter and the inner planets, it is substantiated by measurements of N-l5/N-14 and is supported by investigations of comets and meteorites, soon to be supplemented by solar wind data from the Genesis Mission. The Cassini-Huygens Mission may be able to constrain models for Saturn s ammonia abundance that could test the proportion of N2 captured by the planet. The Titan story is less direct, depending on studies of noble gases. These studies in turn suggest an evolutionary stage of the early Earth s atmosphere that included the ammonia and methane postulated by S. L. Miller (1953) in his classical experiments on the production of biogenic compounds.

  5. Sonar equations for planetary exploration.

    PubMed

    Ainslie, Michael A; Leighton, Timothy G

    2016-08-01

    The set of formulations commonly known as "the sonar equations" have for many decades been used to quantify the performance of sonar systems in terms of their ability to detect and localize objects submerged in seawater. The efficacy of the sonar equations, with individual terms evaluated in decibels, is well established in Earth's oceans. The sonar equations have been used in the past for missions to other planets and moons in the solar system, for which they are shown to be less suitable. While it would be preferable to undertake high-fidelity acoustical calculations to support planning, execution, and interpretation of acoustic data from planetary probes, to avoid possible errors for planned missions to such extraterrestrial bodies in future, doing so requires awareness of the pitfalls pointed out in this paper. There is a need to reexamine the assumptions, practices, and calibrations that work well for Earth to ensure that the sonar equations can be accurately applied in combination with the decibel to extraterrestrial scenarios. Examples are given for icy oceans such as exist on Europa and Ganymede, Titan's hydrocarbon lakes, and for the gaseous atmospheres of (for example) Jupiter and Venus.

  6. Impact erosion of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvalov, Valery

    1999-06-01

    The problem of planetary atmospheres evolution due to impacts of large cosmic bodies was investigated by Ahrens, O'Keefe, Cameron, Hunten and others. These studies were focused mainly on the atmosphere growth under impact devolatilization and atmosphere losses due to escape of high velocity ejecta. Most of the results concerning atmosphere erosion were based on assumption that atmosphere itself does not influence significantly on the ejecta evolution. However more detailed investigations show that atmospheric drag is important at least for 1-10km impactors. From the other hand the theory of large explosions in an exponential atmosphere is not applicable in the case under consideration because of the influence of a trail created during the body flight through the atmosphere. In the present study the problem of 1-10km asteroid impacts against the Earth is investigated with the use of multi-material hydrocode SOVA. This code is similar to the widely used CTH system and allows to model all stages of the impact (penetration into the atmosphere, collision with the ground surface covered by water basin, ejecta evolution). The air mass ejected from each altitude depending on impactor size and velocity is determined. Apart from the impacts into the present-day atmosphere, the erosion of the dense Proto-Atmosphere is also considered.

  7. Meteoric Ions in Planetary Ionospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesnell, W. D.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Solar system debris, in the form of meteoroids, impacts every planet. The flux, relative composition and speed of the debris at each planet depends on the planet's size and location in the solar system. Ablation in the atmosphere evaporates the meteoric material and leaves behind metal atoms. During the ablation process metallic ions are formed by impact ionization. For small inner solar system planets, including Earth, this source of ionization is typically small compared to either photoionization or charge exchange with ambient molecular ions. For Earth, the atmosphere above the main deposition region absorbs the spectral lines capable of ionizing the major metallic atoms (Fe and Mg) so that charge exchange with ambient ions is the dominant source. Within the carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars (and possibly Venus), photoionization is important in determining the ion density. For a heavy planet like Jupiter, far from the sun, impact ionization of ablated neutral atoms by impacts with molecules becomes a prominent source of ionization due to the gravitational acceleration to high incident speeds. We will describe the processes and location and extent of metal ion layers for Mars, Earth and Jupiter, concentrating on flagging the uncertainties in the models at the present time. This is an important problem, because low altitude ionosphere layers for the planets, particularly at night, probably consist predominantly of metallic ions. Comparisons with Earth will be used to illustrate the differing processes in the three planetary atmospheres.

  8. Rotational properties of planetary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peale, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    Properties of satellite rotation that are observable in principle, include the rotation period, the orientation of the spin axis relative to the orbit plane, precession of the spin axis due to gravitational torques, nonprincipal axis rotation or wobble, and deviations from uniform principle axis rotation or libration. Considerable order is observed in current satellite rotation states, and it is of interest to ascertain how this order came about and why some satellites do not conform to the dominant norm. There is a strong coupling between the spin and orbital motions that is primarily responsible for maintaining the ordered rotation states in most cases, but this coupling is equally responsible for destroying any chance of orderly rotation for Saturn's satellite Hyperion. Understanding the processes which constrain current rotation states as well as those of an evolutionary nature which could have brought the individual satellites to their observed rotation and orbit states allows us to sometimes infer interior properties of some satellite or even of its primary planet, although, attempts to deduce primordial rotation states are usually frustrated. The observed rotational properties of the planetary satellites are summarized, and the understanding of the processes maintaining and those leading to the observed states are outlined. Some of the inferences that can be drawn about intrinsic properties of the bodies themselves are indicated.

  9. Artificial Intelligence in planetary spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, Ingo

    2017-10-01

    The field of exoplanetary spectroscopy is as fast moving as it is new. Analysing currently available observations of exoplanetary atmospheres often invoke large and correlated parameter spaces that can be difficult to map or constrain. This is true for both: the data analysis of observations as well as the theoretical modelling of their atmospheres.Issues of low signal-to-noise data and large, non-linear parameter spaces are nothing new and commonly found in many fields of engineering and the physical sciences. Recent years have seen vast improvements in statistical data analysis and machine learning that have revolutionised fields as diverse as telecommunication, pattern recognition, medical physics and cosmology.In many aspects, data mining and non-linearity challenges encountered in other data intensive fields are directly transferable to the field of extrasolar planets. In this conference, I will discuss how deep neural networks can be designed to facilitate solving said issues both in exoplanet atmospheres as well as for atmospheres in our own solar system. I will present a deep belief network, RobERt (Robotic Exoplanet Recognition), able to learn to recognise exoplanetary spectra and provide artificial intelligences to state-of-the-art atmospheric retrieval algorithms. Furthermore, I will present a new deep convolutional network that is able to map planetary surface compositions using hyper-spectral imaging and demonstrate its uses on Cassini-VIMS data of Saturn.

  10. Electrostatic forces in planetary rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goertz, C. K.; Shan, Linhua; Havnes, O.

    1988-01-01

    The average charge on a particle in a particle-plasma cloud, the plasma potential inside the cloud, and the Coulomb force acting on the particle are calculated. The net repulsive electrostatic force on a particle depends on the plasma density, temperature, density of particles, particle size, and the gradient of the particle density. In a uniformly dense ring the electrostatic repulsion is zero. It is also shown that the electrostatic force acts like a pressure force, that even a collisionless ring can be stable against gravitational collapse, and that a finite ring thickness does not necessarily imply a finite velocity dispersion. A simple criterion for the importance of electrostatic forces in planetary rings is derived which involves the calculation of the vertical ring thickness which would result if only electrostatic repulsion were responsible for the finite ring thickness. Electrostatic forces are entirely negligible in the main rings of Saturn and the E and G rings. They may also be negligible in the F ring. However, the Uranian rings and Jupiter's ring seem to be very much influenced by electrostatic repulsion. In fact, electrostatic forces could support a Jovian ring which is an order of magnitude more dense than observed.

  11. Diurnal forcing of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houben, Howard C.

    1991-01-01

    A free convection parameterization has been introduced into the Mars Planetary Boundary Layer Model (MPBL). Previously, the model would fail to generate turbulence under conditions of zero wind shear, even when statically unstable. This in turn resulted in erroneous results at the equator, for example, when the lack of Coriolis forcing allowed zero wind conditions. The underlying cause of these failures was the level 2 second-order turbulence closure scheme which derived diffusivities as algebraic functions of the Richardson number (the ratio of static stability to wind shear). In the previous formulation, the diffusivities were scaled by the wind shear--a convenient parameter since it is non-negative. This was the drawback that all diffusivities are zero under conditions of zero shear (viz., the free convection case). The new scheme tests for the condition of zero shear in conjunction with static instability and recalculates the diffusivities using a static stability scaling. The results for a simulation of the equatorial boundary layer at autumnal equinox are presented. (Note that after some wind shear is generated, the model reverts to the traditional diffusivity calculation.)

  12. Archiving of Planetary Ring Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, James L.

    2001-01-01

    Stellar occultation data provide our only Earth-based means of probing planetary rings at kilometer spatial resolution. The occultation data archive at MIT contains original data and analysis products of stellar occultations by the ring systems of the planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune observed by members of the group (and other groups) from 1977 to the present. During this time period, several media have been used to record and store the original and processed data: (1) chart records; (2) printed output, (3) audio reel tape; (4) audio cassette tape; (5) 7-track, 1/2-inch computer tape; (6) 9-track, 1/2-inch computer tape at 800, 1600, and 6250 bpi; (7) NOVA disk platters (2.5 and 5.0 Mbyte); (8) write once optical disks; (9) punched cards; and (10) read-write optical disks. With the rapid change of computer technology over this time period, some of these media have become not only obsolete, but nearly extinct. In particular, it has become nearly impossible to find any facilities that can still read 800 bpi tapes, which contain the only copies of several important data sets for the ring system of Uranus. In particular, we have an extensive ring data collection that includes data sets for the following Uranian ring occultations: U0, U11, U12, U13, U14, U25, U17, and U36.

  13. Dynamical habitability of planetary systems.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, Rudolf; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Bois, Eric; Schwarz, Richard; Funk, Barbara; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Fridlund, Malcolm; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Lammer, Helmut; Léger, Alain; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Selsis, Frank; Schneider, Jean; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    The problem of the stability of planetary systems, a question that concerns only multiplanetary systems that host at least two planets, is discussed. The problem of mean motion resonances is addressed prior to discussion of the dynamical structure of the more than 350 known planets. The difference with regard to our own Solar System with eight planets on low eccentricity is evident in that 60% of the known extrasolar planets have orbits with eccentricity e > 0.2. We theoretically highlight the studies concerning possible terrestrial planets in systems with a Jupiter-like planet. We emphasize that an orbit of a particular nature only will keep a planet within the habitable zone around a host star with respect to the semimajor axis and its eccentricity. In addition, some results are given for individual systems (e.g., Gl777A) with regard to the stability of orbits within habitable zones. We also review what is known about the orbits of planets in double-star systems around only one component (e.g., gamma Cephei) and around both stars (e.g., eclipsing binaries).

  14. Dissociative recombination in planetary ionospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Ionization in planetary atmospheres can be produced by solar photoionization, photoelectron impact ionization, and, in auroral regions, by impact of precipitating particles. This ionization is lost mainly in dissociative recombination (DR) of molecular ions. Although atomic ions cannot undergo DR, they can be transformed locally through ion-molecule reactions into molecular ions, or they may be transported vertically or horizontally to regions of the atmosphere where such transformations are possible. Because DR reactions tend to be very exothermic, they can be an important source of kinetically or internally excited fragments. In interplanetary thermospheres, the neutral densities decrease exponentially with altitude. Below the homopause (or turbopause), the atmosphere is assumed to be throughly mixed by convection and/or turbulence. Above the homopause, diffusion is the major transport mechanism, and each species is distributed according to its mass, with the logarithmic derivative of the density with repect to altitude given approximately by -1/H, where H = kT/mg is the scale height. In this expression, T is the neutral temperature, g is the local acceleratiion of gravity, and m is the mass of the species. Thus lighter species become relatively more abundant, and heavier species less abundant, as the altitude increases. This variation of the neutral composition can lead to changes in the ion composition; furthermore, as the neutral densities decrease, dissociative recombination becomes more important relative to ion-neutral reactions as a loss mechanism for molecular ions.

  15. Reflection spectra of solids of planetary interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sill, G. T.

    1973-01-01

    The spectra of solids are reproduced which might be found on the surfaces of planetary bodies or as solid condensates in the upper planetary atmosphere. Among these are spectra of various iron compounds of interest in the study of the clouds of Venus. Other spectra are included of various sulfides, some at low temperature, relevant to the planet Jupiter. Meteorite and coal abstracts are also included, to illustrate dark carbon compounds.

  16. Reflection spectra of solids of planetary interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sill, G. T.; Carm, O.

    1973-01-01

    This paper reproduces the spectra of solids which might be found on the surfaces of planetary bodies or as solid condensates in the upper planetary atmosphere. Among these are spectra of various iron compounds of interest in the study of the clouds of Venus. Other spectra (some at low temperature) are included for various sulfides relevant to the planet Jupiter. Meteorite and coal spectra are also included to illustrate dark carbon compounds.

  17. A mineralogical instrument for planetary applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David F.; Vaniman, David T.; Bish, David L.

    1994-01-01

    The mineralogy of a planetary surface can be used to identify the provenance of soil or sediment and reveal the volcanic, metamorphic and/or sedimentological history of a particular region. We have discussed elsewhere the applications and the instrument design of possible X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence (XRD/XRF) devices for the mineralogical characterization of planetary surfaces. In this abstract we evaluate some aspects of sample-detector geometry and sample collection strategies.

  18. An analytical theory of planetary rotation rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, A. W.

    1977-01-01

    An approximate analytical theory is derived for the rate of rotation acquired by a planet as it grows from the solar nebula. This theory was motivated by a numerical study by Giuli, and yields fair agreement with his results. The periods of planetary rotation obtained are proportional to planetesimal encounter velocity, and appear to suggest lower values of this velocity than are commonly assumed to have existed during planetary formation.

  19. Planetary geology in the 1980s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.

    1984-01-01

    The geologic aspects of solar system studies are defined and the goals of planetary geology are discussed. Planetary geology is the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of matter condensed in the form of planets, satellites, asteroids, and comets. It is a multidisciplinary effort involving investigators with backgrounds in geology, chemistry, physics, astronomy, geodesy, cartography, and other disciplines concerned with the solid planets. The report is primarily restricted to the kinds of experiments and observations made through unmanned missions.

  20. Planetary quarantine: Principles, methods, and problems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, L. B.

    1971-01-01

    Microbial survival in deep space environment, contamination of planets by nonsterile flight hardware, and hazards of back contamination are among the topics covered in papers concerned with the analytical basis for planetary quarantine. The development of the technology and policies of planetary quarantine is covered in contributions on microbiologic assay and sterilization of space flight hardware and control of microbial contamination. A comprehensive subject index is included. Individual items are abstracted in this issue.