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Sample records for plant activity

  1. Antimalarial Activity of Plant Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wen-Hui; Xu, Xin-Ya; Shi, Ni; Tsang, Siu Wai; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2018-05-06

    Malaria, as a major global health problem, continues to affect a large number of people each year, especially those in developing countries. Effective drug discovery is still one of the main efforts to control malaria. As natural products are still considered as a key source for discovery and development of therapeutic agents, we have evaluated more than 2000 plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum . As a result, we discovered dozens of plant leads that displayed antimalarial activity. Our phytochemical study of some of these plant extracts led to the identification of several potent antimalarial compounds. The prior comprehensive review article entitled “Antimalarial activity of plant metabolites” by Schwikkard and Van Heerden (2002) reported structures of plant-derived compounds with antiplasmodial activity and covered literature up to the year 2000. As a continuation of this effort, the present review covers the antimalarial compounds isolated from plants, including marine plants, reported in the literature from 2001 to the end of 2017. During the span of the last 17 years, 175 antiplasmodial compounds were discovered from plants. These active compounds are organized in our review article according to their plant families. In addition, we also include ethnobotanical information of the antimalarial plants discussed.

  2. Designing the Perfect Plant: Activities to Investigate Plant Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehnhoff, Erik; Woolbaugh, Walt; Rew, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Plant ecology is an important subject that often receives little attention in middle school, as more time during science classes is devoted to plant biology. Therefore, the authors have developed a series of activities, including a card game--Designing the Perfect Plant--to introduce student's to plant ecology and the ecological trade offs…

  3. Medicinally important aromatic plants with radioprotective activity

    PubMed Central

    Samarth, Ravindra M; Samarth, Meenakshi; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic plants are often used as natural medicines because of their remedial and inherent pharmacological properties. Looking into natural resources, particularly products of plant origin, has become an exciting area of research in drug discovery and development. Aromatic plants are mainly exploited for essential oil extraction for applications in industries, for example, in cosmetics, flavoring and fragrance, spices, pesticides, repellents and herbal beverages. Although several medicinal plants have been studied to treat various conventional ailments only a handful studies are available on aromatic plants, especially for radioprotection. Many plant extracts have been reported to contain antioxidants that scavenge free radicals produced due to radiation exposure, thus imparting radioprotective efficacy. The present review focuses on a subset of medicinally important aromatic plants with radioprotective activity. PMID:29134131

  4. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN SOME FLOWERING PLANTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    and were analyzed chemically for the presence or absence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins , and flavonoids. Twenty-five species of plants, representing...19 families and 25 genera, were used. Pharmacological activity, mostly depressant, was recorded for 10 of the 25 plants. Tannins were present in 22

  5. Controlled activation of retrotransposition for plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2015-04-01

    Plant genomes consist to a large extent of transposable elements (TEs), predominantly retrotransposons. Their accumulation through periodic transposition bursts has shaped the structure and regulatory organization of plant genomes, often contributing to phenotypic traits. Transposon-generated phenotypes selected by humans during plant domestication have been maintained under strict selection during subsequent plant breeding. Our knowledge of the epigenetic, environmental, and developmental regulation of TE activity has advanced considerably in recent years. Here I will consider TEs as an attractive endogenous source of genetic variation that can be liberated in a controlled fashion and thus offer novel phenotypic diversity to be selected for crop improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has beenmore » evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.« less

  7. Active-oxygen scavenging activity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Masaki, H; Sakaki, S; Atsumi, T; Sakurai, H

    1995-01-01

    To find antioxidative compounds present in plants, 65 types of plant extract were tested using the neotetrazolium method for evidence of superoxide anion-scavenging effects and 7 plant extracts were selected for further investigation. The activity of active-oxygen scavengers such as superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals, singlet oxygens and lipid peroxides in the 7 plant extracts (Aeseclus hippocastanum L., Hamamelis virginiana L. Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb., Quercus robur L., Rosemarinous officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L. and Sanguisorba officinalis L.) was examined in detail by both ESR spin-trapping and malondialdehyde generation. Furthermore, the active-oxygen scavenging activity of these plant extracts was evaluated using a murine dermal fibroblast culture system. Both Aeseclus hippocastanum L. and Hamamelis virginia L. were found to have strong active-oxygen scavenging activity of and protective activity against cell damage induced by active oxygen. Both Aeseclus hippocastanum L. and Hamamelis virginiana L. are proposed as potent plant extracts with potential application as anti-aging or anti-wrinkle material for the skin.

  8. Antiplasmodial activity of four Kenyan medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Omulokoli, E; Khan, B; Chhabra, S C

    1997-04-01

    A preliminary antiplasmodial and phytochemical screening of four Kenyan medicinal plants was carried out. The medicinal plants were extracted and tested for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (K67) and chloroquine-resistant (ENT36) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Out of 16 extracts, 12 were active against ENT36 strain while seven were active against K67 strain, that is, IC50 < or = 50 micrograms/ml. The most active extracts on both strains were those of leaves of Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir, and Suregada zanzibariensis Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) with IC50 < or = 10 micrograms/ml. The stembark of Terminalia spinosa Engl. (Combretaceae) and the stems of Dissotis brazzae Cogn. (Melastomataceae) had IC50 < or = 10 micrograms/ml for strains K67 and ENT36, respectively. A preliminary phytochemical analysis of these plants revealed the presence of different classes of primary and secondary metabolites.

  9. Active Subspaces for Wind Plant Surrogate Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    King, Ryan N; Quick, Julian; Dykes, Katherine L

    Understanding the uncertainty in wind plant performance is crucial to their cost-effective design and operation. However, conventional approaches to uncertainty quantification (UQ), such as Monte Carlo techniques or surrogate modeling, are often computationally intractable for utility-scale wind plants because of poor congergence rates or the curse of dimensionality. In this paper we demonstrate that wind plant power uncertainty can be well represented with a low-dimensional active subspace, thereby achieving a significant reduction in the dimension of the surrogate modeling problem. We apply the active sub-spaces technique to UQ of plant power output with respect to uncertainty in turbine axial inductionmore » factors, and find a single active subspace direction dominates the sensitivity in power output. When this single active subspace direction is used to construct a quadratic surrogate model, the number of model unknowns can be reduced by up to 3 orders of magnitude without compromising performance on unseen test data. We conclude that the dimension reduction achieved with active subspaces makes surrogate-based UQ approaches tractable for utility-scale wind plants.« less

  10. Zulu medicinal plants with antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Kelmanson, J E; Jäger, A K; van Staden, J

    2000-03-01

    Aqueous, methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of 14 plants used in traditional Zulu medicine for treatment of ailments of an infectious nature were screened for antibacterial activity. Most of the activity detected was against gram-positive bacteria. Tuber bark extracts of Dioscorea sylvatica had activity against gram-negative Escherichia coli and extracts of Dioscorea dregeana, Cheilanthes viridis and Vernonia colorata were active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The highest antibacterial activity was found in extracts of C. viridis, D. dregeana, D. silvatica, Melianthus comosus and V. colorata. In general, methanolic extracts exhibited higher activity than aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts.

  11. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Carlos E.; Badillo-Corona, Jesus A.; Ramírez-Sotelo, Guadalupe; Oliver-Salvador, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application. PMID:25815307

  12. Antimicrobial activity of Nigerian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Anyanwu, Madubuike Umunna; Okoye, Rosemary Chinazam

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently one of the major threats facing mankind. The emergence and rapid spread of multi- and pan-drug-resistant organisms (such as vancomycin-, methicillin-, extended-spectrum β-lactam-, carbapenem- and colistin-resistant organisms) has put the world in a dilemma. The health and economic burden associated with AMR on a global scale are dreadful. Available antimicrobials have been misused and are almost ineffective with some of these drugs associated with dangerous side effects in some individuals. Development of new, effective, and safe antimicrobials is one of the ways by which AMR burden can be reduced. The rate at which microorganisms develop AMR mechanisms outpaces the rate at which new antimicrobials are being developed. Medicinal plants are potential sources of new antimicrobial molecules. There is renewed interest in antimicrobial activities of phytochemicals. Nigeria boasts of a huge heritage of medicinal plants and there is avalanche of researches that have been undertaken to screen antimicrobial activities of these plants. Scientific compilation of these studies could provide useful information on the antimicrobial properties of the plants. This information can be useful in the development of new antimicrobial drugs. This paper reviews antimicrobial researches that have been undertaken on Nigerian medicinal plants. PMID:28512606

  13. Anti-ulcer activity of leguminosae plants.

    PubMed

    Paguigan, Noemi D; Castillo, Darryl Hannah B; Chichioco-Hernandez, Christine L

    2014-01-01

    Ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal disturbance resulting from an inadequate gastric mucosal defense. Several drugs are available in the market to address the disease; however, these drugs are associated with unnecessary side effects. Previous research have confirmed the efficacy of plant extracts for possible treatment of the disease. This research aims to evaluate the anti-ulcer properties of medicinal plants. Methanol extracts from the leaves of Intsia bijuga, Cynometra ramiflora, Tamarindus indica, Cassia javanica, Cassia fistula, Bauhini purpurea, Senna spectabilis, Senna siamea and Saraca thaipingensis were evaluated for their anti-ulcer activity using HCl-ethanol as ulcerogen. All extracts showed inhibitory activity with I. bijuga, T. indica, S. spectabilis and S. thaipingensis exhibiting more than 50% inhibition. S. thaipingensis showed the highest activity at 80%. S. spectabilis and S. thaipingensis were partitioned further into hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. The aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions of S. spectabilis showed significant increased in its activity while the hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of S. thaipingensis gave higher activity than its aqueous portions. We conclude that plant extracts are potential sources of new anti-ulcer agents.

  14. Antifungal activity of 10 Guadeloupean plants.

    PubMed

    Biabiany, Murielle; Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; François, Nadine; Sendid, Boualem; Pottier, Muriel; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Rouaud, Isabelle; Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Françoise; Joseph, Henry; Bourgeois, Paul; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François

    2013-11-01

    Screening of the antifungal activities of ten Guadeloupean plants was undertaken to find new extracts and formulations against superficial mycoses such as onychomycosis, athlete's foot, Pityriasis versicolor, as well as the deep fungal infection Pneumocystis pneumonia. For the first time, the CMI of these plant extracts [cyclohexane, ethanol and ethanol/water (1:1, v/v)] was determined against five dermatophytes, five Candida species, Scytalidium dimidiatum, a Malassezia sp. strain and Pneumocystis carinii. Cytotoxicity tests of the most active extracts were also performed on an HaCat keratinocyte cell line. Results suggest that the extracts of Bursera simaruba, Cedrela odorata, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Pluchea carolinensis have interesting activities and could be good candidates for developing antifungal formulations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Antimalarial activity of three Pakistani medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Irshad, Saba; Mannan, Abdul; Mirza, Bushra

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the in vitro anti-malarial activity of three medicinal plants, Picrorhiza kurroa, Caesalpinia bonducella and Artemisia absinthium of Pakistan. Different extracts of various parts of these plants were prepared by maceration and percolation, and were evaluated for their antimalarial activity. Aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa showed 34%, 100% and 90% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively, at 2.00 mg/ml. While aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extracts of Caesalpinia bonducella showed 65%, 56% and 76% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively at same concentrations. In the case of Artemisia absinthium, aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium showed 35%, 55% and 21% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively at 2.00 mg/ml. In our study, extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa were found good for traditional therapy with highly significant results.

  16. Insecticidal activity of certain medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Pavela, Roman

    2004-12-01

    The methanol extracts of eight species of medicinal plants were tested for insecticidal activity in third instar larvae of Egyptian cottonworm (Spodoptera littoralis). All extracts showed a certain degree of larval toxicity. The extracts of Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana and Salvia officinalis appeared to be highly toxic. The extracts significantly affected the growth indexes [relative growth rate (RGR), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD)].

  17. NUA Activities at the Plant Nuclear Pore

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianfeng Morgan; Rose, Annkatrin

    2007-01-01

    NUA (Nuclear Pore Anchor), the Arabidopsis homolog of Tpr (Translocated Promoter Region), is one of the few nuclear pore proteins conserved between animals, yeast and plants. In the May issue of Plant Cell, we report that null mutants of NUA show a pleiotropic, early flowering phenotype accompanied by changes in SUMo and RNA homeostasis. We have shown that the early flowering phenotype is caused by changed abundances of flowering time regulators involved in several pathways. Arabidopsis nua mutants phenocopy mutants lacking the ESD4 (EARlY IN ShoRT DAYS 4) SUMo protease, similar to mutants of their respective yeast homologs. however, in contrast to the comparable yeast mutants, ESD4 does not appear to be delocalized from the nuclear pore in nua mutants. Taken together, our experimental data suggests a role for NUA in controlling mRNA export from the nucleus as well as SUMo protease activity at the nuclear pore, comparable but not identical to its homologs in other eukaryotes. Furthermore, characterization of NUA illustrates a potential link at the nuclear pore between SUMo modification, RNA homeostasis and plant developmental control. PMID:19704557

  18. Proteolytic activity during senescence of plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. C.

    1990-01-01

    Although information has rapidly developed concerning the intracellular localization of plant proteins, relatively few reports concern the intracellular location of endo- and exo-proteolytic activities. Relatively few proteases have been purified, characterized, and associated with a specific cellular location. With the exception of the processing proteases involved in transport of proteins across membranes, little progress has yet been made concerning determination of in vivo products of specific proteases. Information on the turnover of individual proteins and the assessment of rate-limiting steps in pathways as proteins are turned over is steadily appearing. Since chloroplasts are the major site of both protein synthesis and, during senescence, degradation, it was important to show unambiguously that chloroplasts can degrade their own constituents. Another important contribution was to obtain evidence that the chloroplasts contain proteases capable of degrading their constituents. This work has been more tenuous because of the low activities found and the possibility of contamination by vacuolar enzymes during the isolation of organelles. The possible targeting of cytoplasmic proteins for degradation by facilitating their transport into vacuoles is a field which hopefully will develop more rapidly in the future. Information on targeting of proteins for degradation via the ubiquitin (Ub) degradation pathway is developing rapidly. Future research must determine how much unity exists across the different eukaryotic systems. At present, it has important implications for protein turnover in plants, since apparently Ub is involved in the degradation of phytochrome. Little information has been developed regarding what triggers increased proteolysis with the onset of senescence, although it appears to involve protein synthesis. Thus far, the evidence indicates that the complement of proteases prior to senescence is sufficient to carry out the observed protein

  19. Bioassay of Plant Growth Regulator Activity on Aquatic Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    natural plant hormonal processes. Certain substi- tuted pyrimidine and triazole compounds have been found to inhibit the syn- thesis of gibberellin in...drove down the pH to levels that were injurious to the plants. For this reason, the bicarbonate buffer was added to both stock and experimental media...digital pH meter (Orion Model 701A/Digital, Orion Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA) equipped with a dis- solved oxygen (DO) electrode (Orion Model 97-08

  20. Cytotoxic activity of four Mexican medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Vega-Avila, Elisa; Espejo-Serna, Adolfo; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco; Velasco-Lezama, Rodolfo

    2009-01-01

    Ibervillea sonorae Greene, Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché, Tagetes lucida Cav and Justicia spicigera Scheltdd are Mexican native plants used in the treatment of different illnesses. The ethanolic extract of J. spicigera and T. lucida as well as aqueous extracts from I. sonorae, C. ficifolia, T. lucida and J. spicigera were investigated using sulforhodamine B assay. These extracts were assessed using two cell line: T47D (Human Breast cancer) and HeLa (Human cervix cancer). Colchicine was used as the positive control. Data are presented as the dose that inhibited 50% control growth (ED50). All of the assessed extracts were cytotoxic (ED50 < 20 microg/ml) against T47D cell line, meanwhile only the aqueous extract from T. lucida and the ethanolic extract from J. spicigera were cytotoxic to HeLa cell line. Ethanolic extract from J. spicigera presented the best cytotoxic effect. The cytotoxic activity of J. spicigera correlated with one of the popular uses, the treatment of cancer.

  1. Plant defense activators: applications and prospects in cereal crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This review addresses the current understanding of the plant immune response and the molecular mechanisms responsible for systemic acquired resistance as well as the phenomenon of "priming" in plant defense. A detailed discussion of the role of salicylic acid in activating the plant transcription c...

  2. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of some Mexican medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Bustos, E; Velazquez, C; Garibay-Escobar, A; García, Z; Plascencia-Jatomea, M; Cortez-Rocha, M O; Hernandez-Martínez, J; Robles-Zepeda, R E

    2009-12-01

    In Mexico about 4,000 plant species have some medicinal use. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six Mexican medicinal plants against fungi and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methanolic extracts were prepared from the Mexican medicinal plants Amphypteringium adstrigens, Castella tortuosa, Coutarea latiflora, Ibervillea sonorae, Jatropha cuneata, and Selaginella lepidophylla. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the plants were determined by the broth microdilution method and the radial growth inhibition assay, respectively. All Mexican plants tested showed antimicrobial activity. Among the six plant extracts analyzed, J. cuneata showed the highest growth-inhibitory activity against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (J. cuneata > A. adstrigens > C. latiflora > C. tortuosa > I. sonorae approximately S. lepidophylla). Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus were the most susceptible bacteria to plant extracts. Complete inhibition of S. flexneri growth was observed with J. cuneata methanolic extract at 90 microg/mL. This plant extract also showed the strongest antifungal activity against Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus niger. Our data suggest that the medicinal plants tested have important antimicrobial properties. This is the first report describing the antimicrobial activities of several of the Mexican medicinal plants used in this study.

  3. Screening of some Palestinian medicinal plants for antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Essawi, T; Srour, M

    2000-06-01

    Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of 15 Palestinian medicinal plants were carried against eight different species of bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, two Escherichia coli species, Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin resistant), two S. aureus (methicillin sensitive) species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus fecalis. Of the 15 plants tested, eight showed antibacterial activity. Each plant species has unique against different bacteria. The most active antibacterial plants against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were Thymus vulgaris and Thymus origanium. The organic and aqueous extract from the same plants showed different activities; the organic extract showed the same or greater activity than the aqueous extract. Finally, the hole-plate diffusion method showed larger activity than the disc diffusion method.

  4. Sensing Danger: Key to Activating Plant Immunity.

    PubMed

    Gust, Andrea A; Pruitt, Rory; Nürnberger, Thorsten

    2017-09-01

    In both plants and animals, defense against pathogens relies on a complex surveillance system for signs of danger. Danger signals may originate from the infectious agent or from the host itself. Immunogenic plant host factors can be roughly divided into two categories: molecules which are passively released upon cell damage ('classical' damage-associated molecular patterns, DAMPs), and peptides which are processed and/or secreted upon infection to modulate the immune response (phytocytokines). We highlight the ongoing challenge to understand how plants sense various danger signals and integrate this information to produce an appropriate immune response to diverse challenges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antithrombin activity of medicinal plants of the Azores.

    PubMed

    de Medeiros, J M; Macedo, M; Contancia, J P; Nguyen, C; Cunningham, G; Miles, D H

    2000-09-01

    A chromogenic bioassay was utilized to determine the antithrombin activity of methylene chloride and methanol extracts prepared from 50 plants of Azores. Extracts of the six plants Hedychium gardneranum, Tropaeolum majus, Gunnera tinctoria, Hedera helix, Festuca jubata and Laurus azorica demonstrated activity of 78% or higher in this bioassay system.

  6. [Methods of hygromycin B phosphotransferase activity assay in transgenic plant].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Qin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2004-07-01

    Hygromycin B phosphotransferase (HPT) is a widely used selectable marker protein of transgenic plant. Detection of its activity is critical to studies on the development of various transgenic plants, silence of inserted gene, marker-free system development and safety assessment of transgenic food. In this paper, several methods for detecting the activity of this enzyme were reviewed.

  7. Biological activity of some Patagonian plants.

    PubMed

    Cuadra, Pedro; Furrianca, María; Oyarzún, Alejandra; Yáñez, Erwin; Gallardo, Amalia; Fajardo, Víctor

    2005-12-01

    Citotoxicity (inhibition of cell division in fertilized eggs of Loxechinus albus) and general toxicity (using embryos of Artemia salina) of plants belonging to the genera Senecio, Deschampsia, Alstroemeria, Anarthrophyllum, Chloraea and Geranium were investigated.

  8. Plants and plant products with potential antipsoriatic activity--a review.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Arshdeep; Kumar, Suresh

    2012-12-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is a hyper proliferative, autoimmune skin disorder affecting 1-3% of the world's population. The prescribed synthetic drugs for the treatment of psoriasis are associated with severe side effects, thus, researchers around the globe are searching for new, effective, and safer drugs from natural resources. The present review has been prepared with an objective to compile exhaustive literature on pharmacological reports on antipsoriatic plants, plant products, and formulations. An attempt has been made to incorporate chemical constituents (with structures) isolated from different plants responsible for antipsoriatic activity and their possible mechanism of actions in this review. The review has been compiled using references from major databases like Chemical Abstracts, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts, PubMed, Scirus, Google scholar, Open J Gate, Scopus, Science Direct and Online Journals, and includes 127 references. A survey of literature revealed that extracts/fractions/isolates from 18 plants, 23 chemical constituents of plant origin and 40 plant-based formulations from various systems of medicine have been reported to possess antipsoriatic activity, and 37 antipsoriatic formulations containing plants have been patented. Preliminary antipsoriatic activity studies have been carried out on crude extracts of traditionally used and medicinally promising plants. Such plants need to be explored properly with a view to isolate antipsoriatic constituents, and to evaluate their possible mode of actions so that these plant drugs could be exploited properly as potential antipsoriatic drugs.

  9. GABA signalling modulates plant growth by directly regulating the activity of plant-specific anion transporters.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Sunita A; Tyerman, Stephen D; Xu, Bo; Bose, Jayakumar; Kaur, Satwinder; Conn, Vanessa; Domingos, Patricia; Ullah, Sana; Wege, Stefanie; Shabala, Sergey; Feijó, José A; Ryan, Peter R; Gilliham, Matthew; Gillham, Matthew

    2015-07-29

    The non-protein amino acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) rapidly accumulates in plant tissues in response to biotic and abiotic stress, and regulates plant growth. Until now it was not known whether GABA exerts its effects in plants through the regulation of carbon metabolism or via an unidentified signalling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that anion flux through plant aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) proteins is activated by anions and negatively regulated by GABA. Site-directed mutagenesis of selected amino acids within ALMT proteins abolishes GABA efficacy but does not alter other transport properties. GABA modulation of ALMT activity results in altered root growth and altered root tolerance to alkaline pH, acid pH and aluminium ions. We propose that GABA exerts its multiple physiological effects in plants via ALMT, including the regulation of pollen tube and root growth, and that GABA can finally be considered a legitimate signalling molecule in both the plant and animal kingdoms.

  10. Screening of selected indigenous plants of Cambodia for antiplasmodial activity.

    PubMed

    Hout, Sotheara; Chea, Aun; Bun, Sok-Siya; Elias, Riad; Gasquet, Monique; Timon-David, Pierre; Balansard, Guy; Azas, Nadine

    2006-08-11

    The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of 117 aqueous, methanol and dichloromethane extracts derived from different parts of 28 indigenous wild plant species was studied. These plants are commonly used in Cambodian traditional medicine. The plant extracts were tested for in vitro activity against a chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain (W2). Nine extracts were moderately active with IC(50) values ranging between 5 and 10 microg/ml, 17 extracts were active with IC(50) values ranging between 1 and 5 microg/ml. These 26 extracts derived from eight plants belong to six families. The most active extracts were dichloromethane and came from Stephania rotunda and Brucea javanica with IC(50) values of 1 microg/ml and a selectivity index > or = 25. It is interesting to note that some aqueous extracts were as active as dichloromethane extracts especially aqueous extracts of Stephania rotunda, Brucea javanica, Phyllanthus urinaria and Eurycoma longifolia with IC(50) values of < or = 4 microg/ml. These results are in agreement with statements of healers on traditional uses of these plants for the treatment of malaria and/or fever. In this study, we report the antiplasmodial potential activity of eight plant species from Cambodia. Among them four are tested for the first time.

  11. Involvement of plant endogenous ABA in Bacillus megaterium PGPR activity in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Porcel, Rosa; Zamarreño, Ángel María; García-Mina, José María; Aroca, Ricardo

    2014-01-25

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are naturally occurring soil bacteria which benefit plants by improving plant productivity and immunity. The mechanisms involved in these processes include the regulation of plant hormone levels such as ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA). The aim of the present study was to determine whether the activity of Bacillus megaterium PGPR is affected by the endogenous ABA content of the host plant. The ABA-deficient tomato mutants flacca and sitiens and their near-isogenic wild-type parental lines were used. Growth, stomatal conductance, shoot hormone concentration, competition assay for colonization of tomato root tips, and root expression of plant genes expected to be modulated by ABA and PGPR were examined. Contrary to the wild-type plants in which PGPR stimulated growth rates, PGPR caused growth inhibition in ABA-deficient mutant plants. PGPR also triggered an over accumulation of ethylene in ABA-deficient plants which correlated with a higher expression of the pathogenesis-related gene Sl-PR1b. Positive correlation between over-accumulation of ethylene and a higher expression of Sl-PR1b in ABA-deficient mutant plants could indicate that maintenance of normal plant endogenous ABA content may be essential for the growth promoting action of B. megaterium by keeping low levels of ethylene production.

  12. Study on extraction process and activity of plant polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaogen; Wang, Xiaojing; Fan, Shuangli; Chen, Jiezhong

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that plant polysaccharides have many pharmacological activities, such as hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory and tumor inhibition. The pharmacological activities of plant polysaccharides were summarized. The extraction methods of plant polysaccharides were discussed. Finally, the extraction process of Herba Taraxaci polysaccharides was optimized by ultrasonic assisted extraction. Through single factor experiments and orthogonal experiment to optimize the optimum extraction process from dandelion polysaccharide, optimum conditions of dandelion root polysaccharide by ultrasonic assisted extraction method for ultrasonic power 320W, temperature 80°C, extraction time 40min, can get higher dandelion polysaccharide extract.

  13. Antibacterial activity of alimentary plants against Staphylococcus aureus growth.

    PubMed

    Pérez, C; Anesini, C

    1994-01-01

    Alimentary plants were screened for antibacterial activity against a penicillin G resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty-five samples of plant material corresponding to 21 species from 13 families were used. Both aqueous and ethanol extracts were obtained from them. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar-well diffusion method, using cephazolin as a standard antibiotic. Seventeen ethanol extracts were found active. Eugenia caryophyllata (clavo de olor*) flowers, Myristica fragans (nuez moscada*) seeds, Theobroma cacao (cacao*) seed bark, Triticum sp (trigo*) fruit, Zea mays (maíz*) fruit and Piper nigrum (pimienta*) ripe fruit produced some of the more active extracts (* = Argentine vulgar names).

  14. Antibacterial activities of medicinal plants used in Mexican traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Flores-Vallejo, Rosario Del Carmen; Cardoso-Taketa, Alexandre; Villarreal, María Luisa

    2017-08-17

    We provide an extensive summary of the in vitro antibacterial properties of medicinal plants popularly used in Mexico to treat infections, and we discuss the ethnomedical information that has been published for these species. We carried out a bibliographic investigation by analyzing local and international peer-reviewed papers selected by consulting internationally accepted scientific databases from 1995 to 2014. We provide specific information about the evaluated plant parts, the type of extracts, the tested bacterial strains, and the inhibitory concentrations for each one of the species. We recorded the ethnomedical information for the active species, as well as their popular names and local distribution. Information about the plant compounds that has been identified is included in the manuscript. This review also incorporates an extensive summary of the available toxicological reports on the recorded species, as well as the worldwide registries of plant patents used for treating bacterial infections. In addition, we provide a list with the top plant species with antibacterial activities in this review RESULTS: We documented the in vitro antibacterial activities of 343 plant species pertaining to 92 botanical families against 72 bacterial species, focusing particularly on Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The plant families Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Euphorbiaceae included the largest number of active species. Information related to popular uses reveals that the majority of the plants, in addition to treating infections, are used to treat other conditions. The distribution of Mexican plants extended from those that were reported to grow in just one state to those that grow in all 32 Mexican states. From 75 plant species, 225 compounds were identified. Out of the total plant species, only 140 (40.57%) had at least one report about their toxic effects. From 1994 to July 2014 a total of 11

  15. Reassessing the Potential Activities of Plant CGI-58 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Khatib, Abdallah; Arhab, Yani; Bentebibel, Assia; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Noiriel, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) is a widespread protein found in animals and plants. This protein has been shown to participate in lipolysis in mice and humans by activating Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the initial enzyme responsible for the triacylglycerol (TAG) catabolism cascade. Human mutation of CGI-58 is the cause of Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, an orphan disease characterized by a systemic accumulation of TAG which engenders tissue disorders. The CGI-58 protein has also been shown to participate in neutral lipid metabolism in plants and, in this case, a mutation again provokes TAG accumulation. Although its roles as an ATGL coactivator and in lipid metabolism are quite clear, the catalytic activity of CGI-58 is still in question. The acyltransferase activities of CGI-58 have been speculated about, reported or even dismissed and experimental evidence that CGI-58 expressed in E. coli possesses an unambiguous catalytic activity is still lacking. To address this problem, we developed a new set of plasmids and site-directed mutants to elucidate the in vivo effects of CGI-58 expression on lipid metabolism in E. coli. By analyzing the lipid composition in selected E. coli strains expressing CGI-58 proteins, and by reinvestigating enzymatic tests with adequate controls, we show here that recombinant plant CGI-58 has none of the proposed activities previously described. Recombinant plant and mouse CGI-58 both lack acyltransferase activity towards either lysophosphatidylglycerol or lysophosphatidic acid to form phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid and recombinant plant CGI-58 does not catalyze TAG or phospholipid hydrolysis. However, expression of recombinant plant CGI-58, but not mouse CGI-58, led to a decrease in phosphatidylglycerol in all strains of E. coli tested, and a mutation of the putative catalytic residues restored a wild-type phenotype. The potential activities of plant CGI-58 are subsequently discussed. PMID:26745266

  16. Plant Pigment Identification: A Classroom and Outreach Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Kathleen C. A.; Odendaal, Antoinette Y.; Carlson, Erin E.

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a class of pigments responsible for the bright colors of many flowers, fruits, and vegetables typically resulting in shades of red, blue, and purple. Students were asked to perform an activity to enable them to identify which anthocyanin was present in one of several possible plant materials through a hands-on activity. Students…

  17. Characteristics of active spectral sensor for plant sensing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant stress has been estimated by spectral signature using both passive and active sensors. As optical sensors measure reflected light from a target, changes in illumination conditions critically affect sensor response. Active spectral sensors minimize the illumination effects by producing their ...

  18. [Reviews on antiviral activity of chemical constituents from plants].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xian-Feng; Wang, Yu-Li; Xu, Wei-Ren

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviewed the progress in researches on antiviral activity of chemical constituents from plants in recent years, the antiviral activity and mechanism of action of flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, coumarins and polysaccharoses were sammarszed, provided new leading compound for antivirus new drugs from the plares in prospect.

  19. Sequencing the extrachromosomal circular mobilome reveals retrotransposon activity in plants

    PubMed Central

    Llauro, Christel; Jobet, Edouard; Robakowska-Hyzorek, Dagmara; Lasserre, Eric; Ghesquière, Alain; Panaud, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements abundant in plant and animal genomes. While efficiently silenced by the epigenetic machinery, they can be reactivated upon stress or during development. Their level of transcription not reflecting their transposition ability, it is thus difficult to evaluate their contribution to the active mobilome. Here we applied a simple methodology based on the high throughput sequencing of extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA) forms of active retrotransposons to characterize the repertoire of mobile retrotransposons in plants. This method successfully identified known active retrotransposons in both Arabidopsis and rice material where the epigenome is destabilized. When applying mobilome-seq to developmental stages in wild type rice, we identified PopRice as a highly active retrotransposon producing eccDNA forms in the wild type endosperm. The mobilome-seq strategy opens new routes for the characterization of a yet unexplored fraction of plant genomes. PMID:28212378

  20. Sequencing the extrachromosomal circular mobilome reveals retrotransposon activity in plants.

    PubMed

    Lanciano, Sophie; Carpentier, Marie-Christine; Llauro, Christel; Jobet, Edouard; Robakowska-Hyzorek, Dagmara; Lasserre, Eric; Ghesquière, Alain; Panaud, Olivier; Mirouze, Marie

    2017-02-01

    Retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements abundant in plant and animal genomes. While efficiently silenced by the epigenetic machinery, they can be reactivated upon stress or during development. Their level of transcription not reflecting their transposition ability, it is thus difficult to evaluate their contribution to the active mobilome. Here we applied a simple methodology based on the high throughput sequencing of extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA) forms of active retrotransposons to characterize the repertoire of mobile retrotransposons in plants. This method successfully identified known active retrotransposons in both Arabidopsis and rice material where the epigenome is destabilized. When applying mobilome-seq to developmental stages in wild type rice, we identified PopRice as a highly active retrotransposon producing eccDNA forms in the wild type endosperm. The mobilome-seq strategy opens new routes for the characterization of a yet unexplored fraction of plant genomes.

  1. Active management of plant canopy temperature as a tool for modifying plant metabolic activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The relationship between a plant and its thermal environment is a major determiner of its growth and development. Since plants grow and develop within continuously variable thermal environments, they are subjected to continuous thermal variation over their life cycle. Transpiration serves to uncoupl...

  2. Chitosan-induced antiviral activity and innate immunity in plants.

    PubMed

    Iriti, Marcello; Varoni, Elena Maria

    2015-02-01

    Immunity represents a trait common to all living organisms, and animals and plants share some similarities. Therefore, in susceptible host plants, complex defence machinery may be stimulated by elicitors. Among these, chitosan deserves particular attention because of its proved efficacy. This survey deals with the antiviral activity of chitosan, focusing on its perception by the plant cell and mechanism of action. Emphasis has been paid to benefits and limitations of this strategy in crop protection, as well as to the potential of chitosan as a promising agent in virus disease control.

  3. Anti-Salmonella activity of medicinal plants from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nkuo-Akenji, T; Ndip, R; McThomas, A; Fru, E C

    2001-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of herbal extracts derived from plants commonly prescribed by traditional practitioners for the treatment of typhoid fever. A cross sectional study. Departments of Life Sciences and Chemistry, University of Buea, Cameroon. Methanol extracts of plant parts commonly used in Cameroon for the treatment of typhoid fever. Antimicrobial activity was tested using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays. Methanol extracts of plant parts commonly used in Cameroon for the treatment of typhoid fever were tested for antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi and S. typhimurium. The formulations used were: 1) Formulation A comprising Cymbogogon citratus leaves, Carica papaya leaves, and Zea mays silk. 2) Formulation B comprising C. papaya roots, Mangifera indica leaves, Citrus limon fruit and C. citratus leaves. 3) C. papaya leaves. 4) Emilia coccinea whole plant. 5) Comelina bengalensis leaves. 6) Telfaria occidentalis leaves. 7) Gossypium arboreum whole plant. Antimicrobial activity was tested using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays. Generally, Formulation A elicited inhibitory activity at a lower range of 0.02 to 0.06 mg/ml. Similarly, Formulation B elicited bacterial activity at the lowest range of 0.06 to 0.25 mg/ml. C. bengalensis leaves on the other hand, showed the lowest activity with a concentration range of 0.132 to 2.0 mg/ml and 1 to 4 mg/ml in MIC and MBC assays respectively. S. paratyphi was most sensitive to the formulations (concentration range of 0.02 to 1 mg/ml in both MIC and MBC assays) while S. typhimurium was the least sensitive and concentrations of up to 4 mg/ml were required to be bactericidal. It is concluded that plant extracts with low MIC and MBC values (1 mg/ml and lower) may contain compounds with therapeutic activity.

  4. GABA signalling modulates plant growth by directly regulating the activity of plant-specific anion transporters

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Sunita A.; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Xu, Bo; Bose, Jayakumar; Kaur, Satwinder; Conn, Vanessa; Domingos, Patricia; Ullah, Sana; Wege, Stefanie; Shabala, Sergey; Feijó, José A.; Ryan, Peter R.; Gillham, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The non-protein amino acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) rapidly accumulates in plant tissues in response to biotic and abiotic stress, and regulates plant growth. Until now it was not known whether GABA exerts its effects in plants through the regulation of carbon metabolism or via an unidentified signalling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that anion flux through plant aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) proteins is activated by anions and negatively regulated by GABA. Site-directed mutagenesis of selected amino acids within ALMT proteins abolishes GABA efficacy but does not alter other transport properties. GABA modulation of ALMT activity results in altered root growth and altered root tolerance to alkaline pH, acid pH and aluminium ions. We propose that GABA exerts its multiple physiological effects in plants via ALMT, including the regulation of pollen tube and root growth, and that GABA can finally be considered a legitimate signalling molecule in both the plant and animal kingdoms. PMID:26219411

  5. Calcium promotes activity and confers heat stability on plant peroxidases

    PubMed Central

    Plieth, Christoph; Vollbehr, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how peroxidase (PO) activities and their heat stability correlate with the availability of free Ca2+ ions. Calcium ions work as a molecular switch for PO activity and exert a protective function, rendering POs heat stable. The concentration ranges of these two activities differ markedly. POs are activated by µM Ca2+ concentration ranges, whereas heat stabilization is observed in the nM range. This suggests the existence of different Ca2+ binding sites. The heat stability of POs depends on the source plant species. Terrestrial plants have POs that exhibit higher temperature stability than those POs from limnic and marine plants. Different POs from a single species can differ in terms of heat stability. The abundance of different POs within a plant is dependent on age and developmental stage. The heat stability of a PO does not necessarily correlate with the maximum temperature the source species is usually exposed to in its natural habitat. This raises questions on the role of POs in the heat tolerance of plants. Consequently, detailed investigations are needed to identify and characterize individual POs, with regard to their genetic origin, subcellular expression, tissue abundance, developmental emergence and their functions in innate and acquired heat tolerance. PMID:22580695

  6. Activation and function of mitochondrial uncoupling protein in plants.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anna M O; Ratcliffe, R George; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2004-12-10

    Plant mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP) is activated by superoxide suggesting that it may function to minimize mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. However, the precise mechanism of superoxide activation and the exact function of UCP in plants are not known. We demonstrate that 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a product of lipid peroxidation, and a structurally related compound, trans-retinal, stimulate a proton conductance in potato mitochondria that is inhibitable by GTP (a characteristic of UCP). Proof that the effects of HNE and trans-retinal are mediated by UCP is provided by examination of proton conductance in transgenic plants overexpressing UCP. These experiments demonstrate that the mechanism of activation of UCP is conserved between animals and plants and imply a conservation of function. Mitochondria from transgenic plants overexpressing UCP were further studied to provide insight into function. Experimental conditions were designed to mimic a bioenergetic state that might be found in vivo (mitochondria were supplied with pyruvate as well as tricarboxylic cycle acids at in vivo cytosolic concentrations and an exogenous ATP sink was established). Under such conditions, an increase in UCP protein content resulted in a modest but significant decrease in the rate of superoxide production. In addition, 13C-labeling experiments revealed an increase in the conversion of pyruvate to citrate as a result of increased UCP protein content. These results demonstrate that under simulated in vivo conditions, UCP is active and suggest that UCP may influence not only mitochondrial ROS production but also tricarboxylic acid cycle flux.

  7. Pharmacologically active plant metabolites as survival strategy products.

    PubMed

    Attardo, C; Sartori, F

    2003-01-01

    The fact that plant organisms produce chemical substances that are able to positively or negatively interfere with the processes which regulate human life has been common knowledge since ancient times. One of the numerous possible examples in the infusion of Conium maculatum, better known as Hemlock, a plant belonging to the family umbelliferae, used by the ancient Egyptians to cure skin diseases. The current official pharmacopoeia includes various chemical substances produced by secondary plant metabolisms. For example, the immunosuppressive drugs used to prevent organ transplant rejection and the majority of antibiotics are metabolites produced by fungal organisms, pilocarpin, digitalis, strophantus, salicylic acid and curare are examples of plant organism metabolites. For this reason, there has been an increase in research into plants, based on information on their medicinal use in the areas where they grow. The study of plants in relation to local culture and traditions is known as "ethnobotany". Careful study of the behaviour of sick animals has also led to the discovery of medicinal plants. The study of this subject is known as "zoopharmacognosy". The aim of this article is to discuss the fact that "ad hoc" production of such chemical substances, defined as "secondary metabolites", is one of the modes in which plant organisms respond to unfavourable environmental stimuli, such as an attack by predatory phytophagous animals or an excessive number of plant individuals, even of the same species, in a terrain. In the latter case, the plant organisms produce toxic substances, called "allelopathic" which limit the growth of other individuals. "Secondary metabolites" are produced by metabolic systems that are shunts of the primary systems which, when required, may be activated from the beginning, or increased to the detriment of others. The study of the manner in which such substances are produced is the subject of a new branch of learning called "ecological

  8. Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Škrovánková, Soňa; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Machů, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Four Wild Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Shabir; AbdEl-Salam, Naser M.; Fouad, H.; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Hussain, Hidayat; Saeed, Wajid

    2014-01-01

    The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. These four plants' fruits are good sources of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium. It was also observed that these fruits are potential source of antioxidant agent and the possible reason could be that these samples had good amount of phytochemicals. Hence, the proper propagation, conservation, and chemical investigation are recommended so that these fruits should be incorporated for the eradication of food and health related problems. PMID:25374941

  10. [Effective productions of plant secondary metabolites having antitumor activity by plant cell and tissue cultures].

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Shoko

    2005-06-01

    Methods for the effective production of plant secondary metabolites with antitumor activity using plant cell and tissue cultures were developed. The factors in tannin productivity were investigated using culture strains producing different types of hydrolyzable tannins, i.e., gallotannins (mixture of galloylglucoses), ellagi-, and dehydroellagitannins. Production of ellagi- and dehydroellagitannins was affected by the concentrations and ratio of nitrogen sources in the medium. The formation of oligomeric ellagitannins in shoots of Oenothera tetraptera was correlated with the differentiation of tissues. Cultured cells of Eriobotrya japonica producing ursane- and oleanane-type triterpenes with antitumor activities were also established.

  11. Antifungal activity of medicinal plant extracts; preliminary screening studies.

    PubMed

    Webster, Duncan; Taschereau, Pierre; Belland, René J; Sand, Crystal; Rennie, Robert P

    2008-01-04

    In the setting of HIV and organ transplantation, opportunistic fungal infections have become a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Thus antifungal therapy is playing a greater role in health care. Traditional plants are a valuable source of novel antifungals. To assess in vitro antifungal activity of aqueous plant extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for each extract in the setting of human pathogenic fungal isolates. Plants were harvested and identification verified. Aqueous extracts were obtained and antifungal susceptibilities determined using serial dilutional extracts with a standardized microdilution broth methodology. Twenty-three fungal isolates were cultured and exposed to the plant extracts. Five known antifungals were used as positive controls. Results were read at 48 and 72 h. Of the 14 plants analyzed, Fragaria virginiana Duchesne, Epilobium angustifolium L. and Potentilla simplex Michx. demonstrated strong antifungal potential overall. Fragaria virginiana had some degree of activity against all of the fungal pathogens. Alnus viridis DC., Betula alleghaniensis Britt. and Solidago gigantea Ait. also demonstrated a significant degree of activity against many of the yeast isolates. Fragaria virginiana, Epilobium angustifolium and Potentilla simplex demonstrate promising antifungal potential.

  12. Insights into animal and plant lectins with antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Dias, Renata de Oliveira; Machado, Leandro Dos Santos; Migliolo, Ludovico; Franco, Octavio Luiz

    2015-01-05

    Lectins are multivalent proteins with the ability to recognize and bind diverse carbohydrate structures. The glyco -binding and diverse molecular structures observed in these protein classes make them a large and heterogeneous group with a wide range of biological activities in microorganisms, animals and plants. Lectins from plants and animals are commonly used in direct defense against pathogens and in immune regulation. This review focuses on sources of animal and plant lectins, describing their functional classification and tridimensional structures, relating these properties with biotechnological purposes, including antimicrobial activities. In summary, this work focuses on structural-functional elucidation of diverse lectin groups, shedding some light on host-pathogen interactions; it also examines their emergence as biotechnological tools through gene manipulation and development of new drugs.

  13. Lead stress effects on physiobiochemical activities of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Sengar, Rakesh Singh; Gautam, Madhu; Sengar, Rajesh Singh; Garg, Sanjay Kumar; Sengar, Kalpana; Chaudhary, Reshu

    2008-01-01

    Lead is a metallic pollutant emanating from various environmental sources including industrial wastes, combustion of fossil fuels, and use of agrochemicals. Lead may exist in the atmosphere as dusts, fumes, mists, and vapors, and in soil as a mineral. Soils along roadsides are rich in lead because vehicles burn leaded gasoline, which contributes to environmental lead pollution. Other important sources of lead pollution are geological weathering, industrial processing of ores and minerals, leaching of lead from solid wastes, and animal and human excreta. Lead is nondegradable, readily enters the food chain, and can subsequently endanger human and animal health. Lead is one of the most important environment pollutants and deserves the increasing attention it has received in recent decades. The present effort was undertaken to review lead stress effects on the physiobiochemical activity of higher plants. Lead has gained considerable attention as a potent heavy metal pollutant because of growing anthropogenic pressure on the environment. Lead-contaminated soils show a sharp decline in crop productivity. Lead is absorbed by plants mainly through the root system and in minor amounts through the leaves. Within the plants, lead accumulates primarily in roots, but some is translocated to aerial plant parts. Soil pH, soil particle size, cation-exchange capacity, as well as root surface area, root exudation, and mycorrhizal transpiration rate affect the availability and uptake of lead by plants. Only a limited amount of lead is translocated from roots to other organs because there are natural plant barriers in the root endodermis. At lethal concentrations, this barrier is broken and lead may enter vascular tissues. Lead in plants may form deposits of various sizes, present mainly in intercellular spaces, cell walls, and vacuoles. Small deposits of this metal are also seen in the endoplasmic reticulum, dictyosome, and dictyosome-derived vesicles. After entering the cells, lead

  14. Cytotoxic activity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Akter, Raushanara; Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of 23 crude methanol extracts from 19 Bangladeshi medicinal plants was investigated against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3), healthy monkey kidney (VERO) and four human cancer cell lines (gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; and breast, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. High cytotoxicity across all cell lines tested was exhibited by Aegiceras corniculatum (fruit) and Hymenodictyon excelsum (bark) extracts (IC50 values ranging from 0.0005 to 0.9980 and 0.08 to 0.44 mg/mL, respectively). Fourteen extracts from 11 plant species, namely Clitoria ternatea (flower and leaf), Dillenia indica (leaf), Diospyros peregrina (leaf), Dipterocarpus turbinatus (bark and leaf), Ecbolium viride (leaf), Glinus oppositifolius (whole plant), Gnaphalium luteoalbum (leaf), Jasminum sambac (leaf), Lannea coromandelica (bark and leaf), Mussaenda glabrata (leaf) and Saraca asoca (leaf), were also significantly cytotoxic (IC50 < 1.0 mg/mL) against at least one of the cancer cell lines tested. More selectively, Avicennia alba (leaf), C. ternatea (flower and leaf), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), E. viride (leaf) and G. oppositifolius (whole plant) showed cytotoxicity only against both of the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). In contrast, C. ternatea (flower and leaf) exhibited high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values of 0.11 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively), whereas E. viride and G. oppositifolius whole plant extracts exhibited high activity against MCF-7 cells (IC50 values of 0.06 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxic activity test results for 9 of the plant species correlate with their traditional use as anticancer agents, thus making them interesting sources for further drug development.

  15. Antiviral and cytotoxic activities of some Indonesian plants.

    PubMed

    Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, F; Bakhtiar, A; Bézivin, C; Amoros, M; Boustie, J

    2002-08-01

    Ten methanolic extracts from eight Indonesian medicinal plants were phytochemically screened and evaluated for antiviral (HSV-1 and Poliovirus) and cytotoxic activities on murine and human cancer lines (3LL, L1210, K562, U251, DU145, MCF-7). Besides Melastoma malabathricum (Melastomataceae), the Indonesian Loranthaceae species among which Elytranthe tubaeflora, E. maingayi, E. globosa and Scurrula ferruginea exhibited attractive antiviral and cytotoxic activities. Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) was found active on Poliovirus. S. ferruginea was selected for further studies because of its activity on the U251 glioblastoma cells.

  16. Anticariogenic activity of some tropical medicinal plants against Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae-Kwan; Shim, Jae-Seok; Chung, Jae-Youn

    2004-09-01

    The methanol extracts of five tropical plants, Baeckea frutescens, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Kaempferia pandurata, Physalis angulata and Quercus infectoria, exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans. In particular, G. glabra, K. pandurata and P. angulata conferred fast killing bactericidal effect against S. mutans in 2 min at 50 microg/ml of extract concentration.

  17. Environmental Science: Activities with Plants of the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackley, Sharon; Hackley, Mike

    In this book for students of all ages, the author introduces unusual recipe ideas for the prickly, odd, and pestiferous plants of the American southwestern desert. Students are involved in cooking activities designed to spark interest in ecology, trigger logical thinking, utilize math skills, and build sound environmental concepts. Care was taken…

  18. PlantCAZyme: a database for plant carbohydrate-active enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ekstrom, Alexander; Taujale, Rahil; McGinn, Nathan; Yin, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    PlantCAZyme is a database built upon dbCAN (database for automated carbohydrate active enzyme annotation), aiming to provide pre-computed sequence and annotation data of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) to plant carbohydrate and bioenergy research communities. The current version contains data of 43 790 CAZymes of 159 protein families from 35 plants (including angiosperms, gymnosperms, lycophyte and bryophyte mosses) and chlorophyte algae with fully sequenced genomes. Useful features of the database include: (i) a BLAST server and a HMMER server that allow users to search against our pre-computed sequence data for annotation purpose, (ii) a download page to allow batch downloading data of a specific CAZyme family or species and (iii) protein browse pages to provide an easy access to the most comprehensive sequence and annotation data. Database URL: http://cys.bios.niu.edu/plantcazyme/ PMID:25125445

  19. Antimicrobial activity of Northwestern Mexican plants against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Robles-Zepeda, Ramón E; Velázquez-Contreras, Carlos A; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Gálvez-Ruiz, Juan C; Ruiz-Bustos, Eduardo

    2011-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the major etiologic agent of such gastric disorders as chronic active gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Over the past few years, the appearance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has led to the development of better treatments, such as the use of natural products. This study evaluated the anti-H. pylori activity of 17 Mexican plants used mainly in the northwestern part of Mexico (Sonora) for the empirical treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The anti-H. pylori activity of methanolic extracts of the plants was determined by using the broth microdilution method. The 50% minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from less than 200 to 400 μg/mL for Castella tortuosa, Amphipterygium adstringens, Ibervillea sonorae, Pscalium decompositum, Krameria erecta, Selaginella lepidophylla, Pimpinella anisum, Marrubium vulgare, Ambrosia confertiflora, and Couterea latiflora and were greater than 800 μg/mL for Byophyllum pinnatum, Tecoma stans linnaeus, Kohleria deppena, Jatropha cuneata, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Taxodium macronatum. Only Equisetum gigantum showed no activity against H. pylori. This study suggests the important role that these plants may have in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders caused by H. pylori. The findings set the groundwork for further characterization and elucidation of the active compounds responsible for such activity.

  20. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  1. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-08-14

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  2. The role of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Thomas, T Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Activated charcoal has a very fine network of pores with large inner surface area on which many substances can be adsorbed. Activated charcoal is often used in tissue culture to improve cell growth and development. It plays a critical role in micropropagation, orchid seed germination, somatic embryogenesis, anther culture, synthetic seed production, protoplast culture, rooting, stem elongation, bulb formation etc. The promotary effects of AC on morphogenesis may be mainly due to its irreversible adsorption of inhibitory compounds in the culture medium and substancially decreasing the toxic metabolites, phenolic exudation and brown exudate accumulation. In addition to this activated charcoal is involved in a number of stimulatory and inhibitory activities including the release of substances naturally present in AC which promote growth, alteration and darkening of culture media, and adsorption of vitamins, metal ions and plant growth regulators, including abscisic acid and gaseous ethylene. The effect of AC on growth regulator uptake is still unclear but some workers believe that AC may gradually release certain adsorbed products, such as nutrients and growth regulators which become available to plants. This review focuses on the various roles of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture and the recent developments in this area.

  3. Antibacterial activity of some selected medicinal plants of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Screening of the ethnobotenical plants is a pre-requisite to evaluate their therapeutic potential and it can lead to the isolation of new bioactive compounds. Methods The crude extracts and fractions of six medicinal important plants (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, Pistacia integerrima, Aesculus indica, and Toona ciliata) were tested against three Gram positive and two Gram negative ATCC bacterial species using the agar well diffusion method. Results The crude extract of P. integerrima and A. indica were active against all tested bacterial strains (12-23 mm zone of inhibition). Other four plant's crude extracts (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, and Toona ciliata) were active against different bacterial strains. The crude extracts showed varying level of bactericidal activity. The aqueous fractions of A. indica and P. integerrima crude extract showed maximum activity (19.66 and 16 mm, respectively) against B. subtilis, while the chloroform fractions of T. ciliata and D. salicifolia presented good antibacterial activities (13-17 mm zone of inhibition) against all the bacterial cultures tested. Conclusion The methanol fraction of Pistacia integerrima, chloroform fractions of Debregeasia salicifolia &Toona ciliata and aqueous fraction of Aesculus indica are suitable candidates for the development of novel antibacterial compounds. PMID:21718504

  4. Humic substances biological activity at the plant-soil interface

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Sara; Francioso, Ornella; Nardi, Serenella

    2010-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) represent the organic material mainly widespread in nature. HS have positive effects on plant physiology by improving soil structure and fertility and by influencing nutrient uptake and root architecture. The biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these events are only partially known. HS have been shown to contain auxin and an “auxin-like” activity of humic substances has been proposed, but support to this hypothesis is fragmentary. In this review article, we are giving an overview of available data concerning molecular structures and biological activities of humic substances, with special emphasis on their hormone-like activities. PMID:20495384

  5. Occurrence and activity of Archaea in aerated activated sludge wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Gray, Neil D; Miskin, Ian P; Kornilova, Oksana; Curtis, Thomas P; Head, Ian M

    2002-03-01

    The occurrence, distribution and activity of archaeal populations within two aerated, activated sludge wastewater treatment systems, one treating domestic waste and the second treating mixed domestic and industrial wastewater, were investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified ribosomal RNA gene fragments and process measurements. In the plant receiving mixed industrial and domestic waste the archaeal populations found in the mixed liquor were very similar to those in the influent sewage, though a small number of DGGE bands specific to the mixed liquor were identified. In contrast, the activated sludge treating principally domestic waste harboured distinct archaeal populations associated with the mixed liquor that were not prevalent in the influent sewage. We deduce that the Archaea in the plant treating mixed wastewater were derived principally from the influent, whereas those in the plant treating solely domestic waste were actively growing in the treatment plant. Archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences related to the Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales and the Methanobacteriales were detected. Methanogenesis was measured in activated sludge samples incubated under oxic and anoxic conditions, demonstrating that the methanogens present in both activated sludge plants were active only in anoxic incubations. The relatively low rates of methanogenesis measured indicated that, although active, the methanogens play a minor role in carbon turnover in activated sludge.

  6. Activities of Vacuolar Cysteine Proteases in Plant Senescence.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Dana E; Costa, Lorenza; Guiamét, Juan José

    2018-01-01

    Plant senescence is accompanied by a marked increase in proteolytic activities, and cysteine proteases (Cys-protease) represent the prevailing class among the responsible proteases. Cys-proteases predominantly locate to lytic compartments, i.e., to the central vacuole (CV) and to senescence-associated vacuoles (SAVs), the latter being specific to the photosynthetic cells of senescing leaves. Cellular fractionation of vacuolar compartments may facilitate Cys-proteases purification and their concentration for further analysis. Active Cys-proteases may be analyzed by different, albeit complementary approaches: (1) in vivo examination of proteolytic activity by fluorescence microscopy using specific substrates which become fluorescent upon cleavage by Cys-proteases, (2) protease labeling with specific probes that react irreversibly with the active enzymes, and (3) zymography, whereby protease activities are detected in polyacrylamide gels copolymerized with a substrate for proteases. Here we describe the three methods mentioned above for detection of active Cys-proteases and a cellular fractionation technique to isolate SAVs.

  7. α-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of selected Philippine plants.

    PubMed

    Lawag, Ivan L; Aguinaldo, Alicia M; Naheed, Suad; Mosihuzzaman, Mohammad

    2012-10-31

    Antidesma bunius Spreng. (Phyllantaceae), Averrhoa bilimbi L. (Oxalidaceae), Biophytum sensitivum (L.) DC. (Oxalidaceae), Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B. Rob. (Rhizophoraceae), Kyllinga monocephala Rottb. (Cyperaceae), and Rhizophora mucronata Lam. (Rhizophoraceae) are used as remedies to control diabetes. In the present study, these plants were screened for their potential α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The 80% aqueous ethanolic extracts were screened for their α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activity using yeast alpha glucosidase enzyme. Except for A. bilimbi with IC(50) at 519.86±3.07, all manifested a significant enzyme inhibitory activity. R. mucronata manifested the highest activity with IC(50) at 0.08±1.82 μg mL(-1), followed by C. tagal with IC(50) at 0.85±1.46 μg mL(-1) and B. sensitivum with IC(50) at 2.24±1.58 μg mL(-1). This is the first report on the α-glucosidase inhibitory effect of the six Philippine plants; thus, partly defining the mechanism on why these medicinal plants possess antidiabetic properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Database on pharmacophore analysis of active principles, from medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Pitchai, Daisy; Manikkam, Rajalakshmi; Rajendran, Sasikala R; Pitchai, Gnanamani

    2010-01-01

    Plants continue to be a major source of medicines, as they have been throughout human history. In the present days, drug discovery from plants involves a multidisciplinary approach combining ethnobotanical, phytochemical and biological techniques to provide us new chemical compounds (lead molecules) for the development of drugs against various pharmacological targets, including cancer, diabetes and its secondary complications. In view of this need in current drug discovery from medicinal plants, here we describe another web database containing the information of pharmacophore analysis of active principles possessing antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancerous and antioxidant properties from medicinal plants. The database provides the botanical, taxonomic classification, biochemical as well as pharmacological properties of medicinal plants. Data on antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti oxidative, anti tumor and anti inflammatory compounds, and their physicochemical properties, SMILES Notation, Lipinski's properties are included in our database. One of the proposed features in the database is the predicted ADMET values and the interaction of bioactive compounds to the target protein. The database alphabetically lists the compound name and also provides tabs separating for anti microbial, antitumor, antidiabetic, and antioxidative compounds. Availability http://www.hccbif.info / PMID:21346859

  9. Antibacterial activity of caffeine against plant pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sledz, Wojciech; Los, Emilia; Paczek, Agnieszka; Rischka, Jacek; Motyka, Agata; Zoledowska, Sabina; Piosik, Jacek; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of a plant secondary metabolite - caffeine. Caffeine is present in over 100 plant species. Antibacterial activity of caffeine was examined against the following plant-pathogenic bacteria: Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsol), Clavibacter michiganesis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms), Dickeya solani (Dsol), Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), and Xanthomonas campestris subsp. campestris (Xcc). MIC and MBC values ranged from 5 to 20 mM and from 43 to 100 mM, respectively. Caffeine increased the bacterial generation time of all tested species and caused changes in cell morphology. The influence of caffeine on the synthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins was investigated in cultures of plant pathogenic bacteria with labelled precursors: [(3)H]thymidine, [(3)H]uridine or (14)C leucine, respectively. RNA biosynthesis was more affected than DNA or protein biosynthesis in bacterial cells treated with caffeine. Treatment of Pba with caffeine for 336 h did not induce resistance to this compound. Caffeine application reduced disease symptoms caused by Dsol on chicory leaves, potato slices, and whole potato tubers. The data presented indicate caffeine as a potential tool for the control of diseases caused by plant-pathogenic bacteria, especially under storage conditions.

  10. Review on medicinal uses, pharmacological, phytochemistry and immunomodulatory activity of plants.

    PubMed

    Akram, M; Hamid, A; Khalil, A; Ghaffar, A; Tayyaba, N; Saeed, A; Ali, M; Naveed, A

    2014-01-01

    Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Researchers have discovered some important compounds from plants. The present work constitutes a review of the medicinal plants whose immunomodulant activity has been proven. We performed PUBMED, EMBASE, Google scholar searches for research papers of medicinal plants having immunomodulant activity. Medicinal plants used by traditional physicians or reported as having immunomodulant activity include Acacia concocinna, Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis Linn, Piper longum Linn, Gelidium amansii, Petroselinum crispum, Plantago major and Allium sativum. Immunomodulant activities of some of these medicinal plants have been investigated. The medicinal plants documented have immunomodulant activity and should be further investigated via clinical trial.

  11. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of plants from northeast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Pérez-López, Luis Alejandro; López-Arroyo, Joel; Alanís-Garza, Blanca Alicia; Waksman de Torres, Noemí

    2011-01-01

    Traditional medicine has a key role in health care worldwide. Obtaining scientific information about the efficacy and safety of the plants from our region is one of the goals of our research group. In this report, 17 plants were selected and collected in different localities from northeast Mexico. The dried plants were separated into leaves, flowers, fruit, stems, roots and bark. Each part was extracted with methanol, and 39 crude extracts were prepared. The extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity using three Gram-negative bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii), three Gram-positive bacterial strains (Enterococcus faecalis and two Staphylococcus aureus strains), and seven clinically isolated yeasts (Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata); their antioxidant activity was tested using a DPPH free radical assay. No activity against Gram-negative bacteria was observed with any extract up to the maximum concentration tested, 1000 μg ml(-1). We report here for the first time activity of Ceanothus coeruleus against S. aureus (flowers, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 125 μg ml(-1)), C. glabrata (MICs 31.25 μg ml(-1)) and C. parapsilosis (MICs between 31.25 and 125 μg ml(-1)); Chrysanctinia mexicana against C. glabrata (MICs 31.25 μg ml(-1)); Colubrina greggii against E. faecalis (MICs 250 μg ml(-1)) and Cordia boissieri against C. glabrata (MIC 125 μg ml(-1)). Furthermore, this is the first report about antioxidant activity of extracts from Ceanothus coeruleus, Chrysanctinia mexicana, Colubrina greggii and Cyperus alternifolius. Some correlation could exist between antioxidant activity and antiyeast activity against yeasts in the species Ceanothus coeruleus, Schinus molle, Colubrina greggii and Cordia boissieri.

  12. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Plants from Northeast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Pérez-López, Luis Alejandro; López-Arroyo, Joel; Alanís-Garza, Blanca Alicia; Waksman de Torres, Noemí

    2011-01-01

    Traditional medicine has a key role in health care worldwide. Obtaining scientific information about the efficacy and safety of the plants from our region is one of the goals of our research group. In this report, 17 plants were selected and collected in different localities from northeast Mexico. The dried plants were separated into leaves, flowers, fruit, stems, roots and bark. Each part was extracted with methanol, and 39 crude extracts were prepared. The extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity using three Gram-negative bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii), three Gram-positive bacterial strains (Enterococcus faecalis and two Staphylococcus aureus strains), and seven clinically isolated yeasts (Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata); their antioxidant activity was tested using a DPPH free radical assay. No activity against Gram-negative bacteria was observed with any extract up to the maximum concentration tested, 1000 μg ml−1. We report here for the first time activity of Ceanothus coeruleus against S. aureus (flowers, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 125 μg ml−1), C. glabrata (MICs 31.25 μg ml−1) and C. parapsilosis (MICs between 31.25 and 125 μg ml−1); Chrysanctinia mexicana against C. glabrata (MICs 31.25 μg ml−1); Colubrina greggii against E. faecalis (MICs 250 μg ml−1) and Cordia boissieri against C. glabrata (MIC 125 μg ml−1). Furthermore, this is the first report about antioxidant activity of extracts from Ceanothus coeruleus, Chrysanctinia mexicana, Colubrina greggii and Cyperus alternifolius. Some correlation could exist between antioxidant activity and antiyeast activity against yeasts in the species Ceanothus coeruleus, Schinus molle, Colubrina greggii and Cordia boissieri. PMID:19770266

  13. Larvicidal activity of some Cerrado plant extracts against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A M S; De Paula, J E; Degallier, N; Molez, J E; Espindola, L S

    2006-06-01

    One hundred ninety hexanic and ethanolic extract from 27 plant species from the Cerrado biome of Brazil were tested for larvicidal activity against 3rd-stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 500 microg/ml. Fourteen extracts from 7 species showed activity (>65% mortality) against the larvae. Of these Dugeutia furfuracea, Piptocarpha rotundifolia, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua, Serjania lethalis, and Xylopia aromatica were active at 56.6, 162.31, 232.4, 285.76, and 384.37 microg/ml, respectively. Annona crassiflora and Cybistax antisyphilitica showed activity at 23.06 and 27.61 microg/ml. The larvicidal properties of these species are described for the first time, and may prove to be promising in active chemical compound isolation.

  14. Plants of the American continent with antiulcer activity.

    PubMed

    Falcão, H S; Mariath, I R; Diniz, M F F M; Batista, L M; Barbosa-Filho, J M

    2008-01-01

    Peptic ulcer is a chronic and appalling disease. Today, it is dominant among the diseases that affect the world's population. The principal factors causing this disease are inadequate dietetic habits, prolonged use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, stress and infection by Helicobacter pylori, in addition to other factors of genetic origin. The present work is a literature survey of plant extracts from the American continent that have been reported to show antiulcer activity. This review refers to 58 plants with their families, parts used, type of extract used, model bioassays and their activity. This work intends to aid the researchers in the study of natural products appropriate to the treatment of stomach and intestinal diseases, in general, and peptic ulcer in particular.

  15. Calcium Modulation of Plant Plasma Membrane-Bound Atpase Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, C.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetic properties of barley enzyme are discussed and compared with those of other plants. Possibilities for calcium transport in the plasma membrane by proton pump and ATPase-dependent calcium pumps are explored. Topics covered include the ph phase of the enzyme; high affinity of barley for calcium; temperature dependence, activation enthalpy, and the types of ATPase catalytic sites. Attention is given to lipids which are both screened and bound by calcium. Studies show that barley has a calmodulin activated ATPase that is found in the presence of magnesium and calcium.

  16. Screening of some Greek aromatic plants for antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Couladis, Maria; Tzakou, Olga; Verykokidou, Evmorfia; Harvala, Catherine

    2003-02-01

    The role of antioxidants in preventing oxygen radical and hydrogen peroxide induced cytotoxicity and tissue damage in various human diseases is increasingly recognized. In this study the in vitro antioxidant activity of the ethanol extracts obtained from 21 aromatic plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family was investigated. Of the extracts tested, those of Salvia ringens, Salvia pomifera, Stachys spruneri, Origanum dictamnus, Phlomis lanata, Ballota pseudodictamnus, Ballota acetabulosa, Teucrium polium, Calamintha glandulosa and Micromeria graeca exhibited the same activity as alpha-tocopherol. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Plant cysteine proteases that evoke itch activate protease-activated receptors

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, V.B.; Lerner, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bromelain, ficin and papain are cysteine proteases from plants that produce itch upon injection into skin. Their mechanism of action has not been considered previously. Objectives To determine the mechanism by which these proteases function. Methods The ability of these proteases to activate protease-activated receptors was determined by ratiometric calcium imaging. Results We show here that bromelain, ficin and papain activate protease-activated receptors 2 and 4. Conclusions Bromelain, ficin and papain function as signalling molecules and activate protease-activated receptors. Activation of these receptors is the likely mechanism by which these proteases evoke itch. PMID:20491769

  18. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Thai medicinal plant (Capparis micracantha)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laoprom, Nonglak; Sangprom, Araya; Chaisri, Patcharaporn

    2018-04-01

    This work aims to study the antioxidants capacity, Total phenolic content and antibacterial activity of Thai medicinal plant for the treatment of dermatitis-related inflammations, Capparis micracantha. Crude extract from stem of Thai medicinal plant was extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. The antioxidant activities (IC50) was evaluated with 1,1-diphenyl-1-princylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. Bacterial activities was tested with four human pathogenic bacteria; Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Stapylococcus epidermidis by using agar diffusion assay. Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were also determined by broth dilution method. For antioxidant activity, the methanol fraction from stem extract showed the highest activity with an IC50 of 2.4 mg/ml. Water extraction was the high TPC with 10,136.9 mg GAE/g dry weight. Methanol and water extraction showed the remarkable inhibition of bacterial growth was shown against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. In addition, ethyl acetate, methanol and water fraction from stem extract against S. epidermidis. The present finding suggests that the extract of C. micracantha could be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as pharmaceutical products.

  19. Anti-bacterial activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; de Souza Luna, Josiane; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; de Andrade, Maria Cristina Caño; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Genet, Jean-Pierre; Marquez, Béatrice; Neuville, Luc; Moreau, Nicole

    2006-04-21

    Extracts from various organs of 25 plants of Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed with respect to their anti-bacterial activities against Escherichia coli, a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus and two resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus harbouring the efflux pumps NorA and MsrA. Amongst the 49 extracts studied, 14 presented anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, including the ethanolic extracts from the rhizome of Jatropha elliptica, from the stem barks of Schinus terebinthifolius and Erythrina mulungu, from the stems and leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis and Serjania lethalis, and from the stem bark and leaves of Lafoensia pacari. The classes of compounds present in the active extracts were determined as a preliminary step towards their bioactivity-guided separation. No extracts were active against Escherichia coli.

  20. Antifeedant activity of plant extracts to an insect Helopeltis theivora.

    PubMed

    Dolui, A K; Debnath, M

    2010-09-01

    The different solvent extracts (viz Petroleum ether Ethyl acetate and Methanol) obtained from leaves and flowers of Heliotropium indicum and Spilanthes calva were screened for antifeedant activity against Helopeltis theivora. All the six different extracts showed antifeedant activity at four different concentrations. The methanolic extracts of leaves of Heliotropium indicum and Spilanthes calva exhibited significant activity at 4% concentration. The numbers of spots produced were only 18.67 and 22.67 respectively which are significantly less than the numberof spots produced in control (104.00 and 93.33 respectively). The treatment with methanolic extracts of flowers of both the plants significantly reduced the number of feeding spots to 22.33 and 23.67 respectively in comparison to the control values of 101.33. All the activities are dose dependent. The mean results with SEM (mean +/- SE) were statistically significant at 1% level (p<0.01) for three observations.

  1. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activity of selected medicinal plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nguta, Joseph M.; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K.; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G.A.; Otchere, Isaac; Kissi-Twum, Abena

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains an ongoing threat to human health. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally to treat tuberculosis in Ghana. The current study was designed to investigate the antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts from five selected medicinal plants. Material and methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) was used for antimycobacterial studies while the CellTiter 96® AQueous Assay, which is composed of solutions of a novel tetrazolium compound [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] and an electron coupling reagent (phenazine methosulfate) PMS, was used for cytotoxic studies. Correlation coefficients were used to compare the activity of crude extracts against nonpathogenic strains and the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis. Results Results of the MIC determinations indicated that all the crude extracts were active on all the three tested mycobacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration values as low as 156.3 µg/mL against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra (ATCC® 25,177™) were recorded from the leaves of Solanum torvum Sw. (Solanaceae). Cytotoxicity of the extracts varied, and the leaves from S. torvum had the most promising selectivity index. Activity against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra was the best predictor of activity against pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis (correlation coefficient=0.8). Conclusion The overall results of the present study provide supportive data on the use of some medicinal plants for tuberculosis treatment. The leaves of Solanum torvum are a potential source of anti-TB natural products and deserve further investigations to develop novel anti-TB agents against sensitive and drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. PMID:26875647

  2. Isolation of the active compound in Mauria heterophylla, a Peruvian plant with antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tatsuya; Chang, Cecilia; Maurtua, Dora; Hammond, Gerald B

    2006-02-01

    A fraction from the ethanol extract of the Peruvian medicinal plant Mauria heterophylla (Anacardiaceae) showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli 35992, Staphylococcus aureus 20213 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 15442. Further fractionation led to the isolation and characterization of ethyl gallate as the antibacterial active compound. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. ANTI-QUORUM SENSING ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Al-Haidari, Rwaida A; Shaaban, Mona I; Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing is the key regulator of virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa such as biofilm formation, motility, productions of proteases, hemolysin, pyocyanin, and toxins. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of the extracts from some medicinal plants on quorum sensing and related virulence factors of P. aeruginosa . Quorum sensing inhibitory (OSI) effect of the alcohol extracts of 20 medicinal plants was evaluated by Chromobacterium violaceum reporter using agar cup diffusion method. The efficient QSI extracts were tested for their activity against biofilm synthesis, motility, and synthesis of pyocyanin from P. aeruginosa PA14. The extracts of Citrus sinensis, Laurus nobilis, Elettaria cardamomum, Allium cepa , and Coriandrum sativum exhibited potent quorum quenching effect. On the other hand, Psidium guajava and Mentha longifolia extracts showed lower QSI activity. These extracts exhibited significant elimination of pyocyanin formation and biofilm development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14. In addition, they significantly inhibited twitching and swimming motilities of P. aeruginosa PA14. This study illustrated, for the first time, the importance of C. sinensis, L. nobilis, E. cardamomum, A. cepa , and C. sativum as quorum sensing inhibitors and virulence suppressors of P. aeruginosa . Thus, these plants could provide a natural source for the elimination of Pseudomonas pathogenesis.

  4. Antityrosinase and antimicrobial activities from Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Dej-Adisai, Sukanya; Meechai, Imron; Puripattanavong, Jindaporn; Kummee, Sopa

    2014-04-01

    Various dermatological disorders and microbial skin infection can cause hyperpigmentation. Therefore, screenings for whitening and antimicrobial agents from Thai medicinal plants have been of research interest. Seventy-seven ethanol plant extracts were investigated for antityrosinase activity, eleven samples showed the tyrosinase inhibition more than 50 % were further preliminary screening for antimicrobial activity by agar disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution methods. Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr. (Moraceae) root extract, which showed the potential of tyrosinase inhibition with 90.57 ± 2.93 % and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes and Trichophyton mentagophytes with inhibition zone as 9.10 ± 0.00, 10.67 ± 0.09, 15.25 ± 0.05 and 6.60 ± 0.17 mm, respectively was selected for phytochemical investigation. Three pure compounds were isolated as artocarpin, cudraflavone C and artocarpanone. And artocarpanone exhibited anti-tyrosinase effect; artocarpin and cudraflavone C also showed the potential of antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis and P. acnes with MIC at 2, 4 and 2 μg/ml, respectively and MBC at 32 μg/ml for these bacteria. So, these pure compounds are interesting for further study in order to provide possibilities of new whitening and antibacterial development. This will be the first report of phytochemical investigation of A. integer root.

  5. Structural basis of potassium activation in plant asparaginases.

    PubMed

    Ajewole, Ebenezer; Santamaria-Kisiel, Liliana; Pajak, Agnieszka; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2018-04-01

    l-asparaginases (EC 3.5.1.1) play an important role in nitrogen mobilization in plants. Here, we investigated the biochemical and biophysical properties of potassium-dependent (PvAspG1) and potassium-independent (PvAspG-T2) l-asparaginases from Phaseolus vulgaris. Our previous studies revealed that PvAspG1 requires potassium for catalytic activation and its crystal structure suggested that Ser-118 in the activation loop plays a critical role in coordinating the metal cation. This amino acid residue is replaced by isoleucine in PvAspG-T2. Reciprocal mutants of the enzymes were produced and the effect of the amino acid substitution on the kinetic parameters, allosteric effector binding, secondary structure conformation, and pH profile were studied. Introduction of the serine residue conferred potassium activation in PvAspG-T2. Conversely, the PvAspG1-S118I mutant could no longer be activated by potassium. PvAspG1 and the PvAspG-T2-I117S mutant had a similar half-maximal effective concentration (EC 50 ) value for potassium activation, between 0.1 and 0.3 mm. Potassium binding elicited a similar conformational change in PvAspG1 and PvAspG-T2-I117S, as studied by circular dichroism. However, no change in conformation was observed for PvAspG-T2 and PvAspG1-S118I. Analysis of kinetic parameters in function of pH indicated that potassium activation mediated by Ser-118 influences the ionization of specific functional groups in the enzyme-substrate complex. Together, the results indicate that Ser-118 of PvAspG1 is essential and sufficient for potassium activation in plant l-asparaginases. ENZYME: l-Asparaginase (EC 3.5.1.1). © 2018 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  6. Immunomodulatory activity of plant residues on ovine neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Farinacci, Maura; Colitti, Monica; Sgorlon, Sandy; Stefanon, Bruno

    2008-11-15

    Neutrophils play an essential role in host defense and inflammation. Plants have long been used to improve the immune function, but for most of them specific investigations on animal health are lacking. In the present study, water and hydroethanolic extracts from 11 plant wastes have been screened on immune responses of ovine neutrophils. Eight sheep clinically healthy, not lactating, non-pregnant were selected and used for the experiment. Freshly isolated neutrophils were incubated with the extracts of the residues at increasing doses, and then they were tested for adhesion and superoxide production induced with PMA. The residues of Larix decidua, Thymus vulgaris, Salix alba, Sinupret, Helianthus annuus, Mangifera indica modulated the neutrophil immune functions, moreover, Larix decidua, Thymus vulgaris and Salix alba presented the highest anti-inflammatory activity.

  7. Cytotoxic activity of plants of family zygophyllaceae and euphorbiaceae.

    PubMed

    Dastagir, Ghulam; Hussain, Farrukh

    2014-07-01

    The methanolic and n-hexane extracts of studied plants showed significant toxicity to brine shrimps. The methanolic extract of Fagonia cretica had highest LD50 (117.72) value, while Peganum harmala showed low LD50 value (41.70) compared to n-hexane extract. The methanolic and n-hexane extracts of Tribulus terrestris showed similar LD50 values. The methanolic extract of Chrozophora tinctoria showed low LD50 value than the n-hexane extract. The methanolic extract of Ricinus communis showed highest LD50 value while the n-hexane extract showed lowest LD50 value. The LD50 value less than 100 was obtained for n-hexane extracts of Fagonia cretica, Peganum harmala and Ricinus communis. The n-hexane extracts of these plants also showed the highest toxicity as compare to methanolic extracts. The chemical constituents detected in the present investigation might be responsible for cytotoxic activity.

  8. Activity of plant flavonoids against antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Xu, H X; Lee, S F

    2001-02-01

    Thirty eight plant-derived flavonoids representing seven different structural groups were tested for activities against antibiotic-resistant bacteria using the disc-diffusion assay and broth dilution assay. Among the flavonoids examined, four flavonols (myricetin, datiscetin, kaempferol and quercetin) and two -flavones (flavone and luteolin) exhibited inhibitory activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Myricetin was also found to inhibit the growth of multidrug-resistant Burkholderia -cepacia, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and other medically important organisms such as -Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Myricetin was bactericidal to B. cepacia. The results of the radiolabel incorporation assay showed that myricetin inhibited protein synthesis by -B. cepacia. The structure-activity relationship of these flavonoids is discussed. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of selected Cameroonian edible plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Cameroon, the use of edible plants is an integral part of dietary behavior. However, evidence of the antimicrobial as well as the cytotoxic effects of many of them has not been investigated. In the present study, aqueous and methanol extracts from barks, seeds, leaves and roots of three Cameroonian edible plants namely Garcina lucida, Fagara heitzii and Hymenocardia lyrata were evaluated for their cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. Methods Antibacterial and antifungal activities were assessed by the broth micro-dilution method meanwhile the cytotoxicity was performed using sulphorhodamine B assay (SRB) against the human leukemia THP-1, the alveolar epithelial A549, prostate cancer PC-3, breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 and cervical cancer HeLa cell lines. Results The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the seven tested extracts ranged from 62.5 μg/ml to 1000 μg/ml. The methanol (MeOH) extract from the roots of H. lyrata showed the highest antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus and S. epidermitis. The best antifungal activity was obtained with the MeOH extract from the leaves of G. lucida against C. tropicalis (MIC value of 62.5 μg/ml). The in vitro antiproliferative activity revealed that, extract from the bark of F. heitzii and extract from H. lyrata roots had significant cytotoxic activity on THP-1 (IC50 8.4 μg/ml) and PC-3 (IC50 9.5 μg/ml) respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest that Cameroonian spices herein studied could be potentially useful for the development of therapeutic agents against bacterial infections as well as for prostate and leukemia cancer. PMID:23565827

  10. Comparing herbaceous plant communities in active and passive riparian restoration

    PubMed Central

    Lennox, Michael S.; Lewis, David; Tate, Kenneth W.; Jackson, Randall D.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the efficacy of passive (reduction or cessation of environmental stress) and active (typically involving planting or seeding) restoration strategies is important for the design of successful revegetation of degraded riparian habitat, but studies explicitly comparing restoration outcomes are uncommon. We sampled the understory herbaceous plant community of 103 riparian sites varying in age since restoration (0 to 39 years) and revegetation technique (active, passive, or none) to compare the utility of different approaches on restoration success across sites. We found that landform type, percent shade, and summer flow helped explain differences in the understory functional community across all sites. In passively restored sites, grass and forb cover and richness were inversely related to site age, but in actively restored sites forb cover and richness were inversely related to site age. Native cover and richness were lower with passive restoration compared to active restoration. Invasive species cover and richness were not significantly different across sites. Although some of our results suggest that active restoration would best enhance native species in degraded riparian areas, this work also highlights some of the context-dependency that has been found to mediate restoration outcomes. For example, since the effects of passive restoration can be quite rapid, this approach might be more useful than active restoration in situations where rapid dominance of pioneer species is required to arrest major soil loss through erosion. As a result, we caution against labeling one restoration technique as better than another. Managers should identify ideal restoration outcomes in the context of historic and current site characteristics (as well as a range of acceptable alternative states) and choose restoration approaches that best facilitate the achievement of revegetation goals. PMID:28448544

  11. Complex Effects of Fertilization on Plant and Herbivore Performance in the Presence of a Plant Competitor and Activated Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi-Arab, Nafiseh; Meyer, Sebastian T.; Mehrparvar, Mohsen; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2014-01-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions are influenced by host plant quality which in turn is affected by plant growth conditions. Competition is the major biotic and nutrient availability a major abiotic component of a plant’s growth environment. Yet, surprisingly few studies have investigated impacts of competition and nutrient availability on herbivore performance and reciprocal herbivore effects on plants. We studied growth of the specialist aphid, Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria, and its host plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, under experimental addition of inorganic and organic fertilizer crossed with competition by goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Because of evidence that competition by goldenrod is mediated by allelopathic compounds, we also added a treatment with activated carbon. Results showed that fertilization increased, and competition with goldenrod decreased, plant biomass, but this was likely mediated by resource competition. There was no evidence from the activated carbon treatment that allelopathy played a role which instead had a fertilizing effect. Aphid performance increased with higher plant biomass and depended on plant growth conditions, with fertilization and AC increasing, and plant competition decreasing aphid numbers. Feedbacks of aphids on plant performance interacted with plant growth conditions in complex ways depending on the relative magnitude of the effects on plant biomass and aphid numbers. In the basic fertilization treatment, tansy plants profited from increased nutrient availability by accumulating more biomass than they lost due to an increased number of aphids under fertilization. When adding additional fertilizer, aphid numbers increased so high that tansy plants suffered and showed reduced biomass compared with controls without aphids. Thus, the ecological cost of an infestation with aphids depends on the balance of effects of growth conditions on plant and herbivore performance. These results emphasize the importance to investigate both

  12. Cholesterol-lowering activity of plant sterol-egg yolk lipoprotein complex in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Muto, Ayano; Kimura, Mamoru; Hoshina, Ryosuke; Wakamatsu, Toshio; Masuda, Yasunobu

    2008-01-01

    Free plant sterols cannot be dissolved in oil or water. Using free plant sterols and egg yolks, we developed a plant sterol-egg yolk lipoprotein complex (PSY) that can be dispersed in water and considered suitable for use in processed foods. The cholesterol-lowering activity of PSY was equal to that of free plant sterols and plant sterol esters. Consumption of a freeze-dried PSY-containing omelet reduced serum and hepatic cholesterol concentrations. The results suggest that PSY has cholesterol-lowering activity equivalent to that of free plant sterols and plant sterol esters. Moreover, the cholesterol-lowering activity of PSY was maintained in processed foods.

  13. Antibacterial activity of essential oils from Australian native plants.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Jenny M; Cavanagh, Heather M A

    2005-07-01

    To date, of the Australian essential oils, only tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and Eucalyptus spp. have undergone extensive investigation. In this study a range of Australian essential oils, including those from Anethole anisata, Callistris glaucophyllia, Melaleuca spp. and Thyptomine calycina, were assayed for in vitro antibacterial activity. M. alternifolia was also included for comparison purposes. Activity was determined using standard disc diffusion assays with each oil assayed at 100%, 10% and 1% against five bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes faecalis) and the yeast, Candida albicans. All bacteria, with the exception of Ps. aeruginosa, were susceptible to one or more of the essential oils at 100%, with only Eremophilia mitchelli inhibiting the growth of any bacteria at 1% (inhibition of Sal. typhimurium). Where multiple samples of a single oil variety were tested variability in activity profiles were noted. This suggests that different methods of preparation of essential oils, together with variability in plant chemical profiles has an impact on whether or not the essential oil is of use as an antimicrobial agent. These results show that essential oils from Australian plants may be valuable antimicrobial agents for use alone or incorporated into cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceutical products.

  14. Optimal design of an activated sludge plant: theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. A.; Amin, M. S. A.; Hoinkis, J.

    2013-06-01

    The design procedure of an activated sludge plant consisting of an activated sludge reactor and settling tank has been theoretically analyzed assuming that (1) the Monod equation completely describes the growth kinetics of microorganisms causing the degradation of biodegradable pollutants and (2) the settling characteristics are fully described by a power law. For a given reactor height, the design parameter of the reactor (reactor volume) is reduced to the reactor area. Then the sum total area of the reactor and the settling tank is expressed as a function of activated sludge concentration X and the recycled ratio α. A procedure has been developed to calculate X opt, for which the total required area of the plant is minimum for given microbiological system and recycled ratio. Mathematical relations have been derived to calculate the α-range in which X opt meets the requirements of F/ M ratio. Results of the analysis have been illustrated for varying X and α. Mathematical formulae have been proposed to recalculate the recycled ratio in the events, when the influent parameters differ from those assumed in the design.

  15. Anammox biofilm in activated sludge swine wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Suto, Ryu; Ishimoto, Chikako; Chikyu, Mikio; Aihara, Yoshito; Matsumoto, Toshimi; Uenishi, Hirohide; Yasuda, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Yasuyuki; Waki, Miyoko

    2017-01-01

    We investigated anammox with a focus on biofilm in 10 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that use activated sludge treatment of swine wastewater. In three plants, we found red biofilms in aeration tanks or final sedimentation tanks. The biofilm had higher anammox 16S rRNA gene copy numbers (up to 1.35 × 10 12 copies/g-VSS) and higher anammox activity (up to 295 μmoL/g-ignition loss/h) than suspended solids in the same tank. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Planctomycetes accounted for up to 17.7% of total reads in the biofilm. Most of them were related to Candidatus Brocadia or Ca. Jettenia. The highest copy number and the highest proportion of Planctomycetes were comparable to those of enriched anammox sludge. Thus, swine WWTPs that use activated sludge treatment can fortuitously acquire anammox biofilm. Thus, concentrated anammox can be detected by focusing on red biofilm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Sanchez Palomino, S; Chiriboga, X; Carrasco, L

    1999-03-01

    Folk medicinal plants are potential sources of useful therapeutic compounds including some with antiviral activities. Extracts prepared from 10 South American medicinal plants (Baccharis trinervis, Baccharis teindalensis, Eupatorium articulatum, Eupatorium glutinosum, Tagetes pusilla, Neurolaena lobata, Conyza floribunda, Phytolacca bogotensis, Phytolacca rivinoides and Heisteria acuminata) were screened for in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex type I (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and poliovirus type 1. The most potent inhibition was observed with an aqueous extract of B. trinervis, which inhibited HSV-1 replication by 100% at 50-200 micrograms/mL, without showing cytotoxic effects. Good activities were also found with the ethanol extract of H. acuminata and the aqueous extract of E. articulatum, which exhibited antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses (HSV-1 and VSV, respectively) at 125-250 micrograms/mL. The aqueous extracts of T. pusilla (100-250 micrograms/mL), B. teindalensis (50-125 micrograms/mL) and E. glutinosum (50-125 micrograms/mL) also inhibited the replication of VSV, but none of the extracts tested had any effect on poliovirus replication.

  17. In vitro antileishmanial activity of Mexican medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Altamirano, Ronna; Monzote, Lianet; Piñón-Tápanes, Abel; Vibrans, Heike; Rivero-Cruz, J Fausto; Ibarra-Alvarado, César; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the anti-leishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of aqueous and organic extracts of ten plants used in Mexican traditional medicine as anti-parasitics. For the organic extracts, plant material was macerated in dichloromethane (CH 2 Cl 2 ) and dichloromethane/methanol (CH 2 Cl 2 /MeOH) (1:1) during two weeks; the aqueous extracts were prepared by infusion. The extracts were tested against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis . The cytotoxicity was assayed in parallel on peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice. Four of the thirty extracts tested were active and selective against L. amazonensis promastigotes: Schinus molle (CH 2 Cl 2 and CH 2 Cl 2 /MeOH), Lantana camara (CH 2 Cl 2 ) and Prosopis laevigata (aqueous). These extracts had a median inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) against intracellular amastigotes under 50 μg/mL and a selectivity index (SI) higher than 5, which indicates that they constitute valuable candidates to obtain secondary metabolites with leishmanicidal activity. The results derived from this study indicate that L. camara, P. laevigata, and S. molle might provide interesting new leads for the development of antileishmanial drugs.

  18. Antitumor and antiviral activity of Colombian medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Betancur-Galvis, L; Saez, J; Granados, H; Salazar, A; Ossa, J

    1999-01-01

    Extracts of nine species of plants traditionally used in Colombia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential antitumor (cytotoxicity) and antiherpetic activity. MTT (Tetrazolium blue) and Neutral Red colorimetric assays were used to evaluate the reduction of viability of cell cultures in presence and absence of the extracts. MTT was also used to evaluate the effects of the extracts on the lytic activity of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) and the 50% inhibitory concentration of the viral effect (EC50) for each extract were calculated by linear regression analysis. Extracts from Annona muricata, A. cherimolia and Rollinia membranacea, known for their cytotoxicity were used as positive controls. Likewise, acyclovir and heparin were used as positive controls of antiherpetic activity. Methanolic extract from Annona sp. on HEp-2 cells presented a CC50 value at 72 hr of 49.6x10(3)mg/ml. Neither of the other extracts examined showed a significant cytotoxicity. The aqueous extract from Beta vulgaris, the ethanol extract from Callisia grasilis and the methanol extract Annona sp. showed some antiherpetic activity with acceptable therapeutic indexes (the ratio of CC50 to EC50). These species are good candidates for further activity-monitored fractionation to identify active principles.

  19. Cellulose microfibril deposition: coordinated activity at the plant plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Lindeboom, J; Mulder, B M; Vos, J W; Ketelaar, T; Emons, A M C

    2008-08-01

    Plant cell wall production is a membrane-bound process. Cell walls are composed of cellulose microfibrils, embedded inside a matrix of other polysaccharides and glycoproteins. The cell wall matrix is extruded into the existing cell wall by exocytosis. This same process also inserts the cellulose synthase complexes into the plasma membrane. These complexes, the nanomachines that produce the cellulose microfibrils, move inside the plasma membrane leaving the cellulose microfibrils in their wake. Cellulose microfibril angle is an important determinant of cell development and of tissue properties and as such relevant for the industrial use of plant material. Here, we provide an integrated view of the events taking place in the not more than 100 nm deep area in and around the plasma membrane, correlating recent results provided by the distinct field of plant cell biology. We discuss the coordinated activities of exocytosis, endocytosis, and movement of cellulose synthase complexes while producing cellulose microfibrils and the link of these processes to the cortical microtubules.

  20. Fraxinus: A Plant with Versatile Pharmacological and Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Sarfraz, Iqra; Rasul, Azhar; Jabeen, Farhat; Younis, Tahira; Zahoor, Muhammad Kashif; Arshad, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Fraxinus , a member of the Oleaceae family, commonly known as ash tree is found in northeast Asia, north America, east and western France, China, northern areas of Pakistan, India, and Afghanistan. Chemical constituents of Fraxinus plant include various secoiridoids, phenylethanoids, flavonoids, coumarins, and lignans; therefore, it is considered as a plant with versatile biological and pharmacological activities. Its tremendous range of pharmacotherapeutic properties has been well documented including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and neuroprotective. In addition, its bioactive phytochemicals and secondary metabolites can be effectively used in cosmetic industry and as a competent antiaging agent. Fraxinus presents pharmacological effectiveness by targeting the novel targets in several pathological conditions, which provide a spacious therapeutic time window. Our aim is to update the scientific research community with recent endeavors with specifically highlighting the mechanism of action in different diseases. This potentially efficacious pharmacological drug candidate should be used for new drug discovery in future. This review suggests that this plant has extremely important medicinal utilization but further supporting studies and scientific experimentations are mandatory to determine its specific intracellular targets and site of action to completely figure out its pharmacological applications.

  1. Fraxinus: A Plant with Versatile Pharmacological and Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Sarfraz, Iqra; Jabeen, Farhat; Younis, Tahira; Arshad, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Fraxinus, a member of the Oleaceae family, commonly known as ash tree is found in northeast Asia, north America, east and western France, China, northern areas of Pakistan, India, and Afghanistan. Chemical constituents of Fraxinus plant include various secoiridoids, phenylethanoids, flavonoids, coumarins, and lignans; therefore, it is considered as a plant with versatile biological and pharmacological activities. Its tremendous range of pharmacotherapeutic properties has been well documented including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and neuroprotective. In addition, its bioactive phytochemicals and secondary metabolites can be effectively used in cosmetic industry and as a competent antiaging agent. Fraxinus presents pharmacological effectiveness by targeting the novel targets in several pathological conditions, which provide a spacious therapeutic time window. Our aim is to update the scientific research community with recent endeavors with specifically highlighting the mechanism of action in different diseases. This potentially efficacious pharmacological drug candidate should be used for new drug discovery in future. This review suggests that this plant has extremely important medicinal utilization but further supporting studies and scientific experimentations are mandatory to determine its specific intracellular targets and site of action to completely figure out its pharmacological applications. PMID:29279716

  2. Biological activity of common mullein, a medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Turker, Arzu Ucar; Camper, N D

    2002-10-01

    Common Mullein (Verbascum thapsus L., Scrophulariaceae) is a medicinal plant that has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, asthma, spasmodic coughs, diarrhea and other pulmonary problems. The objective of this study was to assess the biological activity of Common Mullein extracts and commercial Mullein products using selected bench top bioassays, including antibacterial, antitumor, and two toxicity assays--brine shrimp and radish seed. Extracts were prepared in water, ethanol and methanol. Antibacterial activity (especially the water extract) was observed with Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced tumors in potato disc tissue were inhibited by all extracts. Toxicity to Brine Shrimp and to radish seed germination and growth was observed at higher concentrations of the extracts.

  3. Anticholinesterase activity of endemic plant extracts from Soqotra.

    PubMed

    Bakthira, Hussein; Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Arnold, Norbert; Teichert, Axel; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2011-01-01

    A total of 30 chloroform and methanol extracts from the following endemic Soqotran plants Acridocarpus socotranus Olive, Boswellia socotranao Balf.fil, Boswellia elongata Balf. fil., Caralluma socotrana N. Br, Cephalocroton socotranus Balf.f, Croton socotranus Balf. fil.., Dendrosicycos socotrana Balf.f., Dorstenia gigas Schweinf. ex Balf. fil., Eureiandra balfourii Cogn. & Balf. fil., Kalanchoe farinaceae Balf.f, Limonium sokotranum (Vierh) Radcl. Sm), Oldenlandia pulvinata, Pulicaria diversifolia (Balf. and Pulicaria stephanocarpa Balf. were screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by using in vitro Ellman method at 50 and 200 µg/ml concentrations. Chloroform extracts of Croton socotranus, Boswellia socotrana, Dorstenia gigas, and Pulicaria stephanocarpa as well as methanol extracts of Eureiandra balfourii exhibited inhibitory activities higher than 50 % at concentration of 200 µg. At a concentrations of 50 µg, the chloroform extract of Croton socotranus exhibited an inhibition of 40.6 %.

  4. Mimicry technology: suppressing small RNA activity in plants.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Somoza, Ignacio; Manavella, Pablo Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Small RNA suppression constitutes one of the major difficulties for a full molecular characterization of their specific roles in plants. Taking advantage of the latest insights into the new post-biogenesis layer of regulation in microRNA (miRNA) activity, it is possible to overcome the above-mentioned limitation (Nat Genet 39:1033-1037, 2007). We engineered the IPS1 non-coding RNA to bear a complementary sequence to a given miRNA family, resulting in specific sequestration of RISC complexes. MIMIC technology allows for the constitutive release of all of the potential targets of a miRNA family as well as tissue-specific and inducible suppression of its activity.

  5. Induction of plant defense gene expression by plant activators and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in greenhouse-grown tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Herman, M A B; Davidson, J K; Smart, C D

    2008-11-01

    Plant activators provide an appealing management option for bacterial diseases of greenhouse-grown tomatoes. Two types of plant activators, one that induces systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and a second that activates induced systemic resistance (ISR), were evaluated for control of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and effect on plant defense gene activation. Benzothiadiazole (BTH, SAR-inducing compound) effectively reduced bacterial speck incidence and severity, both alone and in combination with the ISR-inducing product. Application of BTH also led to elevated activation of salicylic acid and ethylene-mediated responses, based on real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of marker gene expression levels. In contrast, the ISR-inducing product (made up of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria) inconsistently modified defense gene expression and did not provide disease control to the same level as did BTH. No antagonism was observed by combining the two activators as control of bacterial speck was similar to or better than BTH alone.

  6. Antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of eleven edible plants.

    PubMed

    Boğa, Mehmet; Hacıbekiroğlu, Işıl; Kolak, Ufuk

    2011-03-01

    Consumers have become more interested in beneficial effects of vegetables, fruits, and tea to protect their health. The antioxidant potential and anticholinesterase activity of eleven edible plants were investigated. The dichloromethane, ethanol and water extracts prepared from celery [Apium graveolens L. (Umbelliferae)], Jerusalem artichoke [Helianthus tuberosus L. (Compositae)], spinach [Spinacia oleracea L. (Chenopodiaceae)], chard [Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla (Chenopodiaceae)], purslane [Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae)], ispit, or borage [Trachystemon orientale (L.) G. Don (Boraginaceae)], garden rocket [Eruca sativa Mill. (Brassicaceae)], red cabbage [Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra DC. (Cruciferae)], lime flower [Tilia tomentosa Moench (Tiliaceae)], cinnamon [Cinnamomum cassia Presl. (Lauraceae)], and rosehip [Rosa canina L. (Rosaceae)], were tested to determine their antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities by using CUPRAC (cupric reducing antioxidant capacity) and Ellman methods, respectively, for the first time. As a result, the dichloromethane, ethanol and water extracts of cinnamon showed the best antioxidant effect among the extracts of the tested plants. The ethanol extract of cinnamon exhibited 63.02% inhibition against acetylcholinesterase and 85.11% inhibition against butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at 200 µg/mL concentration while the dichloromethane extract of garden rocket possessed the highest inhibition (91.27%) against BChE among all the tested extracts. This study indicated that the ethanol extract of cinnamon may be a new potential resource of natural antioxidant and anticholinesterase compounds.

  7. Isolation and Identification of Active Compounds from Papaya Plants and Activities as Antimicrobial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetya, A. T.; Mursiti, S.; Maryan, S.; Jati, N. K.

    2018-04-01

    Extraction and isolation of papaya seeds and leaves (Carica papaya L) has been performed using n-hexane and ethanol solvents. Further isolation of the extract obtained using ethyl acetate and diethyl ether solvents. The result of the phytochemical test of papaya extract obtained by mixture of an active compound of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, and saponins. Ethyl acetate isolates containing only flavonoids and diethyl ether isolates contain only alkaloids. Extracts and isolates from papaya plants had gram-positive antibacterial activity greater than the gram-negative bacteria, but both did not have antifungal activity. Papaya extracts have greater antibacterial activity than flavonoid isolates and alkaloid isolates. Strong antibacterial inhibitory sequences are extracts of papaya plants, flavonoid isolates, and alkaloid isolates.

  8. Antioxidant Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Antibacterial Activity of Five Plants from the Commelinaceae Family

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Joash Ban Lee; Yap, Wei Jin; Tan, Shen Yeng; Lim, Yau Yan; Lee, Sui Mae

    2014-01-01

    Commelinaceae is a family of herbaceous flowering plants with many species used in ethnobotany, particularly in South America. However, thus far reports of their bioactivity are few and far between. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of five Commelinaceae methanolic leaf extracts. The antioxidant content was evaluated by the total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) assays. The antioxidant activities measured were DPPH free radical scavenging (FRS), ferric reducing power (FRP), and ferrous ion chelating (FIC); of the five plants, the methanolic leaf extract of Tradescantia zebrina showed the highest antioxidant content and activity, and exhibited antibacterial activity against six species of Gram-positive and two species of Gram-negative bacteria in a range of 5–10 mg/mL based on the broth microdilution method. PMID:26785239

  9. In vitro plant tissue culture: means for production of biological active compounds.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Leal, Claudia A; Puente-Garza, César A; García-Lara, Silverio

    2018-05-07

    Plant tissue culture as an important tool for the continuous production of active compounds including secondary metabolites and engineered molecules. Novel methods (gene editing, abiotic stress) can improve the technique. Humans have a long history of reliance on plants for a supply of food, shelter and, most importantly, medicine. Current-day pharmaceuticals are typically based on plant-derived metabolites, with new products being discovered constantly. Nevertheless, the consistent and uniform supply of plant pharmaceuticals has often been compromised. One alternative for the production of important plant active compounds is in vitro plant tissue culture, as it assures independence from geographical conditions by eliminating the need to rely on wild plants. Plant transformation also allows the further use of plants for the production of engineered compounds, such as vaccines and multiple pharmaceuticals. This review summarizes the important bioactive compounds currently produced by plant tissue culture and the fundamental methods and plants employed for their production.

  10. Further evaluation of Rwandan medicinal plant extracts for their antimicrobial and antiviral activities.

    PubMed

    Cos, P; Hermans, N; De Bruyne, T; Apers, S; Sindambiwe, J B; Vanden Berghe, D; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J

    2002-02-01

    A total of 45 Rwandan plant extracts, belonging to 37 different plant species out of 21 families, were investigated for their antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. The plants were selected on the base of their ethnomedicinal use against infections and autoimmune diseases. From all the plant extracts tested, only Clematis hirsuta (leaves) showed a pronounced antifungal activity against Candida albicans and the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. Seven plant extracts showed a high antiviral activity against the DNA-virus Herpes simplex type 1, while five and three plant extracts were highly active against the RNA-viruses Coxsackie and Polio, respectively. Only Macaranga kilimandscharica (leaves) showed an interesting anti-measles activity, whereas Eriosema montanum (leaves) and Entada abyssinica (leaves) were highly active against Semliki forest virus. Some plant extracts showed an antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and Mycobacterium fortuitum, but none of them were active against the Gram-negative bacteria tested.

  11. Antioxidative Activities and Active Compounds of Extracts from Catalpa Plant Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongyu; Hu, Gege; Dong, Juane; Wei, Qin; Shao, Hongbo; Lei, Ming

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07 mg/g·DW) was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55 mg/g·DW) and C. ovata G. Don (24.96 mg/g·DW). According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6) leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE), and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1) and apigenin (2), respectively. PMID:25431795

  12. Antioxidative activities and active compounds of extracts from Catalpa plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongyu; Hu, Gege; Dong, Juane; Wei, Qin; Shao, Hongbo; Lei, Ming

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07 mg/g · DW) was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55 mg/g · DW) and C. ovata G. Don (24.96 mg/g · DW). According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6) leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE), and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1) and apigenin (2), respectively.

  13. Active green wall plant health tolerance to diesel smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Paull, Naomi J; Irga, Peter J; Torpy, Fraser R

    2018-05-10

    Poor air quality is an emerging world-wide problem, with most urban air pollutants arising from vehicular emissions. As such, localized high pollution environments, such as traffic tunnels pose a significant health risk. Phytoremediation, including the use of active (ventilated) green walls or botanical biofilters, is gaining recognition as a potentially effective method for air pollution control. Research to date has tested the capacity of these systems to remove low levels of pollutants from indoor environments. If botanical biofilters are to be used in highly polluted environments, the plants used in these systems must be resilient, however, this idea has received minimal research. Thus, testing was conducted to assess the hardiness of the vegetated component of a botanical biofilter to simulated street level air pollutant exposure. A range of morphological, physiological, and biochemical tests were conducted on 8 common green wall plant species prior to and post 5-week exposure to highly concentrated diesel fuel combustion effluent; as a pilot study to investigate viability in in situ conditions. The results indicated that species within the fig family were the most tolerant species of those assessed. It is likely that species within the fig family can withstand enhanced air pollutant conditions, potentially a result of its leaf morphology and physiology. Other species tested were all moderately tolerant to the pollution treatment. We conclude that most common green wall plant species have the capacity to withstand high pollutant environments, however, extended experimentation is needed to rule out potential long term effects along with potential decreases in filter efficiency from accumulative effects on the substrate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In Search of a Better Bean: A Simple Activity to Introduce Plant Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaccarotella, Kim; James, Roxie

    2014-01-01

    Measuring plant stem growth over time is a simple activity commonly used to introduce concepts in growth and development in plant biology (Reid & Pu, 2007). This Quick Fix updates the activity and incorporates a real-world application: students consider possible effects of soil substrate and sunlight conditions on plant growth without needing…

  15. α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Selected Malaysian Plants.

    PubMed

    Mohd Bukhari, Dzatil Awanis; Siddiqui, Mohammad Jamshed; Shamsudin, Siti Hadijah; Rahman, Md Mukhlesur; So'ad, Siti Zaiton Mat

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disease indicated by unusually high plasma glucose level that can lead to major complications such as diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, and cardiovascular diseases. One of the effective therapeutic managements of the disease is to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia through inhibition of α-glucosidase, a carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzyme to retard overall glucose absorption. In recent years, a plenty of research works have been conducted looking for novel and effective α-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) from natural sources as alternatives for the synthetic AGI due to their unpleasant side effects. Plants and herbs are rich with secondary metabolites that have massive pharmaceutical potential. Besides, studies showed that phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, anthocyanins, glycosides, and phenolic compounds possess significant inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase enzyme. Malaysia is a tropical country that is rich with medicinal herbs. In this review, we focus on eight Malaysian plants with the potential as AGI to develop a potential functional food or lead compounds against diabetes.

  16. A Review on Antiulcer Activity of Few Indian Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Vimala, G.; Gricilda Shoba, F.

    2014-01-01

    Ulcer is a common gastrointestinal disorder which is seen among many people. It is basically an inflamed break in the skin or the mucus membrane lining the alimentary tract. Ulceration occurs when there is a disturbance of the normal equilibrium caused by either enhanced aggression or diminished mucosal resistance. It may be due to the regular usage of drugs, irregular food habits, stress, and so forth. Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. A number of synthetic drugs are available to treat ulcers. But these drugs are expensive and are likely to produce more side effects when compared to herbal medicines. The literature revealed that many medicinal plants and polyherbal formulations are used for the treatment of ulcer by various ayurvedic doctors and traditional medicinal practitioners. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer, and delay ulcer recurrence. In this review attempts have been made to know about some medicinal plants which may be used in ayurvedic as well as modern science for the treatment or prevention of peptic ulcer. PMID:24971094

  17. α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Selected Malaysian Plants

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Bukhari, Dzatil Awanis; Siddiqui, Mohammad Jamshed; Shamsudin, Siti Hadijah; Rahman, Md. Mukhlesur; So'ad, Siti Zaiton Mat

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disease indicated by unusually high plasma glucose level that can lead to major complications such as diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, and cardiovascular diseases. One of the effective therapeutic managements of the disease is to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia through inhibition of α-glucosidase, a carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzyme to retard overall glucose absorption. In recent years, a plenty of research works have been conducted looking for novel and effective α-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) from natural sources as alternatives for the synthetic AGI due to their unpleasant side effects. Plants and herbs are rich with secondary metabolites that have massive pharmaceutical potential. Besides, studies showed that phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, anthocyanins, glycosides, and phenolic compounds possess significant inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase enzyme. Malaysia is a tropical country that is rich with medicinal herbs. In this review, we focus on eight Malaysian plants with the potential as AGI to develop a potential functional food or lead compounds against diabetes. PMID:28979070

  18. Phytohormone profiles induced by trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Pascual, Jose A; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2014-07-01

    The application of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. Some Trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the phytohormonal network of their host plant, thus leading to an improvement of plant growth and stress tolerance. In this study, we tested whether alterations in the phytohormone signature induced by different Trichoderma isolates correspond with their ability for biocontrol and growth promotion. Four Trichoderma isolates were collected from agricultural soils and were identified as the species Trichoderma harzianum (two isolates), Trichoderma ghanense, and Trichoderma hamatum. Their antagonistic activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis was tested in vitro, and their plant growth-promoting and biocontrol activity against Fusarium wilt on melon plants was examined in vivo, and compared to that of the commercial strain T. harzianum T-22. Several growth- and defense-related phytohormones were analyzed in the shoots of plants that were root-colonized by the different Trichoderma isolates. An increase in auxin and a decrease in cytokinins and abscisic acid content were induced by the isolates that promoted the plant growth. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the plant phenotypic and hormonal variables. PCA pointed to a strong association of auxin induction with plant growth stimulation by Trichoderma. Furthermore, the disease-protectant ability of the Trichoderma strains against F. oxysporum infection seems to be more related to their induced alterations in the content of the hormones abscisic acid, ethylene, and the cytokinin trans-zeatin riboside than to the in vitro antagonism activity against F. oxysporum.

  19. Host Plants Indirectly Influence Plant Virus Transmission by Altering Gut Cysteine Protease Activity of Aphid Vectors*

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Patricia V.; Ghanim, Murad; Rebelo, Ana Rita; Santos, Rogerio S.; Orsburn, Benjamin C.; Gray, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, is a vector of the Potato leafroll virus (PLRV, Luteoviridae), transmitted exclusively by aphids in a circulative manner. PLRV transmission efficiency was significantly reduced when a clonal lineage of M. persicae was reared on turnip as compared with the weed physalis, and this was a transient effect caused by a host-switch response. A trend of higher PLRV titer in physalis-reared aphids as compared with turnip-reared aphids was observed at 24 h and 72 h after virus acquisition. The major difference in the proteomes of these aphids was the up-regulation of predicted lysosomal enzymes, in particular the cysteine protease cathepsin B (cathB), in aphids reared on turnip. The aphid midgut is the site of PLRV acquisition, and cathB and PLRV localization were starkly different in midguts of the aphids reared on the two host plants. In viruliferous aphids that were reared on turnip, there was near complete colocalization of cathB and PLRV at the cell membranes, which was not observed in physalis-reared aphids. Chemical inhibition of cathB restored the ability of aphids reared on turnip to transmit PLRV in a dose-dependent manner, showing that the increased activity of cathB and other cysteine proteases at the cell membrane indirectly decreased virus transmission by aphids. Understanding how the host plant influences virus transmission by aphids is critical for growers to manage the spread of virus among field crops. PMID:27932519

  20. Allosteric receptor activation by the plant peptide hormone phytosulfokine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jizong; Li, Hongju; Han, Zhifu; Zhang, Heqiao; Wang, Tong; Lin, Guangzhong; Chang, Junbiao; Yang, Weicai; Chai, Jijie

    2015-09-10

    Phytosulfokine (PSK) is a disulfated pentapeptide that has a ubiquitous role in plant growth and development. PSK is perceived by its receptor PSKR, a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase (LRR-RK). The mechanisms underlying the recognition of PSK, the activation of PSKR and the identity of the components downstream of the initial binding remain elusive. Here we report the crystal structures of the extracellular LRR domain of PSKR in free, PSK- and co-receptor-bound forms. The structures reveal that PSK interacts mainly with a β-strand from the island domain of PSKR, forming an anti-β-sheet. The two sulfate moieties of PSK interact directly with PSKR, sensitizing PSKR recognition of PSK. Supported by biochemical, structural and genetic evidence, PSK binding enhances PSKR heterodimerization with the somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinases (SERKs). However, PSK is not directly involved in PSKR-SERK interaction but stabilizes PSKR island domain for recruitment of a SERK. Our data reveal the structural basis for PSKR recognition of PSK and allosteric activation of PSKR by PSK, opening up new avenues for the design of PSKR-specific small molecules.

  1. Anti-babesial activity of some central kalimantan plant extracts and active oligostilbenoids from Shorea balangeran.

    PubMed

    Subeki; Nomura, Shinkichi; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Yamato, Osamu; Maede, Yoshimitsu; Katakura, Ken; Suzuki, Mamoru; Trimurningsih; Chairul; Yoshihara, Teruhiko

    2005-05-01

    Bark extracts from a total of 22 species of Central Kalimantan plants were evaluated for their anti-babesial activity against Babesia gibsoni in vitro. Of these plant species, extracts of Calophyllum tetrapterum, Garcinia rigida, Lithocarpus sp., Sandoricum emarginatum, and Shorea balangeran showed more than 90% inhibition of the parasite growth at a test concentration of 1000 microg/mL. Activity-guided fractionation of the bark of S. balangeran (Dipterocarpaceae) led to the reisolation of oligostilbenoids, vaticanol A(1), B(2), and G(3). The structures were determined on the basis of spectral evidence. Compounds 1 and 3 showed complete inhibition on the growth of Babesia gibsoni in vitro at a concentration of 25 microg/mL, and compound 2 at concentration of 50 microg/mL.

  2. Reducing vibration transfer from power plants by active methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiryukhin, A. V.; Milman, O. O.; Ptakhin, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    The possibility of applying the methods of active damping of vibration and pressure pulsations for reducing their transfer from power plants into the environment, the seating, and the industrial premises are considered. The results of experimental works implemented by the authors on the active broadband damping of vibration and dynamic forces after shock-absorption up to 15 dB in the frequency band up to 150 Hz, of water pressure pulsations in the pipeline up to 20 dB in the frequency band up to 600 Hz, and of spatial low-frequency air noise indoors of a diesel generator at discrete frequency up to 20 dB are presented. It is shown that a reduction of vibration transfer through a vibration-isolating junction (expansion joints) of pipelines with liquid is the most complicated and has hardly been developed so far. This problem is essential for vibration isolation of power equipment from the seating and the environment through pipelines with water and steam in the power and transport engineering, shipbuilding, and in oil and gas pipelines in pumping stations. For improving efficiency, reducing the energy consumption, and decreasing the overall dimensions of equipment, it is advisable to combine the work of an active system with passive damping means, the use of which is not always sufficient. The executive component of the systems of active damping should be placed behind the vibration isolators (expansion joints). It is shown that the existence of working medium and connection of vibration with pressure pulsations in existing designs of pipeline expansion joints lead to growth of vibration stiffness of the expansion joint with the environment by two and more orders as compared with the static stiffness and makes difficulties for using the active methods. For active damping of vibration transfer through expansion joints of pipelines with a liquid, it is necessary to develop expansion joint structures with minimal connection of vibrations and pulsations and minimal

  3. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of the Asian Herbal Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baljinnyam, N.; Jugder, B.; Norov, N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Ostrovnaya, T. M.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2011-06-01

    Asian medicinal herbs Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) are widely used in folk and Ayurvedic medicine for healing and preventing some diseases. The modern medical science has proved that the Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) possesses the following functions: reducing blood press, dispelling cancer cell, coronary artery's expanding and bacteriostating and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) is recommended against headache, toothache, skin diseases, vomiting and sometimes it is taken for treatment of diabetes. Species of Chrysanthemums were collected in the north-eastern and central Mongolia, and the Red Sandalwood powder was imported from India. Samples of Chrysanthemums (branches, flowers and leaves) (0.5 g) and red sandalwood powder (0.5 g) were subjected to the multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 reactor, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) JINR, Dubna. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Hf, Ta, W, Sb, Au, Hg, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Th, U, Lu) were determined. For the first time such a large group of elements was determined in the herbal plants used in Mongolia. The quality control of the analytical results was provided by using certified reference material Bowen Cabbage. The results obtained are compared to the "Reference plant» data (B. Markert, 1992) and interpreted in terms of excess of such elements as Se, Cr, Ca, Fe, Ni, Mo, and rare earth elements.

  4. The activation and suppression of plant innate immunity by parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Goverse, Aska; Smant, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes engage in prolonged and intimate relationships with their host plants, often involving complex alterations in host cell morphology and function. It is puzzling how nematodes can achieve this, seemingly without activating the innate immune system of their hosts. Secretions released by infective juvenile nematodes are thought to be crucial for host invasion, for nematode migration inside plants, and for feeding on host cells. In the past, much of the research focused on the manipulation of developmental pathways in host plants by plant-parasitic nematodes. However, recent findings demonstrate that plant-parasitic nematodes also deliver effectors into the apoplast and cytoplasm of host cells to suppress plant defense responses. In this review, we describe the current insights in the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the activation and suppression of host innate immunity by plant-parasitic nematodes along seven critical evolutionary and developmental transitions in plant parasitism.

  5. Host Plants Indirectly Influence Plant Virus Transmission by Altering Gut Cysteine Protease Activity of Aphid Vectors.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Patricia V; Ghanim, Murad; Alexander, Mariko; Rebelo, Ana Rita; Santos, Rogerio S; Orsburn, Benjamin C; Gray, Stewart; Cilia, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae , is a vector of the Potato leafroll virus (PLRV, Luteoviridae), transmitted exclusively by aphids in a circulative manner. PLRV transmission efficiency was significantly reduced when a clonal lineage of M. persicae was reared on turnip as compared with the weed physalis, and this was a transient effect caused by a host-switch response. A trend of higher PLRV titer in physalis-reared aphids as compared with turnip-reared aphids was observed at 24 h and 72 h after virus acquisition. The major difference in the proteomes of these aphids was the up-regulation of predicted lysosomal enzymes, in particular the cysteine protease cathepsin B (cathB), in aphids reared on turnip. The aphid midgut is the site of PLRV acquisition, and cathB and PLRV localization were starkly different in midguts of the aphids reared on the two host plants. In viruliferous aphids that were reared on turnip, there was near complete colocalization of cathB and PLRV at the cell membranes, which was not observed in physalis-reared aphids. Chemical inhibition of cathB restored the ability of aphids reared on turnip to transmit PLRV in a dose-dependent manner, showing that the increased activity of cathB and other cysteine proteases at the cell membrane indirectly decreased virus transmission by aphids. Understanding how the host plant influences virus transmission by aphids is critical for growers to manage the spread of virus among field crops. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI

    PubMed Central

    Mahlo, Salome Mamokone; Chauke, Hasani Richard; McGaw, Lyndy; Eloff, Jacobus

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants are used by many ethnic groups as a source of medicine for the treatment of various ailments in both humans and domestic animals. These plants produce secondary metabolites that have antimicrobial properties, thus screening of medicinal plants provide another alternative for producing chemical fungicides that are relatively non-toxic and cost-effective. Materials and methods: Leaf extracts of selected South African plant species (Bucida buceras, Breonadia salicina, Harpephyllum caffrum, Olinia ventosa, Vangueria infausta and Xylotheca kraussiana) were investigated for activity against selected phytopathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Colletotricum gloeosporioides, Penicillium janthinellum, P. expansum, Trichoderma harzianum and Fusarium oxysporum). These plant fungal pathogens causes major economic losses in fruit industry such as blue rot on nectaries and postharvest disease in citrus. Plant species were selected from 600 evaluated inter alia, against two animal fungal pathogens (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans). Antioxidant activity of the selected plant extracts were investigated using a qualitative assay (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)). Bioautography assay was used to determine the number of antifungal compounds in plant extracts. Results: All plant extracts were active against the selected plant phytopathogenic fungi. Moreover, Bucida buceras had the best antifungal activity against four of the fungi, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values as low as 0.02 mg/ml and 0.08 mg/ml against P. expansum, P. janthinellum, T. harzianum and F. oxysporum. The plant extracts of five plant species did not possess strong antioxidant activity. However, methanol extract of X. kraussiana was the most active radical scavenger in the DPPH assay amongst the six medicinal plants screened. No antifungal compounds were observed in some of the plant extracts with good antifungal activity as shown in

  7. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI.

    PubMed

    Mahlo, Salome Mamokone; Chauke, Hasani Richard; McGaw, Lyndy; Eloff, Jacobus

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by many ethnic groups as a source of medicine for the treatment of various ailments in both humans and domestic animals. These plants produce secondary metabolites that have antimicrobial properties, thus screening of medicinal plants provide another alternative for producing chemical fungicides that are relatively non-toxic and cost-effective. Leaf extracts of selected South African plant species ( Bucida buceras, Breonadia salicina, Harpephyllum caffrum, Olinia ventosa, Vangueria infausta and Xylotheca kraussiana ) were investigated for activity against selected phytopathogenic fungi ( Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Colletotricum gloeosporioides, Penicillium janthinellum, P. expansum, Trichoderma harzianum and Fusarium oxysporum ). These plant fungal pathogens causes major economic losses in fruit industry such as blue rot on nectaries and postharvest disease in citrus. Plant species were selected from 600 evaluated inter alia, against two animal fungal pathogens ( Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans ). Antioxidant activity of the selected plant extracts were investigated using a qualitative assay (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)). Bioautography assay was used to determine the number of antifungal compounds in plant extracts. All plant extracts were active against the selected plant phytopathogenic fungi. Moreover, Bucida buceras had the best antifungal activity against four of the fungi, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values as low as 0.02 mg/ml and 0.08 mg/ml against P. expansum, P. janthinellum, T. harzianum and F. oxysporum . The plant extracts of five plant species did not possess strong antioxidant activity. However, methanol extract of X. kraussiana was the most active radical scavenger in the DPPH assay amongst the six medicinal plants screened. No antifungal compounds were observed in some of the plant extracts with good antifungal activity as shown in the microdilution assay, indicating

  8. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. 3. Confirmation of activity against enterobacteria of 16 plants.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, A; Fletes, L; Aguilar, L; Ramirez, O; Figueroa, L; Taracena, A M; Samayoa, B

    1993-01-01

    Ethnobotanical surveys and literature review identified 408 plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The screening of 84 showed that 34 inhibit one or more enterobacteria; 16 of these were selected for further investigation. Extracts were obtained with three solvents of different polarity (n-hexane, acetone and alcohol) and the in vitro activity was demonstrated against enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Shigella flexneri. The activity of nine ethanolic extracts against enterobacteria, particularly Acalypha guatemalensis, Diphysa robinioides, Lippia dulcis, Psidium guajava and Spondias purpurea was confirmed. The plants with antibacterial activity are discussed.

  9. Plant polyphenols: chemical properties, biological activities, and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Quideau, Stéphane; Deffieux, Denis; Douat-Casassus, Céline; Pouységu, Laurent

    2011-01-17

    Eating five servings of fruits and vegetables per day! This is what is highly recommended and heavily advertised nowadays to the general public to stay fit and healthy! Drinking green tea on a regular basis, eating chocolate from time to time, as well as savoring a couple of glasses of red wine per day have been claimed to increase life expectancy even further! Why? The answer is in fact still under scientific scrutiny, but a particular class of compounds naturally occurring in fruits and vegetables is considered to be crucial for the expression of such human health benefits: the polyphenols! What are these plant products really? What are their physicochemical properties? How do they express their biological activity? Are they really valuable for disease prevention? Can they be used to develop new pharmaceutical drugs? What recent progress has been made toward their preparation by organic synthesis? This Review gives answers from a chemical perspective, summarizes the state of the art, and highlights the most significant advances in the field of polyphenol research. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. 75 FR 11916 - Chrysler LLC, Manufacturing Truck and Activity Division, Jefferson North Assembly Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ..., Manufacturing Truck and Activity Division, Jefferson North Assembly Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers From..., Jefferson North Assembly Plant, Detroit, Michigan. The notice was published in the Federal Register on April... substantial portion of which are shipped to an affiliated plant where they are used in the assembly of...

  11. Saudi anti-human cancer plants database (SACPD): A collection of plants with anti-human cancer activities.

    PubMed

    Al-Zahrani, Ateeq Ahmed

    2018-01-30

    Several anticancer drugs have been developed from natural products such as plants. Successful experiments in inhibiting the growth of human cancer cell lines using Saudi plants were published over the last three decades. Up to date, there is no Saudi anticancer plants database as a comprehensive source for the interesting data generated from these experiments. Therefore, there was a need for creating a database to collect, organize, search and retrieve such data. As a result, the current paper describes the generation of the Saudi anti-human cancer plants database (SACPD). The database contains most of the reported information about the naturally growing Saudi anticancer plants. SACPD comprises the scientific and local names of 91 plant species that grow naturally in Saudi Arabia. These species belong to 38 different taxonomic families. In Addition, 18 species that represent16 family of medicinal plants and are intensively sold in the local markets in Saudi Arabia were added to the database. The website provides interesting details, including plant part containing the anticancer bioactive compounds, plants locations and cancer/cell type against which they exhibit their anticancer activity. Our survey revealed that breast, liver and leukemia were the most studied cancer cell lines in Saudi Arabia with percentages of 27%, 19% and 15%, respectively. The current SACPD represents a nucleus around which more development efforts can expand to accommodate all future submissions about new Saudi plant species with anticancer activities. SACPD will provide an excellent starting point for researchers and pharmaceutical companies who are interested in developing new anticancer drugs. SACPD is available online at https://teeqrani1.wixsite.com/sapd.

  12. Saudi anti-human cancer plants database (SACPD): A collection of plants with anti-human cancer activities

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zahrani, Ateeq Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Several anticancer drugs have been developed from natural products such as plants. Successful experiments in inhibiting the growth of human cancer cell lines using Saudi plants were published over the last three decades. Up to date, there is no Saudi anticancer plants database as a comprehensive source for the interesting data generated from these experiments. Therefore, there was a need for creating a database to collect, organize, search and retrieve such data. As a result, the current paper describes the generation of the Saudi anti-human cancer plants database (SACPD). The database contains most of the reported information about the naturally growing Saudi anticancer plants. SACPD comprises the scientific and local names of 91 plant species that grow naturally in Saudi Arabia. These species belong to 38 different taxonomic families. In Addition, 18 species that represent16 family of medicinal plants and are intensively sold in the local markets in Saudi Arabia were added to the database. The website provides interesting details, including plant part containing the anticancer bioactive compounds, plants locations and cancer/cell type against which they exhibit their anticancer activity. Our survey revealed that breast, liver and leukemia were the most studied cancer cell lines in Saudi Arabia with percentages of 27%, 19% and 15%, respectively. The current SACPD represents a nucleus around which more development efforts can expand to accommodate all future submissions about new Saudi plant species with anticancer activities. SACPD will provide an excellent starting point for researchers and pharmaceutical companies who are interested in developing new anticancer drugs. SACPD is available online at https://teeqrani1.wixsite.com/sapd PMID:29774137

  13. The correlation between antimutagenic activity and total phenolic content of extracts of 31 plant species with high antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Makhafola, Tshepiso Jan; Elgorashi, Esameldin Elzein; McGaw, Lyndy Joy; Verschaeve, Luc; Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas

    2016-11-29

    Antimutagenic activity of plant extracts is important in the discovery of new, effective cancer preventing agents. There is increasing evidence that cancer and other mutation-related diseases can be prevented by intake of DNA protective agents. The identification of antimutagenic agents present in plants presents an effective strategy to inhibit pathogenic processes resulting from exposure to mutagenic and/or carcinogenic substances present in the environment. There are no reports on the antimutagenic activities of the plant species investigated in this study. Many mutations related to oxidative stress and DNA damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have been identified in numerous human syndromes. Oxidative DNA damage plays a significant role in mutagenesis, cancer, aging and other human pathologies. Since oxidative DNA damage plays a role in the pathogenesis of several chronic degenerative diseases, the decrease of the oxidative stress could be the best possible strategy for prevention of these diseases. Antioxidant compounds can play a preventative role against mutation-related diseases, and thus have potential antimutagenic effects. The number of antioxidant compounds present in methanol leaf extracts of 120 plant species was determined using a combination of Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and spraying with 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The 31 most promising extracts were selected for further assays. The quantitative antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH free radical scavenging spectrophotometric assay. Total phenolic contents were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay. The mutagenicity of 31 selected extracts was determined in the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. The antimutagenicity of the plant extracts against 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) was also determined using the Ames test. Of the 120 plant extracts assayed qualitatively, 117 had some antioxidant

  14. Effect of stimulation by foliage plant display images on prefrontal cortex activity: a comparison with stimulation using actual foliage plants.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Miho; Song, Chorong; Ikei, Harumi; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Natural scenes like forests and flowers evoke neurophysiological responses that can suppress anxiety and relieve stress. We examined whether images of natural objects can elicit neural responses similar to those evoked by real objects by comparing the activation of the prefrontal cortex during presentation of real foliage plants with a projected image of the same foliage plants. Oxy-hemoglobin concentrations in the prefrontal cortex were measured using time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy while the subjects viewed the real plants or a projected image of the same plants. Compared with a projected image of foliage plants, viewing the actual foliage plants significantly increased oxy-hemoglobin concentrations in the prefrontal cortex. However, using the modified semantic differential method, subjective emotional response ratings ("comfortable vs. uncomfortable" and "relaxed vs. awakening") were similar for both stimuli. The frontal cortex responded differently to presentation of actual plants compared with images of these plants even when the subjective emotional response was similar. These results may help explain the physical and mental health benefits of urban, domestic, and workplace foliage. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Neuroimaging published by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  15. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localised pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) is a key component of plant innate immunity. Most known plant PRRs are receptor kinases and initiation of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) signalling requires phosphorylation of the PR...

  16. Medicinal plants with potential anti-arthritic activity

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Manjusha; Kumar, Vipin; Malhotra, Hitesh; Singh, Surender

    2015-01-01

    Ethno Pharmacological Relevance: Traditional medicinal plants are practiced worldwide for treatment of arthritis especially in developing countries where resources are meager. This review presents the plants profiles inhabiting throughout the world regarding their traditional usage by various tribes/ethnic groups for treatment of arthritis. Materials and Methods: Bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases from the last six decades. Plants/their parts/extracts/polyherbal formulations, toxicity studies for arthritis have been included in the review article. The profiles presented also include information about the scientific name, family, dose, methodology along with mechanism of action and toxicity profile. Research status of 20 potential plant species has been discussed. Further, geographical distribution of research, plants distribution according to families has been given in graphical form. Results: 485 plant species belonging to 100 families, traditionally used in arthritis are used. Among 100 plant families, malvaceae constitute 16, leguminasae 7, fabaceae 13, euphorbiaceae 7, compositae 20, araceae 7, solanaceae 12, liliaceae 9, apocynaceae, lauraceae, and rubiaceae 10, and remaining in lesser proportion. It was observed in our study that majority of researches are carried mainly in developing countries like India, China, Korea and Nigeria. Conclusion: This review clearly indicates that list of medicinal plants presented in this review might be useful to researchers as well as practioners. This review can be useful for preliminary screening of potential anti-arthritis plants. Further toxicity profile given in the review can be useful for the researchers for finding the safe dose. PMID:26401403

  17. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor-binding antagonist activity of Malaysian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Jantan, I; Rafi, I A A; Jalil, J

    2005-01-01

    Forty-nine methanol extracts of 37 species of Malaysian medicinal plants were investigated for their inhibitory effects on platelet-activating factor (PAF) binding to rabbit platelets, using 3H-PAF as a ligand. Among them, the extracts of six Zingiberaceae species (Alpinia galanga Swartz., Boesenbergia pandurata Roxb., Curcuma ochorrhiza Val., C. aeruginosa Roxb., Zingiber officinale Rosc. and Z. zerumbet Koenig.), two Cinnamomum species (C. altissimum Kosterm. and C. pubescens Kochummen.), Goniothalamus malayanus Hook. f. Momordica charantia Linn. and Piper aduncum L. are potential sources of new PAF antagonists, as they showed significant inhibitory effects with IC50 values ranging from 1.2 to 18.4 microg ml(-1).

  18. Plant-growth inhibitory activity of cedrelanolide from Cedrela salvadorensis.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, C L; Calderón, J S; Salazar, J R; Lotina-Hennsen, B; Segura, R

    2001-01-01

    The effect of cedrelanolide, the most abundant limonoid isolated from Cedrela salvadorensis (Meliaceae), was assayed as a plant-growth inhibitory compound against monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds. This compound inhibited germination, seed respiration, and seedling dry weights of some plant species (Lolium multiflorum, var. Hercules, Triticum vulgare, var. Salamanca, Physalis ixocarpa, and Trifolium alexandrinum). Our results indicate that cedrelanolide interferes with monocot preemergence properties, mainly energy metabolism of the seeds at the level of respiration. In addition, the compound inhibits photophosphorylation, H+ uptake, and noncyclic electron flow. This behavior might be responsible for its plant-growth inhibitory properties and its possible role as an allelopathic agent.

  19. Chapter 14: Effects of fire suppression and postfire management activities on plant invasions

    Treesearch

    Matthew L. Brooks

    2008-01-01

    This chapter explains how various fire suppression and postfire management activities can increase or decrease the potential for plant invasions following fire. A conceptual model is used to summarize the basic processes associated with plant invasions and show how specific fire management activities can be designed to minimize the potential for invasion. The...

  20. Antifungal compounds from turmeric and nutmeg with activity against plant pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The antifungal activity of twenty-two common spices was evaluated against plant pathogens using direct-bioautography coupled Colletotrichum bioassays. Turmeric, nutmeg, ginger, clove, oregano, cinnamon, anise, fennel, basil, black cumin, and black pepper showed antifungal activity against the plant ...

  1. HOW FUNGI INTERACT WITH NEMATODE TO ACTIVATE THE PLANT DEFENCE RESPONSE TO TOMATO PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Leonetti, P; Costanza, A; Zonno, M C; Molinari, S; Altomare, C

    2014-01-01

    Management of plant parasitic nematodes with nematode predators, parasites or antagonists is an eco-friendly approach that may avoid the problems arisen by the use of toxic chemicals. Fungi belonging to Trichoderma spp. are well known in literature for their role in control of plant parasitic nematodes. Root-knot nematodes (RKNs), Meloidogyne spp., are obligate parasites that cause the formation of familiar galls on the roots of many cultivated plants. The interaction between the M. incognita motile second stage juveniles (J2s) and the isolate ITEM 908 of Trichoderma harzianum was examined in its effect on the nematode infestation level of susceptible tomato plants. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which ITEM 908 interacts with nematode-infected tomato plants, the expression patterns of the genes PR1 (marker of Salycilic Acid-depending resistance signalling pathway) and JERF3 (marker of the Jasmonic Acid/Ethylene-depending resistance signalling pathway) were detected over time in: i) untreated roots; ii) roots pre-treated with the fungus; iii) roots inoculated with the nematode; iv) pre-treated and inoculated roots. Infestation parameters were checked in untreated plants and plants treated with the fungus to test the effect of the fungus on nematode infestation level and to compare this effect with the expression of the genes PR1 and JERF3, involved in induced resistance.

  2. Plant Sterols: Chemical and Enzymatic Structural Modifications and Effects on Their Cholesterol-Lowering Activity.

    PubMed

    He, Wen-Sen; Zhu, Hanyue; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2018-03-28

    Plant sterols have attracted increasing attention due to their excellent cholesterol-lowering activity. However, free plant sterols have some characteristics of low oil solubility, water insolubility, high melting point, and low bioavailability, which greatly limit their application in foods. Numerous studies have been undertaken to modify their chemical structures to improve their chemical and physical properties in meeting the needs of various applications. The present review is to summarize the literature and update the progress on structural modifications of plant sterols in the following aspects: (i) synthesis of plant sterol esters by esterification and transesterification with hydrophobic fatty acids and triacylglycerols to improve their oil solubility, (ii) synthesis of plant sterol derivatives by coupling with various hydrophilic moieties to enhance their water solubility, and (iii) mechanisms by which plant sterols reduce plasma cholesterol and the effect of structural modifications on plasma cholesterol-lowering activity of plant sterols.

  3. Root endophyte Piriformospora indica DSM 11827 alters plant morphology, enhances biomass and antioxidant activity of medicinal plant Bacopa monniera.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ram; Kamal, Shwet; Sharma, Pradeep K; Oelmüller, Ralf; Varma, Ajit

    2013-12-01

    Unorganized collections and over exploitation of naturally occurring medicinal plant Bacopa monniera is leading to rapid depletion of germplasm and is posing a great threat to its survival in natural habitats. The species has already been listed in the list of highly threatened plants of India. This calls for micropropagation based multiplication of potential accessions and understanding of their mycorrhizal associations for obtaining plants with enhanced secondary metabolite contents. The co-cultivation of B. monniera with axenically cultivated root endophyte Piriformospora indica resulted in growth promotion, increase in bacoside content, antioxidant activity and nuclear hypertrophy of this medicinal plant. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of selected plant extracts by rapid XTT colorimetry and bacterial enumeration.

    PubMed

    Al-Bakri, Amal G; Afifi, Fatma U

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of indigenous Jordanian plant extracts, dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide, using the rapid XTT assay and viable count methods. XTT rapid assay was used for the initial screening of antimicrobial activity for the plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity of potentially active plant extracts was further assessed using the "viable plate count" method. Four degrees of antimicrobial activity (high, moderate, weak and inactive) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, were recorded. The plant extracts of Hypericum triquetrifolium, Ballota undulata, Ruta chalepensis, Ononis natrix, Paronychia argentea and Marrubium vulgare had shown promising antimicrobial activity. This study showed that while both XTT and viable count methods are comparable when estimating the overall antimicrobial activity of experimental substances, there is no strong linear correlation between the two methods.

  5. In vitro antifungal activity of three geophytic plant extracts against three post-harvest pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Maswada, Hanafey F; Abdallah, Sabry A

    2013-12-01

    Plant extracts appear to be one of the most effective alternative methods of plant diseases control which are less harmful to human beings and environment. In vitro antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of three promising wild geophytic plants against three post-harvest pathogenic fungi using radial growth technique was conducted. These extracts included the shoot system (S) and underground parts (R) of Asparagus stipularis, Cyperus capitatus and Stipagrostis lanata. The tested fungi were Alternaria solani, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer. The results exhibited that, all plant extracts had antifungal activity against the tested fungi. The antifungal activity greatly varied depending on plant parts and/or plant species. R. stolonifer was the most susceptible fungus to the tested plant extracts followed by A. niger and then A. solani. On the other hand, the most effective plant extracts against tested fungi were S. lanata (S) and A. stipularis (R). The most effective plant extracts against R. stolonifer were S. lanata (R) and C. capitatus (S). While, the extracts of A. stipularis (R) and S. lanata (S) were the most effective against A. niger. The extracts of C. capitatus (S) and S. lanata (S) exhibited the highest antifungal activity against A. solani. The results demonstrated that, the methanolic extracts of A. stipularis, C. capitatus and S. lanata had potential antifungal activity against A. solani, A. niger and R. stolonifer.

  6. Plant crude extracts could be the solution: extracts showing in vivo antitumorigenic activity.

    PubMed

    Amara, A A; El-Masry, M H; Bogdady, H H

    2008-04-01

    Screening active compounds from plants lead to discover new medicinal drugs which have efficient protection and treatment roles against various diseases including cancer. In our study, extracts from different plants represent seeds of: Gossypium barbadense, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Nigella sativa, Vinca rosea and Melia azedarah; fruits of: Xanthium occidental; flowers of: Atriplex nummularia; barks of: Cinnamomum zeylanicum; latex of: Ficus carica and rhizomes of: Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were tested in vivo using three subsequent bioassays: the BST (Brine Shrimp Toxicity bioassay), AWD (Agar well diffusion antimicrobial bioassay) and AtPDT (Agrobacterium tumefaciens Potato Disc Tumor bioassay). AWD technique omitted any extracts have antimicrobial activities while BST omitted any extract did not has physiological activity and determined the various LC(50) of each plant extract. For the first time, using a range of concentrations in the AtPDT modified protocol allowed the detection of tumor promotion caused by extract represented by A. nummularia. Using cluster analysis leads to classifying the different plant extracts activities to six groups regarding to their toxicity, antitumor activities and both of them. The extracts from edible plants represent 50% of the first and the second group which have the highest antitumor activities represented in F. caraica (group 1) and C. longa (group 2) as well as the non-edible plant extracts of Gossypium barbadense and Ricinus communis. A comparison study between the edible and herbaceous plants different extracts for their antitumor activities was performed. We recommended using the modified protocols used in this study for investigating more plants and using crude plant extracts which have antitumor activities in cancer treatment. Edible plants, which show in vivo antitumor activities, are recommended as save sources for antitumor compounds.

  7. Anticancer activities against cholangiocarcinoma, toxicity and pharmacological activities of Thai medicinal plants in animal models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a devastating cancer with increasing worldwide incidence and mortality rates, is largely ineffective. The discovery and development of effective chemotherapeutics is urgently needed. Methods/Design The study aimed at evaluating anticancer activities, toxicity, and pharmacological activities of the curcumin compound (CUR), the crude ethanolic extracts of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger: ZO) and Atractylodes lancea thung. DC (Khod-Kha-Mao: AL), fruits of Piper chaba Hunt. (De-Plee: PC), and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai formulation (a mixture of parts of 18 Thai medicinal plants: PPF) were investigated in animal models. Anti-cholangiocarcinoma (anti-CCA) was assessed using CCA-xenograft nude mouse model. The antihypertensive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and anti-ulcer activities and effects on motor coordination were investigated using Rota-rod test, CODA tail-cuff system, writhing and hot plate tests, carrageenan-induced paw edema test, brewer's yeast test, and alcohol-induced gastric ulcer test, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity tests were performed according to the OECD guideline for testing of chemicals with modification. Results Promising anticancer activity against CCA in nude mouse xenograft model was shown for the ethanolic extract of AL at all oral dose levels (1000, 3000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight) as well as the extracts of ZO, PPF, and CUR compound at the highest dose level (5000, 4000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight, respectively). PC produced no significant anti-CCA activity. Results from acute and subacute toxicity tests both in mice and rats indicate safety profiles of all the test materials in a broad range of dose levels. No significant toxicity except stomach irritation and general CNS depressant signs were observed. Investigation of pharmacological activities of the test materials revealed promising anti-inflammatory (ZO, PPF, and AL), analgesic (CUR and PPF), antipyretic

  8. Antimicrobial activity of traditional medicinal plants from Ankober District, North Shewa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Lulekal, E; Rondevaldova, J; Bernaskova, E; Cepkova, J; Asfaw, Z; Kelbessa, E; Kokoska, L; Van Damme, P

    2014-05-01

    Traditional medicinal plants have long been used in Ethiopia to treat human and livestock ailments. Despite a well-documented rich tradition of medicinal plant use in the country, their direct antimicrobial effects are still poorly known. To investigate the antimicrobial activity of 19 medicinal plant species that were selected based on the ethnobotanical information on their traditional use to treat infectious diseases in Ankober District. About 23 different ethanol extracts of plants obtained by maceration of various parts of 19 medicinal plant species were studied for potential antimicrobial activity using a broth microdilution method against Bacillus cereus, Bacteroides fragilis, Candida albicans, Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Plant extracts from Embelia schimperi Vatke (Myrsinaceae) showed the strongest antibacterial activity with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 64 µg/ml against B. cereus, L. monocytogenes, and S. pyogenes. Growth inhibitory activities were also observed for extracts of Ocimum lamiifolium Hochst. (Lamiaceae) against S. pyogenes, and those of Rubus steudneri Schweinf. (Rosaceae) against S. epidermidis at an MIC value of 128 µg/ml. Generally, 74% of ethanol extracts (17 extracts) showed antimicrobial activity against one or more of the microbial strains tested at an MIC value of 512 µg/ml or below. Results confirm the antimicrobial role of traditional medicinal plants of Ankober and warrant further investigations on promising medicinal plant species so as to isolate and characterise chemicals responsible for the observed strong antimicrobial activities.

  9. Photosynthetic and respiratory activity in germfree higher plant species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Equipment developed for the study of gas exchange in germfree plants is described. The equipment includes a gas exchange chamber to house the plant under study, a gas feed assembly to introduce and remove gas from the chamber, and a clinostat to rotate the apparatus. Fluorescent and incandescent lights are used to illuminate the chamber and a sealed plastic barrier is used to isolate the potting soil from the chamber atmosphere. The gas outflow from the chamber can be diverted to an infrared CO2 analyzer. The performance of the system was evaluated.

  10. Evaluation of Antileishmanial Activity of Selected Brazilian Plants and Identification of the Active Principles

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Meyre-Silva, Christiane; Niero, Rivaldo; Bolda Mariano, Luisa Nathália; Gomes do Nascimento, Fabiana; Vicente Farias, Ingrid; Gazoni, Vanessa Fátima; dos Santos Silva, Bruna; Giménez, Alberto; Gutierrez-Yapu, David; Salamanca, Efrain; Malheiros, Angela

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds from some selected Brazilian medicinal plants against strains of promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and L. brasiliensis in vitro. The cell viability was determined, comparing the results with reference standards. The dichloromethane fractions of the roots, stems, and leaves of Allamanda schottii showed IC50 values between 14.0 and 2.0 μg/mL. Plumericin was the main active compound, with IC50 of 0.3 and 0.04 μg/mL against the two species of Leishmania analyzed. The hexane extract of Eugenia umbelliflora fruits showed IC50 of 14.3 and 5.7 μg/mL against L. amazonensis and L. brasiliensis, respectively. The methanolic extracts of the seeds of Garcinia achachairu and guttiferone A presented IC50 values of 35.9 and 10.4 μg/mL, against L. amazonensis, respectively. The ethanolic extracts of the stem barks of Rapanea ferruginea and the isolated compound, myrsinoic acid B, presented activity against L. brasiliensis with IC50 of 24.1 and 6.1 μg/mL. Chloroform fraction of Solanum sisymbriifolium exhibited IC50 of 33.8 and 20.5 μg/mL, and cilistol A was the main active principle, with IC50 of 6.6 and 3.1 μg/mL against L. amazonensis and L. brasiliensis, respectively. It is concluded that the analyzed plants are promising as new and effective antiparasitic agents. PMID:23840252

  11. Antibacterial activity of plant defensins against alfalfa crown rot pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the fourth most widely grown crop in the United States. Alfalfa crown rot is a disease complex that severely decreases alfalfa stand density and productivity in all alfalfa-producing areas. Currently, there are no viable methods of disease control. Plant defensins are sm...

  12. Plants and their active compounds: natural molecules to target angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kai; Bhat, Madhavi; Basu, Sujit

    2016-07-01

    Angiogenesis, or new blood vessel formation, is an important process in the pathogenesis of several diseases and thus has been targeted for the prevention and treatment for many disorders. However, the anti-angiogenic agents that are currently in use are mainly synthetic compounds and humanized monoclonal antibodies, which are either expensive or toxic, thereby limiting their use in many patients. Therefore, it is necessary to identify less toxic, inexpensive, novel and effective anti-angiogenic molecules. Several studies have indicated that natural plant products can meet these criteria. In this review, we discuss the anti-angiogenic properties of natural compounds isolated from plants and the molecular mechanisms by which these molecules act. Finally, we summarize the advantages of using plant products as anti-angiogenic agents. Compared with currently available anti-angiogenic drugs, plant products may not only have similar therapeutic potential but are also inexpensive, less toxic, and easy to administer. However, novel and effective strategies are necessary to improve their bioavailability for clinical use.

  13. Mechanism of Growth Enhancement of Plants Induced by Active Species in Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Ono, Reoto; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2015-09-01

    Plant growth enhances when seeds are irradiated by plasma. However the mechanism of the growth enhancement by plasma has not been clarified. In this study, growth enhancement of plants using various active species and variation of plant cells are investigated. RF plasma is generated under conditions where pressure is 60 Pa and input electrical power is 60 W. Irradiation period varies from 0 (control) to 75 min. Air plasma shows maximum growth of plants with irradiation period of 60 min on the other hand, oxygen plasma shows the maximum growth with irradiation period of 15 min. From change of gaseous species and pressure dependence, growth enhancing factor is expected to be active oxygen species produced in plasma. According to gene expression analysis of Arabidopsis, there are two speculated mechanism of plant growth enhancement. The first is acceleration of cell cycle by gene expressions of photosynthesis and glycolytic pathway, and the second is increase of cell size via plant hormone production.

  14. Brazilian medicinal plants with corroborated anti-inflammatory activities: a review.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Victor Pena; Arruda, Caroline; Abd El-Salam, Mohamed; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp

    2018-12-01

    Inflammatory disorders are common in modern life, and medicinal plants provide an interesting source for new compounds bearing anti-inflammatory properties. In this regard, Brazilian medicinal plants are considered to be a promising supply of such compounds due to their great biodiversity. To undertake a review on Brazilian medicinal plants with corroborated anti-inflammatory activities by selecting data from the literature reporting the efficacy of plants used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, including the mechanisms of action of their extracts and isolated compounds. A search in the literature was undertaken by using the following Web tools: Web of Science, SciFinder, Pub-Med and Science Direct. The terms 'anti-inflammatory' and 'Brazilian medicinal plants' were used as keywords in search engine. Tropicos and Reflora websites were used to verify the origin of the plants, and only the native plants of Brazil were included in this review. The publications reporting the use of well-accepted scientific protocols to corroborate the anti-inflammatory activities of Brazilian medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory potential were considered. We selected 70 Brazilian medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activity. The plants were grouped according to their anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action. The main mechanisms involved inflammatory mediators, such as interleukins (ILs), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase (COX) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The collected data on Brazilian medicinal plants, in the form of crude extract and/or isolated compounds, showed significant anti-inflammatory activities involving different mechanisms of action, indicating Brazilian plants as an important source of anti-inflammatory compounds.

  15. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation Study of Active Power Control in Wind Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Paul; Aho, Jake; Gebraad, Pieter

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an analysis performed on a wind plant's ability to provide active power control services using a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics-based wind plant simulator. This approach allows examination of the impact on wind turbine wake interactions within a wind plant on performance of the wind plant controller. The paper investigates several control methods for improving performance in waked conditions. One method uses wind plant wake controls, an active field of research in which wind turbine control systems are coordinated to account for their wakes, to improve the overall performance. Results demonstrate the challenge of providing active power controlmore » in waked conditions but also the potential methods for improving this performance.« less

  16. Active THz inspection of water content in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etayo, D.; Iriarte, J. C.; Palacios, I.; Teniente, J.; Ederra, I.; Gonzalo, R.

    2010-04-01

    The THz range offers the possibility of measuring water content. This can be useful in wine industry to control plants water levels and also to decrease irrigation costs. This paper presents a THz imaging system used to characterise water content in leaves using frequency and time domain methods from 0.14 to 0.22 THz. Our results show the possibility of getting useful information out of the preformed measurements.

  17. An Operations Manual for Achieving Nitrification in an Activated Sludge Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    In Ontario, the attainment of nitrification (oxidation of ammonia) in activated sludge plants is receiving increased attention. Nitrification of waste water is a necessary requirement because it reduces plant discharge of nitrogenous oxygen demand and/or toxic ammonia. However, this new requirement will result in added responsibility for…

  18. Antifungal activities of Hedychium essential oils and plant extracts against mycotoxigenic fungi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant-derived antifungal compounds are preferred to chemicals to reduce the risk of toxic effects on humans, livestock and the environment. Essential oil extracted from rhizomes and plant extracts of ornamental ginger lily (Hedychium spp.) were evaluated for their antifungal activity against two fu...

  19. Evidence that ribonuclease activity present in beetle regurgitant is found to stimulate virus resistance in plants.

    PubMed

    Musser, Richard O; Hum-Musser, Sue M; Slaten-Bickford, Shannon E; Felton, Gary W; Gergerich, Rose C

    2002-08-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. 'Pinto' bean is a local lesion host for the plant pathogen Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) and its vector is the Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant. The objective of this study was to determine if prior feeding by the beetle would affect 'Pinto' bean's resistance to SBMV and determine if ribonuclease (RNase), a major constituent of beetle regurgitant, mediated the plant's response to the virus. 'Pinto' bean plants fed upon by beetles had increased resistance to plant viruses compared to non-wounded or mechanically wounded and buffer-treated plants. Plants that were mechanically wounded and treated with RNase had increased resistance to plant viruses that was equal to plants fed upon by adult beetles. The induction of plant pathogen defenses could be a good adaptation for the plant in the presence of a beetle and pathogen threat. This evidence suggests that RNase activity in the beetle regurgitant could function as an insect-derived elicitor of plant resistance to viruses.

  20. In Vitro and In Vivo Plant Growth Promoting Activities and DNA Fingerprinting of Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycetes Associates with Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Passari, Ajit Kumar; Mishra, Vineet Kumar; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Saikia, Ratul; Singh, Bhim Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes have shown unique plant growth promoting as well as antagonistic activity against fungal phytopathogens. In the present study forty-two endophytic actinomycetes recovered from medicinal plants were evaluated for their antagonistic potential and plant growth-promoting abilities. Twenty-two isolates which showed the inhibitory activity against at least one pathogen were subsequently tested for their plant-growth promoting activities and were compared genotypically using DNA based fingerprinting, including enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) and BOX repetitive elements. Genetic relatedness based on both ERIC and BOX-PCR generates specific patterns corresponding to particular genotypes. Exponentially grown antagonistic isolates were used to evaluate phosphate solubilization, siderophores, HCN, ammonia, chitinase, indole-3-acetic acid production, as well as antifungal activities. Out of 22 isolates, the amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) ranging between 10-32 μg/ml was produced by 20 isolates and all isolates were positive for ammonia production ranging between 5.2 to 54 mg/ml. Among 22 isolates tested, the amount of hydroxamate-type siderophores were produced by 16 isolates ranging between 5.2 to 36.4 μg/ml, while catechols-type siderophores produced by 5 isolates ranging from 3.2 to 5.4 μg/ml. Fourteen isolates showed the solubilisation of inorganic phosphorous ranging from 3.2 to 32.6 mg/100ml. Chitinase and HCN production was shown by 19 and 15 different isolates, respectively. In addition, genes of indole acetic acid (iaaM) and chitinase (chiC) were successively amplified from 20 and 19 isolates respectively. The two potential strains Streptomyces sp. (BPSAC34) and Leifsonia xyli (BPSAC24) were tested in vivo and improved a range of growth parameters in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) under greenhouse conditions. This study is the first published report that actinomycetes can be isolated as endophytes from within these

  1. Antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of five Palestinian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Qabaha, Khaled Ibraheem

    2013-01-01

    Extracts from five indigenous Palestinian medicinal plants including Rosmarinus officinalis, Pisidium guajava, Punica granatum peel, grape seeds and Teucrium polium were investigated for antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities against eight microorganisms, using well diffusion method. The microorganisms included six bacterial isolates (i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginos, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus) and two fungal isolates (i.e. Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger). A standard antioxidant assay was performed on the plant extracts to assess their capability in scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Of the five tested plant extract, only Rosmarinus offcinalis extract contained significant antimicrobial activity against all eight microbial isolates including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extracts from other four plants exhibited a variable antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Significant antioxidant activity was detected in all plant extracts. However, extracts from Pisidium guajava leaves contained significantly higher antioxidant activity compared to the other extracts tested. The antimicrobial and scavenging activities detected in this in vitro study in extracts from the five Palestinian medicinal plants suggest that further study is needed to identify active compounds to target diseases caused by a wide-spectrum pathogens.

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Medicinal Plants Correlates with the Proportion of Antagonistic Endophytes

    PubMed Central

    Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Wirth, Stephan; Behrendt, Undine; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Berg, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants are known to harbor potential endophytic microbes, due to their bioactive compounds. In a first study of ongoing research, endophytic bacteria were isolated from two medicinal plants, Hypericum perforatum and Ziziphora capitata with contrasting antimicrobial activities from the Chatkal Biosphere Reserve of Uzbekistan, and their plant-specific traits involved in biocontrol and plant growth promotion were evaluated. Plant extracts of H. perforatum exhibited a remarkable activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens, whereas extracts of Z. capitata did not exhibit any potential antimicrobial activity. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) was used to identify plant associated culturable endophytic bacteria. The isolated culturable endophytes associated with H. perforatum belong to eight genera (Arthrobacter, Achromobacter, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Serratia, and Stenotrophomonas). The endophytic isolates from Z. capitata also contain those genera except Arthrobacter, Serratia, and Stenotrophomonas. H. perforatum with antibacterial activity supported more bacteria with antagonistic activity, as compared to Z. capitata. The antagonistic isolates were able to control tomato root rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum and stimulated plant growth under greenhouse conditions and could thus be a cost-effective source for agro-based biological control agents. PMID:28232827

  3. In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity of three Rwandan medicinal plants and identification of their active compounds.

    PubMed

    Muganga, Raymond; Angenot, Luc; Tits, Monique; Frédérich, Michel

    2014-04-01

    In our previous study, we reported the interesting in vitro antiplasmodial activity of some Rwandan plant extracts. This gave rise to the need for these extracts to also be evaluated in vivo and to identify the compounds responsible for their antiplasmodial activity. The aim of our study was, on the one hand, to evaluate the antiplasmodial activity in vivo and the safety of the selected Rwandan medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria, with the objective of promoting the development of improved traditional medicines and, on the other hand, to identify the active ingredients in the plants. Plant extracts were selected according to their selectivity index. The in vivo antiplasmodial activity of aqueous, methanolic, and dichloromethane extracts was then evaluated using the classical 4-day suppressive test on Plasmodium berghei infected mice. The activity of the plant extracts was estimated by measuring the percentage of parasitemia reduction, and the survival of the experimental animals was recorded. A bioguided fractionation was performed for the most promising plants, in terms of antiplasmodial activity, in order to isolate active compounds identified by means of spectroscopic and spectrometric methods. The highest level of antiplasmodial activity was observed with the methanolic extract of Fuerstia africana (> 70 %) on days 4 and 7 post-treatment after intraperitoneal injection and on day 7 using oral administration. After oral administration, the level of parasitemia reduction observed on day 4 post-infection was 44 % and 37 % with the aqueous extract of Terminalia mollis and Zanthoxylum chalybeum, respectively. However, the Z. chalybeum extract presented a high level of toxicity after intraperitoneal injection, with no animals surviving on day 1 post-treatment. F. africana, on the other hand, was safer with 40 % mouse survival on day 20 post-treatment. Ferruginol is already known as the active ingredient in F. Africana, and ellagic acid (IC50

  4. Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, A; Menéndez, H; Méndez, E; Cohobón, E; Samayoa, B E; Jauregui, E; Peralta, E; Carrillo, G

    1995-10-01

    Plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of gonorrhoea were macerated in 50% alcohol and the tincture tested for in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae using strains isolated from symptomatic patients and confirmed by standard bacteriological procedures. From 46 plants investigated, 13 (28.3%) showed evident inhibition zones (> 9 mm), seven (15.2%) showed small activity (6.1-8.9 mm) and 26 (56.5%) showed no activity; nine of these plants inhibited five strains of N. gonorrhoea freshly isolated. The most active plants of American origin were: bark of Bixa orellana fruits of Parmentiera edulis, leaf of Diphysa robinioides, Eupatorium odoratum, Gliricidia sepium, Physalis angulata, Piper aduncum and Prosopis juliflora, root of Casimiroa edulis, and whole Clematis dioica.

  5. The identification of plant lectins with mucosal adjuvant activity.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, E C; Grant, G; Pusztai, A; Pfüller, U; O'Hagan, D T

    2001-01-01

    To date, the most potent mucosal vaccine adjuvants to be identified have been bacterial toxins. The present data demonstrate that the type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (type 2 RIP), mistletoe lectin I (ML-I) is a strong mucosal adjuvant of plant origin. A number of plant lectins were investigated as intranasal (i.n.) coadjuvants for a bystander protein, ovalbumin (OVA). As a positive control, a potent mucosal adjuvant, cholera toxin (CT), was used. Co-administration of ML-I or CT with OVA stimulated high titres of OVA-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) in addition to OVA-specific IgA in mucosal secretions. CT and ML-I were also strongly immunogenic, inducing high titres of specific serum IgG and specific IgA at mucosal sites. None of the other plant lectins investigated significantly boosted the response to co-administered OVA. Immunization with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) plus OVA elicited a lectin-specific response but did not stimulate an enhanced response to OVA compared with the antigen alone. Intranasal delivery of tomato lectin (LEA) elicited a strong lectin-specific systemic and mucosal antibody response but only weakly potentiated the response to co-delivered OVA. In contrast, administration of wheatgerm agglutinin (WGA) or Ulex europaeus lectin 1 (UEA-I) with OVA stimulated a serum IgG response to OVA while the lectin-specific responses (particularly for WGA) were relatively low. Thus, there was not a direct correlation between immunogenicity and adjuvanticity although the strongest adjuvants (CT, ML-I) were also highly immunogenic.

  6. The identification of plant lectins with mucosal adjuvant activity

    PubMed Central

    Lavelle, E C; Grant, G; Pusztai, A; Pfüller, U; O'hagan, D T

    2001-01-01

    To date, the most potent mucosal vaccine adjuvants to be identified have been bacterial toxins. The present data demonstrate that the type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (type 2 RIP), mistletoe lectin I (ML-I) is a strong mucosal adjuvant of plant origin. A number of plant lectins were investigated as intranasal (i.n.) coadjuvants for a bystander protein, ovalbumin (OVA). As a positive control, a potent mucosal adjuvant, cholera toxin (CT), was used. Co-administration of ML-I or CT with OVA stimulated high titres of OVA-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) in addition to OVA-specific IgA in mucosal secretions. CT and ML-I were also strongly immunogenic, inducing high titres of specific serum IgG and specific IgA at mucosal sites. None of the other plant lectins investigated significantly boosted the response to co-administered OVA. Immunization with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) plus OVA elicited a lectin-specific response but did not stimulate an enhanced response to OVA compared with the antigen alone. Intranasal delivery of tomato lectin (LEA) elicited a strong lectin-specific systemic and mucosal antibody response but only weakly potentiated the response to co-delivered OVA. In contrast, administration of wheatgerm agglutinin (WGA) or Ulex europaeus lectin 1 (UEA-I) with OVA stimulated a serum IgG response to OVA while the lectin-specific responses (particularly for WGA) were relatively low. Thus, there was not a direct correlation between immunogenicity and adjuvanticity although the strongest adjuvants (CT, ML-I) were also highly immunogenic. PMID:11168640

  7. Effects of fluoride emissions on enzyme activity in metabolism of agricultural plants

    SciTech Connect

    Moeri, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of fluoride on the activity of malatedehydrogenase (MDH) in rape seed and rye grass have been investigated. Fluoride, which has been absorbed from the air, seems to act differently from fluoride added to the soil. The action of airborne fluoride compounds resorbed by the plant on the activity of MDH significantly correlated with the distance from an aluminum plant, crop yield, and fluoride content. 5 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Plant medicines of Indian origin for wound healing activity: a review.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Tuhin Kanti; Mukherjee, Biswapati

    2003-03-01

    Research on wound healing drugs is a developing area in modern biomedical sciences. Scientists who are trying to develop newer drugs from natural resources are looking toward the Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine. Several drugs of plant, mineral, and animal origin are described in the Ayurveda for their wound healing properties under the term Vranaropaka. Most of these drugs are derived from plant origin. Some of these plants have been screened scientifically for the evaluation of their wound healing activity in different pharmacological models and patients, but the potential of most remains unexplored. In a few cases, active chemical constituents were identified. Some Ayurvedic medicinal plants, namely, Ficus bengalensis, Cynodon dactylon, Symplocos racemosa, Rubia cordifolia, Pterocarpus santalinus, Ficus racemosa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Berberis aristata, Curcuma longa, Centella asiatica, Euphorbia nerifolia, and Aloe vera, were found to be effective in experimental models. This paper presents a limited review of plants used in Ayurvedic medicine.

  9. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of three plants used in the traditional medicine of India.

    PubMed

    Bhat, G P; Surolia, N

    2001-10-01

    In an attempt to search for new antimalarial drugs, we studied plants used by traditional healers of southwest India to treat malaria. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts obtained from specific parts of the plants Swertia chirata, Carica papaya, and Citrus sinensis were tested on malaria strain Plasmodium falciparum FCK 2 in vitro. The temperatures of extraction were the same as that used by the traditional healers in their plant preparations. Visual evaluation of the antimalarial activity of the plant extracts on thin blood smears was followed by quantification of the activity by use of [35S]-methionine incorporation into parasite proteins to determine the value that inhibits 50% (IC50). Among the 3 plants tested, 2 had significant inhibitory effect on P. falciparum in vitro.

  10. Effect of certain plant extracts on alpha-amylase activity.

    PubMed

    Prashanth, D; Padmaja, R; Samiulla, D S

    2001-02-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum, Mangifera indica, Boerhaavia diffusa, Embelia ribes, Phyllanthus maderaspatensis, and Withania somnifera, were tested for their effect on alpha-amylase activity (in vitro). P. granatum and M. indica were found to exhibit interesting alpha-amylase inhibitory activity.

  11. Nepenthesin Protease Activity Indicates Digestive Fluid Dynamics in Carnivorous Nepenthes Plants

    PubMed Central

    Buch, Franziska; Kaman, Wendy E.; Bikker, Floris J.; Yilamujiang, Ayufu; Mithöfer, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Carnivorous plants use different morphological features to attract, trap and digest prey, mainly insects. Plants from the genus Nepenthes possess specialized leaves called pitchers that function as pitfall-traps. These pitchers are filled with a digestive fluid that is generated by the plants themselves. In order to digest caught prey in their pitchers, Nepenthes plants produce various hydrolytic enzymes including aspartic proteases, nepenthesins (Nep). Knowledge about the generation and induction of these proteases is limited. Here, by employing a FRET (fluorescent resonance energy transfer)-based technique that uses a synthetic fluorescent substrate an easy and rapid detection of protease activities in the digestive fluids of various Nepenthes species was feasible. Biochemical studies and the heterologously expressed Nep II from Nepenthes mirabilis proved that the proteolytic activity relied on aspartic proteases, however an acid-mediated auto-activation mechanism was necessary. Employing the FRET-based approach, the induction and dynamics of nepenthesin in the digestive pitcher fluid of various Nepenthes plants could be studied directly with insect (Drosophila melanogaster) prey or plant material. Moreover, we observed that proteolytic activity was induced by the phytohormone jasmonic acid but not by salicylic acid suggesting that jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways are involved in plant carnivory. PMID:25750992

  12. Nepenthesin protease activity indicates digestive fluid dynamics in carnivorous nepenthes plants.

    PubMed

    Buch, Franziska; Kaman, Wendy E; Bikker, Floris J; Yilamujiang, Ayufu; Mithöfer, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Carnivorous plants use different morphological features to attract, trap and digest prey, mainly insects. Plants from the genus Nepenthes possess specialized leaves called pitchers that function as pitfall-traps. These pitchers are filled with a digestive fluid that is generated by the plants themselves. In order to digest caught prey in their pitchers, Nepenthes plants produce various hydrolytic enzymes including aspartic proteases, nepenthesins (Nep). Knowledge about the generation and induction of these proteases is limited. Here, by employing a FRET (fluorescent resonance energy transfer)-based technique that uses a synthetic fluorescent substrate an easy and rapid detection of protease activities in the digestive fluids of various Nepenthes species was feasible. Biochemical studies and the heterologously expressed Nep II from Nepenthes mirabilis proved that the proteolytic activity relied on aspartic proteases, however an acid-mediated auto-activation mechanism was necessary. Employing the FRET-based approach, the induction and dynamics of nepenthesin in the digestive pitcher fluid of various Nepenthes plants could be studied directly with insect (Drosophila melanogaster) prey or plant material. Moreover, we observed that proteolytic activity was induced by the phytohormone jasmonic acid but not by salicylic acid suggesting that jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways are involved in plant carnivory.

  13. Screening of Latin American plants for antiparasitic activities against malaria, Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Angela I; Romero, Luz I; Ortega-Barría, Eduardo; Solís, Pablo N; Zacchino, Susana; Gimenez, Alberto; Pinzón, Roberto; Cáceres, Armando; Tamayo, Giselle; Guerra, Carlos; Espinosa, Alex; Correa, Mireya; Gupta, Mahabir P

    2010-05-01

    In order to explore rationally the medical potential of the plant biodiversity of the Central and South American region as a source of novel antiparasitic molecules, a multinational Organization of American States (OAS) project, which included the participation of multidisciplinary research centers from Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Panama, was carried out during the period 2001-2004. This project aimed at screening organic plant extracts for antitrypanosomal, antileishmanial and antimalarial activities and subsequently isolating and characterizing bioactive molecules. Plants for antiparasitic screening were selected from a database of ethnomedical uses of Latin American plants (PlanMedia) based on the amount of biological and chemical information available in the literature. We report here the evaluation of 452 extracts from 311 plant species in vitro screens against Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania mexicana, and Trypanosoma cruzi. Out of 311 species tested, 17 plants (5.4%) showed antiparasitic activities at IC(50) values < or = 10 microg/mL. The most active plants were Acnistus arborescens (L.) Schltdl. (Solanaceae) (leaf, EtOH, IC(50): 4 microg/mL) Monochaetum myrtoideum Naudin (Melastomataceae) (leaf, MeOH, IC(50): 5 microg/mL) and Bourreria huanita (Lex.) Hemsl. (Boraginaceae) (branch, EtOH, IC(50): 6 microg/mL). These were selectively active against P. falciparum, L. mexicana and T. cruzi, respectively.

  14. Macro optical projection tomography for large scale 3D imaging of plant structures and gene activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Karen J. I.; Calder, Grant M.; Hindle, Christopher R.; Newman, Jacob L.; Robinson, Simon N.; Avondo, Jerome J. H. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Optical projection tomography (OPT) is a well-established method for visualising gene activity in plants and animals. However, a limitation of conventional OPT is that the specimen upper size limit precludes its application to larger structures. To address this problem we constructed a macro version called Macro OPT (M-OPT). We apply M-OPT to 3D live imaging of gene activity in growing whole plants and to visualise structural morphology in large optically cleared plant and insect specimens up to 60 mm tall and 45 mm deep. We also show how M-OPT can be used to image gene expression domains in 3D within fixed tissue and to visualise gene activity in 3D in clones of growing young whole Arabidopsis plants. A further application of M-OPT is to visualise plant-insect interactions. Thus M-OPT provides an effective 3D imaging platform that allows the study of gene activity, internal plant structures and plant-insect interactions at a macroscopic scale. PMID:28025317

  15. Thai plants with high antioxidant levels, free radical scavenging activity, anti-tyrosinase and anti-collagenase activity.

    PubMed

    Chatatikun, Moragot; Chiabchalard, Anchalee

    2017-11-09

    Ultraviolet radiation from sunlight induces overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in skin photoaging and hyperpigmentation disorders. Novel whitening and anti-wrinkle compounds from natural products have recently become of increasing interest. The purpose of this study was to find products that reduce ROS in 14 Thai plant extracts. To determine total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, anti-tyrosinase activity and anti-collagenase activity, we compared extracts of 14 Thai plants prepared using different solvents (petroleum ether, dichloromethane and ethanol). Antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH and ABTS assays. Total phenolic content of the 14 Thai plants extracts was found at the highest levels in ethanol followed by dichloromethane and petroleum ether extracts, respectively, while flavonoid content was normally found in the dichloromethane fraction. Scavenging activity ranged from 7 to 99% scavenging as assessed by DPPH and ABTS assays. The ethanol leaf extract of Ardisia elliptica Thunb. had the highest phenolic content, antioxidant activity and collagenase inhibition, while Cassia alata (L.) Roxb. extract had the richest flavonoid content. Interestingly, three plants extracts, which were the ethanolic fractions of Annona squamosa L., Ardisia elliptica Thunb. and Senna alata (L.) Roxb., had high antioxidant content and activity, and significantly inhibited both tyrosinase and collagenase. Our finding show that the ethanol fractions of Annona squamosa L., Ardisia elliptica Thunb. and Senna alata (L.) Roxb. show promise as potential ingredients for cosmetic products such as anti-wrinkle agents and skin whitening products.

  16. Biological activities of a Turkish medicinal plant, Prangos platychlaena.

    PubMed

    Ulubelen, A; Topcu, G; Tan, N; Olçal, S; Johansson, C; Uçer, M; Birman, H; Tamer, S

    1995-03-01

    Prangos platychlaena has been used in traditional medicine in eastern Turkey. It stops bleeding and heals the scars when applied externally. When the isolated coumarins were tested against bacterial strains, only a slight activity was obtained.

  17. Stem cell activation by light guides plant organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Saiko; Mandel, Therese; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2011-07-01

    Leaves originate from stem cells located at the shoot apical meristem. The meristem is shielded from the environment by older leaves, and leaf initiation is considered to be an autonomous process that does not depend on environmental cues. Here we show that light acts as a morphogenic signal that controls leaf initiation and stabilizes leaf positioning. Leaf initiation in tomato shoot apices ceases in the dark but resumes in the light, an effect that is mediated through the plant hormone cytokinin. Dark treatment also affects the subcellular localization of the auxin transporter PIN1 and the concomitant formation of auxin maxima. We propose that cytokinin is required for meristem propagation, and that auxin redirects cytokinin-inducible meristem growth toward organ formation. In contrast to common wisdom over the last 150 years, the light environment controls the initiation of lateral organs by regulating two key hormones: auxin and cytokinin.

  18. Antimicrobial activities of skincare preparations from plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kareru, P G; Keriko, J M; Kenji, G M; Thiong'o, G T; Gachanja, A N; Mukiira, H N

    2010-04-03

    In this study, Tithonia diversifolia Helms. (A Gray), Aloe secundiflora (Miller) and Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) plant extracts were used to make herbal soaps while Thevetia peruviana (Schum) seed oil was used to make a herbal lotion for skincare. The soaps were tested for the growth inhibition of Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. The lotion was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and E.coli. Although Tithonia diversifolia soap exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on the test bacterial strains, it had the least inhibition against C. albicans. Results from this study indicated that the 'Tithonia diversifolia' soap would have superior skin protection against the tested bacteria but would offer the least skin protection against C. albicans. The herbal lotion inhibited S. aureus and E. coli in a concentration dependent manner, however, the inhibitory effect was more pronounced on S. aureus.

  19. Stem cell activation by light guides plant organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Saiko; Mandel, Therese; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2011-01-01

    Leaves originate from stem cells located at the shoot apical meristem. The meristem is shielded from the environment by older leaves, and leaf initiation is considered to be an autonomous process that does not depend on environmental cues. Here we show that light acts as a morphogenic signal that controls leaf initiation and stabilizes leaf positioning. Leaf initiation in tomato shoot apices ceases in the dark but resumes in the light, an effect that is mediated through the plant hormone cytokinin. Dark treatment also affects the subcellular localization of the auxin transporter PIN1 and the concomitant formation of auxin maxima. We propose that cytokinin is required for meristem propagation, and that auxin redirects cytokinin-inducible meristem growth toward organ formation. In contrast to common wisdom over the last 150 years, the light environment controls the initiation of lateral organs by regulating two key hormones: auxin and cytokinin. PMID:21724835

  20. Report: Studies on antibacterial activity of some traditional medicinal plants used in folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Israr, Fozia; Hassan, Fouzia; Naqvi, Baqir Shyum; Azhar, Iqbal; Jabeen, Sabahat; Hasan, S M Farid

    2012-07-01

    Ethanolic extracts of eight medicinal plants commonly used in folk medicine were tested for their antibacterial activity against four Gram positive strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and, Streptococcus pneumoniae) and six Gram negative strains (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis. Salmonella typhi para A, Salmonella typhi para B and Shigella dysenteriae) that were obtained from different pathological laboratories located in Karachi, Pakistan. Disc diffusion method was used to analyze antibacterial activity. Out of eight, five medicinal plants showed antibacterial activity against two or more than two microbial species. The most effective antimicrobial plant found to be Punica granatum followed by Curcuma zedoaria Rosc, Grewia asiatica L and Carissa carandas L, Curcuma caesia Roxb respectively. From these results, it is evident that medicinal plants could be used as a potential source of new antibacterial agents.

  1. Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants against selected human pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Usman Ali; Niaz, Zeeshan; Qasim, Muhammad; Khan, Jafar; Tayyaba; Rehman, Bushra

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are traditionally used for the treatment of human infections. The present study was undertaken to investigate Bergenia ciliata, Jasminum officinale, and Santalum album for their potential activity against human bacterial pathogens. B. ciliata, J. officinale, and S. album extracts were prepared in cold and hot water. The activity of plant extracts and selected antibiotics was evaluated against five bacterial pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli using agar well diffusion method. Among the three medicinal plants, B. ciliata extracts displayed potential activity against bacterial pathogens. Cold water extract of Bergenia ciliate showed the highest activity against B. subtilis, which is comparable with a zone of inhibition exhibited by ceftriaxone and erythromycin. J. officinale and S. album extracts demonstrated variable antibacterial activity. Further studies are needed to explore the novel antibacterial bioactive molecules. PMID:24294497

  2. Investigation of plant latices of Asteraceae and Campanulaceae regarding proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sytwala, Sonja; Domsalla, André; Melzig, Matthias F

    2015-12-01

    Occurrence of plant latices is widespread, there are more than 40 families of plants characterized to establish lactiferous structures. The appearance of hydrolytic active proteins, incorporated in latices is already characterized, and hydrolytic active proteins are considerable, and for several plant families, the occurrence of hydrolytic active proteins is already specified e.g. Apocynaceae Juss., Caricaceae Dumort, Euphorbiaceae Juss., Moraceae Gaudich and Papaveraceae Juss. In our investigation, focused on latex bearing plants of order Asterales, Asteraceae and Campanulaceae in particular. The present outcomes represent a comprehensive study, relating to the occurrence of proteolytic active enzymes of order Asterales for the first time. 131 different species of Asteraceae and Campanulaceae were tested, and the appearance of plant latex proteases were determined in different quantities. Proteolytic activity was investigated by inhibitory studies and determination of residual activity in the following, enable us to characterize the proteases. Most of the considered species exhibit a serine protease activity and a multiplicity of species exhibited two or more subclasses of proteases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbial growth and quorum sensing antagonist activities of herbal plants extracts.

    PubMed

    Al-Hussaini, Reema; Mahasneh, Adel M

    2009-09-03

    Antimicrobial and antiquorum sensing (AQS) activities of fourteen ethanolic extracts of different parts of eight plants were screened against four Gram-positive, five Gram-negative bacteria and four fungi. Depending on the plant part extract used and the test microorganism, variable activities were recorded at 3 mg per disc. Among the Grampositive bacteria tested, for example, activities of Laurus nobilis bark extract ranged between a 9.5 mm inhibition zone against Bacillus subtilis up to a 25 mm one against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus fumigatus were the most susceptible among bacteria and fungi tested towards other plant parts. Of interest is the tangible antifungal activity of a Tecoma capensis flower extract, which is reported for the first time. However, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC's) for both bacteria and fungi were relatively high (0.5-3.0 mg). As for antiquorum sensing activity against Chromobacterium violaceum, superior activity (>17 mm QS inhibition) was associated with Sonchus oleraceus and Laurus nobilis extracts and weak to good activity (8-17 mm) was recorded for other plants. In conclusion, results indicate the potential of these plant extracts in treating microbial infections through cell growth inhibition or quorum sensing antagonism, which is reported for the first time, thus validating their medicinal use.

  4. Do cancer cells in human and meristematic cells in plant exhibit similar responses toward plant extracts with cytotoxic activities?

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Noha S; Barakat, Hoda S; Elhallouty, Salwa; Salem, Dina

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of water extracts of Persea americana fruit, and of the leaves of Tabernamontana divericata, Nerium oleander and Annona cherimolia (positive control) on Vicia faba root cells. We had confirmed in our previously published data the cytotoxicity of these plant extracts on four human cancer cell lines: liver (HepG-2), lung (A549), colon (HT-29) and breast (MCF-7). Vicia faba roots were soaked in plant extracts at dilutions of 100, 1,250, 2,500, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000 ppm for 4 and 24 h. All treatments resulted in a significant reduction in the mitotic index in a dose dependant manner. Root cells treated with T. divericata, N. oleander and A. cherimolia exhibited a decrease in prophase cell percentage, increase in micronuclei and chromosomal abnormalities as concentration increased. The P. americana treatment showed the highest cytotoxic effect on cancer cells, prophase cell percentage increased linearly with the applied concentration and no micronuclei were detected. This study shows that root tip assay of beans can be used in initial screening for new plant extracts to validate their use as candidates for containing active cytotoxic agents against malignant cells. This will greatly help in exploring new plant extracts as drugs for cancer treatment.

  5. Antimalarial activity of medicinal plants from the Democratic Republic of Congo: A review.

    PubMed

    Memvanga, Patrick B; Tona, Gaston L; Mesia, Gauthier K; Lusakibanza, Mariano M; Cimanga, Richard K

    2015-07-01

    Malaria is the most prevalent parasitic disease and the foremost cause of morbidity and mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo. For the management of this disease, a large Congolese population recourses to traditional medicinal plants. To date the efficacy and safety of many of these plants have been validated scientifically in rodent malaria models. In order to generate scientific evidence of traditional remedies used in the Democratic Republic of Congo for the management of malaria, and show the potential of Congolese plants as a major source of antimalarial drugs, this review highlights the antiplasmodial and toxicological properties of the Congolese antimalarial plants investigated during the period of 1999-2014. In doing so, a useful resource for further complementary investigations is presented. Furthermore, this review may pave the way for the research and development of several available and affordable antimalarial phytomedicines. In order to get information on the different studies, a Google Scholar and PubMed literature search was performed using keywords (malaria, Congolese, medicinal plants, antiplasmodial/antimalarial activity, and toxicity). Data from non-indexed journals, Master and Doctoral dissertations were also collected. Approximately 120 extracts and fractions obtained from Congolese medicinal plants showed pronounced or good antiplasmodial activity. A number of compounds with interesting antiplasmodial properties were also isolated and identified. Some of these compounds constituted new scaffolds for the synthesis of promising antimalarial drugs. Interestingly, most of these extracts and compounds possessed high selective activity against Plasmodium parasites compared to mammalian cells. The efficacy and safety of several plant-derived products was confirmed in mice, and a good correlation was observed between in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity. The formulation of several plant-derived products also led to some clinical trials

  6. Plant Growth Promoting and Biocontrol Activity of Streptomyces spp. as Endophytes.

    PubMed

    Vurukonda, Sai Shiva Krishna Prasad; Giovanardi, Davide; Stefani, Emilio

    2018-03-22

    There has been many recent studies on the use of microbial antagonists to control diseases incited by soilborne and airborne plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi, in an attempt to replace existing methods of chemical control and avoid extensive use of fungicides, which often lead to resistance in plant pathogens. In agriculture, plant growth-promoting and biocontrol microorganisms have emerged as safe alternatives to chemical pesticides. Streptomyces spp. and their metabolites may have great potential as excellent agents for controlling various fungal and bacterial phytopathogens. Streptomycetes belong to the rhizosoil microbial communities and are efficient colonizers of plant tissues, from roots to the aerial parts. They are active producers of antibiotics and volatile organic compounds, both in soil and in planta , and this feature is helpful for identifying active antagonists of plant pathogens and can be used in several cropping systems as biocontrol agents. Additionally, their ability to promote plant growth has been demonstrated in a number of crops, thus inspiring the wide application of streptomycetes as biofertilizers to increase plant productivity. The present review highlights Streptomyces spp.-mediated functional traits, such as enhancement of plant growth and biocontrol of phytopathogens.

  7. Report - Screening of the Anti-hyperglycemic activity of some medicinal plants of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alkofahi, Ahmad S; Abdul-Razzak, Khalid K; Alzoubi, Karem H; Khabour, Omar F

    2017-05-01

    Diabetes represents a group of common diseases that are characterized by dysregulation of blood glucose levels. Plants are traditionally used for management of diseases including diabetes. In this study, we screened the anti-diabetic effect of extracts of 21 plants grown in Jordan. Extracts of plants were screened for their antihyperglycemic activity. Diabetes was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using Alloxan. Plant extracts were dosed at 1gm/kg. Blood glucose was measured at baseline and at every hour for 3 hours. Results showed that five plants out of the 21 screened showed antihyperglycemic activity. These plants are Phoenix dactylifera L., Tecoma stans (L.) Kunth, Cichorium pumilum Jacq., Phaseolus vulgaris L., and Teucrium polium L. On the other hand, Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Spach. and Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata significantly increased blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. The following plant extracts showed neutral effect on blood glucose levels: Plantago major L., Taraxacum cyprium H. Lindb, Artemisia inculta Delile, Marrubium vulgare L., Inula viscosa (L.) Ai, Rubus sanguineus Friv, Coriandrum sativum L., Cucurbita pepo var ovefera, Cucumis sativus L., Hordeum vulgare L., Apium graveolens L., Avena sativa L., Helianthus annus L., and Anethum graveolens L. In conclusion, Jordanian medicinal plants might be useful for managements of blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes.

  8. Antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against periodontopathic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Iauk, L; Lo Bue, A M; Milazzo, I; Rapisarda, A; Blandino, G

    2003-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Althaea officinalis L. roots, Arnica montana L. flowers, Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hamamelis virginiana L. leaves, Illicium verum Hook. fruits and Melissa officinalis L. leaves, against anaerobic and facultative aerobic periodontal bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Veilonella parvula, Eikenella corrodens, Peptostreptococcus micros and Actinomyces odontolyticus. The methanol extracts of H. virginiana and A. montana and, to a lesser extent, A. officinalis were shown to possess an inhibiting activity (MIC < or = 2048 mg/L) against many of the species tested. In comparison, M. officinalis and C. officinalis extracts had a lower inhibiting activity (MIC > or = 2048 mg/L) against all the tested species with the exception of Prevotella sp. Illicium verum methanol extract was not very active though it had a particular good activity against E. corrodens. The results suggest the use of the alcohol extracts of H. virginiana, A. montana and A. officinalis for topical medications in periodontal prophylactics. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effect of Plant Species and Environmental Conditions on Ice Nucleation Activity of Pseudomonas syringae on Leaves.

    PubMed

    O'brien, R D; Lindow, S E

    1988-09-01

    Selected plant species and environmental conditions were investigated for their influences on expression of ice nucleation activity by 15 Pseudomonas syringae strains grown on plants in constant-temperature growth chamber studies. Ice nucleation frequencies (INFs), the fraction of cells that expressed ice nucleation at -5 or -9 degrees C, of individual strains varied greatly, both on plants and in culture. This suggests that the probability of frost injury, which is proportional to the number of ice nuclei on leaf surfaces, is strongly determined by the particular bacterial strains that are present on a leaf surface. The INFs of strains were generally higher when they were grown on plants than when they were grown in culture. In addition, INFs in culture did not correlate closely with INFs on plants, suggesting that frost injury prediction should be based on INF measurements of cells grown on plants rather than in culture. The relative INFs of individual strains varied with plant host and environment. However, none of seven plant species tested optimized the INFs of all 15 strains. Similarly, incubation for 48 h at near 100% relative humidity with short photoperiods did not always decrease the INF when compared with a 72 h, 40% relative humidity, long-photoperiod incubation. Pathogenic strains on susceptible hosts were not associated with higher or lower INFs relative to their INFs on nonsusceptible plant species. The ice nucleation activity of individual bacterial strains on plants therefore appears to be controlled by complex and interacting factors such as strain genotype, environment, and host plant species.

  10. Antioxidant activity of an invasive plant, Melastoma malabathricum and its potential as herbal tea product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, N. M.; Kuspradini, H.; Amirta, R.; Kusuma, I. W.

    2018-04-01

    East Kalimantan possesses abundant biodiversity of tropical medicinal plant. Melastoma malabathricum (known locally as karamunting, senduduk) is an invasive plant along with other species in the family of Melastomataceae with traditional medicinal purposes. This research explored the potential of Karamunting (M. malabathricum) plant for its antioxidant activity and the potential as a material for herbal tea product. The plant was macerated to yield ethanolic extract, and at the same time plant powder was packed into tea bags and extracted with hot water to obtain the infused water. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging assay. The results showed that the ethanol extracts of plant samples displayed ability to inhibit DPPH free radical formation by 82% at 50 ppm concentration. Evaluation of the tea water extract showed that the highest inhibition obtained by leaves powder by 90% and fruit 88% at 1 minutes immersion time. This finding suggest that leaves and fruit of M. malabathricum plants display potential as herbal tea material having antioxidant activity if the safety aspect can be assured.

  11. Latent Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity in Nonantifreeze Proteins: Ca2+-Activated Plant Lectins and Cation-Activated Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Organisms living in polar regions have evolved a series of antifreeze (glyco) proteins (AFGPs) to enable them to survive by modulating the structure of ice. These proteins have huge potential for use in cellular cryopreservation, ice-resistant surfaces, frozen food, and cryosurgery, but they are limited by their relatively low availability and questions regarding their mode of action. This has triggered the search for biomimetic materials capable of reproducing this function. The identification of new structures and sequences capable of inhibiting ice growth is crucial to aid our understanding of these proteins. Here, we show that plant c-type lectins, which have similar biological function to human c-type lectins (glycan recognition) but no sequence homology to AFPs, display calcium-dependent ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity. This IRI activity can be switched on/off by changing the Ca2+ concentration. To show that more (nonantifreeze) proteins may exist with the potential to display IRI, a second motif was considered, amphipathicity. All known AFPs have defined hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains, rationalizing this choice. The cheap, and widely used, antimicrobial Nisin was found to have cation-dependent IRI activity, controlled by either acid or addition of histidine-binding ions such as zinc or nickel, which promote its amphipathic structure. These results demonstrate a new approach in the identification of antifreeze protein mimetic macromolecules and may help in the development of synthetic mimics of AFPs. PMID:26407233

  12. Latent Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity in Nonantifreeze Proteins: Ca2+-Activated Plant Lectins and Cation-Activated Antimicrobial Peptides.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Daniel E; Gibson, Matthew I

    2015-10-12

    Organisms living in polar regions have evolved a series of antifreeze (glyco) proteins (AFGPs) to enable them to survive by modulating the structure of ice. These proteins have huge potential for use in cellular cryopreservation, ice-resistant surfaces, frozen food, and cryosurgery, but they are limited by their relatively low availability and questions regarding their mode of action. This has triggered the search for biomimetic materials capable of reproducing this function. The identification of new structures and sequences capable of inhibiting ice growth is crucial to aid our understanding of these proteins. Here, we show that plant c-type lectins, which have similar biological function to human c-type lectins (glycan recognition) but no sequence homology to AFPs, display calcium-dependent ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity. This IRI activity can be switched on/off by changing the Ca2+ concentration. To show that more (nonantifreeze) proteins may exist with the potential to display IRI, a second motif was considered, amphipathicity. All known AFPs have defined hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains, rationalizing this choice. The cheap, and widely used, antimicrobial Nisin was found to have cation-dependent IRI activity, controlled by either acid or addition of histidine-binding ions such as zinc or nickel, which promote its amphipathic structure. These results demonstrate a new approach in the identification of antifreeze protein mimetic macromolecules and may help in the development of synthetic mimics of AFPs.

  13. Enzymatic assay for calmodulins based on plant NAD kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, A.C.; Jarrett, H.W.; Cormier, M.J.

    NAD kinase with increased sensitivity to calmodulin was purified from pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L., Willet Wonder). Assays for calmodulin based on the activities of NAD kinase, bovine brain cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, and human erythrocyte Ca/sup 2 -/-ATPase were compared for their sensitivities to calmodulin and for their abilities to discriminate between calmodulins from different sources. The activities of the three enzymes were determined in the presence of various concentrations of calmodulins from human erythrocyte, bovine brain, sea pansy (Renilla reniformis), mung bean seed (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek), mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), and Tetrahymena pyriformis. The concentrations of calmodulin required formore » 50% activation of the NAD kinase (K/sub 0.5/) ranged from 0.520 ng/ml for Tetrahymena to 2.20 ng/ml for bovine brain. The A/sub 0.5/ s ranged from 19.6 ng/ml for bovine brain calmodulin to 73.5 ng/ml for mushroom calmodulin for phosphodiesterase activation. The K/sub 0.5/'s for the activation of Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase ranged from 36.3 ng/mol for erythrocyte calmodulin to 61.7 ng/ml for mushroom calmodulin. NAD kinase was not stimulated by phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, cardiolipin, or palmitoleic acid in the absence or presence of Ca/sup 2 +/. Palmitic acid had a slightly stimulatory effect in the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ (10% of maximum), but no effect in the absence of Ca/sup 2 +/. Palmitoleic acid inhibited the calmodulin-stimulated activity by 50%. Both the NAD kinase assay and radioimmunoassay were able to detect calmodulin in extracts containing low concentrations of calmodulin. Estimates of calmodulin contents of crude homogenates determined by the NAD kinase assay were consistent with amounts obtained by various purification procedures. 30 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.« less

  14. Stable heterologous expression of biologically active terpenoids in green plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Ikram, N. Kusaira B. K.; Zhan, Xin; Pan, Xi-Wu; King, Brian C.; Simonsen, Henrik T.

    2015-01-01

    Plants biosynthesize a great diversity of biologically active small molecules of interest for fragrances, flavors, and pharmaceuticals. Among specialized metabolites, terpenoids represent the greatest molecular diversity. Many terpenoids are very complex, and total chemical synthesis often requires many steps and difficult chemical reactions, resulting in a low final yield or incorrect stereochemistry. Several drug candidates with terpene skeletons are difficult to obtain by chemical synthesis due to their large number of chiral centers. Thus, biological production remains the preferred method for industrial production for many of these compounds. However, because these chemicals are often found in low abundance in the native plant, or are produced in plants which are difficult to cultivate, there is great interest in engineering increased production or expression of the biosynthetic pathways in heterologous hosts. Although there are many examples of successful engineering of microbes such as yeast or bacteria to produce these compounds, this often requires extensive changes to the host organism's metabolism. Optimization of plant gene expression, post-translational protein modifications, subcellular localization, and other factors often present challenges. To address the future demand for natural products used as drugs, new platforms are being established that are better suited for heterologous production of plant metabolites. Specifically, direct metabolic engineering of plants can provide effective heterologous expression for production of valuable plant-derived natural products. In this review, our primary focus is on small terpenoids and we discuss the benefits of plant expression platforms and provide several successful examples of stable production of small terpenoids in plants. PMID:25852702

  15. Mapping of cavitational activity in a pilot plant dyeing equipment.

    PubMed

    Actis Grande, G; Giansetti, M; Pezzin, A; Rovero, G; Sicardi, S

    2015-11-01

    A large number of papers of the literature quote dyeing intensification based on the application of ultrasound (US) in the dyeing liquor. Mass transfer mechanisms are described and quantified, nevertheless these experimental results in general refer to small laboratory apparatuses with a capacity of a few hundred millilitres and extremely high volumetric energy intensity. With the strategy of overcoming the scale-up inaccuracy consequent to the technological application of ultrasounds, a dyeing pilot-plant prototype of suitable liquor capacity (about 40 L) and properly simulating several liquor to textile hydraulic relationships was designed by including US transducers with different geometries. Optimal dyeing may be obtained by optimising the distance between transducer and textile material, the liquid height being a non-negligible operating parameter. Hence, mapping the cavitation energy in the machinery is expected to provide basic data on the intensity and distribution of the ultrasonic field in the aqueous liquor. A flat ultrasonic transducer (absorbed electrical power of 600 W), equipped with eight devices emitting at 25 kHz, was mounted horizontally at the equipment bottom. Considering industrial scale dyeing, liquor and textile substrate are reciprocally displaced to achieve a uniform colouration. In this technology a non uniform US field could affect the dyeing evenness to a large extent; hence, mapping the cavitation energy distribution in the machinery is expected to provide fundamental data and define optimal operating conditions. Local values of the cavitation intensity were recorded by using a carefully calibrated Ultrasonic Energy Meter, which is able to measure the power per unit surface generated by the cavitation implosion of bubbles. More than 200 measurements were recorded to define the map at each horizontal plane positioned at a different distance from the US transducer; tap water was heated at the same temperature used for dyeing tests (60

  16. Regulation of Hydrolytic Enzyme Activity in Aquatic Microbial Communities Hosted by Carnivorous Pitcher Plants.

    PubMed

    Young, Erica B; Sielicki, Jessica; Grothjan, Jacob J

    2018-04-20

    Carnivorous pitcher plants Sarracenia purpurea host diverse eukaryotic and bacterial communities which aid in insect prey digestion, but little is known about the functional processes mediated by the microbial communities. This study aimed to connect pitcher community diversity with functional nutrient transformation processes, identifying bacterial taxa, and measuring regulation of hydrolytic enzyme activity in response to prey and alternative nutrient sources. Genetic analysis identified diverse bacterial taxa known to produce hydrolytic enzyme activities. Chitinase, protease, and phosphatase activities were measured using fluorometric assays. Enzyme activity in field pitchers was positively correlated with bacterial abundance, and activity was suppressed by antibiotics suggesting predominantly bacterial sources of chitinase and protease activity. Fungi, algae, and rotifers observed could also contribute enzyme activity, but fresh insect prey released minimal chitinase activity. Activity of chitinase and proteases was upregulated in response to insect additions, and phosphatase activity was suppressed by phosphate additions. Particulate organic P in prey was broken down, appearing as increasing dissolved organic and inorganic P pools within 14 days. Chitinase and protease were not significantly suppressed by availability of dissolved organic substrates, though organic C and N stimulated bacterial growth, resulting in elevated enzyme activity. This comprehensive field and experimental study show that pitcher plant microbial communities dynamically regulate hydrolytic enzyme activity, to digest prey nutrients to simpler forms, mediating biogeochemical nutrient transformations and release of nutrients for microbial and host plant uptake.

  17. Antibacterial activities of plant essential oils against Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Wen; Chang, Wei-Lung; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Cheng, Sen-Sung

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) extracted from Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaves and different tissues of Cryptomeria japonica against pathogenic Legionella pneumophila at 42 degrees C. Ten kinds of EOs were extracted by water distillation and their chemical constituents were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The results showed that cinnamon leaf EO possessed stronger anti-L. pneumophila activity than C. japonica EO. In particular, the highest bactericidal effect was noted in contact with C. osmophloeum leaf EO of cinnamaldehyde type (characterized by its major constituent of cinnamaldehyde accounting for 91.3% of EO), regardless of contacted cell concentration (2 and 4 log CFU ml(-1)) or exposure time (10 and 60 min). Cinnamaldehyde is responsible for anti-L. pneumophila activity based on the results of antimicrobial testing and statistical analysis. Stepwise regression analyses show that EO concentration is the most significant factor affecting the bioactivity of EO. It is concluded that C. osmophloeum leaf oil of cinnamaldehyde type and its major constituent, cinnamaldehyde, possess strong anti-L. pneumophila activities, and have the great potential to be used as an antibacterial agent to control legionellosis associated with hot tubs and spa facilities widely used in homes and resorts.

  18. Diverse effects of arsenic on selected enzyme activities in soil-plant-microbe interactions.

    PubMed

    Lyubun, Yelena V; Pleshakova, Ekaterina V; Mkandawire, Martin; Turkovskaya, Olga V

    2013-11-15

    Under the influence of pollutants, enzyme activities in plant-microbe-soil systems undergo changes of great importance in predicting soil-plant-microbe interactions, regulation of metal and nutrient uptake, and, ultimately, improvement of soil health and fertility. We evaluated the influence of As on soil enzyme activities and the effectiveness of five field crops for As phytoextraction. The initial As concentration in soil was 50mg As kg(-1) soil; planted clean soil, unplanted polluted soil, and unplanted clean soil served as controls. After 10 weeks, the growth of the plants elevated soil dehydrogenase activity relative to polluted but unplanted control soils by 2.4- and 2.5-fold for sorghum and sunflower (respectively), by 3-fold for ryegrass and sudangrass, and by 5.2-fold for spring rape. Soil peroxidase activity increased by 33% with ryegrass and rape, while soil phosphatase activity was directly correlated with residual As (correlation coefficient R(2)=0.7045). We conclude that soil enzyme activities should be taken into account when selecting plants for phytoremediation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mosquito repellent activity of volatile oils from selected aromatic plants.

    PubMed

    Lalthazuali; Mathew, Nisha

    2017-02-01

    Essential oils from fresh leaves of four aromatic plants viz., Ocimum sanctum, Mentha piperita, Eucalyptus globulus and Plectranthus amboinicus were extracted by hydrodistillation. The test solutions were prepared as 20% essential oil in ethanol and positive control as 20% DEET in ethanol. Essential oil blend was prepared as 5% concentration. Nulliparous, 3-5-day-old female adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were used for repellency screening as per ICMR protocol. The study showed that the repellency of 20% essential oil of O. sanctum, M. piperita and P. amboinicus were comparable with that of the standard DEET (20%) as no mosquito landing on the test was observed up to 6 h. The E. globulus oil exhibited mosquito repellency only upto 1½ h. Considerable mosquito landing and feeding was displayed in negative control. In the case of the oil blend, no landing of mosquitoes was seen up to 6 h as that of positive control. The results showed that the essential oil blend from O. sanctum, M. piperita, E. globulus and P. amboinicus could repel Ae. aegypti mosquitoes or prevent from feeding as in the case of DEET even at a lower concentration of 5%. This study demonstrates the potential of essential oils from O. sanctum, M. piperita, E. globulus and P. amboinicus and their blend as mosquito repellents against Ae. aegypti, the vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.

  20. Environmental risk assessment of Polish wastewater treatment plant activity.

    PubMed

    Kudłak, Błażej; Wieczerzak, Monika; Yotova, Galina; Tsakovski, Stefan; Simeonov, Vasil; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play an extremely important role in shaping modern society's environmental well-being and awareness, however only well operated and supervised systems can be considered as environmentally sustainable. For this reason, an attempt was undertaken to assess the environmental burden posed by WWTPs in major Polish cities by collecting water samples prior to and just after wastewater release points. Both classical and biological methods (Microtox(®), Ostracodtoxkit F™ and comet assay) were utilized to assess environmental impact of given WWTP. Interestingly, in some cases, water quality improvement indicated as a toxicity decrement toward one of the bio-indicating organisms makes water worse for others in the systems. This fact is particularly noticeable in case of Silesian cities where heavy industry and high population density is present. It proves that WWTP should undergo individual evaluation of pollutant removal efficiency and tuned to selectively remove pollutants of highest risk to surrounding regional ecosystems. Biotests again proved to be an extremely important tool to fully assess the impact of environmental stressors on water bodies receiving effluents from WWTPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts from Brazil against fish pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Castro, S.B.R.; Leal, C.A.G.; Freire, F.R.; Carvalho, D.A.; Oliveira, D.F.; Figueiredo, H.C.P.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Brazilian plants extracts against fish pathogenic bacteria. Forty six methanolic extracts were screened to identify their antibacterial properties against Streptococcus agalactiae, Flavobacterium columnare and Aeromonas hydrophila. Thirty one extracts showed antibacterial activity. PMID:24031303

  2. Antitubercular activity of pentacyclic triterpenoids from plants of Argentina and Chile.

    PubMed

    Wächter, G A; Valcic, S; Flagg, M L; Franzblau, S G; Montenegro, G; Suarez, E; Timmermann, B N

    1999-11-01

    Screening of plants from South America for antitubercular activity and subsequent assay-guided fractionation resulted in the isolation and characterization of several pentacyclic triterpenoids. The MIC values of 22 triterpenoids were determined using the radiorespiratory BACTEC assay and range from 8 microM to above 128 microM. The structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  3. Bioassay of plant growth from soils varying in active C and N fractions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biologically active soil C and N fractions are important attributes of healthy soil. As a bioassay, we hypothesized that active soil C and N fractions would relate with plant dry matter production from unamended soil. Four replicate soil samples from 22 tall fescue fields in North Carolina and Virgi...

  4. Evaluation of African medicinal plants for their in vitro trypanocidal activity.

    PubMed

    Freiburghaus, F; Kaminsky, R; Nkunya, M H; Brun, R

    1996-12-01

    Petroleum ether, dichloromethane, methanol and water extracts from 24 plants, belonging to 19 families, which are reported in the literature as traditional remedies for sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis) were screened for in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, as well as fro cytotoxicity for a human fibroblast cell-line (WI-38). The trypanocidal activity of the natural compounds berberine and harmane, both documented as being trypanocidal, was also evaluated. Promising trypanocidal activity with IC50 values below 10 micrograms/ml was found in 32 extracts of 13 plant species. The most active extracts with IC50 below 1 microgram/ml were derived from Annona senegalensis, Bussea occidentalis and Physalis angulata. The plant extracts showed a modest selectivity index, in contrast to commercially available trypanocides which have a more distinct selective toxicity against trypanosomes.

  5. Antibacterial Activity of Mother Tinctures of Cholistan Desert Plants in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, M.; Ghafoor, Nazia; Aamir, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    The mother tinctures of desert were screened for antibacterial activity against bacterial strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Mother tinctures were prepared by maceration process and antibacterial activity of different plants was evaluated and compared by measuring their zones of inhibition. The results indicated that Boerrhavia diffusa mother tincture had excellent activity only against Escherichia coli. Mother tincture of Chorozophora plicata showed highly effective results against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa whereas Echinops echinatus mother tincture showed highly effectiveness only against Salmonella typhi. Heliotropium europaeum mother tincture exhibited highly effective results against Bacillus subtilis in all concentrations. Tamrix aphylla presented maximum activity only against Bacillus subtilis in all three concentrations. Among the selected species Heliotropium europaeum, Chorozophora plicata and Tamrix aphylla were more effective plants against many microorganisms. However, Boerrhavia diffusa and Echinops echinatus were less effective plants against tested pathogenic bacteria. PMID:23716878

  6. Methods of expressing and detecting activity of expansin in plant cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, Elizabeth E.; Yoon, Sangwoong

    A method of expressing heterologous expansin in a plant cell is provided where a nucleic acid molecule encoding expansin is introduced into the plant cell and in an embodiment is operably linked to a promoter preferentially expressing in the seed tissue of the plant, and in another embodiment is linked to a promoter preferentially expressing in the embryo tissue of the seed. An embodiment provides the nucleic acid molecule is operably linked to a second nucleic acid molecule that directs expression to the endoplasmic reticulum, vacuole or cell wall. Plants and plant parts expressing expansin are provided. An assay formore » detection of expansin activity is also provided.« less

  7. Aromatic Medicinal Plants of the Lamiaceae Family from Uzbekistan: Ethnopharmacology, Essential Oils Composition, and Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Mamadalieva, Nilufar Z.; Akramov, Davlat Kh.; Ovidi, Elisa; Tiezzi, Antonio; Nahar, Lutfun; Azimova, Shahnoz S.; Sarker, Satyajit D.

    2017-01-01

    Plants of the Lamiaceae family are important ornamental, medicinal, and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils that are used in traditional and modern medicine, and in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industry. Various species of the genera Hyssopus, Leonurus, Mentha, Nepeta, Origanum, Perovskia, Phlomis, Salvia, Scutellaria, and Ziziphora are widespread throughout the world, are the most popular plants in Uzbek traditional remedies, and are often used for the treatment of wounds, gastritis, infections, dermatitis, bronchitis, and inflammation. Extensive studies of the chemical components of these plants have led to the identification of many compounds, as well as essentials oils, with medicinal and other commercial values. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical overview of the literature surrounding the traditional uses, ethnopharmacology, biological activities, and essential oils composition of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, from the Uzbek flora. PMID:28930224

  8. Removal of pharmaceutically active compounds in nitrifying-denitrifying plants.

    PubMed

    Suárez, S; Ramil, M; Omil, F; Lema, J M

    2005-01-01

    The behaviour of nine pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) of different diagnostic groups is studied during a nitrifying-denitrifying process in an activated sludge system. The compounds selected cover a wide range of frequently used substances such as anti-epileptics (carbamazepine), tranquillisers (diazepam), anti-depressants (fluoxetine and citalopram), anti-inflammatories (ibuprofen, naproxen and diclofenac) and estrogens (estradiol and ethinylestradiol). The main objective of this research is to investigate the effect of acclimation of biomass on the removal rates of these compounds, either by maintaining a high sludge retention time or at long-term operation. The removal rates achieved for nitrogen and carbon in the experimental unit exceed 90% and were not affected by the addition of PhACs. Carbamazepine, diazepam and diclofenac were only removed to a small extent. On the other hand, higher removal rates have been observed for naproxen and ibuprofen (68% and 82%), respectively.

  9. Activities of arginine and ornithine decarboxylases in various plant species.

    PubMed

    Birecka, H; Bitonti, A J; McCann, P P

    1985-10-01

    In extracts from the youngest leaves of Avena sativa, Hordeum vulgare, Zea Mays, Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Lactuca sativa, and four pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing species of Heliotropium, the activities of ornithine decarboxylase, close to V(max), ranged between traces and 1.5 nanomoles per hour per gram fresh weight when based on putrescine formed during incubation with labeled ornithine. The arginine decarboxylase activities in the same extracts ranged between 8 and 8000 nanomoles per hour per gram fresh weight being lowest in the borages and highest in oat and barley. alpha-Difluoromethylornithine and alpha-difluoromethylarginine inhibited ornithine and arginine decarboxylases, respectively, in all species. Agmatine, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were found in all, diaminopropane in eight, and cadaverine in three species.No correlation was observed between arginine or ornithine decarboxylase level and the levels of total polyamines. The in vitro decarboxylase activities found in the borages cannot explain the high accumulation of putrescine-derived pyrrolizidines in their youngest leaves if the pyrrolizidines are produced in situ from arginine and/or ornithine as precursors; other possibilities are discussed.In assays of ornithine decarboxylase, an interference of decarboxylation not due to this enzyme was observed in extracts from all species. In arginine decarboxylase assays, the interfering decarboxylation as well as the interference of arginase were apparent in two species. Addition of aminoguanidine was needed to suppress oxidative degradation of putrescine and agmatine during incubation of extracts from pea, bean, lettuce, Heliotropium angiospermum, and Heliotropium indicum.

  10. Biofilm inhibition activity of traditional medicinal plants from Northwestern Argentina against native pathogen and environmental microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Romero, Cintia Mariana; Vivacqua, Cristian Germán; Abdulhamid, María Belén; Baigori, Mario Domingo; Slanis, Alberto Carlos; Allori, María Cristina Gaudioso de; Tereschuk, María Laura

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been commonly used in popular medicine of most cultures for the treatment of disease. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of certain Argentine plants used in traditional medicine has been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial, anti-biofilm, and anti-cell adherence activities of native plants (Larrea divaricata, Tagetes minuta, Tessaria absinthioides, Lycium chilense, and Schinus fasciculatus) collected in northwestern Argentina. The activities of the five plant species were evaluated in Bacillus strains and clinical strains of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolated from northwestern Argentina and identified by 16S rDNA. Lycium chilense and Schinus fasciculatus were the most effective antimicrobial plant extracts (15.62µg/ml and 62.50µg/ml for Staphylococcus sp. Mcr1 and Bacillus sp. Mcn4, respectively). The highest (66%) anti-biofilm activity against Bacillus sp. Mcn4 was observed with T. absinthioides and L. divaricate extracts. The highest (68%) anti-biofilm activity against Staphylococcus sp. Mcr1 was observed with L. chilense extract. T. minuta, T. absinthioides, and L. divaricata showed percentages of anti-biofilm activity of between 55% and 62%. The anti-adherence effects of T. minuta and L. chilense observed in Bacillus sp. Mcn4 reflected a difference of only 22% and 10%, respectively, between anti-adherence and biofilm inhibition. Thus, the inhibition of biofilm could be related to cell adherence. In Staphylococcus sp. Mcr1, all plant extracts produced low anti-adherence percentages. These five species may represent a source of alternative drugs derived from plant extracts, based on ethnobotanical knowledge from northwest Argentina.

  11. Polysaccharides, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activities in different parts of Silybum marianum L. plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jing; Li, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaolei

    2017-01-01

    Silybum marianum L. is used for the production of silymarin, a flavonoid utilized for regenerating damaged hepatic tissues. Herein, the total flavonoid content (TFC) and polysaccharides content (PC) in the roots, main stems, leaves, fruit receptacles, and pappi of Silybum marianum were determined. The antioxidant activities of plant ethanol extracts were assessed to validate the medicinal potential of the various plant parts. The pappi exhibited the highest TFC (17.10 mg rutin/g of dry plant material), followed by the fruit receptacles (15.34 mg/g). The PC varied from 3.57±0.23 to 11.02±0.35 mg glucose /g dry plant material; the highest PC was obtained from the roots. At 50 ug/mL, the pappi ethanol extract showed the highest 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (69.68%), followed by the roots (66.02%).

  12. Pharmacological and Phytochemical Appraisal of Selected Medicinal Plants from Jordan with Claimed Antidiabetic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Fatma U.; Kasabri, Violet

    2013-01-01

    Plant species have long been regarded as possessing the principal ingredients used in widely disseminated ethnomedical practices. Different surveys showed that medicinal plant species used by the inhabitants of Jordan for the traditional treatment of diabetes are inadequately screened for their therapeutic/preventive potential and phytochemical findings. In this review, traditional herbal medicine pursued indigenously with its methods of preparation and its active constituents are listed. Studies of random screening for selective antidiabetic bioactivity and plausible mechanisms of action of local species, domesticated greens, or wild plants are briefly discussed. Recommended future directives incurring the design and conduct of comprehensive trials are pointed out to validate the usefulness of these active plants or bioactive secondary metabolites either alone or in combination with existing conventional therapies. PMID:24482764

  13. A Virtual Screening Approach For Identifying Plants with Anti H5N1 Neuraminidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic and occasional drug-resistant influenza strains have highlighted the need to develop novel anti-influenza therapeutics. Here, we report computational and experimental efforts to identify influenza neuraminidase inhibitors from among the 3000 natural compounds in the Malaysian-Plants Natural-Product (NADI) database. These 3000 compounds were first docked into the neuraminidase active site. The five plants with the largest number of top predicted ligands were selected for experimental evaluation. Twelve specific compounds isolated from these five plants were shown to inhibit neuraminidase, including two compounds with IC50 values less than 92 μM. Furthermore, four of the 12 isolated compounds had also been identified in the top 100 compounds from the virtual screen. Together, these results suggest an effective new approach for identifying bioactive plant species that will further the identification of new pharmacologically active compounds from diverse natural-product resources. PMID:25555059

  14. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis) and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis), with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora) were effective against

  15. Taiwanese native plants inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity after ultraviolet B irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yueh-Lun; Lee, Mei-Hsien; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Huang, Po-Yuan; Huang, I-Jen; Cheng, Kur-Ta; Leu, Sy-Jye

    2009-03-06

    Medicinal plants have long been used as a source of therapeutic agents. They are thought to be important anti-aging ingredients in prophylactic medicines. The aim of this study was to screen extracts from Taiwanese plant materials for phenolic contents and measure the corresponding matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity. We extracted biological ingredients from eight plants native to Taiwan (Alnus formosana, Diospyros discolor, Eriobotrya deflex, Machilus japonica, Pyrrosia polydactylis, Pyrus taiwanensis, Vitis adstricta, Vitis thunbergii). Total phenolic content was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. MMP-9 activities were measured by gelatin zymography. The extracted yields of plants ranged from 3.7 % to 16.9 %. The total phenolic contents ranged from 25.4 to 36.8 mg GAE/g dry material. All of these extracts (except Vitis adstricta Hance) were shown to inhibit MMP-9 activity of WS-1 cell after ultraviolet B irradiation. These findings suggest that total phenolic content may influence MMP-9 activity and that some of the plants with higher phenolic content exhibited various biological activities that could serve as potent inhibitors of the ageing process in the skin. This property might be useful in the production of cosmetics.

  16. Vitamin B1 Functions as an Activator of Plant Disease Resistance1

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Il-Pyung; Kim, Soonok; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin B1 (thiamine) is an essential nutrient for humans. Vitamin B1 deficiency causes beriberi, which disturbs the central nervous and circulatory systems. In countries in which rice (Oryza sativa) is a major food, thiamine deficiency is prevalent because polishing of rice removes most of the thiamine in the grain. We demonstrate here that thiamine, in addition to its nutritional value, induces systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in plants. Thiamine-treated rice, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and vegetable crop plants showed resistance to fungal, bacterial, and viral infections. Thiamine treatment induces the transient expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes in rice and other plants. In addition, thiamine treatment potentiates stronger and more rapid PR gene expression and the up-regulation of protein kinase C activity. The effects of thiamine on disease resistance and defense-related gene expression mobilize systemically throughout the plant and last for more than 15 d after treatment. Treatment of Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia-0 plants with thiamine resulted in the activation of PR-1 but not PDF1.2. Furthermore, thiamine prevented bacterial infection in Arabidopsis mutants insensitive to jasmonic acid or ethylene but not in mutants impaired in the SAR transduction pathway. These results clearly demonstrate that thiamine induces SAR in plants through the salicylic acid and Ca2+-related signaling pathways. The findings provide a novel paradigm for developing alternative strategies for the control of plant diseases. PMID:15980201

  17. Promise for plant pest control: root-associated pseudomonads with insecticidal activities

    PubMed Central

    Kupferschmied, Peter; Maurhofer, Monika; Keel, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Insects are an important and probably the most challenging pest to control in agriculture, in particular when they feed on belowground parts of plants. The application of synthetic pesticides is problematic owing to side effects on the environment, concerns for public health and the rapid development of resistance. Entomopathogenic bacteria, notably Bacillus thuringiensis and Photorhabdus/Xenorhabdus species, are promising alternatives to chemical insecticides, for they are able to efficiently kill insects and are considered to be environmentally sound and harmless to mammals. However, they have the handicap of showing limited environmental persistence or of depending on a nematode vector for insect infection. Intriguingly, certain strains of plant root-colonizing Pseudomonas bacteria display insect pathogenicity and thus could be formulated to extend the present range of bioinsecticides for protection of plants against root-feeding insects. These entomopathogenic pseudomonads belong to a group of plant-beneficial rhizobacteria that have the remarkable ability to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens, promote plant growth, and induce systemic plant defenses. Here we review for the first time the current knowledge about the occurrence and the molecular basis of insecticidal activity in pseudomonads with an emphasis on plant-beneficial and prominent pathogenic species. We discuss how this fascinating Pseudomonas trait may be exploited for novel root-based approaches to insect control in an integrated pest management framework. PMID:23914197

  18. Therapeutic significance and pharmacological activities of antidiarrheal medicinal plants mention in Ayurveda: A review

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Ashish; Seth, Ankit; Maurya, Santosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea is a serious problem affecting 3-5 billion people per year around the world, especially children of below 5 years. 70% of the world population uses traditional and indigenous medicine for their primary health care. The facts of these indigenous remedies are passed verbally and sometimes as documents. Since ancient time, Ayurveda is the main system of healing in South East Asian countries. Indian literature from ayurvedic texts and other books claim the potency of several plants in the treatment of diarrhea. As the global prospective of ayurvedic medicine is increasing, interest regarding the scientific basis of their action is parallely increasing. Researchers are doing experiments to establish the relation between the claimed action and observed pharmacological activities. In the present article, an attempt was made to compile the scientific basis of medicinal plants used to cure diarrhea in Ayurveda. Literature was collected via electronic search (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Medline, and Google Scholar) from published articles that reports antidiarrheal activity of plants that were mentioned in Ayurveda classics. A total of 109 plant species belonging to 58 families were reported for their antidiarrheal activity. Several Indian medicinal plants have demonstrated promising antidiarrheal effects, but the studies on the antidiarrheal potentials of these plants are not taken beyond proof of concept stage. It is hoped that the article would stimulate future clinical studies because of the paucity of knowledge in this area. PMID:27366356

  19. Antiplasmodial activity of plant extracts used in west African traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Mustofa; Valentin, A; Benoit-Vical, F; Pélissier, Y; Koné-Bamba, D; Mallié, M

    2000-11-01

    Five plants originating from Ivory Coast were selected after an ethnobotanical survey, Alchornea cordifolia, Mitragyna inermis, Nauclea diderrichii, Pterocarpus santalinoides, and Terminalia glaucescens. Traditional healers for the treatment of malaria commonly used these plants. Extracts of these plants were tested on three strains of Plasmodium falciparum, FcB1-Colombia and FcM29-Cameroon (chloroquine-resistant strains) and a Nigerian chloroquine-sensitive strain. Extracts were obtained by preparing decoction in water of the powdered plant, the technique used by most of the traditional healers. A radioactive micromethod allowed the evaluation of the in vitro activity of the extracts on P. falciparum. Concentrations inhibiting 50% of the parasite growth (IC(50)) ranged from 2.34 to more than 500 microg/ml according to the plant. For the most active plants (A. cordifolia and T. glaucescens) ethanol and pentane extracts were made and tested. The IC(50) values obtained for these extracts ranged from 0.35 to 43.40 microg/ml. The stage specificity of the ethanol extracts of A. cordifolia and T. glaucescens and pentane extract of T. glaucescens on the parasite erythrocytic cycle were determined. The ethanol extract of T. glaucescens showed its highest activity at the transition from the trophozoite to the schizont stages. Cytotoxicity was estimated on human fibroblasts (HeLa) cells and a cytotoxicity/antiplasmodial index was calculated, it ranged between 5 and 21, and the best antiplasmodial extract (T. glaucescens ethanol extract) had the higher index (>20).

  20. Chemical ecology of the luna moth : Effects of host plant on detoxification enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Lindroth, R L

    1989-07-01

    The effects of food plant on larval performance and midgut detoxification enzymes were investigated in larvae of the luna moth,Actias luna. Neonate larvae were fed leaves of black cherry, cottonwood, quaking aspen, white willow, red oak, white oak, tulip tree, paper birch, black walnut, butternut, or shagbark hickory. First instar survival, larval duration, and pupal weights were monitored as indices of food quality. Midgut enzyme preparations from fifth instars were assayed for β-glucosidase, quinone reductase, polysubstrate monooxygenase, esterase, and glutathione transferase activities. Larval survival on seven of the 11 plant species, including several recorded host plants, was extremely poor. Larvae performed well, and quite similarly, on birch, walnut, butternut, and hickory. Activities of all enzyme systems except β-glucosidase were significantly influenced by larval host plant. Of the systems assayed, quinone reductase and glutathione transferase activities were especially high. Comparisons of these values with published values for other Lepidoptera support the hypothesis that these enzyme systems are involved in conferring tolerance to juglone and related quinones occurring in members of the plant family Juglandaceae. Results suggest that host plant utilization by luna is more specialized at the individual or population level than at the species level and that biochemical detoxification systems may play a role in such specialization.

  1. Antiprotozoal activity of medicinal plants used by Iquitos-Nauta road communities in Loreto (Peru).

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Ocmín, Pedro; Cojean, Sandrine; Rengifo, Elsa; Suyyagh-Albouz, Soulaf; Amasifuen Guerra, Carlos A; Pomel, Sébastien; Cabanillas, Billy; Mejía, Kember; Loiseau, Philippe M; Figadère, Bruno; Maciuk, Alexandre

    2018-01-10

    In the Peruvian Amazon, the use of medicinal plants is a common practice. However, there is few documented information about the practical aspects of their use and few scientific validation. The starting point for this work was a set of interviews of people living in rural communities from the Peruvian Amazon about their uses of plants. Protozoan diseases are a public health issue in the Amazonian communities, who partly cope with it by using traditional remedies. Validation of these traditional practices contributes to public health care efficiency and may help identify new antiprotozoal compounds. to inventory and validate the use of medicinal plants by rural people of Loreto region. Rural mestizos were interviewed about traditional medication of parasite infections with medicinal plants. Ethnopharmacological surveys were undertaken in two villages along Iquitos-Nauta road (Loreto region, Peru), namely 13 de Febrero and El Dorado communities. Forty-six plants were collected according to their traditional use for the treatment of parasitic diseases, 50 ethanolic extracts (different parts for some of the plants) were tested in vitro on Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 sensitive strain and W2 chloroquine resistant strain), Leishmania donovani LV9 strain and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Cytotoxic assessment (HUVEC cells) of the active extracts was performed. Two of the most active plants were submitted to preliminary bioguided fractionation to ascertain and explore their activities. From the initial plants list, 10 were found to be active on P. falciparum, 15 on L. donovani and 2 on the three parasites. The ethanolic extract from Costus curvibracteatus (Costaceae) leaves and Grias neuberthii (Lecythidaceae) bark showed strong in vitro activity on P. falciparum (sensitive and resistant strain) and L. donovani and moderate activity on T. brucei gambiense. The Amazonian forest communities in Peru represents a source of knowledge on the use of medicinal plants. In this work

  2. [Soil catalase activity of main plant communities in Leymus chinensis grassland in northeast China].

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Guo, Jixun; Zhu, Li

    2002-06-01

    The seasonal dynamics of soil catalase activity of three different plants communities in Leymus chinensis grassland in northeast China were in a parabolas shape. The seasonal variation of Chloris virgata community was greater than those of Leymus chinensis community and Puccinellia tenuiflora community, and "seed effect" might be the main reason. The correlation between the activity of soil catalase in different soil layers and environmental factors were analyzed. The results showed that the activity of soil catalase was decreased gradually with depth of soil layer. The activity of soil catalase was closely correlated with rainfall and air temperature, and it was affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, and their interactions. The correlation between the activity and aboveground vegetation was very significant, and the growing condition of plant communities could be reflected by the activity of soil catalase.

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Plant Extracts from Aloe Vera, Citrus Hystrix, Sabah Snake Grass and Zingiber Officinale against Pyricularia Oryzae that causes Rice Blast Disease in Paddy Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uda, M. N. A.; Harzana Shaari, N.; Shamiera. Said, N.; Hulwani Ibrahim, Nur; Akhir, Maisara A. M.; Khairul Rabani Hashim, Mohd; Salimi, M. N.; Nuradibah, M. A.; Hashim, Uda; Gopinath, Subash C. B.

    2018-03-01

    Rice blast disease, caused by the fungus known as Pyricularia oryzae, has become an important and serious disease of rice worldwide. Around 50% of production may be lost in a field moderately affected by infection and each year the fungus destroys rice, which is enough to feed an estimated 60 million people. Therefore, use of herbal plants offer an alternative for the management of plant diseases. Herbal plant like Aloe vera, Citrus hystrix, Sabah snake grass and Zingiber officinale extracts can be used for controlling disease of rice blast. In this study, these four herbal plants were used for evaluating antimicrobial activity against rice plant fungus Pyricularia oryzae, which causes rice blast disease.

  4. Anti-collagenase, anti-elastase and anti-oxidant activities of extracts from 21 plants

    PubMed Central

    Thring, Tamsyn SA; Hili, Pauline; Naughton, Declan P

    2009-01-01

    Background Owing to their roles in tissue remodelling in health and disease, several studies have reported investigations on plant extracts as inhibitors of proteinases and as anti-oxidants. Methods The anti-ageing and anti-oxidant properties of 23 plant extracts (from 21 plant species) were assessed as anti-elastase and anti-collagenase activities and in selected anti-oxidant assays along with phenolic content. Results Anti-elastase activities were observed for nine of the extracts with inhibitory activity in the following order: white tea (~89%), cleavers (~58%), burdock root (~51%), bladderwrack (~50%), anise and angelica (~32%). Anti-collagenase activities were exhibited by sixteen plants of which the highest activity was seen in white tea (~87%), green tea (~47%), rose tincture (~41%), and lavender (~31%). Nine plant extracts had activities against both elastase (E) and collagenase (C) and were ranked in the order of white tea (E:89%, C:87%) > bladderwrack (E:50%, C:25%) > cleavers (E:58%, C:7%) > rose tincture (E:22%, C:41%) > green tea (E:10%: C:47%) > rose aqueous (E: 24%, C:26%) > angelica (E:32%, C:17%) > anise (E:32%, C:6%) > pomegranate (E:15%, C:11%). Total phenolic content varied between 0.05 and 0.26 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL with the exception of white tea (0.77 mg GAE/mL). For anti-oxidant assessment, the Trolox equivalent anti-oxidant capacity (TEAC) assay revealed activity for all extracts. White tea had the highest activity equivalent to ~21 μM Trolox for a 6.25 μg aliquot. In addition, seven extracts exhibited activities = 10 μM Trolox with witch hazel (6.25 μg = 13 μM Trolox) and rose aqueous (6.25 μg = 10 μM Trolox) showing very high activities at low concentrations. A high activity for white tea was also found in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay in which it exhibited ~88% inhibition of reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. High activities were also observed for green tea (86.41%), rose tincture (82.77%), witch hazel (82

  5. Novel assay system for acidic Peptide:N-glycanase (aPNGase) activity in crude plant extract.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Ryota; Ogura, Mikako; Matsumaru, Chihiro; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Megumi; Kimura, Yoshinobu

    2018-04-15

    Acidic peptide:N-glycanase (aPNGase) plays a pivotal role in plant glycoprotein turnover. For the construction of aPNGase-knockout or -overexpressing plants, a new method to detect the activity in crude plant extracts is required because endogenous peptidases present in the extract hamper enzyme assays using fluorescence-labeled N-glycopeptides as a substrate. In this study, we developed a new method for measuring aPNGase activity in crude extracts from plant materials.

  6. Evaluation of the wound-healing activity of selected traditional medicinal plants from Perú.

    PubMed

    Villegas, L F; Fernández, I D; Maldonado, H; Torres, R; Zavaleta, A; Vaisberg, A J; Hammond, G B

    1997-02-01

    Folk medicine practitioners in Perú employ plant preparations as wound-healing agents on superficial and internal wounds (gastric ulcers). The results of a scientific evaluation of the wound-healing activity of nine plants found in the Amazon jungle near Iquitos and in the Andes mountains is presented. The species studied were: Peperomia galioides, Mentzelia cordifolia, Mutisia acuminata, Himatanthus sucuuba, Spondias mombin, Eleutherine bulbosa, Muehlenbeckia tamnifolia, Anredera diffusa and Jatropha curcas. These plants have also been examined for their toxicological properties, their effect on blood pressure, smooth muscle and capillary permeability. Significant wound-healing activity was detected in Peperomia galioides, Anredera diffusa and Jatropha curcas. Extracts from Peperomia galioides and Anredera diffusa had no effect on cell proliferation and did not exhibit mutagenic activity.

  7. Changes in hormone and stress-inducing activities of municipal wastewater in a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wojnarowicz, Pola; Yang, Wenbo; Zhou, Hongde; Parker, Wayne J; Helbing, Caren C

    2014-12-01

    Conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants do not efficiently remove contaminants of emerging concern, and so are primary sources for contaminant release into the aquatic environment. Although these contaminants are present in effluents at ng-μg/L concentrations (i.e. microcontaminants), many compounds can act as endocrine disrupting compounds or stress-inducing agents at these levels. Chemical fate analyses indicate that additional levels of wastewater treatment reduce but do not always completely remove all microcontaminants. The removal of microcontaminants from wastewater does not necessarily correspond to a reduction in biological activity, as contaminant metabolites or byproducts may still be biologically active. To evaluate the efficacy of conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants to remove biological activity, we examined the performance of a full scale conventional activated sludge municipal wastewater treatment plant located in Guelph, Ontario, Canada. We assessed reductions in levels of conventional wastewater parameters and thyroid hormone disrupting and stress-inducing activities in wastewater at three phases along the treatment train using a C-fin assay. Wastewater treatment was effective at reducing total suspended solids, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, and stress-inducing bioactivity. However, only minimal reduction was observed in thyroid hormone disrupting activities. The present study underscores the importance of examining multiple chemical and biological endpoints in evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of wastewater treatment for removal of microcontaminants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro investigation of antimicrobial activities of ethnomedicinal plants against dental caries pathogens.

    PubMed

    Besra, Mamta; Kumar, Vipin

    2018-05-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of medicinal plant extracts against the bacterial pathogens prominent in dental caries. A total of 20 plant species (herbs, shrubs and trees) belonging to 18 genera and 15 families were documented for dental caries. Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts and essential oil from plants were determined by zone of inhibition on the growth of Streptococcus mutans (MTCC 497) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (MTCC 10307) using the agar well diffusion method. The results of in vitro antimicrobial assay prove that methanol is more successful in the extraction of phytochemicals from plant samples than aqueous solvent, as methanol extracts show higher antimicrobial activity than aqueous extracts against both the test pathogens. Methanol extracts of Nigella sativa, Psidium guajava and Syzygium aromaticum were the most effective among all 20 plant samples and have potent inhibitory activity against both dental caries pathogens with minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.2 mg mL - 1 . N. sativa seed methanol extract was more effective with 22.3 mm zone of inhibition at 0.2 mg mL - 1 against S. mutans (MTCC 497), while L. acidophilus (MTCC 10307) was more sensitive to S. aromaticum bud methanol extract at 11.3 mm zone of inhibition at concentration 0.1 mg mL - 1 . Essential oil extracted from plants also possesses strong antimicrobial activity for both test pathogens, with a minimum inhibitory concentration range of 0.05-0.16 mg mL - 1 . Syzygium aromaticum bud essential oil at 0.05 mg mL - 1 was most active against S. mutans (MTCC 497). Plant extracts viewing antimicrobial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration show the efficacy of the plant products that could be considered as a good indicator of prospective plants for discovering new antimicrobial agents against dental caries pathogens. The findings of this study provide a lead to further polyherbal formulations for the treatment of dental caries

  9. Activated carbon decreases invasive plant growth by mediating plant–microbe interactions

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Nicole E.; Kulmatiski, Andrew; Beard, Karen H.; Norton, Jeanette M.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing appreciation for the idea that plant–soil interactions (e.g. allelopathy and plant–microbe feedbacks) may explain the success of some non-native plants. Where this is the case, native plant restoration may require management tools that change plant–soil interactions. Activated carbon (AC) is one such potential tool. Previous research has shown the potential for high concentrations of AC to restore native plant growth to areas dominated by non-natives on a small scale (1 m × 1 m plots). Here we (i) test the efficacy of different AC concentrations at a larger scale (15 m × 15 m plots), (ii) measure microbial responses to AC treatment and (iii) use a greenhouse experiment to identify the primary mechanism, allelopathy versus microbial changes, through which AC impacts native and non-native plant growth. Three years after large-scale applications, AC treatments decreased non-native plant cover and increased the ratio of native to non-native species cover, particularly at concentrations >400 g m−2. Activated carbon similarly decreased non-native plant growth in the greenhouse. This effect, however, was only observed in live soils, suggesting that AC effects were microbially mediated and not caused by direct allelopathy. Bacterial community analysis of field soils indicated that AC increased the relative abundance of an unidentified bacterium and an Actinomycetales and decreased the relative abundance of a Flavobacterium, suggesting that these organisms may play a role in AC effects on plant growth. Results support the idea that manipulations of plant–microbe interactions may provide novel and effective ways of directing plant growth and community development (e.g. native plant restoration). PMID:25387751

  10. Antibacterial and Antidiarrheal Activities of Plant Products against Enterotoxinogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Dubreuil, J. Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) produces two types of enterotoxins: heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (STa and STb). These molecules are involved in the induction of secretory diarrhea in animals including humans. This condition is currently treated using a fluid replacement therapy and antibiotics. This treatment is often not available to people in developing countries, and several die from the condition provoke by ETEC. Over the years, plants and plant extracts have been use as traditional medicine to treat various gastrointestinal ailments including diarrhea. Many of these plant products have been claimed to be active against diarrhea, however few have been extensively studied. The main objective of this review was to gather the scattered information on the antidiarrheal activities reported for various plant products on ETEC. This includes two major effects: (1) The inhibitory effect on bacterial growth or viability and (2) The interference with ETEC enterotoxins activity upon the intestinal epithelium. We will focus on plant products and extracts for which we have major indications of their biological activity against ETEC and their enterotoxins. Because Vibrio cholerae toxin (CT) is structurally, antigenically and mechanistically related to LT, it will also be discussed in this review. PMID:24212181

  11. Antibacterial activities of extracts from Ugandan medicinal plants used for oral care.

    PubMed

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Borg-Karlson, Ann-Karin; Gustafsson, Anders; Obua, Celestino

    2014-08-08

    Medicinal plants are widely used for treatment of oral/dental diseases in Uganda. To investigate antibacterial activities of 16 commonly used medicinal plants on microorganisms associated with periodontal diseases (PD) and dental caries (DC). Pulp juice and solvent extracts (hexane, methanol and water) from the plants were tested against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia associated with PD and Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus associated with DC. Tests were done using agar well-diffusion (pulp juice) and agar-dilution (Solvent extracts) assays. Pulp juice from Zanthoxylum chalybeum and Euclea latidens showed activity against all the bacteria, Zanthoxylum chalybeum being most active. Hexane extract from aerial part of Helichrysum odoratissimum was most active (MIC: 0.125-0.5 mg/ml). Methanol extract from leaves of Lantana trifolia showed activity against all bacteria (MIC: 0.25-1 mg/ml). Several of the tested plants showed antibacterial activities against bacteria associated with PD and DC, meriting further investigations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Estrogen and Thyroid Hormone Receptor Activation by Medicinal Plants from Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Magnus Régios Dias; Costa, Silvia Lima; Velozo, Eudes da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Background: A number of medicinal plants are traditionally used for metabolic disorders in Bahia state, Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the estrogen receptor (ER) and thyroid receptor (TR) activation of crude extracts prepared from 20 plants. Methods: Species were extracted and assayed for receptor activation through both ER and TR gene-reporter assays, using 17β-estradiol and triiodothyronine (T3), respectively, as the positive controls. Results: Cajanus cajan (Fabaceae), Abarema cochliacarpus (Fabaceae), and Borreria verticillata (Rubiaceae) were able to activate ER as much as the positive control (17β-estradiol). These three plant species were also assayed for TR activation. At the concentration of 50 µg/mL, C. cajans exerted the highest positive modulation on TR, causing an activation of 59.9%, while B. verticillata and A. cochliacarpus caused 30.8% and 23.3%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results contribute towards the validation of the traditional use of C. cajans, B. verticillata, and A. cochliacarpus in the treatment of metabolic disorders related to ER and TR functions. The gene-reporter assay was proven effective in screening crude plant extracts for ER/TR activation, endorsing this methodology as an important tool for future bioprospection studies focused on identifying novel starting molecules for the development of estrogen and thyroid agonists. PMID:29342924

  13. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of some Vietnamese medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngan, Luong Thi My; Dung, Pham Phuong; Nhi, Nguyen Vang Thi Yen; Hoang, Nguyen van Minh; Hieu, Tran Trung

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common human infectious bacteria. The infection is highly associated with a number of the most important disease of the upper gastrointestinal tract, including gastritis, duodenitis, peptic ulceration, and gastric cancer. In addition, widespread use of antimicrobial agents has resulted in the development of antibiotic resistance. Metabolites of plants, particularly higher plants, have been suggested as alternative potential sources for antibacterial products due to their safe. This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial activities of crude ethanolic extracts of seventeen Vietnamese medicinal plants toward one reference strain and three clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori using broth micro-dilution bioassay. The antibacterial activities of these extracts were also compared with those of seven antibiotics, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, azithromycin, tetracycline, and metronidazole. The extracts of Ampelopsis cantoniensis and Cleistocalyx operculatus showed highest antibacterial activity with MIC (MBC) values of 0.31 - 0.97 (2.5 - 5) mg/mL, followed by the extracts of Hedyotis diffusa and Ardisia silvestris with MIC (MBC) values of 1.04 - 1.94 (7.5 - 10) mg/mL. The remaining plant extracts exhibited moderate, low and very low or no active to the H. pylori strains. Further studies are needed to determine the active compounds from the extracts that showed high antibacterial activity against H. pylori.

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Seven Essential Oils From Iranian Aromatic Plants Against Common Causes of Oral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Ghadiri, Pooria; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Moein, Mohammad Reza; Mehriar, Peiman; Bahrani, Farideh; Golzar, Tahereh; Pakshir, Keyvan; Fani, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over the past two decades, there has been a growing trend in using oral hygienic products originating from natural resources such as essential oils (EOs) and plant extracts. Seven aromatic plants used in this study are among popular traditional Iranian medicinal plants with potential application in modern medicine as anti-oral infectious diseases. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils from seven medicinal plants against pathogens causing oral infections. Materials and Methods: The chemical compositions of EOs distilled from seven plants were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These plants included Satureja khuzestanica, S. bachtiarica, Ocimum sanctum, Artemisia sieberi, Zataria multiflora, Carum copticum and Oliveria decumbens. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was evaluated by broth micro-dilution in 96 well plates as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods. Results: The tested EOs inhibited the growth of examined oral pathogens at concentrations of 0.015-16 µL/mL. Among the examined oral pathogens, Enterococcus faecalis had the highest Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) and Minimum Microbicidal Concentrations (MMCs). Of the examined EOs, S. khuzestanica, Z. multiflora and S. bachtiarica, showed the highest antimicrobial activities, respectively, while Artemisia sieberi exhibited the lowest antimicrobial activity. Conclusions: The excellent antimicrobial activities of the tested EOs might be due to their major phenolic or alcoholic monoterpenes with known antimicrobial activities. Hence, these EOs can be possibly used as an antimicrobial agent in treatment and control of oral pathogens. PMID:25793100

  15. Ralstonia solanacearum Type III Effector RipAY Is a Glutathione-Degrading Enzyme That Is Activated by Plant Cytosolic Thioredoxins and Suppresses Plant Immunity.

    PubMed

    Mukaihara, Takafumi; Hatanaka, Tadashi; Nakano, Masahito; Oda, Kenji

    2016-04-12

    The plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum uses a large repertoire of type III effector proteins to succeed in infection. To clarify the function of effector proteins in host eukaryote cells, we expressed effectors in yeast cells and identified seven effector proteins that interfere with yeast growth. One of the effector proteins, RipAY, was found to share homology with the ChaC family proteins that function as γ-glutamyl cyclotransferases, which degrade glutathione (GSH), a tripeptide that plays important roles in the plant immune system. RipAY significantly inhibited yeast growth and simultaneously induced rapid GSH depletion when expressed in yeast cells. The in vitro GSH degradation activity of RipAY is specifically activated by eukaryotic factors in the yeast and plant extracts. Biochemical purification of the yeast protein identified that RipAY is activated by thioredoxin TRX2. On the other hand, RipAY was not activated by bacterial thioredoxins. Interestingly, RipAY was activated by plant h-type thioredoxins that exist in large amounts in the plant cytosol, but not by chloroplastic m-, f-, x-, y- and z-type thioredoxins, in a thiol-independent manner. The transient expression of RipAY decreased the GSH level in plant cells and affected the flg22-triggered production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) marker genes in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. These results indicate that RipAY is activated by host cytosolic thioredoxins and degrades GSH specifically in plant cells to suppress plant immunity. Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of bacterial wilt disease of plants. This pathogen injects virulence effector proteins into host cells to suppress disease resistance responses of plants. In this article, we report a biochemical activity of R. solanacearum effector protein RipAY. RipAY can degrade GSH, a tripeptide that plays important roles in the plant immune system, with

  16. Phytochemicals, antioxidant, and anthelmintic activity of selected traditional wild edible plants of lower Assam.

    PubMed

    Swargiary, Ananta; Daimari, Abhijita; Daimari, Manita; Basumatary, Noymi; Narzary, Ezekiel

    2016-01-01

    Clerodendrum viscosum , Eryngium foetidum , Lippia javanica , and Murraya koenigii are one among the common wild edible plants in Northeast India which are also used as antidiabetic, stomach-ache relieving drugs, etc., The present study was aimed to reveal the phytochemical, antioxidant, and anthelmintic activity of the plants. The antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract of plants was studied by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power, TBARS, and total antioxidant activity (TAA). Total phenolics, flavonoids, Vitamin C, carbohydrate, and protein are also estimated following standard protocols. Anthelmintic activity of the extracts has also been studied in vitro against trematode parasites. The result showed that the methanolic extracts of plants possess a substantial quantity of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, proteins, carbohydrates, and Vitamin C. Phenolics, flavonoids, and Vitamin C contents were found higher in C. viscosum followed by M. koenigii , L. javanica , and E. foetidum . The in vitro antioxidant assays revealed substantial free radical scavenging property in all the plants. TAA increased in the order C. viscosum > M. koenigii > L. javanica > E. foetidum . Similarly, C. viscosum displayed a better antioxidant capacity with IC 50 values 29.74 ± 3.63 μg and 148.77 ± 18.38 μg for DPPH and thiobarbituric acid reactive species, respectively. In addition, the plant extracts also showed good anthelmintic activity against Paramphistomum sp. Time taken for paralysis and death were 0:56 ± 0:09 h and 1:35 ± 0:07 h for L. javanica at 50 mg/mL concentration. The study therefore suggests the importance of tested plants as a natural source of free radical scavenger and plausible veterinary uses.

  17. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  18. Activating Intrinsic Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes of the Smut Fungus Ustilago maydis for the Degradation of Plant Cell Wall Components

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Elena; Reindl, Michèle; Blank, Lars M.; Feldbrügge, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The microbial conversion of plant biomass to valuable products in a consolidated bioprocess could greatly increase the ecologic and economic impact of a biorefinery. Current strategies for hydrolyzing plant material mostly rely on the external application of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). Alternatively, production organisms can be engineered to secrete CAZymes to reduce the reliance on externally added enzymes. Plant-pathogenic fungi have a vast repertoire of hydrolytic enzymes to sustain their lifestyle, but expression of the corresponding genes is usually highly regulated and restricted to the pathogenic phase. Here, we present a new strategy in using the biotrophic smut fungus Ustilago maydis for the degradation of plant cell wall components by activating its intrinsic enzyme potential during axenic growth. This fungal model organism is fully equipped with hydrolytic enzymes, and moreover, it naturally produces value-added substances, such as organic acids and biosurfactants. To achieve the deregulated expression of hydrolytic enzymes during the industrially relevant yeast-like growth in axenic culture, the native promoters of the respective genes were replaced by constitutively active synthetic promoters. This led to an enhanced conversion of xylan, cellobiose, and carboxymethyl cellulose to fermentable sugars. Moreover, a combination of strains with activated endoglucanase and β-glucanase increased the release of glucose from carboxymethyl cellulose and regenerated amorphous cellulose, suggesting that mixed cultivations could be a means for degrading more complex substrates in the future. In summary, this proof of principle demonstrates the potential applicability of activating the expression of native CAZymes from phytopathogens in a biocatalytic process. IMPORTANCE This study describes basic experiments that aim at the degradation of plant cell wall components by the smut fungus Ustilago maydis. As a plant pathogen, this fungus contains a

  19. [Biological activity tests of chemical constituents from two Brazilian Labiatae plants].

    PubMed

    Isobe, Takahiko; Doe, Matsumi; Morimoto, Yoshiki; Nagata, Kumiko; Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Ohsaki, Ayumi

    2007-02-01

    We studied the bioactivities of constituents from two tropical medicinal plants, Cunila spicata and Hyptis fasciculata. These plants found in Brazil belong to the Labiatae family. Four known compounds obtained from these herbs were identified as 3alpha, 24-dihydoxylurs-12-en-28-oic acid, betulinic acid, aurantiamide acetate, and aurantiamide benzoate by spectroscopic means. 3alpha, 24-Dihydoxylurs-12-en-28-oic acid has potent inhibitory activity against Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Porphyromomas gingivalis. Aurantiamide benzoate exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase. It was clarified that herbs Cunila spicata and Hyptis fasciculata are effective against bronchitis and gout.

  20. Co-evaluation of plant extracts as petrochemical substitutes and for biologically active compounds

    SciTech Connect

    McChesney, J.D.; Adams, R.P.

    Recent efforts to discover phytochemicals that could substitute for petroleum-derived fuels and industrial feedstocks have not given much attention to the potential of these same phytochemicals to provide sources of biologically active compounds. The suitability of extraction products made to assess specific plants as potential botanochemical sources has been evaluated for use in screening procedures for evidence of biologically active compounds. Screening procedures for antibacterial, antifungal and toxic properties are discussed. Screening results are presented for extracts of nearly 80 species of plants from the southeastern United States and southern Great Plains that had previously been evaluated as sources ofmore » botanochemicals.« less

  1. Involvement of specific calmodulin isoforms in salicylic acid-independent activation of plant disease resistance responses.

    PubMed

    Heo, W D; Lee, S H; Kim, M C; Kim, J C; Chung, W S; Chun, H J; Lee, K J; Park, C Y; Park, H C; Choi, J Y; Cho, M J

    1999-01-19

    The Ca2+ signal is essential for the activation of plant defense responses, but downstream components of the signaling pathway are still poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that specific calmodulin (CaM) isoforms are activated by infection or pathogen-derived elicitors and participate in Ca2+-mediated induction of plant disease resistance responses. Soybean CaM (SCaM)-4 and SCaM-5 genes, which encode for divergent CaM isoforms, were induced within 30 min by a fungal elicitor or pathogen, whereas other SCaM genes encoding highly conserved CaM isoforms did not show such response. This pathogen-triggered induction of these genes specifically depended on the increase of intracellular Ca2+ level. Constitutive expression of SCaM-4 and SCaM-5 in transgenic tobacco plants triggered spontaneous induction of lesions and induces an array of systemic acquired resistance (SAR)-associated genes. Surprisingly, these transgenic plants have normal levels of endogenous salicylic acid (SA). Furthermore, coexpression of nahG gene did not block the induction of SAR-associated genes in these transgenic plants, indicating that SA is not involved in the SAR gene induction mediated by SCaM-4 or SCaM-5. The transgenic plants exhibit enhanced resistance to a wide spectrum of virulent and avirulent pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and virus. These results suggest that specific CaM isoforms are components of a SA-independent signal transduction chain leading to disease resistance.

  2. In-vitro Antioxidant Activities of the Ethanolic Extracts of Some Contained-Allantoin Plants

    PubMed Central

    Selamoglu, Zeliha; Dusgun, Cihan; Akgul, Hasan; Gulhan, Mehmet Fuat

    2017-01-01

    It has been investigated the in-vitro antioxidant properties of ethanol extracts of the contained-allantoin plants in this study. Contained-allantoined plant samples Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major, Robinia pseudoacacia, Platanus orientalis and Aesculus hippocastanum were tested at different concentrations. The antioxidant activities of plant samples were analysed by 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), reducing power assay and β-carotene bleaching method. Plantago major plant showed the highest antioxidant capacity compared to other plant extracts in results of the in-vitro assays including 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method with 90.25 %, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) with 1.789 %, reducing power assay (FRAP) with 1.321 % and β-carotene bleaching method with 78.01 % in 1 mg/mL. The lowest antioxidant activity was determined in Robinia pseudoacacia plant. In conclusion, allantoin shows antioxidant properties and it has the positive effect on total antioxidant capacity.

  3. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of essential oil and different plant extracts of Psidium cattleianum Sabine.

    PubMed

    Scur, M C; Pinto, F G S; Pandini, J A; Costa, W F; Leite, C W; Temponi, L G

    2016-02-01

    The goals of the study were to determinethe antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil and plant extracts aqueous and ethanolic of Psidium cattleianum Sabine; the chemical composition of the essential oil of P. cattleianum; and the phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the same plant. Regarding the antimicrobial activity, the ethanolic extract exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity with respect to bacteria K. pneumoniae and S. epidermidis, whereas, regarding other microorganisms, it showed activity considered weak. The aqueous extract and the essential oil showed activity considered weak, although they inhibited the growth of microorganisms. About the antioxidant potential, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts exhibited a scavenging index exceeding 90%, while the essential oil didn´t show significant antioxidant activity. Regarding the phytochemical composition, the largest class of volatile compounds identified in the essential oil of P. cattleianum included the following terpenic hydrocarbons: α-copaene (22%); eucalyptol (15%), δ-cadinene (9.63%) and α-selinene (6.5%). The phytochemical screening of extracts showed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and triterpenoids for aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The extracts and essential oils inhibit the growth of microrganisms and plant extracts showed significant antioxidant activity. Also, the phytochemical characterization of the essential oil showed the presence of compounds interest commercial, as well as extracts showed the presence of important classes and compounds with biological activities.

  4. A comprehensive review of plants and their active constituents with wound healing activity in traditional Iranian medicine.

    PubMed

    Hosein Farzaei, Mohammad; Abbasabadi, Zahra; Reza Shams-Ardekani, Mohammad; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Rahimi, Roja

    2014-07-01

    Wound healing is a complex cascade of events with various cellular and biochemical processes that result in reconstruction and regeneration of damaged tissue. The objective of the current study was to scientifically evaluate the medicinal plants said to produce wound healing activity in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM). Electronic databases were searched for the names of medicinal plants claimed in TIM literature for having wound healing activity. Articles were evaluated to obtain any in vitro, animal, or clinical evidence of their efficacy and possible mechanisms involved in would healing. Mechanisms of action for some of these plants, including Tamarix spp., Rosa spp., Piper betle, Plantago major, Oxalis spp., Olea europaea, Malva spp., Linum usitatissimum, and Tamarindus indica, have not been yet clarified. In contrast, some herbs such as Vitis vinifera, Quercus spp., Punica granatum, Pinus spp., Polygonum spp., Lilium spp., Gentiana lutea, Arnebia euchroma, Aloe spp., and Caesalpinia spp. have various biological and pharmacological mechanisms that have been verified for wound healing activity. Overall, TIM resources have introduced various medicinal plants for wounds with confirmed effectiveness according to current pharmacological studies. These herbal remedies could be considered as future drugs for healing of wounds. Further pharmacological and clinical investigations are recommended for exploring safety, exact mechanisms, and efficacy of these herbal remedies. .

  5. A novel nematode effector suppresses plant immunity by activating host reactive oxygen species-scavenging system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Borong; Zhuo, Kan; Chen, Shiyan; Hu, Lili; Sun, Longhua; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Lian-Hui; Liao, Jinling

    2016-02-01

    Evidence is emerging that plant-parasitic nematodes can secrete effectors to interfere with the host immune response, but it remains unknown how these effectors can conquer host immune responses. Here, we depict a novel effector, MjTTL5, that could suppress plant immune response. Immunolocalization and transcriptional analyses showed that MjTTL5 is expressed specifically within the subventral gland of Meloidogyne javanica and up-regulated in the early parasitic stage of the nematode. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing MjTTL5 were significantly more susceptible to M. javanica infection than wild-type plants, and vice versa, in planta silencing of MjTTL5 substantially increased plant resistance to M. javanica. Yeast two-hybrid, coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescent complementation assays showed that MjTTL5 interacts specifically with Arabidopsis ferredoxin : thioredoxin reductase catalytic subunit (AtFTRc), a key component of host antioxidant system. The expression of AtFTRc is induced by the infection of M. javanica. Interaction between AtFTRc and MjTTL could drastically increase host reactive oxygen species-scavenging activity, and result in suppression of plant basal defenses and attenuation of host resistance to the nematode infection. Our results demonstrate that the host ferredoxin : thioredoxin system can be exploited cunningly by M. javanica, revealing a novel mechanism utilized by plant-parasitic nematodes to subjugate plant innate immunity and thereby promoting parasitism. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Control of Citrus Huanglongbing via Trunk Injection of Plant Defense Activators and Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Hu, J; Jiang, J; Wang, N

    2018-02-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) or greening is a devastating disease of citrus worldwide and no effective control measure is currently available. Plant defense activators environmentally friendly compounds capable of inducing resistance against many plant pathogens. Earlier studies showed that foliar spray of plant defense inducers could slow down HLB disease progress. In this study, eight plant defense activators and three antibiotics were evaluated in three field trials for their effect to control HLB by trunk injection of young and mature sweet orange trees. Results showed that four trunk injections of several activators, including salicylic acid, oxalic acid, acibenzolar-S-methyl, and potassium phosphate, provided significant control of HLB by suppressing 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' titer and disease progress. Trunk injection of penicillin, streptomycin, and oxytetracycline hydrochloride resulted in excellent control of HLB. In general, antibiotics were more effective in reduction of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' titer and HLB symptom expressions than plant defense activators. These treatments also resulted in increased yield and better fruit quality. Injection of both salicylic acid and acibenzolar-S-methyl led to significant induction of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes PR-1 and PR-2 genes. Meanwhile, injection of either potassium phosphate or oxalic acid resulted in significant induction of PR-2 or PR-15 gene expression, respectively. These results suggested that HLB diseased trees remained inducible for systemic acquired resistance under field conditions. In summary, this study presents information regarding controlling HLB via trunk injection of plant defense activators and antibiotics, which helps citrus growers in decision making regarding developing an effective HLB management program.

  7. Anti-quorum sensing activity of medicinal plants in southern Florida.

    PubMed

    Adonizio, Allison L; Downum, Kelsey; Bennett, Bradley C; Mathee, Kalai

    2006-05-24

    Bacterial intercellular communication, or quorum sensing (QS), controls the pathogenesis of many medically important organisms. Anti-QS compounds are known to exist in marine algae and have the ability to attenuate bacterial pathogenicity. We hypothesized that terrestrial plants traditionally used as medicines may also produce anti-QS compounds. To test this hypothesis, 50 medicinal plants from southern Florida were screened for anti-QS activity using two biomonitor strains, Chromobacterium violaceum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Of these plants, six showed QS inhibition: Conocarpus erectus L. (Combretaceae), Chamaecyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp. (Euphorbiaceae), Callistemon viminalis (Sol. ex Gaertn.) G. Don (Myrtaceae), Bucida burceras L. (Combretaceae), Tetrazygia bicolor (Mill.) Cogn. (Melastomataceae), and Quercus virginiana Mill. (Fagaceae). This study introduces not only a new mode of action and possible validation for traditional plant use, but also a potentially new therapeutic direction for the treatment of bacterial infections.

  8. In vitro antimicrobial activity and antagonistic effect of essential oils from plant species.

    PubMed

    Toroglu, Sevil

    2007-07-01

    Kahramanmaras, is a developing city located in the southern part of Turkey Thymus eigii (M. Zohary and RH. Davis) Jalas, Pinus nigraAm. sub sp pallasiana and Cupressus sempervirens L. are the useful plants of the Kahramanmaras province and have been understudy since 2004 for the traditional uses of plants empiric drug, spice, herbal tea industry herbal gum and fuel. The study was designed to examine the antimicrobial activities of essential oils of these plants by the disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. In addition, antimicrobial activity of Thymus eigii was researched by effects when it was used together with antibiotics and even when it was combined with other essential oils. When the results of this study were compared with vancomycin (30 mcg) and erytromycin (15 mcg) standards, it was found that Thymus eigii essential oil was particularly found to possess strongerantimicrobial activity whereas other essential oils showed susceptible or moderate activity However, antimicrobial activity changed also by in vitro interactions between antibiotics and Thymus eigii essential oil, also between essential oils of these plants and that of Thymus eigii causing synergic, additive, antagonist effect.

  9. Molecular Characterization and Analysis of Antimicrobial Activity of Endophytic Fungi From Medicinal Plants in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Gashgari, Rukaia; Gherbawy, Youssuf; Ameen, Fuad; Alsharari, Salam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endophytic fungi, which have been reported in numerous plant species, are important components of the forest community and contribute significantly to the diversity of natural ecosystems. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate and characterize, at the molecular level, the diversity and antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi from medicinal plants in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Fungi growing on plant segments were isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular characteristics. The isolates were grouped into 35 distinct operational taxonomic units, based on the sequence of the internal transcribed spacer regions in the rRNA gene. The colonization frequency and the dominant fungi percentage of these endophytic fungi were calculated. A dual culture technique was adopted to investigate the antifungal activity of these endophytes. Results: Tamarix nilotica showed the highest endophytic diversity with a relative frequency of 27.27%, followed by Cressa cretica with a relative frequency of 19.27%. The most frequently isolated species was Penicillium chrysogenum with an overall colonization rate of 98.57%. Seven out of 35 endophytic fungi exhibited strong antifungal activity to all plant fungal pathogens tested. P. chrysogenum, Fusarium oxysporum, and F. nygamai exhibited the highest inhibition against the human pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Aspergillus sydowii, P. chrysogenum, and Eupenicillium crustaceum showed strong antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis. Conclusions: The antimicrobial activity of these endophytic microorganisms could be exploited in biotechnology, medicine, and agriculture. PMID:27099679

  10. Determination of a-glucosidase inhibitory activity from selected Fabaceae plants.

    PubMed

    Dej-Adisai, Sukanya; Pitakbut, Thanet

    2015-09-01

    Nineteen plants from Fabaceae family, which were used in Thai traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes, were determined of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity via enzymatic reaction. In this reaction, α-glucosidase was used as enzyme, which, reacted with the substrate, p-nitrophenol-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG). After that the product, p-nitro phenol (pNP) will be occurred and observed the yellow colour at 405 nm. In this study, acarbose was used as positive standard which, inhibited this enzyme with IC₅₀ as 331 ± 4.73 μg/ml. Caesalpinia pulcherrima leaves showed the highest activity with IC₅₀ as 436.97 ± 9.44 μg/ml. Furthermore, Bauhinia malabarica leaves presented moderately activity with IC₅₀ as 745.08 ± 11.15 μg/ml. However, the other plants showed mild to none activity of α-glucosidase inhibition. Accordingly, this study can support anti-diabetes of these plants in traditional medicine and it will be the database of the biological activity of Fabaceae plant.

  11. Insulin-like biological activity of culinary and medicinal plant aqueous extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, C L; Polansky, M M; Anderson, R A

    2000-03-01

    To evaluate the possible effects on insulin function, 49 herb, spice, and medicinal plant extracts were tested in the insulin-dependent utilization of glucose using a rat epididymal adipocyte assay. Cinnamon was the most bioactive product followed by witch hazel, green and black teas, allspice, bay leaves, nutmeg, cloves, mushrooms, and brewer's yeast. The glucose oxidation enhancing bioactivity was lost from cinnamon, tea, witch hazel, cloves, bay leaf and allspice by poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) treatment, indicating that the active phytochemicals are likely to be phenolic in nature. The activity of sage, mushrooms, and brewers's yeast was not removed by PVP. Some products such as Korean ginseng, flaxseed meal, and basil have been reported to be effective antidiabetic agents; however, they were only marginally active in our assay. Our technique measures direct stimulation of cellular glucose metabolism, so it may be that the active phytochemicals in these plants improve glucose metabolism via other mechanisms or that this in vitro screening is not a reliable predictor of hypoglycemic effects in vivo for some products. In summary, the positive effects of specific plant extracts on insulin activity suggest a possible role of these plants in improving glucose and insulin metabolism.

  12. Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and radical scavenging activity of 21 selected tropical plants.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, R A; Abdul Hamid, A; Mohamed, S; Bakar, F Abu

    2010-01-01

    Free radical scavenging activity of 21 tropical plant extracts was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay (DPPH). Total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and HPLC, respectively. Results of the study revealed that all the plants tested exhibited excellent antioxidant activity with IC(50) in the range of 21.3 to 89.6 microg/mL. The most potent activity was demonstrated by Cosmos caudatus (21.3 microg/mL) and Piper betle (23.0 microg/mL) that are not significantly different than that of -tocopherol or BHA. L. inermis extract was found to consist of the highest concentration of phenolics, catechin, epicatechin, and naringenin. High content of quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were identified in Vitex negundo, Centella asiatica, and Sesbania grandiflora extracts, respectively. Luteolin and apigenin, on the other hand, were found in Premna cordifolia and Kaempferia galanga extracts. Strong correlation (R = 0.8613) between total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids (R = 0.8430) and that of antioxidant activity of the extracts were observed. The study revealed that phenolic, in particular flavonoids, may be the main contributors to the antioxidant activity exhibited by the plants. Potent antioxidant from natural sources is of great interest to replace the use of synthetic antioxidants. In addition, some of the plants have great potential to be used in the development of functional ingredients/foods that are currently in demand for the health benefits associated with their use.

  13. Evaluation of the potential cardioprotective activity of some Saudi plants against doxorubicin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ashour, Osama M; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Abdallah, Hossam M; Nagy, Ayman A; Mohamadin, Ahmed M; Abdel-Sattar, Essam A

    2012-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline antibiotic widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of several tumours. However, its cardiac toxicity limits its use at maximum therapeutic doses. Most studies implicated increased oxidative stress as the major determinant of DOX cardiotoxicity. The local Saudi flora is very rich in a variety of plants of quite known folkloric or traditional medicinal uses. Tribulus macropterus Boiss., Olea europaea L. subsp. africana (Mill.) P. S. Green, Tamarix aphylla (L.) H. Karst., Cynomorium coccineum L., Cordia myxa L., Calligonum comosum L' Hér, and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal are Saudi plants known to have antioxidant activities. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential protective effects of methanolic extracts of these seven Saudi plants against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Two plants showed promising cardioprotective potential in the order Calligonum comosum > Cordia myxa. The two plant extracts showed potent in vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. They significantly protected against DOX-induced alterations in cardiac oxidative stress markers (GSH and MDA) and cardiac serum markers (CK-MB and LDH activities). Additionally, histopathological examination indicated a protection against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. In conclusion, C. comosum and C. myxa exerted protective activity against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, which is, at least partly, due to their antioxidant effect.

  14. Biological screening of some Turkish medicinal plant extracts for antimicrobial and toxicity activities.

    PubMed

    Turker, A U; Usta, C

    2008-01-20

    Screening of antibacterial activity and toxicity of 22 aqueous plant extracts from 17 Turkish plants was conducted. Antibacterial activity was performed with six bacteria including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Extracts of Tussilago farfara leaves, Helichyrsum plicatum flowers, Solanum dulcamara aerial parts and Urtica dioica leaves gave the best inhibitory activity against S. pyogenes, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Of the 22 plant extracts, 20 extracts displayed toxicity (LC50 was <1000 mg L(-1)) in the brine shrimp bioassay. For radish seed bioassay, two different determinations (root length and seed germination) were performed with a comparison between two concentrations (50,000 mg L(-1) and 10,000 mg L(-1)). At low concentration (10,000 mg L(-1)), S. dulcamara aerial parts and Primula vulgaris leaf extracts were observed to inhibit the root length more than the other plant extracts. Also, the most inhibitive plant extract for seed germination was obtained with S. dulcamara aerial parts.

  15. Natural antioxidant activity of commonly consumed plant foods in India: effect of domestic processing.

    PubMed

    Sreeramulu, D; Reddy, C V K; Chauhan, Anitha; Balakrishna, N; Raghunath, M

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemicals protect against oxidative stress which in turn helps in maintaining the balance between oxidants and antioxidants. In recent times natural antioxidants are gaining considerable interest among nutritionists, food manufacturers, and consumers because of their perceived safety, potential therapeutic value, and long shelf life. Plant foods are known to protect against degenerative diseases and ageing due to their antioxidant activity (AOA) attributed to their high polyphenolic content (PC). Data on AOA and PC of Indian plant foods is scanty. Therefore we have determined the antioxidant activity in 107 commonly consumed Indian plant foods and assessed their relation to their PC. Antioxidant activity is presented as the range of values for each of the food groups. The foods studied had good amounts of PC and AOA although they belonged to different food groups. Interestingly, significant correlation was observed between AOA (DPPH and FRAP) and PC in most of the foods, corroborating the literature that polyphenols are potent antioxidants and that they may be important contributors to the AOA of the plant foods. We have also observed that common domestic methods of processing may not affect the PC and AOA of the foods studied in general. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first results of the kind in commonly consumed Indian plant foods.

  16. The effects of plant nutritional strategy on soil microbial denitrification activity through rhizosphere primary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Guyonnet, Julien P; Vautrin, Florian; Meiffren, Guillaume; Labois, Clément; Cantarel, Amélie A M; Michalet, Serge; Comte, Gilles; Haichar, Feth El Zahar

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine (i) whether plant nutritional strategy affects the composition of primary metabolites exuded into the rhizosphere and (ii) the impact of exuded metabolites on denitrification activity in soil. We answered this question by analysing primary metabolite content extracted from the root-adhering soil (RAS) and the roots of three grasses representing different nutrient management strategies: conservative (Festuca paniculata), intermediate (Bromus erectus) and exploitative (Dactylis glomerata). We also investigated the impact of primary metabolites on soil microbial denitrification enzyme activity without carbon addition, comparing for each plant RAS and bulk soils. Our data show that plant nutritional strategy impacts on primary metabolite composition of root extracts or RAS. Further we show, for the first time, that RAS-extracted primary metabolites are probably better indicators to explain plant nutrient strategy than root-extracted ones. In addition, our results show that some primary metabolites present in the RAS were well correlated with soil microbial denitrification activity with positive relationships found between denitrification and the presence of some organic acids and negative ones with the presence of xylose. We demonstrated that the analysis of primary metabolites extracted from the RAS is probably more pertinent to evaluate the impact of plant on soil microbial community functioning. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Activity of medicinal plants from Ghana against the parasitic gut protist Blastocystis.

    PubMed

    Bremer Christensen, Charlotte; Soelberg, Jens; Stensvold, Christen R; Jäger, Anna K

    2015-11-04

    The plants tested in this study were examples of plants historically used to treat or alleviate several types of stomach disorders manifested by e.g. stomachache, diarrhoea or dysentery. These plants have been consumed typically as a decoction, sometimes mixed with other flavourings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-Blastocystis activity of 24 plant parts from 21 medicinal plants from Ghana. The medicinal plants were collected in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Every plant part was tested in three different extracts; an ethanolic, a warm, and a cold water extract, at a final concentration of 1 mg/mL for the initial screening, and in a range from 0.0156 to 1mg/mL for determination of inhibitory concentrations. The obligate anaerobic parasitic gut protist Blastocystis (subtype 4) was used as a 48 h old subcultivated isolate in the final concentration of 10(6) cells/mL. Plant extracts inoculated with Blastocystis were incubated at 37 °C for 24 h and 48 h. Both MIC minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) assays and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) assays were performed after 24 h and 48 h. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was derived after 24 h and 48 h. Antimicrobial activity was tested against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria for all 24 plant parts at a final concentration of 1mg/mL. Screening of the 24 different plant parts showed significant anti-Blastocystis activity of six of the ethanolic extracts: Mallotus oppositifolius, IC50, 24 h 27.8 µg/mL; Vemonia colorata, IC50, 24 h 117.9 µg/mL; Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides, cortex IC50, 24 h 255.6 µg/mL; Clausena anisata, IC50, 24 h 314.0 µg/mL; Z. zanthoxyloides, radix IC50, 24 h 335.7 µg/mL and Eythrina senegalensis, IC50, 24 h 527.6 µg/mL. The reference anti-protozoal agent metronidazole (MTZ) had an IC50, 24 h of 7.6 µg/mL. Only C. anisata showed antimicrobial activity at a concentration of 800 µg/mL. Six ethanolic plant extracts showed significant anti

  18. Oxidative DNA damage preventive activity and antioxidant potential of plants used in Unani system of medicine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is increasing recognition that many of today's diseases are due to the "oxidative stress" that results from an imbalance between the formation and neutralization of reactive molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), which can be removed with antioxidants. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of plants routinely used in the Unani system of medicine. Several plants were screened for radical scavenging activity, and the ten that showed promising results were selected for further evaluation. Methods Methanol (50%) extracts were prepared from ten Unani plants, namely Cleome icosandra, Rosa damascena, Cyperus scariosus, Gardenia gummifera, Abies pindrow, Valeriana wallichii, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Anacyclus pyrethrum, Asphodelus tenuifolius and Cyperus scariosus, and were used to determine their total phenolic, flavonoid and ascorbic acid contents, in vitro scavenging of DPPH·, ABTS·+, NO, ·OH, O2.- and ONOO-, and capacity to prevent oxidative DNA damage. Cytotoxic activity was also determined against the U937 cell line. Results IC50 values for scavenging DPPH·, ABTS·+, NO, ·OH, O2.- and ONOO- were in the ranges 0.007 ± 0.0001 - 2.006 ± 0.002 mg/ml, 2.54 ± 0.04 - 156.94 ± 5.28 μg/ml, 152.23 ± 3.51 - 286.59 ± 3.89 μg/ml, 18.23 ± 0.03 - 50.13 ± 0.04 μg/ml, 28.85 ± 0.23 - 537.87 ± 93 μg/ml and 0.532 ± 0.015 - 3.39 ± 0.032 mg/ml, respectively. The total phenolic, flavonoid and ascorbic acid contents were in the ranges 62.89 ± 0.43 - 166.13 ± 0.56 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract, 38.89 ± 0.52 - 172.23 ± 0.08 mg quercetin equivalent (QEE)/g extract and 0.14 ± 0.09 - 0.98 ± 0.21 mg AA/g extract. The activities of the different plant extracts against oxidative DNA damage were in the range 0.13-1.60 μg/ml. Of the ten selected plant extracts studied here, seven - C. icosandra, R. damascena, C. scariosus, G. gummifera, A. pindrow, V

  19. Changes at an activated sludge sewage treatment plant alter the numbers of airborne aerobic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Nadeesha L; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2005-11-01

    In 1976, the activated sludge sewage treatment plant in Edmonton, Canada, was surveyed to determine the numbers of culturable airborne microorganisms. Many changes have been made at the plant to reduce odors and improve treatment efficiency, so in 2004 another survey was done to determine if these changes had reduced the bioaerosols. Covering the grit tanks and primary settling tanks greatly reduced the numbers of airborne microbes. Changing the design and operation of indoor automated sampling taps and sinks also reduced bioaerosols. The secondary was expanded and converted from a conventional activated sludge process using coarse bubble aeration to a biological nutrient removal system using fine bubble aeration. Although the surface area of the secondary more than doubled, the average number of airborne microorganisms in this part of the plant in 2004 was about 1% of that in 1976.

  20. Laboratory assessment of indigenous plant extracts for anti-juvenile hormone activity in Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Saxena, R C; Dixit, O P; Sukumaran, P

    1992-07-01

    Of 15 plants tested, five plant extracts showed anti-juvenile hormone-like activity against laboratory colonised late fourth instar larvae and adult female mosquitoes. Petroleum ether extract of Eichhornia crassipes and acetone extracts of Ageratum conyzoides, Cleome icosandra, Tagetes erectes and Tridax procumbens showed growth inhibitory (P less than 0.001) and juvenile hormone mimicing activity to the treated larvae of C. quinquefasciatus.. Larval pupal intermediates, demalanised pupae, defective egg rafts and adult with deformed flight muscles were few noticeable changes. Biting behaviour was observed to be affected only in Ageratum, Cleome and Tridax extracts (P less than 0.001). Loss of fecundity was observed in the treated mosquitoes but no sterilant effects could be seen. Adults, obtained from larvae exposed to the plant extracts produced significantly shorter egg-rafts (P less than 0.005) than in control.

  1. Reduced peroxisomal citrate synthase activity increases substrate availability for polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis in plant peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Tilbrook, Kimberley; Poirier, Yves; Gebbie, Leigh; Schenk, Peer M; McQualter, Richard B; Brumbley, Stevens M

    2014-10-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bacterial carbon storage polymers used as renewable, biodegradable plastics. PHA production in plants may be a way to reduce industrial PHA production costs. We recently demonstrated a promising level of peroxisomal PHA production in the high biomass crop species sugarcane. However, further production strategies are needed to boost PHA accumulation closer to commercial targets. Through exogenous fatty acid feeding of Arabidopsis thaliana plants that contain peroxisome-targeted PhaA, PhaB and PhaC enzymes from Cupriavidus necator, we show here that the availability of substrates derived from the β-oxidation cycle limits peroxisomal polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis. Knockdown of peroxisomal citrate synthase activity using artificial microRNA increased PHB production levels approximately threefold. This work demonstrates that reduction of peroxisomal citrate synthase activity may be a valid metabolic engineering strategy for increasing PHA production in other plant species. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Compounds from African Medicinal Plants with Activities Against Selected Parasitic Diseases: Schistosomiasis, Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Simoben, Conrad V; Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Akone, Sergi H; Sippl, Wolfgang

    2018-05-09

    Parasitic diseases continue to represent a threat on a global scale, particularly among the poorest countries in the world. This is particularly because of the absence of vaccines, and in some cases, resistance against available drugs, currently being used for their treatment. In this review emphasis is laid on natural products and scaffolds from African medicinal plants (AMPs) for lead drug discovery and possible further development of drugs for the treatment of parasitic diseases. In the discussion, emphasis has been laid on alkaloids, terpenoids, quinones, flavonoids and narrower compound classes of compounds with micromolar range activities against Schistosoma, Trypanosoma and Leishmania species. In each subparagraph, emphasis is laid on the compound subclasses with most promising in vitro and/or in vivo activities of plant extracts and isolated compounds. Suggestions for future drug development from African medicinal plants have also been provided. This review covering 167 references, including 82 compounds, provides information published within two decades (1997-2017).

  3. Interactions among plants, bacteria, and fungi reduce extracellular enzyme activities under long-term N fertilization.

    PubMed

    Carrara, Joseph E; Walter, Christopher A; Hawkins, Jennifer S; Peterjohn, William T; Averill, Colin; Brzostek, Edward R

    2018-06-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has enhanced soil carbon (C) stocks in temperate forests. Most research has posited that these soil C gains are driven primarily by shifts in fungal community composition with elevated N leading to declines in lignin degrading Basidiomycetes. Recent research, however, suggests that plants and soil microbes are dynamically intertwined, whereby plants send C subsidies to rhizosphere microbes to enhance enzyme production and the mobilization of N. Thus, under elevated N, trees may reduce belowground C allocation leading to cascading impacts on the ability of microbes to degrade soil organic matter through a shift in microbial species and/or a change in plant-microbe interactions. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which couplings among plant, fungal, and bacterial responses to N fertilization alter the activity of enzymes that are the primary agents of soil decomposition. We measured fungal and bacterial community composition, root-microbial interactions, and extracellular enzyme activity in the rhizosphere, bulk, and organic horizon of soils sampled from a long-term (>25 years), whole-watershed, N fertilization experiment at the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia, USA. We observed significant declines in plant C investment to fine root biomass (24.7%), root morphology, and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization (55.9%). Moreover, we found that declines in extracellular enzyme activity were significantly correlated with a shift in bacterial community composition, but not fungal community composition. This bacterial community shift was also correlated with reduced AM fungal colonization indicating that declines in plant investment belowground drive the response of bacterial community structure and function to N fertilization. Collectively, we find that enzyme activity responses to N fertilization are not solely driven by fungi, but instead reflect a whole ecosystem response, whereby declines in the

  4. Antioxidant Activity and Glucose Diffusion Relationship of Traditional Medicinal Antihyperglycemic Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Asgharpour, Fariba; Pouramir, Mahdi; Khalilpour, Asieh; Asgharpour Alamdar, Sobgol; Rezaei, Mehrasa

    2013-01-01

    Plants with hypoglycemic properties are important in the treatment of diabetes. One of the mechanisms in reducing blood glucose is preventing the digestive absorption of glucose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of some traditional medicinal plants collected from different regions of Iran and their effects on glucose diffusion decrease. The amounts of phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, total polysaccharides, antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation were determined respectively by folin ciocalteu, querceting, sulfuric acid, FRAP and thiobarbituric acid - reactive substanses (TBARS) in eleven confirmed traditional antihyperglycemic medicinal plants prepared at 50g/l concentrations using the boiling method. Phenolic compounds of Eucalyptus globules (100.8± 0.01 mg /g), total flavonoids content of Juglans regia (16.9± 0.01 mg /g) and total polysaccharide amount of Allium satirum (0.28± 0.05) were the highest. Significant relationship was observed between the polyphenols and flavonoids (p <0.05). The grape seed extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (133± 0.02 mg/g) together with decreased glucose diffusion as well as increased polyphenols (p <0.05), but the increase in antioxidant activity was not related to glucose diffusion. Antihyperglycemic plant extracts containing higher polyphenols showed more efficiently in vitro glucose diffusion decrease, but no significant relationship was observed between antioxidant activity increase and glucose diffusion. PMID:24551809

  5. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Juárez, Israel; González, Violeta; Jaime-Aguilar, Héctor; Martínez, Gisela; Linares, Edelmira; Bye, Robert; Romero, Irma

    2009-03-18

    Helicobacter pylori is the major etiological agent of chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcer disease and is linked to gastric carcinoma. Treatment to eradicate the bacteria failed in many cases, mainly due to antibiotic resistance, hence the necessity of developing better therapeutic regimens. Mexico has an enormous unexplored potential of medicinal plants. This work evaluates the in vitro anti-H. pylori activity of 53 plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. To test the in vitro antibacterial activity, agar dilution and broth dilution methods were used for aqueous and methanolic extracts, respectively. Aqueous extracts of Artemisia ludoviciana subsp. mexicana, Cuphea aequipetala, Ludwigia repens,and Mentha x piperita (MIC 125 to <250 microg/ml) as well as methanolic extracts of Persea americana, Annona cherimola, Guaiacum coulteri, and Moussonia deppeana (MIC <7.5 to 15.6 microg/ml) showed the highest inhibitory effect. The results contribute to understanding the mode of action of the studied medicinal plants and for detecting plants with high anti-Helicobacter pylori activity.

  6. Antimycoplasmal activity of some plant species from northern Nigeria compared to the currently used therapeutic agent.

    PubMed

    Muraina, I A; Adaudi, A O; Mamman, M; Kazeem, H M; Picard, J; McGaw, L J; Eloff, J N

    2010-10-01

    Mycoplasma spp. are obligate parasites of humans and animals. But due to the special requirements needed to culture Mycoplasma in the laboratory, little or no research has been done to evaluate the efficacy of medicinal plants on the organism. To screen medicinal plants traditionally used to treat infections for possible antimycoplasmal and cytotoxic activities. Acetone extracts of 21 Nigerian medicinal plants were analyzed for antimycoplasmal and cytotoxicity activities using the metabolic inhibition and colorimetric methods, respectively. The extract with the best antimycoplasmal activities was also analyzed for its phytochemical constituents using the desktop method. Calotropis procera (Aiton) R.Br (Asclepiadaceae) extract had the best antimycoplasmal effect with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 80 µg/mL and minimum mycoplasmacidal concentration (MMC) of 160 µg/mL. This extract contained saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, and flavonoids. The extract of Vernonia amygdalina Delile (Compositae) was the most cytotoxic with median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of approximately 17 µg/mL, and that of Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae) was the least cytotoxic with an LC(50) of approximately 1919 µg/mL. Calotropis procera is a promising plant for an alternative antimycoplasmal agent because the crude acetone extract had a higher mycoplasmacidal activity than the conventional drug tylosin, which is currently used in treatment of the disease in Nigeria. The crude extract of Calotropis procera is worth investigating for the development of a potent agent against cattle Mycoplasma, which has long defied solution by conventional chemotherapy.

  7. Scavenging iron: a novel mechanism of plant immunity activation by microbial siderophores.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Aude; Chen, Nicolas W G; Rigault, Martine; Riache, Nassima; Joseph, Delphine; Desmaële, Didier; Mouille, Grégory; Boutet, Stéphanie; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Thomine, Sébastien; Expert, Dominique; Dellagi, Alia

    2014-04-01

    Siderophores are specific ferric iron chelators synthesized by virtually all microorganisms in response to iron deficiency. We have previously shown that they promote infection by the phytopathogenic enterobacteria Dickeya dadantii and Erwinia amylovora. Siderophores also have the ability to activate plant immunity. We have used complete Arabidopsis transcriptome microarrays to investigate the global transcriptional modifications in roots and leaves of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants after leaf treatment with the siderophore deferrioxamine (DFO). Physiological relevance of these transcriptional modifications was validated experimentally. Immunity and heavy-metal homeostasis were the major processes affected by DFO. These two physiological responses could be activated by a synthetic iron chelator ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid, indicating that siderophores eliciting activities rely on their strong iron-chelating capacity. DFO was able to protect Arabidopsis against the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. Siderophore treatment caused local modifications of iron distribution in leaf cells visible by ferrocyanide and diaminobenzidine-H₂O₂ staining. Metal quantifications showed that DFO causes a transient iron and zinc uptake at the root level, which is presumably mediated by the metal transporter iron regulated transporter1 (IRT1). Defense gene expression and callose deposition in response to DFO were compromised in an irt1 mutant. Consistently, plant susceptibility to D. dadantii was increased in the irt1 mutant. Our work shows that iron scavenging is a unique mechanism of immunity activation in plants. It highlights the strong relationship between heavy-metal homeostasis and immunity.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY IN EFFLUENTS FROM SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Newly developed molecular biology methods have been used for the measurement of estrogenic activity in source-biased studies of sewage treatment plants. Studies in Texas and New Mexico have shown the utility of the measurement of changes in vitellogenin gene expression in fathea...

  9. Endophytic Streptomyces in the traditional medicinal plant Arnica montana L.: secondary metabolites and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Wardecki, Tina; Brötz, Elke; De Ford, Christian; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Rebets, Yuriy; Tokovenko, Bogdan; Luzhetskyy, Andriy; Merfort, Irmgard

    2015-08-01

    Arnica montana L. is a medical plant of the Asteraceae family and grows preferably on nutrient poor soils in mountainous environments. Such surroundings are known to make plants dependent on symbiosis with other organisms. Up to now only arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were found to act as endophytic symbiosis partners for A. montana. Here we identified five Streptomyces strains, microorganisms also known to occur as endophytes in plants and to produce a huge variety of active secondary metabolites, as inhabitants of A. montana. The secondary metabolite spectrum of these strains does not contain sesquiterpene lactones, but consists of the glutarimide antibiotics cycloheximide and actiphenol as well as the diketopiperazines cyclo-prolyl-valyl, cyclo-prolyl-isoleucyl, cyclo-prolyl-leucyl and cyclo-prolyl-phenylalanyl. Notably, genome analysis of one strain was performed and indicated a huge genome size with a high number of natural products gene clusters among which genes for cycloheximide production were detected. Only weak activity against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was revealed, but the extracts showed a marked cytotoxic activity as well as an antifungal activity against Candida parapsilosis and Fusarium verticillioides. Altogether, our results provide evidence that A. montana and its endophytic Streptomyces benefit from each other by completing their protection against competitors and pathogens and by exchanging plant growth promoting signals with nutrients.

  10. Rare & Endangered Species: Understanding Our Disappearing Plants and Animals. Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    About 464 plants and animals found in the United States and its territories are listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as threatened or endangered. Another 3900 are candidates for protection. The activities in this guide are designed to help teachers and students understand the issue of endangered species. It includes ideas for several…

  11. Preparation of Plant Samples for Phytochemical Research and the Study of Their Biological Activities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prior to investigating plant natural products for biologically active constituents, it is necessary to establish guidelines and procedures for carefully collecting, cataloging, and storing specimens. All field collections should begin with detailed records on location, which should include a list o...

  12. Scavenging Iron: A Novel Mechanism of Plant Immunity Activation by Microbial Siderophores1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Aznar, Aude; Chen, Nicolas W.G.; Rigault, Martine; Riache, Nassima; Joseph, Delphine; Desmaële, Didier; Mouille, Grégory; Boutet, Stéphanie; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Thomine, Sébastien; Expert, Dominique; Dellagi, Alia

    2014-01-01

    Siderophores are specific ferric iron chelators synthesized by virtually all microorganisms in response to iron deficiency. We have previously shown that they promote infection by the phytopathogenic enterobacteria Dickeya dadantii and Erwinia amylovora. Siderophores also have the ability to activate plant immunity. We have used complete Arabidopsis transcriptome microarrays to investigate the global transcriptional modifications in roots and leaves of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants after leaf treatment with the siderophore deferrioxamine (DFO). Physiological relevance of these transcriptional modifications was validated experimentally. Immunity and heavy-metal homeostasis were the major processes affected by DFO. These two physiological responses could be activated by a synthetic iron chelator ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid, indicating that siderophores eliciting activities rely on their strong iron-chelating capacity. DFO was able to protect Arabidopsis against the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. Siderophore treatment caused local modifications of iron distribution in leaf cells visible by ferrocyanide and diaminobenzidine-H2O2 staining. Metal quantifications showed that DFO causes a transient iron and zinc uptake at the root level, which is presumably mediated by the metal transporter iron regulated transporter1 (IRT1). Defense gene expression and callose deposition in response to DFO were compromised in an irt1 mutant. Consistently, plant susceptibility to D. dadantii was increased in the irt1 mutant. Our work shows that iron scavenging is a unique mechanism of immunity activation in plants. It highlights the strong relationship between heavy-metal homeostasis and immunity. PMID:24501001

  13. EVALUATION OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY FROM A MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT WITH PREDOMINANTLY DOMESTIC INPUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to survey estrogenic releases from two primarily domestic wastewater treatment plants over three seasons (1996-1999). Mature male channel catfish were maintained at two sites within each WWTP and a reference site for 21 days. Estrogenic activity of e...

  14. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ION EXCHANGE AND ACTIVATED ALUMINA PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents a long term performance study of two ion exchange (IE) and two activated alumina (AA) treatment plants to remove arsenic from drinking water. Performance information was collected on these systems that are located in the northeast for one full year. The stud...

  15. South American plants II: taspine isolation and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Perdue, G P; Blomster, R N; Blake, D A; Farnsworth, N R

    1979-01-01

    Croton lechleri L. (Euphorbiaceae), a plant from the Upper Amazon Valley of Peru, yielded the alkaloid taspine. The anti-inflammatory activity of taspine hydrochloride was studied using the carrageenan-induced pedal edema method, the cotton pellet-induced granuloma method, and the adjuvant polyarthritis model.

  16. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils extracted from Guatemalan medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew B; Cates, Rex G; Lawrence, Michael; Soria, J Alfonso Fuentes; Espinoza, Luis V; Martinez, Jose Vicente; Arbizú, Dany A

    2015-04-01

    Essential oils are prevalent in many medicinal plants used for oral hygiene and treatment of diseases. Medicinal plant species were extracted to determine the essential oil content. Those producing sufficient oil were screened for activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Candida albicans. Plant samples were collected, frozen, and essential oils were extracted by steam distillation. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using a tube dilution assay for those species yielding sufficient oil. Fifty-nine of the 141 plant species produced sufficient oil for collection and 12 species not previously reported to produce essential oils were identified. Essential oil extracts from 32 species exhibited activity against one or more microbes. Oils from eight species were highly inhibitory to S. mutans, four species were highly inhibitory to C. albicans, and 19 species yielded MIC values less than the reference drugs. RESULTS suggest that 11 species were highly inhibitory to the microbes tested and merit further investigation. Oils from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae), Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Rutaceae), Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae), and Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) yielded highly significant or moderate activity against all microbes and have potential as antimicrobial agents. Teas prepared by decoction or infusion are known methods for extracting essential oils. Oils from 11 species were highly active against the microbes tested and merit investigation as to their potential for addressing health-related issues and in oral hygiene.

  17. In vitro antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants from lower Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Zulqarnain; Rahim, Abdur; Ahmad, Khalid; Ullah, Faizan; Ullah, Hamid; Nishan, Umar

    2015-03-01

    The present studies cover antibacterial activity of the crude methanolic extracts of 11 medicinal plants viz. Adhatoda vasica, Bauhenia variegate, Bombax ceiba, Carrisa opaca, Caryopteris grata, Debregeasia salicifolia, Lantana camara, Melia azedarach, Phyllanthus emblica, Pinus roxburghii and Olea ferruginea collected from lower Himalayas against two Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus) and two Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aureginosa) bacterial strains. The extracts were applied at four different concentrations (120 mg/mL, 90mg/mL, 60mg/mL and 30mg/mL) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by using agar well diffusion method. Antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus were observed formethanolic extracts of all the above mentioned plants. Greater antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was only exhibited by Phyllanthus emblica, Pinus roxburghii, Debregeasia salicifolia and Lantana camara. Escherichia coli was highly resistant to all the plant extracts at all concentrations. It is inferred that methanolic crude extracts of the above mentioned plantsexhibitantibacterial activities against pathogenic bacteria, which proved the ethnobotanical importance of the selected plants that indigenous people use for cure against various diseases.

  18. Antiplasmodial, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of various plant extracts from the Mascarene Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Jonville, M C; Kodja, H; Strasberg, D; Pichette, A; Ollivier, E; Frédérich, M; Angenot, L; Legault, J

    2011-07-14

    Antiplasmodial activity, inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) overproduction, and anti-proliferative activity were investigated in vitro to evaluate the bioactive potential of the traditional pharmacopoeia of the Mascarene Archipelago, which is known for its biodiversity and for the richness of its endemic flora. A total of 45 methanol (MeOH) and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts were prepared from 19 plant species collected on Réunion and Mauritius Islands. Ninety-six-well microplate assays were performed on chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain, on LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 murine macrophages and on A-549, DLD-1 and WS1 human cells. Activity was evaluated through spectrophotometric methods. Activity was attributed to plant extracts expressing IC(50)<50μg/ml for antiplasmodial response, IC(50)<100μg/ml for cytotoxicity, and IC(50)<130μg/ml for anti-inflammatory reaction. The majority of the extracts tested (69%) exhibited potency in at least one of these three types of activity. This is the first report describing promising antiplasmodial activity (IC(50)<15μg/ml) for Psiadia dentata DCM extract and Terminalia bentzoe MeOH bark extract. NO inhibition assay revealed seven interesting plants, described for the first time as anti-inflammatory: Aphloia theiformis, Buddleja salviifolia, Eupatorium riparium, Hiptage benghalensis, Psiadia arguta, Psiadia dentata, and Scutia commersonii. Finally, anti-proliferative activity was observed for two endemic species, Geniostoma borbonicum and Nuxia verticillata. Using the criterion of endemism as part of the criteria for traditional medicinal use raises the chances of finding original active principles. In our case, 86% of the endemic plants tested displayed pharmacological interest. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Biological activity of fungi from the phyllosphere of weeds and wild herbaceous plants].

    PubMed

    Berestitskiĭ, A O; Gasich, E L; Poluéktova, E V; Nikolaeva, E V; Sokornova, S V; Khlopunova, L B

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial, phytotoxic, and insecticidal activity of 30 fungal isolates obtained from leaves of weeds and wild herbaceous plants was assessed. Antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic, and insecticidal activity was found in over 50, 40, 47, and 40% of the isolates, respectively. These findings may be important for toxicological assessment of potential mycoherbicides, as well as provide a basis for investigation of the patterns of development of phyllosphere communities affected by fungal metabolites.

  20. Antimalarial activity of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae) ethanol extracts from wild plants collected in various localities or plants cultivated in humus soil.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Neto, Valter F; Brandão, Maria G L; Oliveira, Francielda Q; Casali, Vicente W D; Njaine, Brian; Zalis, Mariano G; Oliveira, Luciana A; Krettli, Antoniana U

    2004-08-01

    Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae), a medicinal plant used worldwide, has antimalarial activity as shown in previous work. This study tested ethanol extracts from wild plants collected in three different regions of Brazil and from plants cultivated in various soil conditions. The extracts were active in mice infected with P. berghei: doses of < or =500 mg/kg administered by oral route reduced malaria parasitaemia and mouse mortality; higher doses were found to be less effective. Tested in vitro against three P. falciparum isolates, two chloroquine resistant and one mefloquine resistant, the plants cultivated under standard conditions, and in humus enriched soil, were active; but the wild plants were the most active. Analysis using thin layer chromatography demonstrated the presence of flavonoids (compounds considered responsible for the antimalarial activity) in all plants tested, even though at different profiles. Because B. pilosa is proven to be active against P. falciparum drug-resistant parasites in vitro, and in rodent malaria in vivo, it is a good candidate for pre-clinical tests as a phytotherapeutic agent or for chemical isolation of the active compounds with the aim of finding new antimalarial drugs. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. 78 FR 24767 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Announcement of Active 5-Year Status Review of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ...-FF07CAMM00] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Announcement of Active 5-Year Status Review of the... seq.), we maintain Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants (which we collectively refer... plants). Section 4(c)(2) of the Act requires us to review each listed species' status at least once every...

  2. Screening of plants used in the European traditional medicine to treat memory disorders for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and anti amyloidogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Lobbens, Eva S B; Vissing, Karina J; Jorgensen, Lene; van de Weert, Marco; Jäger, Anna K

    2017-03-22

    Plants used in the traditional medicine of Europe to treat memory dysfunction and/or to enhance memory were investigated for activity against the underlying mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease. To investigate 35 ethanolic extracts of plants, selected using an ethnopharmacological approach, for anti-amyloidogenic activity as well as an ability to inhibit the enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase. The anti-amyloidogenic activity of the extracts against amyloid beta was investigated by Thioflavin T fibrillation assays and the ability to inhibit the enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase was evaluated monitoring the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine RESULTS: Under the experimental conditions investigated, extracts of two plants, Carum carvi and Olea sylvestris, inhibited amyloid beta fibrillation considerably, eight plant extracts inhibited amyloid beta fibrillation to some extent, 16 plant extracts had no effect on amyloid beta fibrillation and nine extracts accelerated fibrillation of amyloid beta. Furthermore, five plant extracts from Corydalis species inhibited the enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase considerably, one plant extract inhibited the enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase to some extent and 29 plant extract had no effect on the enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase. An optimal extract in this study would possess acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity as well as anti-amyloidogenic activity in order to address multiple facets of Alzheimer's disease, until the molecular origin of the disease is unraveled. Unfortunately no such extract was found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anticariogenic activity and phytochemical studies of crude extract from some Indian plant leaves

    PubMed Central

    Barad, Mahesh K.; Ishnava, Kalpesh B.; Chauhan, Jenabhai B.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to screen the selected Indian plants for their antibacterial efficacy against four cariogenic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA)(Microbial Type Culture Collection [MTCC]-*447), Lactobacillus casei (LC) (MTCC-1423), Streptococcus mutans (SMU) (MTCC-890) and Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-96). To identify and characterize active principle present in these plants for the treatment of dental caries. Materials and Methods: The dried plant leaves materials are extracted by cold extraction using hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and distilled water. The solvents were evaporated, and the dried masses were suspended in dimethyl sulfoxide and used for anticariogenic activity by agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated by two-fold serial broth dilution method. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of effective extract was carried out by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and bioautography. Results: Ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Eucalyptus globules was found most effective against L. acidophilus with MIC value 31 μg/ml and 62 μg/ml, respectively. Ethyl acetate extracts of Acacia nilotica and methanolic extract of E. globules also exhibited antibacterial activity against SMU and L. casei with MIC value of 50 μg/ml. Qualitative analysis of E. globules revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, and cardiac glycosides. The active principle responsible for the anticariogenic activity from E. globules were separated by TLC and subjected to bioautography using SMU, LA and LC. Conclusion: Anticariogenic activity and preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed that E. globule have potential to treat dental caries. PMID:26401353

  4. Repellent Activity of Apiaceae Plant Essential Oils and their Constituents Against Adult German Cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Rim; Kim, Gil-Hah; Choi, Won-Sil; Park, Il-Kwon

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the repellent activity of 12 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their components against male and female adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica L., to find new natural repellents. Of all the plant essential oils tested, ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague) and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oils showed the most potent repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches. Repellent activities of chemicals already identified in active oils were also investigated. Of the compounds identified, carvacrol, thymol, and R-(-)-carvone showed >80% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 2.5 µg/cm2. S-(+)-Carvone, (+)-dihydrocarvone, and terpinen-4-ol showed >70% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 10 µg/cm2. Our results indicated that Apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents have good potential as natural repellents against adult German cockroaches. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of methanolic plant part extracts of Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2014-11-10

    The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50) was 358.3±7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0±1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4%±1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50)=41.4±3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  6. Plasmalemma Redox Activity and H+ Extrusion in Roots of Fe-Deficient Cucumber Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Alcántara, Esteban; de la Guardia, Manuel D.; Romera, Francisco J.

    1991-01-01

    Cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) with incipient Fe deficiency showed increased root capacity to reduce chelated Fe3+ compared to Fe-sufficient plants. When Fe-ethylenediaminete-traacetate was added to the root medium of the Fe-deficient plants, the reductase activity was associated with acidification of the medium and an increase in the net apparent K+ efflux. In the presence of the H+-ATPase inhibitor N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide the net apparent H+ efflux was completely suppressed, though some reductase activity was preserved, and the net apparent K+ efflux was significantly increased. The inhibition of the reductase activity by N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide was similar whether the pH of the medium was buffered or not. Anoxia and the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone also caused a similar inhibition of the reductase activity. It is proposed that this redox system transports electrons only and that its activity is inhibited by plasmamembrane depolarization and anoxia. The H+ and K+ efflux associated with the reductase activity may be a result of the plasmamembrane depolarization it causes. PMID:16668294

  7. [[Anti-leishmanial activity in plants from a Biological Reserve of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Chinchilla-Carmona, Misael; Valerio-Campos, Idalia; Sánchez-Porras, Ronald; Bagnarello-Madrigal, Vanessa; Martínez-Esquivel, Laura; González-Paniagua, Antonieta; Alpizar-Cordero, Javier; Cordero-Villalobos, Maribel; Rodríguez-Chaves, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Leishmaniosis is an important human disease very difficult to treat. For this reason, many researchers in the world have been look- ing for anti-leishmanial chemical components present in several plant species. In Costa Rica, since no studies have been done in this field, this work aimed at the search of active chemical components in local plants that may have an activity against Leishmania sp. A total of 67 plants were selected from the Alberto Manuel Brenes Biological Reserve (REBAMB). For these collected plants, fresh or dried hidroalcoholic extracts of root, stem, mature or young leaves, flowers, and immature or mature fruits, were prepared under conventional methods. All extracts were tested for their effect against a strain of Leishmania (OCR with known characteristics). Firstly, by presumptive tests, we selected only those with some activity, and then, more specific studies were done to determine the IC50 in μg/mL; a promising plant was considered only if at least one of its parts presented an IC50 < 100 μg/mL. Under this parameter, the following active plants were obtained and their lowest and highest IC50 obtained values presented (μg/mL): Bocconia frutescens (0.6 and 66.7), Clematis dioica (27.5 and 44.4), Cordia megalantha (80.0), Eugenia austin-smithi (90.6), Guarea bullata (98.8), Guateria tonduzii (44.4 and 66.3), Mikania holwayana (45.0 and 95.6), Nectandra membranacea (44.5 and 58.6), Neurolaena lobata (25.0 and 100.0), Persea povedae (76.9), Piper auritum (60.0), Rollinia pittieri (43.1), Solanum arboreum (25.8 and 72.5), Tetrorchidiumn eurphyllum (53.8 and 95.0), Witheringia solanacea (15.9 and 98.1) and Zanthoxylum juniperinum (23.4 and 97.5). Although the parasitic effect of fresh or dried extracts were almost similar, the fresh material slightly showed better results. That anti-parasitic effect occurred in one or more than four parts of the plant. Most of the active extracts did not produce lysis and aglutination which indicates a low

  8. Antiviral activity of tenofovir against Cauliflower mosaic virus and its metabolism in Brassica pekinensis plants.

    PubMed

    Spak, Josef; Votruba, Ivan; Pavingerová, Daniela; Holý, Antonín; Spaková, Vlastimila; Petrzik, Karel

    2011-11-01

    The antiviral effect of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate tenofovir (R)-PMPA on double-stranded DNA Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) in Brassica pekinensis plants grown in vitro on liquid medium was evaluated. Double antibody sandwich ELISA and PCR were used for relative quantification of viral protein and detecting nucleic acid in plants. (R)-PMPA at concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/l significantly reduced CaMV titers in plants within 6-9 weeks to levels detectable neither by ELISA nor by PCR. Virus-free plants were obtained after 3-month cultivation of meristem tips on semisolid medium containing 50 mg/l (R)-PMPA and their regeneration to whole plants in the greenhouse. Studying the metabolism of (R)-PMPA in B. pekinensis revealed that mono- and diphosphate, structural analogs of NDP and/or NTP, are the only metabolites formed. The data indicate very low substrate activity of the enzymes toward (R)-PMPA as substrate. The extent of phosphorylation in the plant's leaves represents only 4.5% of applied labeled (R)-PMPA. In roots, we detected no radioactive peaks of phosphorylated metabolites of (R)-PMPAp or (R)-PMPApp. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Anti-TNF-α Activity of Brazilian Medicinal Plants and Compounds from Ouratea semiserrata.

    PubMed

    Campana, Priscilla R V; Mansur, Daniel S; Gusman, Grasielle S; Ferreira, Daneel; Teixeira, Mauro M; Braga, Fernão C

    2015-10-01

    Several plant species are used in Brazil to treat inflammatory diseases and associated conditions. TNF-α plays a pivotal role on inflammation, and several plant extracts have been assayed against this target, both in vitro and in vivo. The effect of 11 Brazilian medicinal plants on TNF-α release by LPS-activated THP-1 cells was evaluated. The plant materials were percolated with different solvents to afford 15 crude extracts, whose effect on TNF-α release was determined by ELISA. Among the evaluated extracts, only Jacaranda caroba (Bignoniaceae) presented strong toxicity to THP-1 cells. Considering the 14 non-toxic extracts, TNF-α release was significantly reduced by seven of them (inhibition > 80%), originating from six plants, namely Cuphea carthagenensis (Lythraceae), Echinodorus grandiflorus (Alismataceae), Mansoa hirsuta (Bignoniaceae), Ouratea semiserrata (Ochnaceae), Ouratea spectabilis and Remijia ferruginea (Rubiaceae). The ethanol extract from O. semiserrata leaves was fractionated over Sephadex LH-20 and RP-HPLC to give three compounds previously reported for the species, along with agathisflavone and epicatechin, here described for the first time in the plant. Epicatechin and lanceoloside A elicited significant inhibition of TNF-α release, indicating that they may account for the effect produced by O. semiserrata crude extract. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The investigation of antibacterial activity of selected native plants from North of Iran.

    PubMed

    Koohsari, H; Ghaemi, E A; Sadegh Sheshpoli, M; Jahedi, M; Zahiri, M

    2015-01-01

    Plant derived products have been used for medicinal purposes during centuries. Bacterial resistance to currently used antibiotics has become a concern to public health. The development of bacterial super resistant strains has resulted in the currently used antibiotic agents failing to end many bacterial infections. For this reason, the search is ongoing for new antimicrobial agents, both by the design and by the synthesis of new agents, or through the search of natural sources for yet undiscovered antimicrobial agents. Herbal medications in particular have seen a revival of interest due to a perception that there is a lower incidence of adverse reactions to plant preparations compared to synthetic pharmaceuticals. Coupled with the reduced costs of plant preparations, this makes the search for natural therapeutics an attractive option. This research was carried out to assess the antibacterial activity aqueous and ethanolic extracts of six Azadshahr township Native plants in north of Iran against six species of pathogen bacteria by using three methods of Disk diffusion, Well method and MBC. The results of this research indicated that the effect of ethanol extracts were more than aqueous extract and among six plants, Lippia citriodora and Plantago major ethanol extract had the most antibacterial activity in any of the three methods. Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive than gram-negative bacteria. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were the most susceptible Gram-positive bacteria.

  11. Review on some plants of Indian traditional medicine with antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Scartezzini, P; Speroni, E

    2000-07-01

    A lot of medicinal plants, traditionally used for thousands of years, are present in a group of herbal preparations of the Indian traditional health care system (Ayurveda) named Rasayana proposed for their interesting antioxidant activities. Among the medicinal plants used in ayurvedic Rasayana for their therapeutic action, some of these have been throughly investigated. In the present paper seven plants (Emblica officinalis L., Curcuma longa L., Mangifera indica L., Momordica charantia L., Santalum album L., Swertia chirata Buch-Ham, Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) are viewed for their historical, etymological, morphological, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects. The plants described contain antioxidant principles, that can explain and justify their use in traditional medicine in the past as well as the present. In order to identify the plants with antioxidant activity in Ayurveda, a formulation of some rasayanas with well defined antioxidant properties has been examinated. For this purpose, we have considered Sharma's work on the preparation MAK4, MAK5, MA631, MA 471, MA Raja's Cup, MA Student Rasayana, MA Ladies Rasayana.

  12. Cytotoxic activity of some medicinal plants from hamedan district of iran.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Sahar; Pirani, Atefeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been investigated for possible anti-cancer effects. The aim of the present study was to examine the cytotoxic activity of several medicinal plants on different tumor cell lines. 11 selected plant species which have been used in folkloric prescriptions were collected from different sites of Hamedan district of Iran. The methanolic extracts of the plants were prepared and their cytotoxic effects on four human cancer cell lines (A549, human lung adenocarcinoma; MCF7, human breast adenocarcinoma; HepG2, hepatocellular carcinoma and HT-29, human colon carcinoma) and one normal cell line (MDBK, bovine kidney) were examined using the MTT assay. Three of these were exhibited antiproliferative activity against one or more of the cell lines. The extract from Primula auriculata demonstrated the highest cytotoxicity with IC50 of 25.79, 35.79 and 43.34 μg.mL-1 against MCF7, HepG2 and HT- 29 cells, respectively. For some of the plants, their traditional use was correlated with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others the results may support the non-cytotoxicity of species used traditionally as natural remedies. The cytotoxic species could be considered as potential of anticancer compounds.

  13. Medicinal plants and their isolated compounds showing anti-Trichomonas vaginalis- activity.

    PubMed

    Mehriardestani, Mozhgan; Aliahmadi, Atousa; Toliat, Tayebeh; Rahimi, Roja

    2017-04-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a major of non-viral sexually-transmitted infection and an important cause of serious obstetrical and gynecological complications. Treatment options for trichomoniasis are limited to nitroimidazole compounds. The increasing resistance and allergic reactions to nitroimidazole and recurrent trichomoniasis make it essential to identify and develop new drugs against trichomoniasis. Medicinal plants are an important source for discovery of new medications. This review discusses the anti-trichomonas effects of medicinal plants and their chemical constituents to find better options against this pathogenic protozoon. Electronic databases were searched to collect all data from the year 2000 through September 2015 for in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies on the effect of medicinal plants on T. vaginalis. A total of 95 in vitro and clinical studies were identified. Only four human studies were found in this review. The Asteracea, Lamiaceae and Myrtaceae families contained the greatest number of plants with anti-trichomonas activity. Persea americana, Ocimum basilicum and Verbascum thapsus were the most efficacious against T. vaginalis. Plant metabolites containing alkaloids, isoflavonoid glucosides, essential oils, lipids, saponins and sesquiterpene lactones were found to possess anti-trichomonas properties. Assessing the structure-activity of highly-potent anti-trichomonas phytochemicals is suggested for finding natural, semisynthetic and synthetic anti-trichomonas compounds. Further clinical studies are necessary for confirmation of natural anti-trichomonas substances and completion of their safety profiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The Active Role of Leguminous Plant Components in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gętek, Monika; Muc-Wierzgoń, Małgorzata; Grochowska-Niedworok, Elżbieta; Kokot, Teresa; Nowakowska-Zajdel, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes appears to be one of the most frequent noncommunicable diseases in the world. A permanent growth in the incidence of diabetes can be observed and according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) the year 2030 will mark the increase in the number of diabetics to 439 mln worldwide. Type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90% of all diabetes incidence. Nutrition model modification not only features the basic element in type 2 diabetes treatment but also constitutes the fundamental factor influencing a morbidity rate decrease. Leguminous plants are a key factor in the diabetic diet; plants such as pulses or soybeans are nutritious products valued highly in nutrition. These legumes are high in the content of wholesome protein and contain large amounts of soluble alimentary fiber fractions, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and minerals, and bioactive substances with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activity. They are distinguished by the high amount of bioactive compounds that may interfere with the metabolism of glucose. The most significant bioactive compounds displaying antidiabetic activity in leguminous plants are as follows: genistein and daidzein, alpha-amylase inhibitors, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. In vitro research using leguminous plant extracts has confirmed their antidiabetic properties. Leguminous plants should be employed in the promotion of healthy lifestyles in terms of functional food. PMID:24738003

  15. Hydrogen peroxide homeostasis: activation of plant catalase by calcium/calmodulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental stimuli such as UV, pathogen attack, and gravity can induce rapid changes in hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) levels, leading to a variety of physiological responses in plants. Catalase, which is involved in the degradation of H(2)O(2) into water and oxygen, is the major H(2)O(2)-scavenging enzyme in all aerobic organisms. A close interaction exists between intracellular H(2)O(2) and cytosolic calcium in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Studies indicate that an increase in cytosolic calcium boosts the generation of H(2)O(2). Here we report that calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein, binds to and activates some plant catalases in the presence of calcium, but calcium/CaM does not have any effect on bacterial, fungal, bovine, or human catalase. These results document that calcium/CaM can down-regulate H(2)O(2) levels in plants by stimulating the catalytic activity of plant catalase. Furthermore, these results provide evidence indicating that calcium has dual functions in regulating H(2)O(2) homeostasis, which in turn influences redox signaling in response to environmental signals in plants.

  16. Antibacterial activity in spices and local medicinal plants against clinical isolates of Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nafisa Hassan; Faizi, Shaheen; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2011-08-01

    Development of resistance in human pathogens against conventional antibiotic necessitates searching indigenous medicinal plants having antibacterial property. Twenty-seven medicinal plants used actively in folklore, ayurvedic and traditional system of medicine were selected for the evaluation of their antimicrobial activity for this study. Eleven plants chosen from these 27 are used as spices in local cuisine. Evaluation of the effectiveness of some medicinal plant extracts against clinical isolates. Nonedible plant parts were extracted with methanol and evaporated in vacuo to obtain residue. Powdered edible parts were boiled three times and cooled in sterile distilled water for 2 min each and filtrate collected. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of plant extracts and filtrates/antibiotics was evaluated against clinical isolates by microbroth dilution method. Water extract of Syzygium aromaticum L. (Myrtaceae) buds, methanol extracts of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae) and Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) leaves and Peganum harmala L. (Nitrariaceae) seeds had MIC ranges of 31.25-250 µg/ml. S. aromaticum inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. F. carica and O. europaea inhibited growth of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. pyogenes whereas P. harmala was effective against S. aureus, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Candida albicans. Ampicillin, velosef, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and ceftazidime, cefotaxime, cefepime, which are used as control, had MIC ≥ 50 and 1.5 µg/ml, respectively, for organisms sensitive to extracts. Mono/multiextract from identified plants will provide an array of safe antimicrobial agents to control infections by drug-resistant bacteria.

  17. Antiproliferative activity, antioxidant capacity and tannin content in plants of semi-arid northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes de Melo, Joabe; de Sousa Araújo, Thiago Antônio; Thijan Nobre de Almeida e Castro, Valérium; Lyra de Vasconcelos Cabral, Daniela; do Desterro Rodrigues, Maria; Carneiro do Nascimento, Silene; Cavalcanti de Amorim, Elba Lúcia; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2010-11-24

    The objective of this study was to evaluate antiproliferative activity, antioxidant capacity and tannin content in plants from semi-arid northeastern Brazil (Caatinga). For this study, we selected 14 species and we assayed the methanol extracts for antiproliferative activity against the HEp-2 (laryngeal cancer) and NCI-H292 (lung cancer) cell lines using the (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazole) (MTT) method. In addition, the antioxidant activity was evaluated with the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay, and the tannin content was determined by the radial diffusion method. Plants with better antioxidant activity (expressed in a dose able to decrease the initial DPPH concentration by 50%, or IC50) and with higher levels of tannins were: Poincianella pyramidalis (42.95±1.77 µg/mL IC50 and 8.17±0.64 tannin content), Jatropha mollissima (54.09±4.36µg/mL IC50 and 2.35±0.08 tannin content) and Anadenanthera colubrina (73.24±1.47 µg/mL IC50 and 4.41±0.47 tannin content). Plants with enhanced antiproliferative activity (% living cells) were Annona muricata (24.94±0.74 in NCI-H292), Lantana camara (25.8±0.19 in NCI-H292), Handroanthus impetiginosus (41.8±0.47 in NCI-H292) and Mentzelia aspera (45.61±1.94 in HEp-2). For species with better antioxidant and antiproliferative activities, we suggest future in vitro and in vivo comparative studies with other pharmacological models, and to start a process of purification and identification of the possible molecule(s) responsible for the observed pharmacological activity. We believe that the flora of Brazilian semi-arid areas can be a valuable source of plants rich in tannins, cytotoxic compounds and antioxidant agents.

  18. Anti-Acne Activity of Italian Medicinal Plants Used for Skin Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Kate; Lyles, James T.; Li, Tracy; Saitta, Alessandro; Addie-Noye, Eugenia; Tyler, Paula; Quave, Cassandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is implicated in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, which impacts >85% of teenagers. Novel therapies are in high demand and an ethnopharmacological approach to discovering new plant sources of anti-acne therapeutics could contribute to filling this void in effective therapies. The aims of our study were two-fold: (1) To determine if species identified in ethnopharmacological field studies as having traditional uses for skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) exhibit significantly more activity against P. acnes than species with no such reported use; and (2) Chemically characterize active extracts and assess their suitability for future investigation. Extracts of Italian medicinal (for acne and other skin infection) and randomly collected plants and fungi were screened for growth-inhibitory and anti-biofilm activity in P. acnes using broth microdilution methods. Bioactive extracts were chemically characterized by HPLC and examined for cytotoxicity against human keratinocytes (HaCaTs). Following evaluation of 157 extracts from 10 fungi and 58 plants, we identified crude extracts from seven species exhibiting growth inhibitory activity (MICs 64–256 μg mL−1). All active extracts were examined for cytotoxicity against HaCaTs; extracts from one fungal and one plant species were toxic (IC50 256 μg mL−1). HPLC analysis with chemical standards revealed many of these extracts contained chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, ellagic acid, gallic acid, and tannic acid. In conclusion, species used in traditional medicine for the skin exhibited significantly greater (p < 0.05) growth inhibitory and biofilm eradication activity than random species, supporting the validity of an ethnobotanical approach to identifying new therapeutics. The anti-acne activity of three extracts is reported for the first time: Vitis vinifera leaves, Asphodelus microcarpus leaves, and Vicia sativa aerial parts. PMID:27891094

  19. Impacts of manganese mining activity on the environment: interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Becerril, Facundo; Juárez-Vázquez, Lucía V; Hernández-Cervantes, Saúl C; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; Vela-Correa, Gilberto; Cruz-Chávez, Enrique; Moreno-Espíndola, Iván P; Esquivel-Herrera, Alfonso; de León-González, Fernando

    2013-02-01

    The mining district of Molango in the Hidalgo State, Mexico, possesses one of the largest deposits of manganese (Mn) ore in the world. This research assessed the impacts of Mn mining activity on the environment, particularly the interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) at a location under the influence of an open Mn mine. Soils and plants from three sites (soil under maize, soil under native vegetation, and mine wastes with some vegetation) were analyzed. Available Mn in both soil types and mine wastes did not reach toxic levels. Samples of the two soil types were similar regarding physical, chemical, and biological properties; mine wastes were characterized by poor physical structure, nutrient deficiencies, and a decreased number of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spores. Tissues of six plant species accumulated Mn at normal levels. AM was absent in the five plant species (Ambrosia psilostachya, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Cynodon dactylon, Polygonum hydropiperoides, and Wigandia urens) established in mine wastes, which was consistent with the significantly lower number of AMF spores compared with both soil types. A. psilostachya (native vegetation) and Zea mays showed mycorrhizal colonization in their root systems; in the former, AM significantly decreased Mn uptake. The following was concluded: (1) soils, mine wastes, and plant tissues did not accumulate Mn at toxic levels; (2) despite its poor physical structure and nutrient deficiencies, the mine waste site was colonized by at least five plant species; (3) plants growing in both soil types interacted with AMF; and (4) mycorrhizal colonization of A. psilostachya influenced low uptake of Mn by plant tissues.

  20. In vitro and in vivo anti-malarial activity of plants from the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Lima, Renata B S; Rocha e Silva, Luiz F; Melo, Marcia R S; Costa, Jaqueline S; Picanço, Neila S; Lima, Emerson S; Vasconcellos, Marne C; Boleti, Ana Paula A; Santos, Jakeline M P; Amorim, Rodrigo C N; Chaves, Francisco C M; Coutinho, Julia P; Tadei, Wanderli P; Krettli, Antoniana U; Pohlit, Adrian M

    2015-12-18

    The anti-malarials quinine and artemisinin were isolated from traditionally used plants (Cinchona spp. and Artemisia annua, respectively). The synthetic quinoline anti-malarials (e.g. chloroquine) and semi-synthetic artemisinin derivatives (e.g. artesunate) were developed based on these natural products. Malaria is endemic to the Amazon region where Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax drug-resistance is of concern. There is an urgent need for new anti-malarials. Traditionally used Amazonian plants may provide new treatments for drug-resistant P. vivax and P. falciparum. Herein, the in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of medicinal plant extracts were investigated. Sixty-nine extracts from 11 plant species were prepared and screened for in vitro activity against P. falciparum K1 strain and for cytotoxicity against human fibroblasts and two melanoma cell lines. Median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were established against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum W2 clone using monoclonal anti-HRPII (histidine-rich protein II) antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Extracts were evaluated for toxicity against murine macrophages (IC50) and selectivity indices (SI) were determined. Three extracts were also evaluated orally in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. High in vitro antiplasmodial activity (IC50 = 6.4-9.9 µg/mL) was observed for Andropogon leucostachyus aerial part methanol extracts, Croton cajucara red variety leaf chloroform extracts, Miconia nervosa leaf methanol extracts, and Xylopia amazonica leaf chloroform and branch ethanol extracts. Paullinia cupana branch chloroform extracts and Croton cajucara red variety leaf ethanol extracts were toxic to fibroblasts and or melanoma cells. Xylopia amazonica branch ethanol extracts and Zanthoxylum djalma-batistae branch chloroform extracts were toxic to macrophages (IC50 = 6.9 and 24.7 µg/mL, respectively). Andropogon leucostachyus extracts were the most selective (SI >28

  1. A highly active ATP-insensitive K+ import pathway in plant mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ruy, Fernando; Vercesi, Anibal E; Andrade, Paula B M; Bianconi, M Lucia; Chaimovich, Hernan; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2004-04-01

    We describe here a regulated and highly active K+ uptake pathway in potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), and maize (Zea mays) mitochondria. K+ transport was not inhibited by ATP, NADH, or thiol reagents, which regulate ATP-sensitive K+ channels previously described in plant and mammalian mitochondria. However, K+ uptake was completely prevented by quinine, a broad spectrum K+ channel inhibitor. Increased K+ uptake in plants leads to mitochondrial swelling, respiratory stimulation, heat release, and the prevention of reactive oxygen species formation. This newly described ATP-insensitive K+ import pathway is potentially involved in metabolism regulation and prevention of oxidative stress.

  2. Cytorhabdovirus phosphoprotein shows RNA silencing suppressor activity in plants, but not in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Mann, Krin S; Johnson, Karyn N; Dietzgen, Ralf G

    2015-02-01

    RNA silencing in plants and insects provides an antiviral defense and as a countermeasure most viruses encode RNA silencing suppressors (RSS). For the family Rhabdoviridae, no detailed functional RSS studies have been reported in plant hosts and insect vectors. In agroinfiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves we show for the first time for a cytorhabdovirus, lettuce necrotic yellows virus (LNYV), that one of the nucleocapsid core proteins, phosphoprotein (P) has relatively weak local RSS activity and delays systemic silencing of a GFP reporter. Analysis of GFP small RNAs indicated that the P protein did not prevent siRNA accumulation. To explore RSS activity in insects, we used a Flock House virus replicon system in Drosophila S2 cells. In contrast to the plant host, LNYV P protein did not exhibit RSS activity in the insect cells. Taken together our results suggest that P protein may target plant-specific components of RNA silencing post siRNA biogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An ancient plant Lawsonia inermis (henna): determination of in vitro antifungal activity against dermatophytes species.

    PubMed

    Gozubuyuk, G S; Aktas, E; Yigit, N

    2014-12-01

    World is endowed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. There is a widespread belief that green medicines are healthier and more harmless or safer than synthetic ones. Medicinal plants have been used to cure a number of diseases. The ancient plant Lawsonia inermis or henna is used as medicinal plant because of its attributed strong fungicidal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial, virucidal, antiparasitic, antiamoebiasis, astringent, antihemorrhagic, hypotensive, sedative, anticancer effect and possible anti-sweating properties. In this study, we investigated antifungal activity of L. inermis against clinical dermatophytes species. This study was carried out using 70 clinical isolates of dermatophytes representing six different species; 44 Trichophyton rubrum, 8 Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 6 Microsporum canis, 6 Trichophyton tonsurans, 4 Epidermophyton floccosum, and 2 Trichophyton violaceum. The antifungal activity of L. inermis (henna) was determined by agar diffusion method and henna was used as paste form. Henna paste showed the high antifungal activity against all dermatophytes species (20 to 50mm inhibition zone). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Medicinal plants with promising antileishmanial activity in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Soosaraei, Masoud; Fakhar, Mahdi; Hosseini Teshnizi, Saeed; Ziaei Hezarjaribi, Hajar; Banimostafavi, Elham Sadat

    2017-09-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate medicinal plants with anti- Leishmania activity which used in Iran. Data were systematically gathered from five English databases including Ebsco, Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus, four Persian databases including Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex and the Scientific Information Database (SID) from 1999 to April 2015. Information obtained included plant family, extraction method, concentrations of extracts, animal models and parasite strains. A total of 68 articles including 188 experiments (140 in vitro and 48 in vivo) between 1999 and 2015, met our eligibility criteria. Thoroughly, 98 types of plants were examined against three genera of Leishmania spp. For the heterogeneity study conducted, it was showed that there was a great deal of variation among studies. Based on random effect, meta-analysis pooled mean of IC50 was obtained 456.64 (95% CI: 396.15, 517.12). The most Iranian plants used as anti-leishmanial activity were Artemisia species , Allium sativum , Achilleamille folium , Peganum harmala and Thymus vulgaris . The present systematic and meta-analysis review provide valuable information about natural products with anti- Leishmania activity, which would be examined in the future experimental and clinical trials and herbal combination therapy.

  5. Antiviral activity of some Tunisian medicinal plants against Herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Sassi, A Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, F; Bourgougnon, N; Aouni, M

    2008-01-10

    Fifteen species of Tunisian traditional medicinal plants, belonging to 10 families, were selected for this study. They were Inula viscosa (L.) Ait and Reichardia tingitana (L.) Roth ssp. discolor (Pom.) Batt. (Asteraceae), Mesembryanthemum cristallinum L. and M. nodiflorum L. (Aizoaceae), Arthrocnemum indicum (Willd.) Moq., Atriplex inflata Muell., A. parvifolia Lowe var. ifiniensis (Caball) Maire, and Salicornia fruticosa L. (Chenopodiaceae), Cistus monspeliensis L. (Cistaceae), Juniperus phoenicea L. (Cupressaceae), Erica multiflora L. (Ericaceae), Frankenia pulverulenta L. (Frankeniaceae), Hypericum crispum L. (Hypericaceae), Plantago coronopus L. ssp. eu-coronopus Pilger var. vulgaris G.G. (Plantaginaceae) and Zygophyllum album L. (Zygophyllaceae). Fifty extracts prepared from those plants were screened in order to assay their antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), using neutral red incorporation. Extracts from eight plants among these 15 showed some degree of antiviral activity, while the methanolic extract of E. multiflora was highly active with EC(50) of 132.6 microg mL(-1). These results corroborate that medicinal plants from Tunisia can be a rich source of potential antiviral compounds.

  6. Which Approach Is More Effective in the Selection of Plants with Antimicrobial Activity?

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Santana, Elidiane Fonseca; Saraiva, Antonio Marcos; Coutinho, Felipe Neves; Castro, Ricardo Henrique Acre; Pisciottano, Maria Nelly Caetano; Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2013-01-01

    The development of the present study was based on selections using random, direct ethnopharmacological, and indirect ethnopharmacological approaches, aiming to evaluate which method is the best for bioprospecting new antimicrobial plant drugs. A crude extract of 53 species of herbaceous plants collected in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil was tested against 11 microorganisms. Well-agar diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) techniques were used. Ten extracts from direct, six from random, and three from indirect ethnopharmacological selections exhibited activities that ranged from weak to very active against the organisms tested. The strain most susceptible to the evaluated extracts was Staphylococcus aureus. The MIC analysis revealed the best result for the direct ethnopharmacological approach, considering that some species yielded extracts classified as active or moderately active (MICs between 250 and 1000 µg/mL). Furthermore, one species from this approach inhibited the growth of the three Candida strains. Thus, it was concluded that the direct ethnopharmacological approach is the most effective when selecting species for bioprospecting new plant drugs with antimicrobial activities. PMID:23878595

  7. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of protein hydrolysate from the rhizomes of Zingiberaceae plants.

    PubMed

    Inthuwanarud, Kanok; Sangvanich, Polkit; Puthong, Songchan; Karnchanatat, Aphichart

    2016-11-01

    Plant proteins have been investigated for their antioxidant activities, but there are still no reports detailing the antioxidant activity levels of plants in the Zingiberaceae family, which are popular food agents and used in folklore medicine. In this study, the crude rhizome protein extract and associated pepsin/pancreatin protein hydrolysate of 15 plants in the Zingiberaceae family were screened using the DPPH method for antioxidant activity. The protein hydrolysate of C. zedoaria possessed the highest antioxidant activity (IC 50 of 25.7±6.3µg/mL), which was close to that of the reference ascorbic acid (IC 50 of 22.3±1.8µg/mL). After enrichment by Q Sepharose ion exchange chromatography using a five step elution gradient of increasing NaCl concentration (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1M), the fraction eluting in the 0.5M NaCl (F50) showed the highest antioxidant activity (IC 50 of 41.78±2.9µg/mL), and was found to have weak in vitro cytotoxicity against the HEP-G2 and SW620 cell lines (IC 50 of 200.8±11.8 and 241.0±9.3µg/mL, respectively), but not the BT474, CHAGO and KATO-3 cell lines. F50 had an estimated molecular weight by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry of 12,400-12,800 Da.

  8. Phytochemical screening and antiviral activity of some medicinal plants from the island Soqotra.

    PubMed

    Mothana, Ramzi A A; Mentel, Renate; Reiss, Christiane; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2006-04-01

    Methanol and hot-aqueous extracts of 25 different plant species, used in Yemeni traditional medicine and growing, partly as endemic plants, on the island Soqotra have been investigated for their antiviral activity. In addition, the phytochemical identification of the main chemical constituents was performed. The extracts were assayed in two in vitro viral systems, which used influenza virus type A/MDCK cells and herpes simplex virus type 1/Vero cells, at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The herpes simplex virus type 1 showed more sensitivity than the influenza virus type A against the extracts investigated. The methanol extracts of Boswellia ameero, Boswellia elongata, Buxus hildebrandtii, Cissus hamaderohensis, Cleome socotrana, Dracaena cinnabari, Exacum affine, Jatropha unicostata and Kalanchoe farinacea showed anti-influenza virus type A activity with 50% inhibition (IC50) concentrations ranging from 0.7 to 12.5 microg/mL. In addition, 17 plants of the 25 investigated exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity. The antiviral activity of some active extracts was also observed on a molecular level. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Antimicrobial activities of some selected traditional Ethiopian medicinal plants used in the treatment of skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Tadeg, Hailu; Mohammed, Endris; Asres, Kaleab; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige

    2005-08-22

    Hydroalcoholic extracts of eight species of medicinal plants, namely, Acokanthera schimperi (Apocynaceae), Calpurnia aurea (Leguminosae), Kalanchoe petitiana (Crassulaceae), Lippia adoensis (Verbenaceae), Malva parviflora (Malvaceae), Olinia rochetiana (Oliniaceae), Phytolacca dodecandra (Phytolaccaceae) and Verbascum sinaiticum (Scrophulariaceae), traditionally used in the treatment of various skin disorders were screened for antimicrobial activity against different strains of bacteria and fungi which are known to cause different types of skin infections. The tests were carried out using agar well diffusion method at three concentration levels (100, 50 and 25mg/ml) of the crude extracts. The MICs of the crude extracts of Lippia adoensis and Olinia rochetiana were determined by agar dilution method. Furthermore, the powdered leaves of Lippia adoensis and Olinia rochetiana were fractionated into different solvents of wide ranging polarity and the resulting fractions were screened for antimicrobial activity against the same organisms. Of all the plants tested, Lippia adoensis and Olinia rochetiana were found to be the most active species against bacterial and fungal strains, respectively. In addition, almost all species of plants were found to have activity on at least one microbial strain. The antimicrobial activity profile also showed that Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were the most susceptible bacterial and fungal strains, respectively. The results indicate the potential of these herbal drugs in treating microbial infections of the skin, thus, justifying their claimed uses in the treatment of various skin disorders, the majority of which are of infectious origin.

  10. Polyphenols in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) leaves induced by plant activators.

    PubMed

    Kårlund, Anna; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Koskinen, Piia; Ahern, Jeffrey R; Karonen, Maarit; Tiilikkala, Kari; Karjalainen, Reijo O

    2014-05-21

    Strawberry leaves contain high amounts of diverse phenolic compounds potentially possessing defensive activities against microbial pathogens and beneficial properties for human health. In this work, young strawberry plants were treated with two plant activators, S-methylbenzo-1,2,3-thaidiazole-7-carbothiate (BTH) and birch wood distillate. Phenolic compounds from activator-treated and control leaves were subjected to quantitative analyses by HPLC-DAD, HPLC-ESI-MS, and microQTOF ESI-MS. Thirty-two different phenolic compounds were detected and characterized, and 21 different ellagitannins constituted the largest group of compounds in the strawberry leaves (37.88-45.82 mg/g dry weight, 47.0-54.3% of total phenolics). Treatment with BTH resulted in higher levels of individual ellagitannins, whereas treatment with birch wood distillate strongly increased the levels of chlorogenic acid in strawberry leaves compared with the control. The results suggest that different plant activators may be useful tools for the activation of different branches in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in strawberry.

  11. Deterrent activity of plant lectins on cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) oviposition.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Amin; Van Damme, Els J M; Peumans, Willy J; Smagghe, Guy

    2006-09-01

    A set of 14 plant lectins was screened in a binary choice bioassay for inhibitory activity on cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) oviposition. Coating of chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L.) with a 0.05% (w/v) solution of plant lectins caused a significant reduction in egg laying. Control experiments with heat inactivated lectin and BSA indicated that the observed deterrent effects are specific and require carbohydrate-binding activity. However, no clear correlation could be established between deterrent activity and sugar-binding specificity/molecular structure of the lectins. Increasing the insect density reduced the inhibitory effect of the lectins confirming that female insects are capable of adjusting their oviposition rates as a function of host availability.

  12. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of the Methanol Extracts from 8 Traditional Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chang-Geun; Hah, Dae-Sik; Kim, Chung-Hui; Kim, Young-Hwan; Kim, Euikyung

    2011-01-01

    The methanol extract of 12 medicinal plants were evaluated for its antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (5 strains) and Gram-negative bacteria (10 strains) by assay for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC) . The antibacterial activity was determined by an agar dilution method (according to the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute) . All the compounds (12 extracts) of the 8 medicinal plants (leaf or root) were active against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative showed a more potent action than Gram positive bacteria. The MIC concentrations were various ranged from 0.6 μg/ml to 5000 μg/ml. The lowest MIC (0.6 μg/ml) and MBC (1.22 μg/ml) values were obtained with extract on 4 and 3 of the 15 microorganisms tested, respectively. PMID:24278548

  13. Environmental biodegradation of halophenols by activated sludge from two different sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Smułek, Wojciech; Zdarta, Agata; Kwiczak, Joanna; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka; Cybulski, Zefiryn; Kaczorek, Ewa

    2017-11-10

    Halophenols make a group of aromatic compounds that are resistible to biodegradation by environmental microorganisms. In this study, the biodegradation of 4-bromo-, 4-chloro- and 4-fluorophenols was studied with two types of activated sludges (from a small rural plant and from a bigger municipal plant) as an inoculum. Because of their wide use, surfactants are present in the wastewater and inhibitors enhance the biodegradation of different pollutants; the influence of natural surfactants on halophenols' biodegradation was also tested. Both types of activated sludge contained bacterial strains which were active in the halophenols' biodegradation process. The coexistence of surfactants and halophenols in the wastewater does not prevent microorganisms from effective halophenols' biodegradation. Moreover, surfactants can enhance the effectiveness of halophenols' removal from the environment. Different cell surface modifications of two isolated bacterial strains were observed in the same system of halophenols with or without surfactants. Halophenols and surfactants may also induce changes in bacteria cell surface properties.

  14. In vitro propagation of the medicinal plant Ziziphora tenuior L. and evaluation of its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Dakah, Abdulkarim; Zaid, Salim; Suleiman, Mohamad; Abbas, Sami; Wink, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Ziziphora tenuior L. (Lamiaceae) is an aromatic herb used for its medicinal values against fungi, bacteria. Micropropagation can be used for large-scale multiplication of essential oil producing plants thus avoiding an overexploitation of natural resources. This work aims to develop a reliable protocol for the in vitro propagation of Z. tenuior, and to compare the antioxidant activity between in vitro propagated and wild plants. The explants were sterilized and cultured on MS medium containing different concentrations of growth regulators naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) or indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) with 0.5 mg/L of kinetin (Kin) callus formation was 70.2% after 45 days of incubation in dark on medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/L of NAA. After one month of callus culture on medium supplemented with 2 mg/L BA the shoot number was 5.12 and for the multiplication stage. The shoot number was 4.21 and length was 6.17 cm on medium supplemented with 1 mg/L Kin + 0.1 mg/L NAA. DPPH• reagent was used to test the antioxidant activity. The aqueous and methanol extracts of in vitro plants which were treated with 1.5 and 1 mg/L of kin plus 0.1 mg/L of NAA showed a strong DPPH• scavenging activity where IC50 was 0.307 and 0.369 mg/ml, respectively, while the IC50 of aqueous and methanol extracts of wild plants was 0.516 and 9.229 mg/ml, respectively. Our results suggested that plant growth regulators and in vitro culture conditions increased the antioxidant activity.

  15. In vitro propagation of the medicinal plant Ziziphora tenuior L. and evaluation of its antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    Dakah, Abdulkarim; Zaid, Salim; Suleiman, Mohamad; Abbas, Sami; Wink, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Ziziphora tenuior L. (Lamiaceae) is an aromatic herb used for its medicinal values against fungi, bacteria. Micropropagation can be used for large-scale multiplication of essential oil producing plants thus avoiding an overexploitation of natural resources. This work aims to develop a reliable protocol for the in vitro propagation of Z. tenuior, and to compare the antioxidant activity between in vitro propagated and wild plants. The explants were sterilized and cultured on MS medium containing different concentrations of growth regulators naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) or indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) with 0.5 mg/L of kinetin (Kin) callus formation was 70.2% after 45 days of incubation in dark on medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/L of NAA. After one month of callus culture on medium supplemented with 2 mg/L BA the shoot number was 5.12 and for the multiplication stage. The shoot number was 4.21 and length was 6.17 cm on medium supplemented with 1 mg/L Kin + 0.1 mg/L NAA. DPPH• reagent was used to test the antioxidant activity. The aqueous and methanol extracts of in vitro plants which were treated with 1.5 and 1 mg/L of kin plus 0.1 mg/L of NAA showed a strong DPPH• scavenging activity where IC50 was 0.307 and 0.369 mg/ml, respectively, while the IC50 of aqueous and methanol extracts of wild plants was 0.516 and 9.229 mg/ml, respectively. Our results suggested that plant growth regulators and in vitro culture conditions increased the antioxidant activity. PMID:25183942

  16. Antimycobacterial activity of selected medicinal plants traditionally used in Sudan to treat infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Abuzeid, Nadir; Kalsum, Sadaf; Koshy, Richin John; Larsson, Marie; Glader, Mikaela; Andersson, Henrik; Raffetseder, Johanna; Pienaar, Elsje; Eklund, Daniel; Alhassan, Muddathir S; AlGadir, Haidar A; Koko, Waleed S; Schön, Thomas; Ahmed Mesaik, M; Abdalla, Omer M; Khalid, Asaad; Lerm, Maria

    2014-11-18

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis underscores the need for continuous development of new and efficient methods to determine the susceptibility of isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the search for novel antimycobacterial agents. Natural products constitute an important source of new drugs, and design and implementation of antimycobacterial susceptibility testing methods are necessary to evaluate the different extracts and compounds. In this study we have explored the antimycobacterial properties of 50 ethanolic extracts from different parts of 46 selected medicinal plants traditionally used in Sudan to treat infectious diseases. Plants were harvested and ethanolic extracts were prepared. For selected extracts, fractionation with hydrophilic and hydrophobic solvents was undertaken. A luminometry-based assay was used for determination of mycobacterial growth in broth cultures and inside primary human macrophages in the presence or absence of plant extracts and fractions of extracts. Cytotoxicity was also assessed for active fractions of plant extracts. Of the tested extracts, three exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on an avirulent strain of Mycobacterium tubercluosis (H37Ra) at the initial screening doses (125 and 6.25µg/ml). These were bark and leaf extracts of Khaya senegalensis and the leaf extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Further fractions of these plant extracts were prepared with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, ethanol and water, and the activity of these extracts was retained in hydrophobic fractions. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that the chloroform fraction of Khaya senegalensis bark was non-toxic to human monocyte-derived macrophages and other cell types at the concentrations used and hence, further analysis, including assessment of IC50 and intracellular activity was done with this fraction. These results encourage further investigations to identify the active compound(s) within the

  17. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Several Plant Extracts and Oils against Some Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mariri, Ayman; Safi, Mazen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants are considered new resources for producing agents that could act as alternatives to antibiotics in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of 28 plant extracts and oils against four Gram-negative bacterial species. Methods: Experimental, in vitro, evaluation of the activities of 28 plant extracts and oils as well as some antibiotics against E. coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica O9, Proteus spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed. The activity against 15 isolates of each bacterium was determined by disc diffusion method at a concentration of 5%. Microdilution susceptibility assay was used in order to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the plant extracts, oils, and antibiotics. Results: Among the evaluated herbs, only Origanum syriacum L., Thymus syriacus Boiss., Syzygium aromaticum L., Juniperus foetidissima Wild, Allium sativum L., Myristica fragrans Houtt, and Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. essential oils and Laurus nobilis L. plant extract showed anti-bacterial activity. The MIC50 values of these products against the Gram-negative organisms varied from 1.5 (Proteus spp. and K. pneumoniae( and 6.25 µl/ml (Yersinia enterocolitica O9 ) to 12.5 µl/ml (E. coli O:157). Conclusion: Among the studied essential oils, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. essential oils were the most effective. Moreover, Cephalosporin and Ciprofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics against almost all the studied bacteria. Therefore, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. could act as bactericidal agents against Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:24453392

  18. Antimycobacterial activity of medicinal plants used by the Mayo people of Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Coronado-Aceves, Enrique Wenceslao; Sánchez-Escalante, José Jesús; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón Enrique; Velázquez, Carlos; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia Isabel; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana

    2016-08-22

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which generates 9 million new cases worldwide each year. The Mayo ethnicity of southern Sonora, Mexico is more than 2000 years old, and the Mayos possess extensive knowledge of traditional medicine. To evaluate the antimycobacterial activity levels of extracts of medicinal plants used by the Mayos against Mtb and Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm) in the treatment of TB, respiratory diseases and related symptoms. A total of 34 plant species were collected, and 191 extracts were created with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), methanol and water. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined against Mtb H37Rv using the microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) and against Msm using the resazurin microplate assay (REMA) at 6 and 2 days of exposure, respectively, and at concentrations of 250-1.9µg/mL (n-hexane extracts) and 1000-7.81µg/mL (extracts obtained with dichloromethane, EtOAc, methanol and water). Rhynchosia precatoria (Willd.) DC. (n-hexane root extract), Euphorbia albomarginata Torr. and A. Gray. (EtOAc shoot extract) and Helianthus annuus L. (n-hexane stem extract) were the most active plants against Mtb H37Rv, with MICs of 15.6, 250, 250µg/mL and MBCs of 31.25, 250, 250µg/mL, respectively. R. precatoria (root) was the only active plant against Msm, with MIC and MBC values of ≥250µg/mL. None of the aqueous extracts were active. This study validates the medicinal use of certain plants used by the Mayo people in the treatment of TB and related symptoms. R. precatoria, E. albomarginata and H. annuus are promising plant sources of active compounds that act against Mtb H37Rv. To our knowledge, this is the first time that their antimycobacterial activity has been reported. Crude extracts obtained with n-hexane, EtOAc and dichloromethane were the most active against Mtb H37Rv. Copyright © 2016

  19. Leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activity from plants used in Tacana traditional medicine (Bolivia).

    PubMed

    Arévalo-Lopéz, Diandra; Nina, Nélida; Ticona, Juan C; Limachi, Ivan; Salamanca, Efrain; Udaeta, Enrique; Paredes, Crispin; Espinoza, Boris; Serato, Alcides; Garnica, David; Limachi, Abigail; Coaquira, Dayana; Salazar, Sarah; Flores, Ninoska; Sterner, Olov; Giménez, Alberto

    2018-04-24

    Thirty-eight Tacana medicinal plant species used to treat skin problems, including leishmania ulcers, skin infections, inflammation and wound healing, were collected in the community of Buena Vista, Bolivia, with the Tacana people. Twenty two species are documented for the first time as medicinal plants for this ethnic group living in the northern area of the Department of La Paz. To evaluate the leishmanicidal effect (IC 50 ) and cytotoxicity (LD 50 ) of the selected plants. To carry out bioguided studies on the active extracts. To assess the potential of Bolivian plant biodiversity associated with traditional knowledge in the discovery of alternative sources to fight leishmaniasis. Seventy three ethanol extracts were prepared from 38 species by maceration and were evaluated in vitro against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and L. braziliensis. Active extracts (IC 50 ≤ 50 μg/mL) were fractionated by chromatography on Silica gel column and the fractions were assessed against the two Leishmania strains. The most active fractions and the crude extracts were evaluated against reference strains of L. amazonensis, L. braziliensis, L. aethiopica, two native strains (L. Lainsoni and L. braziliensis) and for cytotoxicity against HeLa cells. The chromatographic profile of the active fractions was obtained by reverse phase chromatography using HPLC. From the 73 extracts, 39 extracts (53.4%) were inactive and 34 showed activity. Thirteen species were sselected for bioguided studies. The crude extracts and their 36 fractions were evaluated against two Leishmania strains. The most active fraction were tested in a panel of five leishmania strains and for cytotoxicity. The Selective Index (SI = LD 50 /IC 50 ) was calculated, and were generally low. Retention time and UV spectra were recorded for the active fractions by HPLC-DAD using a reverse phase column. Profiles were very different from each other, showing the presence of different compounds. Bolivian traditional

  20. Trypanocidal activity of extracts from Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest plant species.

    PubMed

    Pizzolatti, M G; Koga, A H; Grisard, E C; Steindel, M

    2003-01-01

    The trypanocidal activity of crude hydro alcoholic extracts and several fractions of 13 plants from Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest were tested in vitro against epimastigote and trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. Crude ethanol extracts with promising in vitro activity (DL50 between 5-10 microg/ml) against epimastigotes were fractionated by solvent partition and further tested against bloodstream form of the parasite. Activity against bloodstream parasites was observed in both dichloromethane and hexane fractions of Polygala sabulosa and P. paniculata.

  1. Extracellular protein analysis of activated sludge and their functions in wastewater treatment plant by shotgun proteomics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Shen, Yu; Guo, Jin-Song; Li, Chun; Wang, Han; Chen, You-Peng; Yan, Peng; Yang, Ji-Xiang; Fang, Fang

    2015-07-10

    In this work, proteins in extracellular polymeric substances extracted from anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic sludges of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were analyzed to probe their origins and functions. Extracellular proteins in WWTP sludges were identified using shotgun proteomics, and 130, 108 and 114 proteins in anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic samples were classified, respectively. Most proteins originated from cell and cell part, and their most major molecular functions were catalytic activity and binding activity. The results exhibited that the main roles of extracellular proteins in activated sludges were multivalence cations and organic molecules binding, as well as in catalysis and degradation. The catalytic activity proteins were more widespread in anaerobic sludge compared with those in anoxic and aerobic sludges. The structure difference between anaerobic and aerobic sludges could be associated with their catalytic activities proteins. The results also put forward a relation between the macro characteristics of activated sludges and micro functions of extracellular proteins in biological wastewater treatment process.

  2. Antileishmanial and antifungal activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Braga, Fernanda G; Bouzada, Maria Lúcia M; Fabri, Rodrigo L; de O Matos, Magnum; Moreira, Francis O; Scio, Elita; Coimbra, Elaine S

    2007-05-04

    The antileishmanial and antifungal activity of 24 methanol extracts from 20 plants, all of them used in the Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious and inflammatory disorders, were evaluated against promastigotes forms of two species of Leishmania (L. amazonensis and L. chagasi) and two yeasts (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans). Among the 20 tested methanolic extracts, those of Vernonia polyanthes was the most active against L. amazonensis (IC(50) of 4 microg/ml), those of Ocimum gratissimum exhibited the best activity against L. chagasi (IC(50) of 71 microg/ml). Concerning antifungical activity, Schinus terebintifolius, O. gratissimum, Cajanus cajan, and Piper aduncum extracts were the most active against C. albicans (MIC of 1.25 mg/ml) whereas Bixa orellana, O. gratissimum and Syzygium cumini exhibited the best activity against C. neoformans (MIC of 0.078 mg/ml).

  3. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of plant extracts traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cogo, Laura Lúcia; Monteiro, Cristina Leise Bastos; Miguel, Marilis Dallarmi; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes; Cunico, Miriam Machado; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; de Camargo, Eloá Ramalho; Kussen, Gislene Maria Botão; Nogueira, Keite da Silva; Costa, Libera Maria Dalla

    2010-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of plant extracts obtained from Bixa orellana L., Chamomilla recutita L., Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Malva sylvestris L., Plantago major L. and Rheum rhaponticum L. has been evaluated against two reference strains and eleven clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. All the plant species chosen are used in popular Brazilian cuisine and folk medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Initial screening was made by the disk diffusion test and then minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method. The results presented in this work demonstrated that among the plant preparations analyzed, B. orellana L., C. recutita L., I. paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. and M. sylvestris L. were capable of inhibiting the in vitro growth of H. pylori. PMID:24031496

  4. Investigation of therapeutic potentials of some selected medicinal plants using neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, Sani; Usman, Ahmed Rufa'i.; Isa, Nasiru Fage; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Abubakar, Nuraddeen

    2015-04-01

    Series of attempts were made to investigate concentrations of trace elements and their therapeutic properties in various medicinal plants. In this study, samples of some commonly used plants were collected from Bauchi State, Nigeria. They includes leaves of azadirachta indica (neem), Moringa Oleifera (moringa), jatropha curcas (purgin Nut), guiera senegalensis (custard apple) and anogeissus leiocarpus (African birch). These samples were analyzed for their trace elements contents with both short and long irradiation protocols of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The level of trace elements found varies from one sample to another, with some reported at hundreds of mg/Kg dry weight. The results have been compared with the available literature data. The presence of these trace elements indicates promising potentials of these plants for relief of certain ailments.

  5. Neutron activation analysis of thermal power plant ash and surrounding area soils.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Haddad, Kh; Alsomel, N; Sarhil, A

    2015-08-01

    Elemental concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, and Zn have been determined in fly and bottom ash collected from Syrian power plants fired by heavy oil and natural gas using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results showed that all elements were more concentrated in fly ash than in the fly ash; there was a clear increasing trend of the elemental concentrations in the fly ash along the flue gas pathway. The annual emission of elements was estimated. Elemental concentrations were higher inside the campus area than in surrounding areas, and the lowest values were found in natural-gas-fired power plant. In addition, the levels have decreased as the distance from power plant campus increases. However, the levels in the surrounding villages were within the Syrian standard for agriculture soil.

  6. Insecticidal activity of plant lectins and potential application in crop protection.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Oliveira, Caio F R; Oliveira, Carolina T

    2015-01-27

    Lectins constitute a complex group of proteins found in different organisms. These proteins constitute an important field for research, as their structural diversity and affinity for several carbohydrates makes them suitable for numerous biological applications. This review addresses the classification and insecticidal activities of plant lectins, providing an overview of the applicability of these proteins in crop protection. The likely target sites in insect tissues, the mode of action of these proteins, as well as the use of lectins as biotechnological tools for pest control are also described. The use of initial bioassays employing artificial diets has led to the most recent advances in this field, such as plant breeding and the construction of fusion proteins, using lectins for targeting the delivery of toxins and to potentiate expected insecticide effects. Based on the data presented, we emphasize the contribution that plant lectins may make as tools for the development of integrated insect pest control strategies.

  7. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in signaling plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Zhang, Shuqun

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are ubiquitous signaling modules in eukaryotes. Early research of plant MAPKs has been focused on their functions in immunity and stress responses. Recent studies reveal that they also play essential roles in plant growth and development downstream of receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs). With only a limited number of MAPK components, multiple functional pathways initiated from different receptors often share the same MAPK components or even a complete MAPK cascade. In this review, we discuss how MAPK cascades function as molecular switches in response to spatiotemporal-specific ligand-receptor interactions and the availability of downstream substrates. In addition, we discuss other possible mechanisms governing the functional specificity of plant MAPK cascades, a question central to our understanding of MAPK functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of therapeutic potentials of some selected medicinal plants using neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abubakar, Sani; Isa, Nasiru Fage; Usman, Ahmed Rufa’i

    Series of attempts were made to investigate concentrations of trace elements and their therapeutic properties in various medicinal plants. In this study, samples of some commonly used plants were collected from Bauchi State, Nigeria. They includes leaves of azadirachta indica (neem), Moringa Oleifera (moringa), jatropha curcas (purgin Nut), guiera senegalensis (custard apple) and anogeissus leiocarpus (African birch). These samples were analyzed for their trace elements contents with both short and long irradiation protocols of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The level of trace elements found varies from one samplemore » to another, with some reported at hundreds of mg/Kg dry weight. The results have been compared with the available literature data. The presence of these trace elements indicates promising potentials of these plants for relief of certain ailments.« less

  9. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of plants of the ethnopharmacopeia from northwest of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study, is to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity, the total phenols content, the flavonoids content and the antiproliferative activity of methanolic extracts of the plants: Krameria erecta, Struthanthus palmeri, Phoradendron californicum, Senna covesii and Stegnosperma halimifolium, used by different ethnic groups from northwestern Mexico in the treatment and cure of various diseases. Methods The in vitro antioxidant activity was measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power assay (FRAP), the total phenols content was measured by Folin–Ciocalteau assay, the flavonoids content by the AlCl3 colorimetric method and the antiproliferative activity (line cells HeLa, RAW 264.7, M12Ak.C3.F6 and L929) using MTT method. Results The K. erecta extract showed the higher radical scavenging activity (67.88%), antioxidant activity by FRAP (1.41 mg Trolox Eq), the highest total phenols content (598.51 mg Galic Acid Eq/g extract), the highest flavonoids content (3.80 mg Quercetin Eq/g extract) and the greatest antiproliferative activity in a dose dependent manner against most Cell line evaluated. A positive correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the flavonoids content. Conclusions This study is the first report on the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the five species evaluated. The results demostrate that there is a positive correlation between antioxidant activity and the flavonoids content, indicating that these type of polyphenols could be the major contributors to the observed antioxidant activity in the evaluated plant extracts. Of the extracts evaluated, that of Krameria erecta showed the greatest antioxidant and antiproliferative activities, a discovery that makes this species a promising candidate for future research. PMID:23305162

  10. Omani propolis: chemical profiling, antibacterial activity and new propolis plant sources

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Propolis (bee glue) is a resinous honeybee product having a long history of application in many countries as a traditional remedy for treating wounds, burns, soar throat, stomach disorders, etc. It has been proved to possess beneficial biological effects, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antiulcer, and many others. Bees gather propolis from diverse resinous plant parts and in different phytogeographic regions its chemical composition might vary significantly. In this article we report the results of the first study on the chemical profiles of propolis from Oman, its plant origin and antibacterial activity. Results The chemical profiles of Omani propolis extracts were obtained by GC-MS analysis after silylation. Over 50 individual compounds were identified in the samples, belonging to different compound types: sugars, polyols, hydroxy acids, fatty acids, cardanols and cardols, anacardic acids, flavan derivatives, triterpenes, prenylated flavanones and chalcones. The profiles were dissimilar from other known propolis types. They demonstrate that although Oman is not a large country, the plant sources of propolis vary significantly, even in the same apiary and the same season. Based on chemical profiles, and isolation and identification of major marker compounds (new propolis constituents), new plant sources of propolis were found: Azadiracta indica (neem tree) and Acacia spp. (most probably A. nilotica). The ethanol extracts of the studied propolis samples demonstrated activity against S. aureus (MIC < 100 μg. mL-1) and E. coli (MIC < 380 μg. mL-1). Conclusion Omani propolis is different form the known propolis types and demonstrates significant chemical diversity. Its most important plant source is the resin of Azadirachta indica, and as a result its typical components are С5-prenyl flavanones. Other plant sources have been identified, too, playing some role in resin collection by bees in Oman: Acacia spp

  11. Subcellular Targeting of Methylmercury Lyase Enhances Its Specific Activity for Organic Mercury Detoxification in Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Bizily, Scott P.; Kim, Tehryung; Kandasamy, Muthugapatti K.; Meagher, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    Methylmercury is an environmental pollutant that biomagnifies in the aquatic food chain with severe consequences for humans and other animals. In an effort to remove this toxin in situ, we have been engineering plants that express the bacterial mercury resistance enzymes organomercurial lyase MerB and mercuric ion reductase MerA. In vivo kinetics experiments suggest that the diffusion of hydrophobic organic mercury to MerB limits the rate of the coupled reaction with MerA (Bizily et al., 2000). To optimize reaction kinetics for organic mercury compounds, the merB gene was engineered to target MerB for accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum and for secretion to the cell wall. Plants expressing the targeted MerB proteins and cytoplasmic MerA are highly resistant to organic mercury and degrade organic mercury at 10 to 70 times higher specific activity than plants with the cytoplasmically distributed wild-type MerB enzyme. MerB protein in endoplasmic reticulum-targeted plants appears to accumulate in large vesicular structures that can be visualized in immunolabeled plant cells. These results suggest that the toxic effects of organic mercury are focused in microenvironments of the secretory pathway, that these hydrophobic compartments provide more favorable reaction conditions for MerB activity, and that moderate increases in targeted MerB expression will lead to significant gains in detoxification. In summary, to maximize phytoremediation efficiency of hydrophobic pollutants in plants, it may be beneficial to target enzymes to specific subcellular environments. PMID:12586871

  12. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutically active compounds in sewage treatment plants with different technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2009-01-01

    Occurrence of eight selected pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs; caffeine, carbamazepine, triclosan, gemfibrozil, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) were investigated in effluents from fifteen sewage treatment plants (STPs) across South Australia. In addition, a detailed investigation into the removal of these compounds was also carried out in four STPs with different technologies (Plant A: conventional activated sludge; plant B: two oxidation ditches; plant C: three bioreactors; and plant D: ten lagoons in series). The concentrations of these compounds in the effluents from the fifteen STPs showed substantial variations among the STPs, with their median concentrations ranging from 26 ng/L for caffeine to 710 ng/L for carbamazepine. Risk assessment based on the "worst case scenario" of the monitoring data from the present study suggested potential toxic risks to aquatic organisms posed by carbamazepine, triclosan and diclofenac associated with such effluent discharge. With the exception of carbamazepine and gemfibrozil, significant concentration decreases between influent and effluent were observed in the four STPs studied in more detail. Biodegradation was found to be the main mechanism for removing concentrations from the liquid waste stream for the PhACs within the four STPs, while adsorption onto sludge appeared to be a minor process for all target PhACs except for triclosan. Some compounds (e.g. gemfibrozil) exhibited variable removal efficiencies within the four STPs. Plant D (10 lagoons in series) was least efficient in the removal of the target PhACs; significant biodegradation of these compounds only occurred from the sixth or seventh lagoon.

  13. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutically active compounds in sewage treatment plants with different technologies.

    PubMed

    Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S; Kolpin, Dana W

    2009-08-01

    Occurrence of eight selected pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs; caffeine, carbamazepine, triclosan, gemfibrozil, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) were investigated in effluents from fifteen sewage treatment plants (STPs) across South Australia. In addition, a detailed investigation into the removal of these compounds was also carried out in four STPs with different technologies (Plant A: conventional activated sludge; plant B: two oxidation ditches; plant C: three bioreactors; and plant D: ten lagoons in series). The concentrations of these compounds in the effluents from the fifteen STPs showed substantial variations among the STPs, with their median concentrations ranging from 26 ng/L for caffeine to 710 ng/L for carbamazepine. Risk assessment based on the "worst case scenario" of the monitoring data from the present study suggested potential toxic risks to aquatic organisms posed by carbamazepine, triclosan and diclofenac associated with such effluent discharge. With the exception of carbamazepine and gemfibrozil, significant concentration decreases between influent and effluent were observed in the four STPs studied in more detail. Biodegradation was found to be the main mechanism for removing concentrations from the liquid waste stream for the PhACs within the four STPs, while adsorption onto sludge appeared to be a minor process for all target PhACs except for triclosan. Some compounds (e.g. gemfibrozil) exhibited variable removal efficiencies within the four STPs. Plant D (10 lagoons in series) was least efficient in the removal of the target PhACs; significant biodegradation of these compounds only occurred from the sixth or seventh lagoon.

  14. Study of the in vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities of medicinal plants from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Musayeib, Nawal M; Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Massarani, Shaza; Matheeussen, An; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis

    2012-09-25

    The present study investigated the in vitro antiprotozoal activity of sixteen selected medicinal plants. Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity. The criterion for activity was an IC₅₀ < 10 μg/mL (<5 μg/mL for T. brucei) and a selectivity index of ≥4. Antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts of Prosopis juliflora and Punica granatum. Antileishmanial activity against L. infantum was demonstrated in Caralluma sinaica and Periploca aphylla. Amastigotes of T. cruzi were affected by the methanol extract of Albizia lebbeck pericarp, Caralluma sinaica, Periploca aphylla and Prosopius juliflora. Activity against T. brucei was obtained in Prosopis juliflora. Cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC₅₀ < 10 μg/mL) and hence non-specific activities were observed for Conocarpus lancifolius.

  15. AM fungal exudates activate MAP kinases in plant cells in dependence from cytosolic Ca(2+) increase.

    PubMed

    Francia, Doriana; Chiltz, Annick; Lo Schiavo, Fiorella; Pugin, Alain; Bonfante, Paola; Cardinale, Francesca

    2011-09-01

    The molecular dialogue occurring prior to direct contact between the fungal and plant partners of arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses begins with the release of fungal elicitors, so far only partially identified chemically, which can activate specific signaling pathways in the host plant. We show here that the activation of MAPK is also induced by exudates of germinating spores of Gigaspora margarita in cultured cells of the non-leguminous species tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), as well as in those of the model legume Lotus japonicus. MAPK activity peaked about 15 min after the exposure of the host cells to the fungal exudates (FE). FE were also responsible for a rapid and transient increase in free cytosolic Ca(2+) in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and tobacco cells, and pre-treatment with a Ca(2+)-channel blocker (La(3+)) showed that in these cells, MAPK activation was dependent on the cytosolic Ca(2+) increase. A partial dependence of MAPK activity on the common Sym pathway could be demonstrated for a cell line of L. japonicus defective for LjSym4 and hence unable to establish an AM symbiosis. Our results show that MAPK activation is triggered by an FE-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) transient, and that a Sym genetic determinant acts to modulate the intensity and duration of this activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Synergy of antibacterial and antioxidant activities from crude extracts and peptides of selected plant mixture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A plant mixture containing indigenous Australian plants was examined for synergistic antimicrobial activity using selected test microorganisms. This study aims to investigate antibacterial activities, antioxidant potential and the content of phenolic compounds in aqueous, ethanolic and peptide extracts of plant mixture. Methods Well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays were used to test antibacterial activity against four pathogenic bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) assays were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. HPLC and gel filtration were used for purification of the peptides. Scanning electron microscope was applied to investigate the mode of attachment of the peptides on target microbial membranes. Results Aqueous extraction of the mixture showed no inhibition zones against all the test bacteria. Mean diameter of inhibition zones for ethanol extraction of this mixture attained 8.33 mm, 7.33 mm, and 6.33 mm against S. aureus at corresponding concentrations of 500, 250 and 125 mg/ml while E .coli showed inhibition zones of 9.33 mm, 8.00 mm and 6.66 mm at the same concentrations. B. cereus exhibited inhibition zones of 11.33 mm, 10.33 mm and 10.00 mm at concentrations of 500, 250 and 125 mg/ml respectively. The peptide extract demonstrated antibacterial activity against S. aureus, E. coli and B. cereus. The MIC and MBC values for ethanol extracts were determined at 125 mg/ml concentration against S. aureus and E. coli and B. cereus value was 31.5 mg/ml. MIC and MBC values showed that the peptide extract was significantly effective at low concentration of the Australian plant mixture (APM). Phenolic compounds were detected in hot aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the plant mixture. Hot aqueous, ethanol and peptides extracts also exhibited

  17. Which Plant Proteins Are Involved in Antiviral Defense? Review on In Vivo and In Vitro Activities of Selected Plant Proteins against Viruses.

    PubMed

    Musidlak, Oskar; Nawrot, Robert; Goździcka-Józefiak, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of defense mechanisms to tackle virus attack. Endogenous plant proteins can function as virus suppressors. Different types of proteins mediate defense responses against plant viruses. Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are activated upon pathogen infections or in different stress situations and their production is one of many components in plant defense. Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) suppress translation by enzymatically damaging ribosomes and they have been found to have antiviral activity. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) bind to target RNAs via specialized RNA-binding domain and can directly or indirectly function in plant defense system against RNA viruses. Proteins involved in silencing machinery, namely Dicer-like (DCL) proteins, Argonaute (AGO) proteins, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) confer innate antiviral defense in plants as they are able to degrade foreign RNA of viral origin. This review aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date picture of plant proteins participating in antiviral defense. As a result we discuss proteins conferring plant antiviral resistance and their potential future applications in different fields of life including agriculture and medicine.

  18. Which Plant Proteins Are Involved in Antiviral Defense? Review on In Vivo and In Vitro Activities of Selected Plant Proteins against Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Goździcka-Józefiak, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of defense mechanisms to tackle virus attack. Endogenous plant proteins can function as virus suppressors. Different types of proteins mediate defense responses against plant viruses. Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are activated upon pathogen infections or in different stress situations and their production is one of many components in plant defense. Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) suppress translation by enzymatically damaging ribosomes and they have been found to have antiviral activity. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) bind to target RNAs via specialized RNA-binding domain and can directly or indirectly function in plant defense system against RNA viruses. Proteins involved in silencing machinery, namely Dicer-like (DCL) proteins, Argonaute (AGO) proteins, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) confer innate antiviral defense in plants as they are able to degrade foreign RNA of viral origin. This review aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date picture of plant proteins participating in antiviral defense. As a result we discuss proteins conferring plant antiviral resistance and their potential future applications in different fields of life including agriculture and medicine. PMID:29104238

  19. Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities of two Bangladeshi medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ajoy; Biswas, Subrata Kumar; Chowdhury, Anusua; Shill, Manik Chandra; Raihan, Sheikh Zahir; Muhit, Md Abdul

    2011-10-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate phytochemical screening and to assay cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities of ethanolic extracts of leaves of two medicinal plants, Aglaonema hookerianum Schott (Family: Araceae) and Lannea grandis Engl. (Family: Anacardiaceae) available in Bangladesh. The brine shrimp lethality bioassay showed that the ethanolic extracts of Aglaonema hookerianum and Lannea grandis possessed cytotoxic activities with LC50 5.25 (microg mL(-1)) and 5.75 (microg mL(-1)) and LC90 10.47 (microg mL(-1)) and 9.55 (microg mL(-1)), respectively. Two extracts obtained from leaves were examined for their antibacterial activities against some gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium and Staphylococcus aureus, also gram negative strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi and Vibrio cholerae. Agar disc diffusion method was applied to observe the antibacterial efficacy of the extracts. Results indicated that both plant extracts (500 microg disc(-1)) displayed antibacterial activity against all of the tested microorganisms. These results were also compared with the zones of inhibition produced by commercially available standard antibiotic, Amoxicillin at concentration of 10 microg disc(-1). Observed antibacterial properties of the ethanolic extract of Aglaonema hookerianum Schott and Lannea grandis Engl. showed that both plants might be useful sources for the development of new potent antibacterial agents.

  20. In vivo antimalarial activity of extracts of Tanzanian medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria.

    PubMed

    Nondo, Ramadhani S O; Erasto, Paul; Moshi, Mainen J; Zacharia, Abdallah; Masimba, Pax J; Kidukuli, Abdul W

    2016-01-01

    Plants used in traditional medicine have been the source of a number of currently used antimalarial medicines and continue to be a promising resource for the discovery of new classes of antimalarial compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo antimalarial activity of four plants; Erythrina schliebenii Harms, Holarrhena pubescens Buch-Ham, Phyllanthus nummulariifolius Poir, and Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Flem used for treatment of malaria in Tanzania. In vivo antimalarial activity was assessed using the 4-day suppressive antimalarial assay. Mice were infected by injection via tail vein with 2 × 10(7) erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Extracts were administered orally, once daily, for a total of four daily doses from the day of infection. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg/day) and solvent (5 mL/kg/day) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The extracts of C. bonducella, E. schliebenii, H. pubescens, and P. nummulariifolius exhibited dose-dependent suppression of parasite growth in vivo in mice, with the highest suppression being by C. bonducella extract. While each of the plant extracts has potential to yield useful antimalarial compounds, the dichloromethane root extract of C. bonducella seems to be the most promising for isolation of active antimalarial compound(s). In vivo antimalarial activity presented in this study supports traditional uses of C. bonducella roots, E. schliebenii stem barks, H. pubescens roots, and P. nummulariifolius for treatment of malaria.

  1. Plants of Brazilian restingas with tripanocide activity against Trypanosoma cruzi strains.

    PubMed

    Faria, Robson Xavier; Souza, André Luis Almeida; Lima, Barbara; Tietbohl, Luis Armando Candido; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; Amaral, Raquel Rodrigues; Ruppelt, Bettina Monika; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Rocha, Leandro

    2017-12-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi affecting millions of people, and widespread throughout Latin America. This disease exhibits a problematic chemotherapy. Benznidazole, which is the drug currently used as standard treatment, lamentably evokes several adverse reactions. Among other options, natural products have been tested to discover a novel therapeutic drug for this disease. A lot of plants from the Brazilian flora did not contain studies about their biological effects. Restinga de Jurubatiba from Brazil is a sandbank ecosystem poorly studied in relation to plant biological activity. Thus, three plant species from Restinga de Jurubatiba were tested against in vitro antiprotozoal activity. Among six extracts obtained from leaves and stem parts and 2 essential oils derived from leave parts, only 3 extracts inhibited epimastigote proliferation. Substances present in the extracts with activity were isolated (quercetin, myricetin, and ursolic acid), and evaluated in relation to antiprotozoal activity against epimastigote Y and Dm28 Trypanosoma cruzi strains. All isolated substances were effective to reduce protozoal proliferation. Essentially, quercetin and myricetin did not cause mammalian cell toxicity. In summary, myricetin and quercetin molecule can be used as a scaffold to develop new effective drugs against Chagas's disease.

  2. Pancreatic lipase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of plants used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).

    PubMed

    2016-07-07

    To find new, plant based drugs for the treatment of obesity and/or diabetes mellitus type 2 through the inhibition of essential digestive enzymes, in vitro tests were carried out on selected plants or fungi with weight-reducing, blood glucose-reducing or related potential, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Aqueous and methanolic extracts of 32 Chinese herbal medicines were assayed for their in vitro inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase (PL) and α-amylase (PA). PL activity was measured by using an enzymatic in vitro assay based on the hydrolysis kinetics of an oleate ester of 4-methylumbelliferone. For the determination of α-amylase activity an enzyme assay based on the hydrolytic cleavage of a modified starch derivative was used. Our findings have shown that the methanolic extract of Lycopus lucidus Turcz. var. hirtus Regel (Lamiaceae) was a very effective PL inhibitor (IC50: 88.3±4.1 μg/mL). A high anti-amylase activity showed the methanolic extract of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. (Curcurbitaceae, IC50: 248.8±67.3 μg/mL). This work provides a priority list of interesting plants for further study with respect to the treatment of obesity and associated metabolic diseases.

  3. Part 1: Antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of Thai plants in the family Acanthaceae.

    PubMed

    Charoenchai, Panarat; Vajrodaya, Srunya; Somprasong, Winai; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2010-11-01

    Crude extracts (CH(2)Cl(2) and MeOH) of 20 plants in the family Acanthaceae were screened for their antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, antioxidant, and radical scavenging activities. These plants included Asystasia nemorum, Barleria cristata, B. strigosa, Dicliptera burmanni, Eranthemum tetragonum, Hygrophila ringens, Justicia balansae, J. procumbens, Lepidagathis incurva, Peristrophe lanceolaria, Phaulopsis dorsiflora, Ruellia kerrii, Strobilanthes auriculata, S. corrugata, S. cusia, S. dimorphotricha, S. karensium, S. maxwellii, S. pateriformis, and S. brandisii. CH(2)Cl(2) extracts of A. nemorum, S. corrugata, S. cusia, S. maxwellii, S. pateriformis, and S. brandisii, as well as MeOH extracts of J. balansae and J. procumbens, showed antiplasmodial activity with IC(50) values of 10-100 µg/mL. CH(2)Cl(2) extracts of nine plants including D. burmanni, H. ringens, J. balansae, J. procumbens, L. incurva, P. lanceolaria, P. dorsiflora, S. corrugata, and S. maxwellii showed cytotoxic activity with IC(50) values of 3.5-46.0 µg/mL. MeOH extracts (at 100 µg/mL) of R. kerrii and S. auriculata could effectively scavenge DPPH free radicals (82-83% inhibition) and superoxide anion radicals (79% and 88% inhibition). In the ORAC antioxidant assay, MeOH extracts of B. cristata, J. procumbens, R. kerrii, and S. auriculata exhibited activity with ORAC units of 3.1-3.9. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. [Antifungal activity, cytotoxicity and composition of essential oils from the Asteraceae plant family].

    PubMed

    Zapata, Bibiana; Durán, Camilo; Stashenko, Elena; Betancur-Galvis, Liliana; Mesa-Arango, Ana Cecilia

    2010-06-30

    The plants of the Asteraceae family have been used for medicinal purposes,in traditional Colombian medicine. To evaluate the antifungal activity and the cytotoxic effects of 15 essential oils from plants of the Asteraceae family. Antifungal activity was evaluated against Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019, Candida krusei ATCC 6258, Aspergillus flavus ATCC 204304 and Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 204305 following EUCAST and CLSI M38-A standard methods, for yeast and filamentous fungi, respectively. Cytotoxic effect was evaluated on Vero cell line by MTT assay. The oils from the plants Achyrocline alata and Baccharislatifolia were the only ones active against A. fumigatus (GM-MIC=78.7 and 157.4 microg/ml, respectively). In contrast, there was no evidence of oils active against Candida species. In addition, these oils were not cytotoxic on Vero cells. The oils of A. alata and Baccharis latifolia could be candidates for disinfecting hospital environments and for inhibiting biofilm formation by A. fumigatus The oils of A. alata and B. latifolia could be candidates for disinfecting hospital environments and for inhibiting biofilm formation by A. fumigatus. Copyright 2009 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Jasmonate signaling in plant stress responses and development - active and inactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Wasternack, Claus; Strnad, Miroslav

    2016-09-25

    Jasmonates (JAs) are lipid-derived signals mediating plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses and in plant development. Following the elucidation of each step in their biosynthesis and the important components of perception and signaling, several activators, repressors and co-repressors have been identified which contribute to fine-tuning the regulation of JA-induced gene expression. Many of the metabolic reactions in which JA participates, such as conjugation with amino acids, glucosylation, hydroxylation, carboxylation, sulfation and methylation, lead to numerous compounds with different biological activities. These metabolites may be highly active, partially active in specific processes or inactive. Hydroxylation, carboxylation and sulfation inactivate JA signaling. The precursor of JA biosynthesis, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), has been identified as a JA-independent signaling compound. An increasing number of OPDA-specific processes is being identified. To conclude, the numerous JA compounds and their different modes of action allow plants to respond specifically and flexibly to alterations in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biochar as carrier for plant nutrients and microorganisms - techniques of agro-activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, H.-P.

    2012-04-01

    The soil enhancing qualities of biochar are strongly linked to its influence on nutrient cycling dynamics, sorption dynamics and to changing habitat condition for soil fauna. But as shown in multiple studies, the addition of pure biochar to agricultural soils may provoke reduced plant growth caused by the immobilisation of plant nutrients. The very potent sorption dynamics of biochar makes it an effective carrier for plant nutrients and plant-root symbiotic microorganisms. At the Delinat-Institute, we tried sundry methods of charging biochars with organic and mineral plant nutrients as well as with microorganisms. This includes the use of biochar as bulk agent in aerobic composting, in malolactic fermentation and as treatment for liquid manure, but also formulations of mineral carbon-fertilizers. Those biochar products are tested in pot and also large scale field trials. Results and experiences of these trials as well as different activation methods will be explained. A short overview of industrial designing of biochar based products will be given.

  7. Limits of Active Laser Triangulation as an Instrument for High Precision Plant Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Stefan; Eichert, Thomas; Goldbach, Heiner E.; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Laser scanning is a non-invasive method for collecting and parameterizing 3D data of well reflecting objects. These systems have been used for 3D imaging of plant growth and structure analysis. A prerequisite is that the recorded signals originate from the true plant surface. In this paper we studied the effects of species, leaf chlorophyll content and sensor settings on the suitability and accuracy of a commercial 660 nm active laser triangulation scanning device. We found that surface images of Ficus benjamina leaves were inaccurate at low chlorophyll concentrations and a long sensor exposure time. Imaging of the rough waxy leaf surface of leek (Allium porrum) was possible using very low exposure times, whereas at higher exposure times penetration and multiple refraction prevented the correct imaging of the surface. A comparison of scans with varying exposure time enabled the target-oriented analysis to identify chlorotic, necrotic and healthy leaf areas or mildew infestations. We found plant properties and sensor settings to have a strong influence on the accuracy of measurements. These interactions have to be further elucidated before laser imaging of plants is possible with the high accuracy required for e.g., the observation of plant growth or reactions to water stress. PMID:24504106

  8. Rapid estimation of the oxidative activities of individual phenolics in crude plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Vihakas, Matti; Pälijärvi, Maija; Karonen, Maarit; Roininen, Heikki; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies of purified phenolic compounds have revealed that some phenolics, especially ellagitannins, can autoxidise under alkaline conditions, which predominate in the midgut of lepidopteran larvae. To facilitate screening for the pro-oxidant activities of all types of phenolic compounds from crude plant extracts, we developed a method that combined our recent spectrophotometric bioactivity method with an additional chromatographic step via UPLC-DAD-MS. This method allowed us to estimate the total pro-oxidant capacities of crude extracts from 12 plant species and to identify the individual phenolic compounds that were responsible for the detected activities. It was found that the pro-oxidant capacities of the plant species (i.e., the concentrations of the easily-oxidised phenolics) varied from 0 to 57 mg/g dry wt, representing from 0% to 46% of the total phenolics from different species. UPLC-DAD-MS analysis revealed that most flavonol and flavone glycosides were only slightly affected by alkaline conditions, thus indicating their low pro-oxidant activity. Interestingly, myricetin-type compounds differed from the other flavonoids, as their concentrations decreased strongly due to alkaline incubation. The same effect was detected for hydrolysable tannins and prodelphinidins, suggesting that a pyrogallol sub-structure could be a key structural component that partially explains their easy oxidation at high pH. Other types of phenolic compounds, such as hydroxycinnamic acids, were relatively active, as well. These findings demonstrate that this method displays the potential to identify most of the active and inactive pro-oxidant phenolic compounds in various plant species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbial Community Activity And Plant Biomass Are Insensitive To Passive Warming In A Semiarid Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, N. J.; Fehmi, J. S.; Rasmussen, C.; Gallery, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Soil microorganisms drive biogeochemical and nutrient cycling through the production of extracellular enzymes that facilitate organic matter decomposition and the flux of large amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Although dryland ecosystems occupy over 40% of land cover and are projected to expand due to climate change, much of our current understanding of these processes comes from mesic temperate ecosystems. Understanding the responses of these globally predominant dryland ecosystems is therefore important yet complicated by co-occurring environmental changes. For example, the widespread and pervasive transition from grass to woody dominated landscapes is changing the hydrology, fire regimes, and carbon storage potential of semiarid ecosystems. In this study, we used a novel passive method of warming to conduct a warming experiment with added plant debris as either woodchip or biochar, to simulate different long-term carbon additions that accompany woody plant encroachment in semiarid ecosystems. The response of heterotrophic respiration, plant biomass, and microbial activity was monitored bi-annually. We hypothesized that the temperature manipulations would have direct and indirect effects on microbial activity. Warmer soils directly reduce the activity of soil extracellular enzymes through denaturation and dehydration of soil pores and indirectly through reducing microbe-available substrates and plant inputs. Overall, reduction in extracellular enzyme activity may reduce decomposition of coarse woody debris and potentially enhance soil carbon storage in semiarid ecosystems. For all seven hydrolytic enzymes examined as well as heterotrophic respiration, there was no consistent or significant response to experimental warming, regardless of seasonal climatic and soil moisture variation. The enzyme results observed here are consistent with the few other experimental results for warming in semiarid ecosystems and indicate that the controls over soil

  10. In vitro 5-lipoxygenase and anti-oxidant activities of South African medicinal plants commonly used topically for skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Frum, Y; Viljoen, A M

    2006-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to determine the possible mechanisms of action of medicinal plants used for dermatological pathologies. A total of 14 plant species were selected from the readily available ethnobotanical literature. 5-Lipoxygenase and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assays were used to determine the anti-inflammatory activity and the anti-oxidant activity of selected medicinal plants, respectively. Both aqueous and methanol extracts were tested. Among the plants screened, four species (Croton sylvaticus, Warburgia salutaris, Pentanisia prunelloides, and Melianthus comosus) displayed promising 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity with IC(50) values <61 ppm. A large number of plants exhibited significant anti-oxidant activities with IC(50) values between 5.27 and 83.36 ppm. Aqueous extracts of M. comosus exhibited the most potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity.

  11. Identification of traditional medicinal plant extracts with novel anti-influenza activity.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Dhivya; Palombo, Enzo A; Chia Yeo, Tiong; Lim Siok Ley, Diana; Lee Tu, Chu; Malherbe, Francois; Grollo, Lara

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of drug resistant variants of the influenza virus has led to a need to identify novel and effective antiviral agents. As an alternative to synthetic drugs, the consolidation of empirical knowledge with ethnopharmacological evidence of medicinal plants offers a novel platform for the development of antiviral drugs. The aim of this study was to identify plant extracts with proven activity against the influenza virus. Extracts of fifty medicinal plants, originating from the tropical rainforests of Borneo used as herbal medicines by traditional healers to treat flu-like symptoms, were tested against the H1N1 and H3N1 subtypes of the virus. In the initial phase, in vitro micro-inhibition assays along with cytotoxicity screening were performed on MDCK cells. Most plant extracts were found to be minimally cytotoxic, indicating that the compounds linked to an ethnomedical framework were relatively innocuous, and eleven crude extracts exhibited viral inhibition against both the strains. All extracts inhibited the enzymatic activity of viral neuraminidase and four extracts were also shown to act through the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) pathway. Moreover, the samples that acted through both HI and neuraminidase inhibition (NI) evidenced more than 90% reduction in virus adsorption and penetration, thereby indicating potent action in the early stages of viral replication. Concurrent studies involving Receptor Destroying Enzyme treatments of HI extracts indicated the presence of sialic acid-like component(s) that could be responsible for hemagglutination inhibition. The manifestation of both modes of viral inhibition in a single extract suggests that there may be a synergistic effect implicating more than one active component. Overall, our results provide substantive support for the use of Borneo traditional plants as promising sources of novel anti-influenza drug candidates. Furthermore, the pathways involving inhibition of hemagglutination could be a solution

  12. Identification of Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts with Novel Anti-Influenza Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Dhivya; Palombo, Enzo A.; Chia Yeo, Tiong; Lim Siok Ley, Diana; Lee Tu, Chu; Malherbe, Francois; Grollo, Lara

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of drug resistant variants of the influenza virus has led to a need to identify novel and effective antiviral agents. As an alternative to synthetic drugs, the consolidation of empirical knowledge with ethnopharmacological evidence of medicinal plants offers a novel platform for the development of antiviral drugs. The aim of this study was to identify plant extracts with proven activity against the influenza virus. Extracts of fifty medicinal plants, originating from the tropical rainforests of Borneo used as herbal medicines by traditional healers to treat flu-like symptoms, were tested against the H1N1 and H3N1 subtypes of the virus. In the initial phase, in vitro micro-inhibition assays along with cytotoxicity screening were performed on MDCK cells. Most plant extracts were found to be minimally cytotoxic, indicating that the compounds linked to an ethnomedical framework were relatively innocuous, and eleven crude extracts exhibited viral inhibition against both the strains. All extracts inhibited the enzymatic activity of viral neuraminidase and four extracts were also shown to act through the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) pathway. Moreover, the samples that acted through both HI and neuraminidase inhibition (NI) evidenced more than 90% reduction in virus adsorption and penetration, thereby indicating potent action in the early stages of viral replication. Concurrent studies involving Receptor Destroying Enzyme treatments of HI extracts indicated the presence of sialic acid-like component(s) that could be responsible for hemagglutination inhibition. The manifestation of both modes of viral inhibition in a single extract suggests that there may be a synergistic effect implicating more than one active component. Overall, our results provide substantive support for the use of Borneo traditional plants as promising sources of novel anti-influenza drug candidates. Furthermore, the pathways involving inhibition of hemagglutination could be a solution

  13. Short communication: an in vitro assessment of the antibacterial activity of plant-derived oils.

    PubMed

    Mullen, K A E; Lee, A R; Lyman, R L; Mason, S E; Washburn, S P; Anderson, K L

    2014-09-01

    Nonantibiotic treatments for mastitis are needed in organic dairy herds. Plant-derived oils may be useful but efficacy and potential mechanisms of action of such oils in mastitis therapy have not been well documented. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the plant-derived oil components of Phyto-Mast (Bovinity Health LLC, Narvon, PA), an herbal intramammary product, against 3 mastitis-causing pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, and Streptococcus uberis. Plant-derived oils evaluated were Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Chinese licorice), Angelica sinensis, and Angelica dahurica. Broth dilution testing according to standard protocol was performed using ultrapasteurized whole milk instead of broth. Controls included milk only (negative control), milk + bacteria (positive control), and milk + bacteria + penicillin-streptomycin (antibiotic control, at 1 and 5% concentrations). Essential oil of thyme was tested by itself and not in combination with other oils because of its known antibacterial activity. The other plant-derived oils were tested alone and in combination for a total of 15 treatments, each replicated 3 times and tested at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4% to simulate concentrations potentially achievable in the milk within the pre-dry-off udder quarter. Thyme oil at concentrations ≥2% completely inhibited bacterial growth in all replications. Other plant-derived oils tested alone or in various combinations were not consistently antibacterial and did not show typical dose-response effects. Only thyme essential oil had consistent antibacterial activity against the 3 mastitis-causing organisms tested in vitro. Further evaluation of physiological effects of thyme oil in various preparations on mammary tissue is recommended to determine potential suitability for mastitis therapy. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  14. Study of in vitro antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of selected Saharan plants.

    PubMed

    Palici, Ionut F; Liktor-Busa, Erika; Zupkó, István; Touzard, Blaise; Chaieb, Mohamed; Urbán, Edit; Hohmann, Judit

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of selected Saharan species, which are applied in the traditional medicine but not studied thoroughly from chemical and pharmacological point of view. The studied plants, namely Anthyllis henoniana, Centropodia forskalii, Cornulaca monacantha, Ephedra alata var. alenda, Euphorbia guyoniana, Helianthemum confertum, Henophyton deserti, Moltkiopsis ciliata and Spartidium saharae were collected from remote areas of North Africa, especially from the Tunisian region of Sahara. After drying and applying the appropriate extraction methods, the plant extracts were tested in antimicrobial screening assay, performed on 19 Gram-positive and -negative strains of microbes. The inhibition zones produced by plant extracts were determined by disc-diffusion method. Remarkable antibacterial activities were exhibited by extracts of Ephedra alata var. alenda and Helianthemum confertum against B. subtilis, M. catarrhalis and methicillin-resistant and non-resistant S. aureus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of these two species were also determined. Antiproliferative effects of the extracts were evaluated against 4 human adherent cell lines (HeLa, A431, A2780 and MCF7). Notable cell growth inhibition was found for extract of Helianthemum confertum and Euphorbia guyoniana. Our results provided data for selection of some plant species for further detailed pharmacological and phytochemical examinations.

  15. Coal mining activities change plant community structure due to air pollution and soil degradation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Bhanu; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Singh, Siddharth

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of coal mining activities on the community structures of woody and herbaceous plants. The response of individual plants of community to defilement caused by coal mining was also assessed. Air monitoring, soil physico-chemical and phytosociological analyses were carried around Jharia coalfield (JCF) and Raniganj coalfield. The importance value index of sensitive species minified and those of tolerant species enhanced with increasing pollution load and altered soil quality around coal mining areas. Although the species richness of woody and herbaceous plants decreased with higher pollution load, a large number of species acclimatized to the stress caused by the coal mining activities. Woody plant community at JCF was more affected by coal mining than herbaceous community. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that structure of herbaceous community was mainly driven by soil total organic carbon, soil nitrogen, whereas woody layer community was influenced by sulphur dioxide in ambient air, soil sulphate and soil phosphorus. The changes in species diversity observed at mining areas indicated an increase in the proportion of resistant herbs and grasses showing a tendency towards a definite selection strategy of ecosystem in response to air pollution and altered soil characteristics.

  16. Valuing the Endangered Species Antirrhinum lopesianum: Neuroprotective Activities and Strategies for in vitro Plant Propagation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Andreia; Fortalezas, Sofia; Pimpão, Rui; Figueira, Inês; Maroco, João; Aguiar, Carlos; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Miguel, Célia; Santos, Cláudia N

    2013-10-28

    Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territory, within 20 years. Here, we describe for the first time the chemical characterization of extracts of the species concerning total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. The profile of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) of the polyphenol-enriched fraction of plant extracts was also performed, showing the great potential of the species as a source of bioactive phytochemical compounds. A. lopesianum's potential for neuroprotection was revealed by a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and also by a neuroprotective effect on a human cell model of neurodegeneration. Moreover, this is the first report describing a successful procedure for the in vitro propagation of this endangered species. The comparison of phenolic content and the HPLC-DAD profile of wild and in vitro propagated plants revealed that in vitro plants maintain the ability to produce secondary metabolites, but the profiles are differentially affected by the growth regulators. The results presented here greatly contribute to the value for this species regarding its potential as a source of phytochemicals with prospective neuroprotective health benefits.

  17. Valuing the Endangered Species Antirrhinum lopesianum: Neuroprotective Activities and Strategies for in vitro Plant Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Andreia; Fortalezas, Sofia; Pimpão, Rui; Figueira, Inês; Maroco, João; Aguiar, Carlos; Ferreira, Ricardo B.; Miguel, Célia; Santos, Cláudia N.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territory, within 20 years. Here, we describe for the first time the chemical characterization of extracts of the species concerning total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. The profile of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) of the polyphenol-enriched fraction of plant extracts was also performed, showing the great potential of the species as a source of bioactive phytochemical compounds. A. lopesianum’s potential for neuroprotection was revealed by a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and also by a neuroprotective effect on a human cell model of neurodegeneration. Moreover, this is the first report describing a successful procedure for the in vitro propagation of this endangered species. The comparison of phenolic content and the HPLC-DAD profile of wild and in vitro propagated plants revealed that in vitro plants maintain the ability to produce secondary metabolites, but the profiles are differentially affected by the growth regulators. The results presented here greatly contribute to the value for this species regarding its potential as a source of phytochemicals with prospective neuroprotective health benefits. PMID:26784465

  18. CYTOTOXIC, α-CHYMOTRYPSIN AND UREASE INHIBITION ACTIVITIES OF THE PLANT Heliotropium dasycarpum L.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Muhammad Abuzar; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmed; Uzair, Muhammad; Ashfaq, Khuram

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate Cytotoxic, α-Chymotrypsin and Urease inhibition activities of the plant Heliotropium dasycarpum . Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of the plant were evaluated for cytotoxic, α-Chymotrypsin and Urease inhibition by using in vivo Brine Shrimp lethality bioassay and in vitro enzymatic inhibition assays respectively. The methanol extract of the plant exhibited significant cytotoxic activity. Out of 30 brine shrimp larvae, 2 (6%), 26 (86%) and 28 (93%) larvae were survived at concentration of 1000μg/ml, 100μg/ml and 10μg/ml respectively with LD50; 215.837. Similarly 21 (70%), 25 (83%), 29 (96%) larvae were survived of dichloromethane plant extract with LD50; 6170.64. The methanol and dichloromethane extract exhibited 10.50±0.18% and 41.51±0.15% α-chymotrypsin enzyme inhibition respectively with IC 50 values of greater than 500 μmol. The methanol extract showed 24.39±0.21% Urease enzyme inhibition with IC 50 values of greater than 400 μmol While dichloromethane extract has 11.46±0.09% enzyme inhibition with IC 50 values of greater than 500 μmol. The results clearly indicated that Heliotropium dasycarpum has cytotoxic potential and enzyme inhibition properties. Further study is needed to screen out antitumor and anti-ulcerative agents.

  19. CYTOTOXIC, α-CHYMOTRYPSIN AND UREASE INHIBITION ACTIVITIES OF THE PLANT Heliotropium dasycarpum L.

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Muhammad Abuzar; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmed; Uzair, Muhammad; Ashfaq, Khuram

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate Cytotoxic, α-Chymotrypsin and Urease inhibition activities of the plant Heliotropium dasycarpum. Materials & Methods: Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of the plant were evaluated for cytotoxic, α-Chymotrypsin and Urease inhibition by using in vivo Brine Shrimp lethality bioassay and in vitro enzymatic inhibition assays respectively. Results: The methanol extract of the plant exhibited significant cytotoxic activity. Out of 30 brine shrimp larvae, 2 (6%), 26 (86%) and 28 (93%) larvae were survived at concentration of 1000μg/ml, 100μg/ml and 10μg/ml respectively with LD50; 215.837. Similarly 21 (70%), 25 (83%), 29 (96%) larvae were survived of dichloromethane plant extract with LD50; 6170.64. The methanol and dichloromethane extract exhibited 10.50±0.18% and 41.51±0.15% α-chymotrypsin enzyme inhibition respectively with IC50 values of greater than 500 μmol. The methanol extract showed 24.39±0.21% Urease enzyme inhibition with IC50 values of greater than 400 μmol While dichloromethane extract has 11.46±0.09% enzyme inhibition with IC50 values of greater than 500 μmol Conclusion: The results clearly indicated that Heliotropium dasycarpum has cytotoxic potential and enzyme inhibition properties. Further study is needed to screen out antitumor and anti-ulcerative agents. PMID:28480379

  20. Antibacterial Activities of Five Medicinal Plants in Ethiopia against Some Human and Animal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Admasu, Birhanu; Hiwot Gebrekidan, Tsegaye; Gebru, Gebreyohans

    2018-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of five plant extracts which have been used as traditional medicines by local healers against three multidrug resistant bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results The highest mean zone of inhibition (4.66 mm) was recorded from methanol extract of Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth. at a concentration of 200 mg/ml against S. aureus, followed by Croton macrostachyus Del. (4.43 mm) at the same dose and solvent for the same bacterial species, while methanol and chloroform extracts of E. brucei Schwein. did not inhibit growth of any bacterial species. The lowest value (100 μg/ml) of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was observed from both methanol and chloroform extracts of C. aurea (Ait.) Benth. against all the three bacteria. The results of the positive control had no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) when compared with crude extracts of C. aurea (Ait.) Benth. at concentration of 200 mg/ml against S. aureus. Conclusion The results of the present study support the traditional uses of these medicinal plants by the local healers. Except Erythrina brucei Schwein., all the plants investigated in this study exhibited antibacterial activities against the test bacterial species. Further researches are needed to be conducted to evaluate efficacy of these medicinal plant species on other microbes in different agroecological settings and their safety levels as well as their phytochemical compositions. PMID:29552081

  1. Antibacterial Activities of Five Medicinal Plants in Ethiopia against Some Human and Animal Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Romha, Gebremedhin; Admasu, Birhanu; Hiwot Gebrekidan, Tsegaye; Aleme, Hailelule; Gebru, Gebreyohans

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of five plant extracts which have been used as traditional medicines by local healers against three multidrug resistant bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The highest mean zone of inhibition (4.66 mm) was recorded from methanol extract of Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth. at a concentration of 200 mg/ml against S. aureus , followed by Croton macrostachyus Del. (4.43 mm) at the same dose and solvent for the same bacterial species, while methanol and chloroform extracts of E. brucei Schwein. did not inhibit growth of any bacterial species. The lowest value (100  μ g/ml) of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was observed from both methanol and chloroform extracts of C. aurea (Ait.) Benth. against all the three bacteria. The results of the positive control had no statistically significant difference ( P > 0.05) when compared with crude extracts of C. aurea (Ait.) Benth. at concentration of 200 mg/ml against S. aureus . The results of the present study support the traditional uses of these medicinal plants by the local healers. Except Erythrina brucei Schwein., all the plants investigated in this study exhibited antibacterial activities against the test bacterial species. Further researches are needed to be conducted to evaluate efficacy of these medicinal plant species on other microbes in different agroecological settings and their safety levels as well as their phytochemical compositions.

  2. Functional diversity of carbohydrate-active enzymes enabling a bacterium to ferment plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Boutard, Magali; Cerisy, Tristan; Nogue, Pierre-Yves; Alberti, Adriana; Weissenbach, Jean; Salanoubat, Marcel; Tolonen, Andrew C

    2014-11-01

    Microbial metabolism of plant polysaccharides is an important part of environmental carbon cycling, human nutrition, and industrial processes based on cellulosic bioconversion. Here we demonstrate a broadly applicable method to analyze how microbes catabolize plant polysaccharides that integrates carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) assays, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and anaerobic growth screening. We apply this method to study how the bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans ferments plant biomass components including glucans, mannans, xylans, galactans, pectins, and arabinans. These polysaccharides are fermented with variable efficiencies, and diauxies prioritize metabolism of preferred substrates. Strand-specific RNA-seq reveals how this bacterium responds to polysaccharides by up-regulating specific groups of CAZymes, transporters, and enzymes to metabolize the constituent sugars. Fifty-six up-regulated CAZymes were purified, and their activities show most polysaccharides are degraded by multiple enzymes, often from the same family, but with divergent rates, specificities, and cellular localizations. CAZymes were then tested in combination to identify synergies between enzymes acting on the same substrate with different catalytic mechanisms. We discuss how these results advance our understanding of how microbes degrade and metabolize plant biomass.

  3. Glycosylation Is a Major Regulator of Phenylpropanoid Availability and Biological Activity in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Le Roy, Julien; Huss, Brigitte; Creach, Anne; Hawkins, Simon; Neutelings, Godfrey

    2016-01-01

    The phenylpropanoid pathway in plants is responsible for the biosynthesis of a huge amount of secondary metabolites derived from phenylalanine and tyrosine. Both flavonoids and lignins are synthesized at the end of this very diverse metabolic pathway, as well as many intermediate molecules whose precise biological functions remain largely unknown. The diversity of these molecules can be further increased under the action of UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) leading to the production of glycosylated hydroxycinnamates and related aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Glycosylation can change phenylpropanoid solubility, stability and toxic potential, as well as influencing compartmentalization and biological activity. (De)-glycosylation therefore represents an extremely important regulation point in phenylpropanoid homeostasis. In this article we review recent knowledge on the enzymes involved in regulating phenylpropanoid glycosylation status and availability in different subcellular compartments. We also examine the potential link between monolignol glycosylation and lignification by exploring co-expression of lignin biosynthesis genes and phenolic (de)glycosylation genes. Of the different biological roles linked with their particular chemical properties, phenylpropanoids are often correlated with the plant's stress management strategies that are also regulated by glycosylation. UGTs can for instance influence the resistance of plants during infection by microorganisms and be involved in the mechanisms related to environmental changes. The impact of flavonoid glycosylation on the color of flowers, leaves, seeds and fruits will also be discussed. Altogether this paper underlies the fact that glycosylation and deglycosylation are powerful mechanisms allowing plants to regulate phenylpropanoid localisation, availability and biological activity. PMID:27303427

  4. Antifungal activity of Brazilian medicinal plants involved in popular treatment of mycoses.

    PubMed

    Cruz, M C S; Santos, P O; Barbosa, A M; de Mélo, D L F M; Alviano, C S; Antoniolli, A R; Alviano, D S; Trindade, R C

    2007-05-04

    A survey of medicinal plants used to treat common mycoses was done in the Curituba district, Sergipe State, Brazil. One hundred inhabitants were interviewed by health agents and traditional healers. Four different plants were the most cited (more than 50% of the citations): Ziziphus joazeiro, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Bumelia sartorum and Hymenea courbaril. The aqueous extracts obtained following traditional methods and using different parts of these plants, were submitted to drop agar diffusion tests for primary antimicrobial screening. Only the water infusion extract of Ziziphus joazeiro and Caesalpinea pyramidalis presented a significant antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Candida guilliermondii, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Fonsecaea pedrosoi, when compared to the antifungal agent amphotericin B. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the bioactive extracts was evaluated by the microdilution method. Best activity with a MIC of 6.5 microg/ml for both extracts was observed against Trichophyton rubrum and Candida guilliermondii. Ziziphus joazeiro and Caesalpinea pyramidalis extracts presented also low acute toxicity in murine models. The present study validates the folk use of these plant extracts and indicates that they can be effective potential candidates for the development of new strategies to treat fungal infections.

  5. Ethnobotanical survey and antibacterial activity of some plants used in Guinean traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Magassouba, F B; Diallo, A; Kouyaté, M; Mara, F; Mara, O; Bangoura, O; Camara, A; Traoré, S; Diallo, A K; Zaoro, M; Lamah, K; Diallo, S; Camara, G; Traoré, S; Kéita, A; Camara, M K; Barry, R; Kéita, S; Oularé, K; Barry, M S; Donzo, M; Camara, K; Toté, K; Berghe, D Vanden; Totté, J; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J; Baldé, A M

    2007-10-08

    A total of 418 healers have been interviewed in Guinea, a coastal country of West Africa, ranging between 7 degrees 30 and 12 degrees 30 of northern latitude and 8 degrees and 15 degrees of western longitude. Plant species used by the local inhabitants to treat infectious diseases were identified using ethnobotanical, ethnographic and taxonomic methods. During these investigations, 218 plants were registered, of which the following were the most frequently used: Erythrina senegalensis, Bridelia ferruginea, Crossopteryx febrifuga, Ximenia americana, Annona senegalensis, Cochlospermum tinctorium, Cochlospermum planchonii, Lantana camara, Costus afer, Psidium guajava, Terminalia glaucescens, Uapaca somon and Swartzia madagascariensis. Most plants, and especially the leaves, were essentially used as a decoction. In order to assess antibacterial activity, 190 recipes were prepared and biologically tested, among which six showed activity (minimal inhibitory concentration<125 microg/ml) against Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Staphylococcus aureus, or Candida albicans, i.e., Entada africana, Chlorophora regia, Erythrina senegalensis, Harrisonia abyssinica, Uvaria tomentosa, and a mixture of six plants consisting of Swartzia madagascariensis, Isoberlinia doka, Annona senegalensis, Gardenia ternifolia, Terminalia glaucescens and Erythrina senegalensis.

  6. Inventions on baker's yeast storage and activation at the bakery plant.

    PubMed

    Gélinas, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Baker's yeast is the gas-forming ingredient in bakery products. Methods have been invented to properly handle baker's yeast and optimize its activity at the bakery plant. Over the years, incentives for inventions on yeast storage and activation have greatly changed depending on trends in the baking industry. For example, retailer's devices for cutting bulk pressed yeast and techniques for activating dry yeast have now lost their importance. Review of patents for invention indicates that activation of baker's yeast activity has been a very important issue for bakers, for example, with baking ingredients called yeast foods. In the recent years and especially for highly automated bakeries, interest has moved to equipments and processes for optimized storage of liquid cream yeast to thoroughly control dough fermentation and bread quality.

  7. Screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of selected plants from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Jukic, Mila; Burcul, Franko; Carev, Ivana; Politeo, Olivera; Milos, Mladen

    2012-01-01

    The methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of selected Croatian plants were tested for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and antioxidant activity. Assessment of AChE inhibition was carried out using microplate reader at 1 mg mL⁻¹. Antioxidant capacities were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenol content (TPC) of extracts were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Out of 48 extracts, only methanolic extract of the Salix alba L. cortex exerted modest activity towards AChE, reaching 50.80% inhibition at concentration of 1 mg mL⁻¹. All the other samples tested had activity below 20%. The same extract performed the best antioxidative activity using DPPH and FRAP method, too. In essence, among all extracts used in the screening, methanolic extracts showed the best antioxidative activity as well as highest TPC.

  8. Plants as sources of airborne bacteria, including ice nucleation-active bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, J; Constantinidou, H A; Barchet, W R; Upper, C D

    1982-11-01

    Vertical wind shear and concentration gradients of viable, airborne bacteria were used to calculate the upward flux of viable cells above bare soil and canopies of several crops. Concentrations at soil or canopy height varied from 46 colony-forming units per m over young corn and wet soil to 663 colony-forming units per m over dry soil and 6,500 colony-forming units per m over a closed wheat canopy. In simultaneous samples, concentrations of viable bacteria in the air 10 m inside an alfalfa field were fourfold higher than those over a field with dry, bare soil immediately upwind. The upward flux of viable bacteria over alfalfa was three- to fourfold greater than over dry soil. Concentrations of ice nucleation-active bacteria were higher over plants than over soil. Thus, plant canopies may constitute a major source of bacteria, including ice nucleation-active bacteria, in the air.

  9. Antisecretory activity of plants used to treat gastrointestinal disorders in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Claudia; Calzada, Fernando; Torres, Javier; González, Felipe; Ceballos, Guillermo

    2006-01-03

    Aqueous and methanolic extracts from 26 medicinal plants used in Mexico to treat gastrointestinal disorders were screened to evaluate their antisecretory activity on cholera toxin-induced intestinal secretion in rat jejunal loops model. Extracts were tested at a dose of 300 mg/kg. From 56 samples tested, both extracts from Chiranthodendron pentadactylon, Hippocratea excelsa and Ocimum basilicum were the most potent with inhibition values ranging from 68.0 to 87.6%. On the other hand, the methanolic extract of Geranium mexicanum (aerial parts) and the aqueous extract of Bocconia frutescens showed the highest activity with inhibition values of 93.4 and 86.0%, respectively. The results obtained in this study give some scientific support to the use of the Mexican medicinal plants employed for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea.

  10. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of 10 medicinal plants used in northeast Mexico.

    PubMed

    Molina-Garza, Zinnia Judith; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, Aldo Fabio; Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Galaviz-Silva, Lucio

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to screen the trypanocidal activity of plants used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of various diseases related to parasitic infections. Cultured Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were incubated for 96h with different concentrations of methanolic extracts obtained from Artemisia mexicana, Castela texana, Cymbopogon citratus, Eryngium heterophyllum, Haematoxylum brasiletto, Lippia graveolens, Marrubium vulgare, Persea americana, Ruta chalepensis and Schinus molle. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined for each extract via a colorimetric method. Among the evaluated species, the methanolic extracts of E. heterophyllum, H. brasiletto, M. vulgare and S. molle exhibited the highest trypanocidal activity, showing percentages of growth inhibition between 88 and 100% at a concentration of 150μg/ml. These medicinal plants may represent a valuable source of new bioactive compounds for the therapeutic treatment of trypanosomiasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antitumour and antimicrobial activities of endophytic streptomycetes from pharmaceutical plants in rainforest.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Zhao, G-Z; Chen, H-H; Wang, H-B; Qin, S; Zhu, W-Y; Xu, L-H; Jiang, C-L; Li, W-J

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to screen antitumour and antimicrobial activities of endophytic actinomycetes isolated from pharmaceutical plants in rainforest in Yunnan province, China. Antitumour activity was studied by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and antimicrobial activity was determined by agar well diffusion method. The high bioactive endophytic isolates were identified and further investigated for the presence of polyketide synthases (PKS-I, PKS-II) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) sequences by specific amplification. The molecular identification confirmed that the 41 isolates showed significant activities were members of the genus Streptomyces. Among them, 31.7% of endophytic streptomycete cultures were cytotoxic against A549 cells, 29.3% against HL-60 cells, 85.4% against BEL-7404 cells, 90.2% against P388D1 cells, 65.9% were active against Escherichia coli, 24.4% against Staphylococcus aureus, 31.7% against Staphylococcus epidermidis, 12.2% against Candida albicans and no strain displayed antagonistic activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae. High frequencies of positive PCR amplification were obtained for PKS-I (34.1%), PKS-II (63.4%) and NRPS (61.0%) biosynthetic systems. Many endophytic streptomycetes isolated from pharmaceutical plants in rainforest possess remarkable and diverse antitumour and antimicrobial bioactivities. These endophytic streptomycetes are precious resources obtained from rainforests, and they could be a promising source for bioactive agents.

  12. Biological activity of Myrtaceae plant essential oils and their major components against Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Jang, Miyeon; Kim, Junheon; Yoon, Kyungjae Andrew; Lee, Si Hyeock; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2017-02-01

    The spotted-wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), is a globally invasive and serious pest of numerous soft-skinned fruit crops. Assessments were made of fumigant and contact toxicities of 12 Myrtaceae plant essential oils (EOs) and their components. For determining the mode of action of major components of active EOs, their activities against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Glutathione S-transferase (GST) were also assessed. Strong fumigant and contact toxicities were observed from EOs of Eucalyptus citriodora and Melaleuca teretifolia. The main components of E. citriodora were citronellal and isopulegol, whereas those of M. teretifolia were neral and geranial. Geranial showed the strongest fumigant activity, followed by citronellal or neral, M. teretifolia EO, isopulegol and E. citriodora EO. In contact toxicity assays, geranial also exhibited the strongest insecticidal activity, followed by neral or M. teretifolia EO, citronellol, citronellal, isopulegol and E. citriodora EO. Among the major components, all compounds showed low AChE inhibitory activity, while neral and geranial showed GST inhibitory activity against SWD. Myrtaceae plant EOs and their components have an excellent potential for being used in the control of SWD adults and could be useful in the development of more effective natural compounds as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Antibacterial activity of some African medicinal plants used traditionally against infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Madureira, Ana M; Ramalhete, Cátia; Mulhovo, Silva; Duarte, Aida; Ferreira, Maria-José U

    2012-04-01

    Plants are known to play a crucial role in African traditional medicine for the treatment of infection diseases. To investigate the claimed antimicrobial properties of plants traditionally used in African countries, providing scientific validation for their use. Eighty-three polar and non-polar extracts from 22 medicinal plants were screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and Mycobacterium smegmatis using the broth microdilution method. In vitro antibacterial activity against one or more tested bacteria was shown by 83% of the extracts. The highest activity was obtained with the methanol extracts of the aerial parts of Acacia karroo Hayne (Fabaceae) and Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae) and the roots of Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol (Euphorbiaceae), against S. aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 7.5 µg/mL). The same MIC values were exhibited against E. faecalis by the methanol extract of A. occidentale, the dichloromethane and methanol extracts of B. cathartica and the ethyl acetate extract of Momordica balsamina l. (Curcubitaceae) leaves. Gram-negative bacteria were less sensitive; the growth of P. aeruginosa was significantly inhibited (MIC = 31 µg/mL) by the n-hexane and methanol extracts of Gomphocarpus fruticosus (l.) Ait. (Asclepiadaceae) fruits and by the dichloromethane extract of Trichilia emetica Vahl (Meliaceae) seeds. Most of the active extracts were rich in fenols/flavonoids. This study supports the use of most of the studied plants in traditional medicine, for the treatment of infectious diseases. Some of them are worthy of further investigation.

  14. Trypanocidal activity of a new pterocarpan and other secondary metabolites of plants from Northeastern Brazil flora.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Nashira Campos; Espíndola, Laila Salmen; Santana, Jaime Martins; Veras, Maria Leopoldina; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia Loiola; Pinheiro, Sávio Moita; de Araújo, Renata Mendonça; Lima, Mary Anne Sousa; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha

    2008-02-15

    Two hundred fifteen compounds isolated from plants of Northeastern Brazil flora have been assayed against epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, using the tetrazolium salt MTT as an alternative method. Eight compounds belonging to four different species: Harpalyce brasiliana (Fabaceae), Acnistus arborescens and Physalis angulata (Solanaceae), and Cordia globosa (Boraginaceae) showed significant activity. Among them, a novel and a known pterocarpan, a chalcone, four withasteroids, and a meroterpene benzoquinone were the represented chemical classes.

  15. In vitro antimalarial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Bagavan, Asokan; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Sahal, Dinkar

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is a major global public health problem, and the alarming spread of drug resistance and limited number of effective drugs now available underline how important it is to discover new antimalarial compounds. In the present study, ten plants were extracted with ethyl acetate and methanol and tested for their antimalarial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (3D7) and CQ-resistant (Dd2 and INDO) strains of Plasmodium falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green assay. Plant extracts showed moderate to good antiparasitic effects. Promising antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts from two plants, Phyllanthus emblica leaf 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) 3D7: 7.25 μg/mL (ethyl acetate extract), 3.125 μg/mL (methanol extract), and Syzygium aromaticum flower bud, IC₅₀ 3D7:13 μg/mL, (ethyl acetate extract) and 6.25 μg/mL (methanol extract). Moderate activity (30-75 μg/mL) was found in the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Abrus precatorius (seed) and Gloriosa superba (leaf); leaf ethyl acetate extracts of Annona squamosa and flower of Musa paradisiaca. The above mentioned plant extracts were also found to be active against CQ-resistant strains (Dd2 and INDO). Cytotoxicity study with P. emblica leaf and S. aromaticum flower bud, extracts showed good therapeutic indices. These results demonstrate that leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of P. emblica and flower bud extract of S. aromaticum may serve as antimalarial agents even in their crude form. The isolation of compounds from P. emblica and S. aromaticum seems to be of special interest for further antimalarial studies.

  16. Anti-tubercular activity of eleven aromatic and medicinal plants occurring in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Bueno-Sánchez, Juan Gabriel; Martínez-Morales, Jairo René; Stashenko, Elena E; Ribón, Wellman

    2009-03-01

    Human tuberculosis is a contagious-infectious disease mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although regimens exist for treating tuberculosis, they are far from ideal. Development of effective strategies for treatment of human tuberculosis has posed a challenge, considering the increase in infections associated with the human immunodeficiency virus and immunocompromised patients. Essential oils--volatile, aromatic oil extracts from plants--have been used in traditional treatment of many diseases; however careful investigation of these oils has not been undertaken with respect to treatments of tuberculosis. The in vitro antitubercular activity of essential oils from 11 medicinal plants grown in Colombia were assessed for efficacy as new medications (phytomedicines) for treatment of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Essential oil extraction and analysis were performed as described Stashenko et al. (2004). Minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined by a colorimetric macrodilution method, following the protocol described by Abate et al. (1998). Isoniazide and rifampin were used as control treatments. Bactericidal and bacteriostatic activity was measured using the method developed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute consigned in the M26-A protocol. Essential oils from Achyrocline alata and Swinglea glutinosa were the most active with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 62.5 +/- 0.1 and 100 +/- 36 microg ml(-1), respectively. Carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, 1,8-cineole, limonene, and beta-pinene were the major components, most often identified in the 11 plant extracts of essential oils. Time-kill curve assays demonstrated the bacteriostatic activity of these essential oils. The essential oils from A. alata and S. glutinosa plants, and the components identified therein, are candidates as potential phytotherapeutic agents for human tuberculosis control.

  17. Spatial distribution of enzyme activities along the root and in the rhizosphere of different plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Bahar S.; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Extracellular enzymes are important for decomposition of many biological macromolecules abundant in soil such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and proteins. Activities of enzymes produced by both plant roots and microbes are the primary biological drivers of organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. So far acquisition of in situ data about local activity of different enzymes in soil has been challenged. That is why there is an urgent need in spatially explicit methods such as 2-D zymography to determine the variation of enzymes along the roots in different plants. Here, we developed further the zymography technique in order to quantitatively visualize the enzyme activities (Spohn and Kuzyakov, 2013), with a better spatial resolution We grew Maize (Zea mays L.) and Lentil (Lens culinaris) in rhizoboxes under optimum conditions for 21 days to study spatial distribution of enzyme activity in soil and along roots. We visualized the 2D distribution of the activity of three enzymes:β-glucosidase, leucine amino peptidase and phosphatase, using fluorogenically labelled substrates. Spatial resolution of fluorescent images was improved by direct application of a substrate saturated membrane to the soil-root system. The newly-developed direct zymography shows different pattern of spatial distribution of enzyme activity along roots and soil of different plants. We observed a uniform distribution of enzyme activities along the root system of Lentil. However, root system of Maize demonstrated inhomogeneity of enzyme activities. The apical part of an individual root (root tip) in maize showed the highest activity. The activity of all enzymes was the highest at vicinity of the roots and it decreased towards the bulk soil. Spatial patterns of enzyme activities as a function of distance from the root surface were enzyme specific, with highest extension for phosphatase. We conclude that improved zymography is promising in situ technique to analyze, visualize and quantify

  18. In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of some traditionally used medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Venkatesalu, V; Gopalan, N; Pillai, C R; Singh, Vineeta; Chandrasekaran, M; Senthilkumar, A; Chandramouli, N

    2012-07-01

    The anti-plasmodial activity of different solvent extracts of Adhatoda vasica (root), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), Carica papaya (pulp), Erythroxylum monogynum (leaf), Lantana camara (whole plant), Ocimum sanctum (root) and Phyllanthus niruri (whole plant) were studied against Plasmodium falciparum. Of the 35 extracts tested, seven extracts showed good anti-plasmodial activity. Methanol extract of C. pulcherrima showed the lowest IC50 value (10.96 μg/mL) followed by methanol extract of A. vasica (IC(50)=11.1 μg/mL), chloroform extract of O. sanctum (IC(50)=11.47 μg/mL), methanol extract of E. monogynum (IC(50)=12.23 μg/mL), acetone extract of C. pulcherrima (IC(50)=12.49 μg/mL), methanol extract of O. sanctum and acetone extract of A. vasica (IC(50)=14.04 μg/mL). The results of the present study justify the use of these medicinal plants in traditional practice, and also, a further study on the isolation of anti-plasmodial molecules from their active crude extracts is in progress.

  19. Presence and transcriptional activity of anaerobic fungi in agricultural biogas plants.

    PubMed

    Dollhofer, Veronika; Callaghan, Tony M; Griffith, Gareth W; Lebuhn, Michael; Bauer, Johann

    2017-07-01

    Bioaugmentation with anaerobic fungi (AF) is promising for improved biogas generation from lignocelluloses-rich substrates. However, before implementing AF into biogas processes it is necessary to investigate their natural occurrence, community structure and transcriptional activity in agricultural biogas plants. Thus, AF were detected with three specific PCR based methods: (i) Copies of their 18S genes were found in 7 of 10 biogas plants. (ii) Transcripts of a GH5 endoglucanase gene were present at low level in two digesters, indicating transcriptional cellulolytic activity of AF. (iii) Phylogeny of the AF-community was inferred with the 28S gene. A new Piromyces species was isolated from a PCR-positive digester. Evidence for AF was only found in biogas plants operated with high proportions of animal feces. Thus, AF were most likely transferred into digesters with animal derived substrates. Additionally, high process temperatures in combination with long retention times seemed to impede AF survival and activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of wheat and Miscanthus straw biochars on soil enzymatic activity, ecotoxicity, and plant yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierzwa-Hersztek, Monika; Gondek, Krzysztof; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka; Baran, Agnieszka

    2017-07-01

    The variety of technological conditions and raw materials from which biochar is produced is the reason why its soil application may have different effects on soil properties and plant growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of wheat straw and Miscanthus giganteus straw (5 t DM ha-1) and biochar obtained from this materials in doses of 2.25 and 5 t DM ha-1 on soil enzymatic activity, soil ecotoxicity, and plant yield (perennial grass mixture with red clover). The research was carried out under field conditions on soil with the granulometric composition of loamy sand. No significant effect of biochar amendment on soil enzymatic activity was observed. The biochar-amended soil was toxic to Vibrio fischeri and exhibited low toxicity to Heterocypris incongruens. Application of wheat straw biochar and M. giganteus straw biochar in a dose of 5 t DM ha-1 contributed to an increase in plant biomass production by 2 and 14%, respectively, compared to the soil with mineral fertilisation. Biochars had a more adverse effect on soil enzymatic activity and soil ecotoxicity to H. incongruens and V. fischeri than non-converted wheat straw and M. giganteus straw, but significantly increased the grass crop yield.

  1. Deposition of fission and activation products after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Shozugawa, Katsumi; Nogawa, Norio; Matsuo, Motoyuki

    2012-04-01

    The Great Eastern Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, damaged reactor cooling systems at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The subsequent venting operation and hydrogen explosion resulted in a large radioactive nuclide emission from reactor containers into the environment. Here, we collected environmental samples such as soil, plant species, and water on April 10, 2011, in front of the power plant main gate as well as 35 km away in Iitate village, and observed gamma-rays with a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector. We observed activation products ((239)Np and (59)Fe) and fission products ((131)I, (134)Cs ((133)Cs), (137)Cs, (110m)Ag ((109)Ag), (132)Te, (132)I, (140)Ba, (140)La, (91)Sr, (91)Y, (95)Zr, and (95)Nb). (239)Np is the parent nuclide of (239)Pu; (59)Fe are presumably activation products of (58)Fe obtained by corrosion of cooling pipes. The results show that these activation and fission products, diffused within a month of the accident. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluating sedimentation problems in activated sludge treatment plants operating at complete sludge retention time.

    PubMed

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Pekridis, George; Taousanidis, Nikolaos

    2015-02-01

    Zero net sludge growth can be achieved by complete retention of solids in activated sludge wastewater treatment, especially in high strength and biodegradable wastewaters. When increasing the solids retention time, MLSS and MLVSS concentrations reach a plateau phase and observed growth yields values tend to zero (Yobs ≈ 0). In this work, in order to evaluate sedimentation problems arised due to high MLSS concentrations and complete sludge retention operational conditions, two identical innovative slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plants were studied. Measurements of wastewaters' quality characteristics, treatment plant's operational conditions, sludge microscopic analysis and state point analysis were conducted. Results have shown that low COD/Nitrogen ratios increase sludge bulking and flotation phenomena due to accidental denitrification in clarifiers. High return activated sludge rate is essential in complete retention systems as it reduces sludge condensation and hydraulic retention time in the clarifiers. Under certain operational conditions sludge loading rates can greatly exceed literature limit values. The presented methodology is a useful tool for estimation of sedimentation problems encountered in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants with complete retention time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of crude extracts from Togolese medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Koudouvo, Koffi; Karou, Simplice D; Ilboudo, Denise P; Kokou, Kouami; Essien, Kodjo; Aklikokou, Kodjo; de Souza, Comlan; Simpore, Jacques; Gbéassor, Mensavi

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the antimalarial effect of a few plants in Togo folk medicine. After ethnobotanical survey, Opilia celtidifolia, Pavetta corymbosa (P. corymbosa) and Tamarindus indica (T. indica) were selected for screening. In vitro antimalarial tests were performed on crude extracts against fresh clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum using the semi microtest. Different IC(50) values of the extracts ranged from 2.042 to 100.000 μg/mL. According to the results, the methanol extract of aerial part of P. corymbosa followed by aqueous extract of fruit of T. indica were the most active (IC(50) of 2.042 and 4.786 μg/mL, respectively). Qualitative test revealed the presence of alkaloids in the leaves of P. corymbosa that may be responsible for the activity of the plant. Our study provides scientific evidence for usage of plant in the folk medicine, and further studies are needed for identification and purification of the active principles. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Large scale screening of commonly used Iranian traditional medicinal plants against urease activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study H. pylori infection is an important etiologic impetus usually leading to gastric disease and urease enzyme is the most crucial role is to protect the bacteria in the acidic environment of the stomach. Then urease inhibitors would increase sensitivity of the bacteria in acidic medium. Methods 137 Iranian traditional medicinal plants were examined against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction. Each herb was extracted using 50% aqueous methanol. The more effective extracts were further tested and their IC50 values were determined. Results 37 plants out of the 137 crude extracts revealed strong urease inhibitory activity (more than 70% inhibition against urease activity at 10 mg/ml concentration). Nine of the whole studied plants crude extracts were found as the most effective with IC50 values less than 500 μg/ml including; Rheum ribes, Sambucus ebulus, Pistachia lentiscus, Myrtus communis, Areca catechu, Citrus aurantifolia, Myristica fragrans, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Nicotiana tabacum. Conclusions The most potent urease inhibitory was observed for Sambucus ebulus and Rheum ribes extracts with IC50 values of 57 and 92 μg/ml, respectively. PMID:23351780

  5. Antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of plant seed extracts from Brazilian semiarid region.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (-) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 μ g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51 μ g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay.

  6. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (−) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 μg/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51 μg/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay. PMID:24386637

  7. [THE INFLUENCE OF LEU-ENKEPHALIN AND MEDICAL PLANTS ON MOTOR ACTIVITY OF STOMACH IN DOGS].

    PubMed

    Vymjatnina, Z K; Prosekina, E Y; Tomova, T A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the real research was a study influence of leu-enkephalin and extracts from the leaves of goose-grass large, of burdock of felted and root of chicory on the motor function of stomach for dogs. The study was carried out on 6 outbred dogs-males, by mass 14-17 kg, with the fistula of stomach by Basov. A leu-enkephalin ("Vector", Russia) was entered intravenously in a dose 7 mcg/kg. The corresponding plant-based preparations entered perorally during 10-14 days to beginning of experiments, on an empty stomach, in a volume a no more than 20 ml. Experiments put in a morning clock, in 16-18 hours after eating, after the careful washing of stomach. For 30 mines to the record of motive activity of stomach an animal was enter a peptide or gave a corresponding extract as water or spirit infusion. At the choice of doses of vegetable preparations came from the before obtained data about the antiulcerous action of the used plants. The conduct of peptide rendered considerable stimulant influence on motor activity of stomach, that was expressed in the increase of period of work and increase of force of reductions especially tonic. All used plants preparations rendered modulating influence on motive activity of stomach. Changes consisted in strengthening of tonic and oppressing of phase component. The most considerable decline of amount of phase reductions caused application of extract of goose-grass. Not only an amount but also force of phase reductions diminished thus. An extract from the root of chicory less considerably reduced the arnount of Phase reJuctions, but here substantially increased their force. All used herbal medicines stimulated tonic activity. Thus, peptide and all studied herbal medicines stimulated motion activity of the stomach that could cause acceleration of evacuation of food to duodenum. Such effect should be considered while choosing the medicine for correction of stomach functional activity.

  8. Antimicrobial, antiplasmodial, haemolytic and antioxidant activities of crude extracts from three selected Togolese medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Karou, Simplice D; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Ouattara, Lassina; Anani, Kokou; Savadogo, Aly; Agbonon, Amegnona; Attaia, Mossaclok Ben; de Souza, Comlan; Sakly, Mohsen; Simpore, Jacques

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiplasmodial, acute toxicity and haemolytic activities of methanolic extracts of three plants. Phytochemical analysis to determine the phenolic contents was also carried out. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, NCCLS broth microdilution and Plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase (pLDH) assays were used to determine antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiplasmodial activities, respectively. Haemolysis assay was conducted on A(+) human red blood cells and acute toxicity on male Swiss albino mice. Phenolics were quantitatively determined using spectrophotometric methods. The DPPH assay yielded interesting antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Parinari curatellifolia (P. curatellifolia) and Entada africana (E. africana) (IC(50) were 0.20±0.01 μg/mL and 0.47±0.01 μg/mL, respectively). This activity was highly correlated with phenolic contents of extracts. The antimicrobial tests displayed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) values ranging from 0.90 to 1.80 mg/mL for Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) the most susceptible bacterial strain. MIC value was 1.20 mg/mL for susceptible fungal strains including Mucor rouxi (M. rouxi), Fusarium oxyporum (F. oxyporum) and Rhizopus nigricans (R. nigricans). pLDH assay showed moderate antiplasmodial activity of Balanites aegyptiaca (B. aegyptiaca) (IC(50) = 24.56±3.45 μg/mL), however this extract was highly haemolytic and toxic in mice (LD(50) = 625±128 mg/kg). Our results support in part the use of the selected plants in the treatment of microbial infections. In addition the plant showed interesting antioxidant activity that could be useful in the management of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional genomics of bio-energy plants and related patent activities.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shu-Ye; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-04-01

    With dwindling fossil oil resources and increased economic growth of many developing countries due to globalization, energy driven from an alternative source such as bio-energy in a sustainable fashion is the need of the hour. However, production of energy from biological source is relatively expensive due to low starch and sugar contents of bioenergy plants leading to lower oil yield and reduced quality along with lower conversion efficiency of feedstock. In this context genetic improvement of bio-energy plants offers a viable solution. In this manuscript, we reviewed the current status of functional genomics studies and related patent activities in bio-energy plants. Currently, genomes of considerable bio-energy plants have been sequenced or are in progress and also large amount of expression sequence tags (EST) or cDNA sequences are available from them. These studies provide fundamental data for more reliable genome annotation and as a result, several genomes have been annotated in a genome-wide level. In addition to this effort, various mutagenesis tools have also been employed to develop mutant populations for characterization of genes that are involved in bioenergy quantitative traits. With the progress made on functional genomics of important bio-energy plants, more patents were filed with a significant number of them focusing on genes and DNA sequences which may involve in improvement of bio-energy traits including higher yield and quality of starch, sugar and oil. We also believe that these studies will lead to the generation of genetically altered plants with improved tolerance to various abiotic and biotic stresses.

  10. Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Attanayake, Anoja P.; Jayatilaka, Kamani A. P. W.; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini K. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus, for a long time, has been treated with plant derived medicines in Sri Lanka. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and dose response of oral antihyperglycaemic activity of eight Sri Lankan medicinal plant extracts, which are used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Medicinal plants selected for the study on the basis of documented effectiveness and wide use among traditional Ayurveda physicians in the Southern region of Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of different doses of aqueous stem bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Kokoona zeylanica (Celastraceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae), aerial part extracts of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae), Sida alnifolia (Malvaceae), leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) and root extract of Languas galanga (Zingiberaceae) on oral glucose tolerance test was evaluated. A single dose of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 2.00 g/kg of plant extract was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, ip) diabetic Wistar rats (n = 6). Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The acute effect was evaluated over a 4 h period using area under the oral glucose tolerance curve. Statistical Analysis: The results were evaluated by analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: The eight plant extracts showed statistically significant dose dependent improvement on glucose tolerance (P < 0.05). The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for six extracts was found to be 1.00 g/kg in diabetic rats with the exception of C. grandis: 0.75 g/kg and L. galanga: 1.25 g/kg. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats. PMID:24991066

  11. Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Attanayake, Anoja P; Jayatilaka, Kamani A P W; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini K B

    2013-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus, for a long time, has been treated with plant derived medicines in Sri Lanka. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and dose response of oral antihyperglycaemic activity of eight Sri Lankan medicinal plant extracts, which are used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine in diabetic rats. Medicinal plants selected for the study on the basis of documented effectiveness and wide use among traditional Ayurveda physicians in the Southern region of Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of different doses of aqueous stem bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Kokoona zeylanica (Celastraceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae), aerial part extracts of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae), Sida alnifolia (Malvaceae), leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) and root extract of Languas galanga (Zingiberaceae) on oral glucose tolerance test was evaluated. A single dose of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 2.00 g/kg of plant extract was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, ip) diabetic Wistar rats (n = 6). Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The acute effect was evaluated over a 4 h period using area under the oral glucose tolerance curve. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. The eight plant extracts showed statistically significant dose dependent improvement on glucose tolerance (P < 0.05). The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for six extracts was found to be 1.00 g/kg in diabetic rats with the exception of C. grandis: 0.75 g/kg and L. galanga: 1.25 g/kg. The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  12. NH4 + protects tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae by activation of systemic acquired acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Crespo, Emma; Scalschi, Loredana; Llorens, Eugenio; García-Agustín, Pilar; Camañes, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    NH4 + nutrition provokes mild toxicity by enhancing H2O2 accumulation, which acts as a signal activating systemic acquired acclimation (SAA). Until now, induced resistance mechanisms in response to an abiotic stimulus and related to SAA were only reported for exposure to a subsequent abiotic stress. Herein, the first evidence is provided that this acclimation to an abiotic stimulus induces resistance to later pathogen infection, since NH4 + nutrition (N-NH4 +)-induced resistance (NH4 +-IR) against Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst) in tomato plants was demonstrated. N-NH4 + plants displayed basal H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA), and putrescine (Put) accumulation. H2O2 accumulation acted as a signal to induce ABA-dependent signalling pathways required to prevent NH4 + toxicity. This acclimatory event provoked an increase in resistance against later pathogen infection. N-NH4 + plants displayed basal stomatal closure produced by H2O2 derived from enhanced CuAO and rboh1 activity that may reduce the entry of bacteria into the mesophyll, diminishing the disease symptoms as well as strongly inducing the oxidative burst upon Pst infection, favouring NH4 +-IR. Experiments with inhibitors of Put accumulation and the ABA-deficient mutant flacca demonstrated that Put and ABA downstream signalling pathways are required to complete NH4 +-IR. The metabolic profile revealed that infected N-NH4 + plants showed greater ferulic acid accumulation compared with control plants. Although classical salicylic acid (SA)-dependent responses against biotrophic pathogens were not found, the important role of Put in the resistance of tomato against Pst was demonstrated. Moreover, this work revealed the cross-talk between abiotic stress acclimation (NH4 + nutrition) and resistance to subsequent Pst infection. PMID:26246613

  13. NH4+ protects tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae by activation of systemic acquired acclimation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Crespo, Emma; Scalschi, Loredana; Llorens, Eugenio; García-Agustín, Pilar; Camañes, Gemma

    2015-11-01

    NH4 (+) nutrition provokes mild toxicity by enhancing H2O2 accumulation, which acts as a signal activating systemic acquired acclimation (SAA). Until now, induced resistance mechanisms in response to an abiotic stimulus and related to SAA were only reported for exposure to a subsequent abiotic stress. Herein, the first evidence is provided that this acclimation to an abiotic stimulus induces resistance to later pathogen infection, since NH4 (+) nutrition (N-NH4 (+))-induced resistance (NH4 (+)-IR) against Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst) in tomato plants was demonstrated. N-NH4 (+) plants displayed basal H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA), and putrescine (Put) accumulation. H2O2 accumulation acted as a signal to induce ABA-dependent signalling pathways required to prevent NH4 (+) toxicity. This acclimatory event provoked an increase in resistance against later pathogen infection. N-NH4 (+) plants displayed basal stomatal closure produced by H2O2 derived from enhanced CuAO and rboh1 activity that may reduce the entry of bacteria into the mesophyll, diminishing the disease symptoms as well as strongly inducing the oxidative burst upon Pst infection, favouring NH4 (+)-IR. Experiments with inhibitors of Put accumulation and the ABA-deficient mutant flacca demonstrated that Put and ABA downstream signalling pathways are required to complete NH4 (+)-IR. The metabolic profile revealed that infected N-NH4 (+) plants showed greater ferulic acid accumulation compared with control plants. Although classical salicylic acid (SA)-dependent responses against biotrophic pathogens were not found, the important role of Put in the resistance of tomato against Pst was demonstrated. Moreover, this work revealed the cross-talk between abiotic stress acclimation (NH4 (+) nutrition) and resistance to subsequent Pst infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

    2008-01-01

    Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060

  15. The Mechanisms and Effects of the Plant Activation of Chemicals in the Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-02

    amino- Uilich et al., 1973; Raz- fluorene-N-hydroxylase. zouk et al., 1980 * Did not inhibit the TXI cell activation of m-PDA, howev- Wagner et al...P450 in mammals and Goujon et al., 1972, Car- yeast. Inhibited 2-AF hydroxylase. ratore et al., 1986; Raz- zouk et al., 1980 i Did not inhibit the TXI...Activation of 2-aminofluorene by cultured plant cells. Science 219:1427-1429 Poulsen LL, R.M. Hyslop , D.M. Ziegler. 1974. S-oxidation of

  16. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling in Plant-Interacting Fungi: Distinct Messages from Conserved Messengers[W

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Louis-Philippe; Nicole, Marie-Claude; Duplessis, Sébastien; Ellis, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are evolutionarily conserved proteins that function as key signal transduction components in fungi, plants, and mammals. During interaction between phytopathogenic fungi and plants, fungal MAPKs help to promote mechanical and/or enzymatic penetration of host tissues, while plant MAPKs are required for activation of plant immunity. However, new insights suggest that MAPK cascades in both organisms do not operate independently but that they mutually contribute to a highly interconnected molecular dialogue between the plant and the fungus. As a result, some pathogenesis-related processes controlled by fungal MAPKs lead to the activation of plant signaling, including the recruitment of plant MAPK cascades. Conversely, plant MAPKs promote defense mechanisms that threaten the survival of fungal cells, leading to a stress response mediated in part by fungal MAPK cascades. In this review, we make use of the genomic data available following completion of whole-genome sequencing projects to analyze the structure of MAPK protein families in 24 fungal taxa, including both plant pathogens and mycorrhizal symbionts. Based on conserved patterns of sequence diversification, we also propose the adoption of a unified fungal MAPK nomenclature derived from that established for the model species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Finally, we summarize current knowledge of the functions of MAPK cascades in phytopathogenic fungi and highlight the central role played by MAPK signaling during the molecular dialogue between plants and invading fungal pathogens. PMID:22517321

  17. The in-vitro antimicrobial activities of some medicinal plants from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Gangoué-Piéboji, J; Pegnyemb, D E; Niyitegeka, D; Nsangou, A; Eze, N; Minyem, C; Mbing, J Ngo; Ngassam, P; Tih, R Ghogomu; Sodengam, B L; Bodo, B

    2006-04-01

    The antimicrobial activities of 10 plant species (Voacanga africana, Crepis cameroonica, Plagiostyles africana, Crotalaria retusa, Mammea africana, Lophira lanceolata, Ochna afzelii, Ouratea elongata, Ou. flava and Ou. sulcata), each of which is currently used in the traditional medicine of Cameroon, were investigated in vitro. The activities of a methanol extract of each plant were tested, in disc-diffusion assays, against 37 reference or laboratory strains of seven species of microorganism (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans). The minimal inhibitory concentrations of each extract were then estimated, against each of the more susceptible microorganisms (i.e. those giving an inhibition zone measuring at least 9 mm in diameter in the disc-diffusion assays), by agar dilution. Although, in the disc-diffusion assays, each of the 10 methanol extracts investigated displayed some degree of antimicrobial activity against at least one species of microorganism, no activity against the Gram-negative bacteria (Es. coli, K. pneumoniae and Ps. aeruginosa) was observed. The extract with the greatest antimicrobial activity was that of Pl. africana (Euphorbiaceae).

  18. Plant-mediated effects on extracellular enzyme activities in distinct soil aggregate size classes in field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Dorodnikov, Maxim; Splettstößer, Thomas; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Pausch, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    Soil aggregation and microbial activities within the aggregates are important factors regulating soil carbon (C) turnover. A reliable and sensitive proxy for microbial activity is activity of extracellular enzymes (EEA). In the present study, effects of soil aggregates on EEA were investigated under three maize plant densities (Low, Normal, and High). Bulk soil was fractionated into three aggregate size classes (>2000 µm large macroaggregates; 2000-250 µm small macroaggregates; <250 µm microaggregates) by optimal-moisture sieving. Microbial biomass and EEA (β-1,4-glucosidase (BG), β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG), L-leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and acid phosphatase (acP)) catalyzing soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition were measured in rooted soil of maize and soil from bare fallow. Microbial biomass C (Cmic) decreased with decreasing aggregate size classes. Potential and specific EEA (per unit of Cmic) increased from macro- to microaggregates. In comparison with bare fallow soil, specific EEA of microaggregates in rooted soil was higher by up to 73%, 31%, 26%, and 92% for BG, NAG, acP and LAP, respectively. Moreover, high plant density decreased macroaggregates by 9% compared to bare fallow. Enhanced EEA in three aggregate size classes demonstrated activation of microorganisms by roots. Strong EEA in microaggregates can be explained by microaggregates' localization within the soil. Originally adhering to surfaces of macroaggregates, microaggregates were preferentially exposed to C substrates and nutrients, thereby promoting microbial activity.

  19. Evaluation of antagonistic and plant growth promoting activities of chitinolytic endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants against Sclerotium rolfsii in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Singh, S P; Gaur, R

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the potential of chitinolytic endophytic Actinomycetes isolated from medicinal plants in order to diminish the collar rot infestation induced by Sclerotium rolfsii in chickpea. Sixty-eight chitinolytic endophytic Actinomycetes were recovered from various medicinal plants and evaluated for their chitinase activity. Among these isolates, 12 were screened for their plant growth promoting abilities and antagonistic potential against Sc. rolfsii. Further, these isolates were validated in vivo for their ability to protect chickpea against Sc. rolfsii infestation under greenhouse conditions. The isolates significantly (P < 0·05) increased the biomass (1·2-2·0 fold) and reduced plant mortality (42-75%) of chickpea. On the basis of 16S rDNA profiling, the selected antagonistic strains were identified as Streptomyces diastaticus, Streptomyces fradiae, Streptomyces olivochromogenes, Streptomyces collinus, Streptomyces ossamyceticus and Streptomyces griseus. This study is the first report of the isolation of endophytic Actinomycetes from various medicinal plants having antagonistic and plant growth promoting abilities. The isolated species showed potential for controlling collar rot disease on chickpea and could be useful in integrated control against diverse soil borne plant pathogens. Our investigation suggests that endophytic Actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants can be used as bioinoculants for developing safe, efficacious and environment-friendly biocontrol strategies in the near future. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Traditional Plant Used in Mestizo Shamanism from the Peruvian Amazon in Case of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Roumy, Vincent; Gutierrez-Choquevilca, Andréa-Luz; Lopez Mesia, Jean Pierre; Ruiz, Lastenia; Ruiz Macedo, Juan Celidonio; Abedini, Amin; Landoulsi, Ameni; Samaillie, Jennifer; Hennebelle, Thierry; Rivière, Céline; Neut, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Context: Our survey was performed near Iquitos (Peruvian Amazon) and its surroundings and leads us to consider Mestizo ethnomedical practices. The plant species reported here are traditionally used for ailments related to microbial infections. Inhabitants of various ethnic origins were interviewed, and 52 selected plants extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against a panel of 36 sensitive and multi-resistant bacteria or yeast. The study aimed at providing information on antimicrobial plant extract activities and the ethnomedical context of Mestizo riverine populations from Loreto (Peru). Material and Method: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the plant crude extracts were carried out using the agar dilution method and ranged between 0.075 and 5.0 mg/ml. Results: Of the 40 plants analyzed, 9 species showed MIC ≤0.3 mg/ml (Anacardium occidentale, Couroupita guianensis, Croton lechleri, Davilla rugosa, Erythrina amazonica, Jacaranda copaia subsp. Spectabilis, Oenocarpus bataua, Peperomia macrostachya, and Phyllanthus urinaria) for one or several of the 36 microorganisms and only 6 drug extracts were inactive. Among the 40 plants, 13 were evaluated for the first time for an antibacterial activity. Conclusion: This evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of 40 plants using an approved standard methodology allowed comparing those activities against various microbes to establish antimicrobial spectra of standardized plant extracts, and give support to the traditional use of these plants. It may also help discovering new chemical classes of antimicrobial agents that could serve against multi-resistant bacteria. SUMMARY This study leads us to consider Mestizo ethnomedical practices near Iquitos (Peruvian Amazon) and its surroundings. The plant species reported here are traditionally used for ailments related to microbial infections. 52 selected plants extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against a panel of 36

  1. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Traditional Plant Used in Mestizo Shamanism from the Peruvian Amazon in Case of Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Roumy, Vincent; Gutierrez-Choquevilca, Andréa-Luz; Lopez Mesia, Jean Pierre; Ruiz, Lastenia; Ruiz Macedo, Juan Celidonio; Abedini, Amin; Landoulsi, Ameni; Samaillie, Jennifer; Hennebelle, Thierry; Rivière, Céline; Neut, Christel

    2015-10-01

    Our survey was performed near Iquitos (Peruvian Amazon) and its surroundings and leads us to consider Mestizo ethnomedical practices. The plant species reported here are traditionally used for ailments related to microbial infections. Inhabitants of various ethnic origins were interviewed, and 52 selected plants extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against a panel of 36 sensitive and multi-resistant bacteria or yeast. The study aimed at providing information on antimicrobial plant extract activities and the ethnomedical context of Mestizo riverine populations from Loreto (Peru). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the plant crude extracts were carried out using the agar dilution method and ranged between 0.075 and 5.0 mg/ml. Of the 40 plants analyzed, 9 species showed MIC ≤0.3 mg/ml (Anacardium occidentale, Couroupita guianensis, Croton lechleri, Davilla rugosa, Erythrina amazonica, Jacaranda copaia subsp. Spectabilis, Oenocarpus bataua, Peperomia macrostachya, and Phyllanthus urinaria) for one or several of the 36 microorganisms and only 6 drug extracts were inactive. Among the 40 plants, 13 were evaluated for the first time for an antibacterial activity. This evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of 40 plants using an approved standard methodology allowed comparing those activities against various microbes to establish antimicrobial spectra of standardized plant extracts, and give support to the traditional use of these plants. It may also help discovering new chemical classes of antimicrobial agents that could serve against multi-resistant bacteria. This study leads us to consider Mestizo ethnomedical practices near Iquitos (Peruvian Amazon) and its surroundings. The plant species reported here are traditionally used for ailments related to microbial infections. 52 selected plants extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against a panel of 36 sensitive and multi resistant bacteria or yeast. The study aimed

  2. Mining the metagenome of activated biomass of an industrial wastewater treatment plant by a novel method.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nandita; Tanksale, Himgouri; Kapley, Atya; Purohit, Hemant J

    2012-12-01

    Metagenomic libraries herald the era of magnifying the microbial world, tapping into the vast metabolic potential of uncultivated microbes, and enhancing the rate of discovery of novel genes and pathways. In this paper, we describe a method that facilitates the extraction of metagenomic DNA from activated sludge of an industrial wastewater treatment plant and its use in mining the metagenome via library construction. The efficiency of this method was demonstrated by the large representation of the bacterial genome in the constructed metagenomic libraries and by the functional clones obtained. The BAC library represented 95.6 times the bacterial genome, while, the pUC library represented 41.7 times the bacterial genome. Twelve clones in the BAC library demonstrated lipolytic activity, while four clones demonstrated dioxygenase activity. Four clones in pUC library tested positive for cellulase activity. This method, using FTA cards, not only can be used for library construction, but can also store the metagenome at room temperature.

  3. Fructan active enzymes (FAZY) activities and biosynthesis of fructooligosaccharides in the vacuoles of Agave tequilana Weber Blue variety plants of different age.

    PubMed

    Mellado-Mojica, Erika; González de la Vara, Luis E; López, Mercedes G

    2017-02-01

    Biosynthesis of agave fructans occurs in mesontle vacuoles which showed fluctuations in FAZY activities and synthesized a diverse spectrum of fructooligosaccharide isomers. Agave tequilana Weber Blue variety is an important agronomic crop in Mexico. Fructan metabolism in A. tequilana exhibits changes in fructan content, type, degree of polymerization (DP), and molecular structure. Specific activities of vacuolar fructan active enzymes (FAZY) in A. tequilana plants of different age and the biosynthesis of fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) were analyzed in this work. Vacuoles from mesontle (stem) protoplasts were isolated and collected from 2- to 7-year-old plants. For the first time, agave fructans were identified in the vacuolar content by HPAEC-PAD. Several FAZY activities (1-SST, 6-SFT, 6G-FFT, 1-FFT, and FEH) with fluctuations according to the plant age were found in protein vacuolar extracts. Among vacuolar FAZY, 1-SST activities appeared in all plant developmental stages, as well as 1-FFT and FEH activities. The enzymes 6G-FFT and 6-SST showed only minimal activities. Lowest and highest FAZY activities were found in 2- and 6-year-old plants, respectively. Synthesized products (FOS) were analyzed by TLC and HPAEC-PAD. Vacuolar FAZYs yielded large FOS isomers diversity, being 7-year-old plants the ones that synthesized a greater variety of fructans with different DP, linkages, and molecular structures. Based on the above, we are proposing a model for the FAZY activities constituting the FOS biosynthetic pathways in Agave tequilana Weber Blue variety.

  4. Polysaccharides from the South African medicinal plant Artemisia afra: Structure and activity studies.

    PubMed

    Braünlich, Paula Marie; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Inngjerdingen, Marit; Johnson, Quinton; Paulsen, Berit Smestad; Mabusela, Wilfred

    2018-01-01

    Artemisia afra (Jacq. Ex. Willd), is an indigenous plant in South Africa and other parts of the African continent, where it is used as traditional medicine mostly for respiratory conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the structural features of the polysaccharides from the leaves of this plant, as well as the biological activities of the polysaccharide fractions against the complement assay. Leaves of Artemisia afra were extracted sequentially with organic solvents (dichloromethane and methanol), 50% aqueous ethanol, and water at 50 and 100°C respectively. The polysaccharide extracts were fractionated by ion exchange chromatography and the resulting fractions were tested for biological activity against the complement fixation assay. Active fractions were further fractionated using gel filtration. Monosaccharide compositions and linkage analyses were determined for the relevant fractions. Polysaccharides were shown to be of the pectin type, and largely contain arabinogalactan, rhamnogalacturonan and homogalacturonan structural features. The presence of arabinogalactan type II features as suggested by methylation analysis was further confirmed by the ready precipitation of the relevant polysaccharides with the Yariv reagent. An unusual feature of some of these polysaccharides was the presence of relatively high levels of xylose as one of its monosaccharide constituents. Purified polysaccharide fractions were shown to possess higher biological activity than the selected standard in the complement assay. Digestion of these polysaccharides with an endo-polygalacturonase enzyme resulted in polymers with lower molecular weights as expected, but still with biological activity which exceeded that of the standard. Thus on the basis of these studies it may be suggested that immunomodulating properties probably contribute significantly to the health-promoting effects of this medicinal plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Natural compounds and extracts from Mexican medicinal plants with anti-leishmaniasis activity: An update.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Drier-Jonas, Susan; Jiménez-Arellanes, María Adelina

    2017-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is considered as an emerging, uncontrolled disease and is endemic in 98 countries. Annually, about 2 million cases of cutaneous and 500000 cases of visceral-type leishmaniasis are recorded and 60000 persons died from the disease. In Mexico, cutaneous leishmaniasis is known as chiclero's ulcer and is reported in 22 states, it is considered as a health problem. For its treatment, pentavalent antimonial drugs are administered. These drugs cause severe side effects, are costly. Drug-resistant cases have been reported and have been developing for over 70 years. One alternative to the drugs that are currently available is to find active molecules in medicinal plants. Dihydrocorynantheine, corynantheine and corynantheidine are active against Leishmania major, while harmane, pleiocarpin, buchtienin, luteolin and quercetin are active against Leishmania donovani. In Mexico, about 20 medicinal plants have been evaluated against Leishmania mexicana, among which the most active are Tridax procumbens, Lonchocarpus xuul and Pentalinon andrieuxii. From these plants, active compounds with IC 50  ≤ 30 μg/mL or μM have been isolated, such as 3(S)-16,17-didehydrofalcarinol or Oxylipin, cholestra-4,20,24-trien-3-one or pentalinosterol, 24-methylcholest-4-24(28)-dien-3-one, cholest-4-en-3-one, 6,7-dihydroneridie-none, neridienone, cholest-5,20,24-trien-3β-ol, and isocordoin. Today, only pentalinonsterol has been synthesized and assayed in the visceral leishmaniasis experimental model using BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania donovani. Liposome formulation of this compound administered by intravenous route at 2.5 mg/kg showed a significant reduction of parasite load in mouse liver and spleen. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro evaluation of novel antiviral activities of 60 medicinal plants extracts against hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Arbab, Ahmed Hassan; Parvez, Mohammad Khalid; Al-Dosari, Mohammed Salem; Al-Rehaily, Adnan Jathlan

    2017-07-01

    Currently, >35 Saudi Arabian medicinal plants are traditionally used for various liver disorders without a scientific rationale. This is the first experimental evaluation of the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) potential of the total ethanolic and sequential organic extracts of 60 candidate medicinal plants. The extracts were tested for toxicity on HepG2.2.15 cells and cytotoxicity concentration (CC 50 ) values were determined. The extracts were further investigated on HepG2.2.15 cells for anti-HBV activities by analyzing the inhibition of HBsAg and HBeAg production in the culture supernatants, and their half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) and therapeutic index (TI) values were determined. Of the screened plants, Guiera senegalensis (dichloromethane extract, IC 50 =10.65), Pulicaria crispa (ethyl acetate extract, IC 50 =14.45), Coccinea grandis (total ethanol extract, IC 50 =31.57), Fumaria parviflora (hexane extract, IC 50 =35.44), Capparis decidua (aqueous extract, IC 50 =66.82), Corallocarpus epigeus (total ethanol extract, IC 50 =71.9), Indigofera caerulea (methanol extract, IC 50 =73.21), Abutilon figarianum (dichloromethane extract, IC 50 =99.76) and Acacia oerfota (total ethanol extract, IC 50 =101.46) demonstrated novel anti-HBV activities in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further qualitative phytochemical analysis of the active extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins, which are attributed to antiviral efficacies. In conclusion, P. crispa, G. senegalensis and F. parviflora had the most promising anti-HBV potentials, including those of C. decidua , C. epigeus, A. figarianum , A. oerfota and I. caerulea with marked activities. However, a detailed phytochemical study of these extracts is essential to isolate the active principle(s) responsible for their novel anti-HBV potential.

  7. Bacterial Community Structure Shifted by Geosmin in Granular Activated Carbon System of Water Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Pham, Ngoc Dung; Lee, Eun-Hee; Chae, Seon-Ha; Cho, Yongdeok; Shin, Hyejin; Son, Ahjeong

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relation between the presence of geosmin in water and the bacterial community structure within the granular activated carbon (GAC) system of water treatment plants in South Korea. GAC samples were collected in May and August of 2014 at three water treatment plants (Sungnam, Koyang, and Yeoncho in Korea). Dissolved organic carbon and geosmin were analyzed before and after GAC treatment. Geosmin was found in raw water from Sungnam and Koyang water treatment plants but not in that from Yeoncho water treatment plant. Interestingly, but not surprisingly, the 16S rRNA clone library indicated that the bacterial communities from the Sungnam and Koyang GAC systems were closely related to geosmin-degrading bacteria. Based on the phylogenetic tree and multidimensional scaling plot, bacterial clones from GAC under the influence of geosmin were clustered with Variovorax paradoxus strain DB 9b and Comamonas sp. DB mg. In other words, the presence of geosmin in water might have inevitably contributed to the growth of geosmin degraders within the respective GAC system.

  8. Plant compounds enhance the assay sensitivity for detection of active Bacillus cereus toxin.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; Hernlem, Bradley; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel

    2015-03-11

    Bacillus cereus is an important food pathogen, producing emetic and diarrheal syndromes, the latter mediated by enterotoxins. The ability to sensitively trace and identify this active toxin is important for food safety. This study evaluated a nonradioactive, sensitive, in vitro cell-based assay, based on B. cereus toxin inhibition of green fluorescent protein (GFP) synthesis in transduced monkey kidney Vero cells, combined with plant extracts or plant compounds that reduce viable count of B. cereus in food. The assay exhibited a dose dependent GFP inhibition response with ~25% inhibition at 50 ng/mL toxin evaluated in culture media or soy milk, rice milk or infant formula, products associated with food poisonings outbreak. The plant extracts of green tea or bitter almond and the plant compounds epicatechin or carvacrol were found to amplify the assay response to ~90% inhibition at the 50 ng/mL toxin concentration greatly increasing the sensitivity of this assay. Additional studies showed that the test formulations also inhibited the growth of the B. cereus bacteria, likely through cell membrane disruption. The results suggest that the improved highly sensitive assay for the toxin and the rapid inactivation of the pathogen producing the toxin have the potential to enhance food safety.

  9. Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance.

    PubMed

    Weckesser, S; Engel, K; Simon-Haarhaus, B; Wittmer, A; Pelz, K; Schempp, C M

    2007-08-01

    There is cumulative resistance against antibiotics of many bacteria. Therefore, the development of new antiseptics and antimicrobial agents for the treatment of skin infections is of increasing interest. We have screened six plant extracts and isolated compounds for antimicrobial effects on bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance. The following plant extracts have been tested: Gentiana lutea, Harpagophytum procumbens, Boswellia serrata (dry extracts), Usnea barbata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis (supercritical carbon dioxide [CO2] extracts). Additionally, the following characteristic plant substances were tested: usnic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, harpagoside, boswellic acid and gentiopicroside. The extracts and compounds were tested against 29 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and yeasts in the agar dilution test. U. barbata-extract and usnic acid were the most active compounds, especially in anaerobic bacteria. Usnea CO2-extract effectively inhibited the growth of several Gram-positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains - MRSA), Propionibacterium acnes and Corynebacterium species. Growth of the dimorphic yeast Malassezia furfur was also inhibited by Usnea-extract. Besides the Usnea-extract, Rosmarinus-, Salvia-, Boswellia- and Harpagophytum-extracts proved to be effective against a panel of bacteria. It is concluded that due to their antimicrobial effects some of the plant extracts may be used for the topical treatment of skin disorders like acne vulgaris and seborrhoic eczema.

  10. Jasmonate Regulates Plant Responses to Postsubmergence Reoxygenation through Transcriptional Activation of Antioxidant Synthesis1

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yang-Shuo; Xie, Li-Juan; Yu, Lu-Jun; Zhou, Ying; Lai, Yong-Xia; Yang, Yi-Cong; Xu, Le; Chen, Qin-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Submergence induces hypoxia in plants; exposure to oxygen following submergence, termed reoxygenation, produces a burst of reactive oxygen species. The mechanisms of hypoxia sensing and signaling in plants have been well studied, but how plants respond to reoxygenation remains unclear. Here, we show that reoxygenation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) involves rapid accumulation of jasmonates (JAs) and increased transcript levels of JA biosynthesis genes. Application of exogenous methyl jasmonate improved tolerance to reoxygenation in wild-type Arabidopsis; also, mutants deficient in JA biosynthesis and signaling were very sensitive to reoxygenation. Moreover, overexpression of the transcription factor gene MYC2 enhanced tolerance to posthypoxic stress, and myc2 knockout mutants showed increased sensitivity to reoxygenation, indicating that MYC2 functions as a key regulator in the JA-mediated reoxygenation response. MYC2 transcriptionally activates members of the VITAMIN C DEFECTIVE (VTC) and GLUTATHIONE SYNTHETASE (GSH) gene families, which encode rate-limiting enzymes in the ascorbate and glutathione synthesis pathways. Overexpression of VTC1 and GSH1 in the myc2-2 mutant suppressed the posthypoxic hypersensitive phenotype. The JA-inducible accumulation of antioxidants may alleviate oxidative damage caused by reoxygenation, improving plant survival after submergence. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that JA signaling interacts with the antioxidant pathway to regulate reoxygenation responses in Arabidopsis. PMID:28082717

  11. Antimicrobial activity of gamma-thionin-like soybean SE60 in E. coli and tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeonhee; Choi, Yang Do; Lee, Jong Seob

    2008-10-17

    The SE60, a low molecular weight, sulfur-rich protein in soybean, is known to be homologous to wheat gamma-purothionin. To elucidate the functional role of SE60, we expressed SE60 cDNA in Escherichia coli and in tobacco plants. A single protein band was detected by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) after anti-FLAG affinity purification of the protein from transformed E. coli. While the control E. coli cells harboring pFLAG-1 showed standard growth with Isopropyl beta-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction, E. coli cells expressing the SE60 fusion protein did not grow at all, suggesting that SE60 has toxic effects on E. coli growth. Genomic integration and the expression of transgene in the transgenic tobacco plants were confirmed by Southern and Northern blot analysis, respectively. The transgenic plants demonstrated enhanced resistance against the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that SE60 has antimicrobial activity and play a role in the defense mechanism in soybean plants.

  12. Dehydro-alpha-lapachone isolated from Catalpa ovata stems: activity against plant pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jun Young; Kim, Hae Young; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Lim, He Kyoung; Lim, Chi Hwan; Cho, Kwang Yun; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2006-05-01

    The methanol extract of stems of Catalpa ovata G Don exhibits potent in vivo antifungal activity against Magnaporthe grisea (Hebert) Barr (rice blast) on rice plants, Botrytis cinerea Pers ex Fr (tomato grey mould) and Phytophthora infestans (Mont) de Bary (tomato late blight) on tomato plants, Puccinia recondita Rob ex Desm (wheat leaf rust) on wheat plants and Blumeria graminis (DC) Speer f. sp. hordei Marchal (barley powdery mildew) on barley plants. An antifungal substance was isolated and identified as dehydro-alpha-lapachone from mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data. It completely inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Simmonds, M. grisea and Pythium ultimum Trow over a range of 0.4-33.3 mg litre(-1). It also controlled the development of rice blast, tomato late blight, wheat leaf rust, barley powdery mildew and red pepper anthracnose (Colletotrichum coccodes (Wallr) S Hughes). The chemical was particularly effective in suppressing red pepper anthracnose by 95% at a concentration of 125 mg litre(-1). Copyright 2006 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The Ustilago maydis Effector Pep1 Suppresses Plant Immunity by Inhibition of Host Peroxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zechmann, Bernd; Hillmer, Morten; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2012-01-01

    The corn smut Ustilago maydis establishes a biotrophic interaction with its host plant maize. This interaction requires efficient suppression of plant immune responses, which is attributed to secreted effector proteins. Previously we identified Pep1 (Protein essential during penetration-1) as a secreted effector with an essential role for U. maydis virulence. pep1 deletion mutants induce strong defense responses leading to an early block in pathogenic development of the fungus. Using cytological and functional assays we show that Pep1 functions as an inhibitor of plant peroxidases. At sites of Δpep1 mutant penetrations, H2O2 strongly accumulated in the cell walls, coinciding with a transcriptional induction of the secreted maize peroxidase POX12. Pep1 protein effectively inhibited the peroxidase driven oxidative burst and thereby suppresses the early immune responses of maize. Moreover, Pep1 directly inhibits peroxidases in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. Using fluorescence complementation assays, we observed a direct interaction of Pep1 and the maize peroxidase POX12 in vivo. Functional relevance of this interaction was demonstrated by partial complementation of the Δpep1 mutant defect by virus induced gene silencing of maize POX12. We conclude that Pep1 acts as a potent suppressor of early plant defenses by inhibition of peroxidase activity. Thus, it represents a novel strategy for establishing a biotrophic interaction. PMID:22589719

  14. Trans-methylation reactions in plants: focus on the activated methyl cycle.

    PubMed

    Rahikainen, Moona; Alegre, Sara; Trotta, Andrea; Pascual, Jesús; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa

    2018-02-01

    Trans-methylation reactions are vital in basic metabolism, epigenetic regulation, RNA metabolism, and posttranslational control of protein function and therefore fundamental in determining the physiological processes in all living organisms. The plant kingdom is additionally characterized by the production of secondary metabolites that undergo specific hydroxylation, oxidation and methylation reactions to obtain a wide array of different chemical structures. Increasing research efforts have started to reveal the enzymatic pathways underlying the biosynthesis of complex metabolites in plants. Further engineering of these enzymatic machineries offers significant possibilities in the development of bio-based technologies, but necessitates deep understanding of their potential metabolic and regulatory interactions. Trans-methylation reactions are tightly coupled with the so-called activated methyl cycle (AMC), an essential metabolic circuit that maintains the trans-methylation capacity in all living cells. Tight regulation of the AMC is crucial in ensuring accurate trans-methylation reactions in different subcellular compartments, cell types, developmental stages and environmental conditions. This review addresses the organization and posttranslational regulation of the AMC and elaborates its critical role in determining metabolic regulation through modulation of methyl utilization in stress-exposed plants. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. Metabolic Engineering of Yeast and Plants for the Production of the Biologically Active Hydroxystilbene, Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Jeandet, Philippe; Delaunois, Bertrand; Aziz, Aziz; Donnez, David; Vasserot, Yann; Cordelier, Sylvain; Courot, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol, a stilbenic compound deriving from the phenyalanine/polymalonate route, being stilbene synthase the last and key enzyme of this pathway, recently has become the focus of a number of studies in medicine and plant physiology. Increased demand for this molecule for nutraceutical, cosmetic and possibly pharmaceutic uses, makes its production a necessity. In this context, the use of biotechnology through recombinant microorganisms and plants is particularly promising. Interesting results can indeed arise from the potential of genetically modified microorganisms as an alternative mechanism for producing resveratrol. Strategies used to tailoring yeast as they do not possess the genes that encode for the resveratrol pathway, will be described. On the other hand, most interest has centered in recent years, on STS gene transfer experiments from various origins to the genome of numerous plants. This work also presents a comprehensive review on plant molecular engineering with the STS gene, resulting in disease resistance against microorganisms and the enhancement of the antioxidant activities of several fruits in transgenic lines. PMID:22654481

  16. In-vivo and In-vitro activities of medicinal plants on ecto, endo and haemoparasitic infections: a review.

    PubMed

    Mbaya, Albert Wulari; Ogwiji, Mathew

    2014-01-01

    Crude methanol, pet. ether, ethyl acetate, n-hexane, dichloromethane and aqueous extracts of various species of medicinal plants have shown significant in-vivo and in-vitro pharmacological activities against ecto, endo and haemoparasites. The scientific evaluations of the use of the plants as antiparasitic agents were based on the claims of folklore drawn from traditional healers from various communities across the world. The pharmacological activities of these plants were associated with the presence of various bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, allicinine, harmala, harmaline, harman, tetrahydroharman, ursolic acid, terapines, tannins, phenolic compounds, embelin and brucine. These compounds were either found in the leaves, seeds, bulbs, flowers, stem, root barks or entire plant. In the in-vivo studies, plant extracts were tested using animal models such as mice, sheep, goats, cattle and dogs. The in-vivo anthelmintic activities of the plants were assessed by faecal egg out puts and post-mortem worm counts which in most instances achieved 70-90% priori levels with some of the plants. For haemoparasitic infections, parasitaemia clearance levels were used, while larvae and adult deaths were used to measure the activity of the plants against ectoparasites. For in-vitro activities, inhibitory concentration IC50 values using the brine lethality test, micro dilution, flow cytometery and larval packet test were used to assess the efficacy of the plant extracts on the parasites in various cell cultures. Significant in-vitro activity of 99.8% at 3.1mg/ml was achieved with the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica. Many of the plants were found to be more potent and possessed similar mechanism of action as their novel synthetic drugs. Such breakthroughs have led to the development of less toxic, cheaper and readily available drugs. Worthy of note is the use of the fruit of the Thai plant Piper longum (PIPERACEAE) as part of a drug

  17. In vitro antibacterial and antitumor activities of some medicinal plant extracts, growing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Arzu Birinci; Karakas, Fatma Pehlivan; Turker, Arzu Ucar

    2013-08-01

    To investigate antibacterial and antitumor activities of 51 different extracts prepared with 3 types of solvents (water, ethanol and methanol) of 16 different plant species (Ajuga reptans (A. reptans) L., Phlomis pungens (P. pungens) Willd., Marrubium astracanicum (M. astracanicum) Jacq., Nepeta nuda (N. nuda) L., Stachys annua (S. annua) L., Genista lydia (G. lydia) Boiss., Nuphar lutea (N. lutea) L., Nymphaea alba (N. alba) L., Vinca minor (V. minor) L., Stellaria media (S. media) L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (C. bursa-pastoris) L., Galium spurium (G. spurium) L., Onosma heterophyllum (O. heterophyllum) Griseb., Reseda luteola (R. luteola) L., Viburnum lantana (V. lantana) L. and Mercurialis annua (M. annua) L.) grown in Turkey was conducted. Antibacterial activity was evaluated with 10 bacteria including Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), Escheria coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens), Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris), Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacea), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) by using disc diffusion method. Antitumor activity was evaluated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens)-induced potato disc tumor assay. Best antibacterial activity was obtained with ethanolic extract of P. pungens against S. pyogenes. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of N. alba and ethanolic extract of G. lydia also showed strong antibacterial activities. Results indicated that alcoholic extracts especially ethanolic extracts exhibited strong antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Best antitumor activity was obtained with methanolic extracts of N. alba and V. lantana (100% tumor inhibition). Ethanolic extract of N. alba, alcoholic extracts of N. lutea, A. reptans and V. minor flowers, methanolic extracts of G. lydia and O. heterophyllum and ethanolic

  18. Changes in SBPase activity influence photosynthetic capacity, growth, and tolerance to chilling stress in transgenic tomato plants

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Fei; Wang, Meiling; Zhang, Shuoxin; Ai, Xizhen

    2016-01-01

    Sedoheptulose-1, 7-bisphosphatase (SBPase) is an important enzyme involved in photosynthetic carbon fixation in the Calvin cycle. Here, we report the impact of changes in SBPase activity on photosynthesis, growth and development, and chilling tolerance in SBPase antisense and sense transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. In transgenic plants with increased SBPase activity, photosynthetic rates were increased and in parallel an increase in sucrose and starch accumulation was evident. Total biomass and leaf area were increased in SBPase sense plants, while they were reduced in SBPase antisense plants compared with equivalent wild-type tomato plants. Under chilling stress, when compared with plants with decreased SBPase activity, tomato plants with increased SBPase activity were found to be more chilling tolerant as indicated by reduced electrolyte leakage, increased photosynthetic capacity, and elevated RuBP regeneration rate and quantum efficiency of photosystem II. Collectively, our data suggest that higher level of SBPase activity gives an advantage to photosynthesis, growth and chilling tolerance in tomato plants. This work also provides a case study that an individual enzyme in the Calvin cycle may serve as a useful target for genetic engineering to improve production and stress tolerance in crops. PMID:27586456

  19. In vitro and in vivo antimalarial and cytotoxic activity of five plants used in congolese traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Lusakibanza, M; Mesia, G; Tona, G; Karemere, S; Lukuka, A; Tits, M; Angenot, L; Frédérich, M

    2010-06-16

    The in vitro antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of methanolic and dichloromethane extracts from five Congolese plants were evaluated. The plants were selected following an ethnobotanical survey conducted in D.R. Congo and focusing on plants used traditionally to treat malaria. The in vivo antimalarial activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts active in vitro was also determined in mice infected by Plasmodium berghei berghei. The growth inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum strains was evaluated using the measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The extracts (aqueous, CH(3)OH, EtOH and CH(2)Cl(2)) were prepared by maceration and tested in vitro against the 3D7 (chloroquine sensitive) and W2 (chloroquine resistant) strains of Plasmodium falciparum and against the human normal fetal lung fibroblasts WI-38 to determine the selectivity index. Some extracts were also used at the dose of 300 mg/kg to evaluate their activity in mice infected since 4 days by Plasmodium berghei. Two plants presented a very high activity (IC(50)<3 microg/ml). These plants were Strychnos icaja roots bark (MeOH and CH(2)Cl(2)) and Physalis angulata leaves (MeOH and CH(2)Cl(2)). One plant (Anisopappus chinensis whole plant, MeOH and CH(2)Cl(2)) presented a high activity (IC50<15 microg/ml). The extracts of Anisopappus chinensis and Physalis angulata showed also a good inhibition of parasitemia in vivo. Flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenes were identified in these plants by a general phytochemical screening method. Three plants showed a very interesting antiplasmodial activity (Anisopappus chinensis, Physalis angulata and Strychnos icaja) and one of them showed a good selectivity index (>10, Anisopappus chinensis). Anisopappus chinensis and Physalis angulata were also active in vivo. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Screening of plant extracts for anthelmintic activity against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Huang, Ai-Guo; Yi, Yang-Lei; Ling, Fei; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2013-12-01

    With the aim of finding natural anthelmintic agents against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus), 26 plants were screened for antiparasitic properties using in vivo anthelmintic efficacy assay. The results showed that Caesalpinia sappan, Lysima chiachristinae, Cuscuta chinensis, Artemisia argyi, and Eupatorium fortunei were found to have 100% anthelmintic efficacy at 125, 150, 225, 300, and 500 mg L(-1) after 48 h of exposure. Crude extract of the five plants were further partitioned with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water to obtain anthelmintically active fractions with various polarity. Among these fractions tested, the ethyl acetate extract of L. chiachristinae was found to be the most effective with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) value of 5.1 mg/L after 48 h of exposure. This was followed by ethyl acetate extract of C. chinensis (48 h-EC50 = 8.5 mg L(-1)), chloroform extracts of C. sappan (48 h-EC50 = 15.6 mg L(-1)), methanol extract of C. chinensis (48 h-EC50 = 15.9 mg L(-1)), and chloroform and petroleum ether extract of L. chiachristinae (EC50 values of 17.2 and 21.1 mg/L, respectively), suggesting that these plants, as well as the active fractions, provide potential sources of botanic drugs for the control of D. intermedius in aquaculture.

  1. Prognostic and health management of active assets in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vivek; Lybeck, Nancy; Pham, Binh T.

    This study presents the development of diagnostic and prognostic capabilities for active assets in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The research was performed under the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Technologies Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Idaho National Laboratory researched, developed, implemented, and demonstrated diagnostic and prognostic models for generator step-up transformers (GSUs). The Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software developed by the Electric Power Research Institute was used to perform diagnosis and prognosis. As part of the research activity, Idaho National Laboratory implemented 22 GSU diagnostic models in the Asset Fault Signature Database and twomore » wellestablished GSU prognostic models for the paper winding insulation in the Remaining Useful Life Database of the FW-PHM Suite. The implemented models along with a simulated fault data stream were used to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic capabilities of the FW-PHM Suite. Knowledge of the operating condition of plant asset gained from diagnosis and prognosis is critical for the safe, productive, and economical long-term operation of the current fleet of NPPs. This research addresses some of the gaps in the current state of technology development and enables effective application of diagnostics and prognostics to nuclear plant assets.« less

  2. NPACT: Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anti-cancer Compound-Activity-Target database

    PubMed Central

    Mangal, Manu; Sagar, Parul; Singh, Harinder; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.; Agarwal, Subhash M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant-derived molecules have been highly valued by biomedical researchers and pharmaceutical companies for developing drugs, as they are thought to be optimized during evolution. Therefore, we have collected and compiled a central resource Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anti-cancer Compound-Activity-Target database (NPACT, http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/npact/) that gathers the information related to experimentally validated plant-derived natural compounds exhibiting anti-cancerous activity (in vitro and in vivo), to complement the other databases. It currently contains 1574 compound entries, and each record provides information on their structure, manually curated published data on in vitro and in vivo experiments along with reference for users referral, inhibitory values (IC50/ED50/EC50/GI50), properties (physical, elemental and topological), cancer types, cell lines, protein targets, commercial suppliers and drug likeness of compounds. NPACT can easily be browsed or queried using various options, and an online similarity tool has also been made available. Further, to facilitate retrieval of existing data, each record is hyperlinked to similar databases like SuperNatural, Herbal Ingredients’ Targets, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, PubChem and NCI-60 GI50 data. PMID:23203877

  3. Purification of active myrosinase from plants by aqueous two-phase counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wade, Kristina L; Ito, Yoichiro; Ramarathnam, Aarthi; Holtzclaw, W David; Fahey, Jed W

    2015-01-01

    Myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase; E.C. 3.2.1.147), is a plant enzyme of increasing interest and importance to the biomedical community. Myrosinase catalyses the formation of isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane (from broccoli) and 4-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (from moringa), which are potent inducers of the cytoprotective phase-2 response in humans, by hydrolysis of their abundant glucosinolate (β-thioglucoside N-hydroxysulphate) precursors. To develop an aqueous two-phase counter-current chromatography (CCC) system for the rapid, three-step purification of catalytically active myrosinase. A high-concentration potassium phosphate and polyethylene glycol biphasic aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is used with a newly developed CCC configuration that utilises spiral-wound, flat-twisted tubing (with an ovoid cross-section). Making the initial crude plant extract directly in the ATPS and injecting only the lower phase permitted highly selective partitioning of the myrosinase complex before a short chromatography on a spiral disk CCC. Optimum phase retention and separation of myrosinase from other plant proteins afforded a 60-fold purification. Catalytically active myrosinase is purified from 3-day broccoli sprouts, 7-day daikon sprouts, mustard seeds and the leaves of field-grown moringa trees, in a CCC system that is predictably scalable. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Monoamine Oxidase-A Inhibition and Associated Antioxidant Activity in Plant Extracts with Potential Antidepressant Actions

    PubMed Central

    Guillén, Hugo

    2018-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of amines and neurotransmitters and is involved in mood disorders, depression, oxidative stress, and adverse pharmacological reactions. This work studies the inhibition of human MAO-A by Hypericum perforatum, Peganum harmala, and Lepidium meyenii, which are reported to improve and affect mood and mental conditions. Subsequently, the antioxidant activity associated with the inhibition of MAO is determined in plant extracts for the first time. H. perforatum inhibited human MAO-A, and extracts from flowers gave the highest inhibition (IC50 of 63.6 μg/mL). Plant extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MS and contained pseudohypericin, hypericin, hyperforin, adhyperforin, hyperfirin, and flavonoids. Hyperforin did not inhibit human MAO-A and hypericin was a poor inhibitor of this isoenzyme. Quercetin and flavonoids significantly contributed to MAO-A inhibition. P. harmala seed extracts highly inhibited MAO-A (IC50 of 49.9 μg/L), being a thousand times more potent than H. perforatum extracts owing to its content of β-carboline alkaloids (harmaline and harmine). L. meyenii root (maca) extracts did not inhibit MAO-A. These plants may exert protective actions related to antioxidant effects. Results in this work show that P. harmala and H. perforatum extracts exhibit antioxidant activity associated with the inhibition of MAO (i.e., lower production of H2O2). PMID:29568754

  5. Prognostic and health management of active assets in nuclear power plants

    DOE PAGES

    Agarwal, Vivek; Lybeck, Nancy; Pham, Binh T.; ...

    2015-06-04

    This study presents the development of diagnostic and prognostic capabilities for active assets in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The research was performed under the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Technologies Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Idaho National Laboratory researched, developed, implemented, and demonstrated diagnostic and prognostic models for generator step-up transformers (GSUs). The Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software developed by the Electric Power Research Institute was used to perform diagnosis and prognosis. As part of the research activity, Idaho National Laboratory implemented 22 GSU diagnostic models in the Asset Fault Signature Database and twomore » wellestablished GSU prognostic models for the paper winding insulation in the Remaining Useful Life Database of the FW-PHM Suite. The implemented models along with a simulated fault data stream were used to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic capabilities of the FW-PHM Suite. Knowledge of the operating condition of plant asset gained from diagnosis and prognosis is critical for the safe, productive, and economical long-term operation of the current fleet of NPPs. This research addresses some of the gaps in the current state of technology development and enables effective application of diagnostics and prognostics to nuclear plant assets.« less

  6. Purification of Active Myrosinase from Plants by Aqueous Two-Phase Counter-Current Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Kristina L.; Ito, Yoichiro; Ramarathnam, Aarthi; Holtzclaw, W. David; Fahey, Jed W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase; E.C. 3.2.1.147), is a plant enzyme of increasing interest and importance to the biomedical community. Myrosinase catalyses the formation of isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane (frombroccoli) and 4-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (from moringa), which are potent inducers of the cytoprotective phase-2 response in humans, by hydrolysis of their abundant glucosinolate (β-thioglucoside N-hydroxysulphate) precursors. Objective To develop an aqueous two-phase counter-current chromatography (CCC) system for the rapid, three-step purification of catalytically active myrosinase. Methods A high-concentration potassium phosphate and polyethylene glycol biphasic aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is used with a newly developed CCC configuration that utilises spiral-wound, flat-twisted tubing (with an ovoid cross-section). Results Making the initial crude plant extract directly in the ATPS and injecting only the lower phase permitted highly selective partitioning of the myrosinase complex before a short chromatography on a spiral disk CCC. Optimum phase retention and separation of myrosinase from other plant proteins afforded a 60-fold purification. Conclusion Catalytically active myrosinase is purified from 3-day broccoli sprouts, 7-day daikon sprouts, mustard seeds and the leaves of field-grown moringa trees, in a CCC system that is predictably scalable. PMID:25130502

  7. Medicinal plants from the Yanesha (Peru): evaluation of the leishmanicidal and antimalarial activity of selected extracts.

    PubMed

    Valadeau, Céline; Pabon, Adriana; Deharo, Eric; Albán-Castillo, Joaquina; Estevez, Yannick; Lores, Fransis Augusto; Rojas, Rosario; Gamboa, Dionicia; Sauvain, Michel; Castillo, Denis; Bourdy, Geneviève

    2009-06-25

    Ninety-four ethanolic extracts of plants used medicinally by the Yanesha, an Amazonian Peruvian ethnic group, for affections related to leishmaniasis and malaria were screened in vitro against Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes and against a Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant strain. The viability of Leishmania amazonensis amastigote stages was assessed by the reduction of tetrazolium salt (MTT) while the impact on Plasmodium falciparum was determined by measuring the incorporation of radio-labelled hypoxanthine. Six plant species displayed good activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant strain (IC(50) < 10 microg/ml): a Monimiaceae, Siparuna aspera (Ruiz & Pavon), A. DC., two Zingiberaceae, Renealmia thyrsoidea (Ruiz & Pavon) Poepp. & Endl. and Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.), two Piperaceae (Piper aduncum L. and Piper sp.) and the leaves of Jacaranda copaia (Aubl.) D. Don (Bignoniaceae). Eight species displayed interesting leishmanicidal activities (IC50 < 10 microg/ml): Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae), Piper dennisii Trel (Piperaceae), Hedychium coronarium J. König (Zingiberaceae), Cestrum racemosum Ruiz & Pav. (Solanaceae), Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.) Zingiberaceae, Lantana sp. (Verbenaceae), Hyptis lacustris A. St.-Hil. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae) and Calea montana Klat. (Asteraceae). Most of them are used against skin affections by Yanesha people. Results are discussed herein, according to the traditional use of the plants and compared with data obtained from the literature.

  8. In vitro anti-proliferative activity on colon cancer cell line (HT-29) of Thai medicinal plants selected from Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III".

    PubMed

    Manosroi, Aranya; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Jantrawut, Pensak; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-02-23

    Thai/Lanna region has its own folklore wisdoms including the traditional medicinal plant recipes. Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III" has been developed by Prof. Dr. Jiradej Manosroi. It consists of over 200,000 recipes for all diseases including cancer. To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities on human colon cancer cell line (HT-29) as well as the cancer cell selectivity of the methanolic extracts (MEs) and fractions of the 23 selected plants from the "MANOSROI III" database. The 23 selected plants were extracted with methanol under reflux and evaluated for their anti-proliferative activity by sulforhodamine B assay. The 5 plants (Gloriosa superba, Caesalpinia sappan, Fibraurea tinctoria, Ventilago denticulata and Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) with potent anti-proliferative activity were fractionated by liquid-liquid partition to give 4 fractions including each hexane (HF), methanol-water (MF), n-butanol (BF) and water (WF) fractions. They were tested for anti-proliferative activity and cancer cell selectivity. The ME and fractions of G. superba which showed potent anti-proliferative activity were further examined for morphological changes and apoptotic activities by acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) staining. The ME of G. superba root showed active with the highest anti-proliferative activity at 9.17 and 1.58 folds of cisplatin and doxorubicin, respectively. After liquid-liquid partition, HF of V. denticulata, MFs of F. tinctoria, V. denticulata and BF of P. tetragonolobus showed higher anti-proliferative activities than their MEs. The MF of G. superba indicated the highest anti-proliferative activity at 7.73 and 1.34 folds of cisplatin and doxorubicin, respectively, but only 0.86 fold of its ME. The ME and HF, MF and BF of G. superba and MF of F. tinctoria demonstrated high cancer cell selectivity. At 50 µg/ml, ME, HF, MF and BF of G. superba demonstrated higher apoptotic activities than the two standard drugs

  9. Evaluation of an ethnopharmacologically selected Bhutanese medicinal plants for their major classes of phytochemicals and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Keller, Paul A; Pyne, Stephen G; Taweechotipatr, Malai; Tonsomboon, Aunchalee; Rattanajak, Roonglawan; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee

    2011-09-01

    As many as 229 medicinal plants have been currently used in the Bhutanese Traditional Medicine (BTM) as a chief ingredient of polyherbal formulations and these plants have been individually indicated for treating various types of infections including malaria, tumor, and microbial. We have focused our study only on seven species of these plants. We aim to evaluate the antiplasmodial, antimicrobial, anti-Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and cytotoxicity activities of the seven medicinal plants of Bhutan selected using an ethno-directed bio-rational approach. This study creates a scientific basis for their use in the BTM and gives foundation for further phytochemical and biological evaluations which can result in the discovery of new drug lead compounds. A three stage process was conducted which consisted of: (1) an assessment of a pharmacopoeia and a formulary book of the BTM for their mode of plant uses; (2) selecting 25 anti-infective medicinal plants based on the five established criteria, collecting them, and screening for their major classes of phytochemicals using appropriate test protocols; and (3) finally analyzing the crude extracts of the seven medicinal plants, using the standard test protocols, for their antiplasmodial, antimicrobial, anti-Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and cytotoxicity activities as directed by the ethnopharmacological uses of each plant. Out of 25 medicinal plants screened for their major classes of phytochemicals, the majority contained tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids. Out of the seven plant species investigated for their biological activities, all seven of them exhibited mild antimicrobial properties, five plants gave significant in vitro antiplasmodial activities, two plants gave moderate anti-Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense activity, and one plant showed mild cytotoxicity. Meconopsis simplicifolia showed the highest antiplasmodial activity with IC(50) values of 0.40 μg/ml against TM4/8.2 strain (a wild type chloroquine and

  10. Enzyme Activities at Different Stages of Plant Biomass Decomposition in Three Species of Fungus-Growing Termites

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Kristine S. K.; Aanen, Duur K.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fungus-growing termites rely on mutualistic fungi of the genus Termitomyces and gut microbes for plant biomass degradation. Due to a certain degree of symbiont complementarity, this tripartite symbiosis has evolved as a complex bioreactor, enabling decomposition of nearly any plant polymer, likely contributing to the success of the termites as one of the main plant decomposers in the Old World. In this study, we evaluated which plant polymers are decomposed and which enzymes are active during the decomposition process in two major genera of fungus-growing termites. We found a diversity of active enzymes at different stages of decomposition and a consistent decrease in plant components during the decomposition process. Furthermore, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that termites transport enzymes from the older mature parts of the fungus comb through young worker guts to freshly inoculated plant substrate. However, preliminary fungal RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses suggest that this likely transport is supplemented with enzymes produced in situ. Our findings support that the maintenance of an external fungus comb, inoculated with an optimal mixture of plant material, fungal spores, and enzymes, is likely the key to the extraordinarily efficient plant decomposition in fungus-growing termites. IMPORTANCE Fungus-growing termites have a substantial ecological footprint in the Old World (sub)tropics due to their ability to decompose dead plant material. Through the establishment of an elaborate plant biomass inoculation strategy and through fungal and bacterial enzyme contributions, this farming symbiosis has become an efficient and versatile aerobic bioreactor for plant substrate conversion. Since little is known about what enzymes are expressed and where they are active at different stages of the decomposition process, we used enzyme assays, transcriptomics, and plant content measurements to shed light on how this decomposition of plant

  11. Enzyme Activities at Different Stages of Plant Biomass Decomposition in Three Species of Fungus-Growing Termites.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Rafael R; Hu, Haofu; Pilgaard, Bo; Vreeburg, Sabine M E; Schückel, Julia; Pedersen, Kristine S K; Kračun, Stjepan K; Busk, Peter K; Harholt, Jesper; Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Lange, Lene; Aanen, Duur K; Poulsen, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Fungus-growing termites rely on mutualistic fungi of the genus Termitomyces and gut microbes for plant biomass degradation. Due to a certain degree of symbiont complementarity, this tripartite symbiosis has evolved as a complex bioreactor, enabling decomposition of nearly any plant polymer, likely contributing to the success of the termites as one of the main plant decomposers in the Old World. In this study, we evaluated which plant polymers are decomposed and which enzymes are active during the decomposition process in two major genera of fungus-growing termites. We found a diversity of active enzymes at different stages of decomposition and a consistent decrease in plant components during the decomposition process. Furthermore, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that termites transport enzymes from the older mature parts of the fungus comb through young worker guts to freshly inoculated plant substrate. However, preliminary fungal RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses suggest that this likely transport is supplemented with enzymes produced in situ Our findings support that the maintenance of an external fungus comb, inoculated with an optimal mixture of plant material, fungal spores, and enzymes, is likely the key to the extraordinarily efficient plant decomposition in fungus-growing termites. IMPORTANCE Fungus-growing termites have a substantial ecological footprint in the Old World (sub)tropics due to their ability to decompose dead plant material. Through the establishment of an elaborate plant biomass inoculation strategy and through fungal and bacterial enzyme contributions, this farming symbiosis has become an efficient and versatile aerobic bioreactor for plant substrate conversion. Since little is known about what enzymes are expressed and where they are active at different stages of the decomposition process, we used enzyme assays, transcriptomics, and plant content measurements to shed light on how this decomposition of plant substrate is so

  12. Screening for antibacterial activity of some Turkish plants against fish pathogens: a possible alternative in the treatment of bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Turker, Hakan; Yıldırım, Arzu Birinci

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of ethanolic and aqueous crude extracts from 36 plants in Turkey, including seven endemic species, against fish pathogens was studied using the disc diffusion assay. The extract that was most active against all microbial strains, except Aeromonas salmonicida, was that of Dorycnium pentaphyllum. Some of the extracts also showed a very broad spectrum of potent antimicrobial activity. The extract of Anemone nemorosa showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Vibrio anguillarum. V. anguillarum, a Gram-negative bacterium, appeared to be the most susceptible to the plant extracts used in this experiment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of 11 of the studied plants. The preliminary screening assay indicated that some of the Turkish plants with antibacterial properties may offer alternative therapeutic agents against bacterial infections in aquaculture industry. PMID:26019642

  13. Growth Media Affect Assessment of Antimicrobial Activity of Plant-Derived Polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Ou, Zhen M; Wu, Christine D

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of different microbial growth media on the laboratory assessment of antimicrobial activity of natural polyphenolic compounds. The inhibition of the tea polyphenol EGCG on growth of selected oral microorganisms was evaluated in complex media and a protein-free chemically defined medium (CDM). Other antimicrobial agents (polyphenolic grape seed extract, plant alkaloid berberine, methyl salicylate, and chlorhexidine gluconate) were also tested in the study. The presence of proteins and their effects on the antimicrobial activity of EGCG were investigated by the addition of BSA to the CDM. The MICs of EGCG against test oral microorganisms were 4 to 64 times higher in complex media than in CDM. The polyphenolic grape seed extract exhibited similar discrepancies. However, the MICs of the nonpolyphenolic compounds (berberine, methyl salicylate, and chlorhexidine) were not significantly different between the two growth media. The MIC of EGCG against S. mutans UA159 in CDM with added BSA was 16 times higher than that in CDM alone. Therefore, nonproteinaceous CDM should be used to avoid interference of proteins with the active ingredients when testing the antimicrobial activity of plant-derived polyphenolic compounds against microorganisms. This will also minimize the discrepancies noted in results obtained by different investigators.

  14. Phytochemical screening, antiglycation and antioxidant activities of whole plant of Boerhavia repens L. from Cholistan, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nazneen, Fariha; Sheikh, Munir A; Jameel, Amir; Rahman, Ziaur

    2016-05-01

    Present study was aimed to explore a traditionally used indigenous medicinal plant Boerhavia repens (Nyctaginaceae family) of the Cholistan desert, Pakistan. Crude aqueous and methanolic extracts of the whole plant were investigated in vitro for preliminary phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antiglycation activities. Antioxidant activities were determined by total phenolic contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. For antiglycation activities browning production was noted and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) technique was used to determine glycation level. Boerhavia repens expressed considerable amounts of phytochemicals. Extract yield was found to be 4.59%-7.85% g/100g of dry matter with total phenolics ranging from 47.9- 190.77mg/GAE per g for aqueous and methanol extract respectively. Strong inhibitory effect was exhibited by methanolic extract in linoleic acid per oxidation system (86.11%, EC50=0.99mg/mL) and DPPH assay (88.65%, EC50=212.33μg/ml). In term of browning maximum inhibition (81.50%) was exhibited by methanolic extract at 37°C at third week of incubation. Both extracts expressed significant (P>0.05) and comparable inhibition of glycation level. In conclusion, Boerhavia repens showed promising antioxidant and antiglycation activities validating its therapeutic potential.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of different agave plants and the compound cantalasaponin-1.

    PubMed

    Monterrosas-Brisson, Nayeli; Ocampo, Martha L Arenas; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Jiménez-Aparicio, Antonio R; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Cortazar, Manases; Tortoriello, Jaime; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel

    2013-07-10

    Species of the agave genus, such as Agave tequilana, Agave angustifolia and Agave americana are used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat inflammation-associated conditions. These plants' leaves contain saponin compounds which show anti-inflammatory properties in different models. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory capacity of these plants, identify which is the most active, and isolate the active compound by a bio-directed fractionation using the ear edema induced in mice with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) technique. A dose of 6 mg/ear of acetone extract from the three agave species induced anti-inflammatory effects, however, the one from A. americana proved to be the most active. Different fractions of this species showed biological activity. Finally the F5 fraction at 2.0 mg/ear induced an inhibition of 85.6%. We identified one compound in this fraction as (25R)-5α-spirostan-3β,6α,23α-triol-3,6-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (cantalasaponin-1) through 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral analysis and two dimensional experiments like DEPT NMR, COSY, HSQC and HMBC. This steroidal glycoside showed a dose dependent effect of up to 90% of ear edema inhibition at the highest dose of 1.5 mg/ear.

  16. A Review on the Medicinal Plant Dalbergia odorifera Species: Phytochemistry and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The crucial medicinal plant Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen species belongs to genus Dalbergia, with interesting secondary metabolites, consisting of main classes of flavonoid, phenol, and sesquiterpene derivatives, as well as several arylbenzofurans, quinones, and fatty acids. Biological studies were carried out on extracts, fractions, and compounds from this species involved in cytotoxic assays; antibacterial, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antiplatelet, antiosteosarcoma, antiosteoporosis, antiangiogenesis, and prostaglandin biosynthetic enzyme inhibition activities; vasorelaxant activities; alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities; and many other effects. In terms of the valuable resources for natural new drugs development, D. odorifera species are widely used as medicinal drugs in many countries for treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, blood disorders, ischemia, swelling, necrosis, or rheumatic pain. Although natural products from this plant have been increasingly playing an important role in drug discovery programs, there is no supportive evidence to provide a general insight into phytochemical studies on D. odorifera species and biological activities of extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds. To a certain extent, this review deals with an overview of almost naturally occurring compounds from this species, along with extensive coverage of their biological evaluations. PMID:29348771

  17. Antifungal activity of diketopiperazines and stilbenes against plant pathogenic fungi in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Nishanth; Nambisan, Bala

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate antifungal activity of a stilbene and diketopiperazine compounds against plant pathogenic fungi, including Phytophthora capsici, P. colocasiae, Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Minimal inhibition concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of stilbenes and diketopiperazines for each fungus were determined using microplate method. Best activity was recorded by stilbenes against P. capsici and P. colocasiae. All four test compounds were effective in inhibiting different stages of the life cycle of test fungi. Stilbenes were more effective than diketopiperazines in inhibiting mycelial growth and inhibiting different stages of the life cycle of P. capsici and P. colocasiae. Rupture of released zoospores induced by stilbenes was reduced by addition of 100 mM glucose. The effects of stilbenes on mycelial growth and zoospore release, but not zoospore rupture, were reduced largely when pH value was above 7. In addition, stilbenes were investigated for its antifungal stability against Phytophthora sp. The results showed that stilbenes maintained strong fungistatic activity over a wide pH range (pH 4–9) and temperature range (70–120 °C). The compound stilbenes exhibited strong and stable broad-spectrum antifungal activity, and had a significant fungicidal effect on fungal cells. Results from prebiocontrol evaluations performed to date are probably useful in the search for alternative approaches to controlling serious plant pathogens.

  18. Importance of plant species and external silicon concentration to active silicon uptake and transport.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yongchao; Hua, Haixia; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Zhang, Jie; Cheng, Chunmei; Römheld, Volker

    2006-01-01

    Here, we characterized silicon (Si) uptake and xylem loading in Oryza sativa, Zea mays, Helianthus annuus and Benincase hispida in a series of hydroponic experiments. Both active and passive Si-uptake components co-exist in all the plants tested. The active component is the major mechanism responsible for Si uptake in O. sativa and Z. mays. By contrast, passive uptake prevails in H. annuus and B. hispida at a higher external Si concentration (0.85 mM), while the active component constantly exists and contributes to the total Si uptake, especially at a lower external Si concentration (0.085 mM). Short experiments showed that Si uptake was significantly suppressed in O. sativa and Z. mays by metabolic inhibitors or low temperature, regardless of external Si concentrations. By contrast, Si uptake in H. annuus and B. hispida was inhibited more significantly by metabolic inhibitors or low temperature at lower (for example, 0.085 mM) than at higher (for example, 1.70 mM) external Si concentrations. It can be concluded that both active and passive Si-uptake components co-exist in O. sativa, Z. mays, H. annuus and B. hispida, with their relative contribution being dependent much upon both plant species and external Si concentrations.

  19. Anti-plasmodial activity of some Zulu medicinal plants and of some triterpenes isolated from them.

    PubMed

    Simelane, Mthokozisi B C; Shonhai, Addmore; Shode, Francis O; Smith, Peter; Singh, Mogie; Opoku, Andy R

    2013-10-08

    Mimusops caffra E. Mey. ex A.DC and Mimusops obtusifolia Lam (both members of the Sapotaceae family), and Hypoxis colchicifolia Bak (family Hypoxidaceae) are used by traditional healers in Zululand to manage malaria. Anti-plasmodial investigation of the crude extracts and some triterpenes isolated from the plants showed activity against a chloroquine sensitive (CQS) strain of Plasmodium falciparum (D10). Among the crude extracts the leaves of M. caffra exhibited the highest activity, with an IC₅₀ of 2.14 μg/mL. The pentacyclic tritepenoid ursolic acid (1), isolated from the leaves of M. caffra was the most active compound (IC₅₀ 6.8 μg/mL) as compared to taraxerol (2) and sawamilletin (3) isolated from the stem bark of M. obtusifolia (IC₅₀ > 100). Chemical modification of the ursolic acid (1) to 3β-acetylursolic acid (4) greatly enhanced its anti-plasmodial activity. Compound 4 reduced parasitaemia against Plasmodium berghei by 94.01% in in vivo studies in mice. The cytotoxicity of 3β-acetylursolic acid (IC₅₀) to two human cell lines (HEK293 and HepG2) was 366.00 μg/mL and 566.09 μg/mL, respectively. The results validate the use of these plants in folk medicine.

  20. Anti-fungal and Anti-Mycobacterial activity of plants of Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Garza, Blanca Alicia Alanis; Arroyo, Joel López; González, Gloria González; González, Elvira Garza; González, Elvira Garza; de Torres, Noemí Waksman; Aranda, Ricardo Salazar

    2017-01-01

    Severe fungal infections, particularly those caused by Candida spp, have increased in recent decades and are associated with an extremely high rate of morbidity and mortality. Since plants are an important source of potentially bioactive compounds, in this work the antifungal activity of the methanol extracts of 10 plants (Acacia rigidula, Buddleja cordata, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Juglans nigra, Parkinsonia aculeata, Parthenium hysterophorus, Quercus canbyi, Ricinus communis, Salvia coccinea and Teucrium bicolor) were evaluated. The activity was evaluated according to the micro dilution assay described in CLSI M27-A protocol using some clinical isolates of different species of Candida (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. glabrata). All extracts showed MIC values < 31.25μg/mL against at least one of the strains used, which is very interesting because it was crude extracts. Acacia rigidula (0.93-3.75μg/mL) and Quercus canbyi (0.93-7.5μg/mL) had antifungal activity against 7 strains with MIC values <8μg/mL in all cases. Furthermore excerpts activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (strain H37rv) was evaluated. Only Salvia coccinea and Teucrium bicolor showed MIC values125μg/mL by the method of MABA.

  1. High-antibacterial activity of Urtica spp. seed extracts on food and plant pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Körpe, Didem Aksoy; İşerı, Özlem Darcansoy; Sahin, Feride Iffet; Cabi, Evren; Haberal, Mehmet

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate antibacterial activities of methanol (MetOH) and aqueous (dw) leaf (L), root (R) and seed (S) extracts of Urtica dioica L. (Ud; stinging nettle) and Urtica pilulifera L. (Up; Roman nettle) on both food- and plant-borne pathogens, with total phenolic contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities (DRSA). MetOH extracts of leaves and roots of U. dioica had the highest DRSA. Extracts with high antibacterial activity were in the order Up-LMetOH (13/16) > Ud-SMetOH (11/16) > Up-SMetOH (9/16). Results obtained with Up-SMetOH against food spoiling Bacillus pumilus, Shigella spp. and Enterococcus gallinarum with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in 128-1024 μg/ml range seem to be promising. Up-SMetOH also exerted strong inhibition against Clavibacter michiganensis with a considerably low MIC (32 μg/ml). Ud-SMetOH and Up-LMetOH were also effective against C. michiganensis (MIC = 256 and 1024 μg/ml, respectively). Ud-SMetOH and Ud-RMetOH had also antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas vesicatoria (MIC = 512 and 1024 μg/ml, respectively). Results presented here demonstrate high-antibacterial activity of U. pilulifera extracts and U. dioica seed extract against phytopathogens for the first time, and provide the most comprehensive data on the antibacterial activity screening of U. pilulifera against food-borne pathogens. Considering limitations in plant disease control, antibacterial activities of these extracts would be of agricultural importance.

  2. Plant species affect colonization patterns and metabolic activity of associated endophytes during phytoremediation of crude oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Fatima, K; Imran, A; Amin, I; Khan, Q M; Afzal, M

    2016-04-01

    Plants coupled with endophytic bacteria hold great potential for the remediation of polluted environment. The colonization patterns and activity of inoculated endophytes in rhizosphere and endosphere of host plant are among the primary factors that may influence the phytoremediation process. However, these colonization patterns and metabolic activity of the inoculated endophytes are in turn controlled by none other than the host plant itself. The present study aims to determine such an interaction specifically for plant-endophyte systems remediating crude oil-contaminated soil. A consortium (AP) of two oil-degrading endophytic bacteria (Acinetobacter sp. strain BRSI56 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BRRI54) was inoculated to two grasses, Brachiaria mutica and Leptochloa fusca, vegetated in crude oil-contaminated soil. Colonization patterns and metabolic activity of the endophytes were monitored in the rhizosphere and endosphere of the plants. Bacterial augmentation enhanced plant growth and crude oil degradation. Maximum crude oil degradation (78%) was achieved with B. mutica plants inoculated with AP consortium. This degradation was significantly higher than those treatments, where plants and bacteria were used individually or L. fusca and endophytes were used in combination. Moreover, colonization and metabolic activity of the endophytes were higher in the rhizosphere and endosphere of B. mutica than L. fusca. The plant species affected not only colonization pattern and biofilm formation of the inoculated bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of the host plant but also affected the expression of alkane hydroxylase gene, alkB. Hence, the investigation revealed that plant species can affect colonization patterns and metabolic activity of inoculated endophytic bacteria and ultimately the phytoremediation process.

  3. Effects of antimony on redox activities and antioxidant defence systems in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Alfonso; Garrido, Inmaculada; Casimiro, Ilda; Espinosa, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The alterations induced by the toxicity of antimony (Sb) in the roots and leaves of sunflower plants were determined. The plants were grown hydroponically with different concentrations of Sb, a heavy metal which reduces biomass production and growth. There was preferential accumulation of Sb in the tissues of the roots, with the concentrations in the leaves being much lower. The accumulation of other mineral elements was also altered, especially that of Fe and Zn. Chlorophyll content declined, as also did the photosynthetic efficiency, but the carotenoid content remained unaltered. The total content of phenolics, flavonoids, and phenylpropanoid glycosides rose, evidence of their participation in the defence response. Increases were observed in the amount of superoxide anion in both roots and leaves, and in lipid peroxidation levels, especially with the highest Sb concentration of 1.0 mM. The induced oxidative stress leads to a strong increase in the SOD, POX and APX antioxidant activities, while the GR activity was only increased in the leaves and at the 1.0 mM Sb concentration. In contrast, the DHAR activity increased considerably in both organs. The GSNOR activity increased only in roots, and the total RSNOs increased. The total amount of AsA + DHA increased in roots and remained unaltered in leaves, whereas that of GSH + GSSG decreased considerably in all cases. As a whole, these results are evidence for the development of a strong oxidative stress induced by Sb, with there being a clear imbalance in the content of the compounds that constitute the AsA/GSH cycle. 0.5 mM Sb enhances GST expression, especially in leaves. This, together with the increase that was observed in the amount of GSH, may play an important part in detoxification. This oxidative stress affects both the phenolic and the ROS/RNS metabolic processes, which seems to implicate their involvement in the plant's defence and response to the stress.

  4. Antioxidant activity and peroxidase inhibition of Amazonian plants extracts traditionally used as anti-inflammatory.

    PubMed

    de Vargas, Fabiano S; Almeida, Patricia D O; de Boleti, Ana Paula A; Pereira, Maria M; de Souza, Tatiane P; de Vasconcellos, Marne C; Nunez, Cecilia Veronica; Pohlit, Adrian M; Lima, Emerson S

    2016-02-27

    The Amazon is the largest rainforest in the world and is home to a rich biodiversity of medicinal plants. Several of these plants are used by the local population for the treatment of diseases, many of those with probable anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and anti-peroxidases potential of the ethanol extracts of five plants from the Brazilian Amazon (Byrsonima japurensis, Calycophyllum spruceanum, Maytenus guyanensis, Passiflora nitida and Ptychopetalum olacoides). DPPH, ABTS, superoxide anion radical, singlet oxygen and the β-carotene bleaching methods were employed for characterization of free radical scavenging activity. Also, total polyphenols were determined. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using murine fibroblast NIH3T3 cell. Inhibition of HRP and MPO were evaluated using amplex red® as susbtract. The stem bark extracts of C. spruceanum and M. guyanensis provided the highest free radical scavenging activities. C. spruceanum exhibited IC50 = 7.5 ± 0.9, 5.0 ± 0.1, 18.2 ± 3.0 and 92.4 ± 24.8 μg/mL for DPPH(•), ABTS(+•), O2 (-•) and (1)O2 assays, respectively. P. olacoides and C. spruceanum extracts also inhibited free radicals formation in the cell-based assay. At a concentration of 100 μg/mL, the extracts of C. spruceanum, B. japurensis inhibited horseradish peroxidase by 62 and 50 %, respectively. C. spruceanum, M. guyanensis, B. japurensis also inhibited myeloperoxidase in 72, 67 and 56 %, respectively. This work supports the folk use these species that inhibited peroxidases and exhibited significant free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities what can be related to treatment of inflammation.

  5. Effects of antimony on redox activities and antioxidant defence systems in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Alfonso; Garrido, Inmaculada; Casimiro, Ilda

    2017-01-01

    The alterations induced by the toxicity of antimony (Sb) in the roots and leaves of sunflower plants were determined. The plants were grown hydroponically with different concentrations of Sb, a heavy metal which reduces biomass production and growth. There was preferential accumulation of Sb in the tissues of the roots, with the concentrations in the leaves being much lower. The accumulation of other mineral elements was also altered, especially that of Fe and Zn. Chlorophyll content declined, as also did the photosynthetic efficiency, but the carotenoid content remained unaltered. The total content of phenolics, flavonoids, and phenylpropanoid glycosides rose, evidence of their participation in the defence response. Increases were observed in the amount of superoxide anion in both roots and leaves, and in lipid peroxidation levels, especially with the highest Sb concentration of 1.0 mM. The induced oxidative stress leads to a strong increase in the SOD, POX and APX antioxidant activities, while the GR activity was only increased in the leaves and at the 1.0 mM Sb concentration. In contrast, the DHAR activity increased considerably in both organs. The GSNOR activity increased only in roots, and the total RSNOs increased. The total amount of AsA + DHA increased in roots and remained unaltered in leaves, whereas that of GSH + GSSG decreased considerably in all cases. As a whole, these results are evidence for the development of a strong oxidative stress induced by Sb, with there being a clear imbalance in the content of the compounds that constitute the AsA/GSH cycle. 0.5 mM Sb enhances GST expression, especially in leaves. This, together with the increase that was observed in the amount of GSH, may play an important part in detoxification. This oxidative stress affects both the phenolic and the ROS/RNS metabolic processes, which seems to implicate their involvement in the plant's defence and response to the stress. PMID:28873463

  6. Plant proteolytic enzyme papain abrogates angiogenic activation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of physiologic and pathogenic angiogenesis in diseases such as cancer and diabetic retinopathy. It is known that cysteine proteases from plants, like bromelain and papain are capable to suppress inflammatory activation. Recent studies have demonstrated that they may interfere with angiogenesis related pathways as well. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-angiogenic effects of papain on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro. Methods Cell viability after prolonged treatment with papain was investigated by life cell staining and lactate dehydrogenase release assay. Angiogenic activation was assessed by ELISA against phosphorylated proteins AKT, MEK1/2, ERK1/2, SAPK/JNK and p38-MAPK. Growth inhibition was determined by means of an MTT-assay and cell migration by means of a scratch assay. Capability to form a capillary network was investigated using a tube formation assay. Results Papain did not induce proteolysis or cell detachment of HUVEC in a concentration range between 0 and 25 μg/mL. Four hours treatment with 10 μg/mL papain resulted in a reduced susceptibility of endothelial cells to activation by VEGF as determined by phosphorylation levels of Akt, MEK1/2, SAPK/JNK. Papain exerted a distinct inhibitory effect on cell growth, cell migration and tube formation with inhibition of tube formation detectable at concentrations as low as 1 μg/mL. Bromelain and ficin displayed similar effects with regard to cell growth and tube formation. Conclusion Papain showed a strong anti-angiogenic effect in VEGF activated HUVEC. This effect may be due to interference with AKT, MEK1/2 and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Two other plant derived cysteine proteases displayed similar inhibition of HUVEC cell growth and tube formation. These findings indicate that plant proteolytic enzymes may have potential as preventive and therapeutic agents against angiogenesis related human diseases

  7. A review of chemistry and biological activities of the genus Aerva--a desert plant.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Payal; Chawla, Amit; Vasudeva, Neeru; Sharma, Surendra Kumar

    2012-01-01

    There are approximately 28 species of Aerva genus, but only a few species are medicinal of which A. persica, A. lanata and A. javanica are of great value. A number of flavonol glycosides (e.g., aervanone, kaempferol-3-galactoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside) have been reported from Aerva persica as major phytoconstituents and the minor constituents are β-cyanins (glycine betaine and trigonelline), sterols and carbohydrates. This plant is used as medicinal herb in several traditional systems of medicine all over the world, like diuretic, demulcent, purgative, emetic and tinder. Aerva plants are used to cure ulcer, lithiasis, dropsical affections, eye affection, toothache, headache, in disorders of abdomen and inflammation of internal organs. Roots and flowers are reported to possess hypoglycemic, antioxidant, anthelmintic, analgesic, antimalarial, antivenin activities and medicinal properties against rheumatism and kidney troubles.

  8. Phytotoxic Activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Different Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) plant extracts was investigated against the germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and timothy (Phleum pratense) at four different concentrations. The plant extracts at concentrations greater than 30 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1 reduced significantly the total germination percent (GP), germination index (GI), germination energy (GE), speed of emergence (SE), seedling vigour index (SVI), and coefficient of the rate of germination (CRG) of all test species except barnyard grass and GP of lettuce. In contrast, time required for 50% germination (T 50) and mean germination time (MGT) were increased at the same or higher than this concentration. The increasing trend of T 50 and MGT and the decreasing trend of other indices indicated a significant inhibition or delay of germination of the test species by O. tenuiflorum plant extracts and vice versa. In addition, the shoot and root growth of all test species were significantly inhibited by the extracts at concentrations greater than 10 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. The I 50 values for shoot and root growth were ranged from 26 to 104 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. Seedling growth was more sensitive to the extracts compared to seed germination. Results of this study suggest that O. tenuiflorum plant extracts have phytotoxic properties and thus contain phytotoxic substances. Isolation and characterization of those substances from this plant may act as a tool for new natural, biodegradable herbicide development to control weeds. PMID:25032234

  9. Anti-spermatogenic activities of Taraxacum officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts

    PubMed Central

    Tahtamouni, Lubna Hamid; Al-Khateeb, Rema Ahmad; Abdellatif, Reem Nasser; Al-Mazaydeh, Zainab Ali; Yasin, Salem Refaat; Al-Gharabli, Samer; Elkarmi, Ali Zuhair

    2016-01-01

    Taraxacum officinale has been used in Jordan folk medicine to treat male infertility. A recent study has proved a contradictory effect of the whole plant aqueous extract. The aim of the current study was to determine if the leaves of T. officinale have similar anti-fertility activities, and whether this effect is mediated through the regulation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Fifty adult male rats were divided into five groups. Two groups were gavaged with 1/10 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (1.06 g kg-1 body weight) or leaves (2.30 g kg-1 body weight) aqueous extract; while two groups were gavaged with 1/20 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (2.13 g kg-1) or leaves (4.60 g kg-1) extract. The control group received distilled water. Oral administration of T. officinale (whole plant and leaves aqueous extract) caused a significant decrease in testis and seminal vesicle weight, a reduction in serum testosterone concentration, impaired sperm parameters, and a decrease in pregnancy parameters. Testicular histology of treated rats showed structural changes such as hypoplasia of germ cells, reduction in the thickness of germinal epithelium, arrest of spermatogenesis at spermatid stage (late maturation arrest) and reduction in the number of Leydig cells. Gene expression levels of two SSCs markers (GFRα1 and CSF1) responsible for self-renewal were relatively counter-balanced. In conclusion, T. officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts changed the gene expression of two SSCs markers leading to the imbalance between spermatogonia self-renewal and differentiation causing late maturation arrest. PMID:27482352

  10. Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum extracts on germination and seedling growth of different plant species.

    PubMed

    Islam, A K M Mominul; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) plant extracts was investigated against the germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and timothy (Phleum pratense) at four different concentrations. The plant extracts at concentrations greater than 30 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL(-1) reduced significantly the total germination percent (GP), germination index (GI), germination energy (GE), speed of emergence (SE), seedling vigour index (SVI), and coefficient of the rate of germination (CRG) of all test species except barnyard grass and GP of lettuce. In contrast, time required for 50% germination (T 50) and mean germination time (MGT) were increased at the same or higher than this concentration. The increasing trend of T 50 and MGT and the decreasing trend of other indices indicated a significant inhibition or delay of germination of the test species by O. tenuiflorum plant extracts and vice versa. In addition, the shoot and root growth of all test species were significantly inhibited by the extracts at concentrations greater than 10 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL(-1). The I 50 values for shoot and root growth were ranged from 26 to 104 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL(-1). Seedling growth was more sensitive to the extracts compared to seed germination. Results of this study suggest that O. tenuiflorum plant extracts have phytotoxic properties and thus contain phytotoxic substances. Isolation and characterization of those substances from this plant may act as a tool for new natural, biodegradable herbicide development to control weeds.

  11. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. I. Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, A; López, B; González, S; Berger, I; Tada, I; Maki, J

    1998-10-01

    Extracts were prepared from 13 native plants used for the treatment of protozoal infections. Activity against bacteria and fungi was demonstrated by dilution procedures; Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in vitro against epimastigote and trypomastigotes and in vivo against trypomastigotes. In active extracts, toxicity was evaluated by Artemia salina nauplii, oral acute toxicity (1-5 g/kg) and oral and intraperitoneal subacute toxicity in mice (500 mg/kg). From the plants screened, six showed activity (< or = 2 mg/ml) against bacteria, three against yeasts, five against Microsporum gypseum and five against T. cruzi in vitro and/or in vivo. In vitro and in vivo activity was demonstrated by Neurolaena lobata and Solanum americanum; in vitro or in vivo activity was shown by Acalypha guatemalensis, Petiveria alliacea and Tridax procumbens. Toxicity studies showed that extracts from S. americanum are toxic to A. salina (aqueous, 160 ppm). None showed acute or oral toxicity to mice; S. americanum showed intraperitoneal subacute toxicity.

  12. Transmutation and activation of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel in molten salt cooled fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, E. T.

    2004-08-01

    Neutron activation analysis was conducted for the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel used in flibe molten-salt cooled fusion blankets. After 22.4 MW yr/m 2 of neutron exposure, the RAFM steel first wall in a molten salt blanket with 40% lithium-6 enrichment in lithium was found to be within 1 mSv/h in contact dose rate after 100 yr of cooling. The contact dose rate drops to 30 and 20 μSv/h or less, respectively, when the cooling times are 300 and 500 yr after discharge. The RAFM steel discharged from the high-temperature shield component would be allowed for hands-on recycling after 100 yr of cooling, when the contact dose rate is 10 μSv/h or less. The most significant changes found in the RAFM steel first wall due to nuclear transmutation, are 10% decrease in W and 10% increase in Ti. Additionally, there are minor elements produced: Mn - <1.2%, V - <0.26%, Re - <0.2%, Ta - <0.08%, and Os - <0.1%, all in weight percent. The gaseous elements generated are H and He, and the, respectively, accumulated quantities are about 260 and 190 wppm.

  13. Screening of in vitro antimicrobial activity of plants used in traditional Indonesian medicine.

    PubMed

    Romulo, Andreas; Zuhud, Ervizal A M; Rondevaldova, Johana; Kokoska, Ladislav

    2018-12-01

    In many regions of Indonesia, there are numerous traditional herbal preparations for treatment of infectious diseases. However, their antimicrobial potential has been poorly studied by modern laboratory methods. This study investigates in vitro antimicrobial activity of 49 ethanol extracts from 37 plant species used in Indonesian traditional medicine for treatment against Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The plants were collected from the Biopharmaca collection garden, Bogor, Indonesia. The plant material was dried, finely grounded, extracted using ethanol, concentrated, and the dried residue was dissolved in 100% DMSO. Antimicrobial activity was determined in terms of a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using a broth microdilution method in 96-well microplates. The extract of Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq. (Lamiaceae) leaf produced the strongest antimicrobial effect, inhibiting the growth of C. albicans (MIC 128 μg/mL), S. aureus (MIC 256 μg/mL), E. faecalis (MIC 256 μg/mL) and P. aeruginosa (MIC 256 μg/mL). The leaf extract of Woodfordia floribunda Salisb. (Lythraceae) also exhibited significant effect against C. albicans (MIC 128 μg/mL), S. aureus (MIC 256 μg/mL) and E. faecalis (MIC 256 μg/mL). Rotheca serrata (L.) Steane & Mabb. (Lamiaceae) leaf extract inhibited the growth of S. aureus (MIC 256 µg/mL) and C. albicans (MIC 256 µg/mL). The leaf extract of O. aristatus and W. floribunda exhibited a significant anti-candidal effect. Therefore, both of these plants can serve as prospective source materials for the development of new anti-candidal agents.

  14. Brassica rapa plants adapted to microgravity with reduced photosystem I and its photochemical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiao, Shunxing; Hilaire, Emmanuel; Paulsen, Avelina Q.; Guikema, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus contains several protein complexes, many of which are regulated by environmental conditions. In this study, the influences of microgravity on PSI and PSII in Brassica rapa plants grown aboard the space shuttle were examined. We found that Brassica plants grown in space had a normal level of growth relative to controls under similar conditions on Earth. Upon return to Earth, cotyledons were harvested and thylakoid membranes were isolated. Analysis of chlorophyll contents showed that the Chl a/b ratio (3.5) in flight cotyledons was much higher than a ratio of 2.42 in the ground controls. The flight samples also had a reduction of PSI complexes and a corresponding 30% decrease of PSI photochemical activity. Immunoblotting showed that the reaction centre polypeptides of PSI were more apparently decreased (e.g. by 24-33% for PsaA and PsaB, and 57% for PsaC) than the light-harvesting complexes. In comparison, the accumulation of PSII complex was less affected in microgravity, thus only a slight reduction in D1, D2 and LHCII was observed in protein blots. However, there was a 32% decrease of OEC1 in the flight samples, indicating a defective OEC subcomplex. In addition, an average 54% increase of the 54 kDa CF1-beta isoform was found in the flight samples, suggesting that space-grown plants suffered from certain stresses, consistent with implications of the increased Chl a/b ratio. Taken together, the results demonstrated that Brassica plants can adapt to spaceflight microgravity, but with significant alterations in chloroplast structures and photosynthetic complexes, and especially reduction of PSI and its activity.

  15. Novel aspinolide production by Trichoderma arundinaceum with a potential role in Botrytis cinerea antagonistic activity and plant defense priming

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Harzianum A (HA), a trichothecene produced by Trichoderma arundinaceum, has recently been described to have antagonistic activity against fungal plant pathogens and to induce plant defence genes. In the present work, we have shown that a tri5 genedisrupted mutant that lacks HA production overproduce...