Science.gov

Sample records for planning define attentional

  1. Categorically Defined Targets Trigger Spatiotemporal Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyble, Brad; Bowman, Howard; Potter, Mary C.

    2009-01-01

    Transient attention to a visually salient cue enhances processing of a subsequent target in the same spatial location between 50 to 150 ms after cue onset (K. Nakayama & M. Mackeben, 1989). Do stimuli from a categorically defined target set, such as letters or digits, also generate transient attention? Participants reported digit targets among…

  2. 75 FR 27927 - Diversification Requirements for Certain Defined Contribution Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... section 414(l) with respect to any other defined benefit plan or defined contribution plan maintained by... Contribution Plans AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY: This... to diversification requirements for certain defined contribution plans holding publicly...

  3. The Unengaged Mind: Defining Boredom in Terms of Attention.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John D; Frischen, Alexandra; Fenske, Mark J; Smilek, Daniel

    2012-09-01

    Our central goal is to provide a definition of boredom in terms of the underlying mental processes that occur during an instance of boredom. Through the synthesis of psychodynamic, existential, arousal, and cognitive theories of boredom, we argue that boredom is universally conceptualized as "the aversive experience of wanting, but being unable, to engage in satisfying activity." We propose to map this conceptualization onto underlying mental processes. Specifically, we propose that boredom be defined in terms of attention. That is, boredom is the aversive state that occurs when we (a) are not able to successfully engage attention with internal (e.g., thoughts or feelings) or external (e.g., environmental stimuli) information required for participating in satisfying activity, (b) are focused on the fact that we are not able to engage attention and participate in satisfying activity, and (c) attribute the cause of our aversive state to the environment. We believe that our definition of boredom fully accounts for the phenomenal experience of boredom, brings existing theories of boredom into dialogue with one another, and suggests specific directions for future research on boredom and attention. PMID:26168505

  4. Drawing attention to family planning.

    PubMed

    1990-03-01

    In February 1990, the Mexican award winning director and animator, Carlos Carrera, went to Tokyo to oversee the photographing of the color frames (brought from Mexico) of the sex education animated film "Music for Two". The film begins with a warning that it should be shown as part of a sex education program. Further, a trained advisor guides the audience during the recommended discussion following the film. "Music for Two" is set in a large city and features a young female teen who daydreams about imaginary lovers. She soon discovers that her young male next door neighbor is interested in her. The moral of the story is that, once a woman is an adolescent, she must consider her future and have lifelong goals. In order for her to do so, however, she must know her mind and body, appreciate them, and not renounce them. This animated short feature includes both English and Spanish versions targeted to adolescents in their mid to late teens, especially females, in Latin America and the Caribbean. Mr. Carrera predicted that conservative older individuals will most likely not approve of "Music for Two". The Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) and the UNFPA sponsored this animated film and the Mexican Family Planning Foundation (MEXFAM) participated in its production. The Sakura Motion Picture Company in Japan and Kinam SCL International in Mexico coproduced it. The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs underwrote the English version and the UNFPA and IPPF underwrote the Spanish version. Further, in 1989, Mr. Carrera played a major role in a successful sex education animated feature titled "Blue Pigeon". This film was geared to youth in their early to mid teens, however.

  5. Drawing attention to family planning.

    PubMed

    1990-03-01

    In February 1990, the Mexican award winning director and animator, Carlos Carrera, went to Tokyo to oversee the photographing of the color frames (brought from Mexico) of the sex education animated film "Music for Two". The film begins with a warning that it should be shown as part of a sex education program. Further, a trained advisor guides the audience during the recommended discussion following the film. "Music for Two" is set in a large city and features a young female teen who daydreams about imaginary lovers. She soon discovers that her young male next door neighbor is interested in her. The moral of the story is that, once a woman is an adolescent, she must consider her future and have lifelong goals. In order for her to do so, however, she must know her mind and body, appreciate them, and not renounce them. This animated short feature includes both English and Spanish versions targeted to adolescents in their mid to late teens, especially females, in Latin America and the Caribbean. Mr. Carrera predicted that conservative older individuals will most likely not approve of "Music for Two". The Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) and the UNFPA sponsored this animated film and the Mexican Family Planning Foundation (MEXFAM) participated in its production. The Sakura Motion Picture Company in Japan and Kinam SCL International in Mexico coproduced it. The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs underwrote the English version and the UNFPA and IPPF underwrote the Spanish version. Further, in 1989, Mr. Carrera played a major role in a successful sex education animated feature titled "Blue Pigeon". This film was geared to youth in their early to mid teens, however. PMID:12283080

  6. Defining the Focus of Attention: Effects of Attention on Perceived Exertion and Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Lohse, Keith R.; Sherwood, David E.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript presents two experiments designed to explore the effects of attention on perceived exertion and time to failure in a fatiguing athletic task. There were two major motivating factors for these experiments. First, there are few studies evaluating attentional focus effects in endurance tasks and, second, there is a lack of integration between studies of attentional focus as external/internal (e.g., Wulf, 2007a) compared to associative/dissociative (e.g., Stevinson and Biddle, 1998). In Experiment 1, we used a fatiguing wall-sit posture (essentially a complex, isometric task) to compare two different types of external attention with an internal focus on the position of the legs. An external focus (regardless of type) increased the time taken to failure and reduced perceived exertion. In Experiment 2, we manipulated subjects’ expectancy of fatigue to test the interaction of attention and expectancy (both top-down factors) in this highly fatiguing task. Previous theories of attention during endurance tasks have suggested that as fatigue/pain increase, bottom-up factors begin to dominate subjects’ attention. While this may be true, Experiment 2 showed that even in a highly fatiguing task, attentional strategies, and expectancies affected the time to failure and perceived exertion. PMID:22102843

  7. Rate-of-return guarantees for defined contribution plans.

    PubMed

    Turner, J A

    2001-01-01

    This article explores the conceptual basis for an employer-backed minimum rate-of-return guarantee as an option under defined contribution plans. Expanding an earlier analysis, the author presents a prototype model of how the guarantee would work and discusses how it might be used for a mandatory Social Security defined contribution plan.

  8. 75 FR 70625 - Annual Funding Notice for Defined Benefit Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... Benefits Security Administration 29 CFR Part 2520 RIN 1210-AB18 Annual Funding Notice for Defined Benefit Plans AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This..., section 101(f) of ERISA generally requires the administrators of all defined benefit plans, not...

  9. Attention demands of spoken word planning: a review.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Ardi; Piai, Vitória

    2011-01-01

    Attention and language are among the most intensively researched abilities in the cognitive neurosciences, but the relation between these abilities has largely been neglected. There is increasing evidence, however, that linguistic processes, such as those underlying the planning of words, cannot proceed without paying some form of attention. Here, we review evidence that word planning requires some but not full attention. The evidence comes from chronometric studies of word planning in picture naming and word reading under divided attention conditions. It is generally assumed that the central attention demands of a process are indexed by the extent that the process delays the performance of a concurrent unrelated task. The studies measured the speed and accuracy of linguistic and non-linguistic responding as well as eye gaze durations reflecting the allocation of attention. First, empirical evidence indicates that in several task situations, processes up to and including phonological encoding in word planning delay, or are delayed by, the performance of concurrent unrelated non-linguistic tasks. These findings suggest that word planning requires central attention. Second, empirical evidence indicates that conflicts in word planning may be resolved while concurrently performing an unrelated non-linguistic task, making a task decision, or making a go/no-go decision. These findings suggest that word planning does not require full central attention. We outline a computationally implemented theory of attention and word planning, and describe at various points the outcomes of computer simulations that demonstrate the utility of the theory in accounting for the key findings. Finally, we indicate how attention deficits may contribute to impaired language performance, such as in individuals with specific language impairment.

  10. Action Planning Mediates Guidance of Visual Attention from Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Feldmann-Wüstefeld, Tobias; Schubö, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Visual search is impaired when a salient task-irrelevant stimulus is presented together with the target. Recent research has shown that this attentional capture effect is enhanced when the salient stimulus matches working memory (WM) content, arguing in favor of attention guidance from WM. Visual attention was also shown to be closely coupled with action planning. Preparing a movement renders action-relevant perceptual dimensions more salient and thus increases search efficiency for stimuli sharing that dimension. The present study aimed at revealing common underlying mechanisms for selective attention, WM, and action planning. Participants both prepared a specific movement (grasping or pointing) and memorized a color hue. Before the movement was executed towards an object of the memorized color, a visual search task (additional singleton) was performed. Results showed that distraction from target was more pronounced when the additional singleton had a memorized color. This WM-guided attention deployment was more pronounced when participants prepared a grasping movement. We argue that preparing a grasping movement mediates attention guidance from WM content by enhancing representations of memory content that matches the distractor shape (i.e., circles), thus encouraging attentional capture by circle distractors of the memorized color. We conclude that templates for visual search, action planning, and WM compete for resources and thus cause interferences. PMID:26171241

  11. Attention in Relation to Coding and Planning in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahapatra, Shamita

    2015-01-01

    A group of 50 skilled readers and a group of 50 less-skilled readers of Grade 5 matched for age and intelligence and selected on the basis of their proficiency in reading comprehension were tested for their competence in word reading and the processes of attention, simultaneous coding, successive coding and planning at three levels, i.e.,…

  12. Defining motivational intensity of need for family planning in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Bernice; Ross, John; Madsen, Elizabeth Leahy

    2014-09-01

    Non-users of contraception differ greatly in their likely motivation to adopt a method or resume use. This study presents a new approach to defining high and low motivation groups by stated intention to use, past use, and unmet need, to determine how these groups differ in characteristics and in region of residence. Data come from 23 DHS surveys in sub-Saharan countries, with representation from the eastern/southern region and western/central region. The low motivation non-users, with less past use and less intention to use in the future, are more rural, less educated, and closer to poverty. Motivational intensity is lower in the western/central region, which contains far fewer intenders than the eastern/southern region and where many more report no past use and no unmet need. When used to guide planning, unmet need should be augmented with motivation, since the two classifications do not entirely overlap. Between 10 and 17% of current non-users of family planning are likely highly motivated to use, but are not captured in the unmet need classification. Program implications for these non-using groups are discussed.

  13. 26 CFR 1.401(l)-2 - Permitted disparity for defined contribution plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... plans. 1.401(l)-2 Section 1.401(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(l)-2 Permitted disparity for defined contribution plans. (a) Requirements—(1) In... contribution plan is permitted under section 401(l) and this section for a plan year only if the plan...

  14. 26 CFR 1.401(l)-2 - Permitted disparity for defined contribution plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... plans. 1.401(l)-2 Section 1.401(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(l)-2 Permitted disparity for defined contribution plans. (a) Requirements—(1) In... contribution plan is permitted under section 401(l) and this section for a plan year only if the plan...

  15. 26 CFR 1.401(l)-2 - Permitted disparity for defined contribution plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... plans. 1.401(l)-2 Section 1.401(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(l)-2 Permitted disparity for defined contribution plans. (a) Requirements—(1) In... contribution plan is permitted under section 401(l) and this section for a plan year only if the plan...

  16. 26 CFR 1.401(l)-2 - Permitted disparity for defined contribution plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... plans. 1.401(l)-2 Section 1.401(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(l)-2 Permitted disparity for defined contribution plans. (a) Requirements—(1) In... contribution plan is permitted under section 401(l) and this section for a plan year only if the plan...

  17. 26 CFR 1.401(l)-2 - Permitted disparity for defined contribution plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... plans. 1.401(l)-2 Section 1.401(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE.... § 1.401(l)-2 Permitted disparity for defined contribution plans. (a) Requirements—(1) In general... contribution plan is permitted under section 401(l) and this section for a plan year only if the plan...

  18. 26 CFR 1.415(b)-1 - Limitations for defined benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations for defined benefit plans. 1.415(b)-1 Section 1.415(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.415(b)-1 Limitations for defined benefit plans....

  19. Skybeams and 'light art' defined as 'advertising' for planning purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan-Taylor, M.

    2008-02-01

    Skybeams and light projections have been a long standing problem, not just because of possible light pollution, ecological and public safety issues, but also because there was confusion as to when planning permission was required. Under some circumstances a light beam could be used for 28 days without needing permission, whilst other users such as circuses would always need planning permission. The celebrated Guildford case saw a skybeam classified as an advert, and so needing planning permission (after lobbying by the Campaign for Dark Skies with local support), but this was not binding on later cases. So there was a lack of firm national guidance, or a court judgment clarifying the issue. However, the situation is now much clearer due to the new Town and Country Planning (Control of Advertisements) (England) Regulations 2007.

  20. Replacement Ratio Projections in Defined Contribution Retirement Plans: Time, Salary Growth, Investment Return, and Real Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Michael; King, Francis P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a method of projecting inflation-adjusted (real) retirement benefit replacement ratios for defined contribution retirement plans such as TIAA-CREF (Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association--College Retirement Equities Fund). The illustrated ratios are comparable to the ratios in defined benefit plans that result…

  1. 26 CFR 1.415(c)-1 - Limitations for defined contribution plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations for defined contribution plans. 1.415(c)-1 Section 1.415(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.415(c)-1 Limitations for defined contribution...

  2. 26 CFR 1.415(b)-1 - Limitations for defined benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limitations for defined benefit plans. 1.415(b)-1 Section 1.415(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.415(b)-1 Limitations for defined benefit...

  3. Which Teachers Choose a Defined Contribution Pension Plan? Evidence from the Florida Retirement System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2002, public school teachers in Florida have been permitted to choose between a defined benefit (DB) and a defined contribution (DC) retirement plan. We exploit this unique policy environment to study new teachers' revealed preferences over pension plan structures. Roughly 30 percent of teachers hired between 2003 and 2008 selected the DC…

  4. 26 CFR 1.401(l)-3 - Permitted disparity for defined benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....401(l)-3 Section 1.401(l)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY.... § 1.401(l)-3 Permitted disparity for defined benefit plans. (a) Requirements—(1) In general. Disparity... 401(l) and this section for a plan year only if the plan satisfies paragraphs (a)(2) through (a)(6)...

  5. 26 CFR 1.401(l)-3 - Permitted disparity for defined benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....401(l)-3 Section 1.401(l)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY.... § 1.401(l)-3 Permitted disparity for defined benefit plans. (a) Requirements—(1) In general. Disparity... 401(l) and this section for a plan year only if the plan satisfies paragraphs (a)(2) through (a)(6)...

  6. 26 CFR 1.401(l)-3 - Permitted disparity for defined benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....401(l)-3 Section 1.401(l)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY.... § 1.401(l)-3 Permitted disparity for defined benefit plans. (a) Requirements—(1) In general. Disparity... 401(l) and this section for a plan year only if the plan satisfies paragraphs (a)(2) through (a)(6)...

  7. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(26)-3 - Rules applicable to a defined benefit plan's prior benefit structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... benefit structure. (a) General rule. A defined benefit plan that does not meet one of the exceptions in... structure. Defined contribution plans are not subject to this section. (b) Prior benefit structure. Each defined benefit plan has only one prior benefit structure, and all accrued benefits under the plan as...

  8. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(26)-3 - Rules applicable to a defined benefit plan's prior benefit structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... benefit structure. (a) General rule. A defined benefit plan that does not meet one of the exceptions in... structure. Defined contribution plans are not subject to this section. (b) Prior benefit structure. Each defined benefit plan has only one prior benefit structure, and all accrued benefits under the plan as...

  9. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(26)-3 - Rules applicable to a defined benefit plan's prior benefit structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(26)-3 Rules applicable to a defined benefit plan's prior benefit structure...(b) must satisfy paragraph (c) of this section with respect to its prior benefit structure. Defined contribution plans are not subject to this section. (b) Prior benefit structure. Each defined benefit plan...

  10. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(26)-3 - Rules applicable to a defined benefit plan's prior benefit structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... benefit structure. (a) General rule. A defined benefit plan that does not meet one of the exceptions in... structure. Defined contribution plans are not subject to this section. (b) Prior benefit structure. Each defined benefit plan has only one prior benefit structure, and all accrued benefits under the plan as...

  11. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(26)-3 - Rules applicable to a defined benefit plan's prior benefit structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... benefit structure. (a) General rule. A defined benefit plan that does not meet one of the exceptions in... structure. Defined contribution plans are not subject to this section. (b) Prior benefit structure. Each defined benefit plan has only one prior benefit structure, and all accrued benefits under the plan as...

  12. Teaching the Interrelationships among Costs, Expense, and Liability of a Defined Benefit Pension Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Arlette C.; Godwin, Norman H.

    2008-01-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) recently issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 158 "Employers' Accounting for Defined Benefit Pension and Other Postretirement Plans" (SFAS #158). Their intent is to comprehensively reconsider the accounting for postretirement benefit plans in phases. The first phase was to provide…

  13. 26 CFR 1.401(l)-3 - Permitted disparity for defined benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....401(l)-3 Section 1.401(l)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(l)-3... employer-provided benefits under a defined benefit plan is permitted under section 401(l) and this...

  14. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-6 - Contributory defined benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...)-6 Contributory defined benefit plans. (a) Introduction. This section provides rules necessary for...)-1(b)(2). Paragraph (b) of this section provides rules for determining the amount of benefits derived... this section provides the exclusive rules for determining whether a contributory DB plan satisfies §...

  15. 26 CFR 1.415(b)-1 - Limitations for defined benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... § 1.415(b)-1 Limitations for defined benefit plans. (a) General rules—(1) Maximum limitations. Except... in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section) accrued by a participant (whether or not the benefit is... is any plan, contract, or account to which section 415 applies pursuant to § 1.415(a)-1(a) or (b)...

  16. Defining robustness protocols: a method to include and evaluate robustness in clinical plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, S. E.; Albertini, F.; Thomas, S. J.; Lomax, A. J.

    2015-04-01

    We aim to define a site-specific robustness protocol to be used during the clinical plan evaluation process. Plan robustness of 16 skull base IMPT plans to systematic range and random set-up errors have been retrospectively and systematically analysed. This was determined by calculating the error-bar dose distribution (ebDD) for all the plans and by defining some metrics used to define protocols aiding the plan assessment. Additionally, an example of how to clinically use the defined robustness database is given whereby a plan with sub-optimal brainstem robustness was identified. The advantage of using different beam arrangements to improve the plan robustness was analysed. Using the ebDD it was found range errors had a smaller effect on dose distribution than the corresponding set-up error in a single fraction, and that organs at risk were most robust to the range errors, whereas the target was more robust to set-up errors. A database was created to aid planners in terms of plan robustness aims in these volumes. This resulted in the definition of site-specific robustness protocols. The use of robustness constraints allowed for the identification of a specific patient that may have benefited from a treatment of greater individuality. A new beam arrangement showed to be preferential when balancing conformality and robustness for this case. The ebDD and error-bar volume histogram proved effective in analysing plan robustness. The process of retrospective analysis could be used to establish site-specific robustness planning protocols in proton therapy. These protocols allow the planner to determine plans that, although delivering a dosimetrically adequate dose distribution, have resulted in sub-optimal robustness to these uncertainties. For these cases the use of different beam start conditions may improve the plan robustness to set-up and range uncertainties.

  17. Global attention facilitates the planning, but not execution of goal-directed reaches

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, J. Daniel; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, humans interact with multiple objects in complex environments. A large body of literature demonstrates that target selection is biased toward recently attended features, such that reaches are faster and trajectory curvature is reduced when target features (i.e., color) are repeated (priming of pop-out). In the real world, however, objects are comprised of several features—some of which may be more suitable for action than others. When fetching a mug from the cupboard, for example, attention not only has to be allocated to the object, but also the handle. To date, no study has investigated the impact of hierarchical feature organization on target selection for action. Here, we employed a color-oddity search task in which targets were Pac-men (i.e., a circle with a triangle cut out) oriented to be either consistent or inconsistent with the percept of a global Kanizsa triangle. We found that reaches were initiated faster when a task-irrelevant illusory figure was present independent of color repetition. Additionally, consistent with priming of pop-out, both reach planning and execution were facilitated when local target colors were repeated, regardless of whether a global figure was present. We also demonstrated that figures defined by illusory, but not real contours, afforded an early target selection benefit. In sum, these findings suggest that when local targets are perceptually grouped to form an illusory surface, attention quickly spreads across the global figure and facilitates the early stage of reach planning, but not execution. In contrast, local color priming is evident throughout goal-directed reaching. PMID:27467450

  18. The defined-contribution plan: the next generation of healthcare financing.

    PubMed

    Emery, J D

    2001-01-01

    In response to rising health insurance premiums, many purchasers of coverage are evaluating the possibility of implementing defined-contribution health insurance plans. Under a defined-contribution plan, employers or the government pay a specified portion of the premium, and the consumer chooses a plan from a menu of options, paying the balance of the premium based on their plan selection. A shift to a defined-contribution model will have far-reaching implications for consumers, employer and government purchasers, payers, and providers. Providers will face changes in consumption patterns and the need to develop a brand image, market their strengths directly to consumers, educate consumers about their services and pricing, and reconfigure infrastructures to be able to respond efficiently to consumer demands. PMID:11211485

  19. The ongoing growth of defined contribution and individual account plans: issues and implications.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lynn

    2002-03-01

    This Issue Brief discusses the implications of the growth of defined contribution (DC) retirement plans and individual account plans and the subsequent impact on employers, employees, and retirement planning. It also presents a look at data regarding contributions to retirement plans, employer trends regarding retirement plans, and the potential impact of changes to the federal Social Security retirement system. The findings and data in this article are drawn from material presented at a policy forum sponsored by the Employee Benefit Research Institute Education and Research Fund (EBRI-ERF) Dec. 7, 2001, in Washington, DC. Today, prospective retirees need to be able to generate about 75 percent of their current income to maintain their standard of living in retirement, up from 63 percent of their income in 1997, according to the Replacement Ratio Study, by Aon Corporation and Georgia State University. However, the most recent data show a decline in the percentage of income that average employees are saving. While it is too early to quantify, it does not appear that the retirement provisions in the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA) are strongly influencing the movement to DC plans. However, employers appear very interested in the provisions of the new law with regard to both defined benefit (DB) retirement plans and DC plans. The number of large employers offering DB plans continues to decline, from 85 percent in 1990 to 73 percent in 2000, according to the Hewitt study. Although employers may have little influence over some factors that affect participation rates in voluntary retirement plans, they have various options to increase participation rates, such as "matching" employee contributions, offering loan features, and providing education to employees about the plans.

  20. 77 FR 66915 - Amendment of Prohibited Payment Option Under Single-Employer Defined Benefit Plan of Plan Sponsor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... amend its single-employer defined benefit plan to eliminate a single-sum distribution option (or other.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background This document contains amendments to the Income Tax Regulations (26 CFR... Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, Public Law 93-406 (88 Stat. 829 (1974)), as amended (ERISA)....

  1. 77 FR 37349 - Amendment of Prohibited Payment Option Under Single-Employer Defined Benefit Plan of Plan Sponsor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... amend its single-employer defined benefit plan to eliminate a single-sum distribution option (or other... proposed amendments to the Income Tax Regulations (26 CFR part 1) under section 411(d)(6) of the Internal... 412(d)(2) of the Code or section 4281 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974,...

  2. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-6 - Contributory defined benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... § 1.401(a)(4)-6 Contributory defined benefit plans. (a) Introduction. This section provides rules... of § 1.401(a)(4)-1(b)(2). Paragraph (b) of this section provides rules for determining the amount of.... Paragraph (c) of this section provides the exclusive rules for determining whether a contributory DB...

  3. 26 CFR 1.415(b)-1 - Limitations for defined benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...(b)-1 Limitations for defined benefit plans. (a) General rules—(1) Maximum limitations. Except as... paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section) accrued by a participant (whether or not the benefit is vested) or the..., contract, or account to which section 415 applies pursuant to § 1.415(a)-1(a) or (b) (or any...

  4. An Exploratory Study of Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive Cognitive Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naglieri, Jack A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined factorial validity of tasks designed to measure cognitive processing in each of Luria's three functional units. Fourth and fifth graders (N=112) were administered nine experimental tasks chosen or developed according to theoretical components of planning, attention, simultaneous, and successive processes. Obtained general support for…

  5. Gender Differences in Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive (PASS) Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naglieri, Jack A.; Rojahn, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    Examined 1,100 boys and 1,100 girls who matched the U.S. population using the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive (PASS) cognitive-processing theory, built on the neuropsychological work of A.R. Luria (1973). Results illustrate that the PASS theory offers a useful way to examine gender differences in cognitive performance. (BF)

  6. Attention, gaze shifting, and dual-task interference from phonological encoding in spoken word planning.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Ardi

    2008-12-01

    Controversy exists about whether dual-task interference from word planning reflects structural bottleneck or attentional control factors. Here, participants named pictures whose names could or could not be phonologically prepared, and they manually responded to arrows presented away from (Experiment 1), or superimposed onto, the pictures (Experiments 2 and 3); or they responded to tones (Experiment 4). Pictures and arrows/tones were presented at stimulus onset asynchronies of 0, 300, and 1,000 ms. Earlier research showed that vocal responding hampers auditory perception, which predicts earlier shifts of attention to the tones than to the arrows. Word planning yielded dual-task interference. Phonological preparation reduced the latencies of picture naming and gaze shifting. The preparation benefit was propagated into the latencies of the manual responses to the arrows but not to the tones. The malleability of the interference supports the attentional control account. This conclusion was corroborated by computer simulations showing that an extension of WEAVER++ (A. Roelofs, 2003) with assumptions about the attentional control of tasks quantitatively accounts for the latencies of vocal responding, gaze shifting, and manual responding. PMID:19045994

  7. Evaluation of perception performance in neck dissection planning using eye tracking and attention landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgert, Oliver; Örn, Veronika; Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Gessat, Michael; Joos, Markus; Strauß, Gero; Tietjen, Christian; Preim, Bernhard; Hertel, Ilka

    2007-03-01

    Neck dissection is a surgical intervention at which cervical lymph node metastases are removed. Accurate surgical planning is of high importance because wrong judgment of the situation causes severe harm for the patient. Diagnostic perception of radiological images by a surgeon is an acquired skill that can be enhanced by training and experience. To improve accuracy in detecting pathological lymph nodes by newcomers and less experienced professionals, it is essential to understand how surgical experts solve relevant visual and recognition tasks. By using eye tracking and especially the newly-developed attention landscapes visualizations, it could be determined whether visualization options, for example 3D models instead of CT data, help in increasing accuracy and speed of neck dissection planning. Thirteen ORL surgeons with different levels of expertise participated in this study. They inspected different visualizations of 3D models and original CT datasets of patients. Among others, we used scanpath analysis and attention landscapes to interpret the inspection strategies. It was possible to distinguish different patterns of visual exploratory activity. The experienced surgeons exhibited a higher concentration of attention on the limited number of areas of interest and demonstrated less saccadic eye movements indicating a better orientation.

  8. Contribution dynamics in defined contribution pension plans during the great recession of 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Dushi, Irena; Iams, Howard M; Tamborini, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    We investigate changes in workers' participation and contributions to defined contribution (DC) plans during the Great Recession of 2007-2009. Using longitudinal information from W-2 tax records matched to a nationally representative sample of respondents from the Survey ofl Income and Program Participation, we find that the recent economic downturn had a considerable impact on workers' participation and contributions to DC plans. Thirty-nine percent of 2007 participants decreased contributions to DC plans by more than 10 percent during the Great Recession. Our findings highlight the interrelationship between the dynamics in DC contributions and earnings changes. Participants experiencing a decrease in earnings of more than 10 percent were not only more likely to stop contributing by 2009 than those with stable earnings (30 percent versus 9 percent), but they also decreased their contributions substantially (-$1,839 versus -$129). The proportion of workers who decreased or stopped contributions during the crisis exceeded the proportion observed prior to it (2005-2007). PMID:23914623

  9. Medical necessity and defined coverage benefits in the Oregon Health Plan.

    PubMed Central

    Glassman, P A; Jacobson, P D; Asch, S

    1997-01-01

    The policy debate in Oregon has primarily focused on the Prioritized List of Services. However, little information is available on how defined coverage benefits and managed care affect the role of medical necessity in determining care for Medicaid patients. This issue is important because medical necessity determinations are currently used by many states to limit extraneous health care costs but require resource-intensive oversight, are open to wide variance, and frequently prompt litigation challenging interpretations of what is necessary and what is not. The qualitative study described here addressed whether medical necessity remains a salient and useful concept in the Oregon Health Plan. Our results indicate that defined coverage benefits, as described by the funded portion of the Prioritized List of Services, supplant medical necessity determinations for coverage, while managed care incentives limit the need for medical necessity determinations at the provider level. Clinical choices are, for the most part, guided by providers' judgment within the financial constraints of capitation and by targeted use management techniques. The combination of capitated care and Oregon's defined coverage benefits package has marginalized the use of medical necessity, albeit with consequences for state oversight of Medicaid services. PMID:9224198

  10. Climate change and family planning: least-developed countries define the agenda

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Louise; Butler, Colin D; Anage, Ababu

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The links between rapid population growth and concerns regarding climate change have received little attention. Some commentators have argued that slowing population growth is necessary to reduce further rises in carbon emissions. Others have objected that this would give rise to dehumanizing “population control” programmes in developing countries. Yet the perspective of the developing countries that will be worst affected by climate change has been almost completely ignored by the scientific literature. This deficit is addressed by this paper, which analyses the first 40 National Adaptation Programmes of Action reports submitted by governments of least-developed countries to the Global Environment Facility for funding. Of these documents, 93% identified at least one of three ways in which demographic trends interact with the effects of climate change: (i) faster degradation of the sources of natural resources; (ii) increased demand for scarce resources; and (iii) heightened human vulnerability to extreme weather events. These findings suggest that voluntary access to family planning services should be made more available to poor communities in least-developed countries. We stress the distinction between this approach, which prioritizes the welfare of poor communities affected by climate change, and the argument that population growth should be slowed to limit increases in global carbon emissions. The paper concludes by calling for increased support for rights-based family planning services, including those integrated with HIV/AIDS services, as an important complementary measure to climate change adaptation programmes in developing countries. PMID:20072771

  11. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(9)-6 - Required minimum distributions for defined benefit plans and annuity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... benefit plans and annuity contracts. Q-1. How must distributions under a defined benefit plan be paid in... in the Internal Revenue Bulletin. See § 601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter. Q-2. How must... distribution incidental benefit requirement of this A-2. Q-3. How long is a period certain under a...

  12. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(9)-6 - Required minimum distributions for defined benefit plans and annuity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... benefit plans and annuity contracts. Q-1. How must distributions under a defined benefit plan be paid in... in the Internal Revenue Bulletin. See § 601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter. Q-2. How must... distribution incidental benefit requirement of this A-2. Q-3. How long is a period certain under a...

  13. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(9)-6 - Required minimum distributions for defined benefit plans and annuity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... benefit plans and annuity contracts. Q-1. How must distributions under a defined benefit plan be paid in... in the Internal Revenue Bulletin. See § 601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter. Q-2. How must... distribution incidental benefit requirement of this A-2. Q-3. How long is a period certain under a...

  14. Disentangling weak coherence and executive dysfunction: planning drawing in autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Booth, Rhonda; Charlton, Rebecca; Hughes, Claire; Happé, Francesca

    2003-02-28

    A tendency to focus on details at the expense of configural information, 'weak coherence', has been proposed as a cognitive style in autism. In the present study we tested whether weak coherence might be the result of executive dysfunction, by testing clinical groups known to show deficits on tests of executive control. Boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were compared with age- and intelligence quotient (IQ)-matched boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically developing (TD) boys, on a drawing task requiring planning for the inclusion of a new element. Weak coherence was measured through analysis of drawing style. In line with the predictions made, the ASD group was more detail-focused in their drawings than were either ADHD or TD boys. The ASD and ADHD groups both showed planning impairments, which were more severe in the former group. Poor planning did not, however, predict detail-focus, and scores on the two aspects of the task were unrelated in the clinical groups. These findings indicate that weak coherence may indeed be a cognitive style specific to autism and unrelated to cognitive deficits in frontal functions.

  15. 29 CFR 2520.101-4 - Annual funding notice for multiemployer defined benefit pension plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the plan; (2) The address and phone number of the plan administrator and the plan's principal... elects to include, provided that such information: (i) Is necessary or helpful to understanding the... format requirements of 29 CFR 2520.102-2. (d) When to furnish notice. A funding notice shall be...

  16. 29 CFR 2520.101-4 - Annual funding notice for multiemployer defined benefit pension plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the plan; (2) The address and phone number of the plan administrator and the plan's principal... elects to include, provided that such information: (i) Is necessary or helpful to understanding the... format requirements of 29 CFR 2520.102-2. (d) When to furnish notice. A funding notice shall be...

  17. Defining the Clinical Target Volume for Bladder Cancer Radiotherapy Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Peter; Anjarwalla, Salim; Gilbert, Hugh; Kinder, Richard

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: There are currently no data for the expansion margin required to define the clinical target volume (CTV) around bladder tumors. This information is particularly relevant when perivesical soft tissue changes are seen on the planning scan. While this appearance may reflect extravesical extension (EVE), it may also be an artifact of previous transurethral resection (TUR). Methods and Materials: Eighty patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who had undergone radical cystectomy were studied. All patients underwent preoperative TUR and staging computed tomography (CT) scans. The presence and extent of tumor growth beyond the outer bladder wall was measured radiologically and histopathologically. Results: Forty one (51%) patients had histologically confirmed tumor extension into perivesical fat. The median and mean extensions beyond the outer bladder wall were 1.7 and 3.1 mm, respectively. Thirty five (44%) patients had EVE, as seen on CT scans. The sensitivity and specificity of CT scans for EVE were 56% and 79%, respectively. False-positive results were infrequent and not affected by either the timing or the amount of tissue resected at TUR. CT scans consistently tended to overestimate the extent of EVE. Tumor size and the presence of either lymphovascular invasion or squamoid differentiation predict a greater extent of EVE. Conclusions: In patients with radiological evidence of extravesical disease, the CTV should comprise the outer bladder wall plus a 10-mm margin. In patients with no evidence of extravesical disease on CT scans, the CTV should be restricted to the outer bladder wall plus a 6-mm margin. These recommendations would encompass microscopic disease extension in 90% of cases.

  18. Defining Advancement Career Paths and Succession Plans: Critical Human Capital Retention Strategies for High-Performing Advancement Divisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croteau, Jon Derek; Wolk, Holly Gordon

    2010-01-01

    There are many factors that can influence whether a highly talented staff member will build a career within an institution or use it as a stepping stone. This article defines and explores the notions of developing career paths and succession planning and why they are critical human capital investment strategies in retaining the highest performers…

  19. 26 CFR 1.411(b)(5)-1 - Reduction in rate of benefit accrual under a defined benefit plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., statutory hybrid plan, and variable annuity benefit formula in § 1.411(a)(13)-1(d) apply for purposes of... paragraph (d)(2) of this section (relating to preservation of capital). (B) Exception for variable annuity...), does not apply in the case of a benefit provided under a variable annuity benefit formula as defined...

  20. 29 CFR 2520.101-4 - Annual funding notice for multiemployer defined benefit pension plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... format requirements of 29 CFR 2520.102-2. (d) When to furnish notice. A funding notice shall be furnished... pension plans. 2520.101-4 Section 2520.101-4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE... pension plans. (a) In general. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, pursuant...

  1. 26 CFR 1.423-2 - Employee stock purchase plan defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... corporation of Subsidiary YY and Subsidiary ZZ. S maintains an employee stock purchase plan with both YY and..., all employees of YY and ZZ are permitted to participate in the plan with the exception of ZZ's highly... all employees of YY and ZZ granted options in the same offering. Example 8. Assume the same facts...

  2. 26 CFR 1.423-2 - Employee stock purchase plan defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... corporation of Subsidiary YY and Subsidiary ZZ. S maintains an employee stock purchase plan with both YY and..., all employees of YY and ZZ are permitted to participate in the plan with the exception of ZZ's highly... all employees of YY and ZZ granted options in the same offering. Example 8. Assume the same facts...

  3. 26 CFR 1.423-2 - Employee stock purchase plan defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... corporation of Subsidiary YY and Subsidiary ZZ. S maintains an employee stock purchase plan with both YY and..., all employees of YY and ZZ are permitted to participate in the plan with the exception of ZZ's highly... all employees of YY and ZZ granted options in the same offering. Example 8. Assume the same facts...

  4. A Validation Study of the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive (PASS) Theory and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Justin Moore

    2010-01-01

    This study set out to determine if the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive (PASS) cognitive processing model, a model previously investigated with children, would hold its factorial structure with adults. A collection of PASS experimental tasks were analyzed through Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis. A four-factor solution consistent…

  5. Evaluation of Planning Dysfunction in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorders Using the Zoo Map Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salcedo-Marin, M. D.; Moreno-Granados, J. M.; Ruiz-Veguilla, M.; Ferrin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorders (ADHD) and Autistic-Spectrum-Disorders (ASD) share overlapping clinical and cognitive features that may confuse the diagnosis. Evaluation of executive problems and planning dysfunction may aid the clinical diagnostic process and help disentangle the neurobiological process underlying these conditions. This…

  6. Uncovering Collaborative Literacy Strategies, Alternative Assessments, and a Personalized Behavior Plan to Support Learners with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMantia, Dana J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to delve into the challenges of collaborative literacy instruction, literacy assessments, and the development of behavior plans in order to support Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) learners in an urban classroom setting. The DSM-IV states that the neuropsychiatry syndrome of ADHD affects approximately…

  7. 26 CFR 1.401(l)-3 - Permitted disparity for defined benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... percent/0.75 percent) or (0.69 percent×0.7 percent/0.75 percent)). Example 4. Plan P is an offset plan.... The 0.75-percent factor is therefore replaced by 0.69 percent pursuant to the table in paragraph (d)(9) of this section. The 0.69-percent factor is 92 percent of the 0.75-percent factor. Because the...

  8. Towards Defining Deficient Emotional Self Regulation in Youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Using the Child Behavior Check List: A Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Thomas; Faraone, Stephen V.; Surman, Craig B.H.; Petty, Carter; Clarke, Allison; Batchelder, Holly; Wozniak, Janet; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Objective Deficient emotional self regulation (DESR) is characterized by deficits in self-regulating the physiological arousal caused by strong emotions. We examined whether a unique profile of the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL) would help identify DESR in children with Attention- Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methods Subjects were 197 children with and 224 without ADHD. We defined DESR if a child had an aggregate cut-off score of > 180 but < 210 on the Anxiety/Depression, Aggression, and Attention scales of the CBCL (CBCL-DESR). This profile was selected because of 1) its conceptual congruence with the clinical concept of DESR and 2) because its extreme (>210) form had been previously associated with severe forms of mood and behavioral dysregulation in children with ADHD. All subjects were comprehensively assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and a wide range of functional measures. Results Forty four percent of children with ADHD had a positive CBCL- DESR profile vs. 2% of controls (p<0.001). The CBCL-DESR profile was associated with elevated rates of anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders, as well as significantly more impairments in emotional and interpersonal functioning. Conclusions The CBCL-DESR profile helped identify a subgroup of ADHD children with a psychopathological and functional profile consistent with the clinical concept of DESR. PMID:21904086

  9. Evaluation of planning dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autistic spectrum disorders using the zoo map task.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Marin, M D; Moreno-Granados, J M; Ruiz-Veguilla, M; Ferrin, M

    2013-02-01

    Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorders (ADHD) and Autistic-Spectrum-Disorders (ASD) share overlapping clinical and cognitive features that may confuse the diagnosis. Evaluation of executive problems and planning dysfunction may aid the clinical diagnostic process and help disentangle the neurobiological process underlying these conditions. This study evaluates the planning function problems in 80 male children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and 23 male children and adolescents with ASD using the Zoo Map Task; both groups were comparable in terms of age and IQ. The relationship between planning function and other executive functions is also assessed. In comparison to the ADHD groups, ASD children presented more errors in the open-ended tasks; these planning function problems seem to be mediated by processing speed and motor coordination, however it does not seem to be mediated by other executive function problems, including attention, working memory or response inhibition. In the time for planning, an interaction between the specific subgroups and working memory components was observed. ADHD and ASD present with different patterns of planning function, even when other components of executive function are taken into account; clinical and educational implications are discussed.

  10. Attracting Media Attention: Stunts Can Help, but Newsworthy Events plus Good PR Planning Matter Most.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Terry L.

    1980-01-01

    Personality in planning, promoting, and executing a special event may be as important as the event itself. Events should be planned that deserve media coverage, and then skills should be used to obtain coverage. (MSE)

  11. 29 CFR 2520.101-4 - Annual funding notice for multiemployer defined benefit pension plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... format requirements of 29 CFR 2520.102-2. (d) When to furnish notice. A funding notice shall be furnished within 9 months after the close of the plan year, unless the Internal Revenue Service has granted an.... (g) Model notice. The appendix to this section contains a model notice that is intended to...

  12. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(35)-1 - Diversification requirements for certain defined contribution plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... deemed by the SEC as having a “ready market” under SEC Rule 15c3-1 (17 CFR 240.15c3-1). (g) Applicability.... The plan may limit the time for divestment and reinvestment to periodic, reasonable opportunities... time for divestment and reinvestment to periodic, reasonable opportunities occurring no less...

  13. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-6 - Contributory defined benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contribution rate and the excess employee contribution rate. In determining this weighted average, the weight... integration level. The weight of the excess employee contribution rate is equal to the difference between one and the weight of the base employee contribution rate. (3) Offset plans with varying...

  14. How planful is routine behavior? A selective-attention model of performance in the Tower of Hanoi.

    PubMed

    Patsenko, Elena G; Altmann, Erik M

    2010-02-01

    Routine human behavior has often been attributed to plans-mental representations of sequences goals and actions-but can also be attributed to more opportunistic interactions of mind and a structured environment. This study asks whether performance on a task traditionally analyzed in terms of plans can be better understood from a "situated" (or "embodied") perspective. A saccade-contingent display-updating paradigm is used to change the environment by adding, deleting, and moving task-relevant objects without participants' direct awareness. Response latencies, action patterns, and eye movements all indicate that performance is guided not by plans stored in memory but by a control routine bound to objects as needed by perception and selective attention. The results have implications for interpreting everyday task performance and particular neuropsychological deficits. PMID:20121314

  15. Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: Alternative Treatment Plans for School Age Children Diagnosed with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbonell, Claudia L.

    This literature review of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) reviews the diagnosis and treatment options for children diagnosed with ADHD. It describes the complexity of ADHD, its symptoms, treatments, and implications on a child's social and academic development as well as strategies for assisting such children. Individual sections…

  16. Defining internal target volume using positron emission tomography for radiation therapy planning of moving lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Riegel, Adam C; Bucci, M Kara; Mawlawi, Osama R; Ahmad, Moiz; Luo, Dershan; Chandler, Adam; Pan, Tinsu

    2014-01-06

    Substantial disagreement exists over appropriate PET segmentation techniques for non-small cell lung cancer. Currently, no segmentation algorithm explicitly considers tumor motion in determining tumor borders. We developed an automatic PET segmentation model as a function of target volume, motion extent, and source-to-background ratio (the VMSBR model). The purpose of this work was to apply the VMSBR model and six other segmentation algorithms to a sample of lung tumors. PET and 4D CT were performed in the same imaging session for 23 patients (24 tumors) for radiation therapy planning. Internal target volumes (ITVs) were autosegmented on maximum intensity projection (MIP) of cine CT. ITVs were delineated on PET using the following methods: 15%, 35%, and 42% of maximum activity concentration, standardized uptake value (SUV) of 2.5 g/mL, 15% of mean activity concentration plus background, a linear function of mean SUV, and the VMSBR model. Predicted threshold values from each method were compared to measured optimal threshold values, and resulting volume magnitudes were compared to cine-CT-derived ITV. Correlation between predicted and measured threshold values ranged from slopes of 0.29 for the simplest single-threshold techniques to 0.90 for the VMSBR technique. R2 values ranged from 0.07 for the simplest single-threshold techniques to 0.86 for the VMSBR technique. The VMSBR segmentation technique that included volume, motion, and source-to-background ratio, produced accurate ITVs in patients when compared with cine-CT-derived ITV.

  17. Emerging support for a role of exercise in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder intervention planning.

    PubMed

    Berwid, Olga G; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2012-10-01

    Recent years have seen an expansion of interest in non-pharmacological interventions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although considerable treatment development has focused on cognitive training programs, compelling evidence indicates that intense aerobic exercise enhances brain structure and function, and as such, might be beneficial to children with ADHD. This paper reviews evidence for a direct impact of exercise on neural functioning and preliminary evidence that exercise may have positive effects on children with ADHD. At present, data are promising and support the need for further study, but are insufficient to recommend widespread use of such interventions for children with ADHD.

  18. Emerging support for a role of exercise in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder intervention planning.

    PubMed

    Berwid, Olga G; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2012-10-01

    Recent years have seen an expansion of interest in non-pharmacological interventions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although considerable treatment development has focused on cognitive training programs, compelling evidence indicates that intense aerobic exercise enhances brain structure and function, and as such, might be beneficial to children with ADHD. This paper reviews evidence for a direct impact of exercise on neural functioning and preliminary evidence that exercise may have positive effects on children with ADHD. At present, data are promising and support the need for further study, but are insufficient to recommend widespread use of such interventions for children with ADHD. PMID:22895892

  19. Is enough attention given to climate change in health service planning? An Australian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Anthony J.; Bambrick, Hilary J.; Friel, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Background Within an Australian context, the medium to long-term health impacts of climate change are likely to be wide, varied and amplify many existing disorders and health inequities. How the health system responds to these challenges will be best considered in the context of existing health facilities and services. This paper provides a snapshot of the understanding that Australian health planners have of the potential health impacts of climate change. Methods The first author interviewed (n=16) health service planners from five Australian states and territories using an interpretivist paradigm. All interviews were digitally recorded, key components transcribed and thematically analysed. Results Results indicate that the majority of participants were aware of climate change but not of its potential health impacts. Despite this, most planners were of the opinion that they would need to plan for the health impacts of climate change on the community. Conclusion With the best available evidence pointing towards there being significant health impacts as a result of climate change, now is the time to undertake proactive service planning that address market failures within the health system. If considered planning is not undertaken then Australian health system can only deal with climate change in an expensive ad hoc, crisis management manner. Without meeting the challenges of climate change to the health system head on, Australia will remain unprepared for the health impacts of climate change with negative consequences for the health of the Australian population. PMID:24947804

  20. Planning deficit in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: a neurocognitive trait independent from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Galasso, Cinzia; Lo-Castro, Adriana; Di Carlo, Loredana; Pitzianti, Maria Bernarda; D'Agati, Elisa; Curatolo, Paolo; Pasini, Augusto

    2014-10-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is associated with executive dysfunctions and comorbidity with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 30% to 50% of children. This study was designed to clarify the neurocognitive phenotype observed in neurofibromatosis type 1 by testing the hypothesis that children with neurofibromatosis type 1 have specific planning deficits independently from intellectual level and ADHD comorbidity. Eighteen children with neurofibromatosis type 1 were pair-matched to 18 children with ADHD and 18 healthy controls. All groups were assessed on the presence of ADHD symptoms (Conners Scales) and planning deficits (Tower of London). Compared with control group, groups with neurofibromatosis type 1 and ADHD demonstrated significant impairment of planning and problem solving. The lack of correlation between Tower of London results and Conners subscale scores in neurofibromatosis type 1 group confirmed that the planning and problem-solving deficit is not directly related to inattention level. These findings suggested that the executive impairment probably represents a peculiar trait of neurofibromatosis type 1 neurocognitive phenotype.

  1. Development of Planning in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders and/or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Unterrainer, Josef M; Rauh, Reinhold; Rahm, Benjamin; Hardt, Jochen; Kaller, Christoph P; Klein, Christoph; Paschke-Müller, Mirjam; Biscaldi, Monica

    2016-07-01

    Planning impairment is often observed in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but attempts to differentiate planning in ASD from children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing children (TD) have yielded inconsistent results. This study examined differences between these groups by focusing on development and analyzing performance in searching ahead several steps ("search depth") in addition to commonly used global performance measures in planning. A cross-sectional consecutive sample of 83 male patients (6-13 years), subgrouped as ASD without (ASD-, n = 18) or with comorbid ADHD (ASD+, n = 23), ADHD only (n = 42) and n = 42 TD children (6-13 years) were tested with the Tower-of-London-task. For global performance, ASD+ showed the lowest accuracy in younger children, but similar performance as TD at older ages, suggesting delayed development. Typically, a prolongation of planning time with increasing problem difficulty is observed in older children as compared to younger children. Here, this was most pronounced in ASD-, but under-expressed in ADHD. In contrast to global performance, effects of search depth were independent of age. ASD-, but not ASD+, showed increased susceptibility to raised demands on mentally searching ahead, along with the longest planning times. Thus, examining both global and search depth performance across ages revealed discernible patterns of planning between groups. Notably, the potentially detrimental impact of two diagnosed disorders does not add up in ASD+ in this task. Rather, our results suggest paradoxical enhancement of performance, ostensibly attributable to disruption of behavioral rigidity through increased impulsivity, which did not take place in ASD-. Autism Res 2016, 9: 739-751. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-2 - Nondiscrimination in amount of employer contributions under a defined contribution plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contribution plan are nondiscriminatory in amount for a plan year if the plan satisfies either of the safe... satisfies the safe harbor in this paragraph (b)(2) for a plan year if the plan allocates all amounts taken into account under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section for the plan year under an allocation...

  3. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-2 - Nondiscrimination in amount of employer contributions under a defined contribution plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contribution plan are nondiscriminatory in amount for a plan year if the plan satisfies either of the safe... satisfies the safe harbor in this paragraph (b)(2) for a plan year if the plan allocates all amounts taken into account under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section for the plan year under an allocation...

  4. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-2 - Nondiscrimination in amount of employer contributions under a defined contribution plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contribution plan are nondiscriminatory in amount for a plan year if the plan satisfies either of the safe... satisfies the safe harbor in this paragraph (b)(2) for a plan year if the plan allocates all amounts taken into account under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section for the plan year under an allocation...

  5. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-2 - Nondiscrimination in amount of employer contributions under a defined contribution plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contribution plan are nondiscriminatory in amount for a plan year if the plan satisfies either of the safe... satisfies the safe harbor in this paragraph (b)(2) for a plan year if the plan allocates all amounts taken into account under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section for the plan year under an allocation...

  6. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-2 - Nondiscrimination in amount of employer contributions under a defined contribution plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contribution plan are nondiscriminatory in amount for a plan year if the plan satisfies either of the safe... satisfies the safe harbor in this paragraph (b)(2) for a plan year if the plan allocates all amounts taken into account under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section for the plan year under an allocation...

  7. Plan of study to define hydrogeologic characteristics of the Madera Limestone in the east mountain area of central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rankin, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The east mountain area of central New Mexico includes the eastern one-third of Bernalillo County and portions of Sandoval, Santa Fe, and Torrance Counties. The area covers about 320 square miles. The Madera Limestone, the principal aquifer in the east mountain area, is the sole source of water for domestic, municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses for many residents. Some water is imported from wells near Edgewood by the Entranosa Water Cooperative, which serves a population of approximately 3,300. The remaining population is served by small water systems that derive supplies locally or by individually owned domestic wells. The population of the east mountain area has increased dramatically over the past 20 years. In 1970, the population of the east mountain area was about 4,000. Demographic projections suggest that approximately 1,000 people per year are moving into the area, and with a growth rate of 3.0 percent the population will be 16,700 in 2000. Consequently, ground-water withdrawals have increased substantially over the past 20 years, and will continue to increase. Little is known about the flow characteristics and hydrogeologic properties of the Madera Limestone. This report describes existing information about the geologic and hydrologic framework and flow characteristics of the Madera Limestone, and presents a plan of study for data-collection activities and interpretive studies that could be conducted to better define the hydrogeologic characteristics of the Madera Limestone. Data-collection activities and interpretive studies related to the hydrogeologic components of the Madera Limestone are prioritized. Activities that are necessary to improve the quantification of a component are prioritized as essential. Activities that could add additional understanding of a component, but would not be necessary to improve the quantification of a component, are prioritized as useful.

  8. What's at Stake in the Lives of People with Intellectual Disability? Part II: Recommendations for Naming, Defining, Diagnosing, Classifying, and Planning Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on recommendations for naming, defining, diagnosing, classifying, and planning supports for individuals with intellectual disability (ID). The article provides an overview of the essential questions addressed by the respective functions and provides a series of specific recommendations that address the high stakes involved for…

  9. What's at Stake in the Lives of People with Intellectual Disability? Part I: The Power of Naming, Defining, Diagnosing, Classifying, and Planning Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the power of naming, defining, diagnosing, classifying, and planning supports for people with intellectual disability. The article summarizes current thinking regarding these five functions, states the essential question addressed by the respective function, and provides an overview of the high stakes involved for people…

  10. Defining the Optimal Planning Target Volume in Image-Guided Stereotactic Radiosurgery of Brain Metastases: Results of a Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, John P.; Wang, Zhiheng; Sampson, John H.; McSherry, Frances; Herndon, James E.; Allen, Karen J.; Duffy, Eileen; Hoang, Jenny K.; Chang, Zheng; Yoo, David S.; Kelsey, Chris R.; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To identify an optimal margin about the gross target volume (GTV) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of brain metastases, minimizing toxicity and local recurrence. Methods and Materials: Adult patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases less than 4 cm in greatest dimension, no previous brain radiation therapy, and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) above 70 were eligible for this institutional review board–approved trial. Individual lesions were randomized to 1- or 3- mm uniform expansion of the GTV defined on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The resulting planning target volume (PTV) was treated to 24, 18, or 15 Gy marginal dose for maximum PTV diameters less than 2, 2 to 2.9, and 3 to 3.9 cm, respectively, using a linear accelerator–based image-guided system. The primary endpoint was local recurrence (LR). Secondary endpoints included neurocognition Mini-Mental State Examination, Trail Making Test Parts A and B, quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain), radionecrosis (RN), need for salvage radiation therapy, distant failure (DF) in the brain, and overall survival (OS). Results: Between February 2010 and November 2012, 49 patients with 80 brain metastases were treated. The median age was 61 years, the median KPS was 90, and the predominant histologies were non–small cell lung cancer (25 patients) and melanoma (8). Fifty-five, 19, and 6 lesions were treated to 24, 18, and 15 Gy, respectively. The PTV/GTV ratio, volume receiving 12 Gy or more, and minimum dose to PTV were significantly higher in the 3-mm group (all P<.01), and GTV was similar (P=.76). At a median follow-up time of 32.2 months, 11 patients were alive, with median OS 10.6 months. LR was observed in only 3 lesions (2 in the 1 mm group, P=.51), with 6.7% LR 12 months after SRS. Biopsy-proven RN alone was observed in 6 lesions (5 in the 3-mm group, P=.10). The 12-month DF rate was 45.7%. Three months after SRS, no significant change in

  11. Shared Attention.

    PubMed

    Shteynberg, Garriy

    2015-09-01

    Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior. Here, I advance a psychological theory of shared attention, defining its properties as a mental state and outlining its cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. I review empirical findings that are uniquely predicted by shared-attention theory and discuss the possibility of integrating shared-attention, social-facilitation, and social-loafing perspectives. Finally, I reflect on what shared-attention theory implies for living in the digital world. PMID:26385997

  12. Theory of Planned Behavior Predicts Graduation Intentions of Canadian and Israeli Postsecondary Students with and without Learning Disabilities/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fichten, Catherine S.; Heiman, Tali; Jorgensen, Mary; Nguyen, Mai Nhu; Havel, Alice; King, Laura; Budd, Jillian; Amsel, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    We tested the ability of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model to predict intention to graduate among Canadian and Israeli students with and without a learning disability/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (LD/ADHD). Results based on 1486 postsecondary students show that the model's predictors (i.e., attitude, subjective norms,…

  13. Evaluation of the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) Intervention for Middle School Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder as Implemented by School Mental Health Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Becker, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) intervention for middle school students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as implemented by school mental health (SMH) providers using a randomized trial design. Seventeen SMH providers from five school districts implemented the HOPS…

  14. Learning a Living: A Guide to Planning Your Career and Finding a Job for People with Learning Disabilities, Attention Deficit Disorder, and Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Dale S.

    This document is a guide to career planning and finding a job for high school and college students and graduates with learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder, and dyslexia. The guide, which is written from the perspective of an individual with firsthand experience with a learning disability, explains how individuals can find the best…

  15. 26 CFR 1.436-1 - Limits on benefits and benefit accruals under single employer defined benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Prior unpredictable contingent event. (c) Limitations on plan amendments increasing liability for... reduce funding balances. (b) Limitation on shutdown benefits and other unpredictable contingent event... contingent event. (10) Examples. (k) Effective/applicability dates. (1) Statutory effective date....

  16. 26 CFR 1.436-1 - Limits on benefits and benefit accruals under single employer defined benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... unpredictable contingent event benefits. Paragraph (c) of this section describes limitations on plan amendments... Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (ERISA), and in accordance with 29 CFR 4041.28... section) that are on or after that later section 436 measurement date. Any amendment to eliminate...

  17. Defining Family Health Needs, Standards of Care and Priorities with Particular Reference to Family Planning. Occasional Essay Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sai, Fred T.

    This essay discusses family health needs in the developing world, their priorities, and the standards of health required, with particular reference to family planning. The author takes into account medical, social, and economic factors that influence those concerns. Some of the material presented in this essay first appeared in other international…

  18. How Planful Is Routine Behavior? A Selective-Attention Model of Performance in the Tower of Hanoi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patsenko, Elena G.; Altmann, Erik M.

    2010-01-01

    Routine human behavior has often been attributed to plans--mental representations of sequences goals and actions--but can also be attributed to more opportunistic interactions of mind and a structured environment. This study asks whether performance on a task traditionally analyzed in terms of plans can be better understood from a "situated" (or…

  19. Mindful movement and skilled attention.

    PubMed

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations.

  20. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  1. Combining data on health care utilization and socioeconomic status of a defined population: use of a population oriented health information system for regional planning.

    PubMed

    Brommels, M; Heinonen, M O; Tuomola, S

    1987-01-01

    Health services planning on a regional or national level needs information on health care utilization as well as data on the population to be served. Health or hospital information systems usually cover services provision and utilization, and population data for planning purposes must be obtained from other sources. In the health information system presented, hospital performance data are combined with census and socioeconomic data of the population. That makes cautious analysis of reasons for variation in health care utilization within the planning area possible. The HIS is regional, including 11 health care providers, and population based, linking data to municipality (38 in all). The system is described, including its structure, input registration, file content and output formats. An output example is presented. Necessary conditions for use of the HIS in planning activities are that the corresponding health care delivery system is comprehensive, the population served well defined, and that good control of patient flow and user behaviour is achieved. Use is limited by the character of information stored in the HIS: it is registered retrospectively and by routine. In a system covering various hospitals and municipalities, engaging different types of clerical and health care personnel, data reliability is also a critical issue.

  2. ["Dr Breuer will care for him with utmost attention." A plan for Nietzsche's neuropathological treatment in Vienna].

    PubMed

    Müller-Buck, Renate

    2007-01-01

    This essay is about a plan for the treatment of Friedrich Nietzsche by Josef Breuer in the spring of 1878. The plan was developed by Siegfried Lipiner, a philosphy student from Galicia and an admirer of Nietzsche, who was acquainted with Breuer as well as with Freud. Lipiner was convinced that Nietzsche could be treated by the Viennese specialists and tried his best to arrange this. However all his endeavors were frustrated by the opposition of Nietzsche's advisors in Basel, as well as his docters, and ultimately of Nietzsche himself who preferred the cold-water therapy in Baden-Baden.

  3. Strategic Planning and Decision Making in Higher Education:What Gets Attention and What Doesn't

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choban, Michael E.; Choban, Gary M.; Choban, David

    2008-01-01

    Why is the implementation of learning outcomes assessment in higher education proceeding so grudgingly? When assessment results are obtained, why are they so rarely integrated into the strategic planning process? These questions remain prominent in spite of over a decade of intensive effort on the part of educational accrediting agencies to…

  4. Comparison of nutrient intakes from two selected diet plans considered healthful versus the cutoff points for green lights as defined by the UK's multiple traffic light scheme.

    PubMed

    Green, H; Fern, E

    2016-02-01

    This study compared nutrient intakes from 7-day menus for the US MyPlate and DASH Eating Plan versus the cutoff points for green lights defined by the UK's multiple traffic light (MTL) scheme. For both diets, the foods achieved green lights for saturated fat and salt, and for beverages for total fat, saturated fat and salt. The other nutrients achieved amber lights but were within the range of the two diets. By contrast, the MTL threshold for salt in beverages was outside the range of the diets. The values for salt in beverages in the MyPlate and Dash diet plans were 0.06±0.07 and 0.19±0.01 (s.d.) g/100 ml, which are both considerably lower compared with the cutoff of 0.3 g/100 ml for an MTL green light. Adjusting the green MTL threshold values to the median values for a healthful diet could help make MTL labelling a more valid way of helping consumers choose a healthful diet.

  5. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-3 - Nondiscrimination in amount of employer-provided benefits under a defined benefit plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Plan B2) consists of the balance of the employees. (c) Component Plan B1 satisfies this section and section 410(b), because it benefits only NHCEs. (d) Component Plan B2 is treated as satisfying this... (b)(6)(x)) with respect to the employees in Component Plan B2 but for the fact that it...

  6. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-3 - Nondiscrimination in amount of employer-provided benefits under a defined benefit plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Plan B2) consists of the balance of the employees. (c) Component Plan B1 satisfies this section and section 410(b), because it benefits only NHCEs. (d) Component Plan B2 is treated as satisfying this... (b)(6)(x)) with respect to the employees in Component Plan B2 but for the fact that it...

  7. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-3 - Nondiscrimination in amount of employer-provided benefits under a defined benefit plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Plan B2) consists of the balance of the employees. (c) Component Plan B1 satisfies this section and section 410(b), because it benefits only NHCEs. (d) Component Plan B2 is treated as satisfying this... (b)(6)(x)) with respect to the employees in Component Plan B2 but for the fact that it...

  8. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-3 - Nondiscrimination in amount of employer-provided benefits under a defined benefit plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Plan B2) consists of the balance of the employees. (c) Component Plan B1 satisfies this section and section 410(b), because it benefits only NHCEs. (d) Component Plan B2 is treated as satisfying this... (b)(6)(x)) with respect to the employees in Component Plan B2 but for the fact that it...

  9. Defining "Development".

    PubMed

    Pradeu, Thomas; Laplane, Lucie; Prévot, Karine; Hoquet, Thierry; Reynaud, Valentine; Fusco, Giuseppe; Minelli, Alessandro; Orgogozo, Virginie; Vervoort, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Is it possible, and in the first place is it even desirable, to define what "development" means and to determine the scope of the field called "developmental biology"? Though these questions appeared crucial for the founders of "developmental biology" in the 1950s, there seems to be no consensus today about the need to address them. Here, in a combined biological, philosophical, and historical approach, we ask whether it is possible and useful to define biological development, and, if such a definition is indeed possible and useful, which definition(s) can be considered as the most satisfactory.

  10. Defining Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Defining infertility What is infertility? Infertility is “the inability to conceive after 12 months ... to conceive after 6 months is generally considered infertility. How common is it? Infertility affects 10%-15% ...

  11. Defining cure.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Paul; Robinson, Dudley

    2011-06-01

    This paper is a summary of the presentations made as Proposal 2-"Defining cure" to the 2nd Annual meeting of the ICI-Research Society, in Bristol, 16th June 2010. It reviews definitions of 'cure' and 'outcome', and considers the impact that varying definition may have on prevalence studies and cure rates. The difference between subjective and objective outcomes is considered, and the significance that these different outcomes may have for different stakeholders (e.g. clinicians, patients, carers, industry etc.) is discussed. The development of patient reported outcome measures and patient defined goals is reviewed, and consideration given to the use of composite end-points. A series of proposals are made by authors and discussants as to how currently validated outcomes should be applied, and where our future research activity in this area might be directed.

  12. Defining Faculty Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Peter J.; Diamond, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    A process of planned change is proposed for redefining college faculty work. Legitimate faculty work is defined in broad terms, and information sources and methods for collecting information to support redefinition are identified. The final step in the redefinition process is the development of new mission statements for the institution and its…

  13. Shifting Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  14. Specific Language Impairment, Nonverbal IQ, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Cochlear Implants, Bilingualism, and Dialectal Variants: Defining the Boundaries, Clarifying Clinical Conditions, and Sorting out Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mabel L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research forum article is to provide an overview of a collection of invited articles on the topic "specific language impairment (SLI) in children with concomitant health conditions or nonmainstream language backgrounds." Topics include SLI, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder,…

  15. Contingent Attentional Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; Folk, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    Four experiments address the degree of top-down selectivity in attention capture by feature singletons through manipulations of the spatial relationship and featural similarity of target and distractor singletons in a modified spatial cuing paradigm. Contrary to previous studies, all four experiments show that when searching for a singleton target, an irrelevant featural singleton captures attention only when defined by the same feature value as the target. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 provide a potential explanation for this empirical discrepancy by showing that irrelevant singletons can produce distraction effects that are independent of shifts of spatial attention. The results further support the notion that attentional capture is contingent on top-down attention control settings but indicates that such settings can be instantiated at the level of feature values.

  16. Capturing Attention When Attention "Blinks"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Serena; Chua, Fook K.

    2004-01-01

    Four experiments addressed the question of whether attention may be captured when the visual system is in the midst of an attentional blink (AB). Participants identified 2 target letters embedded among distractor letters in a rapid serial visual presentation sequence. In some trials, a square frame was inserted between the targets; as the only…

  17. Defining biobank.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Robert; Watson, Peter

    2013-10-01

    The term "biobank" first appeared in the scientific literature in 1996 and for the next five years was used mainly to describe human population-based biobanks. In recent years, the term has been used in a more general sense and there are currently many different definitions to be found in reports, guidelines and regulatory documents. Some definitions are general, including all types of biological sample collection facilities. Others are specific and limited to collections of human samples, sometimes just to population-based collections. In order to help resolve the confusion on this matter, we conducted a survey of the opinions of people involved in managing sample collections of all types. This survey was conducted using an online questionnaire that attracted 303 responses. The results show that there is consensus that the term biobank may be applied to biological collections of human, animal, plant or microbial samples; and that the term biobank should only be applied to sample collections with associated sample data, and to collections that are managed according to professional standards. There was no consensus on whether a collection's purpose, size or level of access should determine whether it is called a biobank. Putting these findings into perspective, we argue that a general, broad definition of biobank is here to stay, and that attention should now focus on the need for a universally-accepted, systematic classification of the different biobank types. PMID:24835262

  18. Defining chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Brian R.; Ott, Edward

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, we propose, discuss, and illustrate a computationally feasible definition of chaos which can be applied very generally to situations that are commonly encountered, including attractors, repellers, and non-periodically forced systems. This definition is based on an entropy-like quantity, which we call “expansion entropy,” and we define chaos as occurring when this quantity is positive. We relate and compare expansion entropy to the well-known concept of topological entropy to which it is equivalent under appropriate conditions. We also present example illustrations, discuss computational implementations, and point out issues arising from attempts at giving definitions of chaos that are not entropy-based.

  19. Defined contribution: a part of our future.

    PubMed Central

    Baugh, Reginald F.

    2003-01-01

    Rising employer health care costs and consumer backlash against managed care are trends fostering the development of defined contribution plans. Defined contribution plans limit employer responsibility to a fixed financial contribution rather than a benefit program and dramatically increase consumer responsibility for health care decision making. Possible outcomes of widespread adoption of defined contribution plans are presented. PMID:12934869

  20. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-3 - Nondiscrimination in amount of employer-provided benefits under a defined benefit plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... non-key employees who complete at least 1,000 hours of service during the plan year. Plan C does not... available on the same terms to all employees (i.e., the second formula is only available to all non-key... is available solely to all non-key employees on the same terms. This is true even if the...

  1. Juvenile Justice: Technical Assistance and Better Defined Evaluation Plans Will Help to Improve Girls' Delinquency Programs. GAO-09-721R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Government Accountability Office, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Girls' delinquency has attracted the attention of federal, state, and local policymakers for more than a decade as girls have increasingly become involved in the juvenile justice system. For example, from 1995 through 2005, delinquency caseloads for girls in juvenile justice courts nationwide increased 15 percent while boys' caseloads decreased by…

  2. Attention Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.; Sheese, Brad E.

    2007-01-01

    A major problem for developmental science is understanding how the cognitive and emotional networks important in carrying out mental processes can be related to individual differences. The last five years have seen major advances in establishing links between alleles of specific genes and the neural networks underlying aspects of attention. These…

  3. Specific Language Impairment, Nonverbal IQ, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Cochlear Implants, Bilingualism, and Dialectal Variants: Defining the Boundaries, Clarifying Clinical Conditions, and Sorting Out Causes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this research forum article is to provide an overview of a collection of invited articles on the topic “specific language impairment (SLI) in children with concomitant health conditions or nonmainstream language backgrounds.” Topics include SLI, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, cochlear implants, bilingualism, and dialectal language learning contexts. Method The topic is timely due to current debates about the diagnosis of SLI. An overarching comparative conceptual framework is provided for comparisons of SLI with other clinical conditions. Comparisons of SLI in children with low-normal or normal nonverbal IQ illustrate the unexpected outcomes of 2 × 2 comparison designs. Results Comparative studies reveal unexpected relationships among speech, language, cognitive, and social dimensions of children's development as well as precise ways to identify children with SLI who are bilingual or dialect speakers. Conclusions The diagnosis of SLI is essential for elucidating possible causal pathways of language impairments, risks for language impairments, assessments for identification of language impairments, linguistic dimensions of language impairments, and long-term outcomes. Although children's language acquisition is robust under high levels of risk, unexplained individual variations in language acquisition lead to persistent language impairments. PMID:26502218

  4. Who Are the Homeless? What Is Homelessness? The Politics of Defining an Emerging Policy Issue. U.B.C. Planning Papers: Discussion Papers #10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulchanski, J. D.

    Homelessness has emerged on the public agenda of economically advanced nations but not all such issues become recognized as "legitimate" social problems. National politicians and policymakers have an interest in defining the problem narrowly in order to avoid response and implied criticism of existing policies and institutions. Local officials and…

  5. Assessment of attention in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Mahone, E M; Schneider, H E

    2012-12-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of "disordered" attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child's history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention--including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures.

  6. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  7. Integrated Space Transportation Plan: Defining Technology Requirements and Next Generation Launch Systems to Meet Commercial and Government Needs. Revision 20 Oct. 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidoff, Larry D.; Reichert, Jack M.

    1999-01-01

    NASA continues to focus on improving safety and reliability while reducing the annual cost of meeting human space flight and unique ISS and exploration needs. NASA's Space Transportation Architecture Study (STAS) Phase 2 in early 1998 focused on space transportation options. Subsequently, NASA directed parallel industry and government teams to conduct the Integrated Space Transportation Plan effort (STAS Phase 3). The objective of ISTP was to develop technology requirements, roadmaps, and risk reduction portfolio that considered expanded definition of "clean-sheet" and Shuttle-derived second generation ETO transportation systems in support of a 2005 RLV competition for NASA missions beginning 2010. NASA provided top-level requirements for improvements in safety, reliability, and cost and a set of design reference missions representing NASA ISS, human exploration, commercial, and other civil and government needs. This paper addresses the challenges of meeting NASA's objectives while servicing the varied market segments represented in the ISTP design reference missions and provides a summary of technology development needs and candidate system concepts. A comparison of driving requirements, architectures and technology needs is discussed and descriptions of viable Shuttle-derived and next generation systems to meet the market needs are presented.

  8. Spatial landuse planning using land evaluation and dynamic system to define sustainable area of paddy field: Case study in Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiatmaka, Widiatmaka; Ambarwulan, Wiwin; Firmansyah, Irman; Munibah, Khursatul; Santoso, Paulus B. K.

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia is the country with the 4th largest population in the worlds; the population reached more than 237 million people. With rice as the staple food for more than 95 percent of the population, there is an important role of paddy field in Indonesian food security. Actually, paddy field in Java has produced 52,6% of the total rice production in Indonesia, showing the very high dependence of Indonesia on food production from paddy fields in Java island. Karawang Regency is one of the regions in West Java Province that contribute to the national food supply, due to its high soil fertility and its high extent of paddy field. Dynamics of land use change in this region are high because of its proximity to urban area; this dynamics has led to paddy field conversion to industry and residential landuse, which in turn change the regional rice production capacity. Decreasing paddy field landuse in this region could be serve as an example case of the general phenomena which occurred in Javanese rice production region. The objective of this study were: (i) to identify the suitable area for paddy field, (ii) to modelize the decreasing of paddy field in socio-economic context of the region, and (iii) to plan the spatial priority area of paddy field protection according to model prediction. A land evaluation for paddy was completed after a soil survey, while IKONOS imagery was analyzed to delineate paddy fields. Dynamic system model of paddy field land use is built, and then based on the model built, the land area of paddy field untill 2040 in some scenarios was developped. The research results showed that the land suitability class for paddy fields in Karawang Regency ranged from very suitable (S1) to marginally suitable (S3), with various land characteristics as limiting factors. The model predicts that if the situation of paddy field land use change continues in its business as usual path, paddy field area that would exist in the region in 2040 will stay half of the recent

  9. Defining "Rural" for Veterans' Health Care Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Alan N.; Lee, Richard E.; Shambaugh-Miller, Michael D.; Bair, Byron D.; Mueller, Keith J.; Lilly, Ryan S.; Kaboli, Peter J.; Hawthorne, Kara

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) devised an algorithm to classify veterans as Urban, Rural, or Highly Rural residents. To understand the policy implications of the VHA scheme, we compared its categories to 3 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and 4 Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) geographical categories. Method: Using…

  10. 7 CFR 1210.500 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 1210.500 Section 1210.500 Agriculture... PLAN Rules and Regulations Definitions § 1210.500 Terms defined. Unless otherwise defined in this subpart, definitions of terms used in this subpart shall have the same meaning as the definitions of...

  11. Toddlers' Spontaneous Attention to Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Arthur J.; Li, Xia; Lai, Meng-lung

    2008-01-01

    Hannula and Lehtinen (2001, 2005) defined spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON) as the tendency to notice the relatively abstract attribute of number despite the presence of other attributes. According to nativists, an innate concept of one to three directs young children's attention to these "intuitive numbers" in everyday situations--even…

  12. Delayed Attentional Engagement in the Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieuwenstein, Mark R.; Chun, Marvin M.; van der Lubbe, Rob H. J.; Hooge, Ignace T. C.

    2005-01-01

    Observers often miss the 2nd of 2 visual targets (first target [T1] and second target [T2]) when these targets are presented closely in time; the attentional blink (AB). The authors hypothesized that the AB occurs because the attentional response to T2 is delayed by T1 processing, causing T2 to lose a competition for attention to the item that…

  13. The Attention Cascade Model and Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shui-I

    2008-01-01

    An attention cascade model is proposed to account for attentional blinks in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of stimuli. Data were collected using single characters in a single RSVP stream at 10 Hz [Shih, S., & Reeves, A. (2007). "Attentional capture in rapid serial visual presentation." "Spatial Vision", 20(4), 301-315], and single words,…

  14. Defining the states of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Tassi, P; Muzet, A

    2001-03-01

    Consciousness remains an elusive concept due to the difficulty to define what has been regarded for many years as a subjective experience, therefore irrelevant for scientific study. Recent development in this field of research has allowed to provide some new insight to a possible way to define consciousness. Going through the extensive literature in this domain, several perspectives are proposed to define this concept. (1) Consciousness and Attention may not reflect the same process. (2) Consciousness during wake and sleep may not involve the same mechanisms. (3) Besides physiological states of consciousness, human beings can experience modified states of consciousness either by self-training (transcendental meditation, hypnosis, etc.) or by drug intake (hallucinogens, anaesthetics, etc.). Altogether, we address the question of a more precise terminology, given the theoretical weight words can convey. To this respect, we propose different definitions for concepts like consciousness, vigilance, arousal and alertness as candidates to separate functional entities.

  15. Saccade Preparation Is Required for Exogenous Attention but Not Endogenous Attention or IOR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniel T.; Schenk, Thomas; Rorden, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Covert attention is tightly coupled with the control of eye movements, but there is controversy about how tight this coupling is. The premotor theory of attention proposes that activation of the eye movement system is necessary to produce shifts of attention. In this study, we experimentally prevented healthy participants from planning or…

  16. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder's pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder.

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  18. Adaptive allocation of attentional gain

    PubMed Central

    Scolari, Miranda; Serences, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are adept at distinguishing between stimuli that are very similar, an ability that is particularly crucial when the outcome is of serious consequence (e.g. for a surgeon or air traffic controller). Traditionally, selective attention was thought to facilitate perception by increasing the gain of sensory neurons tuned to the defining features of a behaviorally relevant object (e.g. color, orientation, etc.). In contrast, recent mathematical models counter-intuitively suggest that in many cases attentional gain should be applied to neurons that are tuned away from relevant features, especially when discriminating highly similar stimuli. Here we used psychophysical methods to critically evaluate these ‘ideal observer’ models. The data demonstrate that attention enhances the gain of the most informative sensory neurons, even when these neurons are tuned away from the behaviorally relevant target feature. Moreover, the degree to which an individual adopted optimal attentional gain settings by the end of testing predicted success rates on a difficult visual discrimination task, as well as the amount of task improvement that occurred across repeated testing sessions (learning). Contrary to most traditional accounts, these observations suggest that the primary function of attentional gain is not simply to enhance the representation of target features, but to optimize performance on the current perceptual task. Additionally, individual differences in gain suggest that the operating characteristics of low-level attentional phenomena are not stable trait-like attributes and that variability in how attention is deployed may play an important role in determining perceptual abilities. PMID:19776279

  19. Behaviourally Defined Objectives: A Critique. Part Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    This is the concluding part of an article published in the August 1983 edition. A number of arguments are developed to demonstrate the inadequacy of behaviorally defined objectives as a basis for curriculum planning. (SSH)

  20. Attention and Olfactory Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to the discussion: attention to the olfactory modality. I will first clarify the position of attention to smells in a general taxonomy of attention. I will then review the mechanisms and neuroanatomy of attention and consciousness in the olfactory system before using the newly introduced system to provide evidence that attention is necessary for consciousness. PMID:22203813

  1. Expedition Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    Planning an expedition, particularly an expedition to climb Mount McKinley, can appear monumental. Not only must the obvious items like food, equipment and personnel be carefully planned, but attention must also focus on "insignificant" items like applications and reservations which, if forgotten, could mean the difference between a successful or…

  2. Spatial Reference Frame of Incidentally Learned Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.

    2013-01-01

    Visual attention prioritizes information presented at particular spatial locations. These locations can be defined in reference frames centered on the environment or on the viewer. This study investigates whether incidentally learned attention uses a viewer-centered or environment-centered reference frame. Participants conducted visual search on a…

  3. Strategic planning for marketers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, I

    1978-12-01

    The merits of strategic planning as a marketing tool are discussed in this article which takes the view that although marketers claim to be future-oriented, they focus too little attention on long-term planning and forecasting. Strategic planning, as defined by these authors, usually encompasses periods of between five and twenty-five years and places less emphasis on the past as an absolute predictor of the future. It takes a more probabilistic view of the future than conventional marketing strategy and looks at the corporation as but one component interacting with the total environment. Inputs are examined in terms of environmental, social, political, technological and economic importance. Because of its futuristic orientation, an important tenant of strategic planning is the preparation of several alternative scenarios ranging from most to least likely. By planning for a wide-range of future market conditions, a corporation is more able to be flexible by anticipating the course of future events, and is less likely to become a captive reactor--as the authors believe is now the case. An example of strategic planning at General Elecric is cited.

  4. Healthcare succession planning: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Carriere, Brian K; Muise, Melanie; Cummings, Greta; Newburn-Cook, Chris

    2009-12-01

    Succession planning is a business strategy that has recently gained attention in the healthcare literature, primarily because of nursing shortage concerns and the demand for retaining knowledgeable personnel to meet organizational needs. Little research has been conducted in healthcare settings that clearly defines best practices for succession planning frameworks. To effectively carry out such organizational strategies during these challenging times, an integrative review of succession planning in healthcare was performed to identify consistencies in theoretical approaches and strategies for chief nursing officers and healthcare managers to initiate. Selected articles were compared with business succession planning to determine whether healthcare strategies were similar to best practices already established in business contexts. The results of this integrative review will aid leaders and managers to use succession planning as a tool in their recruitment, retention, mentoring, and administration activities and also provide insights for future development of healthcare succession planning frameworks.

  5. Attention Breaks in Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, A. H.; Percival, F.

    1976-01-01

    Describes research into student attention patterns during lectures that suggests that student attention declines steadily during a lecture, and that the rate of decrease is dependent upon several variables including subject difficulty. (MLH)

  6. Training Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulholland, Thomas B.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of brain waves and alpha rhythms on attentiveness to visual stimuli are discussed, and preliminary research findings and research needs are considered in connection with measuring and training for attention. (LH)

  7. Defining Early Adolescent Childbearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Maureen G.; Sowers, MaryFran

    2002-01-01

    Determined the age group for defining early adolescent childbearing based on rates of adverse clinical outcomes. Data on infant mortality, very low birth weight, and very pre-term delivery per 1,000 live births for women age 12-23 years in the 1995 U.S. birth cohort indicate that early adolescent childbearing is best defined as giving birth at age…

  8. Attentional processes and choking under pressure.

    PubMed

    Schücker, Linda; Hagemann, Norbert; Strauss, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    The self-focus theory of choking under pressure explains decreases in performance of well-learned motor tasks with an increase in skill-focused attention. This shift in attentional focus has been demonstrated; however, specific propositions about the processes in pressure-induced attentional shift are yet to be developed. This study assesses whether specific aspects of movement execution attract more attention than others when movements are executed under pressure. Such elements are important in conscious movement control before execution becomes automated through practice; under pressure, attention may be redirected to these elements. Basketball free throws were executed by 22 junior national team members in a low and high pressure situation. Two dual task/focus conditions (related to different aspects of the movement) were implemented in each pressure condition. This dual task paradigm was used as a direct and detailed measure of skill focused attention, suitable to show specific pressure induced shifts of attention that lead to performance decrements. Pressure was induced by telling players that their performance would be evaluated by coaches. Players were defined as chokers if their performance decreased under this pressure. Chokers showed differences with regard to their attentional focus on movement execution in the pressure conditions compared to the players defined as non-chokers. The findings suggest that attentional shifts during choking can be related to specific aspects of movement execution.

  9. Plant intelligence and attention

    PubMed Central

    Marder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article applies the phenomenological model of attention to plant monitoring of environmental stimuli and signal perception. Three complementary definitions of attention as selectivity, modulation and perdurance are explained with reference to plant signaling and behaviors, including foraging, ramet placement and abiotic stress communication. Elements of animal and human attentive attitudes are compared with plant attention at the levels of cognitive focus, context and margin. It is argued that the concept of attention holds the potential of becoming a cornerstone of plant intelligence studies. PMID:23425923

  10. Attention competition with advertisement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  11. Attention competition with advertisement.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant. PMID:25314476

  12. Attention competition with advertisement.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  13. The use of focus groups to define patient needs.

    PubMed

    Barbour, R S

    1999-04-01

    Focus groups are enjoying unprecedented popularity. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of the method are outlined with cautions against the uncritical adoption of focus groups designed according to the marketing research tradition. It is argued that focus groups require detailed planning, and some advice regarding the running of groups, and analysis of data is provided. Special attention is directed to the practical and ethical issues in using focus groups to define patient needs in the area of childhood inflammatory bowel disease. Finally, some suggestions for maximising the full potential of focus groups are presented. Focus groups, if used appropriately and judiciously, are an inherently flexible method. Ultimately, their use is constrained only by the research question and the imagination of the researcher.

  14. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another. PMID:26966228

  15. Human Resource Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, W. H.; Wyatt, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    By using the total resource approach, we have focused attention on the need to integrate human resource planning with other business plans and highlighted the importance of a productivity strategy. (Author)

  16. Defining International Human Resource Development: A Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Gary N.; Wang, Xiaohui

    2007-01-01

    From the beginning of the use of the term, there have been struggles over the meaning of human resource development (HRD). In recent years, there has been increased attention to the field's definition. This paper moves this exploration one more step to an exploration of the dilemma of defining international and cross-national HRD. A beginning…

  17. Feature- and category-specific attentional control settings are differently affected by attentional engagement in contingent attentional capture.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Liu, Xiaoyue; Fu, Shimin

    2016-07-01

    A distractor can capture attention and impair target processing when it shares a target-defining property and matches specific attentional control settings (ACS). We studied how feature-specific ACS (fACS) and category-specific ACS (cACS) operate in a conjunction search task and how they are influenced by attentional engagement. The feature- and category-matching level and temporal lags between the distractor and target were manipulated in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. The N2pc component and impairment of target identification, which are associated with attentional allocation at an earlier stage and response selection at a later stage, respectively, were measured as markers of attentional capture. The interaction of two ACSs was observed in behavioral data, but disappeared in N2pc data, suggesting two-stage processing of multiple ACSs during a conjunction search, including an early independent and a late integrated stage. Moreover, a reliable N2pc was observed for fACS regardless of the sufficiency of attentional engagement, whereas the N2pc for cACS was only observed with sufficient attentional engagement, but disappeared when the attentional engagement was insufficient. This suggests that cACS demands sufficient attentional engagement, while fACS does not. In conclusion, fACS and cACS can be activated independently at an earlier stage, but they are integrated at a later stage during a conjunction search task and are differently influenced by attentional engagement.

  18. Defining Overweight and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Defining Adult Overweight and ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  19. Streamlining Collaborative Planning in Spacecraft Mission Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Dhariti; Bopf, Michel; Fishman, Mark; Jones, Jeremy; Kerbel, Uri; Pell, Vince

    2000-01-01

    During the past two decades, the planning and scheduling community has substantially increased the capability and efficiency of individual planning and scheduling systems. Relatively recently, research work to streamline collaboration between planning systems is gaining attention. Spacecraft missions stand to benefit substantially from this work as they require the coordination of multiple planning organizations and planning systems. Up to the present time this coordination has demanded a great deal of human intervention and/or extensive custom software development efforts. This problem will become acute with increased requirements for cross-mission plan coordination and multi -spacecraft mission planning. The Advanced Architectures and Automation Branch of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is taking innovative steps to define collaborative planning architectures, and to identify coordinated planning tools for Cross-Mission Campaigns. Prototypes are being developed to validate these architectures and assess the usefulness of the coordination tools by the planning community. This presentation will focus on one such planning coordination too], named Visual Observation Layout Tool (VOLT), which is currently being developed to streamline the coordination between astronomical missions

  20. Employer involvement in defined contribution investment education.

    PubMed

    Blau, G; VanDerhei, J L

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the authors consider the personnel problems that may arise for defined contribution plan sponsors if major market corrections cause older employees to delay retirement beyond previous expectations. We move from that basic premise to argue that, given the continued evolution from defined benefit (DB) to defined contribution (DC) retirement plans, employers need to be more "proactive" in educating their employees about their retirement planning. A human resources perspective is used to support this argument, apart from and in addition to legal considerations such as ERISA Section 404(c). Specifics of employer involvement and its place as a component of an organization's culture are discussed. Finally, recommendations are given for employers to consider.

  1. Hospital planning for weapons of mass destruction incidents.

    PubMed

    Perry, R W; Lindell, M K

    2006-01-01

    As terrorists attacks increase in frequency, hospital disaster plans need to be scrutinized to ensure that they take into account issues unique to weapons of mass destruction. This paper reports a review of the literature addressing hospital experiences with such incidents and the planning lessons thus learned. Construction of hospital disaster plans is examined as an ongoing process guided by the disaster planning committee. Hospitals are conceived as one of the components of a larger community disaster planning efforts, with specific attention devoted to defining important linkages among response organizations. This includes the public health authorities, political authorities, prehospital care agencies, and emergency management agencies. A review is completed of six special elements of weapons of mass destruction incidents that should be addressed in hospital disaster plans: incident command, hospital security, patient surge, decontamination, mental health consequences, and communications. The paper closes with a discussion of the importance of training and exercises in maintaining and improving the disaster plan.

  2. Defining departmental mission.

    PubMed

    Hartman, M D; Barrow, J A; Sawyer, W R

    1990-02-01

    Mission statements have long been recognized by corporate America as a way to define an enterprise. The necessary business orientation of the health care industry requires that hospitals and hospital departments define their scope of services and reason for existence. The accelerating reprofessionalization affecting departments of pharmacy requires the same. "Improving the quality of patient care" can no longer represent a euphemism for simply reacting to external factors or acting on a whim without clear meaningful intent. Professional departments and hospitals must demonstrate a sense of direction and purpose and be able to justify costs to a budget-conscious management and skeptical public. Mission statements are not substitutes for a clearly defined sense of professional mission. However, well-constructed mission statements contribute to clarity of departmental and professional purpose and effective achievement of goals. PMID:10128549

  3. Defining Risk Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Many efforts to prevent alcohol-related harm are aimed at reducing risk drinking. This article outlines the many conceptual and methodological challenges to defining risk drinking. It summarizes recent evidence regarding associations of various aspects of alcohol consumption with chronic and acute alcohol-related harms, including mortality, morbidity, injury, and alcohol use disorders, and summarizes the study designs most appropriate to defining risk thresholds for these types of harm. In addition, it presents an international overview of low-risk drinking guidelines from more than 20 countries, illustrating the wide range of interpretations of the scientific evidence related to risk drinking. This article also explores the impact of drink size on defining risk drinking and describes variation in what is considered to be a standard drink across populations. Actual and standard drink sizes differ in the United States, and this discrepancy affects definitions of risk drinking and prevention efforts. PMID:22330212

  4. Defining the Human Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Ursell, Luke K; Metcalf, Jessica L; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Knight, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly developing sequencing methods and analytical techniques are enhancing our ability to understand the human microbiome, and, indeed, how we define the microbiome and its constituents. In this review we highlight recent research that expands our ability to understand the human microbiome on different spatial and temporal scales, including daily timeseries datasets spanning months. Furthermore, we discuss emerging concepts related to defining operational taxonomic units, diversity indices, core versus transient microbiomes and the possibility of enterotypes. Additional advances in sequencing technology and in our understanding of the microbiome will provide exciting prospects for exploiting the microbiota for personalized medicine. PMID:22861806

  5. Juvenile Justice: Technical Assistance and Better Defined Evaluation Plans Will Help Girls' Delinquency Programs. Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security, Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives. GAO-10-133T

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larence, Eileen R.

    2009-01-01

    This testimony discusses issues related to girls' delinquency--a topic that has attracted the attention of federal, state, and local policymakers for more than a decade as girls have increasingly become involved in the juvenile justice system. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) is the Department of Justice (DOJ)…

  6. Embodied Infant Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Steven S.; Johnson, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    Does real time coupling between mental and physical activity early in development have functional significance? To address this question, we examined the habituation of visual attention and the subsequent response to change in two groups of 3-month-olds with different patterns of movement-attention coupling. In suppressors, the typical decrease in…

  7. Rethinking Attention Deficit Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherkes-Julkowski, Miriam; And Others

    This book reviews issues concerning attention deficit disorders (ADDs) in the context of a systems perspective. ADDs are viewed as resulting from dynamic interactions of behavior, cognition, and affect, out of which emerge distinct and idiosyncratic ways of coping. Chapter 1 looks at the interaction of attention and behavior. In chapter 2, the…

  8. Attention Attenuates Metacontrast Masking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Jennifer; Ro, Tony

    2007-01-01

    The influence of attention on perceptual awareness was examined using metacontrast masking. Attention was manipulated with endogenous cues to assess the effects on the temporal and spatial parameters of target visibility. Experiment 1 examined the time course of effective masking when the target and mask set were presented at an attended vs. an…

  9. Defining Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giovannoni, Jeanne M.; Becerra, Rosina M.

    In seeking to clarify the meaning of the terms "child abuse" and "child neglect" it has been assumed that, like other forms of social deviance, they are socially defined phenomena. Interviews were conducted with those professionals (lawyers, pediatricians, police officers, and social workers) who daily handle the problems of abuse and neglect for…

  10. Defined by Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriola, Sonya; Murphy, Katy

    2010-01-01

    Undocumented students are a population defined by limitations. Their lack of legal residency and any supporting paperwork (e.g., Social Security number, government issued identification) renders them essentially invisible to the American and state governments. They cannot legally work. In many states, they cannot legally drive. After the age of…

  11. Defining Effective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layne, L.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at the meaning of specific terminology commonly used in student surveys: "effective teaching." The research seeks to determine if there is a difference in how "effective teaching" is defined by those taking student surveys and those interpreting the results. To investigate this difference, a sample group of professors and students…

  12. Defining and Assessing Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron, Ed.

    The seven papers in this monograph focus on defining and assessing quality. The paper are: (1) "Reflections on Design Ideals" (E. Grady Bogue), which addresses some "governing ideals" of collegiate quality; (2) "Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Investment and Quality in Higher Education" (Sven Groennings), which sees the competitive quality of…

  13. On Defining Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherritt, Caroline A.

    Defining literacy is a compelling challenge to educators. They generally use three models: instrumental, functional, and empowerment. The latter two approaches, which were increasingly evident in the 1980s, identify literacy by the social functions required in a given context or by the qualities needed for illiterate people to take control of…

  14. On Defining Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement…

  15. Defining Equality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Ronald E.

    1977-01-01

    Defines equality of education in three areas: 1) by the degree of integration of school systems; 2) by a comparison of material resources and assets in education; and 3) by the effects of schooling as measured by the mean scores of groups on standardized tests. Available from: College of Education, 107 Quadrangle, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa…

  16. Attentional processes and meditation.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, Holley S; Adair, Kathryn C

    2010-12-01

    Visual attentional processing was examined in adult meditators and non-meditators on behavioral measures of change blindness, concentration, perspective-shifting, selective attention, and sustained inattentional blindness. Results showed that meditators (1) noticed more changes in flickering scenes and noticed them more quickly, (2) counted more accurately in a challenging concentration task, (3) identified a greater number of alternative perspectives in multiple perspectives images, and (4) showed less interference from invalid cues in a visual selective attention task, but (5) did not differ on a measure of sustained inattentional blindness. Together, results show that regular meditation is associated with more accurate, efficient, and flexible visual attentional processing across diverse tasks that have high face validity outside of the laboratory. Furthermore, effects were assessed in a context separate from actual meditation practice, suggesting that meditators' better visual attention is not just immediate, but extends to contexts separate from meditation practice.

  17. Attention, reading and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Skottun, Bernt C; Skoyles, John R

    2006-07-01

    It has been proposed that magnocellular deficits cause dyslexia through reduced attention. According to one model (Vidyasagar, Clinical and Experimental Optometry 2004; 87: 4-10), attention is shifted from letter to letter during fixations and magnocellular deficits are hypothesised to cause reading problems by interfering with the ability to control the attention. The present report points out several problems in this model. 1. It requires dissociation of eye movements and attention, which may be problematic within the framework of reading. 2. There is direct evidence to indicate that reading is not carried out in a letter-to-letter manner during fixations. 3. There are aspects of the visual performance of dyslexic readers, which are difficult to attribute to inattention. 4. There are indications that attentional deficiencies of dyslexic readers are not associated with magnocellular deficits. 5. The evidence for linking magnocellular deficits to dyslexia in general is weak.

  18. Mission planning for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, G.

    1987-01-01

    Planning is a necessary task for intelligent, adaptive systems operating independently of human controllers. A mission planning system that performs task planning by decomposing a high-level mission objective into subtasks and synthesizing a plan for those tasks at varying levels of abstraction is discussed. Researchers use a blackboard architecture to partition the search space and direct the focus of attention of the planner. Using advanced planning techniques, they can control plan synthesis for the complex planning tasks involved in mission planning.

  19. Saccades, salience and attention: the role of the lateral intraparietal area in visual behavior.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Michael E; Bisley, James W; Powell, Keith D; Gottlieb, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    Neural activity in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) has been associated with attention to a location in visual space, and with the intention to make saccadic eye movement. In this study we show that neurons in LIP respond to recently flashed task-irrelevant stimuli and saccade targets brought into the receptive field by a saccade, although they respond much to the same stimuli when they are stable in the environment. LIP neurons respond to the appearance of a flashed distractor even when a monkey is planning a memory-guided delayed saccade elsewhere. We then show that a monkey's attention, as defined by an increase in contrast sensitivity, is pinned to the goal of a memory-guided saccade throughout the delay period, unless a distractor appears, in which case attention transiently moves to the site of the distractor and then returns to the goal of the saccade. LIP neurons respond to both the saccade goal and the distractor, and this activity correlates with the monkey's locus of attention. In particular, the activity of LIP neurons predicts when attention migrates from the distractor back to the saccade goal. We suggest that the activity in LIP provides a salience map that is interpreted by the oculomotor system as a saccade goal when a saccade is appropriate, and simultaneously is used by the visual system to determine the locus of attention. PMID:17027387

  20. reDefined contribution health care.

    PubMed

    Lair, Tamra

    2004-01-01

    To combat rising health care costs and a society increasingly unsatisfied with employer-sponsored health care services, reDefined Contribution Health Care suggests a process to create a more consumer-driven health care market. To create this value-sensitive market requires a planned, staged approach that will include immediate actions and work toward fundamental, long-term changes. PMID:15146751

  1. Hanford defined waste model limitations and improvements

    SciTech Connect

    HARMSEN, R.W.

    1999-02-24

    Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan, Milestone 5,6.3.1.i requires issuance of this report which addresses ''updates to the tank contents model''. This report summarizes the review of the Hanford Defined Waste, Revision 4, model limitations and provides conclusions and recommendations for potential updates to the model.

  2. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... finish things? If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these behaviors at times, but ADHD lasts more than 6 months and causes problems ...

  3. Nicotinic receptors and attention.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Facilitation of different attentional functions by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists may be of therapeutic potential in disease conditions such as Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia. For this reason, the neuronal mechanisms underlying these effects have been the focus of research in humans and in preclinical models. Attention-enhancing effects of the nonselective nAChR agonist nicotine can be observed in human nonsmokers and in laboratory animals, suggesting that benefits go beyond a reversal of withdrawal deficits in smokers. The ultimate aim is to develop compounds acting with greater selectivity than nicotine at a subset of nAChRs, with an effects profile narrowly matching the targeted cognitive deficits and minimizing unwanted effects. To date, compounds tested clinically target the nAChR subtypes most abundant in the brain. To help pinpoint more selectively expressed subtypes critical for attention, studies have aimed at identifying the secondary neurotransmitter systems whose stimulation mediates the attention-enhancing properties of nicotine. Evidence indicates that noradrenaline and glutamate, but not dopamine release, are critical mediators. Thus, attention-enhancing nAChR agents could spare the system central to nicotine dependence. Neuroimaging studies suggest that nAChR agonists act on a variety of brain systems by enhancing activation, reducing activation, and enhancing deactivation by attention tasks. This supports the notion that effects on different attentional functions may be mediated by distinct central mechanisms, consistent with the fact that nAChRs interact with a multitude of brain sites and neurotransmitter systems. The challenge will be to achieve the optimal tone at the right subset of nAChR subtypes to modulate specific attentional functions, employing not just direct agonist properties, but also positive allosteric modulation and low-dose antagonism.

  4. Unmasking the Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieuwenstein, Mark R.; Potter, Mary C.; Theeuwes, Jan

    2009-01-01

    When asked to identify 2 visual targets (T1 and T2 for the 1st and 2nd targets, respectively) embedded in a sequence of distractors, observers will often fail to identify T2 when it appears within 200-500 ms of T1--an effect called the "attentional blink". Recent work shows that attention does not blink when the task is to encode a sequence of…

  5. Attention Reorients Periodically.

    PubMed

    Dugué, Laura; Roberts, Mariel; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-06-20

    Reorienting of voluntary attention enables the processing of stimuli at previously unattended locations. Although studies have identified a ventral fronto-parietal network underlying attention [1, 2], little is known about whether and how early visual areas are involved in involuntary [3, 4] and even less in voluntary [5] reorienting, and their temporal dynamics are unknown. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the occipital cortex to interfere with attentional reorienting and study its role and temporal dynamics in this process. Human observers performed an orientation discrimination task, with either valid or invalid attention cueing, across a range of stimulus contrasts. Valid cueing induced a behavioral response gain increase, higher asymptotic performance for attended than unattended locations. During subsequent TMS sessions, observers performed the same task, with high stimulus contrast. Based on phosphene mapping, TMS double pulses were applied at one of various delays to a consistent brain location in retinotopic areas (V1/V2), corresponding to the evoked signal of the target or distractor, in a valid or invalid trial. Thus, the stimulation was identical for the four experimental conditions (valid/invalid cue condition × target/distractor-stimulated). TMS modulation of the target and distractor were both periodic (5 Hz, theta) and out of phase with respect to each other in invalid trials only, when attention had to be disengaged from the distractor and reoriented to the target location. Reorientation of voluntary attention periodically involves V1/V2 at the theta frequency. These results suggest that TMS probes theta phase-reset by attentional reorienting and help link periodic sampling in time and attention reorienting in space.

  6. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Disorders in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Harold; Daley, Christine E.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    This study examined the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among school children in Arkansas for the purpose of helping school districts plan appropriate educational interventions. The ADHD Survey was mailed to all 311 school superintendents; 128 surveys were returned. Findings revealed that, overall, 3 percent of…

  7. Defining The Other Solitude

    PubMed Central

    Gruson, Valerie; Bates, Joanna

    1990-01-01

    The changing content of urban-based family practice needs to be redefined so that appropriate family medicine training programs can be planned to meet the primary care health needs of Canada's urban-based population. Although the core content of family practice is common to both rural and urban areas, each requires specific skills and attitudes dictated by differences in patient characteristics, disease incidence, physician expectations, and professional contexts. A challenge for the future is the development of both rural-based and urban-based streams of family medicine training that will unite rather than divide the profesiion. PMID:21233947

  8. Cognition, emotion, and attention.

    PubMed

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Deficits of attention, emotion, and cognition occur in individuals with alcohol abuse and addiction. This review elucidates the concepts of attention, emotion, and cognition and references research on the underlying neural networks and their compromise in alcohol use disorder. Neuroimaging research on adolescents with family history of alcoholism contributes to the understanding of pre-existing brain structural conditions and characterization of cognition and attention processes in high-risk individuals. Attention and cognition interact with other brain functions, including perceptual selection, salience, emotion, reward, and memory, through interconnected neural networks. Recent research reports compromised microstructural and functional network connectivity in alcoholism, which can have an effect on the dynamic tuning between brain systems, e.g., the frontally based executive control system, the limbic emotion system, and the midbrain-striatal reward system, thereby impeding cognitive flexibility and behavioral adaptation to changing environments. Finally, we introduce concepts of functional compensation, the capacity to generate attentional resources for performance enhancement, and brain structure recovery with abstinence. An understanding of the neural mechanisms of attention, emotion, and cognition will likely provide the basis for better treatment strategies for developing skills that enhance alcoholism therapy adherence and quality of life, and reduce the propensity for relapse. PMID:25307584

  9. Toward a Behavioral Analysis of Joint Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, William V.; MacDonald, Rebecca P. F.; Mansfield, Renee C.; Holcomb, William L.; Ahearn, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Joint attention (JA) initiation is defined in cognitive-developmental psychology as a child's actions that verify or produce simultaneous attending by that child and an adult to some object or event in the environment so that both may experience the object or event together. This paper presents a contingency analysis of gaze shift in JA…

  10. Structures and Functions of Selective Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Michael I.

    While neuropsychology relates the neural structures damaged in traumatic brain injury with their cognitive functions in daily life, this report reviews evidence that elementary operations of cognition as defined by cognitive studies are the level at which the brain localizes its computations. Orienting of visual attention is used as a model task.…

  11. Defining periodontal health

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the periodontium has relied exclusively on a variety of physical measurements (e.g., attachment level, probing depth, bone loss, mobility, recession, degree of inflammation, etc.) in relation to various case definitions of periodontal disease. Periodontal health was often an afterthought and was simply defined as the absence of the signs and symptoms of a periodontal disease. Accordingly, these strict and sometimes disparate definitions of periodontal disease have resulted in an idealistic requirement of a pristine periodontium for periodontal health, which makes us all diseased in one way or another. Furthermore, the consequence of not having a realistic definition of health has resulted in potentially questionable recommendations. The aim of this manuscript was to assess the biological, environmental, sociological, economic, educational and psychological relationships that are germane to constructing a paradigm that defines periodontal health using a modified wellness model. The paradigm includes four cardinal characteristics, i.e., 1) a functional dentition, 2) the painless function of a dentition, 3) the stability of the periodontal attachment apparatus, and 4) the psychological and social well-being of the individual. Finally, strategies and policies that advocate periodontal health were appraised. I'm not sick but I'm not well, and it's a sin to live so well. Flagpole Sitta, Harvey Danger PMID:26390888

  12. Attention and reading skills.

    PubMed

    Commodari, Elena; Guarnera, Maria

    2005-04-01

    Attention plays a critical role in information processing. Its adequate functioning is required for correct development of complex cognitive abilities and regular scholastic progress. Children with attention deficits often have difficulties in reading, writing, and arithmetic. The present study investigated interactions among reading skills, overall scholastic performance as rated by teachers, and components of attention: visual reaction time, simple immediate span of attention, and selectivity. The sample was 98 students in the first and second years of public junior high school (age range 11-14 years, M = 12.6, SD = 1.2), i.e., with expected already well-established reading. Reading was evaluated using Comprehension, Accuracy, and Speed tests. Overall scholastic performance was obtained by means of teachers' ratings. Simple Reaction Time, Digit Span, and Color-Word Interference, included in a multitask computerized test, assessed attention. Analysis confirmed the hypothesis that the reading skills are strongly predictive of the Scholastic Assessment rated by the teachers. High scholastic ratings were correlated with Reading Speed and Accuracy rather than Reading Comprehension. Poor readers showed worse performances on the Digit Span test which measures simple immediate span of attention. Good and poor readers obtained a similar score on the Color-Word Interference task. This observation seems to contrast with the more common interpretation of this effect, suggesting that reading is an automatic process and, therefore, the semantic dimension overcomes the controlled perceptual one. According to other studies, an alternative explanation is suggested. In conclusion, present results confirm the hypothesis of a strong link among reading speed and accuracy, scholastic assessment as rated by teachers, simple immediate span of attention, and visual reaction time.

  13. Attention and reading skills.

    PubMed

    Commodari, Elena; Guarnera, Maria

    2005-04-01

    Attention plays a critical role in information processing. Its adequate functioning is required for correct development of complex cognitive abilities and regular scholastic progress. Children with attention deficits often have difficulties in reading, writing, and arithmetic. The present study investigated interactions among reading skills, overall scholastic performance as rated by teachers, and components of attention: visual reaction time, simple immediate span of attention, and selectivity. The sample was 98 students in the first and second years of public junior high school (age range 11-14 years, M = 12.6, SD = 1.2), i.e., with expected already well-established reading. Reading was evaluated using Comprehension, Accuracy, and Speed tests. Overall scholastic performance was obtained by means of teachers' ratings. Simple Reaction Time, Digit Span, and Color-Word Interference, included in a multitask computerized test, assessed attention. Analysis confirmed the hypothesis that the reading skills are strongly predictive of the Scholastic Assessment rated by the teachers. High scholastic ratings were correlated with Reading Speed and Accuracy rather than Reading Comprehension. Poor readers showed worse performances on the Digit Span test which measures simple immediate span of attention. Good and poor readers obtained a similar score on the Color-Word Interference task. This observation seems to contrast with the more common interpretation of this effect, suggesting that reading is an automatic process and, therefore, the semantic dimension overcomes the controlled perceptual one. According to other studies, an alternative explanation is suggested. In conclusion, present results confirm the hypothesis of a strong link among reading speed and accuracy, scholastic assessment as rated by teachers, simple immediate span of attention, and visual reaction time. PMID:15974348

  14. Moving to Capture Children's Attention: Developing a Methodology for Measuring Visuomotor Attention.

    PubMed

    Hill, Liam J B; Coats, Rachel O; Mushtaq, Faisal; Williams, Justin H G; Aucott, Lorna S; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Attention underpins many activities integral to a child's development. However, methodological limitations currently make large-scale assessment of children's attentional skill impractical, costly and lacking in ecological validity. Consequently we developed a measure of 'Visual Motor Attention' (VMA)-a construct defined as the ability to sustain and adapt visuomotor behaviour in response to task-relevant visual information. In a series of experiments, we evaluated the capability of our method to measure attentional processes and their contributions in guiding visuomotor behaviour. Experiment 1 established the method's core features (ability to track stimuli moving on a tablet-computer screen with a hand-held stylus) and demonstrated its sensitivity to principled manipulations in adults' attentional load. Experiment 2 standardised a format suitable for use with children and showed construct validity by capturing developmental changes in executive attention processes. Experiment 3 tested the hypothesis that children with and without coordination difficulties would show qualitatively different response patterns, finding an interaction between the cognitive and motor factors underpinning responses. Experiment 4 identified associations between VMA performance and existing standardised attention assessments and thereby confirmed convergent validity. These results establish a novel approach to measuring childhood attention that can produce meaningful functional assessments that capture how attention operates in an ecologically valid context (i.e. attention's specific contribution to visuomanual action). PMID:27434198

  15. Atypical Attentional Networks and the Emergence of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Keehn, Brandon; Müller, Ralph-Axel; Townsend, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    The sociocommunicative impairments that define autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not present at birth but emerge gradually over the first two years of life. In typical development, basic attentional processes may provide a critical foundation for sociocommunicative abilities. Therefore early attentional dysfunction in ASD may result in atypical development of social communication. Prior research has demonstrated that persons with ASD exhibit early and lifelong impairments in attention. The primary aim of this paper is to provide a review of the extant research on attention in ASD using a framework of functionally independent attentional networks as conceptualized by Posner and colleagues: the alerting, orienting and executive control networks (Posner and Petersen, 1990; Petersen & Posner, 2012). The neural substrates and typical development of each attentional network is briefly discussed, a review of the ASD attention literature is presented, and a hypothesis is proposed that links aberrant attentional mechanisms, specifically impaired disengagement of attention, with the emergence of core ASD symptoms. PMID:23206665

  16. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Towards a Unified Developmental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control…

  17. Solving the Planning Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jons, Tom; Olfert, Bill

    2003-01-01

    Discusses strategic planning in higher education and describes an integrated institutional planning system developed by a planning firm that guides administrators in developing, implementing, and monitoring a strategic plan. The system process uses an orderly sequence of activities assembled into five phases, from defining purpose through…

  18. TAPERED DEFINING SLOT

    DOEpatents

    Pressey, F.W.

    1959-09-01

    An improvement is reported in the shape and formation of the slot or opening in the collimating slot member which forms part of an ion source of the type wherein a vapor of the material to be ionized is bombarded by electrons in a magnetic field to strike an arc-producing ionization. The defining slot is formed so as to have a substantial taper away from the cathode, causing the electron bombardment from the cathode to be dispersed over a greater area reducing its temperature and at the same time bringing the principal concentration of heat from the electron bombardment nearer the anode side of the slot, thus reducing deterioration and prolonging the life of the slot member during operation.

  19. Defining the mobilome.

    PubMed

    Siefert, Janet L

    2009-01-01

    This chapter defines the agents that provide for the movement of genetic material which fuels the adaptive potential of life on our planet. The chapter has been structured to be broadly comprehensive, arbitrarily categorizing the mobilome into four classes: (1) transposons, (2) plasmids, (3) bacteriophage, and (4) self-splicing molecular parasites.Our increasing understanding of the mobilome is as dynamic as the mobilome itself. With continuing discovery, it is clear that nature has not confined these genomic agents of change to neat categories, but rather the classification categories overlap and intertwine. Massive sequencing efforts and their published analyses are continuing to refine our understanding of the extent of the mobilome. This chapter provides a framework to describe our current understanding of the mobilome and a foundation on which appreciation of its impact on genome evolution can be understood.

  20. Defining critical thoughts.

    PubMed

    Lovatt, Abbie

    2014-05-01

    Nursing education has long struggled to define critical thinking and explain how the process of critical thinking fits into the context of nursing. Despite this long time struggle, nurses and nurse educators continue to strive to foster critical thinking skills in nursing students as intuitively most nurses believe that critical thinking is necessary to function competently in the workplace. This article explores the most recent work of Dr. Stephen Brookfield and ties the concepts which are explored in Brookfield's work to nursing practice. Brookfield identifies that learners understand the meaning of critical thinking the best when the process is first demonstrated. Role modeling is a method educators can use to demonstrate critical thinking and is a strategy which nurses often use in the clinical area to train and mentor new nursing staff. Although it is not a new strategy in nursing education, it is a valuable strategy to engage learners in critical thinking activities. PMID:24418065

  1. Defining clinical 'workstation'.

    PubMed

    Safran, C

    1994-01-01

    Interest in the physician's workstation has increased, yet often seems to focus on technological issues. At Boston's Beth Israel Hospital, the Center for Clinical Computing includes heavily used clinical workstations. Their evolution over the past 20 years suggests design criteria: the workstation must be patient-centered, the interface must be uniform, and data acquisition must be addressed at a system level. However, it is clinical function that really defines a workstation. The workstation should do the following: display patient information rapidly and flexibly; assist with administrative tasks; facilitate communication; and provide four important types of decision support: access to literature, access to databases, clinical calculation, and 'synthetic vision,' or different views of patient data. The solutions to our healthcare problems are not in 'workboxes' we can buy, but in creative approaches we can imagine. We need a patient-centered infrastructure and a reduced workload for the clinician-perhaps a 'worklesstation'. PMID:8125637

  2. Prefrontal contributions to visual selective attention.

    PubMed

    Squire, Ryan F; Noudoost, Behrad; Schafer, Robert J; Moore, Tirin

    2013-07-01

    The faculty of attention endows us with the capacity to process important sensory information selectively while disregarding information that is potentially distracting. Much of our understanding of the neural circuitry underlying this fundamental cognitive function comes from neurophysiological studies within the visual modality. Past evidence suggests that a principal function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is selective attention and that this function involves the modulation of sensory signals within posterior cortices. In this review, we discuss recent progress in identifying the specific prefrontal circuits controlling visual attention and its neural correlates within the primate visual system. In addition, we examine the persisting challenge of precisely defining how behavior should be affected when attentional function is lost.

  3. Attention, communication, and schizophrenia.

    PubMed Central

    Rund, B. R.

    1985-01-01

    The paper starts by drawing the historical lines for and giving an account of the main methods and results from an empirical investigation of cognitive disorders in schizophrenics and communication deviances in their parents. The focus of the report is on the significant correlations that were found between some aspects of parents' style of communication and offsprings' cognitive functioning. On the basis of the empirical study, the relationship between attention and communication is discussed, and the issue of whether attentional processes "change identity" by being embedded in a social context is considered. Furthermore, the influence of deviant communication in parents on attentional processes in offspring is discussed in relation to a main postulate in Vygotsky's theory; namely, that higher mental functions are internalized social relations. PMID:4049909

  4. Defining the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Simon; Maslin, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Time is divided by geologists according to marked shifts in Earth's state. Recent global environmental changes suggest that Earth may have entered a new human-dominated geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Should the Anthropocene - the idea that human activity is a force acting upon the Earth system in ways that mean that Earth will be altered for millions of years - be defined as a geological time-unit at the level of an Epoch? Here we appraise the data to assess such claims, first in terms of changes to the Earth system, with particular focus on very long-lived impacts, as Epochs typically last millions of years. Can Earth really be said to be in transition from one state to another? Secondly, we then consider the formal criteria used to define geological time-units and move forward through time examining whether currently available evidence passes typical geological time-unit evidence thresholds. We suggest two time periods likely fit the criteria (1) the aftermath of the interlinking of the Old and New Worlds, which moved species across continents and ocean basins worldwide, a geologically unprecedented and permanent change, which is also the globally synchronous coolest part of the Little Ice Age (in Earth system terms), and the beginning of global trade and a new socio-economic "world system" (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by a temporary drop in atmospheric CO2, centred on 1610 CE; and (2) the aftermath of the Second World War, when many global environmental changes accelerated and novel long-lived materials were increasingly manufactured, known as the Great Acceleration (in Earth system terms) and the beginning of the Cold War (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by the peak in radionuclide fallout in 1964. We finish by noting that the Anthropocene debate is politically loaded, thus transparency in the presentation of evidence is essential if a formal definition of the Anthropocene is to avoid becoming a debate about bias. The

  5. Investigating bottom-up auditory attention

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Emine Merve; Elhilali, Mounya

    2014-01-01

    Bottom-up attention is a sensory-driven selection mechanism that directs perception toward a subset of the stimulus that is considered salient, or attention-grabbing. Most studies of bottom-up auditory attention have adapted frameworks similar to visual attention models whereby local or global “contrast” is a central concept in defining salient elements in a scene. In the current study, we take a more fundamental approach to modeling auditory attention; providing the first examination of the space of auditory saliency spanning pitch, intensity and timbre; and shedding light on complex interactions among these features. Informed by psychoacoustic results, we develop a computational model of auditory saliency implementing a novel attentional framework, guided by processes hypothesized to take place in the auditory pathway. In particular, the model tests the hypothesis that perception tracks the evolution of sound events in a multidimensional feature space, and flags any deviation from background statistics as salient. Predictions from the model corroborate the relationship between bottom-up auditory attention and statistical inference, and argues for a potential role of predictive coding as mechanism for saliency detection in acoustic scenes. PMID:24904367

  6. Defining the role of University of Kentucky HealthCare in its medical market--how strategic planning creates the intersection of good public policy and good business practices.

    PubMed

    Karpf, Michael; Lofgren, Richard; Bricker, Timothy; Claypool, Joseph O; Zembrodt, Jim; Perman, Jay; Higdon, Courtney M

    2009-02-01

    In response both to national pressures to reduce costs and improve health care access and outcomes and to local pressures to become a top-20 public research university, the University of Kentucky moved toward an integrated clinical enterprise, UK HealthCare, to create a common vision, shared goals, and an effective decision-making process. The leadership formed the vision and then embarked on a comprehensive and coordinated planning process that addressed financial, clinical, academic, and operational issues. The authors describe in depth the strategic planning process and specifically the definition of UK HealthCare's role in its medical marketplace. They began a rigorous process to assess and develop goals for the clinical programs and followed the progress of these programs through meetings driven by data and attended by the organization's senior leadership. They describe their approach to working with rural and community hospitals throughout central, eastern, and southern Kentucky to support the health care infrastructure of the state. They review the early successes of their strategic approach and describe the lessons they learned. The clinical successes have led to academic gains. The experience of UK HealthCare suggests that good business practices and good public policy are synergistic.

  7. Attention Capture by Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  8. Moving to Capture Children’s Attention: Developing a Methodology for Measuring Visuomotor Attention

    PubMed Central

    Coats, Rachel O.; Mushtaq, Faisal; Williams, Justin H. G.; Aucott, Lorna S.; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Attention underpins many activities integral to a child’s development. However, methodological limitations currently make large-scale assessment of children’s attentional skill impractical, costly and lacking in ecological validity. Consequently we developed a measure of ‘Visual Motor Attention’ (VMA)—a construct defined as the ability to sustain and adapt visuomotor behaviour in response to task-relevant visual information. In a series of experiments, we evaluated the capability of our method to measure attentional processes and their contributions in guiding visuomotor behaviour. Experiment 1 established the method’s core features (ability to track stimuli moving on a tablet-computer screen with a hand-held stylus) and demonstrated its sensitivity to principled manipulations in adults’ attentional load. Experiment 2 standardised a format suitable for use with children and showed construct validity by capturing developmental changes in executive attention processes. Experiment 3 tested the hypothesis that children with and without coordination difficulties would show qualitatively different response patterns, finding an interaction between the cognitive and motor factors underpinning responses. Experiment 4 identified associations between VMA performance and existing standardised attention assessments and thereby confirmed convergent validity. These results establish a novel approach to measuring childhood attention that can produce meaningful functional assessments that capture how attention operates in an ecologically valid context (i.e. attention's specific contribution to visuomanual action). PMID:27434198

  9. Attention: Moral-Cognitive Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Yi-Fu

    1987-01-01

    This article is an essay on the importance of attention as a personal trait. Offers a definition of attention, reviews symptoms of inattention, and identifies the categories of objects which typically hold a person's attention. (JDH)

  10. Defining an emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future. PMID:26470448

  11. Defining an emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future.

  12. Establishment of an attentional set via statistical learning.

    PubMed

    Cosman, Joshua D; Vecera, Shaun P

    2014-02-01

    The ability to overcome attentional capture and attend goal-relevant information is typically viewed as a volitional, effortful process that relies on the maintenance of current task priorities or "attentional sets" in working memory. However, the visual system possesses statistical learning mechanisms that can incidentally encode probabilistic associations between goal-relevant objects and the attributes likely to define them. Thus, it is possible that statistical learning may contribute to the establishment of a given attentional set and modulate the effects of attentional capture. Here we provide evidence for such a mechanism, showing that implicitly learned associations between a search target and its likely color directly influence the ability of a salient color precue to capture attention in a classic attentional capture task. This indicates a novel role for statistical learning in the modulation of attentional capture, and emphasizes the role that this learning may play in goal-directed attentional control more generally. PMID:24099589

  13. Cortical State and Attention

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kenneth D.; Thiele, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Preface The brain continuously adapts its processing machinery to behavioural demands. To achieve this it rapidly modulates the operating mode of cortical circuits, controlling the way information is transformed and routed. This article will focus on two experimental approaches by which the control of cortical information processing has been investigated: the study of state-dependent cortical processing in rodents, and attention in the primate visual system. Both processes involve a modulation of low-frequency activity fluctuations and spiking correlation, and are mediated by common receptor systems. We suggest that selective attention involves processes similar to state change, operating at a local columnar level to enhance the representation of otherwise nonsalient features while suppressing internally generated activity patterns. PMID:21829219

  14. Attention-Seeking Displays

    PubMed Central

    Számadó, Szabolcs

    2015-01-01

    Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest. PMID:26287489

  15. Health Workforce Planning: An overview and suggested approach in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Sawai, Abdulaziz; Al-Shishtawy, Moeness M

    2015-02-01

    In most countries, the lack of explicit health workforce planning has resulted in imbalances that threaten the capacity of healthcare systems to attain their objectives. This has directed attention towards the prospect of developing healthcare systems that are more responsive to the needs and expectations of the population by providing health planners with a systematic method to effectively manage human resources in this sector. This review analyses various approaches to health workforce planning and presents the Six-Step Methodology to Integrated Workforce Planning which highlights essential elements in workforce planning to ensure the quality of services. The purpose, scope and ownership of the approach is defined. Furthermore, developing an action plan for managing a health workforce is emphasised and a reviewing and monitoring process to guide corrective actions is suggested.

  16. Interactions of attention, emotion and motivation.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Although successful visually guided action begins with sensory processes and ends with motor control, the intervening processes related to the appropriate selection of information for processing are especially critical because of the brain's limited capacity to handle information. Three important mechanisms--attention, emotion and motivation--contribute to the prioritization and selection of information. In this chapter, the interplay between these systems is discussed with emphasis placed on interactions between attention (or immediate task relevance of stimuli) and emotion (or affective evaluation of stimuli), and between attention and motivation (or the predicted value of stimuli). Although numerous studies have shown that emotional stimuli modulate mechanisms of selective attention in humans, little work has been directed at exploring whether such interactions can be reciprocal, that is, whether attention can influence emotional response. Recent work on this question (showing that distracting information is typically devalued upon later encounters) is reviewed in the first half of the chapter. In the second half, some recent experiments exploring how prior value-prediction learning (i.e., learning to associate potential outcomes, good or bad, with specific stimuli) plays a role in visual selection and conscious perception. The results indicate that some aspects of motivation act on selection independently of traditionally defined attention and other aspects interact with it.

  17. Treatment Approaches to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Antai-Otong, Deborah; Zimmerman, Michele L

    2016-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in children, adolescents, and adults, with a prevalence estimated from 5% to 7% across cultures and approximately 2% to 5% in adults. This lifelong disorder challenges nurses to understand the basis of ADHD, analyze symptoms, differentiate coexisting disorders, gather health information from varied sources, and implement person-centered multimodal treatment. Nurses are poised to plan, and work with patients, families, and teachers in the community and school systems to optimize academic and occupational performance and improve quality of life. Pharmacotherapy, psychoeducation, and behavioral therapies are strong components of multimodal treatment planning.

  18. Defining and measuring pilot mental workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantowitz, Barry H.

    1988-01-01

    A theory is sought that is general enough to help the researcher deal with a wide range of situations involving pilot mental stress. A limited capacity theory of attention forms the basis for the theory. Mental workload is then defined as an intervening variable, similar to attention, that modulates or indexes the tuning between the demands of the environment and the capacity of the organism. Two methods for measuring pilot mental workload are endorsed: (1) objective measures based on secondary tasks; and (2) psychophysiological measures, which have not yet been perfected but which will become more useful as theoretical models are refined. Secondary-task research is illustrated by simulator studies in which flying performance has been shown not to be adversely affected by adding a complex choice-reaction secondary task.

  19. Etiology of Attention Disorders: A Neurological/Genetic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantham, Madeline Kay

    This paper explores the historical origins of attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) as a neurological disorder, current neurological and genetic research concerning the etiology of ADD/ADHD, and implications for diagnosis and treatment. First, ADD/ADHD is defined and then the origins of ADD/ADHD as a…

  20. Attention Capacity and Task Difficulty in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Liqiang; Pashler, Harold

    2005-01-01

    When a visual search task is very difficult (as when a small feature difference defines the target), even detection of a unique element may be substantially slowed by increases in display set size. This has been attributed to the influence of attentional capacity limits. We examined the influence of attentional capacity limits on three kinds of…

  1. State level comprehensive health planning: a retrospect.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, W J

    1976-01-01

    A questionnaire survey of the 50 state CHP agencies and a case study of a single state CHP agency were conducted to contrast the concept of comprehensive health planning with the practice of health planning at the state level. Both the survey and the case study evidenced a substantial disparity between concept and practice. For example, the survey indicated that the following tasks had not been completed by the following percentages of the responding agencies: defining the system of interest (64%), ranking problems (50%), setting targets (74%), thoroughly analyzing intervention alternatives (71%), selecting criteria and procedures for intervention evaluations (57%). The state CHP agencies were found to be lacking in the following areas: (a) technical analyses, (b) explicitness, (c) priority setting, (d) attention to health status indices and preventive interventions, and (e) integration of planning activities. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:1251945

  2. Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention.

    PubMed

    Jha, Amism P; Krompinger, Jason; Baime, Michael J

    2007-06-01

    Mindfulness is defined as paying attention in the present moment. We investigate the hypothesis that mindfulness training may alter or enhance specific aspects of attention. We examined three functionally and neuroanatomically distinct but overlapping attentional subsystems: alerting, orienting, and conflict monitoring. Functioning of each subsystem was indexed by performance on the Attention Network Test. Two types of mindfulness training (MT) programs were examined, and behavioral testing was conducted on participants before (Time 1) and after (Time 2) training. One training group consisted of individuals naive to mindfulness techniques who participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) course that emphasized the development of concentrative meditation skills. The other training group consisted of individuals experienced in concentrative meditation techniques who participated in a 1-month intensive mindfulness retreat. Performance of these groups was compared with that of control participants who were meditation naive and received no MT. At Time 1, the participants in the retreat group demonstrated improved conflict monitoring performance relative to those in the MBSR and control groups. At Time 2, the participants in the MBSR course demonstrated significantly improved orienting in comparison with the control and retreat participants. In contrast, the participants in the retreat group demonstrated altered performance on the alerting component, with improvements in exogenous stimulus detection in comparison with the control and MBSR participants. The groups did not differ in conflict monitoring performance at Time 2. These results suggest that mindfulness training may improve attention-related behavioral responses by enhancing functioning of specific subcomponents of attention. Whereas participation in the MBSR course improved the ability to endogenously orient attention, retreat participation appeared to allow for the development and

  3. Attention: the claustrum.

    PubMed

    Goll, Yael; Atlan, Gal; Citri, Ami

    2015-08-01

    The claustrum is a mysterious thin sheet of neurons lying between the insular cortex and the striatum. It is reciprocally connected with almost all cortical areas, including motor, somatosensory, visual, auditory, limbic, associative, and prefrontal cortices. In addition, it receives neuromodulatory input from subcortical structures. A decade ago, Sir Francis Crick and Christof Koch published an influential review proposing the claustrum as the 'seat of consciousness', spurring a revival of interest in the claustrum. We review the literature on the claustrum, emphasizing recent discoveries, and develop a detailed hypothesis describing a role for the claustrum in the segregation of attention.

  4. Attentional Engagement in Infancy: The Interactive Influence of Attentional Inertia and Attentional State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Lisa M.; Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Kannass, Kathleen N.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the interactive influences of attentional state and attentional inertia on infants' level of attentional engagement. We assessed infants' distraction latencies longitudinally at 6.5 and 9 months as they explored toys, and we coded both their attentional state (focused vs. casual) and how long they had been looking at the toy at each…

  5. The Infant Orienting With Attention task: Assessing the neural basis of spatial attention in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Schneegans, Sebastian; Spencer, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Infant visual attention develops rapidly over the first year of life, significantly altering the way infants respond to peripheral visual events. Here we present data from 5-, 7- and 10-month-old infants using the Infant Orienting With Attention (IOWA) task, designed to capture developmental changes in visual spatial attention and saccade planning. Results indicate rapid development of spatial attention and visual response competition between 5 and 10 months. We use a dynamic neural field (DNF) model to link behavioral findings to neural population activity, providing a possible mechanistic explanation for observed developmental changes. Together, the behavioral and model simulation results provide new insights into the specific mechanisms that underlie spatial cueing effects, visual competition, and visual interference in infancy. PMID:26273232

  6. Problem defining and the consulting/intervention process.

    PubMed

    Kilmann, R; Mitroff, I

    1979-01-01

    Although many different approaches are currently being used to create planned change in organizations, Kilmann and Mitroff feel that too little attention has been paid to determining the effectiveness of these different methods in solving the organizations' problems. Based on intervention theory and the consulting process, the authors offer a method of evaluating an organization's approach to change to determine if it is well-suited to the types of problems being experienced. The process of change is diagrammed as a five-step cycle: 1) sensing problems; 2) defining problems; 3) deriving solutions; 4) implementing solutions; and 5) evaluating outcomes. Most consultants enter the process at step 3 which increases the probability that they will try to solve the wrong problem (termed Type III error). A second source of trouble is that consultants are usually trained in one or two disciplines and, therefore, see problems primarily in those perspectives. Kilmann and Mitroff suggest the use of teams of consultants so the problems can be conceptualized from a number of different viewpoints.

  7. Joint attention and language evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwisthout, Johan; Vogt, Paul; Haselager, Pim; Dijkstra, Ton

    2008-06-01

    This study investigates how more advanced joint attentional mechanisms, rather than only shared attention between two agents and an object, can be implemented and how they influence the results of language games played by these agents. We present computer simulations with language games showing that adding constructs that mimic the three stages of joint attention identified in children's early development (checking attention, following attention, and directing attention) substantially increase the performance of agents in these language games. In particular, the rates of improved performance for the individual attentional mechanisms have the same ordering as that of the emergence of these mechanisms in infants' development. These results suggest that language evolution and joint attentional mechanisms have developed in a co-evolutionary way, and that the evolutionary emergence of the individual attentional mechanisms is ordered just like their developmental emergence.

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2015-03-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder in children. It is characterized by motor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention inappropriate for the age. Approximately 5-10 % of school age children are diagnosed to have ADHD. The affected children show significant impairment in social behavior and academic performance. The DSM-5 criteria are useful in diagnosing three subtypes of ADHD based on presence of symptoms described in 3 domains viz ., inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Co-morbidities like specific learning disability, anxiety disorder, oppositional defiant disorder are commonly associated with ADHD.Education of parents and teachers, behavioral therapy and medication are main components of management. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine are effective in controlling symptoms of ADHD in most children. Research studies estimated that 30-60 % of children continue to show symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. The general practitioner can play an important role in early diagnosis, appropriate assessment and guiding parents for management of children with ADHD.

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam

    2016-03-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1·4-3·0%. It is more common in boys than girls. Comorbidity with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders is substantial. ADHD is highly heritable and multifactorial; multiple genes and non-inherited factors contribute to the disorder. Prenatal and perinatal factors have been implicated as risks, but definite causes remain unknown. Most guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment, beginning with non-drug interventions and then moving to pharmacological treatment in those most severely affected. Randomised controlled trials show short-term benefits of stimulant medication and atomoxetine. Meta-analyses of blinded trials of non-drug treatments have not yet proven the efficacy of such interventions. Longitudinal studies of ADHD show heightened risk of multiple mental health and social difficulties as well as premature mortality in adult life.

  10. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam

    2016-03-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1·4-3·0%. It is more common in boys than girls. Comorbidity with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders is substantial. ADHD is highly heritable and multifactorial; multiple genes and non-inherited factors contribute to the disorder. Prenatal and perinatal factors have been implicated as risks, but definite causes remain unknown. Most guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment, beginning with non-drug interventions and then moving to pharmacological treatment in those most severely affected. Randomised controlled trials show short-term benefits of stimulant medication and atomoxetine. Meta-analyses of blinded trials of non-drug treatments have not yet proven the efficacy of such interventions. Longitudinal studies of ADHD show heightened risk of multiple mental health and social difficulties as well as premature mortality in adult life. PMID:26386541

  11. Culture, attention, and emotion.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Igor; Ellsworth, Phoebe C; Hong, Ying-yi

    2012-02-01

    This research provides experimental evidence for cultural influence on one of the most basic elements of emotional processing: attention to positive versus negative stimuli. To this end, we focused on Russian culture, which is characterized by brooding and melancholy. In Study 1, Russians spent significantly more time looking at negative than positive pictures, whereas Americans did not show this tendency. In Study 2, Russian Latvians were randomly primed with symbols of each culture, after which we measured the speed of recognition for positive versus negative trait words. Biculturals were significantly faster in recognizing negative words (as compared with baseline) when primed with Russian versus Latvian cultural symbols. Greater identification with Russian culture facilitated this effect. We provide a theoretical discussion of mental processes underlying cultural differences in emotion research.

  12. Visual attention to features by associative learning.

    PubMed

    Gozli, Davood G; Moskowitz, Joshua B; Pratt, Jay

    2014-11-01

    Expecting a particular stimulus can facilitate processing of that stimulus over others, but what is the fate of other stimuli that are known to co-occur with the expected stimulus? This study examined the impact of learned association on feature-based attention. The findings show that the effectiveness of an uninformative color transient in orienting attention can change by learned associations between colors and the expected target shape. In an initial acquisition phase, participants learned two distinct sequences of stimulus-response-outcome, where stimuli were defined by shape ('S' vs. 'H'), responses were localized key-presses (left vs. right), and outcomes were colors (red vs. green). Next, in a test phase, while expecting a target shape (80% probable), participants showed reliable attentional orienting to the color transient associated with the target shape, and showed no attentional orienting with the color associated with the alternative target shape. This bias seemed to be driven by learned association between shapes and colors, and not modulated by the response. In addition, the bias seemed to depend on observing target-color conjunctions, since encountering the two features disjunctively (without spatiotemporal overlap) did not replicate the findings. We conclude that associative learning - likely mediated by mechanisms underlying visual object representation - can extend the impact of goal-driven attention to features associated with a target stimulus. PMID:25173722

  13. Planning Systems in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip

    1969-01-01

    This literature review examines 16 selected documents processed by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Administration that deal with the application of several kinds of planning systems to educational programs. Particular attention is given to planning-programming-budgeting systems (PPBS), program evaluation review techniques (PERT), and various…

  14. The evolution of Japanese employer-sponsored retirement plans.

    PubMed

    Rajnes, David

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the development of Japanese voluntary employer-sponsored retirement plans with an emphasis on recent trends. Until 2001, companies in Japan offered retirement benefits as lump-sum severance payments and/or benefits from one of two types of defined benefit (DB) pension plans. One type of DB plan was based on the occupational pension model used in the United States before the adoption of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), but lacked the funding, vesting, and other protective features contained in ERISA. The other type of DB plan allowed companies to opt out of the earnings-related portion of social security, commonly referred to as "contracting out." Landmark laws passed in 2001 introduced a new generation of occupational retirement plans to employers and employees. One law increased funding requirements and enhanced employee protections for employer-sponsored DB plans, while a second law introduced defined contribution (DC) plans for several reasons, chiefly to increase retirement savings and help boost Japanese financial markets. These laws complemented earlier changes in the tax code and financial accounting standards already affecting employer-sponsored retirement plans. As a result, new retirement plan designs will replace most prereform era company retirement plans by 2012. In 2001, the experience of 401(k) plans in the United States, where 42 million participants had accumulated more than $1.8 trillion in assets over 20 years, attracted considerable attention among Japanese lawmakers finalizing provisions of the DC pension law. Even with government support and encouragement from the financial services industry, Japanese companies have not adopted these new DC plans in large numbers. As a result, occupational retirement plans in Japan have remained predominantly DB-a surprising development in light of the shift in a number of countries from DB to DC plans observed in recent decades. However, recent proposals to

  15. The evolution of Japanese employer-sponsored retirement plans.

    PubMed

    Rajnes, David

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the development of Japanese voluntary employer-sponsored retirement plans with an emphasis on recent trends. Until 2001, companies in Japan offered retirement benefits as lump-sum severance payments and/or benefits from one of two types of defined benefit (DB) pension plans. One type of DB plan was based on the occupational pension model used in the United States before the adoption of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), but lacked the funding, vesting, and other protective features contained in ERISA. The other type of DB plan allowed companies to opt out of the earnings-related portion of social security, commonly referred to as "contracting out." Landmark laws passed in 2001 introduced a new generation of occupational retirement plans to employers and employees. One law increased funding requirements and enhanced employee protections for employer-sponsored DB plans, while a second law introduced defined contribution (DC) plans for several reasons, chiefly to increase retirement savings and help boost Japanese financial markets. These laws complemented earlier changes in the tax code and financial accounting standards already affecting employer-sponsored retirement plans. As a result, new retirement plan designs will replace most prereform era company retirement plans by 2012. In 2001, the experience of 401(k) plans in the United States, where 42 million participants had accumulated more than $1.8 trillion in assets over 20 years, attracted considerable attention among Japanese lawmakers finalizing provisions of the DC pension law. Even with government support and encouragement from the financial services industry, Japanese companies have not adopted these new DC plans in large numbers. As a result, occupational retirement plans in Japan have remained predominantly DB-a surprising development in light of the shift in a number of countries from DB to DC plans observed in recent decades. However, recent proposals to

  16. Chewing and attention: a positive effect on sustained attention.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function. PMID:26075234

  17. Getting the attention you need.

    PubMed

    Davenport, T H; Beck, J C

    2000-01-01

    Employees have an enormous amount of business information at their fingertips--more specifically, at their desktops. The floodgates are open; profitable possibilities abound. But having to handle all that information has pushed downsized staffs to the brink of an acute attention deficit disorder. To achieve corporate goals, business leaders need their employees' full attention--and that attention is in short supply. Authors Thomas Davenport and John Beck have studied how companies manage the attention of their employees and their site visitors. In this article, they analyze the components of attention management through three lenses--economic, psychobiological, and technological--and offer guidelines for keeping employees focused on crucial corporate tasks. Their lessons are drawn from the best practices employed by today's stickiest Web sites and by traditional attention industries such as advertising, film, and television. The authors say executives must manage attention knowing that it's a zero-sum game (there's only so much to go around). Managers should also consider capitalizing on the basic survival and competitive instincts we all have that help determine how much attention we pay to certain things. For instance, the threat of corporate demise--and the consequent loss of jobs and livelihoods--undoubtedly focuses workers' attention on the need to change. Likewise, internal competition among business units may give employees added incentive to pay attention to a profit or sales goal. Leaders today need to pay more attention to attention because it's widely misunderstood and widely mismanaged, the authors conclude. PMID:11143148

  18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... us to find out more about ADHD. Share Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order a free ... attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder , or ADHD . What is attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD? ADHD is a common mental disorder ...

  19. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties. PMID:25763856

  20. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties.

  1. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Barber, Anita D; Jacobson, Lisa A; Wexler, Joanna L; Nebel, Mary Beth; Caffo, Brian S; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain-behavior associations with attentional control measures were examined for the late-developing CON and DMN in 50 children with ADHD and 50 typically-developing (TD) controls (ages 8-12 years). Children with ADHD had hyper-connectivity both within the CON and within the DMN. Full-brain behavioral associations were found for a number of between-network connections. Across both groups, more anti-correlation between DMN and occipital cortex supported better attentional control. However, in the TD group, this brain-behavior association was stronger and occurred for a more extensive set of DMN-occipital connections. Differential support for attentional control between the two groups occurred with a number of CON-DMN connections. For all CON-DMN connections identified, increased between-network anti-correlation was associated with better attentional control for the ADHD group, but worse attentional control in the TD group. A number of between-network connections with the medial frontal cortex, in particular, showed this relationship. Follow-up analyses revealed that these associations were specific to attentional control and were not due to individual differences in working memory, IQ, motor control, age, or scan motion. While CON-DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON-DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other

  2. Microgravity strategic plan, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA agency-wide microgravity strategic plan is presented, and its research, applications, and commercialization for the 1990's is addressed. The plan presents an analysis of the current situation, identifies critical factors, and defines goals, objectives, and strategies, which are intended to: (1) provide a context for decision making; (2) assure realism in long-range planning and direction for hardware development; and (3) establish a framework for developing a national microgravity research plan.

  3. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD.

  4. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD. PMID:24787685

  5. Cue contrast modulates the effects of exogenous attention on appearance.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Stuart; Park, Yunsoo; Carrasco, Marisa

    2009-07-01

    Exogenous spatial attention can be automatically engaged by a cue presented in the visual periphery. To investigate the effects of exogenous attention, previous studies have generally used highly salient cues that reliably trigger attention. However, the cueing threshold of exogenous attention has been unexamined. We investigated whether the attentional effect varies with cue salience. We examined the magnitude of the attentional effect on apparent contrast [Carrasco, M., Ling, S., & Read, S. (2004). Attention alters appearance. Nature Neuroscience, 7(3), 308-313.] elicited by cues with negative Weber contrast between 6% and 100%. Cue contrast modulated the attentional effect, even at cue contrasts above the level at which observers can perfectly localize the cue; hence, the result is not due to an increase in cue visibility. No attentional effect is observed when the 100% contrast cue is presented after the stimuli, ruling out cue bias or sensory interaction between cues and stimuli as alternative explanations. A second experiment, using the same paradigm with high contrast motion stimuli gave similar results, providing further evidence against a sensory interaction explanation, as the stimuli and task were defined on a visual dimension independent from cue contrast. Although exogenous attention is triggered automatically and involuntarily, the attentional effect is gradual.

  6. Exogenous attention to unseen objects?

    PubMed

    Norman, Liam J; Heywood, Charles A; Kentridge, Robert W

    2015-09-01

    Attention and awareness are closely related phenomena, but recent evidence has shown that not all attended stimuli give rise to awareness. Controversy still remains over whether, and the extent to which, a dissociation between attention and awareness encompasses all forms of attention. For example, it has been suggested that attention without awareness is more readily demonstrated for voluntary, endogenous attention than its reflexive, exogenous counterpart. Here we examine whether exogenous attentional cueing can have selective behavioural effects on stimuli that nevertheless remain unseen. Using a task in which object-based attention has been shown in the absence of awareness, we remove all possible contingencies between cues and target stimuli to ensure that any cueing effects must be under purely exogenous control, and find evidence of exogenous object-based attention without awareness. In a second experiment we address whether this dissociation crucially depends on the method used to establish that the objects indeed remain unseen. Specifically, to confirm that objects are unseen we adopt appropriate signal detection task procedures, including those that retain parity with the primary attentional task (by requiring participants to discriminate the two types of trial that are used to measure an effect of attention). We show a significant object-based attention effect is apparent under conditions where the selected object indeed remains undetectable.

  7. Defined Syllabuses in Modern Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Ann; Honnor, Sylvia

    1974-01-01

    The advantages of a defined syllabus in second language teaching, especially in relation to public examinations, are discussed. The origin and development of the York defined syllabuses are described, and extracts are given from the introductory document and the French and Russian syllabuses. (RM)

  8. Clarifying and Defining Library Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubert, Joseph F., Ed.; Josey, E. J., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This issue presents articles which, in some way, help to clarify and define library services. It is hoped that this clarification in library service will serve to secure the resources libraries need to serve the people of New York. The following articles are presented: (1) Introduction: "Clarifying and Defining Library Services" (Joseph F.…

  9. Early Social Attention Impairments in Autism: Social Orienting, Joint Attention, and Attention to Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Geraldine; Toth, Karen; Abbott, Robert; Osterling, Julie; Munson, Jeff; Estes, Annette; Liaw, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated social attention impairments in autism (social orienting, joint attention, and attention to another's distress) and their relations to language ability. Three- to four-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 72), 3- to 4-year-old developmentally delayed children (n = 34), and 12- to 46-month-old typically…

  10. The new hospice compliance plan: defining and addressing risk areas.

    PubMed

    Jones, D H; Woods, K

    2000-05-01

    The Department of Health and Human Services' (HHS) Office of the Inspector General (OIG), has advised hospices and other health care providers to formulate effective controls to ensure compliance with federal and state statutes, rules, and regulations, and private-payor health care program requirements. The recently released guidelines provide a blueprint for developing such programs. This is the first of four installments that focus specifically on the 28 risk areas identified in the guidance and offer strategies for incorporating them in a hospice compliance program. The authors have organized the 28 risk areas under 9 topic domains to simplify the task of tackling the guidance. This article covers the first two areas: Admission/Certification/Recertification and Billing.

  11. Attention and joint attention in preschool children with autism.

    PubMed

    Leekam, S R; López, B; Moore, C

    2000-03-01

    Three experiments examined the role of attention in explaining dyadic (child-adult) and triadic (child-adult-object) joint attention difficulties in autism. Experiments 1 and 2 investigated children's ability to orient to an adult's attention bid and to follow the direction of a human or nonhuman cue. Experiment 3 tested ability to disengage and shift attention to objects. Results showed autism-specific difficulties at both dyadic and triadic levels. Children with autism were less responsive than developmentally delayed controls in orienting to attention bids and in following a human head-turn cue yet had no difficulty in shifting attention and were faster overall in orienting to targets. Results suggest a specific developmental delay in which children with autism rely on the presence of objects in the visual field to guide action. The relation between this problem and autistic children's difficulties with human communicative signals is discussed. PMID:10749083

  12. Realistic Educational Planning. Fundamentals of Educational Planning -- 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, K. R.

    Expertise in the technical aspects of planning and a keen appreciation of the social factors involved are not, in themselves, sufficient for satisfactory educational planning. The plan will still not be feasible unless there is attention to a third group of factors called "practical issues", "organizational features", or "processes". These are the…

  13. Attention-Modulating Effects of Cognitive Enhancers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attention can be readily measured in experimental animal models. Animal models of attention have been used to better understand the neural systems involved in attention, how attention is impaired, and how therapeutic treatments can ameliorate attentional deficits. This review fo...

  14. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention.

    PubMed

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms are marginal. We hypothesize that basic deficits in sustaining attention explain more complex attentional dysfunction in persons with ADHD and relate to ADHD symptoms. Attentional function was analyzed by computing ex-Gaussian parameters for 3 time Blocks in a 20 min test of sustained alertness. Changes in performance across these blocks were analyzed by comparing adult persons with ADHD (n = 24) with healthy matched controls (n = 24) and correlated with neuropsychological measures of selective and divided attention as well as self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. We found a significantly steeper increase in the number of slow responses (ex-Gaussian parameter τ) in persons with ADHD with time on task in basic sustained alertness. They also performed significantly worse in tasks of sustained selective and divided attention. However, after controlling for an increase in τ during the alertness task, significant differences between groups disappeared for divided and partly selective attention. Increases in τ in the sustained alertness task correlated significantly with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. Our results provide evidence that very basic deficits in sustaining attention in adults with ADHD are related to infrequent slow responses (=attentional lapses), with changes over time being relevant for more complex attentional function and experienced ADHD symptoms in everyday life. PMID:27193369

  15. Transfusion service disaster planning.

    PubMed

    Bundy, K L; Foss, M L; Stubbs, J R

    2008-01-01

    The Mayo Clinic, in Rochester, Minnesota, recently set forth a directive to develop a Mayo Emergency Incident Command System (MEICS) plan to respond to major disasters. The MEICS plan that was developed interfaces with national response plans to ensure effective communication and coordination between our institution and local, state, and federal agencies to establish a common language and communication structure. The MEICS plan addresses multiple aspects of dealing with resource needs during a crisis, including the need for blood and transfusion medicine services. The MEICS plan was developed to supplement our current local emergency preparedness procedures and provide a mechanism for responding to the escalating severity of an emergency to deal with situations of a magnitude that is outside the normal experience. A plan was developed to interface the existing Transfusion Medicine disaster plan standard operating procedures (SOP) with the institutional and Department of Laboratory Medicine (DLMP) MEICS plans. The first step in developing this interface was defining MEICS. Other major steps were defining the chain of command, developing a method for visually indicating who is "in charge," planning communication, defining the actions to be taken, assessing resource needs, developing flowcharts and updating SOPs, and developing a blood rationing team to deal with anticipated blood shortages. Several key features of the interface and updated disaster plan that were developed are calling trees for response personnel, plans for relocating leadership to alternative command centers, and action sheets to assist with resource assessment. The action sheets also provide documentation of key actions by response personnel.

  16. The Problem of Defining Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubar, David

    1981-01-01

    The major philosophical issues surrounding the concept of intelligence are reviewed with respect to the problems surrounding the process of defining and developing artificial intelligence (AI) in computers. Various current definitions and problems with these definitions are presented. (MP)

  17. 76 FR 3648 - NIMS Training Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency NIMS Training Plan AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency... Agency (FEMA) is requesting public comments on the NIMS Training Plan. This plan defines National Incident Management System (NIMS) national training. It specifies stakeholder responsibilities...

  18. Motivation, Interest, and Attention: Re-Defining Learning in the Autism Spectrum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lequia, Jenna

    2011-01-01

    In "The Passionate Mind: How People with Autism Learn", Wendy Lawson presents readers with various cognitive theories of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this book, Lawson makes reference to the medical and social models of disability, urging readers to consider disability from a social rather than a medical or deficit-driven perspective. Each…

  19. 12 CFR 563.47 - Pension plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Structure § 563.47 Pension plans. (a) General. No savings association or service corporation... employee pension plan is defined in section 3(2) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as... stated in or determinable from the plan, and, for a defined benefit plan, shall also be based upon...

  20. 12 CFR 563.47 - Pension plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Structure § 563.47 Pension plans. (a) General. No savings association or service corporation... employee pension plan is defined in section 3(2) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as... stated in or determinable from the plan, and, for a defined benefit plan, shall also be based upon...

  1. 12 CFR 163.47 - Pension plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Structure § 163.47 Pension plans. (a) General. No Federal savings association or service... employee pension plan is defined in section 3(2) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as... stated in or determinable from the plan, and, for a defined benefit plan, shall also be based upon...

  2. 12 CFR 163.47 - Pension plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Structure § 163.47 Pension plans. (a) General. No Federal savings association or service... employee pension plan is defined in section 3(2) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as... stated in or determinable from the plan, and, for a defined benefit plan, shall also be based upon...

  3. Attention function after childhood stroke.

    PubMed

    Max, Jeffrey E; Robin, Donald A; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith O; Fox, Peter T; Lancaster, Jack L; Manes, Facundo F; Mathews, Katherine; Austermann, Shannon

    2004-11-01

    We investigated attentional outcome after childhood stroke and orthopedic diagnosis in medical controls. Twenty-nine children with focal stroke lesions and individually matched children with clubfoot or scoliosis were studied with standardized attention and neuroimaging assessments. Stroke lesions were quite varied in location and commonly involved regions implicated in Posner's model of attention networks. Children with stroke lesions performed significantly more poorly regarding attention function compared with controls. Performance on the Starry Night, a test demanding alerting and sensory-orienting but not executive attention function, was significantly associated with lesion size in the alerting and sensory-orienting networks but not the executive attention network. Furthermore, earlier age at lesion acquisition was significantly associated with poorer attention function even when lesion size was controlled. These findings support the theory of dissociable networks of attention and add to evidence from studies of children with diffuse and focal brain damage that early insults are associated with worse long-term outcomes in many domains of neuropsychological function. In addition, these results may provide clues towards the understanding of mechanisms underlying attention in children.

  4. Provocative Mathematics Questions: Drawing Attention to a Lack of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klymchuk, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    The article investigates the role of attention in the reflective thinking of school mathematics teachers. It analyses teachers' ability to pay attention to detail and "use" their mathematical knowledge. The vast majority of teachers can be expected to have an excellent knowledge of mathematical techniques. The question examined here is…

  5. Attentional Capture with Rapidly Changing Attentional Control Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric; Johnston, James C.

    2010-01-01

    The classic theory of spatial attention hypothesized 2 modes, voluntary and involuntary. Folk, Remington, and Johnston (1992) reported that even involuntary attention capture by stimuli requires a match between stimulus properties and what the observer is looking for. This surprising conclusion has been confirmed by many subsequent studies. In…

  6. Focus of Attention in Groups: A Self-Attention Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Brian; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reports on three research studies that tested the hypothesis that the focus of attention of individuals in groups varies as a function of the group composition. The populations studied were members of the Nixon White House staff, high school students, and male undergraduate students. Results supported the idea of self-focused attention as a…

  7. Difficulty of Discrimination Modulates Attentional Capture by Regulating Attentional Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawaki, Risa; Katayama, Jun'ichi

    2009-01-01

    Attentional capture for distractors is enhanced by increasing the difficulty of discrimination between the standard and the target in the three-stimulus oddball paradigm. In this study, we investigated the cognitive mechanism of this modulation of attentional capture. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from participants while they…

  8. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Anita D.; Jacobson, Lisa A.; Wexler, Joanna L.; Nebel, Mary Beth; Caffo, Brian S.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain–behavior associations with attentional control measures were examined for the late-developing CON and DMN in 50 children with ADHD and 50 typically-developing (TD) controls (ages 8–12 years). Children with ADHD had hyper-connectivity both within the CON and within the DMN. Full-brain behavioral associations were found for a number of between-network connections. Across both groups, more anti-correlation between DMN and occipital cortex supported better attentional control. However, in the TD group, this brain–behavior association was stronger and occurred for a more extensive set of DMN–occipital connections. Differential support for attentional control between the two groups occurred with a number of CON–DMN connections. For all CON–DMN connections identified, increased between-network anti-correlation was associated with better attentional control for the ADHD group, but worse attentional control in the TD group. A number of between-network connections with the medial frontal cortex, in particular, showed this relationship. Follow-up analyses revealed that these associations were specific to attentional control and were not due to individual differences in working memory, IQ, motor control, age, or scan motion. While CON–DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON–DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD

  9. The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Reichl, Susanne; Lange, Katharina M.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD. PMID:21258430

  10. Shifting Attentional Priorities: Control of Spatial Attention through Hemispheric Competition

    PubMed Central

    Szczepanski, Sara M.; Kastner, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Regions of frontal and posterior parietal cortex are known to control the allocation of spatial attention across the visual field. However, the neural mechanisms underlying attentional control in the intact human brain remain unclear, with some studies supporting a hemispatial theory emphasizing a dominant function of the right hemisphere and others supporting an interhemispheric competition theory. We previously found neural evidence to support the latter account, in which topographically organized frontoparietal areas each generate a spatial bias, or “attentional weight,” toward the contralateral hemifield, with the sum of the weights constituting the overall bias that can be exerted across visual space. Here, we used a multimodal approach consisting of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of spatial attention signals, behavioral measures of spatial bias, and fMRI-guided single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to causally test this interhemispheric competition account. Across the group of fMRI subjects, we found substantial individual differences in the strengths of the frontoparietal attentional weights in each hemisphere, which predicted subjects’ respective behavioral preferences when allocating spatial attention, as measured by a landmark task. Using TMS to interfere with attentional processing within specific topographic frontoparietal areas, we then demonstrated that the attentional weights of individual subjects, and thus their spatial attention behavior, could be predictably shifted toward one visual field or the other, depending on the site of interference. The results of our multimodal approach, combined with an emphasis on neural and behavioral individual differences, provide compelling evidence that spatial attention is controlled through competitive interactions between hemispheres rather than a dominant right hemisphere in the intact human brain. PMID:23516306

  11. Motor preparation, motor execution, attention, and executive functions in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Klimkeit, Ester I; Mattingley, Jason B; Sheppard, Dianne M; Lee, Paul; Bradshaw, John L

    2005-04-01

    Attention and executive functions were investigated in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD combined type using a novel selective reaching task. This task involved responding as rapidly as possible to a target while at times having to ignore a distractor. Results indicated that unmedicated children with ADHD showed slow and inaccurate responding. Slow responding reflected problems at the stage of movement preparation but not movement execution. An attentional impairment, rather than a motor planning problem per se, appeared to underlie the slow movement preparation. Inaccurate responding reflected problems with response inhibition and selective attention, impulsivity, set-shifting, and difficulties in maintaining vigilance. Although medicated children with ADHD did not show slow movement preparation, they did show some response inaccuracy, resulting especially from impulsive responding. These findings suggest that ADHD is characterized by slow motor preparation (but not motor execution), and deficits in selective attention, vigilance, and executive functions. Preliminary results suggest that stimulant medication may resolve some of these motor, attentional and executive function deficits.

  12. Brain Mechanisms of Attentional Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Thomas

    Lack of attentional control--inability to concentrate--has often made the difference between successful and unsuccessful performance on the part of athletes. Attention is controlled neurologically by a very complex interaction of a large portion of the cerebrum and is not localized to any one structure. The mechanism involves a memory retrieval…

  13. Caffeine Modulates Attention Network Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a flanker task designed to test Posner's three visual attention network functions: alerting, orienting, and executive control [Posner, M. I. (2004). "Cognitive neuroscience of attention". New York, NY: Guilford Press]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind…

  14. Joint Attention and Early Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasello, Michael; Farrar, Michael Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    Findings from studies exploring role of joint attentional focus in children's acquisition of language indicated that language of 24 mothers and their 15- to 21-month-olds inside episodes of joint attentional focus involved more utterances, shorter sentences, more comments, and longer conversations than outside of episodes. Also, object references…

  15. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  16. Combining segmentation and attention: a new foveal attention model

    PubMed Central

    Marfil, Rebeca; Palomino, Antonio J.; Bandera, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Artificial vision systems cannot process all the information that they receive from the world in real time because it is highly expensive and inefficient in terms of computational cost. Inspired by biological perception systems, artificial attention models pursuit to select only the relevant part of the scene. On human vision, it is also well established that these units of attention are not merely spatial but closely related to perceptual objects (proto-objects). This implies a strong bidirectional relationship between segmentation and attention processes. While the segmentation process is the responsible to extract the proto-objects from the scene, attention can guide segmentation, arising the concept of foveal attention. When the focus of attention is deployed from one visual unit to another, the rest of the scene is perceived but at a lower resolution that the focused object. The result is a multi-resolution visual perception in which the fovea, a dimple on the central retina, provides the highest resolution vision. In this paper, a bottom-up foveal attention model is presented. In this model the input image is a foveal image represented using a Cartesian Foveal Geometry (CFG), which encodes the field of view of the sensor as a fovea (placed in the focus of attention) surrounded by a set of concentric rings with decreasing resolution. Then multi-resolution perceptual segmentation is performed by building a foveal polygon using the Bounded Irregular Pyramid (BIP). Bottom-up attention is enclosed in the same structure, allowing to set the fovea over the most salient image proto-object. Saliency is computed as a linear combination of multiple low level features such as color and intensity contrast, symmetry, orientation and roundness. Obtained results from natural images show that the performance of the combination of hierarchical foveal segmentation and saliency estimation is good in terms of accuracy and speed. PMID:25177289

  17. Social reward shapes attentional biases.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Paying attention to stimuli that predict a reward outcome is important for an organism to survive and thrive. When visual stimuli are associated with tangible, extrinsic rewards such as money or food, these stimuli acquire high attentional priority and come to automatically capture attention. In humans and other primates, however, many behaviors are not motivated directly by such extrinsic rewards, but rather by the social feedback that results from performing those behaviors. In the present study, I examine whether positive social feedback can similarly influence attentional bias. The results show that stimuli previously associated with a high probability of positive social feedback elicit value-driven attentional capture, much like stimuli associated with extrinsic rewards. Unlike with extrinsic rewards, however, such stimuli also influence task-specific motivation. My findings offer a potential mechanism by which social reward shapes the information that we prioritize when perceiving the world around us. PMID:25941868

  18. Affective modulation of attentional switching.

    PubMed

    Heerebout, Bram T; Todorović, Ana; Smedinga, Hilde E; Phaf, R Hans

    2013-01-01

    Affective modulation of attentional switching may have developed early in evolution and may therefore have primacy over other affective influences. This behavioral study investigated the influence of affect on attentional switching between emotionally neutral stimuli, whether limited-capacity control processes are involved, and whether attentional flexibility should be distinguished from attentional broadening. Experiment 1 showed that suboptimally presented happy faces facilitated switching from an automatized response routine, whereas angry faces had the opposite effect. In Experiment 2, participants with a dominant global (i.e., broad) or local (i.e., narrow) spatial bias switched more easily to the opposite bias after suboptimal happy faces than after neutral primes but less easily after angry faces. Affective modulation of attentional switching was probably incorporated during evolution in many more complex forms of information processing.

  19. Caudate asymmetry is related to attentional impulsivity and an objective measure of ADHD-like attentional problems in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Dang, Linh C; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Young, Jacob S; Cowan, Ronald L; Kessler, Robert M; Zald, David H

    2016-01-01

    Case-control studies comparing ADHD with typically developing individuals suggest that anatomical asymmetry of the caudate nucleus is a marker of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there is no consensus on whether the asymmetry favors the right or left caudate nucleus in ADHD, or whether the asymmetry is increased or decreased in ADHD. The current study aimed to clarify this relationship by applying a dimensional approach to assessing ADHD symptoms that, instead of relying on clinical classification, utilizes the natural behavioral continuum of traits related to ADHD. Structural T1-weighted MRI was collected from 71 adults between 18 and 35 years and analyzed for caudate asymmetry. ADHD-like attentional symptoms were assessed with an objective measure of attentional problems, the ADHD score from the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). Impulsivity, a core feature in ADHD, was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, a self-report measure that assesses attentional, non-planning, and motor features of impulsivity. We found that larger right relative to left caudate volumes correlated with both higher attentional impulsiveness and worse ADHD scores on the TOVA. Higher attentional impulsiveness also correlated with worse ADHD scores, establishing coherence between the objective measure and the self-report measure of attentional problems. These results suggest that a differential passage of information through frontal-striatal networks may produce instability leading to attentional problems. The findings also demonstrate the utility of a dimensional approach to understanding structural correlates of ADHD symptoms.

  20. Creating a Marketing Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevier, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    A guide to developing a college marketing plan defines key marketing terms, outlines the development of a plan (including institutional analysis, market research, strategy formation and execution, and program evaluation), and provides a list of important principles with which to operate a program. (MSE)

  1. Defining "Folklore" in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falke, Anne

    Folklore, a body of traditional beliefs of a people conveyed orally or by means of custom, is very much alive, involves all people, and is not the study of popular culture. In studying folklore, the principal tasks of the folklorist have been defined as determining definition, classification, source (the folk), origin (who composed folklore),…

  2. Defining and Measuring Psychomotor Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Autio, Ossi

    2007-01-01

    Psychomotor performance is fundamental to human existence. It is important in many real world activities and nowadays psychomotor tests are used in several fields of industry, army, and medical sciences in employee selection. This article tries to define psychomotor activity by introducing some psychomotor theories. Furthermore the…

  3. Extended attention span training system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  4. Attention modulates visual size adaptation.

    PubMed

    Kreutzer, Sylvia; Fink, Gereon R; Weidner, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The current study determined in healthy subjects (n = 16) whether size adaptation occurs at early, i.e., preattentive, levels of processing or whether higher cognitive processes such as attention can modulate the illusion. To investigate this issue, bottom-up stimulation was kept constant across conditions by using a single adaptation display containing both small and large adapter stimuli. Subjects' attention was directed to either the large or small adapter stimulus by means of a luminance detection task. When attention was directed toward the small as compared to the large adapter, the perceived size of the subsequent target was significantly increased. Data suggest that different size adaptation effects can be induced by one and the same stimulus depending on the current allocation of attention. This indicates that size adaptation is subject to attentional modulation. These findings are in line with previous research showing that transient as well as sustained attention modulates visual features, such as contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency, and influences adaptation in other contexts, such as motion adaptation (Alais & Blake, 1999; Lankheet & Verstraten, 1995). Based on a recently suggested model (Pooresmaeili, Arrighi, Biagi, & Morrone, 2013), according to which perceptual adaptation is based on local excitation and inhibition in V1, we conclude that guiding attention can boost these local processes in one or the other direction by increasing the weight of the attended adapter. In sum, perceptual adaptation, although reflected in changes of neural activity at early levels (as shown in the aforementioned study), is nevertheless subject to higher-order modulation.

  5. Planning: Management of predictability and uncertainty and keeping abreast of developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastien-Thiry, Christophe; Verfaillie, Gerard

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose method to set up and control of a space mission plan such as that of the HERMES spaceplane. The interest of this subject, other than its complexity, is due to the need to manage imprecision and uncertainty during a mission, as well as changes in between missions. Under these conditions, the set up and control of a flight plan require certain special attention and this has led us to define a certain number of qualities: mastery of complexity in order to resolve conflicts between activities: configuration, resource and time management; consideration of various criteria such as risk minimization or the attainment of mission objectives; robustness and flexibility to allow for hazards and deviations from the norm during operation without having to draw up new plans; aptness for replanning by making changes to the plan without having to set up the whole plan again; and memorization and explanation facility in order to manage developments between missions.

  6. [Neuropsychological approach to visual attention].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kyoko

    2007-01-01

    Visual experience depends critically on visual attention, which selects a particular aspect of a visual display. Recent clinical, neuroimaging, and animal studies revealed that visual attention was divided into active and passive or top-down and bottom-up attention. Although these dichotomies are clear-cut in definition, visual attention could be modulated by many factors. Detailed observation of brain-injured patients provides with evidence for dynamic and fine control of visual attention. We observed patients with dorsal simultanagnosia and that with callosal disconnection syndrome. Patients with dorsal simultanagnosia demonstrated that extent of visual attention was dynamically changed depending on the level of visual processing. Despite the ability to read a kanji character and to describe its components correctly, a patient could not notice a component that he had just written and could not assemble individual components to make up a correct kanji character. He could point to an overlapping area of two figures. But once he started to color the overlapping area, he missed the margin of the area and colored much larger area. Another patient with dorsal simultanagnosia missed borderlines between columns of a newspaper and read letters continuously across columns. In contrast, he could point to lines between figures or meaningless patterns easily. These findings indicated that visual attention was directed automatically to meaningful characters. A patients with callosal disconnection syndrome demonstrated left unilateral spatial neglect only when he used his right hand to draw figures. Right hand movement, controlled by the left hemisphere, elicited visual attention to the right hemispace, resulting in the left unilateral spatial neglect. Thus visual attention is not simply top-down or bottom up, but is implicitly affected by the visual recognition as well as motor component of the task. PMID:17354375

  7. [Neuropsychological approach to visual attention].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kyoko

    2007-01-01

    Visual experience depends critically on visual attention, which selects a particular aspect of a visual display. Recent clinical, neuroimaging, and animal studies revealed that visual attention was divided into active and passive or top-down and bottom-up attention. Although these dichotomies are clear-cut in definition, visual attention could be modulated by many factors. Detailed observation of brain-injured patients provides with evidence for dynamic and fine control of visual attention. We observed patients with dorsal simultanagnosia and that with callosal disconnection syndrome. Patients with dorsal simultanagnosia demonstrated that extent of visual attention was dynamically changed depending on the level of visual processing. Despite the ability to read a kanji character and to describe its components correctly, a patient could not notice a component that he had just written and could not assemble individual components to make up a correct kanji character. He could point to an overlapping area of two figures. But once he started to color the overlapping area, he missed the margin of the area and colored much larger area. Another patient with dorsal simultanagnosia missed borderlines between columns of a newspaper and read letters continuously across columns. In contrast, he could point to lines between figures or meaningless patterns easily. These findings indicated that visual attention was directed automatically to meaningful characters. A patients with callosal disconnection syndrome demonstrated left unilateral spatial neglect only when he used his right hand to draw figures. Right hand movement, controlled by the left hemisphere, elicited visual attention to the right hemispace, resulting in the left unilateral spatial neglect. Thus visual attention is not simply top-down or bottom up, but is implicitly affected by the visual recognition as well as motor component of the task. PMID:17228775

  8. Contingent attentional capture or delayed allocation of attention?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, R. W.; Folk, C. L.; McLean, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Under certain circumstances, external stimuli will elicit an involuntary shift of spatial attention, referred to as attentional capture. According to the contingent involuntary orienting account (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992), capture is conditioned by top-down factors that set attention to respond involuntarily to stimulus properties relevant to one's behavioral goals. Evidence for this comes from spatial cuing studies showing that a spatial cuing effect is observed only when cues have goal-relevant properties. Here, we examine alternative, decision-level explanations of the spatial cuing effect that attribute evidence of capture to postpresentation delays in the voluntary allocation of attention, rather than to on-line involuntary shifts in direct response to the cue. In three spatial cuing experiments, delayed-allocation accounts were tested by examining whether items at the cued location were preferentially processed. The experiments provide evidence that costs and benefits in spatial cuing experiments do reflect the on-line capture of attention. The implications of these results for models of attentional control are discussed.

  9. Higher order software - A methodology for defining software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, M.; Zeldin, S.

    1976-01-01

    Higher order software (HOS) is concerned only with computable functions and relationships. The HOS methodology can be used for the definition of software for multiprogrammed, multiprocessor, or multicomputer systems. A description of HOS methodology is presented, giving attention to questions of formulation, interface correctness, specification language principles, and HOS analyzers. Aspects of system design are considered, and details of software management are discussed. Attention is given to modularity as defined by HOS, frozen module management, the assembly control supervisor, and aspects of reliability and efficiency.

  10. Information System Development: Phase I, Management Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Bill M.

    Objectives of this study of the operations of Engineering Index were to: (1) determine the need for a planning capability, (2) blueprint a mechanism to accomplish planning, and (3) recommend priorities requiring planning attention. Topics considered in the study are planning, the role of the board of directors and trustees, organizational…

  11. Tips for Beginners: Attention Getters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moldavan, Carla

    1993-01-01

    Proposes the use of humor and the personalization of word problems by inserting students' names in the problem statement as methods of gaining students' attention. Illustrates their use in a mixture problem and the Tower of Hanoi problem. (MDH)

  12. Mindfulness training affects attention--or is it attentional effort?

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Vangkilde, Signe; Frokjaer, Vibe; Hasselbalch, Steen G

    2012-02-01

    Improvements in attentional performance are at the core of proposed mechanisms for stress reduction in mindfulness meditation practices. However, this claim can be questioned because no previous studies have actively manipulated test effort in control groups and controlled for effects of stress reduction per se. In a blinded design, 48 young, healthy meditation novices were randomly assigned to a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), nonmindfulness stress reduction (NMSR), or inactive control group. At posttest, inactive controls were randomly split into nonincentive and incentive controls, the latter receiving a financial reward to improve attentional performance. Pre- and postintervention, 5 validated attention paradigms were employed along with self-report scales on mindfulness and perceived stress and saliva cortisol samples to measure physiological stress. Attentional effects of MBSR, NMSR, and the financial incentive were comparable or significantly larger in the incentive group on all reaction-time-based measures. However, selective attention in the MBSR group improved significantly more than in any other group. Similarly, only the MBSR intervention improved the threshold for conscious perception and visual working memory capacity. Furthermore, stress-reducing effects of MBSR were supported because those in the MBSR group showed significantly less perceived and physiological stress while increasing their mindfulness levels significantly. We argue that MBSR may contribute uniquely to attentional improvements but that further research focusing on non-reaction-time-based measures and outcomes less confounded by test effort is needed. Critically, our data demonstrate that previously observed improvements of attention after MBSR may be seriously confounded by test effort and nonmindfulness stress reduction.

  13. Defining the Polar Field Reversal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David H.

    2013-01-01

    The polar fields on the Sun are directly related to solar cycle variability. Recently there has been interest in studying an important characteristic of the polar fields: the timing of the polar field reversals. However this characteristic has been poorly defined, mostly due to the limitations of early observations. In the past, the reversals have been calculated by averaging the flux above some latitude (i.e. 55deg or 75deg). Alternatively, the reversal could be defined by the time in which the previous polarity is completely canceled and replaced by the new polarity at 90de, precisely at the pole. We will use a surface flux transport model to illustrate the differences in the timing of the polar field reversal based on each of these definitions and propose standardization in the definition of the polar field reversal. The ability to predict the timing of the polar field reversal using a surface flux transport model will also be discussed.

  14. How do people define moderation?

    PubMed

    vanDellen, Michelle R; Isherwood, Jennifer C; Delose, Julie E

    2016-06-01

    Eating in moderation is considered to be sound and practical advice for weight maintenance or prevention of weight gain. However, the concept of moderation is ambiguous, and the effect of moderation messages on consumption has yet to be empirically examined. The present manuscript examines how people define moderate consumption. We expected that people would define moderate consumption in ways that justified their current or desired consumption rather than view moderation as an objective standard. In Studies 1 and 2, moderate consumption was perceived to involve greater quantities of an unhealthy food (chocolate chip cookies, gummy candies) than perceptions of how much one should consume. In Study 3, participants generally perceived themselves to eat in moderation and defined moderate consumption as greater than their personal consumption. Furthermore, definitions of moderate consumption were related to personal consumption behaviors. Results suggest that the endorsement of moderation messages allows for a wide range of interpretations of moderate consumption. Thus, we conclude that moderation messages are unlikely to be effective messages for helping people maintain or lose weight. PMID:26964691

  15. How do people define moderation?

    PubMed

    vanDellen, Michelle R; Isherwood, Jennifer C; Delose, Julie E

    2016-06-01

    Eating in moderation is considered to be sound and practical advice for weight maintenance or prevention of weight gain. However, the concept of moderation is ambiguous, and the effect of moderation messages on consumption has yet to be empirically examined. The present manuscript examines how people define moderate consumption. We expected that people would define moderate consumption in ways that justified their current or desired consumption rather than view moderation as an objective standard. In Studies 1 and 2, moderate consumption was perceived to involve greater quantities of an unhealthy food (chocolate chip cookies, gummy candies) than perceptions of how much one should consume. In Study 3, participants generally perceived themselves to eat in moderation and defined moderate consumption as greater than their personal consumption. Furthermore, definitions of moderate consumption were related to personal consumption behaviors. Results suggest that the endorsement of moderation messages allows for a wide range of interpretations of moderate consumption. Thus, we conclude that moderation messages are unlikely to be effective messages for helping people maintain or lose weight.

  16. Planning for Program Implementation -- A Process Guide. Instructional Planning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brokes, A. L.; Jenks, C. L.

    This guide presents tasks a planning group should consider when implementing a program. Although implementation may not occur in this sequence, the total array of implementation tasks includes selecting a planning group leader, defining the problem, selecting objectives, designing the program, developing an implementation plan, developing an…

  17. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  18. Developmental Changes in Infant Attention to Dynamic and Static Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaddy, D. Jill; Colombo, John

    2004-01-01

    This study examined 4- and 6-month-olds' responses to static or dynamic stimuli using behavioral and heart-rate-defined measures of attention. Infants looked longest to dynamic stimuli with an audio track and least to a static stimulus that was mute. Overall, look duration declined with age to the different stimuli. The amount of time spent in…

  19. Conceptualizing "Preoccupation": Evidence from Attention-Seeker Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimoga, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Human beings ought to use critical reflection to define and decide their courses of action. This paper examines the use of attention-seeker questions in the framework of critical pedagogy purposely to study the way some Ugandan teachers are constrained in their practice by their lack of participation in developing the school curriculum. This…

  20. Auditory Attentional Capture: Effects of Singleton Distractor Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Polly; Lavie, Nilli

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of attentional capture by a unique yet irrelevant singleton distractor has typically been studied in visual search. In this article, the authors examine whether a similar phenomenon occurs in the auditory domain. Participants searched sequences of sounds for targets defined by frequency, intensity, or duration. The presence of a…

  1. DSM-5 further inflates attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Batstra, Laura; Frances, Allen

    2012-06-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence and medication use unexpectedly increased significantly. In this article, we explore the DSM-5 proposals for ADHD that are likely to further increase its prevalence. We also address the possible harmful consequences of further expansion of this already broad, defined, and inflated DSM category.

  2. Distinguishing Different Strategies of Across-Dimension Attentional Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Liqiang; Pashler, Harold

    2012-01-01

    Selective attention in multidimensional displays has usually been examined using search tasks requiring the detection of a single target. We examined the ability to perceive a spatial structure in multi-item subsets of a display that were defined either conjunctively or disjunctively. Observers saw two adjacent displays and indicated whether the…

  3. Does mindfulness meditation improve attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Farahmand, Pantea; Chaplin, Margaret; Sarro, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mindfulness training, derived from Eastern meditation practices, may improve self-regulation of attention. It may also be a useful strategy to augment standard ADHD treatments and may be used as a potential tool to reduce impairments in patients with residual symptoms of ADHD. Clinically, this would manifest by an increased ability to suppress task-unrelated thoughts and distractions resulting in improved attention, completion of tasks and potential improvement in occupational and social function. PMID:26740931

  4. Terminology, the importance of defining.

    PubMed

    van Mil, J W Foppe; Henman, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Multiple terms and definitions exist to describe specific aspects of pharmacy practice and service provision. This commentary explores the reasons for different interpretations of words and concepts in pharmaceutical care and pharmacy practice research. Reasons for this variation can be found in language, culture, profession and may also depend on developments over time. A list of words is provided where the authors think that currently multiple interpretations are possible. To make sure that the reader understands the essence, it seems imperative that authors include a definition of the topics that they actually study in their papers, and that they clearly cite existing definitions or refer to collections of definitions such as existing glossaries. It is important that presenters, authors and reviewers of pharmacy practice papers pay more attention to this aspect of describing studies. PMID:27073076

  5. Defining dormancy in mycobacterial disease.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, S; Hammond, R J H; Baron, V O; Hu, Yanmin; Coates, A; Gillespie, S H

    2016-07-01

    Tuberculosis remains a threat to global health and recent attempts to shorten therapy have not succeeded mainly due to cases of clinical relapse. This has focussed attention on the importance of "dormancy" in tuberculosis. There are a number of different definitions of the term and a similar multiplicity of different in vitro and in vivo models. The danger with this is the implicit assumption of equivalence between the terms and models, which will make even more difficult to unravel this complex conundrum. In this review we summarise the main models and definitions and their impact on susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We also suggest a potential nomenclature for debate. Dormancy researchers agree that factors underpinning this phenomenon are complex and nuanced. If we are to make progress we must agree the terms to be used and be consistent in using them. PMID:27450015

  6. Attention trees and semantic paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura

    2007-02-01

    In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial

  7. Emotion regulation, attention to emotion, and the ventral attentional network

    PubMed Central

    Viviani, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of the effect of emotional information on behavioral response and current models of emotion regulation are based on two opposed but interacting processes: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with “bottom-up” attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom

  8. [National plan for prevention in agriculture state of art and prosecution].

    PubMed

    Ariano, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural work submits to high risks for safety and health. In 2009, in execution of "workplace health protection pact" (DPCM 17.12.2007), has been defined the National Plan for prevention in agriculture and forestry, whose first three-year program ended in 2012. Goals were: to Systematize and to standardize direction and control activity, defining the number of factories to control, in most italian regions, for high and ubiquitous risks applying homogeneous standards, spending special attention to risks of fatal and serious injury; to develop agricultural machinery trade control, for new and second-hand machinery, for normalizing the whole fleet; to contribute to monitoring of risk factors and injury dynamics, for a better definition of prevention policies; to increase the knowledge of public health agency officers; to identify and to promote technical solutions, helping to define, in proper way, good practices for complex problems; to promote coordination between economic develop policies and prevention policies for agriculture, breeding and forestry, paying attention also to financial helps. The plan, divided in regional plans, obtained most of defined goals and allowed to build a permanent interregional net of referents and expert officers. Next years perspective is to enhance in developing the faced themes and objectives. PMID:24303719

  9. Planning for New Library Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the need for libraries to engage in strategic planning rather than reacting to change. Highlights include long-range planning techniques; focusing on vision and the organizational environment; defining the planning process, including the role of the staff and prioritizing; common pitfalls; and experiences at the Ann Arbor District…

  10. Institutional Long-Range Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, John G.

    This booklet presents a general outline for conducting a long-range planning study that can be adapted for use by any institution of higher education. The basic components of an effective long-range plan should include: (1) purposes of the plan, which define the scope of the study and provide the setting in which it will be initiated; (2) a set of…

  11. Evaluating the laws defining blindness.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, E

    1992-06-01

    The law defining legal blindness was written in 1935, and has not been updated since. A historical view of the background in the development of this law and a comparison to laws used in other countries helps to point out some problems with the current definition. As the population gets older, the prevalence of visual impairment will be increasing. To administer programs, distribute funding, and ensure adequate care, the problems inherent in the definition of legal blindness must be addressed, and the law must be revised. PMID:1634739

  12. Multi-assortment rhythmic production planning and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolud, B.; Krenczyk, D.; Zemczak, M.

    2015-11-01

    A method for production planning in a repetitive manufacturing system which allows for estimating the possibility of processing work orders in due time is presented. The difference between two approaches are presented; the first one one-piece flow elaborated in Toyota and the second one elaborated by authors that consists in defining sufficient conditions to filter all solutions and providing a set of admissible solutions for both the client and the producer. In the paper attention is focused on the buffer allocation. Illustrative examples are presented.

  13. Attention, psychomotor functions and age.

    PubMed

    Kallus, Konrad Wolfgang; Schmitt, Jeroen A J; Benton, David

    2005-12-01

    Nutrition might play an important role to ameliorate or to buffer age-related declines in attention and psychomotor functions. The assessment of nutritional effects in aged subjects has to take into account that attention and psychomotor functions can be subdivided in different functions that are differentially affected by age. This paper gives an overview of changes in different facets of attention and psychomotor functions beyond fifty as well as assessment methods for attention and psychomotor performance. It also provides a review of models to explain the pattern of changes with increasing age, and discusses the problems of high performance variance and of age related confounding variables like health status. Two different approaches are discussed that analyse a performance profile and an experimentally oriented functional microanalysis of changes in performance with respect to the effects of nutrition on attention and psychomotor functions. Addressed are examples of missing age-related deficits or even age-related superiority. Caffeine and Ginseng are considered as examples to enhance performance in older persons. Results are in accordance with data on the positive role of physical fitness for mental performance in older persons. Performance of older persons can well be enhanced by functional food components or nutritional supplementation. The effects are comparable to the effects obtained in younger groups, while there is only weak evidence for specific compensatory effects in aged persons. Finally the role of nutrition for the processes of healthy aging is discussed.

  14. Defining Life: The Virus Viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism—the virus—producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

  15. Defining life: the virus viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Forterre, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism-the virus-producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

  16. Hanford Site Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP`s primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides an existing and future land use plan for the Hanford Site. The HSDP is updated annually in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B, Site Development Planning, to reflect the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans.

  17. Attention Deficits, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its earlier nosologic classifications have been extensively investigated since the 1960s, with PubMed listings alone exceeding 13,000 entries. Strides have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in individuals with intellectual function in the normal range, as described in companion…

  18. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bush, George

    2010-01-01

    Research attempting to elucidate the neuropathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not only shed light on the disorder itself, it has simultaneously provided new insights into the mechanisms of normal cognition and attention. This review will highlight and integrate this bidirectional flow of information. Following a brief overview of ADHD clinical phenomenology, ADHD studies will be placed into a wider historical perspective by providing illustrative examples of how major models of attention have influenced the development of neurocircuitry models of ADHD. The review will then identify major components of neural systems potentially relevant to ADHD, including attention networks, reward/feedback-based processing systems, as well as a ‘default mode' resting state network. Further, it will suggest ways in which these systems may interact and be influenced by neuromodulatory factors. Recent ADHD imaging data will be selectively provided to both illustrate the field's current level of knowledge and to show how such data can inform our understanding of normal brain functions. The review will conclude by suggesting possible avenues for future research. PMID:19759528

  19. Pay Attention! Demonstrating the Role of Attention in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Janet D.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a demonstration to illustrate the importance of knowing what is supposed to be learned before studying begins. Suggests that the exercise may be used to show the basic elements of a scientific experiment. Explains that attention's effect upon memory is shown by students' tendency to remember best what they are told to remember. (DK)

  20. Now, Pay Attention! The Effects of Instruction on Children's Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannass, Kathleen N.; Colombo, John; Wyss, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of instructions to "stay on task" on preschoolers' attention and cognitive performance in the face of either incomprehensible or comprehensible distraction. Three- and 4-year-olds completed problem-solving tasks while a distracting event played continuously in the background under conditions of (a) no instruction, (b)…

  1. Photosynthesis. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on photosynthesis. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about photosynthesis. The following topics are among those discussed: the photosynthesis process and its importance, the organisms that…

  2. Defining Life: Synthesis and Conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. §1 defends that the recognition of “life” has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. §2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. §3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about “life”. The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (§4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. §5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers to two conditions

  3. Defining life: synthesis and conclusions.

    PubMed

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. Section 1 defends that the recognition of "life" has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. Section 2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. Section 3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about "life". The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (Section 4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. Section 5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers

  4. Defining sleep disturbance after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Clinchot, D M; Bogner, J; Mysiw, W J; Fugate, L; Corrigan, J

    1998-01-01

    Sleep disorders are a relatively common occurrence after brain injury. Sleep disturbances often result in a poor daytime performance and a poor individual sense of well-being. Unfortunately, there has been minimal attention paid to this common and often disabling sequela of brain injury. This study attempts to define and to correlate the incidence and type of sleep disturbances that occur after brain injury. Consecutive admissions to a rehabilitation unit were used to create a longitudinal database designed to predict long-term outcomes for individuals who suffered a brain injury. Fifty percent of subjects had difficulty sleeping. Sixty-four percent described waking up too early, 25% described sleeping more than usual, and 45% described problems falling asleep. Eighty percent of subjects reporting sleep problems also reported problems with fatigue. Logistic regression analysis revealed the following: the more severe the brain injury the less likely the subject would be to have a sleep disturbance; subjects who had sleep disturbances were more likely to have problems with fatigue; females were more likely to have trouble with sleep. This study demonstrates the substantial prevalence of sleep disturbances after brain injury. It underscores the relationship between sleep disorders and perception of fatigue. It also underscores the need for clinicians to strive for interventional studies to look at the treatment of sleep and fatigue problems after brain injury. PMID:9715917

  5. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: management.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, M L; Zolotor, A

    2001-10-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common psychiatric disorder of childhood and often persists into adulthood. ADHD is a neurophysiologic disorder defined in behavioral terms and associated with significant morbidity in the realms of social and academic success, and self-esteem. ADHD is often associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders and learning disabilities, which further impede the successful development of these persons. It is essential that family physicians be knowledgeable about the presentation and diagnosis of ADHD. Stimulant medications continue to be the mainstay of treatment, although many other medications (such as antidepressants and alpha blockers) are helpful adjuvants to therapy. Current recommendations for treatment include an individualized, multimodal approach involving parents, teachers, counselors and the school system. Treatment follow-up includes monitoring response to medications in various settings, as well as side effects. With time and interest, the family physician can develop the skills needed to treat this disorder.

  6. Defining groundwater age: Chapter 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torgersen, T.; Purtschert, R.; Phillips, F.M.; Plummer, L.N.; Sanford, W.E.; Suckow, A.

    2013-01-01

    This book investigates applications of selected chemical and isotopic substances that can be used to recognize and interpret age information pertaining to ‘old’ groundwater (defined as water that was recharged on a timescale from approximately 1000 to more than 1 000 000 a). However, as discussed below, only estimates of the ‘age’ of water extracted from wells can be inferred. These groundwater age estimates are interpreted from measured concentrations of chemical and isotopic substances in the groundwater. Even then, there are many complicating factors, as discussed in this book. In spite of these limitations, much can be learned about the physics of groundwater flow and about the temporal aspects of groundwater systems from age interpretations of measured concentrations of environmental tracers in groundwater systems. This chapter puts the concept of ‘age’ into context, including its meaning and interpretation, and attempts to provide a unifying usage for the rest of the book.

  7. Defining biocultural approaches to conservation.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Michael C; McCarter, Joe; Mead, Aroha; Berkes, Fikret; Stepp, John Richard; Peterson, Debora; Tang, Ruifei

    2015-03-01

    We contend that biocultural approaches to conservation can achieve effective and just conservation outcomes while addressing erosion of both cultural and biological diversity. Here, we propose a set of guidelines for the adoption of biocultural approaches to conservation. First, we draw lessons from work on biocultural diversity and heritage, social-ecological systems theory, integrated conservation and development, co-management, and community-based conservation to define biocultural approaches to conservation. Second, we describe eight principles that characterize such approaches. Third, we discuss reasons for adopting biocultural approaches and challenges. If used well, biocultural approaches to conservation can be a powerful tool for reducing the global loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  8. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  9. Attentional priority determines working memory precision.

    PubMed

    Klyszejko, Zuzanna; Rahmati, Masih; Curtis, Clayton E

    2014-12-01

    Visual working memory is a system used to hold information actively in mind for a limited time. The number of items and the precision with which we can store information has limits that define its capacity. How much control do we have over the precision with which we store information when faced with these severe capacity limitations? Here, we tested the hypothesis that rank-ordered attentional priority determines the precision of multiple working memory representations. We conducted two psychophysical experiments that manipulated the priority of multiple items in a two-alternative forced choice task (2AFC) with distance discrimination. In Experiment 1, we varied the probabilities with which memorized items were likely to be tested. To generalize the effects of priority beyond simple cueing, in Experiment 2, we manipulated priority by varying monetary incentives contingent upon successful memory for items tested. Moreover, we illustrate our hypothesis using a simple model that distributed attentional resources across items with rank-ordered priorities. Indeed, we found evidence in both experiments that priority affects the precision of working memory in a monotonic fashion. Our results demonstrate that representations of priority may provide a mechanism by which resources can be allocated to increase the precision with which we encode and briefly store information.

  10. Attentional priority determines working memory precision.

    PubMed

    Klyszejko, Zuzanna; Rahmati, Masih; Curtis, Clayton E

    2014-12-01

    Visual working memory is a system used to hold information actively in mind for a limited time. The number of items and the precision with which we can store information has limits that define its capacity. How much control do we have over the precision with which we store information when faced with these severe capacity limitations? Here, we tested the hypothesis that rank-ordered attentional priority determines the precision of multiple working memory representations. We conducted two psychophysical experiments that manipulated the priority of multiple items in a two-alternative forced choice task (2AFC) with distance discrimination. In Experiment 1, we varied the probabilities with which memorized items were likely to be tested. To generalize the effects of priority beyond simple cueing, in Experiment 2, we manipulated priority by varying monetary incentives contingent upon successful memory for items tested. Moreover, we illustrate our hypothesis using a simple model that distributed attentional resources across items with rank-ordered priorities. Indeed, we found evidence in both experiments that priority affects the precision of working memory in a monotonic fashion. Our results demonstrate that representations of priority may provide a mechanism by which resources can be allocated to increase the precision with which we encode and briefly store information. PMID:25240420

  11. Perception and Attention for Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This work examines how a better understanding of visual perception and attention can impact visualization design. In a collection of studies, I explore how different levels of the visual system can measurably affect a variety of visualization metrics. The results show that expert preference, user performance, and even computational performance are…

  12. Attention and the Testing Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Picklesimer, Milton

    2016-01-01

    Memory retrieval often enhances still later memory as evidenced by the testing effect. Divided attention (DA) is known to produce different effects on encoding and retrieval, substantially disrupting the former and often producing little effect on the latter. The present experiments examine whether the mnemonic consequences of retrieval are…

  13. Attentional bias in math anxiety.

    PubMed

    Rubinsten, Orly; Eidlin, Hili; Wohl, Hadas; Akibli, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety (MA) as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math). Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of MA and 13 with low levels of MA) were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of six types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, was presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks) that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks). Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in MA. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words). These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense MA symptoms.

  14. Attention maps in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Somers, David C.; Sheremata, Summer L.

    2014-01-01

    Over 20 distinct cerebral cortical areas contain spatial map representations of the visual field. These retinotopic, or visuotopic, cortical areas occur not only in the occipital lobe but also in the parietal, temporal, and frontal lobes. The cognitive influences of visuospatial attention operate via these cortical maps and can support selection of multiple objects at the same time. In early visual cortical areas, spatial attention enhances responses of selected items and diminishes the responses to distracting items. In higher order cortex, the maps support a spatial indexing role, keeping track of the items to be attended. These maps also support visual short-term memory (VSTM) representations. In each hemisphere, all the known maps respond selectively to stimuli presented within the contralateral visual field. However, a hemispheric asymmetry emerges when the attentional or VSTM demands of a task become significant. In the parietal lobe, the right hemisphere visuotopic maps switch from coding only contralateral visual targets to coding memory and attention targets across the entire visual field. This emergent asymmetry has important implications for understanding hemispatial neglect syndrome, and supports a dynamic network form of the representational model of neglect. PMID:25089167

  15. Thinking of God Moves Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasteen, Alison L.; Burdzy, Donna C.; Pratt, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The concepts of God and Devil are well known across many cultures and religions, and often involve spatial metaphors, but it is not well known if our mental representations of these concepts affect visual cognition. To examine if exposure to divine concepts produces shifts of attention, participants completed a target detection task in which they…

  16. Attentional bias in math anxiety.

    PubMed

    Rubinsten, Orly; Eidlin, Hili; Wohl, Hadas; Akibli, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety (MA) as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math). Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of MA and 13 with low levels of MA) were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of six types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, was presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks) that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks). Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in MA. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words). These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense MA symptoms. PMID:26528208

  17. Deployment of Attention on Handshakes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Mowei; Yin, Jun; Ding, Xiaowei; Shui, Rende; Zhou, Jifan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the social structures between objects, organizing, and selecting them accordingly, is fundamental to social cognition. We report an example that demonstrates the object association learned from social interactions could impact visual attention. Particularly, when two hands approach each other to perform a handshake, they tend to be attended to as a unit because of the cooperative relationship exhibited in the action: even a cue presented on a non-target hand may facilitate a response to the targets that appear on the non-cued hand (Experiment 1), indicating that attentional shift between two hands was facilitated; furthermore, the response to a target on one hand is significantly impaired by a distractor on the other hand (Experiment 2), implying that it is difficult to selectively confine attention to a single hand. These effects were dependent on the existence of the hands when cue and target appeared (Experiment 3); neither perceptual familiarity, or physical fit can explain all the attention effects (Experiment 4). These results have bearings on the perceptual root of social cognition. PMID:27242595

  18. Attentional Episodes in Visual Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks between these episodes are punctuated by periods…

  19. Attentional bias in math anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Rubinsten, Orly; Eidlin, Hili; Wohl, Hadas; Akibli, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety (MA) as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math). Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of MA and 13 with low levels of MA) were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of six types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, was presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks) that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks). Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in MA. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words). These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense MA symptoms. PMID:26528208

  20. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... attention deficit disorder (ADD)" is used rather than "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)" in some data sources. More data Association ...

  1. Defining the Stimulus - A Memoir

    PubMed Central

    Terrace, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    The eminent psychophysicist, S. S. Stevens, once remarked that, “the basic problem of psychology was the definition of the stimulus” (Stevens, 1951, p. 46). By expanding the traditional definition of the stimulus, the study of animal learning has metamorphosed into animal cognition. The main impetus for that change was the recognition that it is often necessary to postulate a representation between the traditional S and R of learning theory. Representations allow a subject to re-present a stimulus it learned previously that is currently absent. Thus, in delayed-matching-to-sample, one has to assume that a subject responds to a representation of the sample during test if it responds correctly. Other examples, to name but a few, include concept formation, spatial memory, serial memory, learning a numerical rule, imitation and metacognition. Whereas a representation used to be regarded as a mentalistic phenomenon that was unworthy of scientific inquiry, it can now be operationally defined. To accommodate representations, the traditional discriminative stimulus has to be expanded to allow for the role of representations. The resulting composite can account for a significantly larger portion of the variance of performance measures than the exteroceptive stimulus could by itself. PMID:19969047

  2. Defining, Navigating, and Negotiating Success

    PubMed Central

    Kalet, Adina L; Fletcher, Kathlyn E; Ferdman, Dina J; Bickell, Nina A

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND We studied female graduates of the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program (CSP, Class of 1984 to 1989) to explore and describe the complexity of creating balance in the life of mid-career academic woman physicians. METHODS We conducted and qualitatively analyzed (κ 0.35 to 1.0 for theme identification among rater pairs) data from a semi-structured survey of 21 women and obtained their curricula vitae to quantify publications and grant support, measures of academic productivity. RESULTS Sixteen of 21 (76%) women completed the survey. Mean age was 48 (range: 45 to 56). Three were full professors, 10 were associate professors, and 3 had left academic medicine. Eleven women had had children (mean 2.4; range: 1 to 3) and 3 worked part-time. From these data, the conceptual model expands on 3 key themes: (1) defining, navigating, and negotiating success, (2) making life work, and (3) making work work. The women who described themselves as satisfied with their careers (10/16) had clarity of values and goals and a sense of control over their time. Those less satisfied with their careers (6/16) emphasized the personal and professional costs of the struggle to balance their lives and described explicit institutional barriers to fulfillment of their potential. CONCLUSION For this group of fellowship-prepared academic women physicians satisfaction is achieving professional and personal balance. PMID:16918735

  3. 26 CFR 54.4974-2 - Excise tax on accumulations in qualified retirement plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... plan or any eligible deferred compensation plan (as defined in section 457(b)) to whom an amount is... qualified retirement plan or any eligible deferred compensation plan (as defined in section 457(b)) for a... eligible deferred compensation plan (as defined in section 457(b)). (b) Default provisions....

  4. A Real Attention-Getter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    While most parents would agree that playing videos games is the antithesis of time well spent for their children, recent advances involving NASA biofeedback technology are proving otherwise. The same techniques used to measure brain activity in NASA pilots during flight simulation exercises are now a part of a revolutionary video game system that is helping to improve overall mental awareness for Americans of all ages, including those who suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

  5. Visual attention: The past 25 years

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on covert attention and how it alters early vision. I explain why attention is considered a selective process, the constructs of covert attention, spatial endogenous and exogenous attention, and feature-based attention. I explain how in the last 25 years research on attention has characterized the effects of covert attention on spatial filters and how attention influences the selection of stimuli of interest. This review includes the effects of spatial attention on discriminability and appearance in tasks mediated by contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution; the effects of feature-based attention on basic visual processes, and a comparison of the effects of spatial and feature-based attention. The emphasis of this review is on psychophysical studies, but relevant electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies and models regarding how and where neuronal responses are modulated are also discussed. PMID:21549742

  6. Visual attention: the past 25 years.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-07-01

    This review focuses on covert attention and how it alters early vision. I explain why attention is considered a selective process, the constructs of covert attention, spatial endogenous and exogenous attention, and feature-based attention. I explain how in the last 25 years research on attention has characterized the effects of covert attention on spatial filters and how attention influences the selection of stimuli of interest. This review includes the effects of spatial attention on discriminability and appearance in tasks mediated by contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution; the effects of feature-based attention on basic visual processes, and a comparison of the effects of spatial and feature-based attention. The emphasis of this review is on psychophysical studies, but relevant electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies and models regarding how and where neuronal responses are modulated are also discussed.

  7. Emotional attention in acquired prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Peelen, Marius V; Lucas, Nadia; Mayer, Eugene; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2009-09-01

    The present study investigated whether emotionally expressive faces guide attention and modulate fMRI activity in fusiform gyrus in acquired prosopagnosia. Patient PS, a pure case of acquired prosopagnosia with intact right middle fusiform gyrus, performed two behavioral experiments and a functional imaging experiment to address these questions. In a visual search task involving face stimuli, PS was faster to select the target face when it was expressing fear or happiness as compared to when it was emotionally neutral. In a change detection task, PS detected significantly more changes when the changed face was fearful as compared to when it was neutral. Finally, an fMRI experiment showed enhanced activation to emotionally expressive faces and bodies in right fusiform gyrus. In addition, PS showed normal body-selective activation in right fusiform gyrus, partially overlapping the fusiform face area. Together these behavioral and neuroimaging results show that attention was preferentially allocated to emotional faces in patient PS, as observed in healthy subjects. We conclude that systems involved in the emotional guidance of attention by facial expression can function normally in acquired prosopagnosia, and can thus be dissociated from systems involved in face identification.

  8. Attentive Tracking of Sound Sources.

    PubMed

    Woods, Kevin J P; McDermott, Josh H

    2015-08-31

    Auditory scenes often contain concurrent sound sources, but listeners are typically interested in just one of these and must somehow select it for further processing. One challenge is that real-world sounds such as speech vary over time and as a consequence often cannot be separated or selected based on particular values of their features (e.g., high pitch). Here we show that human listeners can circumvent this challenge by tracking sounds with a movable focus of attention. We synthesized pairs of voices that changed in pitch and timbre over random, intertwined trajectories, lacking distinguishing features or linguistic information. Listeners were cued beforehand to attend to one of the voices. We measured their ability to extract this cued voice from the mixture by subsequently presenting the ending portion of one voice and asking whether it came from the cued voice. We found that listeners could perform this task but that performance was mediated by attention-listeners who performed best were also more sensitive to perturbations in the cued voice than in the uncued voice. Moreover, the task was impossible if the source trajectories did not maintain sufficient separation in feature space. The results suggest a locus of attention that can follow a sound's trajectory through a feature space, likely aiding selection and segregation amid similar distractors. PMID:26279234

  9. The scaling of attention networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng-Jun; Wu, Lingfei

    2016-04-01

    We use clicks as a proxy of collective attention and construct networks to study the temporal dynamics of attention. In particular we collect the browsing records of millions of users on 1000 Web forums in two months. In the constructed networks, nodes are threads and edges represent the switch of users between threads in an hour. The investigated network properties include the number of threads N, the number of users UV, and the number of clicks, PV. We find scaling functions PV ∼ UV θ1, PV ∼N θ3, and UV ∼N θ2, in which the scaling exponents are always greater than 1. This means that (1) the studied networks maintain a self-similar flow structure in time, i.e., large networks are simply the scale-up versions of small networks; and (2) large networks are more "productive", in the sense that an average user would generate more clicks in the larger systems. We propose a revised version of Zipf's law to quantify the time-invariant flow structure of attention networks and relate it to the observed scaling properties. We also demonstrate the applied consequences of our research: forum-classification based on scaling properties.

  10. Long Range Plan: 1992-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Coll. of Technology, Williamsport.

    Intended to enhance strategic planning and enable staff to work as a team toward a shared vision and common goals, this report presents the 1992-95 long-range plan of the Pennsylvania College of Technology (PCT). Part I defines long-range planning; describes the structure and use of the plan at PCT; presents PCT's philosophy, mission, and vision…

  11. A Methodology to Define Flood Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flood resilience has become an internationally used term with an ever-increasing number of entries on the Internet. The SMARTeST Project is looking at approaches to flood resilience through case studies at cities in various countries, including Washington D.C. in the United States. In light of U.S. experiences a methodology is being proposed by the author that is intended to meet ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. It concludes that: "Flood resilience combines (1) spatial, (2) structural, (3) social, and (4) risk management levels of flood preparedness." Flood resilience should incorporate all four levels, but not necessarily with equal emphasis. Stakeholders can assign priorities within different flood resilience levels and the considerations they contain, dividing 100% emphasis into four levels. This evaluation would be applied to planned and completed projects, considering existing conditions, goals and concepts. We have long known that the "road to market" for the implementation of flood resilience is linked to capacity building of stakeholders. It is a multidisciplinary enterprise, involving the integration of all the above aspects into the decision-making process. Traditional flood management has largely been influenced by what in the UK has been called "Silo Thinking", involving constituent organizations that are responsible for different elements, and are interested only in their defined part of the system. This barrier to innovation also has been called the "entrapment effect". Flood resilience is being defined as (1) SPATIAL FLOOD RESILIENCE implying the management of land by floodplain zoning, urban greening and management to reduce storm runoff through depression storage and by practicing Sustainable Urban Drainage (SUD's), Best Management Practices (BMP's, or Low Impact Development (LID). Ecologic processes and cultural elements are included. (2) STRUCTURAL FLOOD RESILIENCE referring to permanent flood defense

  12. 26 CFR 1.410(b)-7 - Definition of plan and rules governing plan disaggregation and aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with years of service under Plan P. (b) For purposes of the benefits accrued by Employee A under Plan P... under Plan P during years 1981 through 1988, Employee B is reasonably treated as having been a member of... 1981 Employer X has maintained a defined benefit plan, Plan P, for employees of Division M. Plan...

  13. Children with Attention Disorders in School: A Descriptive Guide for Parents and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morriss, Richard

    This monograph presents a brief guide to definitions, diagnosis, and treatment of attention deficit disorders (ADD) in children. Attention deficit disorder is defined and its relationship to hyperactivity explained. A chart summarizes four types of ADD (hyperactive/impulsive/aggressive, mixed, inattentive/passive, and pseudo ADD) in terms of…

  14. Domain Specific Attentional Impairments in Children with Chromosome 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bish, Joel P.; Chiodo, Renee; Mattei, Victoria; Simon, Tony J.

    2007-01-01

    One of the defining cognitive characteristics of the chromosome 22q deletion syndrome (DS22q11.2) is visuospatial processing impairments. The purpose of this study was to investigate and extend the specific attentional profile of children with this disorder using both an object-based attention task and an inhibition of return task. A group of…

  15. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    PubMed Central

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  16. Computers in Hospitals Nursing Practice Defined and Validated

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Janet B.

    1983-01-01

    Computers in hospitals offer Nursing a unique challenge to define and validate its own practice. This definition will begin first within those hospitals implementing computer systems with nursing applications. These first pioneers must take great care to develop application content that reflects valid nursing roles and to communicate to each practitioner the standards of practice which will guide the planning and delivery of quality nursing care.

  17. 29 CFR 785.43 - Medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical attention. 785.43 Section 785.43 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.43 Medical attention. Time spent by an employee in waiting for and receiving medical attention on the premises or at the...

  18. Auditory Attention Switching: A Developmental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Deborah A.; Lane, David M.

    1991-01-01

    Studied the ability of 8- and 11-year olds, and college-age subjects, to allocate attention rapidly. Older subjects were better able to reallocate attention. The developmental change in the reallocation of attention appears to be continuous and quantitative. Improvement is linked to the ability to use active attentional strategies. (Author/GH)

  19. Attentional Disengagement in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lense, Miriam D.; Key, Alexandra P.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a distinctive behavioral and cognitive profile, including widespread problems with attention. However, the specific nature of their attentional difficulties, such as inappropriate attentional allocation and/or poor attentional disengagement abilities, has yet to be…

  20. 29 CFR 785.43 - Medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Medical attention. 785.43 Section 785.43 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.43 Medical attention. Time spent by an employee in waiting for and receiving medical attention on the premises or at the...

  1. 29 CFR 785.43 - Medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Medical attention. 785.43 Section 785.43 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.43 Medical attention. Time spent by an employee in waiting for and receiving medical attention on the premises or at the...

  2. 29 CFR 785.43 - Medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Medical attention. 785.43 Section 785.43 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.43 Medical attention. Time spent by an employee in waiting for and receiving medical attention on the premises or at the...

  3. 29 CFR 785.43 - Medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Medical attention. 785.43 Section 785.43 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.43 Medical attention. Time spent by an employee in waiting for and receiving medical attention on the premises or at the...

  4. Raising attention to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pallanti, Stefano; Salerno, Luana

    2015-03-22

    Schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two psychiatric disorders with a negative impact on quality of life of individuals affected. Although they are classified into distinct disorders categories, attentional dysfunction is considered as a core feature in both conditions, either at the clinical then pathophysiological level. Beyond the obvious clinical overlap between these disorders, the Research Domain Criteria approach might offer an interesting perspective for disentangling common circuits underpinning both disorders. Hence, we review evidences regarding the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, at the clinical level, and at the level of underlying brain mechanisms. The evidence regarding the influence of environmental risk factors in the emergence of both disorders, and their developmental trajectories is also reviewed. Among these, we will try to elucidate the complex relationship between stimulants use and psychotic symptoms, discussing the potential role of ADHD medication in inducing psychosis or in exacerbating it. We aim that, taken together, these findings may promote further investigation with important implications both for clinicians and research. In fact, considering the amounting evidence on the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, the delineation of their boundaries might help in the decision for diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, it may help to promote interventions focused on the prevention of both schizophrenia and ADHD, by the reduction of recognized environmental risk factors.

  5. Raising attention to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Pallanti, Stefano; Salerno, Luana

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two psychiatric disorders with a negative impact on quality of life of individuals affected. Although they are classified into distinct disorders categories, attentional dysfunction is considered as a core feature in both conditions, either at the clinical then pathophysiological level. Beyond the obvious clinical overlap between these disorders, the Research Domain Criteria approach might offer an interesting perspective for disentangling common circuits underpinning both disorders. Hence, we review evidences regarding the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, at the clinical level, and at the level of underlying brain mechanisms. The evidence regarding the influence of environmental risk factors in the emergence of both disorders, and their developmental trajectories is also reviewed. Among these, we will try to elucidate the complex relationship between stimulants use and psychotic symptoms, discussing the potential role of ADHD medication in inducing psychosis or in exacerbating it. We aim that, taken together, these findings may promote further investigation with important implications both for clinicians and research. In fact, considering the amounting evidence on the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, the delineation of their boundaries might help in the decision for diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, it may help to promote interventions focused on the prevention of both schizophrenia and ADHD, by the reduction of recognized environmental risk factors. PMID:25815254

  6. 23 CFR 450.208 - Coordination of planning process activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CFR part 500. (e) States may apply asset management principles and techniques in establishing planning... regional intelligent transportation systems (ITS) architectures, as defined in 23 CFR part 940. (g... RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  7. 23 CFR 450.208 - Coordination of planning process activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CFR part 500. (e) States may apply asset management principles and techniques in establishing planning... regional intelligent transportation systems (ITS) architectures, as defined in 23 CFR part 940. (g... RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  8. 23 CFR 450.208 - Coordination of planning process activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CFR part 500. (e) States may apply asset management principles and techniques in establishing planning... regional intelligent transportation systems (ITS) architectures, as defined in 23 CFR part 940. (g... RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  9. 23 CFR 450.208 - Coordination of planning process activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR part 500. (e) States may apply asset management principles and techniques in establishing planning... regional intelligent transportation systems (ITS) architectures, as defined in 23 CFR part 940. (g... RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  10. Attention Performance Measured by Attention Network Test Is Correlated with Global and Regional Efficiency of Structural Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Min; Ge, Haitao; Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S.; Xu, Junhai; Bezgin, Gleb; Leng, Yuan; Zhao, Lu; Tang, Yuchun; Ge, Xinting; Jeon, Seun; Xu, Wenjian; Evans, Alan C.; Liu, Shuwei

    2016-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have indicated the involvement of separate brain areas in three distinct attention systems: alerting, orienting, and executive control (EC). However, the structural correlates underlying attention remains unexplored. Here, we utilized graph theory to examine the neuroanatomical substrates of the three attention systems measured by attention network test (ANT) in 65 healthy subjects. White matter connectivity, assessed with diffusion tensor imaging deterministic tractography was modeled as a structural network comprising 90 nodes defined by the automated anatomical labeling (AAL) template. Linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between topological parameters and the three attentional effects. We found a significant positive correlation between EC function and global efficiency of the whole brain network. At the regional level, node-specific correlations were discovered between regional efficiency and all three ANT components, including dorsolateral superior frontal gyrus, thalamus and parahippocampal gyrus for EC, thalamus and inferior parietal gyrus for alerting, and paracentral lobule and inferior occipital gyrus for orienting. Our findings highlight the fundamental architecture of interregional structural connectivity involved in attention and could provide new insights into the anatomical basis underlying human behavior. PMID:27777556

  11. Visual Attention to Radar Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moray, N.; Richards, M.; Brophy, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model is described which predicts the allocation of attention to the features of a radar display. It uses the growth of uncertainty and the probability of near collision to call the eye to a feature of the display. The main source of uncertainty is forgetting following a fixation, which is modelled as a two dimensional diffusion process. The model was used to predict information overload in intercept controllers, and preliminary validation obtained by recording eye movements of intercept controllers in simulated and live (practice) interception.

  12. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-23

    Developed to solve specific problem: Assist transmission planning for regional transfers in interconnected power systems. This work was originated in a study for the U.S. Department of State, to recommend transmission reinforcements for the Central American regional system that interconnects 6 countries. Transmission planning analysis is currently performed by engineers with domainspecific and systemspecific knowledge without a unique methodology. The software codes of this disclosure assists engineers by defining systematic analysis procedures to help identify weak points and make decisions on transmission planning of regional interconnected power systems. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool groups PSS/E results of multiple AC contingency analysis and voltage stability analysis and QV analysis of many scenarios of study and arrange them in a systematic way to aid power system planning engineers or transmission operators in effective decision]making process or in the off]line study environment.

  13. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool

    2015-06-23

    Developed to solve specific problem: Assist transmission planning for regional transfers in interconnected power systems. This work was originated in a study for the U.S. Department of State, to recommend transmission reinforcements for the Central American regional system that interconnects 6 countries. Transmission planning analysis is currently performed by engineers with domainspecific and systemspecific knowledge without a unique methodology. The software codes of this disclosure assists engineers by defining systematic analysis procedures to help identifymore » weak points and make decisions on transmission planning of regional interconnected power systems. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool groups PSS/E results of multiple AC contingency analysis and voltage stability analysis and QV analysis of many scenarios of study and arrange them in a systematic way to aid power system planning engineers or transmission operators in effective decision]making process or in the off]line study environment.« less

  14. Methods on defining the urban fringe area of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiulan; Li, Xuerui; Feng, Zhongke; Fang, Yuan

    2009-09-01

    Urban fringe lies in the transitional region between urban area and rural area. Defining the urban fringe area and researching the changing situation will be beneficial to the urban planning and the readjustment of land use structure. Taking Land-Sat TM images as basic information, using the theories of Shannon entropy and land use degree comprehensive index, methods on how to define the urban fringe area of Beijing are discussed. Further, the urban fringe area of Beijing is defined by using these two methods. It shows that the urban fringe area in Beijing includes a part of the urban district and also a small part of rural district. Distributing ring, it extends around irregularly, especially northwest and southeast.

  15. Methods on defining the urban fringe area of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiulan; Li, Xuerui; Feng, Zhongke; Fang, Yuan

    2010-11-01

    Urban fringe lies in the transitional region between urban area and rural area. Defining the urban fringe area and researching the changing situation will be beneficial to the urban planning and the readjustment of land use structure. Taking Land-Sat TM images as basic information, using the theories of Shannon entropy and land use degree comprehensive index, methods on how to define the urban fringe area of Beijing are discussed. Further, the urban fringe area of Beijing is defined by using these two methods. It shows that the urban fringe area in Beijing includes a part of the urban district and also a small part of rural district. Distributing ring, it extends around irregularly, especially northwest and southeast.

  16. The Role of Sustained Attention in the Production of Conjoined Noun Phrases: An Individual Differences Study

    PubMed Central

    Jongman, Suzanne R.; Meyer, Antje S.; Roelofs, Ardi

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been shown that language production, performed simultaneously with a nonlinguistic task, involves sustained attention. Sustained attention concerns the ability to maintain alertness over time. Here, we aimed to replicate the previous finding by showing that individuals call upon sustained attention when they plan single noun phrases (e.g., "the carrot") and perform a manual arrow categorization task. In addition, we investigated whether speakers also recruit sustained attention when they produce conjoined noun phrases (e.g., "the carrot and the bucket") describing two pictures, that is, when both the first and second task are linguistic. We found that sustained attention correlated with the proportion of abnormally slow phrase-production responses. Individuals with poor sustained attention displayed a greater number of very slow responses than individuals with better sustained attention. Importantly, this relationship was obtained both for the production of single phrases while performing a nonlinguistic manual task, and the production of noun phrase conjunctions in referring to two spatially separated objects. Inhibition and updating abilities were also measured. These scores did not correlate with our measure of sustained attention, suggesting that sustained attention and executive control are distinct. Overall, the results suggest that planning conjoined noun phrases involves sustained attention, and that language production happens less automatically than has often been assumed. PMID:26335441

  17. Selecting a College for Students with Learning Disabilities or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taymans, Juliana M.; West, Lynda L.

    This digest discusses how secondary students with learning disabilities or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can investigate postsecondary programs and find the right college to meet their needs. It begins by exploring when students should begin their college planning and the role of transition plans in determining student goals and vision…

  18. Language Planning: Corpus Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on the historical and sociolinguistic studies that illuminate corpus planning processes. These processes are broken down and discussed under two categories: those related to the establishment of norms, referred to as codification, and those related to the extension of the linguistic functions of language, referred to as elaboration. (60…

  19. Preservation: Issues and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Paul N., Ed.; Pilette, Roberta, Ed.

    A reference guide from leading experts in the field, this book covers the repair, maintenance, and preservation of library or archive collections, providing a definitive and authoritative analysis of how to plan for and ensure the long-term health of an institution's collection in this digital age. Chapters include: (1) "Defining the Library…

  20. Health Manpower Planning Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coastal Bend Council of Governments, Corpus Christi, TX.

    A model is presented for health manpower planning, designed as a handbook to facilitate the orderly development of health manpower training programs to fill identified needs and job opportunities within a defined geographical region. The handbook is based on the study of the health care system of the Coastal Bend Region of Texas. (NTIS)

  1. Planning for Retirement with a Tax-Sheltered Mutual Fund.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnee, Edward J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Greater attention has been focused on the role that employer-sponsored retirement plans and individual savings must play in ensuring retirement income security. Alternative tax retirement planning opportunities currently available to college personnel are explored. (MLW)

  2. 7 CFR 1215.100 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 1215.100 Section 1215.100 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Rules and Regulations Definitions § 1215.100 Terms defined. Unless otherwise defined in this subpart, the definitions of terms used in this subpart shall have the same meaning as...

  3. 7 CFR 1206.200 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 1206.200 Section 1206.200 Agriculture... INFORMATION Rules and Regulations § 1206.200 Terms defined. Unless otherwise defined in this subpart, the definitions of terms used in this subpart shall have the same meaning as the definitions of such terms...

  4. The manned transportation system study - Defining human pathways into space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, Nick; Geyer, Mark S.; Gaunce, Michael T.; Anson, H. W.; Bienhoff, D. G.; Carey, D. A.; Emmett, B. R.; Mccandless, B.; Wetzel, E. D.

    1992-01-01

    Substantiating data developed by a NASA-industry team (NIT) for subsequent NASA decisions on the 'right' set of manned transportation elements needed for human access to space are discussed. Attention is given to the framework for detailed definition of these manned transportation elements. Identifying and defining architecture evaluation criteria, i.e., attributes, specified the amount and type of data needed for each concept under consideration. Several architectures, each beginning with today's transportation systems, were defined using representative systems to explore future options and address specific questions currently being debated. The present solutions emphasize affordability, safety, routineness, and reliability. Key issues associated with current business practices were challenged and the impact associated with these practices quantified.

  5. Attention theory and training research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connelly, James G., Jr.; Wickens, Christopher D.; Lintern, Gavan; Harwood, Kelly

    1987-01-01

    This study used elements of attention theory as a methodological basis to decompose a complex training task in order to improve training efficiency. The complex task was a microcomputer flight simulation where subjects were required to control the stability of their own helicopter while acquiring and engaging enemy helicopers in a threat enviroment. Subjects were divided into whole-task, part-task, and part/open loop adaptive task groups in a transfer of training paradigm. The effect of reducing mental workload at the early stages of learning was examined with respect to the degree that subordinate elements of the complex task could be automated through practice of consistent, learnable stimulus-response relationships. Results revealed trends suggesting the benefit of isolating consistently mapped sub-tasks for part-task training and the presence of a time-sharing skill over and above the skill required for the separate subtasks.

  6. Neural effects of cognitive control load on auditory selective attention.

    PubMed

    Sabri, Merav; Humphries, Colin; Verber, Matthew; Liebenthal, Einat; Binder, Jeffrey R; Mangalathu, Jain; Desai, Anjali

    2014-08-01

    Whether and how working memory disrupts or alters auditory selective attention is unclear. We compared simultaneous event-related potentials (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses associated with task-irrelevant sounds across high and low working memory load in a dichotic-listening paradigm. Participants performed n-back tasks (1-back, 2-back) in one ear (Attend ear) while ignoring task-irrelevant speech sounds in the other ear (Ignore ear). The effects of working memory load on selective attention were observed at 130-210ms, with higher load resulting in greater irrelevant syllable-related activation in localizer-defined regions in auditory cortex. The interaction between memory load and presence of irrelevant information revealed stronger activations primarily in frontal and parietal areas due to presence of irrelevant information in the higher memory load. Joint independent component analysis of ERP and fMRI data revealed that the ERP component in the N1 time-range is associated with activity in superior temporal gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex. These results demonstrate a dynamic relationship between working memory load and auditory selective attention, in agreement with the load model of attention and the idea of common neural resources for memory and attention.

  7. 26 CFR 1.412(c)(1)-1 - Determinations to be made under funding method-terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-terms defined. 1.412(c)(1)-1 Section 1.412(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Plans, Etc. § 1.412(c)(1)-1 Determinations to be made under funding method—terms defined. (a) Actuarial... bargained plans, see § 1.412(c)(1)-2; for principles applicable to funding methods in general,...

  8. Continual improvement plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    NASA's approach to continual improvement (CI) is a systems-oriented, agency-wide approach that builds on the past accomplishments of NASA Headquarters and its field installations and helps achieve NASA's vision, mission, and values. The NASA of the future will fully use the principles of continual improvement in every aspect of its operations. This NASA CI plan defines a systematic approach and a model for continual improvement throughout NASA, stressing systems integration and optimization. It demonstrates NASA's constancy of purpose for improvement - a consistent vision of NASA as a worldwide leader in top-quality science, technology, and management practices. The CI plan provides the rationale, structures, methods, and steps, and it defines NASA's short term (1-year) objectives for improvement. The CI plan presents the deployment strategies necessary for cascading the goals and objectives throughout the agency. It also provides guidance on implementing continual improvement with participation from top leadership and all levels of employees.

  9. The Speed of Feature-Based Attention: Attentional Advantage Is Slow, but Selection Is Fast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Liqiang

    2010-01-01

    When paying attention to a feature (e.g., red), no attentional advantage is gained in perceiving items with this feature in very brief displays. Therefore, feature-based attention seems to be slow. In previous feature-based attention studies, attention has often been measured as the difference in performance in a secondary task. In our recent work…

  10. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 1: Integrated payload and mission planning process evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapp, T. P.; Davin, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    The integrated payload and mission planning process for STS payloads was defined, and discrete tasks which evaluate performance and support initial implementation of this process were conducted. The scope of activity was limited to NASA and NASA-related payload missions only. The integrated payload and mission planning process was defined in detail, including all related interfaces and scheduling requirements. Related to the payload mission planning process, a methodology for assessing early Spacelab mission manager assignment schedules was defined.

  11. 40 CFR 355.61 - How are key words in this part defined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS EMERGENCY PLANNING AND NOTIFICATION Additional Provisions § 355.61 How are key words in this part defined? Animal waste means manure (feces, urine, and other excrement produced by livestock), digestive emissions, and urea. The definition includes...

  12. 23 CFR 420.203 - How does the FHWA define the terms used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does the FHWA define the terms used in this subpart? 420.203 Section 420.203 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING AND RESEARCH PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Research, Development and Technology Transfer Program Management § 420.203 How does...

  13. Deficient Attention Is Hard to Find: Applying the Perceptual Load Model of Selective Attention to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Carr, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Whether selective attention is a primary deficit in childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) remains in active debate. Methods: We used the "perceptual load" paradigm to examine both early and late selective attention in children with the Primarily Inattentive (ADHD-I) and Combined subtypes (ADHD-C) of ADHD. Results:…

  14. Conceptualization for Evaluation and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trochim, William M. K.; Linton, Rhoda

    Both evaluation and planning typically begin with an attempt to define the conceptual territory of interest; this paper presents an approach to such conceptualization. The term, structured conceptualization, is used to refer to any definable set of procedures which can help a user develop a useful conceptual representation. Structured…

  15. An attentional scope model of rumination.

    PubMed

    Whitmer, Anson J; Gotlib, Ian H

    2013-09-01

    Rumination, defined as repetitive thinking about negative information, has been found to lead to serious maladaptive consequences, including longer and more severe episodes of major depression. In this review, we present and discuss research findings motivated by the formulation that individual differences in cognitive processes that control how information is processed influence the likelihood that thoughts will become repetitive and negative. Several studies have demonstrated that a tendency to ruminate (i.e., trait rumination) is related to difficulties updating working memory (WM) and disengaging from and forgetting no-longer-relevant information. Other investigators have documented that trait rumination is also associated with an enhanced ability to ignore distracting information and with more stable maintenance of task-relevant information. In contrast to trait rumination, a state of rumination has been found to be related to widespread deficits in cognitive control. In this article, we discuss how the current accounts of control functioning cannot explain this pattern of anomalous control functioning. To explain these findings, including unexpected and contradictory results, we present an attentional scope model of rumination that posits that a constricted array of thoughts, percepts, and actions that are activated in WM or available for selection from long-term memory affects the control functioning of trait ruminators. This model explains, at a cognitive level, why rumination is particularly likely to arise when individuals are in a negative mood state; it also accounts for a number of findings outside of the rumination-control literature and generates several novel predictions. PMID:23244316

  16. The Collective Direction of Attention Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng-Jun; Wu, Lingfei; Zhang, Jiang; Janssen, Marco A.

    2016-01-01

    We find that the flow of attention on the Web forms a directed, tree-like structure implying the time-sensitive browsing behavior of users. Using the data of a news sharing website, we construct clickstream networks in which nodes are news stories and edges represent the consecutive clicks between two stories. To identify the flow direction of clickstreams, we define the “flow distance” of nodes (Li), which measures the average number of steps a random walker takes to reach the ith node. It is observed that Li is related with the clicks (Ci) to news stories and the age (Ti) of stories. Putting these three variables together help us understand the rise and decay of news stories from a network perspective. We also find that the studied clickstream networks preserve a stable structure over time, leading to the scaling between users and clicks. The universal scaling behavior is confirmed by the 1,000 Web forums. We suggest that the tree-like, stable structure of clickstream networks reveals the time-sensitive preference of users in online browsing. To test our assumption, we discuss three models on individual browsing behavior, and compare the simulation results with empirical data. PMID:27677592

  17. Strategic Plan. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the strategic plan and associated organizational structure that the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) will utilize to achieve the defined mission and objectives provided by NASA. Much of the information regarding the background and establishment of the NSBRI by NASA has been provided in other documentation and will not be repeated in this Strategic Plan. This Strategic Plan is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this volume) begins with an Introduction (Section 2) that provides the Institute's NASA-defined mission and objectives, and the organizational structure adopted to implement these through three Strategic Programs: Countermeasure Research; Education, Training and Outreach; and Cooperative Research and Development. These programs are described in Sections 3 to 5. Each program is presented in a similar way, using four subsections: Goals and Objectives; Current Strategies; Gaps and Modifications; and Resource Requirements. Section 6 provides the administrative infrastructure and total budget required to implement the Strategic Programs and assures that they form a single cohesive plan. This plan will ensure continued success of the Institute for the next five years. Volume II of the Strategic Plan provides an in-depth analysis of the current and future strategic programs of the 12 current NSBRI teams, including their goals, objectives, mutual interactions and schedules.

  18. Everyday attention failures: an individual differences investigation.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D; Brewer, Gene A; Spillers, Gregory J

    2012-11-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational contexts (in class or while studying). Latent variable techniques were used to perform analyses, and the results suggested that individual differences in working memory capacity and attention control were related to some but not all everyday attention failures. Furthermore, everyday attention failures predicted SAT scores and partially accounted for the relation between cognitive abilities and SAT scores. These results provide important evidence for individual differences in everyday attention failures as well as for the ecological validity of laboratory measures of working memory capacity and attention control.

  19. Infant Visual Attention and Object Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Greg D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the role visual attention plays in the recognition of objects in infancy. Research and theory on the development of infant attention and recognition memory are reviewed in three major sections. The first section reviews some of the major findings and theory emerging from a rich tradition of behavioral research utilizing preferential looking tasks to examine visual attention and recognition memory in infancy. The second section examines research utilizing neural measures of attention and object recognition in infancy as well as research on brain-behavior relations in the early development of attention and recognition memory. The third section addresses potential areas of the brain involved in infant object recognition and visual attention. An integrated synthesis of some of the existing models of the development of visual attention is presented which may account for the observed changes in behavioral and neural measures of visual attention and object recognition that occur across infancy. PMID:25596333

  20. Superior Colliculus and Visual Spatial Attention

    PubMed Central

    Krauzlis, Richard J.; Lovejoy, Lee P.; Zénon, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) has long been known to be part of the network of brain areas involved in spatial attention, but recent findings have dramatically refined our understanding of its functional role. The SC both implements the motor consequences of attention and plays a crucial role in the process of target selection that precedes movement. Moreover, even in the absence of overt orienting movements, SC activity is related to shifts of covert attention and is necessary for the normal control of spatial attention during perceptual judgments. The neuronal circuits that link the SC to spatial attention may include attention-related areas of the cerebral cortex, but recent results show that the SC's contribution involves mechanisms that operate independently of the established signatures of attention in visual cortex. These findings raise new issues and suggest novel possibilities for understanding the brain mechanisms that enable spatial attention. PMID:23682659

  1. Effects of Psychological Attention on Pronoun Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Jennifer E.; Lao, Shin-Yi C.

    2015-01-01

    Pronoun comprehension is facilitated for referents that are focused in the discourse context. Discourse focus has been described as a function of attention, especially shared attention, but few studies have explicitly tested this idea. Two experiments used an exogenous capture cue paradigm to demonstrate that listeners’ visual attention at the onset of a story influences their preferences during pronoun resolution later in the story. In both experiments trial-initial attention modulated listeners’ transitory biases while considering referents for the pronoun, whether it was in response to the capture cue or not. These biases even had a small influence on listeners’ final interpretation of the pronoun. These results provide independently-motivated evidence that the listener’s attention influences the on-line processes of pronoun comprehension. Trial-initial attentional shifts were made on the basis of non-shared, private information, demonstrating that attentional effects on pronoun comprehension are not restricted to shared attention among interlocutors. PMID:26191533

  2. Hanford facility contingency plan

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, L.N.

    1996-07-01

    The Hanford Facility Contingency Plan, together with each TSD unit- specific contingency plan, meets the WAC 173-303 requirements for a contingency plan. Applicability of this plan to Hanford Facility activities is described in the Hanford Facility RCRA Permit, Dangerous Waste Portion, General Condition II.A. General Condition II.A applies to Part III TSD units, Part V TSD units, and to releases of hazardous substances which threaten human health or the environment. Additional information about the applicability of this document may also be found in the Hanford Facility RCRA Permit Handbook (DOE/RL-96-10). This plan includes descriptions of responses to a nonradiological hazardous substance spill or release at Hanford Facility locations not covered by TSD unit-specific contingency plans or building emergency plans. The term hazardous substances is defined in WAC 173-303-040 as: ``any liquid, solid, gas, or sludge, including any material, substance, product, commodity, or waste, regardless of quantity, that exhibits any of the physical, chemical or biological properties described in WAC 173-303-090 or 173-303-100.`` Whenever the term hazardous substances is used in this document, it will be used in the context of this definition. This plan includes descriptions of responses for spills or releases of hazardous substances occurring at areas between TSD units that may, or may not, threaten human health or the environment.

  3. Modality-specificity of Selective Attention Networks

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Hannah J.; Amitay, Sygal

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish the modality specificity and generality of selective attention networks. Method: Forty-eight young adults completed a battery of four auditory and visual selective attention tests based upon the Attention Network framework: the visual and auditory Attention Network Tests (vANT, aANT), the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA), and the Test of Attention in Listening (TAiL). These provided independent measures for auditory and visual alerting, orienting, and conflict resolution networks. The measures were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis to assess underlying attention constructs. Results: The analysis yielded a four-component solution. The first component comprised of a range of measures from the TEA and was labeled “general attention.” The third component was labeled “auditory attention,” as it only contained measures from the TAiL using pitch as the attended stimulus feature. The second and fourth components were labeled as “spatial orienting” and “spatial conflict,” respectively—they were comprised of orienting and conflict resolution measures from the vANT, aANT, and TAiL attend-location task—all tasks based upon spatial judgments (e.g., the direction of a target arrow or sound location). Conclusions: These results do not support our a-priori hypothesis that attention networks are either modality specific or supramodal. Auditory attention separated into selectively attending to spatial and non-spatial features, with the auditory spatial attention loading onto the same factor as visual spatial attention, suggesting spatial attention is supramodal. However, since our study did not include a non-spatial measure of visual attention, further research will be required to ascertain whether non-spatial attention is modality-specific. PMID:26635709

  4. Evaluating the implementation of environmental review mitigation in local planning and development processes

    SciTech Connect

    Slotterback, Carissa Schively

    2008-11-15

    The implementation of mitigation strategies and outcomes of environmental review remains a challenge for planners and regulators. While the process and content of environmental review is clearly defined, there is often little attention to what happens after the review is completed. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the implementation of the outcomes of environmental review, specifically mitigation measures designed to respond to environmental impacts identified in the environmental impact analysis. Drawing on previous evaluations of environmental review outcomes and plan implementation, the research provides a methodology for evaluating the implementation of mitigation efforts, points to the challenges associated with implementing the mitigation outcomes of local environmental review in planning and development processes, and identifies opportunities to integrate planning and environmental review processes.

  5. Decision-making and evacuation planning for flood risk management in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Kolen, Bas; Helsloot, Ira

    2014-07-01

    A traditional view of decision-making for evacuation planning is that, given an uncertain threat, there is a deterministic way of defining the best decision. In other words, there is a linear relation between threat, decision, and execution consequences. Alternatives and the impact of uncertainties are not taken into account. This study considers the 'top strategic decision-making' for mass evacuation owing to flooding in the Netherlands. It reveals that the top strategic decision-making process itself is probabilistic because of the decision-makers involved and their crisis managers (as advisers). The paper concludes that deterministic planning is not sufficient, and it recommends probabilistic planning that considers uncertainties in the decision-making process itself as well as other uncertainties, such as forecasts, citizens responses, and the capacity of infrastructure. This results in less optimistic, but more realistic, strategies and a need to pay attention to alternative strategies.

  6. A dynamic developmental theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predominantly hyperactive/impulsive and combined subtypes.

    PubMed

    Sagvolden, Terje; Johansen, Espen Borgå; Aase, Heidi; Russell, Vivienne Ann

    2005-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is currently defined as a cognitive/behavioral developmental disorder where all clinical criteria are behavioral. Inattentiveness, overactivity, and impulsiveness are presently regarded as the main clinical symptoms. The dynamic developmental behavioral theory is based on the hypothesis that altered dopaminergic function plays a pivotal role by failing to modulate nondopaminergic (primarily glutamate and GABA) signal transmission appropriately. A hypofunctioning mesolimbic dopamine branch produces altered reinforcement of behavior and deficient extinction of previously reinforced behavior. This gives rise to delay aversion, development of hyperactivity in novel situations, impulsiveness, deficient sustained attention, increased behavioral variability, and failure to "inhibit" responses ("disinhibition"). A hypofunctioning mesocortical dopamine branch will cause attention response deficiencies (deficient orienting responses, impaired saccadic eye movements, and poorer attention responses toward a target) and poor behavioral planning (poor executive functions). A hypofunctioning nigrostriatal dopamine branch will cause impaired modulation of motor functions and deficient nondeclarative habit learning and memory. These impairments will give rise to apparent developmental delay, clumsiness, neurological "soft signs," and a "failure to inhibit" responses when quick reactions are required. Hypofunctioning dopamine branches represent the main individual predispositions in the present theory. The theory predicts that behavior and symptoms in ADHD result from the interplay between individual predispositions and the surroundings. The exact ADHD symptoms at a particular time in life will vary and be influenced by factors having positive or negative effects on symptom development. Altered or deficient learning and motor functions will produce special needs for optimal parenting and societal styles. Medication will to some degree

  7. Context-Dependent Control over Attentional Capture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosman, Joshua D.; Vecera, Shaun P.

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that the likelihood of a salient item capturing attention is dependent on the "attentional set" an individual employs in a given situation. The instantiation of an attentional set is often viewed as a strategic, voluntary process, relying on working memory systems that represent immediate task priorities.…

  8. Search Asymmetry, Sustained Attention, and Response Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Hugh; Russell, Paul N.; Helton, William S.

    2011-01-01

    In the present experiment, we used search asymmetry to test whether the sustained attention to response task is a better measure of response inhibition or sustained attention. Participants performed feature present and feature absent target detection tasks using either a sustained attention to response task (SART; high Go low No-Go) or a…

  9. Attention to Faces in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Jones, Nicola; Brown, Philippa H.; Robinson, Lucy J.; Langton, Stephen R. H.; Bruce, Vicki; Riby, Leigh M.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with distinct social behaviours. One component of the WS social phenotype is atypically prolonged face fixation. This behaviour co-exists with attention difficulties. Attention is multi-faceted and may impact on gaze behaviour in several ways. Four experiments assessed (i) attention capture by faces, (ii)…

  10. Target Predictability, Sustained Attention, and Response Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Leonie; Russell, Paul N.; Helton, William S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether the sustained attention to response task is a better measure of response inhibition or sustained attention. Participants performed a number detection task for 37.3 min using either a Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART; high Go low No-Go) or a more traditionally formatted vigilance task (TFT; high No-Go low Go) response…

  11. Behold: Silence and Attention in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, David

    2014-01-01

    Educators continually ask about the best means to engage students and how best to capture attention. These concerns often make the problematic assumption that students can directly govern their own attention. In order to address the role and limits of attention in education, some theorists have sought to recover the significance of silence or…

  12. Separable Attentional Predictors of Language Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Brenda; Panneton, Robin K.; Colombo, John

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the combined influences of infants' attention and use of social cues in the prediction of their language outcomes. This longitudinal study measured infants' visual attention on a distractibility task (11 months), joint attention (14 months), and language outcomes (word-object association, 14 months;…

  13. Perceptual Load Influences Selective Attention across Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couperus, Jane W.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that visual selective attention develops across childhood. However, there is relatively little understanding of the neurological changes that accompany this development, particularly in the context of adult theories of selective attention, such as N. Lavie's (1995) perceptual load theory of attention. This study examined visual…

  14. Attentional Bias for Exercise-Related Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya R.; Spence, John C.; Stolp, Sean M.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined attentional bias toward exercise-related images using a visual probe task. It was hypothesized that more-active participants would display attentional bias toward the exercise-related images. The results showed that men displayed attentional bias for the exercise images. There was a significant interaction of activity level…

  15. Everyday Attention Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…

  16. Attention to Affect in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Jane

    2011-01-01

    As language teachers, we have to pay attention to many things in our work so why add "attention to affect"? Perhaps the simplest, most direct answer is that whatever we focus most on in our particular context, be it general English, morphosyntax, phonetics, literature, English for academic writing or any other special area, attention to affect…

  17. The What and Where of Visual Attention.

    PubMed

    Moore, Tirin; Zirnsak, Marc

    2015-11-18

    The selective processing of sensory input during attention is known to take many forms, and different forms of attention likely reflect varying underlying neural mechanisms. Bichot and colleagues (2015) identify neurons that appear specialized for the control of feature-based visual attention. PMID:26590339

  18. Mental Attention in Gifted and Nongifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Jose I.; Ramiro, Pedro; Lopez, Jose M.; Aguilar, Manuel; Acosta, Manuel; Montero, Juan

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between the construct of mental attention and "giftedness" is not well established. Gifted individuals could make effective use of their executive functions and this could be related to their mental attentional capacity. The dialectic constructivist model developed by Pascual-Leone introduced the concept of mental attention or…

  19. An Operant Analysis of Joint Attention Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holth, Per

    2005-01-01

    Joint attention, a synchronizing of the attention of two or more persons, has been an increasing focus of research in cognitive developmental psychology. Research in this area has progressed mainly outside of behavior analysis, and behavior-analytic research and theory has tended to ignore the work on joint attention. It is argued here, on the one…

  20. Persistence of Value-Driven Attentional Capture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Brian A.; Yantis, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Stimuli that have previously been associated with the delivery of reward involuntarily capture attention when presented as unrewarded and task-irrelevant distractors in a subsequent visual search task. It is unknown how long such effects of reward learning on attention persist. One possibility is that value-driven attentional biases are plastic…

  1. Defining conservation targets on a landscape-scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benscoter, A.M.; Romanach, Stephanie; Brandt, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation planning, the process of deciding how to protect, conserve, enhance and(or) minimize loss of natural and cultural resources, is a fundamental process to achieve conservation success in a time of rapid environmental change. Conservation targets, the measurable expressions of desired resource conditions, are an important tool in biological planning to achieve effective outcomes. Conservation targets provide a focus for planning, design, conservation action, and collaborative monitoring of environmental trends to guide landscape-scale conservation to improve the quality and quantity of key ecological and cultural resources. It is essential to have an iterative and inclusive method to define conservation targets that is replicable and allows for the evaluation of the effectiveness of conservation targets over time. In this document, we describe a process that can be implemented to achieve landscape-scale conservation, which includes defining conservation targets. We also describe what has been accomplished to date (September 2015) through this process for the Peninsular Florida Landscape Conservation Cooperative (PFLCC).

  2. Attention deficit and attention training in early twentieth-century Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Ando, Mizuho; Kumagai, Keiko

    2015-06-01

    Yuzero Motora (1856-1912), regarded as the first professional Japanese psychologist, tried to address students' attention difficulties through attention training methods of his own design. His reports contain the first description of ADHD-like symptoms in the history of Japan. Motora viewed "distractibility" as the irregular transition of attention. Students with low scores and attention difficulties who participated in Motora's exercises showed improvement in arithmetic, psychological testing, and certain aspects of daily life. This article describes Motora's theoretical conception of attention and attention training methodology, the history of attention deficit and attention training, and the significance of Motora's experiments.

  3. A Planning System for Continuing Education Divisions: A Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazik, Martha S.

    1985-01-01

    Details steps in a continuing education division planning model; i.e., define the planning group, develop a planning attitude, analyze internal and external environments, develop a mechanism for forecasting trends, hold planning sessions for determining strategic focus and operational plans, establish a timetable, hold follow-up/evaluation…

  4. Foreign Language Planning in England: The Pupil Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses pupil choice in relation to foreign language (FL) planning as an instance of micro-language planning. Borrowing from established language planning theory (Haugen, 1983; Kaplan & Baldauf, 1997), FL planning is conceptualised and defined here as the consideration of those aspects of language planning that reflect social,…

  5. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Faraone, Stephen V; Asherson, Philip; Banaschewski, Tobias; Biederman, Joseph; Buitelaar, Jan K; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Tannock, Rosemary; Franke, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent neurodevelopmental disorder that affects 5% of children and adolescents and 2.5% of adults worldwide. Throughout an individual's lifetime, ADHD can increase the risk of other psychiatric disorders, educational and occupational failure, accidents, criminality, social disability and addictions. No single risk factor is necessary or sufficient to cause ADHD. In most cases ADHD arises from several genetic and environmental risk factors that each have a small individual effect and act together to increase susceptibility. The multifactorial causation of ADHD is consistent with the heterogeneity of the disorder, which is shown by its extensive psychiatric co-morbidity, its multiple domains of neurocognitive impairment and the wide range of structural and functional brain anomalies associated with it. The diagnosis of ADHD is reliable and valid when evaluated with standard criteria for psychiatric disorders. Rating scales and clinical interviews facilitate diagnosis and aid screening. The expression of symptoms varies as a function of patient developmental stage and social and academic contexts. Although there are no curative treatments for ADHD, evidenced-based treatments can markedly reduce its symptoms and associated impairments. For example, medications are efficacious and normally well tolerated, and various non-pharmacological approaches are also valuable. Ongoing clinical and neurobiological research holds the promise of advancing diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to ADHD. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/J6jiwl. PMID:27189265

  6. Early vision and focal attention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julesz, Bela

    1991-07-01

    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  7. 7 CFR 1210.400 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION... definitions of such terms which appear in Subpart—Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan....

  8. 7 CFR 1210.400 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION... definitions of such terms which appear in Subpart—Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan....

  9. 7 CFR 1210.400 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION... definitions of such terms which appear in Subpart—Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan....

  10. 7 CFR 1210.400 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION... definitions of such terms which appear in Subpart—Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan....

  11. 7 CFR 1210.400 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION... definitions of such terms which appear in Subpart—Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan....

  12. Selective attention skills of experienced sonar operators.

    PubMed

    Merrill, L L; Lewandowski, L J; Kobus, D A

    1994-06-01

    This study investigated the influence of sonar training and experience on the selective attention of experienced and inexperienced operators. The Stroop task was selected as a measure of general selective attention, similar in certain task requirements (attentional allocation) to sonar operation. Across two samples (ns = 32 and 36) and four repeated test sessions groups did not differ significantly in speed or accuracy of Stroop performance. The data suggest that experienced operators do not seem to have developed extraordinary attentional skills and that any attentional skills developed through sonar experience do not generalize to other tasks such as the Stroop.

  13. [Guizhou planned parenthood circular].

    PubMed

    1980-05-29

    The Guizhou Provincial CCP Committee and the provinical people's government recently issued a circular on launching mass inspection of planned parenthood work throughout the province in late June. The inspection will look at whether or not the masses have been mobilized to pay serious attention to planned parenthood work, whether or not such education has been launched, what kind of concrete measures have been adopted, and what kind of concrete experiences have been learned. It will also include the implementation of birth control measures, the resolute prohibition on having a 3rd child, and the promotion of having only 1 child/couple. The circular urged the departments at all levels to strengthen their leadership over planned parenthood work, deepen investigation and study, continuously study the new situation and solve the new problems.

  14. Using plan reasoning in the generation of plan descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    Previous work on the generation of natural language descriptions of complex activities has indicated that the unwieldy amount of text needed to describe complete plans makes for ineffective and unnatural descriptions. We argue here that concise and effective text descriptions of plans can be generated by exploiting a model of the hearer`s plan reasoning capabilities. We define a computational model of the hearer`s interpretation process that views the interpretation of plan descriptions as refinement search through a space of partial plans. This model takes into account the hearer`s plan preferences and the resource limitations on her reasoning capabilities to determine the completed plans she will construct from a given partial description.

  15. Consciousness and Attention: On Sufficiency and Necessity

    PubMed Central

    van Boxtel, Jeroen J. A.; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Koch, Christof

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has slowly corroded a belief that selective attention and consciousness are so tightly entangled that they cannot be individually examined. In this review, we summarize psychophysical and neurophysiological evidence for a dissociation between top-down attention and consciousness. The evidence includes recent findings that show subjects can attend to perceptually invisible objects. More contentious is the finding that subjects can become conscious of an isolated object, or the gist of the scene in the near absence of top-down attention; we critically re-examine the possibility of “complete” absence of top-down attention. We also cover the recent flurry of studies that utilized independent manipulation of attention and consciousness. These studies have shown paradoxical effects of attention, including examples where top-down attention and consciousness have opposing effects, leading us to strengthen and revise our previous views. Neuroimaging studies with EEG, MEG, and fMRI are uncovering the distinct neuronal correlates of selective attention and consciousness in dissociative paradigms. These findings point to a functional dissociation: attention as analyzer and consciousness as synthesizer. Separating the effects of selective visual attention from those of visual consciousness is of paramount importance to untangle the neural substrates of consciousness from those for attention. PMID:21833272

  16. Attention deficits in stroke patients with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Korda, R J; Douglas, J M

    1997-08-01

    Attentional capacity and sustained attention were investigated in 21 aphasic stroke patients and 21 non-brain-damaged patients. Attentional capacity was assessed using a series of reaction time (RT) tasks. The aphasic patients demonstrated impaired attentional capacity as shown by slower processing speed than the non-brain-damaged group (p < .01) and greater increases in RT with increased processing load (p < .05). Similar patterns were found for both verbal and spatial material. There was no significant relationship between severity of auditory comprehension deficits and attentional capacity. Sustained attention was assessed using a cognitive vigilance task requiring identification of a target letter presented infrequently over 32 minutes. Both the aphasic and the non-brain-damaged group demonstrated a decline in performance with time on task as shown by a steady increase in RTs (p < .0001), but the decline was equivalent across the groups. Thus, the aphasic group did not show a specific deficit in the ability to sustain attention. PMID:9342688

  17. Exogenous attention and color perception: performance and appearance of saturation and hue.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Stuart; Carrasco, Marisa

    2006-11-01

    Exogenous covert attention is an automatic, transient form of attention that can be triggered by sudden changes in the periphery. Here we test for the effects of attention on color perception. We used the methodology developed by Carrasco, Ling, and Read [Carrasco, M., Ling, S., & Read, S. (2004). Attention alters appearance. Nature Neuroscience, 7 (3) 308-313] to explore the effects of exogenous attention on appearance of saturation (Experiment 1) and of hue (Experiment 2). We also tested orientation discrimination performance for single stimuli defined by saturation or hue (Experiment 3). The results indicate that attention increases apparent saturation, but does not change apparent hue, notwithstanding the fact that it improves orientation discrimination for both saturation and hue stimuli.

  18. Defining Scenarios: Linking Integrated Models, Regional Concerns, and Stakeholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, H. C.; Stewart, S.; Liu, Y.; Mahmoud, M.

    2007-05-01

    Scenarios are important tools for long-term planning, and there is great interest in using integrated models in scenario studies. However, scenario definition and assessment are creative, as well as scientific, efforts. Using facilitated creative processes, we have worked with stakeholders to define regionally significant scenarios that encompass a broad range of hydroclimatic, socioeconomic, and institutional dimensions. The regional scenarios subsequently inform the definition of local scenarios that work with context-specific integrated models that, individually, can address only a subset of overall regional complexity. Based on concerns of stakeholders in the semi-arid US Southwest, we prioritized three dimensions that are especially important, yet highly uncertain, for long-term planning: hydroclimatic conditions (increased variability, persistent drought), development patterns (urban consolidation, distributed rural development), and the nature of public institutions (stressed, proactive). Linking across real-world decision contexts and integrated modeling efforts poses challenges of creatively connecting the conceptual models held by both the research and stakeholder communities.

  19. The guidance of spatial attention during visual search for color combinations and color configurations.

    PubMed

    Berggren, Nick; Eimer, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Representations of target-defining features (attentional templates) guide the selection of target objects in visual search. We used behavioral and electrophysiological measures to investigate how such search templates control the allocation of attention in search tasks where targets are defined by the combination of 2 colors or by a specific spatial configuration of these colors. Target displays were preceded by spatially uninformative cue displays that contained items in 1 or both target-defining colors. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that, during search for color combinations, attention is initially allocated independently and in parallel to all objects with target-matching colors, but is then rapidly withdrawn from objects that only have 1 of the 2 target colors. In Experiment 3, targets were defined by a particular spatial configuration of 2 colors, and could be accompanied by nontarget objects with a different configuration of the same colors. Attentional guidance processes were unable to distinguish between these 2 types of objects. Both attracted attention equally when they appeared in a cue display, and both received parallel focal-attentional processing and were encoded into working memory when they were presented in the same target display. Results demonstrate that attention can be guided simultaneously by multiple features from the same dimension, but that these guidance processes have no access to the spatial-configural properties of target objects. They suggest that attentional templates do not represent target objects in an integrated pictorial fashion, but contain separate representations of target-defining features. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26962846

  20. NIF Title III engineering plan

    SciTech Connect

    Deis, G

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the work that must be accomplished by the NIF Project during Title III Engineering. This definition is intended to be sufficiently detailed to provide a framework for yearly planning, to clearly identify the specific deliverables so that the Project teams can focus on them, and to provide a common set of objectives and processes across the Project. This plan has been preceded by similar documents for Title I and Title II design and complements the Site Management Plan, the Project Control Manual, the Quality Assurance Program Plan, the RM Parsons NIF Title III Configuration Control Plan, the Integrated Project Schedule, the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report, the Configuration Management Plan, and the Transition Plan.

  1. Planning as an Iterative Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Activity planning for missions such as the Mars Exploration Rover mission presents many technical challenges, including oversubscription, consideration of time, concurrency, resources, preferences, and uncertainty. These challenges have all been addressed by the research community to varying degrees, but significant technical hurdles still remain. In addition, the integration of these capabilities into a single planning engine remains largely unaddressed. However, I argue that there is a deeper set of issues that needs to be considered namely the integration of planning into an iterative process that begins before the goals, objectives, and preferences are fully defined. This introduces a number of technical challenges for planning, including the ability to more naturally specify and utilize constraints on the planning process, the ability to generate multiple qualitatively different plans, and the ability to provide deep explanation of plans.

  2. NASA Performance Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) passed by Congress and signed by the President in 1993 provides a new tool to improve the efficiency of all Federal agencies. The goals of GPRA are to: Improve citizen confidence in Government performance; Improve Federal program management, effectiveness, and public accountability; and Improve congressional decisionmaking on where to commit the Nation's financial and human resources. The Act directs Executive Branch agencies to develop a customer-focused strategic plan that aligns activities with concrete missions and goals. The first plans were submitted in September 1998 as part of the Fiscal Year 1999 (FY99) budget process. These budget submissions were expected to support the goals expressed in the agency strategic plans. The Act also directs agencies to manage and measure results to justify congressional appropriations and authorizations. Six months after the completion of the fiscal year, agencies will report on the degree of success in achieving the goals and evaluation measures defined in the strategic and performance plans. The plans required by GPRA have been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and to Congress. Copies of NASA plans are available from the Office of Policy and Plans at NASA Headquarters and can be accessed on the i nterinet web sites identified in the Appendix.

  3. Using Student Data for Academic Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta, M. Kathryne

    1981-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of information-based planning to maintain accountability in a time of declining enrollment. Defines planning levels and functions. Examines the types of studies institutions can undertake to support planning, providing examples from the research process at Moraine Valley Community Colleges, Illinois. Discusses the uses of…

  4. Long-Term Planning in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report presents the concepts and issues discussed at a Regional Symposium on Long-term Planning in Higher Education held in Dhaka, Bangladesh, September 21-30, 1986. Chapter 1 explores some fundamental issues about the rationale for the objectives of long-term planning. It defines long-term planning in higher education, considers its…

  5. 24 CFR 203.205 - Plan coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... following the initial sale of the property to the homeowner. (b) During the first year of coverage, a Plan... defects as defined in § 203.200. (c) During the first and second year of coverage, a Plan must provide a... the Plan against damage from the first through the fourth year. (e) From the first through the...

  6. External Review of GPS LifePlan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendale, David R.

    2008-01-01

    The GPS LifePlan is an interactive resource that helps students succeed in reaching their career, education and personal goals. GPS stands for "GOALS + PLANS = SUCCESS". http://gpslifeplan.org This holistic academic and student development program provides a structure for students to define their goals and helps them establish plans to…

  7. Controlling Distributed Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley; Barrett, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    A system of software implements an extended version of an approach, denoted shared activity coordination (SHAC), to the interleaving of planning and the exchange of plan information among organizations devoted to different missions that normally communicate infrequently except that they need to collaborate on joint activities and/or the use of shared resources. SHAC enables the planning and scheduling systems of the organizations to coordinate by resolving conflicts while optimizing local planning solutions. The present software provides a framework for modeling and executing communication protocols for SHAC. Shared activities are represented in each interacting planning system to establish consensus on joint activities or to inform the other systems of consumption of a common resource or a change in a shared state. The representations of shared activities are extended to include information on (1) the role(s) of each participant, (2) permissions (defined as specifications of which participant controls what aspects of shared activities and scheduling thereof), and (3) constraints on the parameters of shared activities. Also defined in the software are protocols for changing roles, permissions, and constraints during the course of coordination and execution.

  8. Thalamus and language: interface with attention, memory and executive functions.

    PubMed

    Radanovic, Marcia; Azambuja, Mariana; Mansur, Letícia Lessa; Porto, Cláudia Sellitto; Scaff, Milberto

    2003-03-01

    Subcortical structures are in a strategic functional position within the cognitive networks. Their lesion can interfere with a great number of functions. We studied six patients with thalamic vascular lesions (three left sided, two right sided and one bilateral), to characterize their repercussion in the communicative abilities and the interface between language alterations and other cognitive abilities, as attention, memory and frontal executive. All patients were evaluated through a functional interview (discourse analysis), and the following batteries: Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, Boston Naming Test, Token Test, Benton Visual Retention Test, Trail Making, Wisconsin Card Sorting and frontal scripts. All patients performed MRI and five underwent SPECT. Results show that these patients present impairment in several cognitive domains, especially attention and executive functions (working memory, planning and self-monitoring); those with right lesions have an additional visuospatial impairment. Such alterations interfere with language abilities, and this fact must be considered in the rehabilitation efforts. PMID:12715016

  9. How do infants recognize joint attention?

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Erik; Brisson, Julie; Beaulieu, Christelle; Mainville, Marc; Mailloux, Dominique; Sirois, Sylvain

    2015-08-01

    The emergence of joint attention is still a matter of vigorous debate. It involves diverse hypotheses ranging from innate modules dedicated to intention reading to more neuro-constructivist approaches. The aim of this study was to assess whether 12-month-old infants are able to recognize a "joint attention" situation when observing such a social interaction. Using a violation-of-expectation paradigm, we habituated infants to a "joint attention" video and then compared their looking time durations between "divergent attention" videos and "joint attention" ones using a 2 (familiar or novel perceptual component)×2 (familiar or novel conceptual component) factorial design. These results were enriched with measures of pupil dilation, which are considered to be reliable measures of cognitive load. Infants looked longer at test events that involved novel speaker and divergent attention but no changes in infants' pupil dilation were observed in any conditions. Although looking time data suggest that infants may appreciate discrepancies from expectations related to joint attention behavior, in the absence of clear evidence from pupillometry, the results show no demonstration of understanding of joint attention, even at a tacit level. Our results suggest that infants may be sensitive to relevant perceptual variables in joint attention situations, which would help scaffold social cognitive development. This study supports a gradual, learning interpretation of how infants come to recognize, understand, and participate in joint attention.

  10. Encoding attentional states during visuomotor adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Im, Hee Yeon; Bédard, Patrick; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    We recently showed that visuomotor adaptation acquired under attentional distraction is better recalled under a similar level of distraction compared to no distraction. This paradoxical effect suggests that attentional state (e.g., divided or undivided) is encoded as an internal context during visuomotor learning and should be reinstated for successful recall (Song & Bédard, 2015). To investigate if there is a critical temporal window for encoding attentional state in visuomotor memory, we manipulated whether participants performed the secondary attention-demanding task concurrently in the early or late phase of visuomotor learning. Recall performance was enhanced when the attentional states between recall and the early phase of visuomotor learning were consistent. However, it reverted to untrained levels when tested under the attentional state of the late-phase learning. This suggests that attentional state is primarily encoded during the early phase of learning before motor errors decrease and reach an asymptote. Furthermore, we demonstrate that when divided and undivided attentional states were mixed during visuomotor adaptation, only divided attention was encoded as an internal cue for memory retrieval. Therefore, a single attentional state appears to be primarily integrated with visuomotor memory while motor error reduction is in progress during learning. PMID:26114683

  11. Voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Jared; Barbot, Antoine; Carrasco, Marisa

    2010-08-01

    Voluntary covert attention selects relevant sensory information for prioritized processing. The behavioral and neural consequences of such selection have been extensively documented, but its phenomenology has received little empirical investigation. Involuntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency (Gobell & Carrasco, 2005), but involuntary attention can differ from voluntary attention in its effects on performance in tasks mediated by spatial resolution (Yeshurun, Montagna, & Carrasco, 2008). Therefore, we ask whether voluntary attention affects the subjective appearance of spatial frequency--a fundamental dimension of visual perception underlying spatial resolution. We used a demanding rapid serial visual presentation task to direct voluntary attention and measured perceived spatial frequency at the attended and unattended locations. Attention increased the perceived spatial frequency of suprathreshold stimuli and also improved performance on a concurrent orientation discrimination task. In the control experiment, we ruled out response bias as an alternative account by using a lengthened interstimulus interval, which allows observers to disengage attention from the cued location. In contrast to the main experiment, the observers showed neither increased perceived spatial frequency nor improved orientation discrimination at the attended location. Thus, this study establishes that voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency. This phenomenological consequence links behavioral and neurophysiological studies on the effects of attention.

  12. How do infants recognize joint attention?

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Erik; Brisson, Julie; Beaulieu, Christelle; Mainville, Marc; Mailloux, Dominique; Sirois, Sylvain

    2015-08-01

    The emergence of joint attention is still a matter of vigorous debate. It involves diverse hypotheses ranging from innate modules dedicated to intention reading to more neuro-constructivist approaches. The aim of this study was to assess whether 12-month-old infants are able to recognize a "joint attention" situation when observing such a social interaction. Using a violation-of-expectation paradigm, we habituated infants to a "joint attention" video and then compared their looking time durations between "divergent attention" videos and "joint attention" ones using a 2 (familiar or novel perceptual component)×2 (familiar or novel conceptual component) factorial design. These results were enriched with measures of pupil dilation, which are considered to be reliable measures of cognitive load. Infants looked longer at test events that involved novel speaker and divergent attention but no changes in infants' pupil dilation were observed in any conditions. Although looking time data suggest that infants may appreciate discrepancies from expectations related to joint attention behavior, in the absence of clear evidence from pupillometry, the results show no demonstration of understanding of joint attention, even at a tacit level. Our results suggest that infants may be sensitive to relevant perceptual variables in joint attention situations, which would help scaffold social cognitive development. This study supports a gradual, learning interpretation of how infants come to recognize, understand, and participate in joint attention. PMID:26036712

  13. Object continuity enhances selective auditory attention.

    PubMed

    Best, Virginia; Ozmeral, Erol J; Kopco, Norbert; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2008-09-01

    In complex scenes, the identity of an auditory object can build up across seconds. Given that attention operates on perceptual objects, this perceptual buildup may alter the efficacy of selective auditory attention over time. Here, we measured identification of a sequence of spoken target digits presented with distracter digits from other directions to investigate the dynamics of selective attention. Performance was better when the target location was fixed rather than changing between digits, even when listeners were cued as much as 1 s in advance about the position of each subsequent digit. Spatial continuity not only avoided well known costs associated with switching the focus of spatial attention, but also produced refinements in the spatial selectivity of attention across time. Continuity of target voice further enhanced this buildup of selective attention. Results suggest that when attention is sustained on one auditory object within a complex scene, attentional selectivity improves over time. Similar effects may come into play when attention is sustained on an object in a complex visual scene, especially in cases where visual object formation requires sustained attention.

  14. 16 CFR 502.2 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 502.2 Section 502.2... FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Definitions § 502.2 Terms defined. As used in this part, unless the context otherwise specifically requires: (a) The terms Act, regulation or regulations, consumer...

  15. 16 CFR 304.1 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 304.1 Section 304.1... REGULATIONS UNDER THE HOBBY PROTECTION ACT § 304.1 Terms defined. (a) Act means the Hobby Protection Act... same meanings as such term has under the Federal Trade Commission Act. (c) Commission means the...

  16. 7 CFR 1230.100 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 1230.100 Section 1230.100 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Rules and Regulations Definitions § 1230.100 Terms defined. As used throughout this subpart, unless the context otherwise requires, terms shall have the same meaning as the definition...

  17. 7 CFR 29.9201 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 29.9201 Section 29.9201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9201 Terms defined. As used in this...

  18. 7 CFR 1280.401 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 1280.401 Section 1280.401 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Rules and Regulations § 1280.401 Terms defined. As used throughout this subpart, unless the context otherwise requires, terms shall have the same meaning as the definition of such terms in subpart...

  19. 16 CFR 1608.1 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 1608.1 Section 1608.1... REGULATIONS UNDER THE FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT § 1608.1 Terms defined. As used in the rules and regulations in this subchapter D, unless the context otherwise specifically requires: (a) The term act means...

  20. 7 CFR 1280.601 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 1280.601 Section 1280.601 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.601 Terms defined. As used throughout this subpart, unless the context otherwise requires, terms shall have the same meaning as...

  1. 7 CFR 29.12 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 29.12 Section 29.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.12 Terms defined. As used in this subpart and in all...

  2. 16 CFR 300.1 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 300.1 Section 300.1... REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Definitions § 300.1 Terms defined. (a) The term Act... terms rule, rules, regulations and rules and regulations mean the rules and regulations prescribed...

  3. 7 CFR 1260.301 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 1260.301 Section 1260.301 Agriculture... and Regulations § 1260.301 Terms defined. As used throughout this subpart, unless the context otherwise requires, terms shall have the same meaning as the definition of such terms as appears in...

  4. Dilution Confusion: Conventions for Defining a Dilution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Laurence A.

    2010-01-01

    Two conventions for preparing dilutions are used in clinical laboratories. The first convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A plus "b" volumes of solution B. The second convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A diluted into a final volume of "b". Use of the incorrect dilution convention could affect…

  5. 47 CFR 54.401 - Lifeline defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lifeline defined. 54.401 Section 54.401 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.401 Lifeline defined. (a) As used in this subpart, Lifeline means...

  6. 16 CFR 304.1 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Terms defined. 304.1 Section 304.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE HOBBY PROTECTION ACT § 304.1 Terms defined. (a) Act means the Hobby Protection Act (approved November 29, 1973; Pub. L. 93-167, 87...

  7. 9 CFR 592.2 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 592.2 Section 592.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Definitions § 592.2 Terms defined. For the purpose of...

  8. Attention and curiosity in museums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koran, John J., Jr.; Morrison, Laura; Lehman, Jeffrey R.; Koran, Mary Lou; Gandara, Luisa

    Two hundred and thirty-four museum visitors of all ages were observed as they entered the Object Gallery area of the Florida State Museum. Visitors were observed under conditions where objects were available for close inspection but could not be manipulated (baseline data) and later when the same objects were placed on tables and were available for visitors to touch, move, and use a variety of senses to inspect them (intervention data). Data were recorded on the sex, age, and number of subjects in these areas under each of the above conditions. The results obtained show a significant increase in the number of visitors entering this section of the museum when manipulatable objects were available. Baseline data showed that 58.5% of the people who entered the Object Gallery went into the drawer section. However, when manipulatable objects were made available this increased to 82.3%. Chi-square analysis was used to determine whether the presence of manipulatable objects in the area increased the number of people who entered the area. It did (p < 0.05). Chi-square analysis was also used to determine whether entering the drawer section depended on age or sex. It was found that more children entered the drawer section than adults (p < 0.05) and significantly more female children and female adults entered as a result of intervention (p < 0.05). At the same time, more male children than adults entered after intervention (p < 0.05) than before. These data are supported by considerable curiosity research indicating that both children and adults are attracted to novel as well as complex stimuli which can be manipulated in both formal and free-choice environments. The data also support the growing movement to hands-on exhibits in natural history museums and science centers around the country, as well as hands-on classroom activities from the perspective of their attention attracting and holding power and their curiosity evoking characteristics. Whether these positive factors

  9. Manufacturing Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waid, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  10. Final Draft Strategic Marketing Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-02-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has developed a marketing plan to define how BPA can be viable and competitive in the future, a result important to BPA`s customers and constituents. The Marketing Plan represents the preferred customer outcomes, marketplace achievements, and competitive advantage required to accomplish the Vision and the Strategic Business Objectives of the agency. The Marketing Plan contributes to successful implementation of BPA`s Strategic Business Objectives (SBOs) by providing common guidance to organizations and activities throughout the agency responsible for (1) planning, constructing, operating, and maintaining the Federal Columbia River Power System; (2) conducting business with BPA`s customers; and (3) providing required internal support services.

  11. Low attentional engagement makes attention network activity susceptible to emotional interference.

    PubMed

    Mäki-Marttunen, Verónica; Pickard, Natasha; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Ogawa, Keith H; Knight, Robert T; Hartikainen, Kaisa M

    2014-09-10

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether emotion-attention interaction depends on attentional engagement. To investigate emotional modulation of attention network activation, we used a functional MRI paradigm consisting of a visuospatial attention task with either frequent (high-engagement) or infrequent (low-engagement) targets and intermittent emotional or neutral distractors. The attention task recruited a bilateral frontoparietal network with no emotional interference on network activation when the attentional engagement was high. In contrast, when the attentional engagement was low, the unpleasant stimuli interfered with the activation of the frontoparietal attention network, especially in the right hemisphere. This study provides novel evidence for low attentional engagement making attention control network activation susceptible to emotional interference.

  12. Planning Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Medard

    1984-01-01

    To solve societal problems, both local and global, a global approach is needed. Serious diseases that are crippling present-day problem solving and planning are discussed, and the characteristics of a healthy, effective planning approach are described. (RM)

  13. Plant Tissues. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on plant tissues. Presented first are an attention step and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about plant tissues and the effect of water and minerals on them. The following topics are among those discussed: reasons why water is important to plants,…

  14. A Parallel and Distributed Processing Model of Joint Attention, Social-Cognition and Autism

    PubMed Central

    Mundy, Peter; Sullivan, Lisa; Mastergeorge, Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    Scientific Abstract The impaired development of joint attention is a cardinal feature of autism. Therefore, understanding the nature of joint attention is a central to research on this disorder. Joint attention may be best defined in terms of an information processing system that begins to develop by 4–6 months of age. This system integrates the parallel processing of internal information about one’s own visual attention with external information about the visual attention of other people. This type of joint encoding of information about self and other attention requires the activation of a distributed anterior and posterior cortical attention network. Genetic regulation, in conjunction with self-organizing behavioral activity guides the development of functional connectivity in this network. With practice in infancy the joint processing of self-other attention becomes automatically engaged as an executive function. It can be argued that this executive joint-attention is fundamental to human learning, as well as the development of symbolic thought, social-cognition and social-competence throughout the life span. One advantage of this parallel and distributed processing model of joint attention (PDPM) is that it directly connects theory on social pathology to a range of phenomenon in autism associated with neural connectivity, constructivist and connectionist models of cognitive development, early intervention, activity-dependent gene expression, and atypical ocular motor control. PMID:19358304

  15. Incorporating Employee Heterogeneity into Default Rules for Retirement Plan Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goda, Gopi Shah; Manchester, Colleen Flaherty

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of incorporating heterogeneity into default rules by examining the choice between retirement plans at a firm that transitioned from a defined benefit (DB) to a defined contribution (DC) plan. The default plan for existing employees varied discontinuously depending on their age. Employing regression discontinuity techniques,…

  16. Fire Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, June

    2011-01-01

    Many libraries have disaster recovery plans, but not all have prevention and action plans to prepare for an emergency in advance. This article presents the author's review of the prevention and action plans of several libraries: (1) Evergreen State College; (2) Interlochen Public Library; (3) University of Maryland, Baltimore-Marshall Law Library;…

  17. The role of attention in visual processing.

    PubMed Central

    Maunsell, John H R; Cook, Erik P

    2002-01-01

    Attention to a visual stimulus typically increases the responses of cortical neurons to that stimulus. Because many studies have shown a close relationship between the performance of individual neurons and behavioural performance of animal subjects, it is important to consider how attention affects this relationship. Measurements of behavioural and neuronal performance taken from rhesus monkeys while they performed a motion detection task with two attentional states show that attention alters the relationship between behaviour and neuronal response. Notably, attention affects the relationship differently in different cortical visual areas. This indicates that a close relationship between neuronal and behavioural performance on a given task persists over changes in attentional state only within limited regions of visual cortex. PMID:12217174

  18. Multisensory attention training for treatment of tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    D. P., Spiegel; T., Linford; B., Thompson; M. A., Petoe; K., Kobayashi; C. M., Stinear; G. D., Searchfield

    2015-01-01

    Tinnitus is the conscious perception of sound with no physical sound source. Some models of tinnitus pathophysiology suggest that networks associated with attention, memory, distress and multisensory experience are involved in tinnitus perception. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a multisensory attention training paradigm which used audio, visual, and somatosensory stimulation would reduce tinnitus. Eighteen participants with predominantly unilateral chronic tinnitus were randomized between two groups receiving 20 daily sessions of either integration (attempting to reduce salience to tinnitus by binding with multisensory stimuli) or attention diversion (multisensory stimuli opposite side to tinnitus) training. The training resulted in small but statistically significant reductions in Tinnitus Functional Index and Tinnitus Severity Numeric Scale scores and improved attentional abilities. No statistically significant improvements in tinnitus were found between the training groups. This study demonstrated that a short period of multisensory attention training reduced unilateral tinnitus, but directing attention toward or away from the tinnitus side did not differentiate this effect. PMID:26020589

  19. Attention alters the appearance of motion coherence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Taosheng; Fuller, Stuart; Carrasco, Marisa

    2006-12-01

    Selective attention enhances visual information processing, as measured by behavioral performance and neural activity. However, little is known about its effects on subjective experience. Here, we investigated the effect of transient (exogenous) attention on the appearance of visual motion, using a psychophysical procedure that directly measures appearance and controls for response bias. Observers viewed pairs of moving dot patterns and reported the motion direction of the more coherent pattern. Directing attention (via a peripheral precue) to a stimulus location increased its perceived coherence level and improved performance on a direction discrimination task. In a control experiment, we ruled out response bias by lengthening the time interval between the cue and the stimuli, so that the effect of transient attention could no longer be exerted. Our results are consistent with those of neurophysiological studies showing that attention modulates motion processing and provide evidence of a subjective perceptual correlate of attention, with a concomitant effect on performance.

  20. Paying attention to MMN in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Damaso, Karlye A M; Michie, Patricia T; Todd, Juanita

    2015-11-11

    The aim of this review is to explore the phenomenon of reduced mismatch negativity (MMN) in persons with schizophrenia and the possible relationship it has with attention impairments. In doing so we discuss (i) the prediction error account of MMN, (ii) reduced MMN as a faulty predictive processing system in persons with schizophrenia, (iii) the role of these systems in relevance filtering and attentional resource protection, (iv) attentional impairments in persons with schizophrenia, and (v) research that has explored MMN and attention in schizophrenia groups. Our review of the literature suggests that no study has appropriately examined the functional impact of smaller MMN in schizophrenia on the performance of a concurrent attention task. We conclude that future research should explore this notion further in the hope that it might embed MMN findings within outcomes of functional significance to individuals with the illness and those providing treatment. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention.

  1. Synthetic computational models of selective attention.

    PubMed

    Raffone, Antonino

    2006-11-01

    Computational modeling plays an important role to understand the mechanisms of attention. In this framework, synthetic computational models can uniquely contribute to integrate different explanatory levels and neurocognitive findings, with special reference to the integration of attention and awareness processes. Novel combined experimental and computational investigations can lead to important insights, as in the revived domain of neural correlates of attention- and awareness-related meditation states and traits.

  2. Can Attention be Divided Between Perceptual Groups?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, Robert S.; Foyle, David C.; Johnston, James C.; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Previous work using Head-Up Displays (HUDs) suggests that the visual system parses the HUD and the outside world into distinct perceptual groups, with attention deployed sequentially to first one group and then the other. New experiments show that both groups can be processed in parallel in a divided attention search task, even though subjects have just processed a stimulus in one perceptual group or the other. Implications for models of visual attention will be discussed.

  3. Attention in schizophrenia and in epileptic psychosis.

    PubMed

    Kairalla, I C J; Mattos, P E L; Hoexter, M Q; Bressan, R A; Mari, J J; Shirakawa, I

    2008-01-01

    The adaptive behavior of human beings is usually supported by rapid monitoring of outstanding events in the environment. Some investigators have suggested that a primary attention deficit might trigger symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition, researchers have long discussed the relationship between schizophrenia and the schizophrenia-like psychosis of epilepsy (SLPE). On the basis of these considerations, the objective of the present study was to investigate attention performance of patients with both disorders. Patient age was 18 to 60 years, and all patients had received formal schooling for at least four years. Patients were excluded if they had any systemic disease with neurologic or psychiatric comorbidity, or a history of brain surgery. The computer-assisted TAVIS-2R test was applied to all patients and to a control group to evaluate and discriminate between selective, alternating and sustained attention. The TAVIS-2R test is divided into three parts: one for selective attention (5 min), the second for alternating attention (5 min), and the third for the evaluation of vigilance or sustained attention (10 min). The same computer software was used for statistical analysis of reaction time, omission errors, and commission errors. The sample consisted of 36 patients with schizophrenia, 28 with interictal SLPE, and 47 healthy controls. The results of the selective attention tests for both patient groups were significantly lower than that for controls. The patients with schizophrenia and SLPE performed differently in the alternating and sustained attention tests: patients with SLPE had alternating attention deficits, whereas patients with schizophrenia showed deficits in sustained attention. These quantitative results confirmed the qualitative clinical observations for both patient groups, that is, that patients with schizophrenia had difficulties in focusing attention, whereas those with epilepsy showed perseveration in attention focus.

  4. Chemically defined medium and Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; Kozak, Elena; Conley, Catharine A.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C. elegans has been established as a powerful genetic system. Use of a chemically defined medium (C. elegans Maintenance Medium (CeMM)) now allows standardization and systematic manipulation of the nutrients that animals receive. Liquid cultivation allows automated culturing and experimentation and should be of use in large-scale growth and screening of animals. RESULTS: We find that CeMM is versatile and culturing is simple. CeMM can be used in a solid or liquid state, it can be stored unused for at least a year, unattended actively growing cultures may be maintained longer than with standard techniques, and standard C. elegans protocols work well with animals grown in defined medium. We also find that there are caveats to using defined medium. Animals in defined medium grow more slowly than on standard medium, appear to display adaptation to the defined medium, and display altered growth rates as they change the composition of the defined medium. CONCLUSIONS: As was suggested with the introduction of C. elegans as a potential genetic system, use of defined medium with C. elegans should prove a powerful tool.

  5. Towards a Strategy for Planning Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copa, George H.

    This report describes a strategy for planning vocational education. Discussed first are areas comprising the context for planning vocational education, including the relationship between education and work, the dimensions and stages of work adjustment, and the mission and performance requirements of vocational education (with attention to desired…

  6. Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A crisis always seems like something that happens somewhere else - that is, until it arrives on your doorstep. Although other issues and challenges scream for your attention, School Authorities should not postpone developing an influenza pandemic plan. The "Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities" (the "Guide") is designed to assist…

  7. Ambiguity produces attention shifts in category learning.

    PubMed

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Orgaz, Cristina; Luque, David; Nelson, James Byron

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that people and nonhuman animals protect their knowledge from interference by shifting attention toward the context when presented with information that contradicts their previous beliefs. Despite that suggestion, no studies have directly measured changes in attention while participants are exposed to an interference treatment. In the present experiments, we adapted a dot-probe task to track participants' attention to cues and contexts while they were completing a simple category learning task. The results support the hypothesis that interference produces a change in the allocation of attention to cues and contexts. PMID:26980780

  8. Attention Stabilizes Representations in the Human Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Aly, Mariam; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2016-02-01

    Attention and memory are intricately linked, but how attention modulates brain areas that subserve memory, such as the hippocampus, is unknown. We hypothesized that attention may stabilize patterns of activity in human hippocampus, resulting in distinct but reliable activity patterns for different attentional states. To test this prediction, we utilized high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging and a novel "art gallery" task. On each trial, participants viewed a room containing a painting, and searched a stream of rooms for a painting from the same artist (art state) or a room with the same layout (room state). Bottom-up stimulation was the same in both tasks, enabling the isolation of neural effects related to top-down attention. Multivariate analyses revealed greater pattern similarity in all hippocampal subfields for trials from the same, compared with different, attentional state. This stability was greater for the room than art state, was unrelated to univariate activity, and, in CA2/CA3/DG, was correlated with behavior. Attention therefore induces representational stability in the human hippocampus, resulting in distinct activity patterns for different attentional states. Modulation of hippocampal representational stability highlights the far-reaching influence of attention outside of sensory systems.

  9. Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Antoine; Slagter, Heleen A; Dunne, John D; Davidson, Richard J

    2008-04-01

    Meditation can be conceptualized as a family of complex emotional and attentional regulatory training regimes developed for various ends, including the cultivation of well-being and emotional balance. Among these various practices, there are two styles that are commonly studied. One style, focused attention meditation, entails the voluntary focusing of attention on a chosen object. The other style, open monitoring meditation, involves nonreactive monitoring of the content of experience from moment to moment. The potential regulatory functions of these practices on attention and emotion processes could have a long-term impact on the brain and behavior.

  10. 14 CFR 431.45 - Mishap investigation plan and emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... incident, or a mishap that involves a fatality or serious injury (as defined in 49 CFR 830.2); (2... a mishap that does not involve a fatality or serious injury, as defined in 49 CFR 830.2; and (3... response plan. An applicant shall submit a mishap investigation plan (MIP) containing the...

  11. 14 CFR 431.45 - Mishap investigation plan and emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... incident, or a mishap that involves a fatality or serious injury (as defined in 49 CFR 830.2); (2... a mishap that does not involve a fatality or serious injury, as defined in 49 CFR 830.2; and (3... response plan. An applicant shall submit a mishap investigation plan (MIP) containing the...

  12. 14 CFR 431.45 - Mishap investigation plan and emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... incident, or a mishap that involves a fatality or serious injury (as defined in 49 CFR 830.2); (2... a mishap that does not involve a fatality or serious injury, as defined in 49 CFR 830.2; and (3... response plan. An applicant shall submit a mishap investigation plan (MIP) containing the...

  13. Bilayer graphene quantum dot defined by topgates

    SciTech Connect

    Müller, André; Kaestner, Bernd; Hohls, Frank; Weimann, Thomas; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans W.

    2014-06-21

    We investigate the application of nanoscale topgates on exfoliated bilayer graphene to define quantum dot devices. At temperatures below 500 mK, the conductance underneath the grounded gates is suppressed, which we attribute to nearest neighbour hopping and strain-induced piezoelectric fields. The gate-layout can thus be used to define resistive regions by tuning into the corresponding temperature range. We use this method to define a quantum dot structure in bilayer graphene showing Coulomb blockade oscillations consistent with the gate layout.

  14. 50 CFR 84.11 - How does the Service define the terms used in this rule?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... attention for Federal and State acquisition using Land and Water Conservation Fund appropriations... conservation of coastal wetlands including the lands and waters, hydrology, water quality, and wetland... COASTAL WETLANDS CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAM General Background § 84.11 How does the Service define...

  15. 50 CFR 84.11 - How does the Service define the terms used in this rule?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... attention for Federal and State acquisition using Land and Water Conservation Fund appropriations... conservation of coastal wetlands including the lands and waters, hydrology, water quality, and wetland... COASTAL WETLANDS CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAM General Background § 84.11 How does the Service define...

  16. 50 CFR 84.11 - How does the Service define the terms used in this rule?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... attention for Federal and State acquisition using Land and Water Conservation Fund appropriations... conservation of coastal wetlands including the lands and waters, hydrology, water quality, and wetland... COASTAL WETLANDS CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAM General Background § 84.11 How does the Service define...

  17. Collaborative Analysis of DRD4 and DAT Genotypes in Population-Defined ADHD Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Richard D.; Huang, Hongyan; Smalley, Susan L.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Smith, Shelley D.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Neuman, Rosalind J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: It has been proposed that some of the variability in reporting of associations between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and candidate genes may result from mixing of genetically heterogeneous forms of ADHD using DSM-IV criteria. The goal of the current study is to test whether population-based ADHD subtypes defined by…

  18. 26 CFR 1.410(b)-3 - Employees and former employees who benefit under a plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... benefiting under a plan for a plan year if and only if for that plan year, in the case of a defined... as benefiting under a section 401(k) plan for a plan year if and only if the employee is an eligible... section 401(m) plan for a plan year if and only if the employee is an eligible employee as defined in §...

  19. Tissue response of defined collagen-elastin scaffolds in young and adult rats with special attention to calcification.

    PubMed

    Daamen, W F; Nillesen, S T M; Hafmans, T; Veerkamp, J H; van Luyn, M J A; van Kuppevelt, T H

    2005-01-01

    Collagen-elastin scaffolds may be valuable biomaterials for tissue engineering because they combine tensile strength with elasticity. In this study, the tissue response to and the calcification of these scaffolds were evaluated. In particular, the hypothesis was tested that calcification, a common phenomenon in biomaterials, may be due to microfibrils within the elastic fibre, and that these microfibrils might generate a tissue response. Four scaffolds were subcutaneously implanted, viz. collagen, collagen + pure elastin, collagen+microfibril-containing, and collagen + pulverised elastic ligament (the source for elastin). Explants were evaluated at day 3, 7 and 21. In young Sprague Dawley rats, collagen + ligament calcified substantially, whereas collagen + elastin (with and without microfibrils) calcified less, and collagen did not. Calcification started at elastic fibres. In both Sprague Dawley and Wistar adult rats, however, none of the scaffolds calcified. Mononuclear cell infiltration was prominent in young and adult Sprague Dawley rats. In adult Wistar rats, this infiltration was associated with the presence of microfibrils. Degradation of scaffolds and new matrix formation were related with cellular influx and degree of vascularisation. In conclusion, absence of microfibrils from the elastic fibre does not prevent calcification in young Sprague Dawley rats, but does reduce the tissue response in adult Wistar rats. Cellular response and calcification differs with age and strain and therefore the choice of animal model is of key importance in biomaterial evaluation.

  20. Defining the Role of Academics in Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Khawas, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    The policy debate on accountability in higher education has been vigorous in many countries, but it has focused primarily on broad objectives or approaches. Limited attention has been paid to the mechanisms by which universities would implement accountability objectives and to the critical role of academics in developing ways to assess learning…