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Sample records for plant clock system

  1. Network news: prime time for systems biology of the plant circadian clock truncated form of the title: Plant circadian clocks

    PubMed Central

    McClung, C. Robertson; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Whole-transcriptome analyses have established that the plant circadian clock regulates virtually every plant biological process and most prominently hormonal and stress response pathways. Systems biology efforts have successfully modeled the plant central clock machinery and an iterative process of model refinement and experimental validation has contributed significantly to the current view of the central clock machinery. The challenge now is to connect this central clock to the output pathways for understanding how the plant circadian clock contributes to plant growth and fitness in a changing environment. Undoubtedly, systems approaches will be needed to integrate and model the vastly increased volume of experimental data in order to extract meaningful biological information. Thus, we have entered an era of systems modeling, experimental testing, and refinement. This approach, coupled with advances from the genetic and biochemical analyses of clock function, is accelerating our progress towards a comprehensive understanding of the plant circadian clock network. PMID:20889330

  2. Network news: prime time for systems biology of the plant circadian clock.

    PubMed

    McClung, C Robertson; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A

    2010-12-01

    Whole-transcriptome analyses have established that the plant circadian clock regulates virtually every plant biological process and most prominently hormonal and stress response pathways. Systems biology efforts have successfully modeled the plant central clock machinery and an iterative process of model refinement and experimental validation has contributed significantly to the current view of the central clock machinery. The challenge now is to connect this central clock to the output pathways for understanding how the plant circadian clock contributes to plant growth and fitness in a changing environment. Undoubtedly, systems approaches will be needed to integrate and model the vastly increased volume of experimental data in order to extract meaningful biological information. Thus, we have entered an era of systems modeling, experimental testing, and refinement. This approach, coupled with advances from the genetic and biochemical analyses of clock function, is accelerating our progress towards a comprehensive understanding of the plant circadian clock network. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phylogenetic footprint of the plant clock system in angiosperms: evolutionary processes of Pseudo-Response Regulators

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant circadian clocks regulate many photoperiodic and diurnal responses that are conserved among plant species. The plant circadian clock system has been uncovered in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, using genetics and systems biology approaches. However, it is still not clear how the clock system had been organized in the evolutionary history of plants. We recently revealed the molecular phylogeny of LHY/CCA1 genes, one of the essential components of the clock system. The aims of this study are to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of angiosperm clock-associated PRR genes, the partner of the LHY/CCA1 genes, and to clarify the evolutionary history of the plant clock system in angiosperm lineages. Results In the present study, to investigate the molecular phylogeny of PRR genes, we performed two approaches: reconstruction of phylogenetic trees and examination of syntenic relationships. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that PRR genes had diverged into three clades prior to the speciation of monocots and eudicots. Furthermore, copy numbers of PRR genes have been independently increased in monocots and eudicots as a result of ancient chromosomal duplication events. Conclusions Based on the molecular phylogenies of both PRR genes and LHY/CCA1 genes, we inferred the evolutionary process of the plant clock system in angiosperms. This scenario provides evolutionary information that a common ancestor of monocots and eudicots had retained the basic components required for reconstructing a clock system and that the plant circadian clock may have become a more elaborate mechanism after the speciation of monocots and eudicots because of the gene expansion that resulted from polyploidy events. PMID:20433765

  4. Phylogenetic footprint of the plant clock system in angiosperms: evolutionary processes of pseudo-response regulators.

    PubMed

    Takata, Naoki; Saito, Shigeru; Saito, Claire Tanaka; Uemura, Matsuo

    2010-05-01

    Plant circadian clocks regulate many photoperiodic and diurnal responses that are conserved among plant species. The plant circadian clock system has been uncovered in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, using genetics and systems biology approaches. However, it is still not clear how the clock system had been organized in the evolutionary history of plants. We recently revealed the molecular phylogeny of LHY/CCA1 genes, one of the essential components of the clock system. The aims of this study are to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of angiosperm clock-associated PRR genes, the partner of the LHY/CCA1 genes, and to clarify the evolutionary history of the plant clock system in angiosperm lineages. In the present study, to investigate the molecular phylogeny of PRR genes, we performed two approaches: reconstruction of phylogenetic trees and examination of syntenic relationships. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that PRR genes had diverged into three clades prior to the speciation of monocots and eudicots. Furthermore, copy numbers of PRR genes have been independently increased in monocots and eudicots as a result of ancient chromosomal duplication events. Based on the molecular phylogenies of both PRR genes and LHY/CCA1 genes, we inferred the evolutionary process of the plant clock system in angiosperms. This scenario provides evolutionary information that a common ancestor of monocots and eudicots had retained the basic components required for reconstructing a clock system and that the plant circadian clock may have become a more elaborate mechanism after the speciation of monocots and eudicots because of the gene expansion that resulted from polyploidy events.

  5. BUGS system clock distributor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Thomas M.

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit board which will provide external clocks and precisely measure the time at which events take place was designed for the Bristol University Gas Spectrometer (BUGS). The board, which was designed to interface both mechanically and electrically to the Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) system, has been named the BUGS system clock control. The board's design and use are described.

  6. Tutorial: Clock and Clock Systems Performance Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    TUTORIAL: CLOCK AND CLOCK SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE MEASURES David W. Allan Allan’s TIME Introduction This tutorial contains basic material...very important ITU Handbook being prepared at this tim; which goes much further than this tutorial has time to do. I highly recommend it as an...the world who have written the ten chapters in this handbook. The title of the Handbook is, "Selection and use of Precise Frequency and Time Systems

  7. Stochastic properties of the plant circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Maria Luisa; Pokhilko, Alexandra; Fernández, Aurora Piñas; Halliday, Karen J; Millar, Andrew J; Hillston, Jane

    2012-04-07

    Circadian clocks are gene regulatory networks whose role is to help the organisms to cope with variations in environmental conditions such as the day/night cycle. In this work, we explored the effects of molecular noise in single cells on the behaviour of the circadian clock in the plant model species Arabidopsis thaliana. The computational modelling language Bio-PEPA enabled us to give a stochastic interpretation of an existing deterministic model of the clock, and to easily compare the results obtained via stochastic simulation and via numerical solution of the deterministic model. First, the introduction of stochasticity in the model allowed us to estimate the unknown size of the system. Moreover, stochasticity improved the description of the available experimental data in several light conditions: noise-induced fluctuations yield a faster entrainment of the plant clock under certain photoperiods and are able to explain the experimentally observed dampening of the oscillations in plants under constant light conditions. The model predicts that the desynchronization between noisy oscillations in single cells contributes to the observed damped oscillations at the level of the cell population. Analysis of the phase, period and amplitude distributions under various light conditions demonstrated robust entrainment of the plant clock to light/dark cycles which closely matched the available experimental data.

  8. Tissue-specific circadian clocks in plants.

    PubMed

    Endo, Motomu

    2016-02-01

    Circadian clocks affect a large proportion of differentially expressed genes in many organisms. Tissue-specific hierarchies in circadian networks in mammals have been contentiously debated, whereas little attention has been devoted to the concept in plants, owing to technical difficulties. Recently, several studies have demonstrated tissue-specific circadian clocks and their coupling in plants, suggesting that plants possess a hierarchical network of circadian clocks. The following review summarizes recent studies describing the tissue-specific functions and properties of these circadian clocks and discusses the network structure and potential messengers that might share temporal information on such a network.

  9. Organ specificity in the plant circadian system is explained by different light inputs to the shoot and root clocks.

    PubMed

    Bordage, Simon; Sullivan, Stuart; Laird, Janet; Millar, Andrew J; Nimmo, Hugh G

    2016-10-01

    Circadian clocks allow the temporal compartmentalization of biological processes. In Arabidopsis, circadian rhythms display organ specificity but the underlying molecular causes have not been identified. We investigated the mechanisms responsible for the similarities and differences between the clocks of mature shoots and roots in constant conditions and in light : dark cycles. We developed an imaging system to monitor clock gene expression in shoots and light- or dark-grown roots, modified a recent mathematical model of the Arabidopsis clock and used this to simulate our new data. We showed that the shoot and root circadian clocks have different rhythmic properties (period and amplitude) and respond differently to light quality. The root clock was entrained by direct exposure to low-intensity light, even in antiphase to the illumination of shoots. Differences between the clocks were more pronounced in conditions where light was present than in constant darkness, and persisted in the presence of sucrose. We simulated the data successfully by modifying those parameters of a clock model that are related to light inputs. We conclude that differences and similarities between the shoot and root clocks can largely be explained by organ-specific light inputs. This provides mechanistic insight into the developing field of organ-specific clocks.

  10. Tutorial: Clock and Clock Systems Performance Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, David W.

    1996-01-01

    This tutorial contains basic material - familiar to many. This will be used as a foundation upon which we will build - bringing forth some new material and equations that have been developed especially for this tutorial. These will provide increased understanding toward parameter estimation of clock and clock system's performance. There is a very important International Telecommunications Union (ITU) handbook being prepared at this time which goes much further than this tutorial has time to do. I highly recommend it as an excellent resource document. The final draft is just now being completed, and it should be ready late in 1996. It is an outstanding handbook; Dr. Sydnor proposed to the ITU-R several years ago, and is the editor with my assistance. We have some of the best contributors in the community from around the world who have written the ten chapters in this handbook. The title of the handbook is 'Selection and use of Precise Frequency and Time Systems'. It will be available from the ITU secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, but NAVTEC Seminars also plans to be a distributor.

  11. The plant circadian clock looks like a traditional Japanese clock rather than a modern Western clock.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Takeshi; Yamashino, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle adaptation to seasonal changes in photoperiod and ambient temperature is a major determinant of the ecological success behind the widespread domestication of flowering plants. The circadian clock plays a role in the underlying mechanism for adaptation through generating endogenous rhythms that allow plants to adapt and adjust to both the 24 h diurnal rotation and 365 d seasonal revolution. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which the circadian clock tracks seasonal changes in photoperiod and temperature is a longstanding subject in the field. Recently, we have begun to understand the question of how the light and ambient temperature signals feed into the circadian clock transcriptional circuitry in day-night cycles in order to track seasonal changes in photoperiod and ambient temperature. (1-4) Our results collectively indicate that the evening complex (EC) nighttime repressor consisting of LUX-ELF3-ELF4 plays a crucial role in this respect. Here, we discuss about these recent studies to add further implications.

  12. Functional independence of circadian clocks that regulate plant gene expression.

    PubMed

    Thain, S C; Hall, A; Millar, A J

    2000-08-24

    Circadian clocks regulate the gene expression, metabolism and behaviour of most eukaryotes, controlling an orderly succession of physiological processes that are synchronised with the environmental day/night cycle. Central circadian pacemakers that control animal behaviour are located in the brains of insects and rodents, but the location of such a pacemaker has not been determined in plants. Peripheral plant and animal tissues also maintain circadian rhythms when isolated in culture, indicating that these tissues contain circadian clocks. The degree of autonomy that the multiple, peripheral circadian clocks have in the intact organism is unclear. We used the bioluminescent luciferase reporter gene to monitor rhythmic expression from three promoters in transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. The rhythmic expression of a single gene could be set at up to three phases in different anatomical locations of a single plant, by applying light/dark treatments to restricted tissue areas. The initial phases were stably maintained after the entraining treatments ended, indicating that the circadian oscillators in intact plants are autonomous. This result held for all the vegetative plant organs and for promoters expressed in all major cell types. The rhythms of one organ were unaffected by entrainment of the rest of the plant, indicating that phase-resetting signals are also autonomous. Higher plants contain a spatial array of autonomous circadian clocks that regulate gene expression without a localised pacemaker. Circadian timing in plants might be less accurate but more flexible than the vertebrate circadian system.

  13. Primary Atomic Clock Reference System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0103191

  14. Primary Atomic Clock Reference System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0100120.

  15. Primary Atomic Clock Reference System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0103191

  16. Primary Atomic Clock Reference System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0100120.

  17. The plant circadian clock looks like a traditional Japanese clock rather than a modern Western clock

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Takeshi; Yamashino, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle adaptation to seasonal changes in photoperiod and ambient temperature is a major determinant of the ecological success behind the widespread domestication of flowering plants. The circadian clock plays a role in the underlying mechanism for adaptation through generating endogenous rhythms that allow plants to adapt and adjust to both the 24 h diurnal rotation and 365 d seasonal revolution. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which the circadian clock tracks seasonal changes in photoperiod and temperature is a longstanding subject in the field. Recently, we have begun to understand the question of how the light and ambient temperature signals feed into the circadian clock transcriptional circuitry in day-night cycles in order to track seasonal changes in photoperiod and ambient temperature.1-4 Our results collectively indicate that the evening complex (EC) nighttime repressor consisting of LUX-ELF3-ELF4 plays a crucial role in this respect. Here, we discuss about these recent studies to add further implications. PMID:26382718

  18. Abiotic stress and the plant circadian clock

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Alfredo; Shin, Jieun

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we focus on the interaction between the circadian clock of higher plants to that of metabolic and physiological processes that coordinate growth and performance under a predictable, albeit changing environment. In this, the phytochrome and cryptochrome photoreceptors have shown to be important, but not essential for oscillator control under diurnal cycles of light and dark. From this foundation, we will examine how emerging findings have firmly linked the circadian clock, as a central mediator in the coordination of metabolism, to maintain homeostasis. This occurs by oscillator synchronization of global transcription, which leads to a dynamic control of a host of physiological processes. These include the determination of the levels of primary and secondary metabolites, and the anticipation of future environmental stresses, such as mid-day drought and midnight coldness. Interestingly, metabolic and stress cues themselves appear to feedback on oscillator function. In such a way, the circadian clock of plants and abiotic-stress tolerance appear to be firmly interconnected processes. PMID:21325898

  19. Oscillator networks with tissue-specific circadian clocks in plants.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Keisuke; Araki, Takashi; Endo, Motomu

    2017-09-08

    Many organisms rely on circadian clocks to synchronize their biological processes with the 24-h rotation of the earth. In mammals, the circadian clock consists of a central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and peripheral clocks in other tissues. The central clock is tightly coupled to synchronize rhythmicity and can organize peripheral clocks through neural and hormonal signals. In contrast to mammals, it has long been assumed that the circadian clocks in each plant cell is able to be entrained by external light, and they are only weakly coupled to each other. Recently, however, several reports have demonstrated that plants have unique oscillator networks with tissue-specific circadian clocks. Here, we introduce our current view regarding tissue-specific properties and oscillator networks of plant circadian clocks. Accumulating evidence suggests that plants have multiple oscillators, which show distinct properties and reside in different tissues. A direct tissue-isolation technique and micrografting have clearly demonstrated that plants have hierarchical oscillator networks consisting of multiple tissue-specific clocks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Global Positioning System Constellation Clock Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    of the Global Positioning System ( GPS ) constellation with respect to the lifetimes of space vehicles and space vehicle clocks, both active and...ABSTRACT An overview of the Global Positioning System ( GPS ) constellation with respect to the lifetimes of space vehicles and space vehicle clocks, both...34th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 77 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM CONSTELLATION CLOCK PERFORMANCE Jay Oaks and Marie

  1. Similarities in the circadian clock and photoperiodism in plants

    PubMed Central

    Song, Young Hun; Ito, Shogo; Imaizumi, Takato

    2010-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Plants utilize circadian clocks to synchronize their physiological and developmental events with daily and yearly changes in the environment. Recent advances in Arabidopsis research have provided a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock and photoperiodism. One of the most important questions is whether the mechanisms studied in Arabidopsis are conserved in other plants. Homologs of many Arabidopsis clock genes have been identified in various plants and some gene functions have been characterized. It seems that the circadian clocks in plants are similar. Recent success in molecular genetics has also revealed the mechanisms of photoperiodic flowering in cereals. The day-length sensing mechanisms appear to have diverged more between long-day plants and short-day plants than the circadian clock. PMID:20620097

  2. A Compact Model for the Complex Plant Circadian Clock

    PubMed Central

    De Caluwé, Joëlle; Xiao, Qiying; Hermans, Christian; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Leloup, Jean-Christophe; Gonze, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock is an endogenous timekeeper that allows organisms to anticipate and adapt to the daily variations of their environment. The plant clock is an intricate network of interlocked feedback loops, in which transcription factors regulate each other to generate oscillations with expression peaks at specific times of the day. Over the last decade, mathematical modeling approaches have been used to understand the inner workings of the clock in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Those efforts have produced a number of models of ever increasing complexity. Here, we present an alternative model that combines a low number of equations and parameters, similar to the very earliest models, with the complex network structure found in more recent ones. This simple model describes the temporal evolution of the abundance of eight clock gene mRNA/protein and captures key features of the clock on a qualitative level, namely the entrained and free-running behaviors of the wild type clock, as well as the defects found in knockout mutants (such as altered free-running periods, lack of entrainment, or changes in the expression of other clock genes). Additionally, our model produces complex responses to various light cues, such as extreme photoperiods and non-24 h environmental cycles, and can describe the control of hypocotyl growth by the clock. Our model constitutes a useful tool to probe dynamical properties of the core clock as well as clock-dependent processes. PMID:26904049

  3. Plant circadian clocks increase photosynthesis, growth, survival, and competitive advantage.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Antony N; Salathia, Neeraj; Hall, Anthony; Kévei, Eva; Tóth, Réka; Nagy, Ferenc; Hibberd, Julian M; Millar, Andrew J; Webb, Alex A R

    2005-07-22

    Circadian clocks are believed to confer an advantage to plants, but the nature of that advantage has been unknown. We show that a substantial photosynthetic advantage is conferred by correct matching of the circadian clock period with that of the external light-dark cycle. In wild type and in long- and short-circadian period mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, plants with a clock period matched to the environment contain more chlorophyll, fix more carbon, grow faster, and survive better than plants with circadian periods differing from their environment. This explains why plants gain advantage from circadian control.

  4. Eliminating Tracking-System Clock Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiun-Tsong; Bertiger, William I.

    1989-01-01

    Problems of redundancy and correlation avoided. ORTHO computer program eliminates effect of clock errors in differential solutions for positions of users of Global Positioning System (GPS). Main application, elimination of clock errors in tracking system based on GPS. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  5. Eliminating Tracking-System Clock Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiun-Tsong; Bertiger, William I.

    1989-01-01

    Problems of redundancy and correlation avoided. ORTHO computer program eliminates effect of clock errors in differential solutions for positions of users of Global Positioning System (GPS). Main application, elimination of clock errors in tracking system based on GPS. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  6. Similarities in the circadian clock and photoperiodism in plants.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Hun; Ito, Shogo; Imaizumi, Takato

    2010-10-01

    Plants utilize circadian clocks to synchronize their physiological and developmental events with daily and yearly changes in the environment. Recent advances in Arabidopsis research have provided a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock and photoperiodism. One of the most important questions is whether the mechanisms discovered in Arabidopsis are conserved in other plant species. Through the identification of many Arabidopsis clock gene homologs and the characterization of some gene functions, a strong resemblance between the circadian clocks in plants has been observed. On the contrary, based on our recent increased knowledge of photoperiodic flowering mechanisms in cereals and other plants, the day-length sensing mechanisms appear to have diverged more between long-day plants and short-day plants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Early evolution of the land plant circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Linde, Anna-Malin; Eklund, D Magnus; Kubota, Akane; Pederson, Eric R A; Holm, Karl; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Nishihama, Ryuichi; Cronberg, Nils; Muranaka, Tomoaki; Oyama, Tokitaka; Kohchi, Takayuki; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2017-10-01

    While angiosperm clocks can be described as an intricate network of interlocked transcriptional feedback loops, clocks of green algae have been modelled as a loop of only two genes. To investigate the transition from a simple clock in algae to a complex one in angiosperms, we performed an inventory of circadian clock genes in bryophytes and charophytes. Additionally, we performed functional characterization of putative core clock genes in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha and the hornwort Anthoceros agrestis. Phylogenetic construction was combined with studies of spatiotemporal expression patterns and analysis of M. polymorpha clock gene mutants. Homologues to core clock genes identified in Arabidopsis were found not only in bryophytes but also in charophytes, albeit in fewer copies. Circadian rhythms were detected for most identified genes in M. polymorpha and A. agrestis, and mutant analysis supports a role for putative clock genes in M. polymorpha. Our data are in line with a recent hypothesis that adaptation to terrestrial life occurred earlier than previously expected in the evolutionary history of charophyte algae. Both gene duplication and acquisition of new genes was important in the evolution of the plant circadian clock, but gene loss has also contributed to shaping the clock of bryophytes. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. The circadian clock and defence signalling in plants.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mayank; Bhatt, Deepesh

    2015-02-01

    The circadian clock is the internal time-keeping machinery in higher organisms. Cross-talk between the circadian clock and a diverse range of physiological processes in plants, including stress acclimatization, hormone signalling, photomorphogenesis and defence signalling, is currently being explored. Recent studies on circadian clock genes and genes involved in defence signalling have indicated a possible reciprocal interaction between the two. It has been proposed that the circadian clock shapes the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions. In this review, we highlight the studies carried out so far on two model plant pathogens, namely Pseudomonas syringae and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, and the involvement of the circadian clock in gating effector-triggered immunity and pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity. We focus on how the circadian clock gates the expression of various stress-related transcripts in a prolific manner to enhance plant fitness. An understanding of this dynamic relationship between clock and stress will open up new avenues in the understanding of endogenous mechanisms of defence signalling in plants. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  9. Phase measurement system using a dithered clock

    DOEpatents

    Fairley, C.R.; Patterson, S.R.

    1991-05-28

    A phase measurement system is disclosed which measures the phase shift between two signals by dithering a clock signal and averaging a plurality of measurements of the phase differences between the two signals. 8 figures.

  10. Method and system for downhole clock synchronization

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Bartholomew, David B.; Johnson, Monte; Moon, Justin; Koehler, Roger O.

    2006-11-28

    A method and system for use in synchronizing at least two clocks in a downhole network are disclosed. The method comprises determining a total signal latency between a controlling processing element and at least one downhole processing element in a downhole network and sending a synchronizing time over the downhole network to the at least one downhole processing element adjusted for the signal latency. Electronic time stamps may be used to measure latency between processing elements. A system for electrically synchronizing at least two clocks connected to a downhole network comprises a controlling processing element connected to a synchronizing clock in communication over a downhole network with at least one downhole processing element comprising at least one downhole clock. Preferably, the downhole network is integrated into a downhole tool string.

  11. The regulation of plant growth by the circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Farré, E M

    2012-05-01

    Circadian regulated changes in growth rates have been observed in numerous plants as well as in unicellular and multicellular algae. The circadian clock regulates a multitude of factors that affect growth in plants, such as water and carbon availability and light and hormone signalling pathways. The combination of high-resolution growth rate analyses with mutant and biochemical analysis is helping us elucidate the time-dependent interactions between these factors and discover the molecular mechanisms involved. At the molecular level, growth in plants is modulated through a complex regulatory network, in which the circadian clock acts at multiple levels.

  12. Circadian Clocks in the Immune System.

    PubMed

    Labrecque, Nathalie; Cermakian, Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    The immune system is a complex set of physiological mechanisms whose general aim is to defend the organism against non-self-bodies, such as pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites), as well as cancer cells. Circadian rhythms are endogenous 24-h variations found in virtually all physiological processes. These circadian rhythms are generated by circadian clocks, located in most cell types, including cells of the immune system. This review presents an overview of the clocks in the immune system and of the circadian regulation of the function of immune cells. Most immune cells express circadian clock genes and present a wide array of genes expressed with a 24-h rhythm. This has profound impacts on cellular functions, including a daily rhythm in the synthesis and release of cytokines, chemokines and cytolytic factors, the daily gating of the response occurring through pattern recognition receptors, circadian rhythms of cellular functions such as phagocytosis, migration to inflamed or infected tissue, cytolytic activity, and proliferative response to antigens. Consequently, alterations of circadian rhythms (e.g., clock gene mutation in mice or environmental disruption similar to shift work) lead to disturbed immune responses. We discuss the implications of these data for human health and the areas that future research should aim to address. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. The circadian clock goes genomic.

    PubMed

    Staiger, Dorothee; Shin, Jieun; Johansson, Mikael; Davis, Seth J

    2013-06-24

    Large-scale biology among plant species, as well as comparative genomics of circadian clock architecture and clock-regulated output processes, have greatly advanced our understanding of the endogenous timing system in plants.

  14. Avian biological clock - Immune system relationship.

    PubMed

    Markowska, Magdalena; Majewski, Paweł M; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna

    2017-01-01

    Biological rhythms in birds are driven by the master clock, which includes the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the pineal gland and the retina. Light/dark cycles are the cues that synchronize the rhythmic changes in physiological processes, including immunity. This review summarizes our investigations on the bidirectional relationships between the chicken pineal gland and the immune system. We demonstrated that, in the chicken, the main pineal hormone, melatonin, regulates innate immunity, maintains the rhythmicity of immune reactions and is involved in the seasonal changes in immunity. Using thioglycollate-induced peritonitis as a model, we showed that the activated immune system regulates the pineal gland by inhibition of melatonin production at the level of the key enzyme in its biosynthetic pathway, arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT). Interleukin 6 and interleukin 18 seem to be the immune mediators influencing the pineal gland, directly inhibiting Aanat gene transcription and modulating expression of the clock genes Bmal1 and Per3, which in turn regulate Aanat.

  15. Biological clocks and the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Scheving, L A

    2000-08-01

    Circadian rhythms play a major role in regulating the digestive systems of many organisms. Cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and even structure vary as a function of time of day in many different digestive organs (i.e., stomach, gut, liver, and pancreas) and cell types, resulting in regionally specific temporal variations in protein and gene expression. Feeding and light set the hands of the digestive clock(s). However, the clockwork has a genetic basis. During the last 10 years, new developments have emerged in our understanding of how cells keep time. Surprisingly, clock genes in mammals are expressed not only in specialized time keepers in the brain, but also in peripheral organs, suggesting that the ability to keep time may also belong to cells within the digestive system. This article reviews several classic examples of circadian variation in the digestive system, with an emphasis on rhythms in cell proliferation, function, and structure. It also briefly summarizes several new ideas about how cells in the brain and possibly the digestive system keep time.

  16. Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) clock program: Present and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennant, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) program status are discussed and plans for ensuring the long term continuation of the program are presented. Performance of GPS clocks is presented in terms of on orbit data as portrayed by GPS master control station kalman filter processing. The GPS Clock reliability program is reviewed in depth and future plans fo the overall clock program are published.

  17. Flexible clock systems: adjusting the temporal programme.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, Daan R; Riede, Sjaak J; Heideman, Paul D; Hau, Michaela; van der Vinne, Vincent; Hut, Roelof A

    2017-11-19

    Under natural conditions, many aspects of the abiotic and biotic environment vary with time of day, season or even era, while these conditions are typically kept constant in laboratory settings. The timing information contained within the environment serves as critical timing cues for the internal biological timing system, but how this system drives daily rhythms in behaviour and physiology may also depend on the internal state of the animal. The disparity between timing of these cues in natural and laboratory conditions can result in substantial differences in the scheduling of behaviour and physiology under these conditions. In nature, temporal coordination of biological processes is critical to maximize fitness because they optimize the balance between reproduction, foraging and predation risk. Here we focus on the role of peripheral circadian clocks, and the rhythms that they drive, in enabling adaptive phenotypes. We discuss how reproduction, endocrine activity and metabolism interact with peripheral clocks, and outline the complex phenotypes arising from changes in this system. We conclude that peripheral timing is critical to adaptive plasticity of circadian organization in the field, and that we must abandon standard laboratory conditions to understand the mechanisms that underlie this plasticity which maximizes fitness under natural conditions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wild clocks: integrating chronobiology and ecology to understand timekeeping in free-living animals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Thermoplasticity in the plant circadian clock: how plants tell the time-perature.

    PubMed

    James, Allan B; Syed, Naeem Hasan; Brown, John W S; Nimmo, Hugh G

    2012-10-01

    In the March 2012 issue of The Plant Cell we describe extensive alternative splicing (AS) of Arabidopsis circadian clock genes. Notably these distinct post-transcriptional events associate with different steady-state temperatures and also with plants undergoing temperature transitions leading us to propose that temperature-associated AS is an additional mechanism involved in the operation and control of the plant circadian clock. Here we show that temperature associated AS also extends to REVEILLE 8 (RVE8), demonstrating a hitherto unrecognized link between the expression of this clock associated gene and temperature. Finally we discuss our observations of the plastic nature of clock gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in the context of the ongoing fascination of how plants respond to temperature.

  19. Field operations with cesium clocks in HF navigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, E. H.; Clayton, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Networks of HF phase comparison marine navigation stations employing cesium clocks are discussed. The largest permanent network is in the Gulf of Mexico where some fourteen base stations are continuously active and others are activated as needed. These HF phase comparison systems, which operate on a single transmission path, require a clock on the mobile unit as well. Inventory consists of upwards of 70 clocks from two different manufacturers. The maintenance of this network as an operating system requires a coordinated effort involving clock preparation, clock environment control, station performance monitoring and field service.

  20. Clock distribution system for digital computers

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Robert H.; Loomis, Jr., Herschel H.

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus for eliminating, in each clock distribution amplifier of a clock distribution system, sequential pulse catch-up error due to one pulse "overtaking" a prior clock pulse. The apparatus includes timing means to produce a periodic electromagnetic signal with a fundamental frequency having a fundamental frequency component V'.sub.01 (t); an array of N signal characteristic detector means, with detector means No. 1 receiving the timing means signal and producing a change-of-state signal V.sub.1 (t) in response to receipt of a signal above a predetermined threshold; N substantially identical filter means, one filter means being operatively associated with each detector means, for receiving the change-of-state signal V.sub.n (t) and producing a modified change-of-state signal V'.sub.n (t) (n=1, . . . , N) having a fundamental frequency component that is substantially proportional to V'.sub.01 (t-.theta..sub.n (t) with a cumulative phase shift .theta..sub.n (t) having a time derivative that may be made uniformly and arbitrarily small; and with the detector means n+1 (1.ltoreq.n

  1. ORTHO- ELIMINATION OF TRACKING SYSTEM CLOCK ERRORS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    ORTHO is part of the Global Positioning System (GPS) being developed by the U.S. Air Force, a navigational system that will use 18 NAVSTAR satellites to broadcast navigation messages and achieve worldwide coverage. The normal positioning technique uses one receiver which receives signals from at least four GPS satellites. For higher accuracy work it is often necessary to use a differential technique in which more than one receiver is used. The geodetic measurement has all receivers on the ground and allows the determination of the relative locations of the ground sites. The main application of the ORTHO program is in the elimination of clock errors in a GPS based tracking system. The measured distance (pseudo-range) from a GPS receiver contains errors due to differences in the receiver and satellite clocks. The conventional way of eliminating clock errors is to difference pseudo-ranges between different GPS satellites and receivers. The Householder transformation used in this program performs a function similar to the conventional single differencing or double differencing. This method avoids the problem of redundancy and correlation encountered in a differencing scheme. It is able to keep all information contained in the measurements within the scope of a least square estimation. For multiple transmitter and receiver GPS tracking network, this method is in general more accurate than the differencing technique. This program assumes that the non-clock measurement partial derivatives for the particular application are computed earlier by another program. With the partial derivatives and information to identify the transmitters and receivers as the input, the program performs the Householder transformation on the partial derivatives. The transformed partials are output by the program and may be used as an input to the filter program in the subsequent estimation process. Clock partial derivatives are generated internally and are not part of the input to the program

  2. ORTHO- ELIMINATION OF TRACKING SYSTEM CLOCK ERRORS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    ORTHO is part of the Global Positioning System (GPS) being developed by the U.S. Air Force, a navigational system that will use 18 NAVSTAR satellites to broadcast navigation messages and achieve worldwide coverage. The normal positioning technique uses one receiver which receives signals from at least four GPS satellites. For higher accuracy work it is often necessary to use a differential technique in which more than one receiver is used. The geodetic measurement has all receivers on the ground and allows the determination of the relative locations of the ground sites. The main application of the ORTHO program is in the elimination of clock errors in a GPS based tracking system. The measured distance (pseudo-range) from a GPS receiver contains errors due to differences in the receiver and satellite clocks. The conventional way of eliminating clock errors is to difference pseudo-ranges between different GPS satellites and receivers. The Householder transformation used in this program performs a function similar to the conventional single differencing or double differencing. This method avoids the problem of redundancy and correlation encountered in a differencing scheme. It is able to keep all information contained in the measurements within the scope of a least square estimation. For multiple transmitter and receiver GPS tracking network, this method is in general more accurate than the differencing technique. This program assumes that the non-clock measurement partial derivatives for the particular application are computed earlier by another program. With the partial derivatives and information to identify the transmitters and receivers as the input, the program performs the Householder transformation on the partial derivatives. The transformed partials are output by the program and may be used as an input to the filter program in the subsequent estimation process. Clock partial derivatives are generated internally and are not part of the input to the program

  3. System-wide power management control via clock distribution network

    DOEpatents

    Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Liebsch, Thomas A.; Reed, Don D.

    2015-05-19

    An apparatus, method and computer program product for automatically controlling power dissipation of a parallel computing system that includes a plurality of processors. A computing device issues a command to the parallel computing system. A clock pulse-width modulator encodes the command in a system clock signal to be distributed to the plurality of processors. The plurality of processors in the parallel computing system receive the system clock signal including the encoded command, and adjusts power dissipation according to the encoded command.

  4. Heterogeneity of cellular circadian clocks in intact plants and its correction under light-dark cycles.

    PubMed

    Muranaka, Tomoaki; Oyama, Tokitaka

    2016-07-01

    Recent advances in single-cell analysis have revealed the stochasticity and nongenetic heterogeneity inherent to cellular processes. However, our knowledge of the actual cellular behaviors in a living multicellular organism is still limited. By using a single-cell bioluminescence imaging technique on duckweed, Lemna gibba, we demonstrate that, under constant conditions, cells in the intact plant work as individual circadian clocks that oscillate with their own frequencies and respond independently to external stimuli. Quantitative analysis uncovered the heterogeneity and instability of cellular clocks and partial synchronization between neighboring cells. Furthermore, we found that cellular clocks in the plant body under light-dark cycles showed a centrifugal phase pattern in which the effect of cell-to-cell heterogeneity in period lengths was almost masked. The inherent heterogeneity in the properties of cellular clocks observed under constant conditions is corrected under light-dark cycles to coordinate the daily rhythms of the plant body. These findings provide a novel perspective of spatiotemporal architectures in the plant circadian system.

  5. Sensitive to freezing6 integrates cellular and environmental inputs to the plant circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Knight, Heather; Thomson, Adrian J W; McWatters, Harriet G

    2008-09-01

    The sensitive to freezing6 (sfr6) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is late flowering in long days due to reduced expression of components in the photoperiodic flowering pathway in long-day photoperiods. Microarray analysis of gene expression showed that a circadian clock-associated motif, the evening element, was overrepresented in promoters of genes down-regulated in sfr6 plants. Analysis of leaf movement rhythms found sfr6 plants showed a sucrose (Suc)-dependent long period phenotype; unlike wild-type Arabidopsis, the clock in sfr6 plants did not have a shorter rhythm in the presence of Suc. Other developmental responses to Suc were unaltered in sfr6 plants, suggesting insensitivity to Suc is restricted to the clock. We investigated the effect of sfr6 and Suc upon clock gene expression over 24 h. The sfr6 mutation resulted in reduced expression of the clock components CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1, GIGANTEA, and TIMING OF CAB1. These changes occurred independently of Suc supplementation. Wild-type plants showed small increases in clock gene expression in the presence of Suc; this response to Suc was reduced in sfr6 plants. This study shows that large changes in level and timing of clock gene expression may have little effect upon clock outputs. Moreover, although Suc influences the period and accuracy of the Arabidopsis clock, it results in relatively minor changes in clock gene expression.

  6. [Physiological and pathophysiological role of the circadian clock system].

    PubMed

    Halmos, Tamás; Suba, Ilona

    2012-09-02

    It has been well known for ages that in living organisms the rhythmicity of biological processes is linked to the ~ 24-hour light-dark cycle. However, the exact function of the circadian clock system has been explored only in the past decades. It came to light that the photosensitive primary "master clock" is situated in the suprachiasmatic photosensitive nuclei of the special hypothalamic region, and that it is working according to ~24-hour changes of light and darkness. The master clock sends its messages to the peripheral "slave clocks". In many organs, like pancreatic β-cells, the slave clocks have autonomic functions as well. Two essential components of the clock system are proteins encoded by the CLOCK and BMAL1 genes. CLOCK genes are in interaction with endonuclear receptors such as peroxisoma-proliferator activated receptors and Rev-erb-α, as well as with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, regulating the adaptation to stressors, energy supply, metabolic processes and cardiovascular system. Melatonin, the product of corpus pineale has a significant role in the functions of the clock system. The detailed discovery of the clock system has changed our previous knowledge about the development of many diseases. The most explored fields are hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic processes, mental disorders, cancers, sleep apnoe and joint disorders. CLOCK genes influence ageing as well. The recognition of the periodicity of biological processes makes the optimal dosing of certain drugs feasible. The more detailed discovery of the interaction of the clock system might further improve treatment and prevention of many disorders.

  7. Beyond Arabidopsis: the circadian clock in non-model plant species.

    PubMed

    McClung, C Robertson

    2013-05-01

    Circadian clocks allow plants to temporally coordinate many aspects of their biology with the diurnal cycle derived from the rotation of Earth on its axis. Although there is a rich history of the study of clocks in many plant species, in recent years much progress in elucidating the architecture and function of the plant clock has emerged from studies of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. There is considerable interest in extending this knowledge of the circadian clock into diverse plant species in order to address its role in topics as varied as agricultural productivity and the responses of individual species and plant communities to global climate change and environmental degradation. The analysis of circadian clocks in the green lineage provides insight into evolutionary processes in plants and throughout the eukaryotes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Frequency Measurement System of Optical Clocks Without a Flywheel Oscillator.

    PubMed

    Fujieda, Miho; Ido, Tetsuya; Hachisu, Hidekazu; Gotoh, Tadahiro; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Hayasaka, Kazuhiro; Toyoda, Kenji; Yonegaki, Kenji; Tanaka, Utako; Urabe, Shinji

    2016-12-01

    We developed a system for the remote frequency comparison of optical clocks. The system does not require a flywheel oscillator at the remote end, making it possible to evaluate optical frequencies even in laboratories, where no stable microwave reference, such as an Rb clock, a Cs clock, or a hydrogen maser exists. The system is established by the integration of several systems: a portable carrier-phase two-way satellite frequency transfer station and a microwave signal generation system by an optical frequency comb from an optical clock. The measurement was as quick as a conventional method that employs a local microwave reference. We confirmed the system uncertainty and instability to be at the low 10(-15) level using an Sr lattice clock.

  9. Circadian control of jasmonates and salicylates: the clock role in plant defense.

    PubMed

    Goodspeed, Danielle; Chehab, E Wassim; Covington, Michael F; Braam, Janet

    2013-02-01

    Plants have evolved robust mechanisms to perceive and respond to diverse environmental stimuli.  The plant phytohormones jasmonates and salicylates play key roles in activating biotic stress response pathways. Recent findings demonstrate that basal levels of both jasmonates and salicylates in Arabidopsis are under the control of the circadian clock and that clock-controlled jasmonate accumulation may underlie clock- and jasmonate-dependent enhanced resistance of Arabidopsis to Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper), a generalist herbivore. Here we summarize these findings and provide further evidence that a functional plant circadian clock is required for optimal herbivore defense in Arabidopsis.  When given a choice to feed on wild-type plants or arrhythmic transgenics, T. ni prefer plants lacking robust circadian rhythms. Altogether these data provide strong evidence for circadian clock enabling anticipation of herbivore attack and thus contributing to overall plant fitness.

  10. A Novel Method of Clock Synchronization in Distributed System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Niu, M. J.; Cai, Y. S.; Chen, X.; Ren, Y. Q.

    2016-03-01

    Time synchronization plays an important role in application of aircraft flying formation and constellation autonomous navigation, etc. In application of clock synchronization in the network system, it is not always true that each observed node may be interconnected, therefore, it is difficult to achieve time synchronization of network system with high precision in the condition that a certain node can only obtain the measurement information of clock from one of its corresponding neighbors, and cannot obtain from other nodes. According to this special problem, a novel method of high precision time synchronization of network system has been proposed. In this paper, we regard each clock as a node in the network system, and based on different distributed topology definition, the following three control algorithms of time synchronization under three circumstances have been designed: without a master clock (reference clock), with a master clock (reference clock), and with a fixed communication delay in the network system. The validity of the designed clock synchronization protocol has been proved both theoretically and through numerical simulation.

  11. Modelling the widespread effects of TOC1 signalling on the plant circadian clock and its outputs.

    PubMed

    Pokhilko, Alexandra; Mas, Paloma; Millar, Andrew J

    2013-03-19

    24-hour biological clocks are intimately connected to the cellular signalling network, which complicates the analysis of clock mechanisms. The transcriptional regulator TOC1 (TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1) is a founding component of the gene circuit in the plant circadian clock. Recent results show that TOC1 suppresses transcription of multiple target genes within the clock circuit, far beyond its previously-described regulation of the morning transcription factors LHY (LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL) and CCA1 (CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1). It is unclear how this pervasive effect of TOC1 affects the dynamics of the clock and its outputs. TOC1 also appears to function in a nested feedback loop that includes signalling by the plant hormone Abscisic Acid (ABA), which is upregulated by abiotic stresses, such as drought. ABA treatments both alter TOC1 levels and affect the clock's timing behaviour. Conversely, the clock rhythmically modulates physiological processes induced by ABA, such as the closing of stomata in the leaf epidermis. In order to understand the dynamics of the clock and its outputs under changing environmental conditions, the reciprocal interactions between the clock and other signalling pathways must be integrated. We extended the mathematical model of the plant clock gene circuit by incorporating the repression of multiple clock genes by TOC1, observed experimentally. The revised model more accurately matches the data on the clock's molecular profiles and timing behaviour, explaining the clock's responses in TOC1 over-expression and toc1 mutant plants. A simplified representation of ABA signalling allowed us to investigate the interactions of ABA and circadian pathways. Increased ABA levels lengthen the free-running period of the clock, consistent with the experimental data. Adding stomatal closure to the model, as a key ABA- and clock-regulated downstream process allowed to describe TOC1 effects on the rhythmic gating of stomatal closure. The integrated

  12. Master Clock and Time-Signal-Distribution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tjoelker, Robert; Calhoun, Malcolm; Kuhnle, Paul; Sydnor, Richard; Lauf, John

    2007-01-01

    A timing system comprising an electronic master clock and a subsystem for distributing time signals from the master clock to end users is undergoing development to satisfy anticipated timing requirements of NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) for the next 20 to 30 years. This system has a modular, flexible, expandable architecture that is easier to operate and maintain than the present frequency and timing subsystem (FTS).

  13. PTTI 2030 - System Applications of Advanced Clocks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    earth quakes, volcanoes , and tsunamis. REPLACEMENT OF CELL -PHONE BACK-HAUL TIMING Though recent advances in miniature atomic clocks have...contact with other soldiers, ships, tanks, and bases. The super - ruggedized construction of each DeSoLoS can withstand the catastrophic events of war

  14. Functional Conservation of Clock-Related Genes in Flowering Plants: Overexpression and RNA Interference Analyses of the Circadian Rhythm in the Monocotyledon Lemna gibba1[W

    PubMed Central

    Serikawa, Masayuki; Miwa, Kumiko; Kondo, Takao; Oyama, Tokitaka

    2008-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are found in organisms from cyanobacteria to plants and animals. In flowering plants, the circadian clock is involved in the regulation of various physiological phenomena, including growth, leaf movement, stomata opening, and floral transitions. Molecular mechanisms underlying the circadian clock have been identified using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana); the functions and genetic networks of a number of clock-related genes, including CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1, LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY), TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1, GIGANTEA (GI), and EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3), have been analyzed. The degree to which clock systems are conserved among flowering plants, however, is still unclear. We previously isolated homologs for Arabidopsis clock-related genes from monocotyledon Lemna plants. Here, we report the physiological roles of these Lemna gibba genes (LgLHYH1, LgLHYH2, LgGIH1, and LgELF3H1) in the circadian system. We studied the effects of overexpression and RNA interference (RNAi) of these genes on the rhythmic expression of morning- and evening-specific reporters. Overexpression of each gene disrupted the rhythmicity of either or both reporters, suggesting that these four homologs can be involved in the circadian system. RNAi of each of the genes except LgLHYH2 affected the bioluminescence rhythms of both reporters. These results indicated that these homologs are involved in the circadian system of Lemna plants and that the structure of the circadian clock is likely to be conserved between monocotyledons and dicotyledons. Interestingly, RNAi of LgGIH1 almost completely abolished the circadian rhythm; because this effect appeared to be much stronger than the phenotype observed in an Arabidopsis gi loss-of-function mutant, the precise role of each clock gene may have diverged in the clock systems of Lemna and Arabidopsis. PMID:18281417

  15. Functional conservation of clock-related genes in flowering plants: overexpression and RNA interference analyses of the circadian rhythm in the monocotyledon Lemna gibba.

    PubMed

    Serikawa, Masayuki; Miwa, Kumiko; Kondo, Takao; Oyama, Tokitaka

    2008-04-01

    Circadian rhythms are found in organisms from cyanobacteria to plants and animals. In flowering plants, the circadian clock is involved in the regulation of various physiological phenomena, including growth, leaf movement, stomata opening, and floral transitions. Molecular mechanisms underlying the circadian clock have been identified using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana); the functions and genetic networks of a number of clock-related genes, including CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1, LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY), TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1, GIGANTEA (GI), and EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3), have been analyzed. The degree to which clock systems are conserved among flowering plants, however, is still unclear. We previously isolated homologs for Arabidopsis clock-related genes from monocotyledon Lemna plants. Here, we report the physiological roles of these Lemna gibba genes (LgLHYH1, LgLHYH2, LgGIH1, and LgELF3H1) in the circadian system. We studied the effects of overexpression and RNA interference (RNAi) of these genes on the rhythmic expression of morning- and evening-specific reporters. Overexpression of each gene disrupted the rhythmicity of either or both reporters, suggesting that these four homologs can be involved in the circadian system. RNAi of each of the genes except LgLHYH2 affected the bioluminescence rhythms of both reporters. These results indicated that these homologs are involved in the circadian system of Lemna plants and that the structure of the circadian clock is likely to be conserved between monocotyledons and dicotyledons. Interestingly, RNAi of LgGIH1 almost completely abolished the circadian rhythm; because this effect appeared to be much stronger than the phenotype observed in an Arabidopsis gi loss-of-function mutant, the precise role of each clock gene may have diverged in the clock systems of Lemna and Arabidopsis.

  16. Modelling the widespread effects of TOC1 signalling on the plant circadian clock and its outputs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background 24-hour biological clocks are intimately connected to the cellular signalling network, which complicates the analysis of clock mechanisms. The transcriptional regulator TOC1 (TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1) is a founding component of the gene circuit in the plant circadian clock. Recent results show that TOC1 suppresses transcription of multiple target genes within the clock circuit, far beyond its previously-described regulation of the morning transcription factors LHY (LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL) and CCA1 (CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1). It is unclear how this pervasive effect of TOC1 affects the dynamics of the clock and its outputs. TOC1 also appears to function in a nested feedback loop that includes signalling by the plant hormone Abscisic Acid (ABA), which is upregulated by abiotic stresses, such as drought. ABA treatments both alter TOC1 levels and affect the clock’s timing behaviour. Conversely, the clock rhythmically modulates physiological processes induced by ABA, such as the closing of stomata in the leaf epidermis. In order to understand the dynamics of the clock and its outputs under changing environmental conditions, the reciprocal interactions between the clock and other signalling pathways must be integrated. Results We extended the mathematical model of the plant clock gene circuit by incorporating the repression of multiple clock genes by TOC1, observed experimentally. The revised model more accurately matches the data on the clock’s molecular profiles and timing behaviour, explaining the clock’s responses in TOC1 over-expression and toc1 mutant plants. A simplified representation of ABA signalling allowed us to investigate the interactions of ABA and circadian pathways. Increased ABA levels lengthen the free-running period of the clock, consistent with the experimental data. Adding stomatal closure to the model, as a key ABA- and clock-regulated downstream process allowed to describe TOC1 effects on the rhythmic gating of stomatal

  17. Fault-tolerant clock synchronization validation methodology. [in computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Palumbo, Daniel L.; Johnson, Sally C.

    1987-01-01

    A validation method for the synchronization subsystem of a fault-tolerant computer system is presented. The high reliability requirement of flight-crucial systems precludes the use of most traditional validation methods. The method presented utilizes formal design proof to uncover design and coding errors and experimentation to validate the assumptions of the design proof. The experimental method is described and illustrated by validating the clock synchronization system of the Software Implemented Fault Tolerance computer. The design proof of the algorithm includes a theorem that defines the maximum skew between any two nonfaulty clocks in the system in terms of specific system parameters. Most of these parameters are deterministic. One crucial parameter is the upper bound on the clock read error, which is stochastic. The probability that this upper bound is exceeded is calculated from data obtained by the measurement of system parameters. This probability is then included in a detailed reliability analysis of the system.

  18. The Wavefront Clock Technique Applied to Current VLBI Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, Hitoshi; Kondo, Tetsuro

    1996-02-01

    A prototype wavefront clock system has been developed for application to current VLBI systems. The reference clock for both the front-end and back-end of a VLBI system is controlled at the observing site according to a calculated a priori delay rate. By using this system, fringe stopping is simultaneously performed on all received frequencies and both the upper side band (USB) and the lower side band (LSB) of a frequency-converter signal. Also, it can be used to reduce the large fringe rate (Doppler frequency) inherent in space VLBI, especially when used with an FX-type correlation proces sor. This wavefront clock method will be beneficial to users of conventional VLBI systems and will not require any modification. The reference point for the Doppler compensation can be taken at an ideal point , like the center of the Earth. Moreover, it is possible to use it as a pseudo-fringe simulator for checking the correlation processor.

  19. The REVEILLE Clock Genes Inhibit Growth of Juvenile and Adult Plants by Control of Cell Size.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jennifer A; Shalit-Kaneh, Akiva; Chu, Dalena Nhu; Hsu, Polly Yingshan; Harmer, Stacey L

    2017-04-01

    The circadian clock is a complex regulatory network that enhances plant growth and fitness in a constantly changing environment. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the clock is composed of numerous regulatory feedback loops in which REVEILLE8 (RVE8) and its homologs RVE4 and RVE6 act in a partially redundant manner to promote clock pace. Here, we report that the remaining members of the RVE8 clade, RVE3 and RVE5, play only minor roles in the regulation of clock function. However, we find that RVE8 clade proteins have unexpected functions in the modulation of light input to the clock and the control of plant growth at multiple stages of development. In seedlings, these proteins repress hypocotyl elongation in a daylength- and sucrose-dependent manner. Strikingly, adult rve4 6 8 and rve3 4 5 6 8 mutants are much larger than wild-type plants, with both increased leaf area and biomass. This size phenotype is associated with a faster growth rate and larger cell size and is not simply due to a delay in the transition to flowering. Gene expression and epistasis analysis reveal that the growth phenotypes of rve mutants are due to the misregulation of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) and PIF5 expression. Our results show that even small changes in PIF gene expression caused by the perturbation of clock gene function can have large effects on the growth of adult plants. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Reference clock parameters for digital communications systems applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kartaschoff, P.

    1981-01-01

    The basic parameters relevant to the design of network timing systems describe the random and systematic time departures of the system elements, i.e., master (or reference) clocks, transmission links, and other clocks controlled over the links. The quantitative relations between these parameters were established and illustrated by means of numerical examples based on available measured data. The examples were limited to a simple PLL control system but the analysis can eventually be applied to more sophisticated systems at the cost of increased computational effort.

  1. An automatic monitor system for clock-room environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Kang-Yuan; An, Wei; Liu, Chun-Xia; Wang, Gai-Xia; Zhang, Yi-Gong

    2001-12-01

    An automatic monitor system for clock-room environment is developed, which consists of the following parts: the sensors to temperature, humidity, voltage and smoke etc., the adjusting and processing of the signals, the data collecting and the alarming. The operational test for a long time shows that this system has achieved the desired results.

  2. Elimination of clock errors in a GPD based tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, J.-T.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the estimation problem for a GPS based tracking system which is used for low earth satellite orbit determination and for geodynamic research. The clock errors involved in the measurements are eliminated in order to obtain a solution. Two methods used to eliminate the clock errors, the double differencing method and the linear combination method are discussed and compared. The accuracy of the solution, the redundancy and the correlation of the differenced or the combined data are investigated. Numerical results of the two methods are presented.

  3. General flat four-dimensional world pictures and clock systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, J. P.; Underwood, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    We explore the mathematical structure and the physical implications of a general four-dimensional symmetry framework which is consistent with the Poincare-Einstein principle of relativity for physical laws and with experiments. In particular, we discuss a four-dimensional framework in which all observers in different frames use one and the same grid of clocks. The general framework includes special relativity and a recently proposed new four-dimensional symmetry with a nonuniversal light speed as two special simple cases. The connection between the properties of light propagation and the convention concerning clock systems is also discussed, and is seen to be nonunique within the four-dimensional framework.

  4. A bi-directional fixed-latency clock distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Ó Murchadha, A.; Meures, T.; Korntheuer, M.; Hanson, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Askar'yan Radio Array (ARA) Collaboration is constructing a giant array of radio-frequency antennas deployed in the ice near the geographic South Pole. This experiment aims at detecting the extremely weak signal of neutrinos with energies in excess of 100 PeV from ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray interactions with the cosmic microwave background radiation. The antennas are located in shallow holes drilled to depths of 200 m and need high fidelity RF signal transmission over extended lengths to the data acquisition logic at the surface. We report on a transmission scheme whereby signals are digitized in the ice and the waveforms are digitally sent via high-speed serial links. Reconstruction algorithms require distribution of a low-jitter clock from the surface down to the digitization boards in the holes with knowledge of the overall time delay between the two clock domains. Previously, we designed a clock synchronization system using electrical signaling over CAT5. This year we have updated our solution to optical fibers using high speed transceiver blocks in Spartan-6 FPGAs. This note describes our improvements on the latter solution: technical details as well as methods of maintaining a fixed phase between two clocks after power cycles and resets.

  5. Geographic Variation of Plant Circadian Clock Function in Natural and Agricultural Settings.

    PubMed

    Greenham, Kathleen; Lou, Ping; Puzey, Joshua R; Kumar, Ganesh; Arnevik, Cindy; Farid, Hany; Willis, John H; McClung, C Robertson

    2017-02-01

    The increasing demand for improved agricultural production will require more efficient breeding for traits that maintain yield under heterogeneous environments. The internal circadian oscillator is essential for perceiving and coordinating environmental cues such as day length, temperature, and abiotic stress responses within physiological processes. To investigate the contribution of the circadian clock to local adaptability, we have analyzed circadian period by leaf movement in natural populations of Mimulus guttatus and domesticated cultivars of Glycine max. We detected consistent variation in circadian period along a latitudinal gradient in annual populations of the wild plant and the selectively bred crop, and this provides novel evidence of natural and artificial selection for circadian performance. These findings provide new support that the circadian clock acts as a central regulator of plant adaptability and further highlight the potential of applying circadian clock gene variation to marker-assisted breeding programs in crops.

  6. Validation of a fault-tolerant clock synchronization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, R. W.; Johnson, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    A validation method for the synchronization subsystem of a fault tolerant computer system is investigated. The method combines formal design verification with experimental testing. The design proof reduces the correctness of the clock synchronization system to the correctness of a set of axioms which are experimentally validated. Since the reliability requirements are often extreme, requiring the estimation of extremely large quantiles, an asymptotic approach to estimation in the tail of a distribution is employed.

  7. Compact optical system for cesium atomic fountain clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiang; Ruan, Jun; Shi, Junru; Yu, Fengxiang; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xinliang; Zhang, Shougang

    2016-09-01

    The optical system plays a significant role to cesium atomic fountain clocks, which manipulates and detects population of cesium atoms. This paper presents a compact optical system for cesium atomic fountain clocks. The optical system provides two beams with 32mW separately for cooling atoms and six beams of 12mW respectively for trapping atoms with the frequency tuning from 80MHz to 220MHz. The relative intensity noise of the detect laser beam reduces from 1.33×10-6 Hz to 1.52×10-10 Hz at 1Hz by the laser power stabilization system. The optical system operates continuously for 30 days with the fluctuation of optical power less than 3% approximately. And the frequency stability is 3×10-15 at 1000s. The results show the optical system satisfies with the needs of our cesium atomic fountain clock developed and establishes the foundation for cesium atomic fountain continuous operation.

  8. Digital clocks: simple Boolean models can quantitatively describe circadian systems

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Ozgur E.; Watterson, Steven; Parton, Andrew; Binns, Nigel; Millar, Andrew J.; Ghazal, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The gene networks that comprise the circadian clock modulate biological function across a range of scales, from gene expression to performance and adaptive behaviour. The clock functions by generating endogenous rhythms that can be entrained to the external 24-h day–night cycle, enabling organisms to optimally time biochemical processes relative to dawn and dusk. In recent years, computational models based on differential equations have become useful tools for dissecting and quantifying the complex regulatory relationships underlying the clock's oscillatory dynamics. However, optimizing the large parameter sets characteristic of these models places intense demands on both computational and experimental resources, limiting the scope of in silico studies. Here, we develop an approach based on Boolean logic that dramatically reduces the parametrization, making the state and parameter spaces finite and tractable. We introduce efficient methods for fitting Boolean models to molecular data, successfully demonstrating their application to synthetic time courses generated by a number of established clock models, as well as experimental expression levels measured using luciferase imaging. Our results indicate that despite their relative simplicity, logic models can (i) simulate circadian oscillations with the correct, experimentally observed phase relationships among genes and (ii) flexibly entrain to light stimuli, reproducing the complex responses to variations in daylength generated by more detailed differential equation formulations. Our work also demonstrates that logic models have sufficient predictive power to identify optimal regulatory structures from experimental data. By presenting the first Boolean models of circadian circuits together with general techniques for their optimization, we hope to establish a new framework for the systematic modelling of more complex clocks, as well as other circuits with different qualitative dynamics. In particular, we

  9. Digital clocks: simple Boolean models can quantitatively describe circadian systems.

    PubMed

    Akman, Ozgur E; Watterson, Steven; Parton, Andrew; Binns, Nigel; Millar, Andrew J; Ghazal, Peter

    2012-09-07

    The gene networks that comprise the circadian clock modulate biological function across a range of scales, from gene expression to performance and adaptive behaviour. The clock functions by generating endogenous rhythms that can be entrained to the external 24-h day-night cycle, enabling organisms to optimally time biochemical processes relative to dawn and dusk. In recent years, computational models based on differential equations have become useful tools for dissecting and quantifying the complex regulatory relationships underlying the clock's oscillatory dynamics. However, optimizing the large parameter sets characteristic of these models places intense demands on both computational and experimental resources, limiting the scope of in silico studies. Here, we develop an approach based on Boolean logic that dramatically reduces the parametrization, making the state and parameter spaces finite and tractable. We introduce efficient methods for fitting Boolean models to molecular data, successfully demonstrating their application to synthetic time courses generated by a number of established clock models, as well as experimental expression levels measured using luciferase imaging. Our results indicate that despite their relative simplicity, logic models can (i) simulate circadian oscillations with the correct, experimentally observed phase relationships among genes and (ii) flexibly entrain to light stimuli, reproducing the complex responses to variations in daylength generated by more detailed differential equation formulations. Our work also demonstrates that logic models have sufficient predictive power to identify optimal regulatory structures from experimental data. By presenting the first Boolean models of circadian circuits together with general techniques for their optimization, we hope to establish a new framework for the systematic modelling of more complex clocks, as well as other circuits with different qualitative dynamics. In particular, we anticipate

  10. Synchrony of plant cellular circadian clocks with heterogeneous properties under light/dark cycles.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masaaki; Muranaka, Tomoaki; Ito, Shogo; Oyama, Tokitaka

    2017-03-22

    Individual cells in a plant can work independently as circadian clocks, and their properties are the basis of various circadian phenomena. The behaviour of individual cellular clocks in Lemna gibba was orderly under 24-h light/dark cycles despite their heterogeneous free-running periods (FRPs). Here, we reveal the entrainment habits of heterogeneous cellular clocks using non-24-h light/dark cycles (T-cycles). The cellular rhythms of AtCCA1::LUC under T = 16 h cycles showed heterogeneous entrainment that was associated with their heterogeneous FRPs. Under T = 12 h cycles, most cells showed rhythms having ~24-h periods. This suggested that the lower limit of entrainment to the light/dark cycles of heterogeneous cellular circadian clocks is set to a period longer than 12 h, which enables them to be synchronous under ~24-h daily cycles without being perturbed by short light/dark cycles. The entrainment habits of individual cellular clocks are likely to be the basis of the circadian behaviour of plant under the natural day-night cycle with noisy environmental fluctuations. We further suggest that modifications of EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) in individual cells deviate the entrainability to shorter T-cycles possibly by altering both the FRPs and light responsiveness.

  11. The clock distribution system for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I Upgrade Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, B.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, J.; Gong, D.; Guo, D.; Hu, X.; Huang, D.; Kierstead, J.; Li, X.; Liu, C.; Liu, T.; Xiang, A. C.; Xu, H.; Xu, T.; You, Y.; Ye, J.

    2015-01-01

    A prototype Liquid-argon Trigger Digitizer Board (LTDB), called the LTDB Demonstrator, has been developed to demonstrate the functions of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I trigger electronics upgrade. Forty Analog-to-Digital converters and four FPGAs with embedded multi-gigabit-transceivers on each Demonstrator need high quality clocks. A clock distribution system based on commercial components has been developed for the Demonstrator. The design of the clock distribution system is presented. The performance of the clock distribution system has been evaluated. The components used in the clock distribution system have been qualified to meet radiation tolerance requirements of the Demonstrator.

  12. Wheels within wheels: the plant circadian system.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Polly Yingshan; Harmer, Stacey L

    2014-04-01

    Circadian clocks integrate environmental signals with internal cues to coordinate diverse physiological outputs so that they occur at the most appropriate season or time of day. Recent studies using systems approaches, primarily in Arabidopsis, have expanded our understanding of the molecular regulation of the central circadian oscillator and its connections to input and output pathways. Similar approaches have also begun to reveal the importance of the clock for key agricultural traits in crop species. In this review, we discuss recent developments in the field, including a new understanding of the molecular architecture underlying the plant clock; mechanistic links between clock components and input and output pathways; and our growing understanding of the importance of clock genes for agronomically important traits.

  13. Wheels within wheels: the plant circadian system

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Polly Yingshan; Harmer, Stacey L.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian clocks integrate environmental signals with internal cues to coordinate diverse physiological outputs so that they occur at the most appropriate season or time of day. Recent studies using systems approaches, primarily in Arabidopsis, have expanded our understanding of the molecular regulation of the central circadian oscillator and its connections to input and output pathways. Similar approaches have also begun to reveal the importance of the clock for key agricultural traits in crop species. In this review, we discuss recent developments in the field, including: a new understanding of the molecular architecture underlying the plant clock; mechanistic links between clock components and input and output pathways; and our growing understanding of the importance of clock genes for agronomically important traits. PMID:24373845

  14. System and method for clock synchronization and position determination using entangled photon pairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Yanhua (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for clock synchronization and position determination using entangled photon pairs is provided. The present invention relies on the measurement of the second order correlation function of entangled states. Photons from an entangled photon source travel one-way to the clocks to be synchronized. By analyzing photon registration time histories generated at each clock location, the entangled states allow for high accuracy clock synchronization as well as high accuracy position determination.

  15. The PRR family of transcriptional regulators reflects the complexity and evolution of plant circadian clocks.

    PubMed

    Farré, Eva M; Liu, Tiffany

    2013-10-01

    Circadian clocks are internal time-keeping mechanisms that provide an adaptive advantage by enabling organisms to anticipate daily changes and orchestrate biological processes accordingly. Circadian regulated pseudo-response regulators are key components of transcription/translation circadian networks in green alga and plants. Recent studies in Arabidopsis thaliana have shown that most of them act as transcriptional repressors and directly regulate output pathways suggesting a close relationship between the central oscillator and circadian regulated processes. Moreover, phylogenetic studies on this small gene family have shed light on the evolution of circadian clocks in the green lineage.

  16. Ultra-stable clock laser system development towards space applications.

    PubMed

    Świerad, Dariusz; Häfner, Sebastian; Vogt, Stefan; Venon, Bertrand; Holleville, David; Bize, Sébastien; Kulosa, André; Bode, Sebastian; Singh, Yeshpal; Bongs, Kai; Rasel, Ernst Maria; Lodewyck, Jérôme; Le Targat, Rodolphe; Lisdat, Christian; Sterr, Uwe

    2016-09-26

    The increasing performance of optical lattice clocks has made them attractive for scientific applications in space and thus has pushed the development of their components including the interrogation lasers of the clock transitions towards being suitable for space, which amongst others requires making them more power efficient, radiation hardened, smaller, lighter as well as more mechanically stable. Here we present the development towards a space-compatible interrogation laser system for a strontium lattice clock constructed within the Space Optical Clock (SOC2) project where we have concentrated on mechanical rigidity and size. The laser reaches a fractional frequency instability of 7.9 × 10(-16) at 300 ms averaging time. The laser system uses a single extended cavity diode laser that gives enough power for interrogating the atoms, frequency comparison by a frequency comb and diagnostics. It includes fibre link stabilisation to the atomic package and to the comb. The optics module containing the laser has dimensions 60 × 45 × 8 cm(3); and the ultra-stable reference cavity used for frequency stabilisation with its vacuum system takes 30 × 30 × 30 cm(3). The acceleration sensitivities in three orthogonal directions of the cavity are 3.6 × 10(-10)/g, 5.8 × 10(-10)/g and 3.1 × 10(-10)/g, where g ≈ 9.8 m/s(2) is the standard gravitational acceleration.

  17. Research of a long distance clock distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Hanson, K.; Murchadha, A.; Korntheuer, M.; Meures, T.

    2013-03-01

    Ultrahigh-energy neutrinos with energies in excess of 100 PeV from the GZK effect will be studied using a new detector at the South Pole called the Askaryan Radio Array (ARA). The radiofrequency emission which occurs when these particles interact in the glacial ice is detected by an array of antennas spread out over an enormous area, over 100 km2 and embedded in the ice at depths of 200 m to increase sensitivity. Signals from the antennas are digitized by specialized electronics and must be time synchronized with accuracies of order 50 ps or less for event reconstruction to function properly. A system has been proposed which digitizes the impulse waveforms in situ in the ice and sends the data to the surface using high-speed serial links. This requires distribution of a low-jitter clock to each hole but has substantial advantages in cost and power which drive our development effort to realize this technology. Last year we implemented a first version of a long distance clock synchronization system using electrical signaling over CAT5. This year we have updated our solution to optical fiber using high speed transceiver blocks in Spartan 6 FPGAs. The master clock is embedded into the data stream and distributed to the various holes where a phase-locked derivative is recovered. In this way, we have implemented a 1.25 Gbps data link over a bi-directional communication system fulfilling the requirements of the project. This note describes our efforts on the latter solution: technical details as well as methods of maintaining fixed phase difference between two clocks after power cycle and reset.

  18. Ultra-stable clock laser system development towards space applications

    PubMed Central

    Świerad, Dariusz; Häfner, Sebastian; Vogt, Stefan; Venon, Bertrand; Holleville, David; Bize, Sébastien; Kulosa, André; Bode, Sebastian; Singh, Yeshpal; Bongs, Kai; Rasel, Ernst Maria; Lodewyck, Jérôme; Le Targat, Rodolphe; Lisdat, Christian; Sterr, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The increasing performance of optical lattice clocks has made them attractive for scientific applications in space and thus has pushed the development of their components including the interrogation lasers of the clock transitions towards being suitable for space, which amongst others requires making them more power efficient, radiation hardened, smaller, lighter as well as more mechanically stable. Here we present the development towards a space-compatible interrogation laser system for a strontium lattice clock constructed within the Space Optical Clock (SOC2) project where we have concentrated on mechanical rigidity and size. The laser reaches a fractional frequency instability of 7.9 × 10−16 at 300 ms averaging time. The laser system uses a single extended cavity diode laser that gives enough power for interrogating the atoms, frequency comparison by a frequency comb and diagnostics. It includes fibre link stabilisation to the atomic package and to the comb. The optics module containing the laser has dimensions 60 × 45 × 8 cm3; and the ultra-stable reference cavity used for frequency stabilisation with its vacuum system takes 30 × 30 × 30 cm3. The acceleration sensitivities in three orthogonal directions of the cavity are 3.6 × 10−10/g, 5.8 × 10−10/g and 3.1 × 10−10/g, where g ≈ 9.8 m/s2 is the standard gravitational acceleration. PMID:27667640

  19. Ultra-stable clock laser system development towards space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Świerad, Dariusz; Häfner, Sebastian; Vogt, Stefan; Venon, Bertrand; Holleville, David; Bize, Sébastien; Kulosa, André; Bode, Sebastian; Singh, Yeshpal; Bongs, Kai; Rasel, Ernst Maria; Lodewyck, Jérôme; Le Targat, Rodolphe; Lisdat, Christian; Sterr, Uwe

    2016-09-01

    The increasing performance of optical lattice clocks has made them attractive for scientific applications in space and thus has pushed the development of their components including the interrogation lasers of the clock transitions towards being suitable for space, which amongst others requires making them more power efficient, radiation hardened, smaller, lighter as well as more mechanically stable. Here we present the development towards a space-compatible interrogation laser system for a strontium lattice clock constructed within the Space Optical Clock (SOC2) project where we have concentrated on mechanical rigidity and size. The laser reaches a fractional frequency instability of 7.9 × 10‑16 at 300 ms averaging time. The laser system uses a single extended cavity diode laser that gives enough power for interrogating the atoms, frequency comparison by a frequency comb and diagnostics. It includes fibre link stabilisation to the atomic package and to the comb. The optics module containing the laser has dimensions 60 × 45 × 8 cm3 and the ultra-stable reference cavity used for frequency stabilisation with its vacuum system takes 30 × 30 × 30 cm3. The acceleration sensitivities in three orthogonal directions of the cavity are 3.6 × 10‑10/g, 5.8 × 10‑10/g and 3.1 × 10‑10/g, where g ≈ 9.8 m/s2 is the standard gravitational acceleration.

  20. The Root Growth-Regulating Brevicompanine Natural Products Modulate the Plant Circadian Clock

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Plant growth regulating properties of brevicompanines (Brvs), natural products of the fungus Penicillium brevicompactum, have been known for several years, but further investigations into the molecular mechanism of their bioactivity have not been performed. Following chemical synthesis of brevicompanine derivatives, we studied their activity in the model plant Arabidopsis by a combination of plant growth assays, transcriptional profiling, and numerous additional bioassays. These studies demonstrated that brevicompanines cause transcriptional misregulation of core components of the circadian clock, whereas other biological read-outs were not affected. Brevicompanines thus represent promising chemical tools for investigating the regulation of the plant circadian clock. In addition, our study also illustrates the potential of an unbiased -omics-based characterization of bioactive compounds for identifying the often cryptic modes of action of small molecules. PMID:28379676

  1. The Root Growth-Regulating Brevicompanine Natural Products Modulate the Plant Circadian Clock.

    PubMed

    de Montaigu, Amaury; Oeljeklaus, Julian; Krahn, Jan H; Suliman, Mohamed N S; Halder, Vivek; de Ansorena, Elisa; Nickel, Sabrina; Schlicht, Markus; Plíhal, Ondřej; Kubiasová, Karolina; Radová, Lenka; Kracher, Barbara; Tóth, Réka; Kaschani, Farnusch; Coupland, George; Kombrink, Erich; Kaiser, Markus

    2017-06-16

    Plant growth regulating properties of brevicompanines (Brvs), natural products of the fungus Penicillium brevicompactum, have been known for several years, but further investigations into the molecular mechanism of their bioactivity have not been performed. Following chemical synthesis of brevicompanine derivatives, we studied their activity in the model plant Arabidopsis by a combination of plant growth assays, transcriptional profiling, and numerous additional bioassays. These studies demonstrated that brevicompanines cause transcriptional misregulation of core components of the circadian clock, whereas other biological read-outs were not affected. Brevicompanines thus represent promising chemical tools for investigating the regulation of the plant circadian clock. In addition, our study also illustrates the potential of an unbiased -omics-based characterization of bioactive compounds for identifying the often cryptic modes of action of small molecules.

  2. Clocks for airborne systems. [performance of rubidium oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houlding, N.

    1982-01-01

    The potential performance of compact oscillators, needed for the development of accurate clocks for future airborne systems (such as Identification Friend or Foe schemes), is addressed. In particular, extensive testing of rubidium oscillators manufactured by Efratom is discussed. The results indicate that an accuracy of better than 10 microseconds should be achievable in tactical aircraft provided that appropriate measures are adopted to counter the many environmental factors. In a favorable environment a stability of better than 5 x 10 to the -13th power for one day is achievable with present commercial units, but improvements are required to suit operation in an aircraft. With further development of rubidium controlled clocks the ultimate limitation on time accuracy in aircraft will probably be associated with time dissemination, maintenance difficulties and doctrinal hurdles.

  3. Circadian clock component, LHY, tells a plant when to respond photosynthetically to light in nature.

    PubMed

    Joo, Youngsung; Fragoso, Variluska; Yon, Felipe; Baldwin, Ian T; Kim, Sang-Gyu

    2017-08-01

    The circadian clock is known to increase plant growth and fitness, and is thought to prepare plants for photosynthesis at dawn and dusk; whether this happens in nature was unknown. We transformed the native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata to silence two core clock components, NaLHY (irLHY) and NaTOC1 (irTOC1). We characterized growth and light- and dark-adapted photosynthetic rates (Ac ) throughout a 24 h day in empty vector-transformed (EV), irLHY, and irTOC1 plants in the field, and in NaPhyA- and NaPhyB1-silenced plants in the glasshouse. The growth rates of irLHY plants were lower than those of EV plants in the field. While irLHY plants reduced Ac earlier at dusk, no differences between irLHY and EV plants were observed at dawn in the field. irLHY, but not EV plants, responded to light in the night by rapidly increasing Ac . Under controlled conditions, EV plants rapidly increased Ac in the day compared to dark-adapted plants at night; irLHY plants lost these time-dependent responses. The role of NaLHY in gating photosynthesis is independent of the light-dependent reactions and red light perceived by NaPhyA, but not NaPhyB1. In summary, the circadian clock allows plants not to respond photosynthetically to light at night by anticipating and gating red light-mediated in native tobacco. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. TOC1 functions as a molecular switch connecting the circadian clock with plant responses to drought

    PubMed Central

    Legnaioli, Tommaso; Cuevas, Juan; Mas, Paloma

    2009-01-01

    Despite our increasing knowledge on the transcriptional networks connecting abscisic acid (ABA) signalling with the circadian clock, the molecular nodes in which both pathways converge to translate the environmental information into a physiological response are not known. Here, we provide evidence of a feedback mechanism linking the circadian clock with plant responses to drought. A key clock component (TOC1, timing of CAB expression 1) binds to the promoter of the ABA-related gene (ABAR/CHLH/GUN5) and controls its circadian expression. TOC1 is in turn acutely induced by ABA and this induction advances the phase of TOC1 binding and modulates ABAR circadian expression. Moreover, the gated induction of TOC1 by ABA is abolished in ABAR RNAi plants suggesting that the reciprocal regulation between ABAR and TOC1 expression is important for sensitized ABA activity. Genetic studies with TOC1 and ABAR over-expressing and RNAi plants showed defective responses to drought, which support the notion that clock-dependent gating of ABA function is important for cellular homeostasis under dry environments. PMID:19816401

  5. Byzantine-fault tolerant self-stabilizing protocol for distributed clock synchronization systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A rapid Byzantine self-stabilizing clock synchronization protocol that self-stabilizes from any state, tolerates bursts of transient failures, and deterministically converges within a linear convergence time with respect to the self-stabilization period. Upon self-stabilization, all good clocks proceed synchronously. The Byzantine self-stabilizing clock synchronization protocol does not rely on any assumptions about the initial state of the clocks. Furthermore, there is neither a central clock nor an externally generated pulse system. The protocol converges deterministically, is scalable, and self-stabilizes in a short amount of time. The convergence time is linear with respect to the self-stabilization period.

  6. The climate system as a ticking clock

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1990-09-14

    Climate researchers are picking up a more or less regular 2-year beat to the global climate system - one that seems to be heard from every quarter. The most recently discovered example of this climatic ticking - and perhaps the most intriguing - comes from the very core of El Nino. Researchers have found that some aspects of this cycle of alternating warm and relatively cold waters along the equatorial Pacific have a tendency to repeat every 2 years. The overlying winds pulsate at the same pace, as do the globe-girdling effects of the El Nino cycle, from winter warmth in Alaska to heavy rains in Peru and drought in Australia. The climatic ticking in the tropical Pacific is hardly as reliable as the changing of the seasons. Sometimes it is muted, and occasionally it skips a beat. But some researchers nevertheless see hope of using it in the prediction of El Nino and its global effects. In any case, climate researchers are eager to determine what makes El Nino tick. The answer could be an underlying pacemaker of this crucial atmospheric cycle.

  7. An Adaptive Method for Reducing Clock Skew in an Accumulative Z-Axis Interconnect System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolotin, Gary; Boyce, Lee

    1997-01-01

    This paper will present several methods for adjusting clock skew variations that occur in a n accumulative z-axis interconnect system. In such a system, delay between modules in a function of their distance from one another. Clock distribution in a high-speed system, where clock skew must be kept to a minimum, becomes more challenging when module order is variable before design.

  8. A clock for the manufacturing systems integration testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libes, Don

    1991-09-01

    Described here is a software module that provides timing services to the Manufacturing Systems Integration (MSI) testbed in the automated factory. The software 'alarm clock' provides services to other MSI software, including synchrony; real time, or non-real time adjusted in a variety of ways; and alarms at relative or absolute intervals. By providing a central time service, these services are provided more reliably, efficiently, and flexibly than any client could provide on his own. Described are the implementation, the interfaces, and how to design and write programs that use MSI.

  9. Systems Biology-Derived Discoveries of Intrinsic Clocks.

    PubMed

    Millius, Arthur; Ueda, Hiroki R

    2017-01-01

    A systems approach to studying biology uses a variety of mathematical, computational, and engineering tools to holistically understand and model properties of cells, tissues, and organisms. Building from early biochemical, genetic, and physiological studies, systems biology became established through the development of genome-wide methods, high-throughput procedures, modern computational processing power, and bioinformatics. Here, we highlight a variety of systems approaches to the study of biological rhythms that occur with a 24-h period-circadian rhythms. We review how systems methods have helped to elucidate complex behaviors of the circadian clock including temperature compensation, rhythmicity, and robustness. Finally, we explain the contribution of systems biology to the transcription-translation feedback loop and posttranslational oscillator models of circadian rhythms and describe new technologies and "-omics" approaches to understand circadian timekeeping and neurophysiology.

  10. Systems Biology-Derived Discoveries of Intrinsic Clocks

    PubMed Central

    Millius, Arthur; Ueda, Hiroki R.

    2017-01-01

    A systems approach to studying biology uses a variety of mathematical, computational, and engineering tools to holistically understand and model properties of cells, tissues, and organisms. Building from early biochemical, genetic, and physiological studies, systems biology became established through the development of genome-wide methods, high-throughput procedures, modern computational processing power, and bioinformatics. Here, we highlight a variety of systems approaches to the study of biological rhythms that occur with a 24-h period—circadian rhythms. We review how systems methods have helped to elucidate complex behaviors of the circadian clock including temperature compensation, rhythmicity, and robustness. Finally, we explain the contribution of systems biology to the transcription–translation feedback loop and posttranslational oscillator models of circadian rhythms and describe new technologies and “–omics” approaches to understand circadian timekeeping and neurophysiology. PMID:28220104

  11. Time maintenance of user clocks via the tracking and data relay satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitworth, G.; Mcintyre, J. W.; Downs, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    A system is described which uses the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) itself to compare the user satellite clock with a clock at the White Sands station that is referenced to Universal Time Coordinated (UTC). No command of the spacecraft by the system is required, and actual on-board clock corrections are made by the spacecraft control center at its discretion. Computer models were constructed using basic orbital parameters for user and TDRS satellites. With only first-order corrections and simple averaging techniques for constant clock rates, error measurement precision of better than one microsecond was obtained. More sophisticated computations should allow considerable improvement over this.

  12. Clock Controller For Ac Self-Timing Analysis Of Logic System

    DOEpatents

    Lo, Tinchee; Flanagan, John D.

    2004-05-18

    A clock controller and clock generating method are provided for AC self-test timing analysis of a logic system. The controller includes latch circuitry which receives a DC input signal at a data input, and a pair of continuous out-of-phase clock signals at capture and launch clock inputs thereof. The latch circuitry outputs two overlapping pulses responsive to the DC input signal going high. The two overlapping pulses are provided to waveform shaper circuitry which produces therefrom two non-overlapping pulses at clock speed of the logic system to be tested. The two non-overlapping pulses are a single pair of clock pulses which facilitate AC self-test timing analysis of the logic system.

  13. The impact of chromatin dynamics on plant light responses and circadian clock function.

    PubMed

    Barneche, Fredy; Malapeira, Jordi; Mas, Paloma

    2014-06-01

    Research on the functional properties of nucleosome structure and composition dynamics has revealed that chromatin-level regulation is an essential component of light signalling and clock function in plants, two processes that rely extensively on transcriptional controls. In particular, several types of histone post-translational modifications and chromatin-bound factors act sequentially or in combination to establish transcriptional patterns and to fine-tune the transcript abundance of a large repertoire of light-responsive genes and clock components. Cytogenetic approaches have also identified light-induced higher-order chromatin changes that dynamically organize the condensation of chromosomal domains into sub-nuclear foci containing silenced repeat elements. In this review, we report recently identified molecular actors that establish chromatin state dynamics in response to light signals such as photoperiod, intensity, and spectral quality. We also highlight the chromatin-dependent mechanisms that contribute to the 24-h circadian gene expression and its impact on plant physiology and development. The commonalities and contrasts of light- and clock-associated chromatin-based mechanisms are discussed, with particular emphasis on their impact on the selective regulation and rapid modulation of responsive genes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. System and method for adaptively deskewing parallel data signals relative to a clock

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, Philip Nord [Redwood Shores, CA; Cornett, Frank N [Chippewa Falls, WI

    2011-10-04

    A system and method of reducing skew between a plurality of signals transmitted with a transmit clock is described. Skew is detected between the received transmit clock and each of received data signals. Delay is added to the clock or to one or more of the plurality of data signals to compensate for the detected skew. The delay added to each of the plurality of delayed signals is updated to adapt to changes in detected skew.

  15. System and method for adaptively deskewing parallel data signals relative to a clock

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, Philip Nord [Eau Claire, WI; Cornett, Frank N [Chippewa Falls, WI

    2008-10-07

    A system and method of reducing skew between a plurality of signals transmitted with a transmit clock is described. Skew is detected between the received transmit clock and each of received data signals. Delay is added to the clock or to one or more of the plurality of data signals to compensate for the detected skew. The delay added to each of the plurality of delayed signals is updated to adapt to changes in detected skew.

  16. The ferroin-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinskii system with a "clock" behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melicherčík, Milan; Treindl, L̆udovít

    1991-07-01

    The ferroin-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinskii oscillatory system with methyl-, ethyl-, or isopropyl-ester of 3-oxobutanoic acid exhibits a "clock" behaviour and subsequent two-frequency oscillations. The influence of oxygen on the "clock" behaviour is assumed to be caused by an interaction of oxygen as a scavenger with intermediary radicals. A mechanism of the "clock" behaviour together with two-frequency oscillations of the Belousov-Zhabotinskii type will be developed later.

  17. Ground control system for the midcourse space experiment UTC clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dragonette, Richard

    1994-01-01

    One goal of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) spacecraft Operations Planning Center is to maintain the onboard satellite UTC clock (UTC(MSX)) to within 1 millisecond of UTC(APL) (the program requirement is 10 msec). The UTC(MSX) clock employs as its time base an APL built 5 MHz quartz oscillator, which is expected to have frequency instabilities (aging rate + drift rate + frequency offset) that will cause the clock to drift approximately two to ten milliseconds per day. The UTC(MSX) clock can be advanced or retarded by the APL MSX satellite ground control center by integer multiples of 1 millisecond. The MSX Operations Planning Center is developing software which records the drift of UTC(MSX) relative to UTC(APL) and which schedules the time of day and magnitude of UTC(MSX) clock updates up to 48 hours in advance. Because of the manner in which MSX spacecraft activities are scheduled, MSX clock updates are planned 24 to 48 hours in advance, and stored in the satellite's computer controller for later execution. Data will be collected on the drift of UTC(MSX) relative to UTC(APL) over a three to five day period. Approximately six times per day, the time offset between UTC(MSX) and UTC(APL) will be measured by APL with a resolution of less than 100 microseconds. From this data a second order analytical model of the clock's drift will be derived. This model will be used to extrapolate the offset of the MSX clock in time from the present to 48 hours in the future. MSX clock updates will be placed on the spacecraft's daily schedule whenever the predicted clock offset exceeds 0.5 milliseconds. The paper includes a discussion of how the empirical model of the MSX clock is derived from satellite telemetry data, as well as the algorithm used to schedule MSX clock updates based on the model.

  18. [The circadian system in man: From the internal clock to melatonin secretion].

    PubMed

    Touitou, Y

    2016-09-01

    The internal or biological clock which is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus is controlled by clock genes and environmental factors which are able to synchronize the clock to 24h. Rhythm desynchronization (shiftwork and nightwork, transmeridian flights, aging, some psychiatric diseases, blindness, intake of some drugs…) occurs when the internal clock does no longer work in harmony with the astronomical time i.e. our watch. The circadian system consists of three major elements, which are the clock, the retinohypothalamic tract and melatonin which is secreted by the pineal gland and considered as the arrow of the clock. Both light and melatonin present a phase response curve useful for the treatment of sleep circadian disorders. Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Improvement of supporting electronics system of H-clock at Sher Shan VLBI station.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiqun

    1990-12-01

    The supporting electronics system is a very important part of the H-clock. The author improves the supporting electronics system of the two sets of H-clock at Sher Shan VLBI station. Some design ideas and results are described.

  20. The REVEILLE Clock Genes Inhibit Growth of Juvenile and Adult Plants by Control of Cell Size1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Jennifer A.; Chu, Dalena Nhu

    2017-01-01

    The circadian clock is a complex regulatory network that enhances plant growth and fitness in a constantly changing environment. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the clock is composed of numerous regulatory feedback loops in which REVEILLE8 (RVE8) and its homologs RVE4 and RVE6 act in a partially redundant manner to promote clock pace. Here, we report that the remaining members of the RVE8 clade, RVE3 and RVE5, play only minor roles in the regulation of clock function. However, we find that RVE8 clade proteins have unexpected functions in the modulation of light input to the clock and the control of plant growth at multiple stages of development. In seedlings, these proteins repress hypocotyl elongation in a daylength- and sucrose-dependent manner. Strikingly, adult rve4 6 8 and rve3 4 5 6 8 mutants are much larger than wild-type plants, with both increased leaf area and biomass. This size phenotype is associated with a faster growth rate and larger cell size and is not simply due to a delay in the transition to flowering. Gene expression and epistasis analysis reveal that the growth phenotypes of rve mutants are due to the misregulation of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) and PIF5 expression. Our results show that even small changes in PIF gene expression caused by the perturbation of clock gene function can have large effects on the growth of adult plants. PMID:28254761

  1. Brain-Specific Rescue of Clock Reveals System-Driven Transcriptional Rhythms in Peripheral Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michael E.; Hong, Hee-Kyung; Chong, Jason L.; Indacochea, Alejandra A.; Lee, Samuel S.; Han, Michael; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Hogenesch, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The circadian regulatory network is organized in a hierarchical fashion, with a central oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) orchestrating circadian oscillations in peripheral tissues. The nature of the relationship between central and peripheral oscillators, however, is poorly understood. We used the tetOFF expression system to specifically restore Clock function in the brains of ClockΔ19 mice, which have compromised circadian clocks. Rescued mice showed normal locomotor rhythms in constant darkness, with activity period lengths approximating wildtype controls. We used microarray analysis to assess whether brain-specific rescue of circadian rhythmicity was sufficient to restore circadian transcriptional output in the liver. Compared to Clock mutants, Clock-rescue mice showed significantly larger numbers of cycling transcripts with appropriate phase and period lengths, including many components of the core circadian oscillator. This indicates that the SCN oscillator overcomes local circadian defects and signals directly to the molecular clock. Interestingly, the vast majority of core clock genes in liver were responsive to Clock expression in the SCN, suggesting that core clock genes in peripheral tissues are intrinsically sensitive to SCN cues. Nevertheless, most circadian output in the liver was absent or severely low-amplitude in Clock-rescue animals, demonstrating that the majority of peripheral transcriptional rhythms depend on a fully functional local circadian oscillator. We identified several new system-driven rhythmic genes in the liver, including Alas1 and Mfsd2. Finally, we show that 12-hour transcriptional rhythms (i.e., circadian “harmonics") are disrupted by Clock loss-of-function. Brain-specific rescue of Clock converted 12-hour rhythms into 24-hour rhythms, suggesting that signaling via the central circadian oscillator is required to generate one of the two daily peaks of expression. Based on these data, we conclude that 12-hour rhythms

  2. The circadian system in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Stacey L

    2009-01-01

    The circadian clock regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development and promotes plant fitness. Molecular identification of clock components, primarily in Arabidopsis, has led to recent rapid progress in our understanding of the clock mechanism in higher plants. Using mathematical modeling and experimental approaches, workers in the field have developed a model of the clock that incorporates both transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of clock genes. This cell-autonomous clock, or oscillator, generates rhythmic outputs that can be monitored at the cellular and whole-organism level. The clock not only confers daily rhythms in growth and metabolism, but also interacts with signaling pathways involved in plant responses to the environment. Future work will lead to a better understanding of how the clock and other signaling networks are integrated to provide plants with an adaptive advantage.

  3. Verge and Foliot Clock Escapement: A Simple Dynamical System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The earliest mechanical clocks appeared in Europe in the 13th century. From about 1250 CE to 1670 CE, these simple clocks consisted of a weight suspended from a rope or chain that was wrapped around a horizontal axle. To tell time, the weight must fall with a slow uniform speed, but, under the action of gravity alone, such a suspended weight would…

  4. Verge and Foliot Clock Escapement: A Simple Dynamical System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The earliest mechanical clocks appeared in Europe in the 13th century. From about 1250 CE to 1670 CE, these simple clocks consisted of a weight suspended from a rope or chain that was wrapped around a horizontal axle. To tell time, the weight must fall with a slow uniform speed, but, under the action of gravity alone, such a suspended weight would…

  5. Test of an orbiting hydrogen maser clock system using laser time transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessot, Robert F. C.; Mattison, Edward M.; Nystrom, G. U.; Decher, Rudolph

    1992-01-01

    We describe a joint Smithsonian Astrophysical Laboratory/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (SAO/NASA) program for flight testing a atomic hydrogen maser clock system designed for long-term operation in space. The clock system will be carried by a shuttle-launched EURECA spacecraft. Comparisons with earth clocks to measure the clock's long-term frequency stability (tau = 10(exp 4) seconds) will be made using laser time transfer from existing NASA laser tracking stations. We describe the design of the maser clock and its control systems, and the laser timing technique. We describe the precision of station time synchronization and the limitations in the comparison between the earth and space time scales owing to gravitational and relativistic effects. We will explore the implications of determining the spacecraft's location by an on-board Global Position System (GPS) receiver, and of using microwave techniques for time and frequency transfer.

  6. Test of an orbiting hydrogen maser clock system using laser time transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessot, Robert F. C.; Mattison, Edward M.; Nystrom, G. U.; Decher, Rudolph

    1992-01-01

    We describe a joint Smithsonian Astrophysical Laboratory/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (SAO/NASA) program for flight testing a atomic hydrogen maser clock system designed for long-term operation in space. The clock system will be carried by a shuttle-launched EURECA spacecraft. Comparisons with earth clocks to measure the clock's long-term frequency stability (tau = 10(exp 4) seconds) will be made using laser time transfer from existing NASA laser tracking stations. We describe the design of the maser clock and its control systems, and the laser timing technique. We describe the precision of station time synchronization and the limitations in the comparison between the earth and space time scales owing to gravitational and relativistic effects. We will explore the implications of determining the spacecraft's location by an on-board Global Position System (GPS) receiver, and of using microwave techniques for time and frequency transfer.

  7. Synchronization of the mammalian circadian timing system: Light can control peripheral clocks independently of the SCN clock

    PubMed Central

    Husse, Jana; Eichele, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    A vast network of cellular circadian clocks regulates 24‐hour rhythms of behavior and physiology in mammals. Complex environments are characterized by multiple, and often conflicting time signals demanding flexible mechanisms of adaptation of endogenous rhythms to external time. Traditionally this process of circadian entrainment has been conceptualized in a hierarchical scheme with a light‐reset master pacemaker residing in the hypothalamus that subsequently aligns subordinate peripheral clocks with each other and with external time. Here we review new experiments using conditional mouse genetics suggesting that resetting of the circadian system occurs in a more “federated” and tissue‐specific fashion, which allows for increased noise resistance and plasticity of circadian timekeeping under natural conditions. PMID:26252253

  8. Downregulation of Clock in circulatory system leads to an enhancement of fibrinolysis in mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shuting; Jiang, Zhou; Zou, Yan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Yuhui; Liu, Yanyou; Xiao, Jing; Guo, Huiling; Wang, Zhengrong

    2011-09-01

    As a main component of circadian genes, clock plays not only an important role in circadian rhythm but also in the regulation of many physiological systems. The dysfunction of clock genes is associated with the development of various disorders. Many studies have investigated the association between clock genes and blood coagulation and the fibrinolytic system. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of downregulation of circulatory Clock on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis at the initial stage of active phase in male mice. Downregulation of the expression of the Clock gene by siRNA and, subsequently, its effect on the thrombotic potential and the expression of relative coagulative and/or fibrinolytic factors were investigated. It was found that the Clock interfered mice were less liable to thrombosis and showed prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) at Zeitgeber time (ZT) 15. Meanwhile, these mice also showed an increase in factor VII (FVII) and a decrease in thrombomodulin (TM) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) at ZT 15 at both transcriptional and translational levels. PT, APTT and mRNA expressions of fvii, tm and pai-1 were analyzed with the least-squares fit of a 24-h cosine function by single cosinor method; no circadian rhythm was determined in PT and APTT, and a higher amplitude of fvii in the Clock RNAi group was found with a circadian phase shift, while lower amplitudes of tm and pai-1 were found in the Clock RNAi group with nearly no phase shift. All these results suggest that downregulation of the Clock gene in circulatory system has an effect on factors involved in both blood coagulation and fibrinolysis resulting in an enhancement in mice. This may be considered as an indication that Clock regulates thrombotic homeostasis through the fibrinolytic system.

  9. Stochastic models of cellular circadian rhythms in plants help to understand the impact of noise on robustness and clock structure.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Maria L; Akman, Ozgur E; van Ooijen, Gerben

    2014-01-01

    Rhythmic behavior is essential for plants; for example, daily (circadian) rhythms control photosynthesis and seasonal rhythms regulate their life cycle. The core of the circadian clock is a genetic network that coordinates the expression of specific clock genes in a circadian rhythm reflecting the 24-h day/night cycle. Circadian clocks exhibit stochastic noise due to the low copy numbers of clock genes and the consequent cell-to-cell variation: this intrinsic noise plays a major role in circadian clocks by inducing more robust oscillatory behavior. Another source of noise is the environment, which causes variation in temperature and light intensity: this extrinsic noise is part of the requirement for the structural complexity of clock networks. Advances in experimental techniques now permit single-cell measurements and the development of single-cell models. Here we present some modeling studies showing the importance of considering both types of noise in understanding how plants adapt to regular and irregular light variations. Stochastic models have proven useful for understanding the effect of regular variations. By contrast, the impact of irregular variations and the interaction of different noise sources are less well studied.

  10. Evolution of photoperiodic time measurement is independent of the circadian clock in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Kevin J; Dake, Sabrina J; Bradshaw, William E; Holzapfel, Christina M

    2009-04-01

    For over 70 years, researchers have debated whether the ability to use day length as a cue for the timing of seasonal events (photoperiodism) is related to the endogenous circadian clock that regulates the timing of daily events. Models of photoperiodism include two components: (1) a photoperiodic timer that measures the length of the day, and (2) a photoperiodic counter that elicits the downstream photoperiodic response after a threshold number of days has been counted. Herein, we show that there is no geographical pattern of genetic association between the expression of the circadian clock and the photoperiodic timer or counter. We conclude that the photoperiodic timer and counter have evolved independently of the circadian clock in the pitcher-plant mosquito Wyeomyia smithii and hence, the evolutionary modification of photoperiodism throughout the range of W. smithii has not been causally mediated by a corresponding evolution of the circadian clock.

  11. Circadian rhythmicity and photoperiodism in the pitcher-plant mosquito: can the seasonal timer evolve independently of the circadian clock?

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, W E; Holzapfel, C M; Mathias, D

    2006-04-01

    The two major rhythms of the biosphere are daily and seasonal; the two major adaptations to these rhythms are the circadian clock, mediating daily activities, and the photoperiodic timer, mediating seasonal activities. The mechanistic connection between the circadian clock and the photoperiodic timer remains unresolved. Herein, we show that the rhythmic developmental response to exotic light:dark cycles, usually used to infer a causal connection between the circadian clock and the photoperiodic timer, has evolved independently of the photoperiodic timer in the pitcher-plant mosquito Wyeomyia smithii across the climatic gradient of eastern North America from Florida to Canada and from the coastal plain to the mountains. We conclude that the photoperiodic timing of seasonal events can evolve independently of the daily circadian clock.

  12. Crosstalk between the circadian clock circuitry and the immune system.

    PubMed

    Cermakian, Nicolas; Lange, Tanja; Golombek, Diego; Sarkar, Dipak; Nakao, Atsuhito; Shibata, Shigenobu; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2013-08-01

    Various features, components, and functions of the immune system present daily variations. Immunocompetent cell counts and cytokine levels present variations according to the time of day and the sleep-wake cycle. Moreover, different immune cell types, such as macrophages, natural killer cells, and lymphocytes, contain a circadian molecular clockwork. The biological clocks intrinsic to immune cells and lymphoid organs, together with inputs from the central pacemaker of the suprachiasmatic nuclei via humoral and neural pathways, regulate the function of cells of the immune system, including their response to signals and their effector functions. Consequences of this include, for example, the daily variation in the response to an immune challenge (e.g., bacterial endotoxin injection) and the circadian control of allergic reactions. The circadian-immune connection is bidirectional, because in addition to this circadian control of immune functions, immune challenges and immune mediators (e.g., cytokines) were shown to have strong effects on circadian rhythms at the molecular, cellular, and behavioral levels. This tight crosstalk between the circadian and immune systems has wide-ranging implications for disease, as shown by the higher incidence of cancer and the exacerbation of autoimmune symptoms upon circadian disruption.

  13. Synchronization of motor controller and PC system clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittmann, Frank; Bertram, Thomas; Briegel, Florian; Mohr, Lars; Berwein, Jürgen

    2010-07-01

    The power of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) with its two 8.4m primary mirrors sharing a common mount will unfold its full potential with the LINC-NIRVANA (LN) instrument. LINC-NIRVANA is a German-Italian beam combiner for the LBT and will interfere the light from the two 8.4m mirrors of the LBT in Fizeau mode. More than 140 motors have to be handled by custom developed Motor Controllers (MoCons). One important feature of the MoCon is the support of externally computed trajectories. Motion profiles provide information on the movement of the motor along a defined path over a certain period of time. Such profiles can be uploaded to the MoCon over Ethernet and can be started at a specific time. For field derotation it is critical that the derotation trajectories are executed with a very precise relative and absolute timing. This raises the problem of the synchronization of the MoCon internal clock with the system time of the servers that are hosting LINCNIRVANA's Instrument Control Software. The MoCon time should be known by the servers with an uncertainty of few milliseconds in order to match the start time of the motion profile and the field rotation trajectory. In this paper we will discuss how to synchronize the MoCon internal time and the PC system time.

  14. Green Web or megabiased clock? Plant fossils from Gondwanan Patagonia speak on evolutionary radiations.

    PubMed

    Wilf, Peter; Escapa, Ignacio H

    2015-07-01

    Evolutionary divergence-age estimates derived from molecular 'clocks' are frequently correlated with paleogeographic, paleoclimatic and extinction events. One prominent hypothesis based on molecular data states that the dominant pattern of Southern Hemisphere biogeography is post-Gondwanan clade origins and subsequent dispersal across the oceans in a metaphoric 'Green Web'. We tested this idea against well-dated Patagonian fossils of 19 plant lineages, representing organisms that actually lived on Gondwana. Most of these occurrences are substantially older than their respective, often post-Gondwanan molecular dates. The Green Web interpretation probably results from directional bias in molecular results. Gondwanan history remains fundamental to understanding Southern Hemisphere plant radiations, and we urge significantly greater caution when using molecular dating to interpret the biological impacts of geological events. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Self-stabilizing byzantine-fault-tolerant clock synchronization system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Systems and methods for rapid Byzantine-fault-tolerant self-stabilizing clock synchronization are provided. The systems and methods are based on a protocol comprising a state machine and a set of monitors that execute once every local oscillator tick. The protocol is independent of specific application specific requirements. The faults are assumed to be arbitrary and/or malicious. All timing measures of variables are based on the node's local clock and thus no central clock or externally generated pulse is used. Instances of the protocol are shown to tolerate bursts of transient failures and deterministically converge with a linear convergence time with respect to the synchronization period as predicted.

  16. Carbon partitioning in Arabidopsis thaliana is a dynamic process controlled by the plants metabolic status and its circadian clock

    PubMed Central

    Kölling, Katharina; Thalmann, Matthias; Müller, Antonia; Jenny, Camilla; Zeeman, Samuel C

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Plant growth involves the coordinated distribution of carbon resources both towards structural components and towards storage compounds that assure a steady carbon supply over the complete diurnal cycle. We used 14CO2 labelling to track assimilated carbon in both source and sink tissues. Source tissues exhibit large variations in carbon allocation throughout the light period. The most prominent change was detected in partitioning towards starch, being low in the morning and more than double later in the day. Export into sink tissues showed reciprocal changes. Fewer and smaller changes in carbon allocation occurred in sink tissues where, in most respects, carbon was partitioned similarly, whether the sink leaf assimilated it through photosynthesis or imported it from source leaves. Mutants deficient in the production or remobilization of leaf starch exhibited major alterations in carbon allocation. Low-starch mutants that suffer from carbon starvation at night allocated much more carbon into neutral sugars and had higher rates of export than the wild type, partly because of the reduced allocation into starch, but also because of reduced allocation into structural components. Moreover, mutants deficient in the plant’s circadian system showed considerable changes in their carbon partitioning pattern suggesting control by the circadian clock. This work focusses on the temporal changes in the allocation and transport of photoassimilates within Arabidopsis rosettes, helping to fill a gap in our understanding of plant growth. Using short pulses of 14C-labelled carbon dioxide, we quantified how much carbon is used for growth and how much is stored as starch for use at night. In source leaves, partitioning is surprisingly dynamic during the day, even though photosynthesis is relatively constant, while in sink leaves, utilisation is more constant. Furthermore, by analysing metabolic mutants and clock mutants, and by manipulating the growth conditions, we show that

  17. The intrinsic microglial clock system regulates interleukin-6 expression.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Ryota; Hotta, Shogo; Yamada, Daisuke; Kou, Miki; Nakamura, Saki; Takahata, Yoshifumi; Tei, Hajime; Numano, Rika; Hida, Akiko; Shimba, Shigeki; Mieda, Michihiro; Hinoi, Eiichi; Yoneda, Yukio; Takarada, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Similar to neurons, microglia have an intrinsic molecular clock. The master clock oscillator Bmal1 modulates interleukin-6 upregulation in microglial cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide. Bmal1 can play a role in microglial inflammatory responses. We previously demonstrated that gliotransmitter ATP induces transient expression of the clock gene Period1 via P2X7 purinergic receptors in cultured microglia. In this study, we further investigated mechanisms underlying the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production by clock molecules in microglial cells. Several clock gene transcripts exhibited oscillatory diurnal rhythmicity in microglial BV-2 cells. Real-time luciferase monitoring also showed diurnal oscillatory luciferase activity in cultured microglia from Per1::Luciferase transgenic mice. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) strongly induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in BV-2 cells, whereas an siRNA targeting Brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 (Bmal1), a core positive component of the microglial molecular clock, selectively inhibited LPS-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression. In addition, LPS-induced IL-6 expression was attenuated in microglia from Bmal1-deficient mice. This phenotype was recapitulated by pharmacological disruption of oscillatory diurnal rhythmicity using the synthetic Rev-Erb agonist SR9011. Promoter analysis of the Il6 gene revealed that Bmal1 is required for LPS-induced IL-6 expression in microglia. Mice conditionally Bmal1 deficient in cells expressing CD11b, including microglia, exhibited less potent upregulation of Il6 expression following middle cerebral artery occlusion compared with that in control mice, with a significant attenuation of neuronal damage. These results suggest that the intrinsic microglial clock modulates the inflammatory response, including the positive regulation of IL-6 expression in a particular pathological situation in the brain, GLIA 2016. GLIA 2017;65:198-208.

  18. Spaceborne clock system: Some alternatives for a proposed NASA experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beehler, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    A spaceborne clock experiment is proposed with the objectives of improving international time and frequency comparisons, studying precise one-way Doppler tracking and one-way ranging techniques, performing relativistic studies, and developing new atomic frequency standards technology. Various alternatives are considered for accomplishing these goals, including the use of existing satellite and earth-based time dissemination systems as well as the development of a new frequency standard for this specific application. One conclusion is that several attractive alternatives already exist for meeting the goal of improved time and frequency dissemination. However, to achieve all the other 4 goals at the NASA-stated levels of accuracy, a spaceborne atomic frequency standard may be required. An analysis of achievements to date with quartz oscillators, rubidium standards, cesium beam standards, hydrogen masers, and several other possibilities leads to the conclusion that cesium and rubidium standards offer the best choices for the experiment as proposed by NASA. The greatest obstacle to a spaceborne atomic standard appears to be its electrical power requirements.

  19. Automatic Clock and Time Signal System of the Astronomical Agency in East Asia Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Sam

    2009-09-01

    We analysed the old automatic clock and time signal system that was used by the national astronomical agency in East Asian Area. Jagyeongnu is a kind of water clock that was operated by the flowing water in Joseon Dynasty. Seowoongwan managed the water clock so as to keep the standard time system in the dynasty from the 16th year (1434) of King Sejong's reign. In 1438 the Okru that was invented in the period. Such kind of clock system already was used in China, which was Shui yun i hsiang t'ai (?) in 1092. During the period Joseon Dynasty, China and Japan had been kept the time system that one day is divided into 12 shin (?2?) or 100 gak (?). However detailed part of the system had a little difference among the three countries. Though the whole system of water clock in Joseon had manufactured on the basis of Chinese, it had been gradually developed by own method and idea. In this study we show the historical records of the standard time keeping system in East Asian history. And then we can inform materials on the structure and functional devises for the purpose of new restoration models about the automatic clock and time system.

  20. Land plant evolutionary timeline: gene effects are secondary to fossil constraints in relaxed clock estimation of age and substitution rates.

    PubMed

    Magallón, Susana; Hilu, Khidir W; Quandt, Dietmar

    2013-03-01

    Land plants play an essential role in the evolution of terrestrial life. Their time of origin and diversification is fundamental to understanding the evolution of life on land. We investigated the timing and the rate of molecular evolution of land plants, evaluating the effects of different types of molecular data, including temporal information from fossils, and using different molecular clock methods. • Ages and absolute rates were estimated independently with two substitutionally different data sets: a highly conserved 4-gene data set and matK, a fast-evolving gene. The vascular plant backbone and the crown nodes of all major lineages were calibrated with fossil-derived ages. Dates and absolute rates were estimated while including or excluding the calibrations and using two relaxed clocks that differ in their implementation of temporal autocorrelation. • Land plants diverged from streptophyte alga 912 (870-962) million years ago (Mya) but diversified into living lineages 475 (471-480) Mya. Ages estimated for all major land-plant lineages agree with their fossil record, except for angiosperms. Different genes estimated very similar ages and correlated absolute rates across the tree. Excluding calibrations resulted in the greatest age differences. Different relaxed clocks provided similar ages, but different and uncorrelated absolute rates. • Whole-genome rate accelerations or decelerations may underlie the similar ages and correlated absolute rates estimated with different genes. We suggest that pronounced substitution rate changes around the angiosperm crown node may represent a challenge for relaxed clocks to model adequately.

  1. System and method for adaptively deskewing parallel data signals relative to a clock

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, Philip Nord; Cornett, Frank N.

    2006-04-18

    A system and method of reducing skew between a plurality of signals transmitted with a transmit clock is described. Skew is detected between the received transmit clock and each of received data signals. Delay is added to the clock or to one or more of the plurality of data signals to compensate for the detected skew. Each of the plurality of delayed signals is compared to a reference signal to detect changes in the skew. The delay added to each of the plurality of delayed signals is updated to adapt to changes in the detected skew.

  2. Model selection reveals control of cold signalling by evening-phased components of the plant circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Keily, Jack; MacGregor, Dana R; Smith, Robert W; Millar, Andrew J; Halliday, Karen J; Penfield, Steven

    2013-10-01

    Circadian clocks confer advantages by restricting biological processes to certain times of day through the control of specific phased outputs. Control of temperature signalling is an important function of the plant oscillator, but the architecture of the gene network controlling cold signalling by the clock is not well understood. Here we use a model ensemble fitted to time-series data and a corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) analysis to extend a dynamic model to include the control of the key cold-regulated transcription factors C-REPEAT BINDING FACTORs 1-3 (CBF1, CBF2, CBF3). AICc was combined with in silico analysis of genetic perturbations in the model ensemble, and selected a model that predicted mutant phenotypes and connections between evening-phased circadian clock components and CBF3 transcriptional control, but these connections were not shared by CBF1 and CBF2. In addition, our model predicted the correct gating of CBF transcription by cold only when the cold signal originated from the clock mechanism itself, suggesting that the clock has an important role in temperature signal transduction. Our data shows that model selection could be a useful method for the expansion of gene network models. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Biological clocks and visual systems in cave-adapted animals at the dawn of speleogenomics.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Markus

    2013-07-01

    Cave-adapted animals are characterized by extreme reduction or complete absence of eyes, reflecting their lack of exposure to daylight. Given the overall constancy of abiotic variables in the cave environment, one would also expect the relaxation and eventual loss of circadian rhythms, and with it, the regressive evolution of the underlying genetic biological clock. Remarkably, however, recent behavioral and molecular studies converge with earlier evidence that the biological clock remains conserved in cave-adapted species. Reviewing the structural and behavioral data on the relationship between the visual system and the biological clock in cave species, I assess the potential of deep sequencing for elucidating their evolutionary conservation and adaptive significance in the subterranean fauna. The combined evidence confirms the widespread conservation both of the visual system and of the behavior regulated by the biological clock in cave species. The data from over 40 vertebrate and arthropod species further reveal that the absence of activity rhythms is correlated with the regression of the visual system. At the same time, the network of biological clock genes is likely to be generally conserved in cave species, regulating rhythmic behaviors in response to non-visual cycling variables as well as organismal homeostasis. Arrhythmic, eyeless species of cave beetles emerge as the most stringent choice for using deep-sequencing approaches to test and explore the conservation of the biological clock, independently of the visual system.

  4. A Prototype Cesium Clock Ensemble for The Loran-C Radionavigation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    40th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting A PROTOTYPE CESIUM CLOCK ENSEMBLE FOR THE LORAN -C RADIONAVIGATION SYSTEM...LTjg. Aaron P. Dahlen United States Coast Guard Loran Support Unit 12001 Pacific Ave Wildwood, NJ 08260-3232, USA Tel: 609-523-7204; Fax: 609-523...7320 E -mail: Aaron.P.Dahlen@uscg.mil Abstract This paper presents a prototype real time clock ensemble designed for semi-autonomous

  5. Circadian-clock system in mouse liver affected by insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Chuan; Tseng, Huey-Lin; Shieh, Kun-Ruey

    2013-07-01

    Circadian rhythms are exhibited in the physiological and behavioral processes of all mammals; they are generated by intracellular levels of circadian oscillators, which are named as a set of circadian-clock genes. These genes compose the transcriptional/translational feedback loops to regulate not only circadian rhythmicity, but also energy metabolism. Previous studies have shown that obesity and diabetes cause the dysregulation of the circadian-clock system, and vice versa. However, some diabetes subjects are lean with insulin resistance and the mechanisms of insulin resistance without obesity are much less well known. Therefore, whether insulin resistance alone is enough to influence the expression of circadian-clock genes is uncertain. This study employs a neonatal streptozotocin (STZ)-treated paradigm in mice to model the molecular and physiological progress of nonobese insulin resistance. A single injection of STZ into 2-d-old male C57BL/6 mice induces nonobese, hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic conditions, and the levels of gene expression in the liver by a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction are then measured. Although the levels of Bmal1 (brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1), Per2 (period 2), and Cry1 (cryptochrome 1) mRNA expression in the liver change during the progress of insulin resistance conditions, the gene expression patterns still show circadian rhythmicity. This study suggests that changes in the hepatic circadian-clock gene expression mark an early event in the metabolic disruption associated with insulin resistance. Furthermore, 2 wks of treatment with the thiazolidinedione, pioglitazone, fully resolve the dysfunction in metabolic parameters and the changes in circadian-clock gene expression from early insulin resistance conditions. These results indicate that the circadian-clock system is sensitive to insulin resistance, and that treatment with thiazolidinediones can resolve changes in the circadian-clock system in a timely

  6. A coupled SYSTEM of intracellular Ca2+ clocks and surface membrane voltage clocks controls the timekeeping mechanism of the heart’s pacemaker

    PubMed Central

    Lakatta, Edward G.; Maltsev, Victor A.; Vinogradova, Tatiana M.

    2010-01-01

    Ion channels on the surface membrane of sinoatrial nodal pacemaker cells (SANC) are the proximal cause of an action potential. Each individual channel type has been thoroughly characterized under voltage clamp, and the ensemble of the ion channel currents reconstructed in silico generates rhythmic action potentials. Thus, this ensemble can be envisioned as a surface “membrane clock” (M clock). Localized subsarcolemmal Ca2+ releases are generated by the sarcoplasmic reticulum via ryanodine receptors during late diastolic depolarization and are referred to as an intracellular “Ca2+ clock”, because their spontaneous occurrence is periodic during voltage clamp or in detergent-permeabilized SANC, and in silico as well. In spontaneously firing SANC, the M and Ca2+ clocks do not operate in isolation, but work together via numerous interactions modulated by membrane voltage, subsarcolemmal Ca2+, and PKA and CaMKII-dependent protein phosphorylation. Through these interactions the two subsystem clocks become mutually entrained to form a robust, stable, coupled-clock system that drives normal cardiac pacemaker cell automaticity. G-protein coupled-receptors signaling creates pacemaker flexibility, i.e. effects changes in the rhythmic action potential firing rate, by impacting on these very same factors that regulate robust basal coupled-clock system function. This review examines evidence that forms the basis of this coupled-clock system concept in cardiac SANC. PMID:20203315

  7. A Byzantine-Fault Tolerant Self-Stabilizing Protocol for Distributed Clock Synchronization Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    2006-01-01

    Embedded distributed systems have become an integral part of safety-critical computing applications, necessitating system designs that incorporate fault tolerant clock synchronization in order to achieve ultra-reliable assurance levels. Many efficient clock synchronization protocols do not, however, address Byzantine failures, and most protocols that do tolerate Byzantine failures do not self-stabilize. Of the Byzantine self-stabilizing clock synchronization algorithms that exist in the literature, they are based on either unjustifiably strong assumptions about initial synchrony of the nodes or on the existence of a common pulse at the nodes. The Byzantine self-stabilizing clock synchronization protocol presented here does not rely on any assumptions about the initial state of the clocks. Furthermore, there is neither a central clock nor an externally generated pulse system. The proposed protocol converges deterministically, is scalable, and self-stabilizes in a short amount of time. The convergence time is linear with respect to the self-stabilization period. Proofs of the correctness of the protocol as well as the results of formal verification efforts are reported.

  8. A Byzantine-Fault Tolerant Self-Stabilizing Protocol for Distributed Clock Synchronization Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    2006-01-01

    Embedded distributed systems have become an integral part of safety-critical computing applications, necessitating system designs that incorporate fault tolerant clock synchronization in order to achieve ultra-reliable assurance levels. Many efficient clock synchronization protocols do not, however, address Byzantine failures, and most protocols that do tolerate Byzantine failures do not self-stabilize. Of the Byzantine self-stabilizing clock synchronization algorithms that exist in the literature, they are based on either unjustifiably strong assumptions about initial synchrony of the nodes or on the existence of a common pulse at the nodes. The Byzantine self-stabilizing clock synchronization protocol presented here does not rely on any assumptions about the initial state of the clocks. Furthermore, there is neither a central clock nor an externally generated pulse system. The proposed protocol converges deterministically, is scalable, and self-stabilizes in a short amount of time. The convergence time is linear with respect to the self-stabilization period. Proofs of the correctness of the protocol as well as the results of formal verification efforts are reported.

  9. Carbon partitioning in Arabidopsis thaliana is a dynamic process controlled by the plants metabolic status and its circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Kölling, Katharina; Thalmann, Matthias; Müller, Antonia; Jenny, Camilla; Zeeman, Samuel C

    2015-10-01

    Plant growth involves the coordinated distribution of carbon resources both towards structural components and towards storage compounds that assure a steady carbon supply over the complete diurnal cycle. We used (14) CO2 labelling to track assimilated carbon in both source and sink tissues. Source tissues exhibit large variations in carbon allocation throughout the light period. The most prominent change was detected in partitioning towards starch, being low in the morning and more than double later in the day. Export into sink tissues showed reciprocal changes. Fewer and smaller changes in carbon allocation occurred in sink tissues where, in most respects, carbon was partitioned similarly, whether the sink leaf assimilated it through photosynthesis or imported it from source leaves. Mutants deficient in the production or remobilization of leaf starch exhibited major alterations in carbon allocation. Low-starch mutants that suffer from carbon starvation at night allocated much more carbon into neutral sugars and had higher rates of export than the wild type, partly because of the reduced allocation into starch, but also because of reduced allocation into structural components. Moreover, mutants deficient in the plant's circadian system showed considerable changes in their carbon partitioning pattern suggesting control by the circadian clock. © 2015 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Defining the robust behaviour of the plant clock gene circuit with absolute RNA timeseries and open infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Flis, Anna; Fernández, Aurora Piñas; Zielinski, Tomasz; Mengin, Virginie; Sulpice, Ronan; Stratford, Kevin; Hume, Alastair; Pokhilko, Alexandra; Southern, Megan M.; Seaton, Daniel D.; McWatters, Harriet G.; Stitt, Mark; Halliday, Karen J.; Millar, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the complex, transcriptional feedback loops in the circadian clock mechanism has depended upon quantitative, timeseries data from disparate sources. We measure clock gene RNA profiles in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, grown with or without exogenous sucrose, or in soil-grown plants and in wild-type and mutant backgrounds. The RNA profiles were strikingly robust across the experimental conditions, so current mathematical models are likely to be broadly applicable in leaf tissue. In addition to providing reference data, unexpected behaviours included co-expression of PRR9 and ELF4, and regulation of PRR5 by GI. Absolute RNA quantification revealed low levels of PRR9 transcripts (peak approx. 50 copies cell−1) compared with other clock genes, and threefold higher levels of LHY RNA (more than 1500 copies cell−1) than of its close relative CCA1. The data are disseminated from BioDare, an online repository for focused timeseries data, which is expected to benefit mechanistic modelling. One data subset successfully constrained clock gene expression in a complex model, using publicly available software on parallel computers, without expert tuning or programming. We outline the empirical and mathematical justification for data aggregation in understanding highly interconnected, dynamic networks such as the clock, and the observed design constraints on the resources required to make this approach widely accessible. PMID:26468131

  11. Defining the robust behaviour of the plant clock gene circuit with absolute RNA timeseries and open infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Flis, Anna; Fernández, Aurora Piñas; Zielinski, Tomasz; Mengin, Virginie; Sulpice, Ronan; Stratford, Kevin; Hume, Alastair; Pokhilko, Alexandra; Southern, Megan M; Seaton, Daniel D; McWatters, Harriet G; Stitt, Mark; Halliday, Karen J; Millar, Andrew J

    2015-10-01

    Our understanding of the complex, transcriptional feedback loops in the circadian clock mechanism has depended upon quantitative, timeseries data from disparate sources. We measure clock gene RNA profiles in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, grown with or without exogenous sucrose, or in soil-grown plants and in wild-type and mutant backgrounds. The RNA profiles were strikingly robust across the experimental conditions, so current mathematical models are likely to be broadly applicable in leaf tissue. In addition to providing reference data, unexpected behaviours included co-expression of PRR9 and ELF4, and regulation of PRR5 by GI. Absolute RNA quantification revealed low levels of PRR9 transcripts (peak approx. 50 copies cell(-1)) compared with other clock genes, and threefold higher levels of LHY RNA (more than 1500 copies cell(-1)) than of its close relative CCA1. The data are disseminated from BioDare, an online repository for focused timeseries data, which is expected to benefit mechanistic modelling. One data subset successfully constrained clock gene expression in a complex model, using publicly available software on parallel computers, without expert tuning or programming. We outline the empirical and mathematical justification for data aggregation in understanding highly interconnected, dynamic networks such as the clock, and the observed design constraints on the resources required to make this approach widely accessible. © 2015 The Authors.

  12. Research on the optical system for space optical clock at NTSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, X.; Han, J. X.; Zhang, S.; Zou, H. X.; Chang, H.

    2016-11-01

    Optical clocks surpass the primary Cs microwave clocks with excellent performances. This allows new studies both in fundamental physics and engineering. The paper presents the optical system for our space optical clock at NTSC. Different from it in the laboratory, novel approaches and techniques were used to meet the space requirement of compactness and reliability. The modular consisting of three robust subunits was developed, which was one laser sources breadboard and two optical paths systems breadboards. The compact dimension of the optical system is 540mm×440mm×130mm and the total mass was approximate 28 kilogram. The deformation of two optical paths systems was calculated under an overload test by a mechanical analysis and it could meet the requirement. It is a advancement from lab to engineering application based on the work, which provides effective foundation for improving the optical system.

  13. Dating the early evolution of plants: detection and molecular clock analyses of orthologs.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Andreas; Lang, Daniel; Richardt, Sandra; Frank, Wolfgang; Reski, Ralf; Rensing, Stefan A

    2007-10-01

    Orthologs generally are under selective pressure against loss of function, while paralogs usually accumulate mutations and finally die or deviate in terms of function or regulation. Most ortholog detection methods contaminate the resulting datasets with a substantial amount of paralogs. Therefore we aimed to implement a straightforward method that allows the detection of ortholog clusters with a reduced amount of paralogs from completely sequenced genomes. The described cross-species expansion of the reciprocal best BLAST hit method is a time-effective method for ortholog detection, which results in 68% truly orthologous clusters and the procedure specifically enriches single-copy orthologs. The detection of true orthologs can provide a phylogenetic toolkit to better understand evolutionary processes. In a study across six photosynthetic eukaryotes, nuclear genes of putative mitochondrial origin were shown to be over-represented among single copy orthologs. These orthologs are involved in fundamental biological processes like amino acid metabolism or translation. Molecular clock analyses based on this dataset yielded divergence time estimates for the red/green algae (1,142 MYA), green algae/land plant (725 MYA), mosses/seed plant (496 MYA), gymno-/angiosperm (385 MYA) and monocotyledons/core eudicotyledons (301 MYA) divergence times.

  14. A Plant Cryptochrome Controls Key Features of the Chlamydomonas Circadian Clock and Its Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Müller, Nico; Wenzel, Sandra; Zou, Yong; Künzel, Sandra; Sasso, Severin; Weiß, Daniel; Prager, Katja; Grossman, Arthur; Kottke, Tilman; Mittag, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Cryptochromes are flavin-binding proteins that act as blue light receptors in bacteria, fungi, plants, and insects and are components of the circadian oscillator in mammals. Animal and plant cryptochromes are evolutionarily divergent, although the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas throughout) has both an animal-like cryptochrome and a plant cryptochrome (pCRY; formerly designated CPH1). Here, we show that the pCRY protein accumulates at night as part of a complex. Functional characterization of pCRY was performed based on an insertional mutant that expresses only 11% of the wild-type pCRY level. The pcry mutant is defective for central properties of the circadian clock. In the mutant, the period is lengthened significantly, ultimately resulting in arrhythmicity, while blue light-based phase shifts show large deviations from what is observed in wild-type cells. We also show that pCRY is involved in gametogenesis in Chlamydomonas pCRY is down-regulated in pregametes and gametes, and in the pcry mutant, there is altered transcript accumulation under blue light of the strictly light-dependent, gamete-specific gene GAS28 pCRY acts as a negative regulator for the induction of mating ability in the light and for the loss of mating ability in the dark. Moreover, pCRY is necessary for light-dependent germination, during which the zygote undergoes meiosis that gives rise to four vegetative cells. In sum, our data demonstrate that pCRY is a key blue light receptor in Chlamydomonas that is involved in both circadian timing and life cycle progression. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. RighTime: A real time clock correcting program for MS-DOS-based computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, G. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    A computer program is described which effectively eliminates the misgivings of the DOS system clock in PC/AT-class computers. RighTime is a small, sophisticated memory-resident program that automatically corrects both the DOS system clock and the hardware 'CMOS' real time clock (RTC) in real time. RighTime learns what corrections are required without operator interaction beyond the occasional accurate time set. Both warm (power on) and cool (power off) errors are corrected, usually yielding better than one part per million accuracy in the typical desktop computer with no additional hardware, and RighTime increases the system clock resolution from approximately 0.0549 second to 0.01 second. Program tools are also available which allow visualization of RighTime's actions, verification of its performance, display of its history log, and which provide data for graphing of the system clock behavior. The program has found application in a wide variety of industries, including astronomy, satellite tracking, communications, broadcasting, transportation, public utilities, manufacturing, medicine, and the military.

  16. RighTime: A real time clock correcting program for MS-DOS-based computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, G. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    A computer program is described which effectively eliminates the misgivings of the DOS system clock in PC/AT-class computers. RighTime is a small, sophisticated memory-resident program that automatically corrects both the DOS system clock and the hardware 'CMOS' real time clock (RTC) in real time. RighTime learns what corrections are required without operator interaction beyond the occasional accurate time set. Both warm (power on) and cool (power off) errors are corrected, usually yielding better than one part per million accuracy in the typical desktop computer with no additional hardware, and RighTime increases the system clock resolution from approximately 0.0549 second to 0.01 second. Program tools are also available which allow visualization of RighTime's actions, verification of its performance, display of its history log, and which provide data for graphing of the system clock behavior. The program has found application in a wide variety of industries, including astronomy, satellite tracking, communications, broadcasting, transportation, public utilities, manufacturing, medicine, and the military.

  17. Modeling of atomic systems for atomic clocks and quantum information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Bindiya

    This dissertation reports the modeling of atomic systems for atomic clocks and quantum information. This work is motivated by the prospects of optical frequency standards with trapped ions and the quantum computation proposals with neutral atoms in optical lattices. Extensive calculations of the electric-dipole matrix elements in monovalent atoms are conducted using the relativistic all-order method. This approach is a linearized version of the coupled-cluster method, which sums infinite sets of many-body perturbation theory terms. All allowed transitions between the lowest ns, np1/2, np 3/2 states and a large number of excited states of alkali-metal atoms are evaluated using the all-order method. For Ca+ ion, additional allowed transitions between nd5/2, np 3/2, nf5/2, nf 7/2 states and a large number of excited states are evaluated. We combine D1 lines measurements by Miller et al. [18] with our all-order calculations to determine the values of the electric-dipole matrix elements for the 4pj - 3d j' transitions in K and for the 5pj - 4dj' transitions in Rb to high precision. The resulting electric-dipole matrix elements are used for the high-precision calculation of frequency-dependent polarizabilities of ground state of alkali atoms. Our values of static polarizabilities are found to be in excellent agreement with available experiments. Calculations were done for the wavelength in the range 300--1600 nm, with particular attention to wavelengths of common infrared lasers. We parameterize our results so that they can be extended accurately to arbitrary wavelengths above 800 nm. Our data can be used to predict the oscillation frequencies of optically-trapped atoms, and particularly the ratios of frequencies of different species held in the same trap. We identify wavelengths at which two different alkali atoms have the same oscillation frequency. We present results of all-order calculations of static and frequency-dependent polarizabilities of excited np1/2 and np3

  18. Circadian clock- and PIF4-controlled plant growth: a coincidence mechanism directly integrates a hormone signaling network into the photoperiodic control of plant architectures in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, Yuji; Nomoto, Yuichi; Kubozono, Saori; Yamashino, Takafumi; Nakamichi, Norihito; Mizuno, Takeshi

    2012-11-01

    The plant circadian clock generates rhythms with a period close to 24 h, and it controls a wide variety of physiological and developmental events, enabling plants to adapt to ever-changing environmental light conditions. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the clock regulates the diurnal and photoperiodic plant growth including the elongation of hypocotyls and petioles in a time-of-day-specific and short-day (SD)-specific manner. In this mechanism, the clock-regulated PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 gene encoding a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, together with phytochromes (mainly phyB), plays crucial roles. This diurnal and photoperiodic control of plant growth is best explained by the accumulation of the PIF4 protein at the end of the night-time specifically under SDs, due to coincidence between the internal (circadian rhythm) and external (photoperiod) cues. In this model, however, the PIF4-controlled downstream factors are not fully identified, although it has been generally proposed that the auxin-mediated signal transduction is crucially implicated. Here, we identified a set of hormone-associated genes as the specific PIF4 targets implicated in the photoperiodic control of plant growth. They include not only auxin-associated genes (GH3.5, IAA19 and IAA29), but also genes associated with other growth-regulating hormones such as brassinosteroids (BR6ox2), gibberellic acids (GAI), ethylene (ACS8) and cytokinin (CKX5). The dawn- and SD-specific expression profiles of these genes are modified in a set of phyB and clock mutants, both of which compromise the coincidence mechanism. The results of this study suggest that the circadian clock orchestrates a variety of hormone signaling pathways to regulate the photoperiod-dependent morphogenesis in A. thaliana.

  19. The vascular clock system generates the intrinsic circadian rhythm of vascular contractility.

    PubMed

    Saito, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Many of the cardiovascular parameters or incidences of coronary artery diseases display circadian variations. These day/night time variances may be attributable to the diurnal change in vascular contractility. However, the molecular mechanism of the vascular clock system which generates the circadian variation of vascular contractility has remained largely unknown. Recently we found the existence of the intrinsic circadian rhythm in vascular contractility. A clock gene Rorα in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) provokes the diurnal oscillatory change in the expression of Rho-associated kinase 2 (ROCK2), which induces the time-of-day-dependent variation in the agonist-induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) and myofilament Ca(2+) sensitization. In this review, we introduce our recent findings with reference to the molecular basis of the biological clock system and the current literature concerning cardiovascular chronobiology.

  20. The vascular clock system generates the intrinsic circadian rhythm of vascular contractility

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Many of the cardiovascular parameters or incidences of coronary artery diseases display circadian variations. These day/night time variances may be attributable to the diurnal change in vascular contractility. However, the molecular mechanism of the vascular clock system which generates the circadian variation of vascular contractility has remained largely unknown. Recently we found the existence of the intrinsic circadian rhythm in vascular contractility. A clock gene Rorα in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) provokes the diurnal oscillatory change in the expression of Rho-associated kinase 2 (ROCK2), which induces the time-of-day-dependent variation in the agonist-induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) and myofilament Ca2+ sensitization. In this review, we introduce our recent findings with reference to the molecular basis of the biological clock system and the current literature concerning cardiovascular chronobiology. PMID:26935878

  1. Cycling of clock genes entrained to the solar rhythm enables plants to tell time: data from Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yeang, Hoong-Yeet

    2015-07-01

    An endogenous rhythm synchronized to dawn cannot time photosynthesis-linked genes to peak consistently at noon since the interval between sunrise and noon changes seasonally. In this study, a solar clock model that circumvents this limitation is proposed using two daily timing references synchronized to noon and midnight. Other rhythmic genes that are not directly linked to photosynthesis, and which peak at other times, also find an adaptive advantage in entrainment to the solar rhythm. Fourteen datasets extracted from three published papers were used in a meta-analysis to examine the cyclic behaviour of the Arabidopsis thaliana photosynthesis-related gene CAB2 and the clock oscillator genes TOC1 and LHY in T cycles and N-H cycles. Changes in the rhythms of CAB2, TOC1 and LHY in plants subjected to non-24-h light:dark cycles matched the hypothesized changes in their behaviour as predicted by the solar clock model, thus validating it. The analysis further showed that TOC1 expression peaked ∼5·5 h after mid-day, CAB2 peaked close to noon, while LHY peaked ∼7·5 h after midnight, regardless of the cycle period, the photoperiod or the light:dark period ratio. The solar clock model correctly predicted the zeitgeber timing of these genes under 11 different lighting regimes comprising combinations of seven light periods, nine dark periods, four cycle periods and four light:dark period ratios. In short cycles that terminated before LHY could be expressed, the solar clock correctly predicted zeitgeber timing of its expression in the following cycle. Regulation of gene phases by the solar clock enables the plant to tell the time, by which means a large number of genes are regulated. This facilitates the initiation of gene expression even before the arrival of sunrise, sunset or noon, thus allowing the plant to 'anticipate' dawn, dusk or mid-day respectively, independently of the photoperiod. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  2. Cycling of clock genes entrained to the solar rhythm enables plants to tell time: data from arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yeang, Hoong-Yeet

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims An endogenous rhythm synchronized to dawn cannot time photosynthesis-linked genes to peak consistently at noon since the interval between sunrise and noon changes seasonally. In this study, a solar clock model that circumvents this limitation is proposed using two daily timing references synchronized to noon and midnight. Other rhythmic genes that are not directly linked to photosynthesis, and which peak at other times, also find an adaptive advantage in entrainment to the solar rhythm. Methods Fourteen datasets extracted from three published papers were used in a meta-analysis to examine the cyclic behaviour of the Arabidopsis thaliana photosynthesis-related gene CAB2 and the clock oscillator genes TOC1 and LHY in T cycles and N–H cycles. Key Results Changes in the rhythms of CAB2, TOC1 and LHY in plants subjected to non-24-h light:dark cycles matched the hypothesized changes in their behaviour as predicted by the solar clock model, thus validating it. The analysis further showed that TOC1 expression peaked ∼5·5 h after mid-day, CAB2 peaked close to noon, while LHY peaked ∼7·5 h after midnight, regardless of the cycle period, the photoperiod or the light:dark period ratio. The solar clock model correctly predicted the zeitgeber timing of these genes under 11 different lighting regimes comprising combinations of seven light periods, nine dark periods, four cycle periods and four light:dark period ratios. In short cycles that terminated before LHY could be expressed, the solar clock correctly predicted zeitgeber timing of its expression in the following cycle. Conclusions Regulation of gene phases by the solar clock enables the plant to tell the time, by which means a large number of genes are regulated. This facilitates the initiation of gene expression even before the arrival of sunrise, sunset or noon, thus allowing the plant to ‘anticipate’ dawn, dusk or mid-day respectively, independently of the photoperiod. PMID:26070640

  3. Interaction of Arabidopsis DET1 with CCA1 and LHY in mediating transcriptional repression in the plant circadian clock

    PubMed Central

    Lau, On Sun; Huang, Xi; Charron, Jean-Benoit; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Li, Gang; Deng, Xing Wang

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The COP10-DET1-DDB1 (CDD) complex is an evolutionarily conserved protein complex discovered for its role in the repression of photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis, and is important in many cellular and developmental processes in both plants and animals. However, its molecular mode of action remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the CDD component, DET1, possesses transcriptional repression activity and physically interacts with two closely related MYB transcription factors, CCA1 and LHY, which are core components of the plant circadian clock. DET1 associates with the promoter of CCA1/LHY target genes, such as TOC1, in a CCA1/LHY-dependent manner and is required for their repression, suggesting a recruitment of DET1 by the central oscillator components to regulate the clock. Our results reveal DET1 as a core transcriptional repression factor important for clock progression. Overall, the CDD complex may function as a transcriptional co-repressor in diverse processes through direct interaction with distinct transcription factors. PMID:21884973

  4. Real-time simulation clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennington, Donald R. (Inventor); Crawford, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The invention is a clock for synchronizing operations within a high-speed, distributed data processing network. The clock is actually a distributed system comprising a central clock and multiple site clock interface units (SCIUs) which are connected by means of a fiber optic star network and which operate under control of separate clock software. The presently preferred embodiment is a part of the flight simulation system now in current use at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  5. Hepatic Circadian-Clock System Altered by Insulin Resistance, Diabetes and Insulin Sensitizer in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shih-Hsien; Shieh, Kun-Ruey

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are intrinsic rhythms that are coordinated with the rotation of the Earth and are also generated by a set of circadian-clock genes at the intracellular level. Growing evidence suggests a strong link between circadian rhythms and energy metabolism; however, the fundamental mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, neonatal streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice were used to model the molecular and physiological progress from insulin resistance to diabetes. Two-day-old male C57BL/6 mice received a single injection of STZ and were tested for non-obese, hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic conditions in the early stage, insulin resistance in the middle stage, and diabetes in the late stage. Gene expression levels of the hepatic circadian-clock system were examined by real-time quantitative PCR. Most of the components of the hepatic circadian-clock gene expression system, such as the mRNAs of Bmal1 (brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1), Per2 (period 2) and Cry1 (cryptochrome 1), were elevated, and circadian patterns were retained in the early and middle stages of insulin-resistant conditions. The insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone, returns the physiological and molecular changes associated with the diabetic phenotype to normal levels through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) rather than PPARα. Early and chronic treatment with rosiglitazone has been shown to be effective to counter the diabetic condition. Over time, this effect acts to attenuate the increased gene expression levels of the hepatic circadian-clock system and delay the severity of diabetic conditions. Together, these results support an essential role for the hepatic circadian-clock system in the coordinated regulation and/or response of metabolic pathways. PMID:25799429

  6. Hepatic circadian-clock system altered by insulin resistance, diabetes and insulin sensitizer in mice.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Huey-Ling; Yang, Shu-Chuan; Yang, Shih-Hsien; Shieh, Kun-Ruey

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are intrinsic rhythms that are coordinated with the rotation of the Earth and are also generated by a set of circadian-clock genes at the intracellular level. Growing evidence suggests a strong link between circadian rhythms and energy metabolism; however, the fundamental mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, neonatal streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice were used to model the molecular and physiological progress from insulin resistance to diabetes. Two-day-old male C57BL/6 mice received a single injection of STZ and were tested for non-obese, hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic conditions in the early stage, insulin resistance in the middle stage, and diabetes in the late stage. Gene expression levels of the hepatic circadian-clock system were examined by real-time quantitative PCR. Most of the components of the hepatic circadian-clock gene expression system, such as the mRNAs of Bmal1 (brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1), Per2 (period 2) and Cry1 (cryptochrome 1), were elevated, and circadian patterns were retained in the early and middle stages of insulin-resistant conditions. The insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone, returns the physiological and molecular changes associated with the diabetic phenotype to normal levels through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) rather than PPARα. Early and chronic treatment with rosiglitazone has been shown to be effective to counter the diabetic condition. Over time, this effect acts to attenuate the increased gene expression levels of the hepatic circadian-clock system and delay the severity of diabetic conditions. Together, these results support an essential role for the hepatic circadian-clock system in the coordinated regulation and/or response of metabolic pathways.

  7. Time to taste: circadian clock function in the Drosophila gustatory system.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Hardin, Paul E

    2010-01-01

    Circadian clocks keep time in the digestive, circulatory, reproductive, excretory and nervous systems even in absence of external cues. Central oscillators in the brain control locomotor activity of organisms ranging from fruit flies to man, but the functions of the clocks in peripheral nervous system are not well understood. The presence of autonomous peripheral oscillators in the major taste organ of Drosophila, the proboscis, prompted us to test whether gustatory responses are under control of the circadian clock. We find that synchronous rhythms in physiological and behavioral responses to attractive and aversive tastants are driven by oscillators in gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs); primary sensory neurons that carry taste information from the proboscis to the brain. During the middle of the night, high levels of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GPRK2) in the GRNs suppresses tastant-evoked responses. Flies with disrupted gustatory clocks are hyperphagic and hyperactive, recapitulating behaviors typically seen under the stress of starvation. Temporal plasticity in innate behaviors should offer adaptive advantages to flies. In this Extra View article we discuss how oscillators inside GRNs regulate responsiveness to tastants and influence feeding, metabolism and general activity.

  8. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  9. Accelerating in vitro studies on circadian clock systems using an automated sampling device

    PubMed Central

    Furuike, Yoshihiko; Abe, Jun; Mukaiyama, Atsushi; Akiyama, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    KaiC, a core protein of the cyanobacterial circadian clock, is rhythmically autophosphorylated and autodephosphorylated with a period of approximately 24 h in the presence of two other Kai proteins, KaiA and KaiB. In vitro experiments to investigate the KaiC phosphorylation cycle consume considerable time and effort. To automate the fractionation, quantification, and evaluation steps, we developed a suite consisting of an automated sampling device equipped with an 8-channel temperature controller and accompanying analysis software. Eight sample tables can be controlled independently at different temperatures within a fluctuation of ±0.01°C, enabling investigation of the temperature dependency of clock activities simultaneously in a single experiment. The suite includes an independent software that helps users intuitively conduct a densitometric analysis of gel images in a short time with improved reliability. Multiple lanes on a gel can be detected quasi-automatically through an auto-detection procedure implemented in the software, with or without correction for lane ‘smiling.’ To demonstrate the performance of the suite, robustness of the period against temperature variations was evaluated using 32 datasets of the KaiC phosphorylation cycle. By using the software, the time required for the analysis was reduced by approximately 65% relative to the conventional method, with reasonable reproducibility and quality. The suite is potentially applicable to other clock or clock-related systems in higher organisms, relieving users from having to repeat multiple manual sampling and analytical steps. PMID:27924279

  10. Circadian Stress Regimes Affect the Circadian Clock and Cause Jasmonic Acid-Dependent Cell Death in Cytokinin-Deficient Arabidopsis Plants.

    PubMed

    Nitschke, Silvia; Cortleven, Anne; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Havaux, Michel; Riefler, Michael; Schmülling, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The circadian clock helps plants measure daylength and adapt to changes in the day-night rhythm. We found that changes in the light-dark regime triggered stress responses, eventually leading to cell death, in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with reduced cytokinin levels or defective cytokinin signaling. Prolonged light treatment followed by a dark period induced stress and cell death marker genes while reducing photosynthetic efficiency. This response, called circadian stress, is also characterized by altered expression of clock and clock output genes. In particular, this treatment strongly reduced the expression of CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY). Intriguingly, similar changes in gene expression and cell death were observed in clock mutants lacking proper CCA1 and LHY function. Circadian stress caused strong changes in reactive oxygen species- and jasmonic acid (JA)-related gene expression. The activation of the JA pathway, involving the accumulation of JA metabolites, was crucial for the induction of cell death, since the cell death phenotype was strongly reduced in the jasmonate resistant1 mutant background. We propose that adaptation to circadian stress regimes requires a normal cytokinin status which, acting primarily through the AHK3 receptor, supports circadian clock function to guard against the detrimental effects of circadian stress. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  11. Power Plant Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Three basic thermodynamic cycles of advanced nuclear MHD power plant systems are studied. The effect of reactor exit temperature and space radiator temperature on the overall thermal efficiency of a regenerative turbine compressor power plant system is shown. The effect of MHD pressure ratio on plant efficiency is also described, along with the dependence of MHD power output, compressor power requirement, turbine power output, mass flow rate of H2, and overall plant efficiency on the reactor exit temperature for a specific configuration.

  12. Slot clock recovery in optical PPM communication systems with avalanche photodiode photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Frederic M.; Sun, Xiaoli

    1989-01-01

    Slot timing recovery in a direct-detection optical PPM communication system can be achieved by processing the photodetector output waveform with a nonlinear device whose output forms the input to a phase-locked loop. The choice of a simple transition detector as the nonlinearity is shown to give satisfactory synchronization performance. The rms phase error of the recovered slot clock and the effect of slot timing jitter on the bit error probability were directly measured. The experimental system consisted of an AlGaAs laser diode (wavelength = 834 nm) and a silicon avalanche photodiode photodetector. The system used Q = 4 PPM signaling and operated at a source data rate of 25 Mbits/s. The mathematical model developed to compute the rms phase error of the recovered clock is shown to be in good agreement with results of actual measurements of phase errors. The use of the recovered slot clock in the receiver resulted in no significant degradation in receiver sensitivity compared to a system with perfect slot timing. The system achieved a bit error probability of 10 to the -6th at a received optical signal energy of 55 detected photons per information bit.

  13. Slot clock recovery in optical PPM communication systems with avalanche photodiode photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Frederic M.; Sun, Xiaoli

    1989-01-01

    Slot timing recovery in a direct-detection optical PPM communication system can be achieved by processing the photodetector output waveform with a nonlinear device whose output forms the input to a phase-locked loop. The choice of a simple transition detector as the nonlinearity is shown to give satisfactory synchronization performance. The rms phase error of the recovered slot clock and the effect of slot timing jitter on the bit error probability were directly measured. The experimental system consisted of an AlGaAs laser diode (wavelength = 834 nm) and a silicon avalanche photodiode photodetector. The system used Q = 4 PPM signaling and operated at a source data rate of 25 Mbits/s. The mathematical model developed to compute the rms phase error of the recovered clock is shown to be in good agreement with results of actual measurements of phase errors. The use of the recovered slot clock in the receiver resulted in no significant degradation in receiver sensitivity compared to a system with perfect slot timing. The system achieved a bit error probability of 10 to the -6th at a received optical signal energy of 55 detected photons per information bit.

  14. Resetting Biological Clocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfree, Arthur T.

    1975-01-01

    Reports on experiments conducted on two biological clocks, in organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms, which indicate that biological oscillation can be arrested by a single stimulus of a definite strength delivered at the proper time. (GS)

  15. Resetting Biological Clocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfree, Arthur T.

    1975-01-01

    Reports on experiments conducted on two biological clocks, in organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms, which indicate that biological oscillation can be arrested by a single stimulus of a definite strength delivered at the proper time. (GS)

  16. A compact ultranarrow high-power laser system for experiments with 578 nm ytterbium clock transition

    SciTech Connect

    Cappellini, G.; Lombardi, P.; Mancini, M.; Pagano, G.; Pizzocaro, M.; Fallani, L.; Catani, J.

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, we present the realization of a compact, high-power laser system able to excite the ytterbium clock transition at 578 nm. Starting from an external-cavity laser based on a quantum dot chip at 1156 nm with an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator, we were able to obtain up to 60 mW of visible light at 578 nm via frequency doubling. The laser is locked with a 500 kHz bandwidth to an ultra-low-expansion glass cavity stabilized at its zero coefficient of thermal expansion temperature through an original thermal insulation and correction system. This laser allowed the observation of the clock transition in fermionic {sup 173}Y b with a <50 Hz linewidth over 5 min, limited only by a residual frequency drift of some 0.1 Hz/s.

  17. A space system for high-accuracy global time and frequency comparison of clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decher, R.; Allan, D. W.; Alley, C. O.; Vessot, R. F. C.; Winkler, G. M. R.

    1981-01-01

    A Space Shuttle experiment in which a hydrogen maser clock on board the Space Shuttle will be compared with clocks on the ground using two-way microwave and short pulse laser signals is described. The accuracy goal for the experiment is 1 nsec or better for the time transfer and 10 to the minus 14th power for the frequency comparison. A direct frequency comparison of primary standards at the 10 to the minus 14th power accuracy level is a unique feature of the proposed system. Both time and frequency transfer will be accomplished by microwave transmission, while the laser signals provide calibration of the system as well as subnanosecond time transfer.

  18. Circadian Stress Regimes Affect the Circadian Clock and Cause Jasmonic Acid-Dependent Cell Death in Cytokinin-Deficient Arabidopsis Plants[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nitschke, Silvia; Cortleven, Anne; Iven, Tim; Havaux, Michel; Schmülling, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock helps plants measure daylength and adapt to changes in the day-night rhythm. We found that changes in the light-dark regime triggered stress responses, eventually leading to cell death, in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with reduced cytokinin levels or defective cytokinin signaling. Prolonged light treatment followed by a dark period induced stress and cell death marker genes while reducing photosynthetic efficiency. This response, called circadian stress, is also characterized by altered expression of clock and clock output genes. In particular, this treatment strongly reduced the expression of CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY). Intriguingly, similar changes in gene expression and cell death were observed in clock mutants lacking proper CCA1 and LHY function. Circadian stress caused strong changes in reactive oxygen species- and jasmonic acid (JA)-related gene expression. The activation of the JA pathway, involving the accumulation of JA metabolites, was crucial for the induction of cell death, since the cell death phenotype was strongly reduced in the jasmonate resistant1 mutant background. We propose that adaptation to circadian stress regimes requires a normal cytokinin status which, acting primarily through the AHK3 receptor, supports circadian clock function to guard against the detrimental effects of circadian stress. PMID:27354555

  19. Clock performance as a critical parameter in navigation satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderle, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    The high performance of available oscillators has permitted the development of invaluable navigation and geodetic satellite systems. However, still higher performance oscillators would further improve the accuracy or flexibility of the systems.

  20. Clock genes and sleep.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, Dominic; Shostak, Anton; Oster, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    In most species--from cyanobacteria to humans--endogenous clocks have evolved that drive 24-h rhythms of behavior and physiology. In mammals, these circadian rhythms are regulated by a hierarchical network of cellular oscillators controlled by a set of clock genes organized in a system of interlocked transcriptional feedback loops. One of the most prominent outputs of the circadian system is the synchronization of the sleep-wake cycle with external (day-) time. Clock genes also have a strong impact on many other biological functions, such as memory formation, energy metabolism, and immunity. Remarkably, large overlaps exist between clock gene and sleep (loss) mediated effects on these processes. This review summarizes sleep clock gene interactions for these three phenomena, highlighting potential mediators linking sleep and/or clock function to physiological output in an attempt to better understand the complexity of diurnal adaptation and its consequences for health and disease.

  1. THE mPER2 CLOCK GENE MODULATES COCAINE ACTIONS IN THE MOUSE CIRCADIAN SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Brager, Allison J.; Stowie, Adam C.; Prosser, Rebecca A.; Glass, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine is a potent disruptor of photic and non-photic pathways for circadian entrainment of the master circadian clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). These actions of cocaine likely involve its modulation of molecular (clock gene) components for SCN clock timekeeping. At present, however, the physiological basis of such an interaction is unclear. To address this question, we compared photic and non-photic phase-resetting responses between wild-type (WT) and Per2 mutant mice expressing nonfunctional PER2 protein to systemic and intra-SCN cocaine administrations. In the systemic trials, cocaine was administered i.p. (20 mg/kg) either at midday or prior to a light pulse in the early night to assess its non-photic and photic behavioral phase-resetting actions, respectively. In the intra-SCN trial, cocaine was administered by reverse microdialysis at midday to determine if the SCN is a direct target for its non-photic phase-resetting action. Non-photic phase-advancing responses to i.p. cocaine at midday were significantly (~3.5-fold) greater in Per2 mutants than WTs. However, the phase-advancing action of intra-SCN cocaine perfusion at midday did not differ between genotypes. In the light pulse trial, Per2 mutants exhibited larger photic phase-delays than did WTs, and the attenuating action of cocaine on this response was proportionately larger than in WTs. These data indicate that the Per2 clock gene is a potent modulator of cocaine’s actions in the circadian system. With regard to non-photic phase-resetting, the SCN is confirmed as a direct target of cocaine action; however, Per2 modulation of this effect likely occurs outside of the SCN. PMID:23333842

  2. Plant uptake-assisted round-the-clock photocatalysis for complete purification of aquaculture wastewater using sunlight.

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhenfeng; Cao, Fenglei; Zhu, Jian; Li, Hexing

    2015-02-17

    A novel reactor equipped with solar batteries, Bi2O3/TiO2 film photocatalyst, and celery plant was designed and used for purification of aquaculture wastewater. The Bi2O3/TiO2 film photocatalyst started photocatalytic degradation of organonitrogen compounds under irradiation of sunlight. Meanwhile, the solar batteries absorbed and converted excess sunlight into electric energy and then started UV lamps at night, leading to round-the-clock photocatalysis. Subsequently, the inorganic nitrogen species including NH4(+), NO2(-), and NO3(-) resulting from photocatalytic degradation of the organonitrogen compounds could subsequently be uptaken by the celery plant as the fertilizer to reduce the secondary pollution. It was found that, after 24 h circulation, both organonitrogen compounds and NO2(-) species were completely removed, while NH4(+) and NO3(-) contents also decreased by 30% and 50%, respectively. The reactor could be used repetitively, showing a good potential in practical application.

  3. In orbit demonstration of a H-maser clock system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busca, Giovanni; Bernier, Laurent-Guy; Starker, Siegfried K.; Feltham, S.

    1992-01-01

    The ESA/NASA technology demonstration flight of a pair of hydrogen masers on the EURECA 3 mission is planned for 1998. The ESA part of the experiment will have a maser built by Neuchatel Observatory and a microwave time and frequency transfer system derived from the existing Precise Range and Range Rate Equipment (PRARE) system. The NASA part of the experiment will have a maser built by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and a laser time transfer system. The technology demonstration experiment is described with its expected outcomes and applications.

  4. In orbit demonstration of a H-maser clock system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busca, Giovanni; Bernier, Laurent-Guy; Starker, Siegfried K.; Feltham, S.

    1992-07-01

    The ESA/NASA technology demonstration flight of a pair of hydrogen masers on the EURECA 3 mission is planned for 1998. The ESA part of the experiment will have a maser built by Neuchatel Observatory and a microwave time and frequency transfer system derived from the existing Precise Range and Range Rate Equipment (PRARE) system. The NASA part of the experiment will have a maser built by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and a laser time transfer system. The technology demonstration experiment is described with its expected outcomes and applications.

  5. Verification of fault-tolerant clock synchronization systems. M.S. Thesis - College of William and Mary, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul S.

    1993-01-01

    A critical function in a fault-tolerant computer architecture is the synchronization of the redundant computing elements. The synchronization algorithm must include safeguards to ensure that failed components do not corrupt the behavior of good clocks. Reasoning about fault-tolerant clock synchronization is difficult because of the possibility of subtle interactions involving failed components. Therefore, mechanical proof systems are used to ensure that the verification of the synchronization system is correct. In 1987, Schneider presented a general proof of correctness for several fault-tolerant clock synchronization algorithms. Subsequently, Shankar verified Schneider's proof by using the mechanical proof system EHDM. This proof ensures that any system satisfying its underlying assumptions will provide Byzantine fault-tolerant clock synchronization. The utility of Shankar's mechanization of Schneider's theory for the verification of clock synchronization systems is explored. Some limitations of Shankar's mechanically verified theory were encountered. With minor modifications to the theory, a mechanically checked proof is provided that removes these limitations. The revised theory also allows for proven recovery from transient faults. Use of the revised theory is illustrated with the verification of an abstract design of a clock synchronization system.

  6. The development of the hardware for studying biological clock systems under microgravity conditions, using scorpions as animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafini, L.; Viganò, W.; Donati, A.; Porciani, M.; Zolesi, V.; Schulze-Varnholt, D.; Manieri, P.; El-Din Sallam, A.; Schmäh, M.; Horn, E. R.

    2007-02-01

    The study of internal clock systems of scorpions in weightless conditions is the goal of the SCORPI experiment. SCORPI was selected for flight on the International Space Station (ISS) and will be mounted in the European facility BIOLAB, the European Space Agency (ESA) laboratory designed to support biological experiments on micro-organisms, cells, tissue, cultures, small plants and small invertebrates. This paper outlines the main features of a breadboard designed and developed in order to allow the analysis of critical aspects of the experiment. It is a complete tool to simulate the experiment mission on ground and it can be customised, adapted and tuned to the scientific requirements. The paper introduces the SCORPI-T experiment which represents an important precursor for the success of the SCORPI on BIOLAB. The capabilities of the hardware developed show its potential use for future similar experiments in space.

  7. Molecular clocks and the early evolution of metazoan nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Wray, Gregory A

    2015-12-19

    The timing of early animal evolution remains poorly resolved, yet remains critical for understanding nervous system evolution. Methods for estimating divergence times from sequence data have improved considerably, providing a more refined understanding of key divergences. The best molecular estimates point to the origin of metazoans and bilaterians tens to hundreds of millions of years earlier than their first appearances in the fossil record. Both the molecular and fossil records are compatible, however, with the possibility of tiny, unskeletonized, low energy budget animals during the Proterozoic that had planktonic, benthic, or meiofaunal lifestyles. Such animals would likely have had relatively simple nervous systems equipped primarily to detect food, avoid inhospitable environments and locate mates. The appearance of the first macropredators during the Cambrian would have changed the selective landscape dramatically, likely driving the evolution of complex sense organs, sophisticated sensory processing systems, and diverse effector systems involved in capturing prey and avoiding predation.

  8. Molecular clocks and the early evolution of metazoan nervous systems

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    The timing of early animal evolution remains poorly resolved, yet remains critical for understanding nervous system evolution. Methods for estimating divergence times from sequence data have improved considerably, providing a more refined understanding of key divergences. The best molecular estimates point to the origin of metazoans and bilaterians tens to hundreds of millions of years earlier than their first appearances in the fossil record. Both the molecular and fossil records are compatible, however, with the possibility of tiny, unskeletonized, low energy budget animals during the Proterozoic that had planktonic, benthic, or meiofaunal lifestyles. Such animals would likely have had relatively simple nervous systems equipped primarily to detect food, avoid inhospitable environments and locate mates. The appearance of the first macropredators during the Cambrian would have changed the selective landscape dramatically, likely driving the evolution of complex sense organs, sophisticated sensory processing systems, and diverse effector systems involved in capturing prey and avoiding predation. PMID:26554040

  9. Synchronization of the mammalian circadian timing system: Light can control peripheral clocks independently of the SCN clock: alternate routes of entrainment optimize the alignment of the body's circadian clock network with external time.

    PubMed

    Husse, Jana; Eichele, Gregor; Oster, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    A vast network of cellular circadian clocks regulates 24-hour rhythms of behavior and physiology in mammals. Complex environments are characterized by multiple, and often conflicting time signals demanding flexible mechanisms of adaptation of endogenous rhythms to external time. Traditionally this process of circadian entrainment has been conceptualized in a hierarchical scheme with a light-reset master pacemaker residing in the hypothalamus that subsequently aligns subordinate peripheral clocks with each other and with external time. Here we review new experiments using conditional mouse genetics suggesting that resetting of the circadian system occurs in a more "federated" and tissue-specific fashion, which allows for increased noise resistance and plasticity of circadian timekeeping under natural conditions.

  10. MIMO equalization optimized for baud rate clock recovery in coherent 112 Gbit/sec DP-QPSK metro systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshtein, Albert; Sadot, Dan; Dorman, Guy

    2015-03-01

    A novel MIMO equalization architecture optimized for baud rate clock recovery (BCR-MIMO) in coherent 112 Gbit/sec dual polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) metro systems is proposed. This architecture is designed to decouple between multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) equalization and clock recovery (CR) loops, avoiding the interaction between them. The decoupling between the two loops is achieved, while maintaining similar MIMO equalizer performance, as compared to the butterfly-structured equalizer.

  11. Clock-distribution with instantaneous synchronization for 160 Gbit/s optical time-domain multiplexed systems packet transmission.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Agis, Fausto; Calabretta, Nicola; Albores-Mejia, Aaron; Dorren, Harm J S

    2010-10-01

    We demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, a clock-distribution method for ultra-high-speed optical time-domain multiplexed systems data packets that provides instantaneous synchronization, fast locking/unlocking times, and a highly stable bursty clock, enabling error-free operation of 160 to 10 Gbit/s time demultiplexing with a power penalty of 1.5 dB after 51 km transmission in standard single-mode fiber (ITU G.652).

  12. The relative ages of ectomycorrhizal mushrooms and their plant hosts estimated using Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses

    PubMed Central

    Hibbett, David S; Matheny, P Brandon

    2009-01-01

    Background Ectomycorrhizae (ECM) are symbioses formed by polyphyletic assemblages of fungi (mostly Agaricomycetes) and plants (mostly Pinaceae and angiosperms in the rosid clade). Efforts to reconstruct the evolution of the ECM habit in Agaricomycetes have yielded vastly different results, ranging from scenarios with many relatively recent origins of the symbiosis and no reversals to the free-living condition; a single ancient origin of ECM and many subsequent transitions to the free-living condition; or multiple gains and losses of the association. To test the plausibility of these scenarios, we performed Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses including fungi, plants, and other eukaryotes, based on the principle that a symbiosis cannot evolve prior to the origin of both partners. As we were primarily interested in the relative ages of the plants and fungi, we did not attempt to calibrate the molecular clock using the very limited fossil record of Agaricomycetes. Results Topologically constrained and unconstrained analyses suggest that the root node of the Agaricomycetes is much older than either the rosids or Pinaceae. The Agaricomycetidae, a large clade containing the Agaricales and Boletales (collectively representing 70% of Agaricomycetes), is also significantly older than the rosids. The relative age of Agaricomycetidae and Pinaceae, however, is sensitive to tree topology, and the inclusion or exclusion of the gnetophyte Welwitschia mirabilis. Conclusion The ancestor of the Agaricomycetes could not have been an ECM species because it existed long before any of its potential hosts. Within more derived clades of Agaricomycetes, there have been at least eight independent origins of ECM associations involving angiosperms, and at least six to eight origins of associations with gymnosperms. The first ECM symbioses may have involved Pinaceae, which are older than rosids, but several major clades of Agaricomycetes, such as the Boletales and Russulales, are young

  13. The relative ages of ectomycorrhizal mushrooms and their plant hosts estimated using Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses.

    PubMed

    Hibbett, David S; Matheny, P Brandon

    2009-03-10

    Ectomycorrhizae (ECM) are symbioses formed by polyphyletic assemblages of fungi (mostly Agaricomycetes) and plants (mostly Pinaceae and angiosperms in the rosid clade). Efforts to reconstruct the evolution of the ECM habit in Agaricomycetes have yielded vastly different results, ranging from scenarios with many relatively recent origins of the symbiosis and no reversals to the free-living condition; a single ancient origin of ECM and many subsequent transitions to the free-living condition; or multiple gains and losses of the association. To test the plausibility of these scenarios, we performed Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses including fungi, plants, and other eukaryotes, based on the principle that a symbiosis cannot evolve prior to the origin of both partners. As we were primarily interested in the relative ages of the plants and fungi, we did not attempt to calibrate the molecular clock using the very limited fossil record of Agaricomycetes. Topologically constrained and unconstrained analyses suggest that the root node of the Agaricomycetes is much older than either the rosids or Pinaceae. The Agaricomycetidae, a large clade containing the Agaricales and Boletales (collectively representing 70% of Agaricomycetes), is also significantly older than the rosids. The relative age of Agaricomycetidae and Pinaceae, however, is sensitive to tree topology, and the inclusion or exclusion of the gnetophyte Welwitschia mirabilis. The ancestor of the Agaricomycetes could not have been an ECM species because it existed long before any of its potential hosts. Within more derived clades of Agaricomycetes, there have been at least eight independent origins of ECM associations involving angiosperms, and at least six to eight origins of associations with gymnosperms. The first ECM symbioses may have involved Pinaceae, which are older than rosids, but several major clades of Agaricomycetes, such as the Boletales and Russulales, are young enough to have been

  14. Diurnal Oscillations of Soybean Circadian Clock and Drought Responsive Genes

    PubMed Central

    Marcolino-Gomes, Juliana; Rodrigues, Fabiana Aparecida; Fuganti-Pagliarini, Renata; Bendix, Claire; Nakayama, Thiago Jonas; Celaya, Brandon; Molinari, Hugo Bruno Correa; de Oliveira, Maria Cristina Neves; Harmon, Frank G.; Nepomuceno, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Rhythms produced by the endogenous circadian clock play a critical role in allowing plants to respond and adapt to the environment. While there is a well-established regulatory link between the circadian clock and responses to abiotic stress in model plants, little is known of the circadian system in crop species like soybean. This study examines how drought impacts diurnal oscillation of both drought responsive and circadian clock genes in soybean. Drought stress induced marked changes in gene expression of several circadian clock-like components, such as LCL1-, GmELF4- and PRR-like genes, which had reduced expression in stressed plants. The same conditions produced a phase advance of expression for the GmTOC1-like, GmLUX-like and GmPRR7-like genes. Similarly, the rhythmic expression pattern of the soybean drought-responsive genes DREB-, bZIP-, GOLS-, RAB18- and Remorin-like changed significantly after plant exposure to drought. In silico analysis of promoter regions of these genes revealed the presence of cis-elements associated both with stress and circadian clock regulation. Furthermore, some soybean genes with upstream ABRE elements were responsive to abscisic acid treatment. Our results indicate that some connection between the drought response and the circadian clock may exist in soybean since (i) drought stress affects gene expression of circadian clock components and (ii) several stress responsive genes display diurnal oscillation in soybeans. PMID:24475115

  15. Diurnal oscillations of soybean circadian clock and drought responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Marcolino-Gomes, Juliana; Rodrigues, Fabiana Aparecida; Fuganti-Pagliarini, Renata; Bendix, Claire; Nakayama, Thiago Jonas; Celaya, Brandon; Molinari, Hugo Bruno Correa; de Oliveira, Maria Cristina Neves; Harmon, Frank G; Nepomuceno, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Rhythms produced by the endogenous circadian clock play a critical role in allowing plants to respond and adapt to the environment. While there is a well-established regulatory link between the circadian clock and responses to abiotic stress in model plants, little is known of the circadian system in crop species like soybean. This study examines how drought impacts diurnal oscillation of both drought responsive and circadian clock genes in soybean. Drought stress induced marked changes in gene expression of several circadian clock-like components, such as LCL1-, GmELF4- and PRR-like genes, which had reduced expression in stressed plants. The same conditions produced a phase advance of expression for the GmTOC1-like, GmLUX-like and GmPRR7-like genes. Similarly, the rhythmic expression pattern of the soybean drought-responsive genes DREB-, bZIP-, GOLS-, RAB18- and Remorin-like changed significantly after plant exposure to drought. In silico analysis of promoter regions of these genes revealed the presence of cis-elements associated both with stress and circadian clock regulation. Furthermore, some soybean genes with upstream ABRE elements were responsive to abscisic acid treatment. Our results indicate that some connection between the drought response and the circadian clock may exist in soybean since (i) drought stress affects gene expression of circadian clock components and (ii) several stress responsive genes display diurnal oscillation in soybeans.

  16. Altered oscillator function affects clock resonance and is responsible for the reduced day-length sensitivity of CKB4 overexpressing plants.

    PubMed

    Portolés, Sergi; Más, Paloma

    2007-09-01

    Most organisms have evolved a timing mechanism or circadian clock that is able to generate 24 h rhythmic oscillations in multiple biological events. The environmental fluctuations in light and temperature synchronize the expression and activity of key oscillator components that ultimately define the period, phase and amplitude of output rhythms. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of the casein kinase 2 (CK2) regulatory subunits, CKB3 or CKB4, alters the function of the clock under free-running conditions, and results in period-shortening of genes peaking at different phase angles. Here, we examine the effects of CKB4 overexpression (CKB4-ox) on a number of clock outputs that are modulated by day length or photoperiod. We have found a phase shift in gene expression, shortening of hypocotyl elongation and earlier than wild-type initiation of flowering under short-day conditions. Our study shows that the earlier expression phases of the floral induction genes GIGANTEA, FLAVIN-BINDING KELCH REPEAT F-BOX1 and CONSTANS correlate with higher abundance of the FLOWERING LOCUS T transcript under short-day conditions. Matching the period of the external light/dark cycles relative to the endogenous short period of the CKB4-ox oscillator restores the phase of gene expression and the flowering sensitivity to day length, indicating that a clock defect is responsible for the CKB4-ox phenotypes. Our studies suggest a function for CKB4 very close to the oscillator, as expression of the core components TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 and CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 is also altered in CKB4-ox plants. Based on our results, we propose that oscillator dysfunction is responsible for the period defect of CKB4-ox plants that leads to clock dissonance with the environment and reduced sensitivity to day length.

  17. Highly reliable optical system for a rubidium space cold atom clock.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wei; Sun, Yanguang; Wang, Bin; Xia, Wenbing; Qu, Qiuzhi; Xiang, Jingfeng; Dong, Zuoren; Lü, Desheng; Liu, Liang

    2016-05-01

    We describe a highly reliable optical system designed for a rubidium space cold atom clock (SCAC), presenting its design, key technologies, and optical components. All of the optical and electronic components are integrated onto an optimized two-sided 300  mm×290  mm×30  mm optical bench. The compact optical structure and special thermal design ensure that the optical system can pass all of the space environmental qualification tests including both thermal vacuum and mechanical tests. To verify its performance, the optical system is carefully checked before and after each test. The results indicate that this optical system is suitably robust for the space applications for which the rubidium SCAC was built.

  18. Circadian Clocks and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Marcheva, Biliana; Ramsey, Kathryn M.; Peek, Clara B.; Affinati, Alison; Maury, Eleonore; Bass, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Circadian clocks maintain periodicity in internal cycles of behavior, physiology, and metabolism, enabling organisms to anticipate the 24-h rotation of the Earth. In mammals, circadian integration of metabolic systems optimizes energy harvesting and utilization across the light/dark cycle. Disruption of clock genes has recently been linked to sleep disorders and to the development of cardiometabolic disease. Conversely, aberrant nutrient signaling affects circadian rhythms of behavior. This chapter reviews the emerging relationship between the molecular clock and metabolic systems and examines evidence that circadian disruption exerts deleterious consequences on human health. PMID:23604478

  19. Perinatal Light Imprinting of Circadian Clocks and Systems (PLICCS): The PLICCS and Cancer Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Philip; Erren, Thomas C.

    2017-01-01

    Circadian disruption is associated with sleep, mood, and metabolic disorders, and—according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer—even with cancer. Mechanistically, the source of disease may be circadian system instability which likely arises during development. In animal experiments, both low perinatal light:dark ratios and chronic perinatal photoperiod phase shifting yield enduring, detrimental effects on neuroendocrine physiology via circadian system instability. Certainly, accumulating disturbances to neuroendocrine physiology and detrimental downstream effects could predispose to internal cancers. Epidemiologically, either season of birth or latitude of birth, both of which co-determine perinatal photoperiod-zeitgeber strengths, have been utilized independently as proxies for other environmental co-etiologies of cancer. Both have been independently associated with cancer; however, the evidence is inconclusive. We hypothesize that time of birth and location of birth, together determining perinatal photoperiod, contribute to cancer development through Perinatal Light Imprinting of Circadian Clocks and Systems. PMID:28373965

  20. Circadian clocks in fuel harvesting and energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, K M; Bass, J

    2011-01-01

    Circadian systems have evolved in plants, eubacteria, neurospora, and the metazoa as a mechanism to optimize energy acquisition and storage in synchrony with the rotation of the Earth on its axis. In plants, circadian clocks drive the expression of genes involved in oxygenic photosynthesis during the light and nitrogen fixation during the dark, repeating this cycle each day. In mammals, the core clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) functions to entrain extra-SCN and peripheral clocks to the light cycle, including regions central to energy homeostasis and sleep, as well as peripheral tissues involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. Tissue-specific gene targeting has shown a primary role of clock genes in endocrine pancreas insulin secretion, indicating that local clocks play a cell-autonomous role in organismal homeostasis. A present focus is to dissect the consequences of clock disruption on modulation of nuclear hormone receptor signaling and on posttranscriptional regulation of intermediary metabolism. Experimental genetic studies have pointed toward extensive interplay between circadian and metabolic systems and offer a means to dissect the impact of local tissue molecular clocks on fuel utilization across the sleep-wake cycle.

  1. Circadian Clocks in Fuel Harvesting and Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    RAMSEY, K.M.; BASS, J.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian systems have evolved in plants, eubacteria, neurospora, and the metazoa as a mechanism to optimize energy acquisition and storage in synchrony with the rotation of the Earth on its axis. In plants, circadian clocks drive the expression of genes involved in oxygenic photosynthesis during the light and nitrogen fixation during the dark, repeating this cycle each day. In mammals, the core clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) functions to entrain extra-SCN and peripheral clocks to the light cycle, including regions central to energy homeostasis and sleep, as well as peripheral tissues involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. Tissue-specific gene targeting has shown a primary role of clock genes in endocrine pancreas insulin secretion, indicating that local clocks play a cell-autonomous role in organismal homeostasis. A present focus is to dissect the consequences of clock disruption on modulation of nuclear hormone receptor signaling and on posttranscriptional regulation of intermediary metabolism. Experimental genetic studies have pointed toward extensive interplay between circadian and metabolic systems and offer a means to dissect the impact of local tissue molecular clocks on fuel utilization across the sleep–wake cycle. PMID:21890641

  2. Osmotic stress at the barley root affects expression of circadian clock genes in the shoot.

    PubMed

    Habte, Ermias; Müller, Lukas M; Shtaya, Munqez; Davis, Seth J; von Korff, Maria

    2014-06-01

    The circadian clock is an important timing system that controls physiological responses to abiotic stresses in plants. However, there is little information on the effects of the clock on stress adaptation in important crops, like barley. In addition, we do not know how osmotic stress perceived at the roots affect the shoot circadian clock. Barley genotypes, carrying natural variation at the photoperiod response and clock genes Ppd-H1 and HvELF3, were grown under control and osmotic stress conditions to record changes in the diurnal expression of clock and stress-response genes and in physiological traits. Variation at HvELF3 affected the expression phase and shape of clock and stress-response genes, while variation at Ppd-H1 only affected the expression levels of stress genes. Osmotic stress up-regulated expression of clock and stress-response genes and advanced their expression peaks. Clock genes controlled the expression of stress-response genes, but had minor effects on gas exchange and leaf transpiration. This study demonstrated that osmotic stress at the barley root altered clock gene expression in the shoot and acted as a spatial input signal into the clock. Unlike in Arabidopsis, barley primary assimilation was less controlled by the clock and more responsive to environmental perturbations, such as osmotic stress.

  3. The JPL near-real-time VLBI system and its application to clock synchronization and earth orientation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, P. S.; Eubanks, T. M.; Roth, M. G.; Steppe, J. A.; Esposito, P. B.

    1983-01-01

    The JPL near-real-time VLBI system called Block I is discussed. The hardware and software of the system are described, and the Time and Earth Motion Precision Observations (TEMPO) which utilize Block I are discussed. These observations are designed to provide interstation clock synchronization to 10 nsec and to determine earth orientation (UT1 and polar motion - UTPM) to 30 cm or better in each component. TEMPO results for clock synchronization and UTPM are presented with data from the July 1980-August 1981 analyzed using the most recent JPL solution software and source catalog. Future plans for TEMPO and Block I are discussed.

  4. Clock recovery PLL with gated PFD for NRZ ON-OFF Modulated Signals in a retinal implant system.

    PubMed

    Brendler, Christian; Aryan, Naser Pour; Rieger, Viola; Rothermel, Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    A Clock Recovery Phase Locked Loop with Gated Phase Frequency Detector (GPLL) for NRZ ON-OFF Modulated Signals with low data transmission rates for an inductively powered subretinal implant system is presented. Low data transmission rate leads to a long absence of inductive powering in the system when zeros are transmitted. Consequently there is no possibility to extract any clock in these pauses, thus the digital circuitry can not work any more. Compared to a commonly used PLL for clock extraction, no certain amount of data transitions is needed. This is achieved by having two operating modes. In one mode the GPLL tracks the HF input signal. In the other, the GPLL is an adjustable oscillator oscillating at the last used frequency. The proposed GPLL is fabricated and measured using a 350 nm High Voltage CMOS technology.

  5. Inducible and reversible Clock gene expression in brain using the tTA system for the study of circadian behavior.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hee-Kyung; Chong, Jason L; Song, Weimin; Song, Eun Joo; Jyawook, Amira A; Schook, Andrew C; Ko, Caroline H; Takahashi, Joseph S

    2007-02-23

    The mechanism of circadian oscillations in mammals is cell autonomous and is generated by a set of genes that form a transcriptional autoregulatory feedback loop. While these "clock genes" are well conserved among animals, their specific functions remain to be fully understood and their roles in central versus peripheral circadian oscillators remain to be defined. We utilized the in vivo inducible tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA) system to regulate Clock gene expression conditionally in a tissue-specific and temporally controlled manner. Through the use of Secretogranin II to drive tTA expression, suprachiasmatic nucleus- and brain-directed expression of a tetO::Clock(Delta19) dominant-negative transgene lengthened the period of circadian locomotor rhythms in mice, whereas overexpression of a tetO::Clock(wt) wild-type transgene shortened the period. Low doses (10 mug/ml) of doxycycline (Dox) in the drinking water efficiently inactivated the tTA protein to silence the tetO transgenes and caused the circadian periodicity to return to a wild-type state. Importantly, low, but not high, doses of Dox were completely reversible and led to a rapid reactivation of the tetO transgenes. The rapid time course of tTA-regulated transgene expression demonstrates that the CLOCK protein is an excellent indicator for the kinetics of Dox-dependent induction/repression in the brain. Interestingly, the daily readout of circadian period in this system provides a real-time readout of the tTA transactivation state in vivo. In summary, the tTA system can manipulate circadian clock gene expression in a tissue-specific, conditional, and reversible manner in the central nervous system. The specific methods developed here should have general applicability for the study of brain and behavior in the mouse.

  6. Intercontinental clock synchronization with the block 1 VLBI system. [Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    The Block 1 very long baseline interferometer (VLBI) operated by the Deep Space Network (DSN) to make weekly measurements of the relative epoch and rate offsets between the time standards in the global network of DSN stations is discussed. The precision of these measurements routinely achieves sub-microsecond levels for epoch offset and accuracies of better than one part in 10 to the 12th power for rate offset. The implementation of the phase calibrator system permits absolute measurement of epoch offset to better than 10 nanoseconds. With the near-real-time play-back and on-line storage of VLBI data, the Block 1 system typically produces clock parameters within 48 hours from the time of observation.

  7. Autonomous Rubidium Clock Weak Frequency Jump Detector for Onboard Navigation Satellite System.

    PubMed

    Khare, Akshay; Arora, Rajat; Banik, Alak; Mehta, Sanjay D

    2016-02-01

    Frequency jumps are common in rubidium frequency sources. They affect the estimation of user position in navigational satellite systems. These jumps must be detected and corrected immediately as they have direct impact on the navigation system integrity. A novel weak frequency jump detector is proposed based on a Kalman filter with a multi-interval approach. This detector can be applied for both "sudden" and "slow" frequency transitions. In this detection method, noises of clock data are reduced by Kalman filtering, for accurate estimation of jump size with less latency. Analysis on in-orbit rubidium atomic frequency standard (RAFS) phase telemetry data shows that the detector can be used for fast detection and correction of weak frequency jumps. Furthermore, performance comparison of different existing frequency jump detection techniques with the proposed detector is discussed. A multialgorithm-based strategy is proposed depending on the jump size and latency for onboard navigation satellites having RAFS as the primary frequency source.

  8. The Cms Ecal Readout Architecture and the Clock and Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetta, R.; Gastal, M.; Hansen, M.; Kloukinas, K.; Ljuslin, C.; Marchioro, A.; Nash, J.; Sharp, P.; Hall, G.; Raymond, M.; Crooks, J.; French, M.; Dejardin, M.; Faure, J. L.; Djambazov, L.; Lusterman, W.

    2005-02-01

    This paper gives an overview of the readout and control system for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) with emphasis on the newly developed ASIC chipset for the front end electronics and the off detector clock and control system. A newly developed ASIC chipset for the front-end electronics using a 0.25 μm radiation tolerant CMOS technology made feasible the implementation of a significant amount of functionality on the detector electronics and helped in keeping the optical fiber count between the front-end and the off-detector electronics at an acceptable level. A Multi-Gain Pre-Amplifier ASIC (MGPA) and a 12-bit, 40MSPS, quad channel ADC have been developed using an architecture of multiple gain ranges that spans the overall required dynamic range. A multifunctional digital ASIC, named FENIX, implements all the necessary DSP functionality needed for the generation of the Trigger Primitives, as well as the functionality needed for the event readout, namely the digital pipelines and the primary event buffers. For the off-detector electronics a set of VME boards have been developed. The Trigger Concentrator Card (TCC) that collects the front end trigger primitives, the Data Concentrator Card (DCC) that receives the crystal data and the Clock and Control System board (CCS) that distributes the fast timing signals to all parts of the system and provides a bidirectional communication path with the front-end electronics for slow control operation. The functionality and the implementation of the CCS board are described in detail.

  9. Molecular mechanisms underlying the Arabidopsis circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Norihito

    2011-10-01

    A wide range of biological processes exhibit circadian rhythm, enabling plants to adapt to the environmental day-night cycle. This rhythm is generated by the so-called 'circadian clock'. Although a number of genetic approaches have identified >25 clock-associated genes involved in the Arabidopsis clock mechanism, the molecular functions of a large part of these genes are not known. Recent comprehensive studies have revealed the molecular functions of several key clock-associated proteins. This progress has provided mechanistic insights into how key clock-associated proteins are integrated, and may help in understanding the essence of the clock's molecular mechanisms.

  10. Interdependence of nutrient metabolism and the circadian clock system: Importance for metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Ribas-Latre, Aleix; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin

    2016-03-01

    While additional research is needed, a number of large epidemiological studies show an association between circadian disruption and metabolic disorders. Specifically, obesity, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and other signs of metabolic syndrome all have been linked to circadian disruption in humans. Studies in other species support this association and generally reveal that feeding that is not in phase with the external light/dark cycle, as often occurs with night or rotating shift workers, is disadvantageous in terms of energy balance. As food is a strong driver of circadian rhythms in the periphery, understanding how nutrient metabolism drives clocks across the body is important for dissecting out why circadian misalignment may produce such metabolic effects. A number of circadian clock proteins as well as their accessory proteins (such as nuclear receptors) are highly sensitive to nutrient metabolism. Macronutrients and micronutrients can function as zeitgebers for the clock in a tissue-specific way and can thus impair synchrony between clocks across the body, or potentially restore synchrony in the case of circadian misalignment. Circadian nuclear receptors are particularly sensitive to nutrient metabolism and can alter tissue-specific rhythms in response to changes in the diet. Finally, SNPs in human clock genes appear to be correlated with diet-specific responses and along with chronotype eventually may provide valuable information from a clinical perspective on how to use diet and nutrition to treat metabolic disorders. This article presents a background of the circadian clock components and their interrelated metabolic and transcriptional feedback loops, followed by a review of some recent studies in humans and rodents that address the effects of nutrient metabolism on the circadian clock and vice versa. We focus on studies in which results suggest that nutrients provide an opportunity to restore or, alternatively, can destroy synchrony between

  11. Interdependence of nutrient metabolism and the circadian clock system: Importance for metabolic health

    PubMed Central

    Ribas-Latre, Aleix; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Background While additional research is needed, a number of large epidemiological studies show an association between circadian disruption and metabolic disorders. Specifically, obesity, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and other signs of metabolic syndrome all have been linked to circadian disruption in humans. Studies in other species support this association and generally reveal that feeding that is not in phase with the external light/dark cycle, as often occurs with night or rotating shift workers, is disadvantageous in terms of energy balance. As food is a strong driver of circadian rhythms in the periphery, understanding how nutrient metabolism drives clocks across the body is important for dissecting out why circadian misalignment may produce such metabolic effects. A number of circadian clock proteins as well as their accessory proteins (such as nuclear receptors) are highly sensitive to nutrient metabolism. Macronutrients and micronutrients can function as zeitgebers for the clock in a tissue-specific way and can thus impair synchrony between clocks across the body, or potentially restore synchrony in the case of circadian misalignment. Circadian nuclear receptors are particularly sensitive to nutrient metabolism and can alter tissue-specific rhythms in response to changes in the diet. Finally, SNPs in human clock genes appear to be correlated with diet-specific responses and along with chronotype eventually may provide valuable information from a clinical perspective on how to use diet and nutrition to treat metabolic disorders. Scope of review This article presents a background of the circadian clock components and their interrelated metabolic and transcriptional feedback loops, followed by a review of some recent studies in humans and rodents that address the effects of nutrient metabolism on the circadian clock and vice versa. We focus on studies in which results suggest that nutrients provide an opportunity to restore or, alternatively

  12. [Temporally Relationship between Renal Local Clock System and Circadian Rhythm of the Water Electrolyte Excretion].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-Yu; Mou, Li-Jun; Li, Xue-Mei; Li, Xue-Wang; Qin, Yan

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the relationship of the circadian rhythm of the urine volume and urine electrolytes excretion rate and the daily expression pattern of the clock genes and clock-controlled genes with the water electrolyte transportation circadian pattern in rat kidneys. Male adult SD rats were exposed to in a light:dark (12:12) cycles. We collected two period urine from zeitgeber time (ZT)00:00-ZT12:00 (light time,rest period) and ZT12:00-24:00 (dark time,activity period) and then compared the urinary excretion rates of volume, sodium, potassium, and chloride at light time with those at dark time. Rats were sacrificed every 4 hours throughout a 24-hour day-night cycle. Circadian clock gene CLOCK, BMAL1,Per1,Per2,Cry1,Cry2 and kidney specific clock-controlled gene NHE3,αENaC、NCC,Ptges,V1aR,V2R expression were profiled by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Data were analysed by a partial Fourier analysis and a stepwise regression technique. Urine volume and urine potassium excretion rate displayed high level at dark time and low at light time in SD rats (P<0.05),and urine sodium and chloride excretion rate also showed the trend(P>0.05).Clock gene CLOCK,BMAL1,Per1,Per2,Cry1,Cry2(P<0.05)and kidney specific clock-controlled gene NHE3, αENaC, NCC, Ptges, V1aR, V2R (P<0.05)mRNA expression showed circadian pattern,and the peak times of the genes were in the dark time. Urine volume and urine electrolyte excretion rate which displayed circadian pattern were temporally coupled with the rhythm of expression of clock and clock-controlled genes associated with water electrolyte transportation in rats kidney.

  13. Laser clock

    SciTech Connect

    Facklam, R.L.

    1983-05-26

    A laser clock includes a linear laser in one embodiment of the clock and a ring laser gyro in the other embodiment. The linear laser is frequency stabilized and utilizes a single active medium in the form of a low pressure gas, such as He-Ne, with a Doppler broadened gain curve. The ring laser gyro is a four frequency laser with a Faraday rotor. Detector and electronic circuitry associated with the laser of each embodiment detects a beat frequency and convert it to a clock signal.

  14. Pseudonoise (PN) synchronization of data system with derivation of clock frequency from received signal for clocking receiver PN generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couvillon, L. A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A digital communicating system for automatically synchronizing signals for data detection is described. The systems consists of biphase modulating a subcarrier frequency by the binary data and transmitting a carrier phase modulated by this signal to a receiver, where coherent phase detection is employed to recover the subcarrier. Data detection is achieved by providing, in the receiver, a demodulated reference which is in synchronism with the unmodulated subcarrier in transmitting system. The output of the detector is passed through a matched filter where the signal is integrated over a bit period. As a result, random noise components are averaged out, so that the probability of detecting the correct data transmitted is maximized.

  15. Atomic and gravitational clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V. M.; Goldman, I.

    1982-01-01

    Atomic and gravitational clocks are governed by the laws of electrodynamics and gravity, respectively. While the strong equivalence principle (SEP) assumes that the two clocks have been synchronous at all times, recent planetary data seem to suggest a possible violation of the SEP. Past analysis of the implications of an SEP violation on different physical phenomena revealed no disagreement. However, these studies assumed that the two different clocks can be consistently constructed within the framework. The concept of scale invariance, and the physical meaning of different systems of units, are now reviewed and the construction of two clocks that do not remain synchronous - whose rates are related by a non-constant function beta sub a - is demonstrated. The cosmological character of beta sub a is also discussed.

  16. Inducible and Reversible Clock Gene Expression in Brain Using the tTA System for the Study of Circadian Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hee-Kyung; Chong, Jason L; Song, Weimin; Song, Eun Joo; Jyawook, Amira A; Schook, Andrew C; Ko, Caroline H; Takahashi, Joseph S

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism of circadian oscillations in mammals is cell autonomous and is generated by a set of genes that form a transcriptional autoregulatory feedback loop. While these “clock genes” are well conserved among animals, their specific functions remain to be fully understood and their roles in central versus peripheral circadian oscillators remain to be defined. We utilized the in vivo inducible tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA) system to regulate Clock gene expression conditionally in a tissue-specific and temporally controlled manner. Through the use of Secretogranin II to drive tTA expression, suprachiasmatic nucleus– and brain-directed expression of a tetO::ClockΔ19 dominant-negative transgene lengthened the period of circadian locomotor rhythms in mice, whereas overexpression of a tetO::Clockwt wild-type transgene shortened the period. Low doses (10 μg/ml) of doxycycline (Dox) in the drinking water efficiently inactivated the tTA protein to silence the tetO transgenes and caused the circadian periodicity to return to a wild-type state. Importantly, low, but not high, doses of Dox were completely reversible and led to a rapid reactivation of the tetO transgenes. The rapid time course of tTA-regulated transgene expression demonstrates that the CLOCK protein is an excellent indicator for the kinetics of Dox-dependent induction/repression in the brain. Interestingly, the daily readout of circadian period in this system provides a real-time readout of the tTA transactivation state in vivo. In summary, the tTA system can manipulate circadian clock gene expression in a tissue-specific, conditional, and reversible manner in the central nervous system. The specific methods developed here should have general applicability for the study of brain and behavior in the mouse. PMID:17319750

  17. Circadian Clock, Cancer, and Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock is a global regulatory system that interfaces with most other regulatory systems and pathways in mammalian organisms. Investigations of the circadian clock–DNA damage response connections have revealed that nucleotide excision repair, DNA damage checkpoints, and apoptosis are appreciably influenced by the clock. Although several epidemiological studies in humans and a limited number of genetic studies in mouse model systems have indicated that clock disruption may predispose mammals to cancer, well-controlled genetic studies in mice have not supported the commonly held view that circadian clock disruption is a cancer risk factor. In fact, in the appropriate genetic background, clock disruption may instead aid in cancer regression by promoting intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis. Finally, the clock may affect the efficacy of cancer treatment (chronochemotherapy) by modulating the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of chemotherapeutic drugs as well as the activity of the DNA repair enzymes that repair the DNA damage caused by anticancer drugs. PMID:25302769

  18. An uncorrelated relaxed-clock analysis suggests an earlier origin for flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen A; Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Donoghue, Michael J

    2010-03-30

    We present molecular dating analyses for land plants that incorporate 33 fossil calibrations, permit rates of molecular evolution to be uncorrelated across the tree, and take into account uncertainties in phylogenetic relationships and the fossil record. We attached a prior probability to each fossil-based minimum age, and explored the effects of relying on the first appearance of tricolpate pollen grains as a lower bound for the age of eudicots. Many of our divergence-time estimates for major clades coincide well with both the known fossil record and with previous estimates. However, our estimates for the origin of crown-clade angiosperms, which center on the Late Triassic, are considerably older than the unequivocal fossil record of flowering plants or than the molecular dates presented in recent studies. Nevertheless, we argue that our older estimates should be taken into account in studying the causes and consequences of the angiosperm radiation in relation to other major events, including the diversification of holometabolous insects. Although the methods used here do help to correct for lineage-specific heterogeneity in rates of molecular evolution (associated, for example, with evolutionary shifts in life history), we remain concerned that some such effects (e.g., the early radiation of herbaceous clades within angiosperms) may still be biasing our inferences.

  19. Parallel analysis of Arabidopsis circadian clock mutants reveals different scales of transcriptome and proteome regulation

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Alexander; Coman, Diana; Walsh, Sean; Flis, Anna; Stitt, Mark; Gruissem, Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    The circadian clock regulates physiological processes central to growth and survival. To date, most plant circadian clock studies have relied on diurnal transcriptome changes to elucidate molecular connections between the circadian clock and observable phenotypes in wild-type plants. Here, we have integrated RNA-sequencing and protein mass spectrometry data to comparatively analyse the lhycca1, prr7prr9, gi and toc1 circadian clock mutant rosette at the end of day and end of night. Each mutant affects specific sets of genes and proteins, suggesting that the circadian clock regulation is modular. Furthermore, each circadian clock mutant maintains its own dynamically fluctuating transcriptome and proteome profile specific to subcellular compartments. Most of the measured protein levels do not correlate with changes in their corresponding transcripts. Transcripts and proteins that have coordinated changes in abundance are enriched for carbohydrate- and cold-responsive genes. Transcriptome changes in all four circadian clock mutants also affect genes encoding starch degradation enzymes, transcription factors and protein kinases. The comprehensive transcriptome and proteome datasets demonstrate that future system-driven research of the circadian clock requires multi-level experimental approaches. Our work also shows that further work is needed to elucidate the roles of post-translational modifications and protein degradation in the regulation of clock-related processes. PMID:28250106

  20. Parallel analysis of Arabidopsis circadian clock mutants reveals different scales of transcriptome and proteome regulation.

    PubMed

    Graf, Alexander; Coman, Diana; Uhrig, R Glen; Walsh, Sean; Flis, Anna; Stitt, Mark; Gruissem, Wilhelm

    2017-03-01

    The circadian clock regulates physiological processes central to growth and survival. To date, most plant circadian clock studies have relied on diurnal transcriptome changes to elucidate molecular connections between the circadian clock and observable phenotypes in wild-type plants. Here, we have integrated RNA-sequencing and protein mass spectrometry data to comparatively analyse the lhycca1, prr7prr9, gi and toc1 circadian clock mutant rosette at the end of day and end of night. Each mutant affects specific sets of genes and proteins, suggesting that the circadian clock regulation is modular. Furthermore, each circadian clock mutant maintains its own dynamically fluctuating transcriptome and proteome profile specific to subcellular compartments. Most of the measured protein levels do not correlate with changes in their corresponding transcripts. Transcripts and proteins that have coordinated changes in abundance are enriched for carbohydrate- and cold-responsive genes. Transcriptome changes in all four circadian clock mutants also affect genes encoding starch degradation enzymes, transcription factors and protein kinases. The comprehensive transcriptome and proteome datasets demonstrate that future system-driven research of the circadian clock requires multi-level experimental approaches. Our work also shows that further work is needed to elucidate the roles of post-translational modifications and protein degradation in the regulation of clock-related processes. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. Model Checking a Byzantine-Fault-Tolerant Self-Stabilizing Protocol for Distributed Clock Synchronization Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the mechanical verification of a simplified model of a rapid Byzantine-fault-tolerant self-stabilizing protocol for distributed clock synchronization systems. This protocol does not rely on any assumptions about the initial state of the system. This protocol tolerates bursts of transient failures, and deterministically converges within a time bound that is a linear function of the self-stabilization period. A simplified model of the protocol is verified using the Symbolic Model Verifier (SMV) [SMV]. The system under study consists of 4 nodes, where at most one of the nodes is assumed to be Byzantine faulty. The model checking effort is focused on verifying correctness of the simplified model of the protocol in the presence of a permanent Byzantine fault as well as confirmation of claims of determinism and linear convergence with respect to the self-stabilization period. Although model checking results of the simplified model of the protocol confirm the theoretical predictions, these results do not necessarily confirm that the protocol solves the general case of this problem. Modeling challenges of the protocol and the system are addressed. A number of abstractions are utilized in order to reduce the state space. Also, additional innovative state space reduction techniques are introduced that can be used in future verification efforts applied to this and other protocols.

  2. Time-related dynamics of variation in core clock gene expression levels in tissues relevant to the immune system.

    PubMed

    Mazzoccoli, G; Sothern, R B; Greco, A; Pazienza, V; Vinciguerra, M; Liu, S; Cai, Y

    2011-01-01

    Immune parameters show rhythmic changes with a 24-h periodicity driven by an internal circadian timing system that relies on clock genes (CGs). CGs form interlocked transcription-translation feedback loops to generate and maintain 24-h mRNA and protein oscillations. In this study we evaluate and compare the profiles and the dynamics of variation of CG expression in peripheral blood, and two lymphoid tissues of mice. Expression levels of seven recognized key CGs (mBmal1, mClock, mPer1, mPer2, mCry1, mCry2, and Rev-erbalpha) were evaluated by quantitative RT- PCR in spleen, thymus and peripheral blood of C57BL/6 male mice housed on a 12-h light (L)-dark (D) cycle and sacrificed every 4 h for 24 h (3-4 mice/time point). We found a statistically significant time-effect in spleen (S), thymus (T) and blood (B) for the original values of expression level of mBmal1 (S), mClock (T, B), mPer1 (S, B), mPer2 (S), mCry1 (S), mCry2 (B) and mRev-Erbalpha (S, T, B) and for the fractional variation calculated between single time-point expression value of mBmal1 (B), mPer2 (T), mCry2 (B) and mRev-Erbalpha (S). A significant 24-h rhythm was validated for five CGs in blood (mClock, mPer1, mPer2, mCry2, mRev-Erbalpha), for four CGs in the spleen (mBmal1, mPer1, mPer2, mRev-Erbalpha), and for three CGs in the thymus (mClock, mPer2, mRev-Erbalpha). The original values of acrophases for mBmal1, mClock, mPer1, mPer2, mCry1 and mCry2 were very similar for spleen and thymus and advanced by several hours for peripheral blood compared to the lymphoid tissues, whereas the phases of mRev-Erbalpha were coincident for all three tissues. In conclusion, central and peripheral lymphoid tissues in the mouse show different sequences of activation of clock gene expression compared to peripheral blood. These differences may underlie the compartmental pattern of web functioning in the immune system.

  3. A Circadian Clock in Antarctic Krill: An Endogenous Timing System Governs Metabolic Output Rhythms in the Euphausid Species Euphausia superba

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Mathias; Wendt, Sabrina; Kawaguchi, So; Kramer, Achim; Meyer, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, shapes the structure of the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Its central position in the food web, the ongoing environmental changes due to climatic warming, and increasing commercial interest on this species emphasize the urgency of understanding the adaptability of krill to its environment. Krill has evolved rhythmic physiological and behavioral functions which are synchronized with the daily and seasonal cycles of the complex Southern Ocean ecosystem. The mechanisms, however, leading to these rhythms are essentially unknown. Here, we show that krill possesses an endogenous circadian clock that governs metabolic and physiological output rhythms. We found that expression of the canonical clock gene cry2 was highly rhythmic both in a light-dark cycle and in constant darkness. We detected a remarkable short circadian period, which we interpret as a special feature of the krill's circadian clock that helps to entrain the circadian system to the extreme range of photoperiods krill is exposed to throughout the year. Furthermore, we found that important key metabolic enzymes of krill showed bimodal circadian oscillations (∼9–12 h period) in transcript abundance and enzymatic activity. Oxygen consumption of krill showed ∼9–12 h oscillations that correlated with the temporal activity profile of key enzymes of aerobic energy metabolism. Our results demonstrate the first report of an endogenous circadian timing system in Antarctic krill and its likely link to metabolic key processes. Krill's circadian clock may not only be critical for synchronization to the solar day but also for the control of seasonal events. This study provides a powerful basis for the investigation into the mechanisms of temporal synchronization in this marine key species and will also lead to the first comprehensive analyses of the circadian clock of a polar marine organism through the entire photoperiodic cycle. PMID:22022521

  4. A circadian clock in Antarctic krill: an endogenous timing system governs metabolic output rhythms in the euphausid species Euphausia superba.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Mathias; Wendt, Sabrina; Kawaguchi, So; Kramer, Achim; Meyer, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, shapes the structure of the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Its central position in the food web, the ongoing environmental changes due to climatic warming, and increasing commercial interest on this species emphasize the urgency of understanding the adaptability of krill to its environment. Krill has evolved rhythmic physiological and behavioral functions which are synchronized with the daily and seasonal cycles of the complex Southern Ocean ecosystem. The mechanisms, however, leading to these rhythms are essentially unknown. Here, we show that krill possesses an endogenous circadian clock that governs metabolic and physiological output rhythms. We found that expression of the canonical clock gene cry2 was highly rhythmic both in a light-dark cycle and in constant darkness. We detected a remarkable short circadian period, which we interpret as a special feature of the krill's circadian clock that helps to entrain the circadian system to the extreme range of photoperiods krill is exposed to throughout the year. Furthermore, we found that important key metabolic enzymes of krill showed bimodal circadian oscillations (∼9-12 h period) in transcript abundance and enzymatic activity. Oxygen consumption of krill showed ∼9-12 h oscillations that correlated with the temporal activity profile of key enzymes of aerobic energy metabolism. Our results demonstrate the first report of an endogenous circadian timing system in Antarctic krill and its likely link to metabolic key processes. Krill's circadian clock may not only be critical for synchronization to the solar day but also for the control of seasonal events. This study provides a powerful basis for the investigation into the mechanisms of temporal synchronization in this marine key species and will also lead to the first comprehensive analyses of the circadian clock of a polar marine organism through the entire photoperiodic cycle.

  5. Mammalian Molecular Clocks

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ilmin; Choe, Han Kyoung; Son, Gi Hoon

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of the Earth's rotation, almost all organisms experience day and night cycles within a 24-hr period. To adapt and synchronize biological rhythms to external daily cycles, organisms have evolved an internal time-keeping system. In mammals, the master circadian pacemaker residing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus generates circadian rhythmicity and orchestrates numerous subsidiary local clocks in other regions of the brain and peripheral tissues. Regardless of their locations, these circadian clocks are cell-autonomous and self-sustainable, implicating rhythmic oscillations in a variety of biochemical and metabolic processes. A group of core clock genes provides interlocking molecular feedback loops that drive the circadian rhythm even at the single-cell level. In addition to the core transcription/translation feedback loops, post-translational modifications also contribute to the fine regulation of molecular circadian clocks. In this article, we briefly review the molecular mechanisms and post-translational modifications of mammalian circadian clock regulation. We also discuss the organization of and communication between central and peripheral circadian oscillators of the mammalian circadian clock. PMID:22110358

  6. Watch the clock-engineering biological systems to be on time.

    PubMed

    Aubel, Dominique; Fussenegger, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Inspired by natural time-keeping devices controlling the circadian clock, managing information processing in the brain and coordinating physiological activities on a daily (feeding and sleeping) or seasonal timescale (reproductive activity or hibernation), synthetic biologists have successfully assembled functional synthetic clocks from cataloged genetic components with standardized activities and arranging them in transcription circuits containing positive and negative feedback loops with integrated time-delay dynamics. While the positive feedback loop drives the clock like the (balance) spring in a mechanical watch the negative time-delay circuit represents the pulse generator defining a minimal time unit and precision of the clock like the pendulum fallback or the movement of the balance wheel in a classical mechanic watch. This basic design principle enabled the construction of a variety of synthetic oscillators whose design details are concisely covered in this review.

  7. [Biological clock and sleep].

    PubMed

    Honma, Ken-ichi

    2012-06-01

    Under temporal isolation, the human sleep-wake cycle occasionally desynchronizes from the circadian rhythms in deep body temperature and plasma melatonin. Such internal desynchronization is observed even in the real world. Two distinct models are advanced for the sleep-wake cycle; one is a two-oscillator model and the other is a two-process model. However, our recent studies in human subjects under temporal isolation support the former model. Internal desynchronization is unique to the human sleep-wake cycle and has been never observed in other mammal species. Therefore, a specific animal model for the human sleep-wake cycle is needed to explore the brain mechanism. By chronic treatment with methamphetamine (MAP), a stimulant of the central dopaminergic system, in drinking water, rats showed behavioral rhythms which were independent of the circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the central clock entraining to light-dark cycles. Furthermore, MAP treatment induces internal desynchronization between the MAP-induced behavioral rhythms and the circadian rhythms of clock gene expression in the SCN, suggesting a presence of a secondary pacemaker outside the SCN that regulates the sleep-wake cycle. These findings are consistent with the two-oscillator model mentioned previously. According to the current understanding of the circadian system in mammals, there are a number of so-called peripheral clocks in the body which are regulated by the central clock in the SCN. Taking advantage of the MAP-induced internal desynchronization, attempts have been made to identity the peripheral clock(s) regulating the sleep-wake cycle. The nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is a possible site of the behavior-associated peripheral clock.

  8. A gallium-arsenide digital phase shifter for clock and control signal distribution in high-speed digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouts, Douglas J.

    1992-01-01

    The design, implementation, testing, and applications of a gallium-arsenide digital phase shifter and fan-out buffer are described. The integrated circuit provides a method for adjusting the phase of high-speed clock and control signals in digital systems, without the need for pruning cables, multiplexing between cables of different lengths, delay lines, or similar techniques. The phase of signals distributed with the described chip can be dynamically adjusted in eight different steps of approximately 60 ps per step. The IC also serves as a fan-out buffer and provides 12 in-phase outputs. The chip is useful for distributing high-speed clock and control signals in synchronous digital systems, especially if components are distributed over a large physical area or if there is a large number of components.

  9. A gallium-arsenide digital phase shifter for clock and control signal distribution in high-speed digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouts, Douglas J.

    1992-01-01

    The design, implementation, testing, and applications of a gallium-arsenide digital phase shifter and fan-out buffer are described. The integrated circuit provides a method for adjusting the phase of high-speed clock and control signals in digital systems, without the need for pruning cables, multiplexing between cables of different lengths, delay lines, or similar techniques. The phase of signals distributed with the described chip can be dynamically adjusted in eight different steps of approximately 60 ps per step. The IC also serves as a fan-out buffer and provides 12 in-phase outputs. The chip is useful for distributing high-speed clock and control signals in synchronous digital systems, especially if components are distributed over a large physical area or if there is a large number of components.

  10. Ultrastable laser system for spectroscopy of the 1S0-3P0 clock transition in Sr atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdasov, O. I.; Gribov, A. Yu.; Belotelov, G. S.; Pal'chikov, V. G.; Strelkin, S. A.; Khabarova, K. Yu.; Kolachevsky, N. N.; Slyusarev, S. N.

    2017-06-01

    A laser system with a spectral linewidth less than 1 Hz for spectroscopy of the 1S0-3P0 clock transition in strontium atoms has been demonstrated. A semiconductor laser emitting at a wavelength of 698 nm was stabilised to an external high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity with vibration and temperature compensation near the zero expansion point. After laser cooling to a temperature below 3 μK, 88Sr atoms were loaded into an optical lattice at a magic wavelength of 813 nm. The laser system was used to characterise the 88Sr clock transition by magnetically induced spectroscopy. The resonance spectral width was determined to be 130 ± 17 Hz, which corresponds to a quality factor of 3 × 1012.

  11. Long-term effect of systemic RNA interference on circadian clock genes in hemimetabolous insects.

    PubMed

    Uryu, Outa; Kamae, Yuichi; Tomioka, Kenji; Yoshii, Taishi

    2013-04-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) strategy, which enables gene-specific knock-down of transcripts, has been spread across a wide area of insect studies for investigating gene function without regard to model and non-model insects. This technique is of particular benefit to promote molecular studies on non-model insects. However, the optimal conditions for RNAi are still not well understood because of its variable efficiency depending on the species, target genes, and experimental conditions. To apply RNAi technique to long-running experiments such as chronobiological studies, the effects of RNAi have to persist throughout the experiment. In this study, we attempted to determine the optimal concentration of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) for systemic RNAi and its effective period in two different insect species, the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus and the firebrat Thermobia domestica. In both species, higher concentrations of dsRNA principally yielded a more efficient knock-down of mRNA levels of tested clock genes, although the effect depended on the gene and the species. Surprisingly, the effect of the RNAi reached its maximum effect 1-2 weeks and 1 month after the injection of dsRNA in the crickets and the firebrats, respectively, suggesting a slow but long-term effect of RNAi. Our study provides fundamental information for utilizing RNAi technique in any long-running experiment.

  12. Posttranscriptional and posttranslational regulation of clock genes.

    PubMed

    Harms, Emily; Kivimäe, Saul; Young, Michael W; Saez, Lino

    2004-10-01

    Circadian rhythms have been observed in diverse organisms, including plants, animals, bacteria, and fungi. In such organisms, the circadian clock is primarily composed of a cell-autonomous transcriptional feedback loop. In addition to transcriptional regulation, the modification of core clock transcripts and proteins can dramatically affect the circadian clock. In this review, the authors discuss some of the posttranscriptional and posttranslational modifications and their effects on the circadian clock. The combined outcome of these modifications is to adjust the timing of the clock to produce a circadian oscillator that takes approximately 24 h.

  13. Chicktacking pineal clock.

    PubMed

    Okano, Toshiyuki; Fukada, Yoshitaka

    2003-12-01

    Many tissues in non-mammalian vertebrates contain both photoreceptors and circadian clock systems. Among these photosensitive clock structures, the chick pineal gland has been characterized in detail from cellular and molecular aspects of the clock oscillation and entrainment. Analyses of the pineal photic-input pathway revealed a phase-shifting mechanism mediated by activation of G11, one of the Gq-type G-proteins. A major photoreceptive molecule, pinopsin, likely triggers this pathway by transmitting the light signal to the circadian oscillator. In the chick pineal oscillator, the transcription/translation-based autoregulatory feedback loop is composed of positive and negative elements (clock gene products) that are homologous to those identified in mammals. In the molecular cycling, a CACGTG E-box located in the promoter region of the negative element genes plays a central role in the transcriptional regulation. The phase of the molecular cycling is modulated by many regulatory components, among which E4BP4 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) are closely associated with the photic entrainment. A light-responsive element was found in the promoter region of the Pinopsin gene, and the element included a CACGTG E-box, suggesting a novel role of the E-box as a point of convergence of light and circadian signals. These observations together point to general and unique features of the chick pineal circadian system among animal clocks.

  14. Global synchronization of parallel processors using clock pulse width modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dong; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Franke, Ross L.; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Jeanson, Mark J.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Liebsch, Thomas A.; Littrell, Daniel; Ohmacht, Martin; Reed, Don D.; Schenck, Brandon E.; Swetz, Richard A.

    2013-04-02

    A circuit generates a global clock signal with a pulse width modification to synchronize processors in a parallel computing system. The circuit may include a hardware module and a clock splitter. The hardware module may generate a clock signal and performs a pulse width modification on the clock signal. The pulse width modification changes a pulse width within a clock period in the clock signal. The clock splitter may distribute the pulse width modified clock signal to a plurality of processors in the parallel computing system.

  15. Rethinking transcriptional activation in the Arabidopsis circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Fogelmark, Karl; Troein, Carl

    2014-07-01

    Circadian clocks are biological timekeepers that allow living cells to time their activity in anticipation of predictable daily changes in light and other environmental factors. The complexity of the circadian clock in higher plants makes it difficult to understand the role of individual genes or molecular interactions, and mathematical modelling has been useful in guiding clock research in model organisms such as Arabidopsis thaliana. We present a model of the circadian clock in Arabidopsis, based on a large corpus of published time course data. It appears from experimental evidence in the literature that most interactions in the clock are repressive. Hence, we remove all transcriptional activation found in previous models of this system, and instead extend the system by including two new components, the morning-expressed activator RVE8 and the nightly repressor/activator NOX. Our modelling results demonstrate that the clock does not need a large number of activators in order to reproduce the observed gene expression patterns. For example, the sequential expression of the PRR genes does not require the genes to be connected as a series of activators. In the presented model, transcriptional activation is exclusively the task of RVE8. Predictions of how strongly RVE8 affects its targets are found to agree with earlier interpretations of the experimental data, but generally we find that the many negative feedbacks in the system should discourage intuitive interpretations of mutant phenotypes. The dynamics of the clock are difficult to predict without mathematical modelling, and the clock is better viewed as a tangled web than as a series of loops.

  16. Rethinking Transcriptional Activation in the Arabidopsis Circadian Clock

    PubMed Central

    Fogelmark, Karl; Troein, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Circadian clocks are biological timekeepers that allow living cells to time their activity in anticipation of predictable daily changes in light and other environmental factors. The complexity of the circadian clock in higher plants makes it difficult to understand the role of individual genes or molecular interactions, and mathematical modelling has been useful in guiding clock research in model organisms such as Arabidopsis thaliana. We present a model of the circadian clock in Arabidopsis, based on a large corpus of published time course data. It appears from experimental evidence in the literature that most interactions in the clock are repressive. Hence, we remove all transcriptional activation found in previous models of this system, and instead extend the system by including two new components, the morning-expressed activator RVE8 and the nightly repressor/activator NOX. Our modelling results demonstrate that the clock does not need a large number of activators in order to reproduce the observed gene expression patterns. For example, the sequential expression of the PRR genes does not require the genes to be connected as a series of activators. In the presented model, transcriptional activation is exclusively the task of RVE8. Predictions of how strongly RVE8 affects its targets are found to agree with earlier interpretations of the experimental data, but generally we find that the many negative feedbacks in the system should discourage intuitive interpretations of mutant phenotypes. The dynamics of the clock are difficult to predict without mathematical modelling, and the clock is better viewed as a tangled web than as a series of loops. PMID:25033214

  17. New Countdown Clock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-03

    At NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Project Manager Sonja Hernandez, Kennedy TV senior systems engineer Ronald Gonser and Kennedy/IMCS senior manager Jeff Van Pelt dig in behind the current countdown clock during the groundbreaking ceremony for the new countdown clock. The old timepiece was designed by Kennedy engineers and built by Kennedy technicians in 1969. Not including the triangular concrete and aluminum base, the famous landmark is nearly 6 feet 70 inches high, 26 feet 315 inches wide and 3 feet deep. The new display will be similar in size, with the screen being nearly 26 feet wide by 7 feet high.

  18. Hypothesis: Role for the circadian Clock system and sleep in the pathogenesis of adhesions and chronic pelvic pain?

    PubMed

    Sadek, Khaled; Macklon, Nick; Bruce, Kim; Cagampang, Felino; Cheong, Ying

    2011-03-01

    Intra-peritoneal adhesions ensuing from surgery or infection may lead to chronic pelvic pain, bowel obstruction, infertility and additional invasive surgery to resolve adhesion-related complications. As a result adhesions are a major clinical, social and economic concern. The cumulative year-on-year direct costs of adhesion-related readmissions for a 10-year period are more than £ 569 million. The degree of intra-abdominal adhesion formation in an individual patient after a surgical or infective insult remains difficult to predict. This reflects a lack of understanding as to the underlying aetiologies. Several different mechanisms leading to adhesion formation and re-formation have been proposed. These include abnormal modulations in inflammatory status, fibrinolytic pathways and matrix remodelling. A number of preventative strategies have been designed accordingly. However, although each individual model offers specific insights into the aetiology of adhesion formation, none have been shown to provide the basis for a highly effective clinical intervention. A unifying fundamental mechanism remains elusive. In this article we propose that such a mechanism can be found within the molecular control of circadian rhythms and "Clock" gene biology. A number of physiological processes demonstrating circadian variation have been shown to involve 'Clock genes' in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which then entrains a similar set of Clock genes in peripheral tissues such as the heart, brain, spleen, lung, liver, skeletal muscle and kidney. The intrinsic time-keeping system influences activity, such as sleep, temperature regulation, rates of metabolism, immune responses, blood pressure and hormone secretion. The function and availability of mediators involved in the inflammatory response, fibrinolytic and anti-coagulation pathways are all under the tight control of the molecular Clock system. These include IL-6, PAI-1, fibrinogen, fibroblasts and TNF-α. We hypothesise that

  19. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strain CC-124 is highly sensitive to blue light in addition to green and red light in resetting its circadian clock, with the blue-light photoreceptor plant cryptochrome likely acting as negative modulator.

    PubMed

    Forbes-Stovall, Jennifer; Howton, Jonathan; Young, Matthew; Davis, Gavin; Chandler, Todd; Kessler, Bruce; Rinehart, Claire A; Jacobshagen, Sigrid

    2014-02-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has long served as model organism for studies on the circadian clock. This clock is present in all eukaryotes and some prokaryotes allowing them to anticipate and take advantage of the daily oscillations in the environment. Although much is known about the circadian clock in C. reinhardtii, the photoreceptors mediating entrainment of the clock to the daily changes of light remain obscure. Based on its circadian rhythm of phototaxis as a reporter of the clock's phase, we show here that C. reinhardtii strain CC-124 is highly sensitive to blue light of 440 nm when resetting its circadian clock upon light pulses. Thus, CC-124 differs in this respect from what was previously reported for a cell wall-deficient strain. An action spectrum analysis revealed that CC-124 also responds with high sensitivity to green (540 nm), red (640-660 nm), and possibly UV-A (≤400 nm) light, and therefore shows similarities as well to what has been reported for the cell wall-deficient strain. We also investigated two RNA interference strains with reductions in the level of the blue light photoreceptor plant cryptochrome (CPH1). One of them, the strain with the greater reduction, surprisingly showed an increased sensitivity in clock resetting upon blue light pulses of 440 nm. This increase in sensitivity reverted to wild-type levels when the RNA interference strain reverted to wild-type protein levels. It suggests that plant cryptochrome in C. reinhardtii could function as negative rather than positive modulator of circadian clock resetting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Circadian Tick-Talking Across the Neuroendocrine System and Suprachiasmatic Nuclei Circuits: The Enigmatic Communication Between the Molecular and Electrical Membrane Clocks.

    PubMed

    Belle, M D C

    2015-07-01

    As with many processes in nature, appropriate timing in biological systems is of paramount importance. In the neuroendocrine system, the efficacy of hormonal influence on major bodily functions, such as reproduction, metabolism and growth, relies on timely communication within and across many of the brain's homeostatic systems. The activity of these circuits is tightly orchestrated with the animal's internal physiological demands and external solar cycle by a master circadian clock. In mammals, this master clock is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), where the ensemble activity of thousands of clock neurones generates and communicates circadian time cues to the rest of the brain and body. Many regions of the brain, including areas with neuroendocrine function, also contain local daily clocks that can provide feedback signals to the SCN. Although much is known about the molecular processes underpinning endogenous circadian rhythm generation in SCN neurones and, to a lesser extent, extra-SCN cells, the electrical membrane clock that acts in partnership with the molecular clockwork to communicate circadian timing across the brain is poorly understood. The present review focuses on some circadian aspects of reproductive neuroendocrinology and processes involved in circadian rhythm communication in the SCN, aiming to identify key gaps in our knowledge of cross-talk between our daily master clock and neuroendocrine function. The intention is to highlight our surprisingly limited understanding of their interaction in the hope that this will stimulate future work in these areas.

  1. Circadian clocks: lessons from fish.

    PubMed

    Idda, M Laura; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Vallone, Daniela; Gothilf, Yoav; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Foulkes, Nicholas S

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the molecular and cellular organization of the circadian timing system in vertebrates has increased enormously over the past decade. In large part, progress has been based on genetic studies in the mouse as well as on fundamental similarities between vertebrate and Drosophila clocks. The zebrafish was initially considered as a potentially attractive genetic model for identifying vertebrate clock genes. However, instead, fish have ultimately proven to be valuable complementary models for studying various aspects of clock biology. For example, many fish can shift from diurnal to nocturnal activity implying specific flexibility in their clock function. We have learned much about the function of light input pathways, and the ontogeny and function of the pineal organ, the fish central pacemaker. Finally, blind cavefish have also provided new insight into the evolution of the circadian clock under extreme environmental conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. RNA around the clock - regulation at the RNA level in biological timing.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Christine; Staiger, Dorothee

    2015-01-01

    The circadian timing system in plants synchronizes their physiological functions with the environment. This is achieved by a global control of gene expression programs with a considerable part of the transcriptome undergoing 24-h oscillations in steady-state abundance. These circadian oscillations are driven by a set of core clock proteins that generate their own 24-h rhythm through periodic feedback on their own transcription. Additionally, post-transcriptional events are instrumental for oscillations of core clock genes and genes in clock output. Here we provide an update on molecular events at the RNA level that contribute to the 24-h rhythm of the core clock proteins and shape the circadian transcriptome. We focus on the circadian system of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana but also discuss selected regulatory principles in other organisms.

  3. RNA around the clock – regulation at the RNA level in biological timing

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Christine; Staiger, Dorothee

    2015-01-01

    The circadian timing system in plants synchronizes their physiological functions with the environment. This is achieved by a global control of gene expression programs with a considerable part of the transcriptome undergoing 24-h oscillations in steady-state abundance. These circadian oscillations are driven by a set of core clock proteins that generate their own 24-h rhythm through periodic feedback on their own transcription. Additionally, post-transcriptional events are instrumental for oscillations of core clock genes and genes in clock output. Here we provide an update on molecular events at the RNA level that contribute to the 24-h rhythm of the core clock proteins and shape the circadian transcriptome. We focus on the circadian system of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana but also discuss selected regulatory principles in other organisms. PMID:25999975

  4. A Hertz-Linewidth Ultrastable Diode Laser System for Clock Transition Detection of Strontium Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ye; Lin, Yi-Ge; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Shao-Kai; Zhao, Yang; Meng, Fei; Lin, Bai-Ke; Cao, Jian-Ping; Li, Tian-Chu; Fang, Zhan-Jun; Zang, Er-Jun

    2014-02-01

    The frequencies of two 698 nm external cavity diode lasers (ECDLs) are locked separately to two independently located ultrahigh finesse optical resonant cavities with the Pound—Drever—Hall technique. The linewidth of each ECDL is measured to be ~4.6 Hz by their beating and the fractional frequency stability below 5 × 10-15 between 1 s to 10 s averaging time. Another 698 nm laser diode is injection locked to one of the cavity-stabilized ECDLs with a fixed frequency offset for power amplification while maintaining its linewidth and frequency characteristics. The frequency drift is ~1 Hz/s measured by a femtosecond optical frequency comb based on erbium fiber. The output of the injection slave laser is delivered to the magneto-optical trap of a Sr optical clock through a 10-m-long single mode polarization maintaining fiber with an active fiber noise cancelation technique to detect the clock transition of Sr atoms.

  5. Metabolic regulation of circadian clocks.

    PubMed

    Haydon, Michael J; Hearn, Timothy J; Bell, Laura J; Hannah, Matthew A; Webb, Alex A R

    2013-05-01

    Circadian clocks are 24-h timekeeping mechanisms, which have evolved in plants, animals, fungi and bacteria to anticipate changes in light and temperature associated with the rotation of the Earth. The current paradigm to explain how biological clocks provide timing information is based on multiple interlocking transcription-translation negative feedback loops (TTFL), which drive rhythmic gene expression and circadian behaviour of growth and physiology. Metabolism is an important circadian output, which in plants includes photosynthesis, starch metabolism, nutrient assimilation and redox homeostasis. There is increasing evidence in a range of organisms that these metabolic outputs can also contribute to circadian timing and might also comprise independent circadian oscillators. In this review, we summarise the mechanisms of circadian regulation of metabolism by TTFL and consider increasing evidence that rhythmic metabolism contributes to the circadian network. We highlight how this might be relevant to plant circadian clock function.

  6. From two competing oscillators to one coupled-clock pacemaker cell system

    PubMed Central

    Yaniv, Yael; Lakatta, Edward G.; Maltsev, Victor A.

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of this century, debates regarding “what are the main control mechanisms that ignite the action potential (AP) in heart pacemaker cells” dominated the electrophysiology field. The original theory which prevailed for over 50 years had advocated that the ensemble of surface membrane ion channels (i.e., “M-clock”) is sufficient to ignite rhythmic APs. However, more recent experimental evidence in a variety of mammals has shown that the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) acts as a “Ca2+-clock” rhythmically discharges diastolic local Ca2+ releases (LCRs) beneath the cell surface membrane. LCRs activate an inward current (likely that of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger) that prompts the surface membrane “M-clock” to ignite an AP. Theoretical and experimental evidence has mounted to indicate that this clock “crosstalk” operates on a beat-to-beat basis and determines both the AP firing rate and rhythm. Our review is focused on the evolution of experimental definition and numerical modeling of the coupled-clock concept, on how mechanisms intrinsic to pacemaker cell determine both the heart rate and rhythm, and on future directions to develop further the coupled-clock pacemaker cell concept. PMID:25741284

  7. Sleep: the sound of a local alarm clock.

    PubMed

    Adamantidis, Antoine R

    2015-01-05

    Besides the master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, additional clocks are distributed across the central nervous system and the body. The role of these 'secondary' clocks remains unclear. A new study shows that the lack of an internal clock in histamine neurons profoundly perturbs sleep. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Priming in Systemic Plant Immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wang, Lin; Glazebrook, Jane; Greenberg, Jean T.

    2009-01-01

    Upon local infection, plants possess inducible systemic defense responses against their natural enemies. Bacterial infection results in the accumulation to high levels of the mobile metabolite C9-dicarboxylic acid azelaic acid in the vascular sap of Arabidopsis. Azelaic acid confers local and systemic resistance against Pseudomonas syringae. The compound primes plants to strongly accumulate salicylic acid (SA), a known defense signal, upon infection. Mutation of a gene induced by azelaic acid (AZI1) results in the specific loss in plants of systemic immunity triggered by pathogen or azelaic acid and of the priming of SA induction. AZI1, a predicted secreted protein, is also important for generating vascular sap that confers disease resistance. Thus, azelaic acid and AZI1 comprise novel components of plant systemic immunity involved in priming defenses.

  9. Advances in understanding the peripheral circadian clocks.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jacob; Gumz, Michelle L

    2012-09-01

    In the past decade, it has become increasingly evident that the circadian clock system plays an important role in many physiological processes. The circadian clock can be divided into 2 parts: the central clock, residing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, which receives light cues, and the peripheral clocks that reside in various tissues throughout the body. The peripheral clocks play an integral and unique role in each of their respective tissues, driving the circadian expression of specific genes involved in a variety of physiological functions. The goal of this review is to provide an introduction to and overview of the peripheral clocks, including potential mechanisms, targets, and implications for disease states. The peripheral clocks include the cardiovascular, metabolic, endocrine, immune, and reproductive systems.

  10. Frequency measurement of a Sr lattice clock using an SI-second-referenced optical frequency comb linked by a global positioning system (GPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Feng-Lei; Takamoto, Masao; Higashi, Ryoichi; Fukuyama, Yasuhiro; Jiang, Jie; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2005-07-01

    We have established a transportable frequency measurement system using an optical frequency comb linked to a commercial Cs atomic clock, which is in turn linked to international atomic time (TAI) through global positioning system (GPS) time. An iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser is used as a flywheel in the frequency measurement system. This system is used to measure the absolute frequency of the clock transition of 87Sr in an optical lattice. We obtained a fractional uncertainty of 2×10-14 in the frequency measurement with a total averaging time of ~ 105 s over 9 days.

  11. Frequency measurement of a Sr lattice clock using an SI-second-referenced optical frequency comb linked by a global positioning system (GPS).

    PubMed

    Hong, Feng-Lei; Takamoto, Masao; Higashi, Ryoichi; Fukuyama, Yasuhiro; Jiang, Jie; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2005-07-11

    We have established a transportable frequency measurement system using an optical frequency comb linked to a commercial Cs atomic clock, which is in turn linked to international atomic time (TAI) through global positioning system (GPS) time. An iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser is used as a flywheel in the frequency measurement system. This system is used to measure the absolute frequency of the clock transition of (87)Sr in an optical lattice. We obtained a fractional uncertainty of 2x10(-14) in the frequency measurement with a total averaging time of ~ 10(5) s over 9 days.

  12. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strain CC-124 is highly sensitive to blue light in addition to green and red light in resetting its circadian clock, with the blue-light photoreceptor plant cryptochrome likely acting as negative modulator

    PubMed Central

    Forbes-Stovall, Jennifer; Howton, Jonathan; Young, Matthew; Davis, Gavin; Chandler, Todd; Kessler, Bruce; Rinehart, Claire A.; Jacobshagen, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has long served as model organism for studies on the circadian clock. This clock is present in all eukaryotes and some prokaryotes allowing them to anticipate and take advantage of the daily oscillations in the environment. Although much is known about the circadian clock in C. reinhardtii, the photoreceptors mediating entrainment of the clock to the daily changes of light remain obscure. Based on its circadian rhythm of phototaxis as a reporter of the clock’s phase, we show here that C. reinhardtii strain CC-124 is highly sensitive to blue light of 440 nm when resetting its circadian clock upon light pulses. Thus, CC-124 differs in this respect from what was previously reported for a cell wall-deficient strain. An action spectrum analysis revealed that CC-124 also responds with high sensitivity to green (540 nm), red (640–660 nm), and possibly UV-A (≤400 nm) light, and therefore shows similarities as well to what has been reported for the cell wall-deficient strain. We also investigated two RNA interference strains with reductions in the level of the blue light photoreceptor plant cryptochrome (CPH1). One of them, the strain with the greater reduction, surprisingly showed an increased sensitivity in clock resetting upon blue light pulses of 440 nm. This increase in sensitivity reverted to wild-type levels when the RNA interference strain reverted to wild-type protein levels. It suggests that plant cryptochrome in C. reinhardtii could function as negative rather than positive modulator of circadian clock resetting. PMID:24361506

  13. Coordination of the maize transcriptome by a conserved circadian clock

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The plant circadian clock orchestrates 24-hour rhythms in internal physiological processes to coordinate these activities with daily and seasonal changes in the environment. The circadian clock has a profound impact on many aspects of plant growth and development, including biomass accumulation and flowering time. Despite recent advances in understanding the circadian system of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the contribution of the circadian oscillator to important agronomic traits in Zea mays and other cereals remains poorly defined. To address this deficit, this study investigated the transcriptional landscape of the maize circadian system. Results Since transcriptional regulation is a fundamental aspect of circadian systems, genes exhibiting circadian expression were identified in the sequenced maize inbred B73. Of the over 13,000 transcripts examined, approximately 10 percent displayed circadian expression patterns. The majority of cycling genes had peak expression at subjective dawn and dusk, similar to other plant circadian systems. The maize circadian clock organized co-regulation of genes participating in fundamental physiological processes, including photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and phytohormone biosynthesis pathways. Conclusions Circadian regulation of the maize genome was widespread and key genes in several major metabolic pathways had circadian expression waveforms. The maize circadian clock coordinated transcription to be coincident with oncoming day or night, which was consistent with the circadian oscillator acting to prepare the plant for these major recurring environmental changes. These findings highlighted the multiple processes in maize plants under circadian regulation and, as a result, provided insight into the important contribution this regulatory system makes to agronomic traits in maize and potentially other C4 plant species. PMID:20576144

  14. Metamorphosis of a clock: remodeling of the circadian timing system in the brain of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera) during larval-adult development.

    PubMed

    Vafopoulou, Xanthe; Steel, Colin G H

    2012-04-15

    The rhythmic phenomena expressed by organisms change over their lifetimes, but little is known of accompanying reorganization of the central circadian timing system in the brain. Especially dramatic changes in overt rhythms and morphology occur during transformation of larval insects into the adult form (metamorphosis). In Rhodnius prolixus, both the physiology of metamorphosis and its hormonal control are known in detail. Here we report changes in the brain timing system as revealed by pigment dispersing factor immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Most of the features of the larval system are retained, but new clock cells differentiate and the arborizations of their axons increase in complexity, as do pathways connecting the lateral (LNs) and dorsal (DNs) groups of clock neurons. Early in metamorphosis, the LNs increase from 8 to 11 in number, becoming five small and six large LNs. Two large LNs then migrate to new positions in the protocerebrum. Another clock cell differentiates in the posterior protocerebrum. Each change occurs at a characteristic concentration of the ecdysteroid molting hormones that regulate metamorphosis. Clock cell axons invade the mushroom body and corpus allatum and travel down the ventral nerve cord. New overt rhythms develop during metamorphosis, in which these structures participate. The neuroendocrine cells of the brain receive more extensive branches of clock cell axons than in larvae. These increases in size and complexity of the circadian system during metamorphosis imply a greater complexity and diversity of outputs from it to both behavioral and hormonal rhythms in the adult.

  15. Circadian clock signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana: from gene expression to physiology and development.

    PubMed

    Más, Paloma

    2005-01-01

    The daily rotation of the earth on its axis leads to predictable periodic fluctuations of environmental conditions. Accordingly, most organisms have evolved an internal timing mechanism, the circadian clock, which is able to recognize these 24-hour rhythmic oscillations. In plants, the temporal synchronization of physiology with the environment is essential for successful plant growth and development. The intimate connection between light signaling pathways and the circadian oscillator allows the anticipation of the environmental transitions and the measurement of day-length as an indicator of changing seasons. In recent years, significant advances have been made in the genetic and molecular dissection of the plant circadian system, mostly in Arabidopsis thaliana. The overall plant clock organization is highly complex; the system seems to include several input pathways, tightly regulated central oscillators and a myriad of outputs. The molecular cloning and characterization of a number of clock components has greatly improved our view of the plant central oscillator and additional players will most likely come into place very soon. Molecular mechanisms underlying circadian clock function are also beginning to be characterized. The emerging model relies on negative feedback loops at the core of the oscillator. Additional levels of post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation also contribute to the generation and maintenance of the rhythms. Globally, these studies have shed new light on how the clock coordinates plant physiology and development with the daily and seasonal environmental cycles.

  16. ELF4 Is Required for Oscillatory Properties of the Circadian Clock1[W

    PubMed Central

    McWatters, Harriet G.; Kolmos, Elsebeth; Hall, Anthony; Doyle, Mark R.; Amasino, Richard M.; Gyula, Péter; Nagy, Ferenc; Millar, Andrew J.; Davis, Seth J.

    2007-01-01

    Circadian clocks are required to coordinate metabolism and physiology with daily changes in the environment. Such clocks have several distinctive features, including a free-running rhythm of approximately 24 h and the ability to entrain to both light or temperature cycles (zeitgebers). We have previously characterized the EARLY FLOWERING4 (ELF4) locus of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as being important for robust rhythms. Here, it is shown that ELF4 is necessary for at least two core clock functions: entrainment to an environmental cycle and rhythm sustainability under constant conditions. We show that elf4 demonstrates clock input defects in light responsiveness and in circadian gating. Rhythmicity in elf4 could be driven by an environmental cycle, but an increased sensitivity to light means the circadian system of elf4 plants does not entrain normally. Expression of putative core clock genes and outputs were characterized in various ELF4 backgrounds to establish the molecular network of action. ELF4 was found to be intimately associated with the CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1)/LONG ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY)-TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1) feedback loop because, under free run, ELF4 is required to regulate the expression of CCA1 and TOC1 and, further, elf4 is locked in the evening phase of this feedback loop. ELF4, therefore, can be considered a component of the central CCA1/LHY-TOC1 feedback loop in the plant circadian clock. PMID:17384164

  17. Around the Fungal Clock: Recent Advances in the Molecular Study of Circadian Clocks in Neurospora and Other Fungi.

    PubMed

    Montenegro-Montero, Alejandro; Canessa, Paulo; Larrondo, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    Night follows day and as a consequence, organisms have evolved molecular machineries that allow them to anticipate and respond to the many changes that accompany these transitions. Circadian clocks are precise yet plastic pacemakers that allow the temporal organization of a plethora of biological process. Circadian clocks are widespread across the tree of life and while their exact molecular components differ among phyla, they tend to share common design principles. In this review, we discuss the circadian system of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. Historically, this fungus has served a key role in the genetic and molecular dissection of circadian clocks, aiding in their detailed mechanistic understanding. Recent studies have provided new insights into the daily molecular dynamics that constitute the Neurospora circadian oscillator, some of which have questioned traditional paradigms describing timekeeping mechanisms in eukaryotes. In addition, recent reports support the idea of a dynamic network of transcription factors underlying the rhythmicity of thousands of genes in Neurospora, many of which oscillate only under specific conditions. Besides Neurospora, which harbors the best characterized circadian system among filamentous fungi, the recent characterization of the circadian system of the plant-pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea has provided additional insights into the physiological impact of the clock and potential additional functions of clock proteins in fungi. Finally, we speculate on the presence of FRQ or FRQ-like proteins in diverse fungal lineages.

  18. Clocks in the green lineage: comparative functional analysis of the circadian architecture of the picoeukaryote ostreococcus.

    PubMed

    Corellou, Florence; Schwartz, Christian; Motta, Jean-Paul; Djouani-Tahri, El Batoul; Sanchez, Frédéric; Bouget, François-Yves

    2009-11-01

    Biological rhythms that allow organisms to adapt to the solar cycle are generated by endogenous circadian clocks. In higher plants, many clock components have been identified and cellular rhythmicity is thought to be driven by a complex transcriptional feedback circuitry. In the small genome of the green unicellular alga Ostreococcus tauri, two of the master clock genes Timing of Cab expression1 (TOC1) and Circadian Clock-Associated1 (CCA1) appear to be conserved, but others like Gigantea or Early-Flowering4 are lacking. Stably transformed luciferase reporter lines and tools for gene functional analysis were therefore developed to characterize clock gene function in this simple eukaryotic system. This approach revealed several features that are comparable to those in higher plants, including the circadian regulation of TOC1, CCA1, and the output gene Chlorophyll a/b Binding under constant light, the relative phases of TOC1/CCA1 expression under light/dark cycles, arrhythmic overexpression phenotypes under constant light, the binding of CCA1 to a conserved evening element in the TOC1 promoter, as well as the requirement of the evening element for circadian regulation of TOC1 promoter activity. Functional analysis supports TOC1 playing a central role in the clock, but repression of CCA1 had no effect on clock function in constant light, arguing against a simple TOC1 /CCA1 one-loop clock in Ostreococcus. The emergence of functional genomics in a simple green cell with a small genome may facilitate increased understanding of how complex cellular processes such as the circadian clock have evolved in plants.

  19. Simulating Future GPS Clock Scenarios with Two Composite Clock Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, Matthias; Matsakis, Demetrios; Greenhall, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    Using the GPS Toolkit, the GPS constellation is simulated using 31 satellites (SV) and a ground network of 17 monitor stations (MS). At every 15-minutes measurement epoch, the monitor stations measure the time signals of all satellites above a parameterized elevation angle. Once a day, the satellite clock estimates the station and satellite clocks. The first composite clock (B) is based on the Brown algorithm, and is now used by GPS. The second one (G) is based on the Greenhall algorithm. The composite clock of G and B performance are investigated using three ground-clock models. Model C simulates the current GPS configuration, in which all stations are equipped with cesium clocks, except for masers at USNO and Alternate Master Clock (AMC) sites. Model M is an improved situation in which every station is equipped with active hydrogen masers. Finally, Models F and O are future scenarios in which the USNO and AMC stations are equipped with fountain clocks instead of masers. Model F is a rubidium fountain, while Model O is more precise but futuristic Optical Fountain. Each model is evaluated using three performance metrics. The timing-related user range error having all satellites available is the first performance index (PI1). The second performance index (PI2) relates to the stability of the broadcast GPS system time itself. The third performance index (PI3) evaluates the stability of the time scales computed by the two composite clocks. A distinction is made between the "Signal-in-Space" accuracy and that available through a GNSS receiver.

  20. CODE's five-system orbit and clock solution—the challenges of multi-GNSS data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prange, Lars; Orliac, Etienne; Dach, Rolf; Arnold, Daniel; Beutler, Gerhard; Schaer, Stefan; Jäggi, Adrian

    2016-11-01

    This article describes the processing strategy and the validation results of CODE's MGEX (COM) orbit and satellite clock solution, including the satellite systems GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, and QZSS. The validation with orbit misclosures and SLR residuals shows that the orbits of the new systems Galileo, BeiDou, and QZSS are affected by modelling deficiencies with impact on the orbit scale (e.g., antenna calibration, Earth albedo, and transmitter antenna thrust). Another weakness is the attitude and solar radiation pressure (SRP) modelling of satellites moving in the orbit normal mode—which is not yet correctly considered in the COM solution. Due to these issues, we consider the current state COM solution as preliminary. We, however, use the long-time series of COM products for identifying the challenges and for the assessment of model-improvements. The latter is demonstrated on the example of the solar radiation pressure (SRP) model, which has been replaced by a more generalized model. The SLR validation shows that the new SRP model significantly improves the orbit determination of Galileo and QZSS satellites at times when the satellite's attitude is maintained by yaw-steering. The impact of this orbit improvement is also visible in the estimated satellite clocks—demonstrating the potential use of the new generation satellite clocks for orbit validation. Finally, we point out further challenges and open issues affecting multi-GNSS data processing that deserves dedicated studies.

  1. CODE's five-system orbit and clock solution—the challenges of multi-GNSS data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prange, Lars; Orliac, Etienne; Dach, Rolf; Arnold, Daniel; Beutler, Gerhard; Schaer, Stefan; Jäggi, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    This article describes the processing strategy and the validation results of CODE's MGEX (COM) orbit and satellite clock solution, including the satellite systems GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, and QZSS. The validation with orbit misclosures and SLR residuals shows that the orbits of the new systems Galileo, BeiDou, and QZSS are affected by modelling deficiencies with impact on the orbit scale (e.g., antenna calibration, Earth albedo, and transmitter antenna thrust). Another weakness is the attitude and solar radiation pressure (SRP) modelling of satellites moving in the orbit normal mode—which is not yet correctly considered in the COM solution. Due to these issues, we consider the current state COM solution as preliminary. We, however, use the long-time series of COM products for identifying the challenges and for the assessment of model-improvements. The latter is demonstrated on the example of the solar radiation pressure (SRP) model, which has been replaced by a more generalized model. The SLR validation shows that the new SRP model significantly improves the orbit determination of Galileo and QZSS satellites at times when the satellite's attitude is maintained by yaw-steering. The impact of this orbit improvement is also visible in the estimated satellite clocks—demonstrating the potential use of the new generation satellite clocks for orbit validation. Finally, we point out further challenges and open issues affecting multi-GNSS data processing that deserves dedicated studies.

  2. Formulation of geopotential difference determination using optical-atomic clocks onboard satellites and on ground based on Doppler cancellation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ziyu; Shen, Wen-Bin; Zhang, Shuangxi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we propose an approach for determining the geopotential difference using high-frequency-stability microwave links between satellite and ground station based on Doppler cancellation system. Suppose a satellite and a ground station are equipped with precise optical-atomic clocks (OACs) and oscillators. The ground oscillator emits a signal with frequency fa towards the satellite and the satellite receiver (connected with the satellite oscillator) receives this signal with frequency fb which contains the gravitational frequency shift effect and other signals and noises. After receiving this signal, the satellite oscillator transmits and emits, respectively, two signals with frequencies fb and fc towards the ground station. Via Doppler cancellation technique, the geopotential difference between the satellite and the ground station can be determined based on gravitational frequency shift equation by a combination of these three frequencies. For arbitrary two stations on ground, based on similar procedures as described above, we may determine the geopotential difference between these two stations via a satellite. Our analysis shows that the accuracy can reach 1 m2 s- 2 based on the clocks' inaccuracy of about 10-17 (s s-1) level. Since OACs with instability around 10-18 in several hours and inaccuracy around 10-18 level have been generated in laboratory, the proposed approach may have prospective applications in geoscience, and especially, based on this approach a unified world height system could be realized with one-centimetre level accuracy in the near future.

  3. Unraveling the circadian clock in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxue; Ma, Ligeng

    2013-02-01

    The circadian clock is an endogenous timing system responsible for coordinating an organism's biological processes with its environment. Interlocked transcriptional feedback loops constitute the fundamental architecture of the circadian clock. In Arabidopsis, three feedback loops, the core loop, morning loop and evening loop, comprise a network that is the basis of the circadian clock. The components of these three loops are regulated in distinct ways, including transcriptional, post-transcriptional and posttranslational mechanisms. The discovery of the DNA-binding and repressive activities of TOC1 has overturned our initial concept of its function in the circadian clock. The alternative splicing of circadian clock-related genes plays an essential role in normal functioning of the clock and enables organisms to sense environmental changes. In this review, we describe the regulatory mechanisms of the circadian clock that have been identified in Arabidopsis.

  4. 25 MHz clock continuous-variable quantum key distribution system over 50 km fiber channel

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Peng, Jinye; Zeng, Guihua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution system is developed and it runs in the real-world conditions with 25 MHz clock rate. To reach high-rate, we have employed a homodyne detector with maximal bandwidth to 300 MHz and an optimal high-efficiency error reconciliation algorithm with processing speed up to 25 Mbps. To optimize the stability of the system, several key techniques are developed, which include a novel phase compensation algorithm, a polarization feedback algorithm, and related stability method on the modulators. Practically, our system is tested for more than 12 hours with a final secret key rate of 52 kbps over 50 km transmission distance, which is the highest rate so far in such distance. Our system may pave the road for practical broadband secure quantum communication with continuous variables in the commercial conditions. PMID:26419413

  5. 25 MHz clock continuous-variable quantum key distribution system over 50 km fiber channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Peng, Jinye; Zeng, Guihua

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution system is developed and it runs in the real-world conditions with 25 MHz clock rate. To reach high-rate, we have employed a homodyne detector with maximal bandwidth to 300 MHz and an optimal high-efficiency error reconciliation algorithm with processing speed up to 25 Mbps. To optimize the stability of the system, several key techniques are developed, which include a novel phase compensation algorithm, a polarization feedback algorithm, and related stability method on the modulators. Practically, our system is tested for more than 12 hours with a final secret key rate of 52 kbps over 50 km transmission distance, which is the highest rate so far in such distance. Our system may pave the road for practical broadband secure quantum communication with continuous variables in the commercial conditions.

  6. 25 MHz clock continuous-variable quantum key distribution system over 50 km fiber channel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Peng, Jinye; Zeng, Guihua

    2015-09-30

    In this paper, a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution system is developed and it runs in the real-world conditions with 25 MHz clock rate. To reach high-rate, we have employed a homodyne detector with maximal bandwidth to 300 MHz and an optimal high-efficiency error reconciliation algorithm with processing speed up to 25 Mbps. To optimize the stability of the system, several key techniques are developed, which include a novel phase compensation algorithm, a polarization feedback algorithm, and related stability method on the modulators. Practically, our system is tested for more than 12 hours with a final secret key rate of 52 kbps over 50 km transmission distance, which is the highest rate so far in such distance. Our system may pave the road for practical broadband secure quantum communication with continuous variables in the commercial conditions.

  7. A transportable optical lattice clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Stefan; Häfner, Sebastian; Grotti, Jacopo; Koller, Silvio; Al-Masoudi, Ali; Sterr, Uwe; Lisdat, Christian

    2016-06-01

    We present the experimental setup and first results of PTB's transportable 87Sr clock. It consists of a physics package, several compact laser breadboards, and a transportable high finesse cavity for the clock laser. A comparison of the transportable system with our stationary optical lattice clock yields an instability of 2.2 x 10-15 √s/τ for the transportable clock. The current fractional uncertainty of 1 × 10-15 is still limited by the not yet fully evaluated light shift from the free running optical lattice laser operated near the magic wavelength. We are currently improving our transportable system to reach an uncertainty at or below the 10-17 level, which will finaly be limited by the uncertainty in blackbody radiation shift correction.

  8. Portable plant health measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, Nejat

    1999-01-01

    This system is designed to assist diagnosis of the plant health globally. The system is formed by portable plant health measurement devices connected to a diagnosis and analysis center through a flexible information network. A flexible network is formed so that users from the remote areas as well as internet are able to use the system. The hardware and software is designed in an open technology for easier upgrades. Portable plant health measurement instrument is a networkable leaf flash spectrophotometer capable of measuring Qa, Electrochromy, P700, Fluorescence, S Fluorescence, reflectance spectra, temperature, humidity and image of the leaf with GPS information. The network and intelligent user interface options of the system can be used by any commercially or user designed instrument.

  9. Physiological links of circadian clock and biological clock of aging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Chang, Hung-Chun

    2017-01-20

    Circadian rhythms orchestrate biochemical and physiological processes in living organisms to respond the day/night cycle. In mammals, nearly all cells hold self-sustained circadian clocks meanwhile couple the intrinsic rhythms to systemic changes in a hierarchical manner. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus functions as the master pacemaker to initiate daily synchronization according to the photoperiod, in turn determines the phase of peripheral cellular clocks through a variety of signaling relays, including endocrine rhythms and metabolic cycles. With aging, circadian desynchrony occurs at the expense of peripheral metabolic pathologies and central neurodegenerative disorders with sleep symptoms, and genetic ablation of circadian genes in model organisms resembled the aging-related features. Notably, a number of studies have linked longevity nutrient sensing pathways in modulating circadian clocks. Therapeutic strategies that bridge the nutrient sensing pathways and circadian clock might be rational designs to defy aging.

  10. Impact of round-the-clock CSF Gram stain on empirical therapy for suspected central nervous system infections.

    PubMed

    Tissot, F; Prod'hom, G; Manuel, O; Greub, G

    2015-09-01

    The impact of round-the-clock cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram stain on overnight empirical therapy for suspected central nervous system (CNS) infections was investigated. All consecutive overnight CSF Gram stains between 2006 and 2011 were included. The impact of a positive or a negative test on empirical therapy was evaluated and compared to other clinical and biological indications based on institutional guidelines. Bacterial CNS infection was documented in 51/241 suspected cases. Overnight CSF Gram stain was positive in 24/51. Upon validation, there were two false-positive and one false-negative results. The sensitivity and specificity were 41 and 99 %, respectively. All patients but one had other indications for empirical therapy than Gram stain alone. Upon obtaining the Gram result, empirical therapy was modified in 7/24, including the addition of an appropriate agent (1), addition of unnecessary agents (3) and simplification of unnecessary combination therapy (3/11). Among 74 cases with a negative CSF Gram stain and without formal indication for empirical therapy, antibiotics were withheld in only 29. Round-the-clock CSF Gram stain had a low impact on overnight empirical therapy for suspected CNS infections and was associated with several misinterpretation errors. Clinicians showed little confidence in CSF direct examination for simplifying or withholding therapy before definite microbiological results.

  11. Mammalian clock output mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kalsbeek, Andries; Yi, Chun-Xia; Cailotto, Cathy; la Fleur, Susanne E; Fliers, Eric; Buijs, Ruud M

    2011-06-30

    In mammals many behaviours (e.g. sleep-wake, feeding) as well as physiological (e.g. body temperature, blood pressure) and endocrine (e.g. plasma corticosterone concentration) events display a 24 h rhythmicity. These 24 h rhythms are induced by a timing system that is composed of central and peripheral clocks. The highly co-ordinated output of the hypothalamic biological clock not only controls the daily rhythm in sleep-wake (or feeding-fasting) behaviour, but also exerts a direct control over many aspects of hormone release and energy metabolism. First, we present the anatomical connections used by the mammalian biological clock to enforce its endogenous rhythmicity on the rest of the body, especially the neuro-endocrine and energy homoeostatic systems. Subsequently, we review a number of physiological experiments investigating the functional significance of this neuro-anatomical substrate. Together, this overview of experimental data reveals a highly specialized organization of connections between the hypothalamic pacemaker and neuro-endocrine system as well as the pre-sympathetic and pre-parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system.

  12. Systemic signaling during plant defense.

    PubMed

    Kachroo, Aardra; Robin, Guillaume P

    2013-08-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a type of pathogen-induced broad-spectrum resistance in plants. During SAR, primary infection-induced rapid generation and transportation of mobile signal(s) 'prepare' the rest of the plant for subsequent infections. Several, seemingly unrelated, mobile chemical inducers of SAR have been identified, at least two of which function in a feed-back regulatory loop with a lipid transfer-like protein. Signal(s) perception in the systemic tissues relies on the presence of an intact cuticle, the waxy layer covering all aerial parts of the plant. SAR results in chromatin modifications, which prime systemic tissues for enhanced and rapid signaling derived from salicylic acid, which along with its signaling components is key for SAR induction. This review summarizes recent findings related to SAR signal generation, movement, and perception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chapter 15. Plant pathology and managing wildland plant disease systems

    Treesearch

    David L. Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining specific, reliable knowledge on plant diseases is essential in wildland shrub resource management. However, plant disease is one of the most neglected areas of wildland resources experimental research. This section is a discussion of plant pathology and how to use it in managing plant disease systems.

  14. A quantum network of clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kómár, P.; Kessler, E. M.; Bishof, M.; Jiang, L.; Sørensen, A. S.; Ye, J.; Lukin, M. D.

    2014-08-01

    The development of precise atomic clocks plays an increasingly important role in modern society. Shared timing information constitutes a key resource for navigation with a direct correspondence between timing accuracy and precision in applications such as the Global Positioning System. By combining precision metrology and quantum networks, we propose a quantum, cooperative protocol for operating a network of geographically remote optical atomic clocks. Using nonlocal entangled states, we demonstrate an optimal utilization of global resources, and show that such a network can be operated near the fundamental precision limit set by quantum theory. Furthermore, the internal structure of the network, combined with quantum communication techniques, guarantees security both from internal and external threats. Realization of such a global quantum network of clocks may allow construction of a real-time single international time scale (world clock) with unprecedented stability and accuracy.

  15. Alternative Splicing Mediates Responses of the Arabidopsis Circadian Clock to Temperature Changes[W

    PubMed Central

    James, Allan B.; Syed, Naeem Hasan; Bordage, Simon; Marshall, Jacqueline; Nimmo, Gillian A.; Jenkins, Gareth I.; Herzyk, Pawel; Brown, John W.S.; Nimmo, Hugh G.

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing plays crucial roles by influencing the diversity of the transcriptome and proteome and regulating protein structure/function and gene expression. It is widespread in plants, and alteration of the levels of splicing factors leads to a wide variety of growth and developmental phenotypes. The circadian clock is a complex piece of cellular machinery that can regulate physiology and behavior to anticipate predictable environmental changes on a revolving planet. We have performed a system-wide analysis of alternative splicing in clock components in Arabidopsis thaliana plants acclimated to different steady state temperatures or undergoing temperature transitions. This revealed extensive alternative splicing in clock genes and dynamic changes in alternatively spliced transcripts. Several of these changes, notably those affecting the circadian clock genes LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR7, are temperature-dependent and contribute markedly to functionally important changes in clock gene expression in temperature transitions by producing nonfunctional transcripts and/or inducing nonsense-mediated decay. Temperature effects on alternative splicing contribute to a decline in LHY transcript abundance on cooling, but LHY promoter strength is not affected. We propose that temperature-associated alternative splicing is an additional mechanism involved in the operation and regulation of the plant circadian clock. PMID:22408072

  16. Alternative splicing mediates responses of the Arabidopsis circadian clock to temperature changes.

    PubMed

    James, Allan B; Syed, Naeem Hasan; Bordage, Simon; Marshall, Jacqueline; Nimmo, Gillian A; Jenkins, Gareth I; Herzyk, Pawel; Brown, John W S; Nimmo, Hugh G

    2012-03-01

    Alternative splicing plays crucial roles by influencing the diversity of the transcriptome and proteome and regulating protein structure/function and gene expression. It is widespread in plants, and alteration of the levels of splicing factors leads to a wide variety of growth and developmental phenotypes. The circadian clock is a complex piece of cellular machinery that can regulate physiology and behavior to anticipate predictable environmental changes on a revolving planet. We have performed a system-wide analysis of alternative splicing in clock components in Arabidopsis thaliana plants acclimated to different steady state temperatures or undergoing temperature transitions. This revealed extensive alternative splicing in clock genes and dynamic changes in alternatively spliced transcripts. Several of these changes, notably those affecting the circadian clock genes late elongated hypocotyl (LHY) and pseudo response regulator7, are temperature-dependent and contribute markedly to functionally important changes in clock gene expression in temperature transitions by producing nonfunctional transcripts and/or inducing nonsense-mediated decay. Temperature effects on alternative splicing contribute to a decline in LHY transcript abundance on cooling, but LHY promoter strength is not affected. We propose that temperature-associated alternative splicing is an additional mechanism involved in the operation and regulation of the plant circadian clock.

  17. Precise time dissemination via portable atomic clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putkovich, K.

    1982-01-01

    The most precise operational method of time dissemination over long distances presently available to the Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) community of users is by means of portable atomic clocks. The Global Positioning System (GPS), the latest system showing promise of replacing portable clocks for global PTTI dissemination, was evaluated. Although GPS has the technical capability of providing superior world-wide dissemination, the question of present cost and future accessibility may require a continued reliance on portable clocks for a number of years. For these reasons a study of portable clock operations as they are carried out today was made. The portable clock system that was utilized by the U.S. Naval Observatory (NAVOBSY) in the global synchronization of clocks over the past 17 years is described and the concepts on which it is based are explained. Some of its capabilities and limitations are also discussed.

  18. Mechanism of the circadian clock in physiology

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    It has been well established that the circadian clock plays a crucial role in the regulation of almost every physiological process. It also plays a critical role in pathophysiological states including those of obesity and diabetes. Recent evidence has highlighted the potential for targeting the circadian clock as a potential drug target. New studies have also demonstrated the existence of “clock-independent effects” of the circadian proteins, leading to exciting new avenues of research in the circadian clock field in physiology. The goal of this review is to provide an introduction to and overview of the circadian clock in physiology, including mechanisms, targets, and role in disease states. The role of the circadian clocks in the regulation of the cardiovascular system, renal function, metabolism, the endocrine system, immune, and reproductive systems will be discussed. PMID:23576606

  19. Clock recovery for on-board regeneration in a TDMA satellite communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadesi, P.

    Clock recovery at the on-board receiver of a regenerative satellite using 4phi-DCPSK modulation in the uplink is analyzed by computer simulation. The results show that simple baseband circuits consisting of half-wave or full-wave rectifiers followed by an adder and a single-tuned resonant filter and applied directly to the differentially demodulated signals are well suited to provide a rapid and correct acquisition of the timing synchronization. It is found that the full-wave rectifier scheme is still valid when a limiter, that is, a saturating amplifier, is included in front of the on-board differential demodulator. The computer simulation here is restricted to a particular model of the uplink transmission chain, and many conservative hypotheses are assumed for the BER evaluation.

  20. Optical atomic clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludlow, Andrew D.; Boyd, Martin M.; Ye, Jun; Peik, E.; Schmidt, P. O.

    2015-04-01

    Optical atomic clocks represent the state of the art in the frontier of modern measurement science. In this article a detailed review on the development of optical atomic clocks that are based on trapped single ions and many neutral atoms is provided. Important technical ingredients for optical clocks are discussed and measurement precision and systematic uncertainty associated with some of the best clocks to date are presented. An outlook on the exciting prospect for clock applications is given in conclusion.

  1. Arabidopsis circadian clock and photoperiodism: time to think about location

    PubMed Central

    Imaizumi, Takato

    2009-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Plants possess a circadian clock that enables them to coordinate internal biological events with external daily changes. Recent studies in Arabidopsis revealed that tissue specific clock components exist and that the clock network architecture also varies within different organs. These findings indicate that the makeup of circadian clock(s) within a plant is quite variable. Plants utilize the circadian clock to measure day-length changes for regulating seasonal responses, such as flowering. To ensure that flowering occurs under optimum conditions, the clock regulates diurnal CONSTANS (CO) expression. Subsequently, CO protein induces FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) expression which leads to flowering. It is emerging that both CO and FT expression are intricately controlled by groups of transcription factors with overlapping functions. PMID:19836294

  2. Arabidopsis circadian clock and photoperiodism: time to think about location.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Takato

    2010-02-01

    Plants possess a circadian clock that enables them to coordinate internal biological events with external daily changes. Recent studies in Arabidopsis revealed that tissue-specific clock components exist and that the clock network architecture also varies within different organs. These findings indicate that the makeup of circadian clock(s) within a plant is quite variable. Plants utilize the circadian clock to measure day-length changes for regulating seasonal responses, such as flowering. To ensure that flowering occurs under optimum conditions, the clock regulates diurnal CONSTANS (CO) expression. Subsequently, CO protein induces FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) expression which leads to flowering. It is emerging that both CO and FT expression are intricately controlled by groups of transcription factors with overlapping functions. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phytochrome gene expression and phylogenetic analysis in the short-day plant Pharbitis nil (Convolvulaceae): Differential regulation by light and an endogenous clock.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Cheng Chao; Potter, Daniel; O'Neill, Sharman D

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the role of distinct phytochrome pools in photoperiodic timekeeping, we characterized four phytochrome genes in the short-day plant Pharbitis nil. Each PHY gene had different photosensory properties and sensitivity to night break that inhibits flowering. During extended dark periods, PHYE, PHYB, and PHYC mRNA accumulation exhibited a circadian rhythmicity indicative of control by an endogenous clock. Phylogenetic analysis recovered four clades of angiosperm phytochrome genes, phyA, phyB, phyC, and phyE. All except the phyE clade included sequences from both monocots and eudicots. In addition, phyA is sister to phyC and phyE sister to phyB, with gymnosperm sequences sister to either the phyA-phyC clade or to the phyB-phyE clade. These results suggest that a single duplication occurred in an ancestral seed plant before the divergence of extant gymnosperms from angiosperms and that two subsequent duplications occurred in an ancestral angiosperm before the divergence of monocots from eudicots. Thus in P. nil, a multigene family with different patterns of mRNA abundance in light and darkness contributes to the total phytochrome pool: one pool is light labile (phyA), whereas the other is light stable (phyB and phyE). In addition, PHYC mRNA represents a third phytochrome pool with intermediate photosensory properties.

  4. Internal clocks in timeless universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Małkiewicz, Przemysław

    2017-08-01

    The Hamiltonian formalism of general relativity involves a Hamiltonian constraint. Attempts at quantisation of the Hamiltonian constraint formalism face an obstacle associated with the lack of predetermined time parameter whose existence is assumed in usual quantisation prescriptions. A way to deal with it is to employ an arbitrary internal degree of freedom as the internal clock to describe the evolution of a gravitational system. We use the so called reduced phase space approach in which the choice of internal clock is made prior to quantisation. We discuss the construction of reduced phase spaces based on the essential role played by internal clocks. Then we introduce the so called extended transformations which extend the well-known notion of canonical transformations. The extended transformations elucidate the relation between the canonical structure of the reduced phase space and the internal clock. Quantisation of reduced phase spaces and respective Hamiltonians reveals the relation between quantum dynamics and the choice of internal clock. Finally, we discuss concrete examples of canonical formalisms of the Friedmann-Lemaitre universe and Bianchi type I universe. We find that many physical features of the quantum dynamics depend on the choice of internal clock. In the Conclusions we speculate about the possible physical meaning of the result.

  5. TIME FOR COFFEE Encodes a Nuclear Regulator in the Arabidopsis thaliana Circadian Clock[W

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zhaojun; Millar, Andrew J.; Davis, Amanda M.; Davis, Seth J.

    2007-01-01

    The plant circadian clock is required for daily anticipation of the diurnal environment. Mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana TIME FOR COFFEE (TIC) affects free-running circadian rhythms. To investigate how TIC functions within the circadian system, we introduced markers for the evening and morning phases of the clock into tic and measured evident rhythms. The phases of evening clock genes in tic were all advanced under light/dark cycles without major expression level defects. With regard to morning-acting genes, we unexpectedly found that TIC has a closer relationship with LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) than with CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1, as tic has a specific LHY expression level defect. Epistasis analysis demonstrated that there were no clear rhythms in double mutants of tic and evening-acting clock genes, although double mutants of tic and morning-acting genes exhibited a similar free-running period as tic. We isolated TIC and found that its mRNA expression is continuously present over the diurnal cycle, and the encoded protein appears to be strictly localized to the nucleus. Neither its abundance nor its cellular distribution was found to be clock regulated. We suggest that TIC encodes a nucleus-acting clock regulator working close to the central oscillator. PMID:17496120

  6. Melatonin, clock genes and mitochondria in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; Rahim, Ibtissem; Acuña-Fernández, Carlos; Fernández-Ortiz, Marisol; Solera-Marín, Jorge; Sayed, Ramy K A; Díaz-Casado, María E; Rusanova, Iryna; López, Luis C; Escames, Germaine

    2017-08-07

    After the characterization of the central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the expression of clock genes was identified in several peripheral tissues including the immune system. The hierarchical control from the central clock to peripheral clocks extends to other functions including endocrine, metabolic, immune, and mitochondrial responses. Increasing evidence links the disruption of the clock genes expression with multiple diseases and aging. Chronodisruption is associated with alterations of the immune system, immunosenescence, impairment of energy metabolism, and reduction of pineal and extrapineal melatonin production. Regarding sepsis, a condition coursing with an exaggerated response of innate immunity, experimental and clinical data showed an alteration of circadian rhythms that reflects the loss of the normal oscillation of the clock. Moreover, recent data point to that some mediators of the immune system affects the normal function of the clock. Under specific conditions, this control disappears reactivating the immune response. So, it seems that clock gene disruption favors the innate immune response, which in turn induces the expression of proinflammatory mediators, causing a further alteration of the clock. Here, the clock control of the mitochondrial function turns off, leading to a bioenergetic decay and formation of reactive oxygen species that, in turn, activate the inflammasome. This arm of the innate immunity is responsible for the huge increase of interleukin-1β and entrance into a vicious cycle that could lead to the death of the patient. The broken clock is recovered by melatonin administration, that is accompanied by the normalization of the innate immunity and mitochondrial homeostasis. Thus, this review emphasizes the connection between clock genes, innate immunity and mitochondria in health and sepsis, and the role of melatonin to maintain clock homeostasis.

  7. Synchronization of Biological Clock Neurons by Light and Peripheral Feedback Systems Promotes Circadian Rhythms and Health

    PubMed Central

    Ramkisoensing, Ashna; Meijer, Johanna H.

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) functions as a circadian clock that drives 24-h rhythms in both physiology and behavior. The SCN is a multicellular oscillator in which individual neurons function as cell-autonomous oscillators. The production of a coherent output rhythm is dependent upon mutual synchronization among single cells and requires both synaptic communication and gap junctions. Changes in phase-synchronization between individual cells have consequences on the amplitude of the SCN’s electrical activity rhythm, and these changes play a major role in the ability to adapt to seasonal changes. Both aging and sleep deprivation negatively affect the circadian amplitude of the SCN, whereas behavioral activity (i.e., exercise) has a positive effect on amplitude. Given that the amplitude of the SCN’s electrical activity rhythm is essential for achieving robust rhythmicity in physiology and behavior, the mechanisms that underlie neuronal synchronization warrant further study. A growing body of evidence suggests that the functional integrity of the SCN contributes to health, well-being, cognitive performance, and alertness; in contrast, deterioration of the 24-h rhythm is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disease, cancer, depression, and sleep disorders. PMID:26097465

  8. A high-speed photonic clock and carrier regenerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. S.; Lutes, G.

    1995-01-01

    As data communications rates climb toward 10 Gbits/s, clock recovery and synchronization become more difficult, if not impossible, using conventional electronic circuits. The high-speed photonic clock regenerator described in this article may be more suitable for such use. This photonic regenerator is based on a previously reported photonic oscillator capable of fast acquisition and synchronization. With both electrical and optical clock inputs and outputs, the device is easily interfaced with fiber-optic systems. The recovered electrical clock can be used locally and the optical clock can be used anywhere within a several kilometer radius of the clock/carrier regenerator.

  9. A role for protein kinase casein kinase2 α-subunits in the Arabidopsis circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sheen X; Liu, Hongtao; Knowles, Stephen M; Li, Jian; Ma, Ligeng; Tobin, Elaine M; Lin, Chentao

    2011-11-01

    Circadian rhythms are autoregulatory, endogenous rhythms with a period of approximately 24 h. A wide variety of physiological and molecular processes are regulated by the circadian clock in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. Phosphorylation of clock proteins plays a critical role in generating proper circadian rhythms. Casein Kinase2 (CK2) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine protein kinase composed of two catalytic α-subunits and two regulatory β-subunits. Although most of the molecular components responsible for circadian function are not conserved between kingdoms, CK2 is a well-conserved clock component modulating the stability and subcellular localization of essential clock proteins. Here, we examined the effects of a cka1a2a3 triple mutant on the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) circadian clock. Loss-of-function mutations in three nuclear-localized CK2α subunits result in period lengthening of various circadian output rhythms and central clock gene expression, demonstrating that the cka1a2a3 triple mutant affects the pace of the circadian clock. Additionally, the cka1a2a3 triple mutant has reduced levels of CK2 kinase activity and CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 phosphorylation in vitro. Finally, we found that the photoperiodic flowering response, which is regulated by circadian rhythms, was reduced in the cka1a2a3 triple mutant and that the plants flowered later under long-day conditions. These data demonstrate that CK2α subunits are important components of the Arabidopsis circadian system and their effects on rhythms are in part due to their phosphorylation of CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1.

  10. Network Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Circadian Clock Outputs Identifies Metabolic Pathway-to-Clock Linkages in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Kerwin, Rachel E.; Jimenez-Gomez, Jose M.; Fulop, Daniel; Harmer, Stacey L.; Maloof, Julin N.; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Modern systems biology permits the study of complex networks, such as circadian clocks, and the use of complex methodologies, such as quantitative genetics. However, it is difficult to combine these approaches due to factorial expansion in experiments when networks are examined using complex methods. We developed a genomic quantitative genetic approach to overcome this problem, allowing us to examine the function(s) of the plant circadian clock in different populations derived from natural accessions. Using existing microarray data, we defined 24 circadian time phase groups (i.e., groups of genes with peak phases of expression at particular times of day). These groups were used to examine natural variation in circadian clock function using existing single time point microarray experiments from a recombinant inbred line population. We identified naturally variable loci that altered circadian clock outputs and linked these circadian quantitative trait loci to preexisting metabolomics quantitative trait loci, thereby identifying possible links between clock function and metabolism. Using single-gene isogenic lines, we found that circadian clock output was altered by natural variation in Arabidopsis thaliana secondary metabolism. Specifically, genetic manipulation of a secondary metabolic enzyme led to altered free-running rhythms. This represents a unique and valuable approach to the study of complex networks using quantitative genetics. PMID:21343415

  11. VLBI clock synchronization. [for atomic clock rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counselman, C. C., III; Shapiro, I. I.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Hinteregger, H. F.; Knight, C. A.; Whitney, A. R.; Clark, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    The potential accuracy of VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) for clock epoch and rate comparisons was demonstrated by results from long- and short-baseline experiments. It was found that atomic clocks at widely separated sites (several thousand kilometers apart) can be synchronized to within several nanoseconds from a few minutes of VLBI observations and to within one nanosecond from several hours of observations.

  12. LED Systems Target Plant Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    To help develop technologies for growing edible biomass (food crops) in space, Kennedy Space Center partnered with Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC), of Madison, Wisconsin, through the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. One result of this research was the High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) system, components of which have been incorporated into a variety of agricultural greenhouse and consumer aquarium lighting features. The new lighting systems can be adapted to a specific plant species during a specific growth stage, allowing maximum efficiency in light absorption by all available photosynthetic tissues.

  13. Peripheral circadian clocks--a conserved phenotype?

    PubMed

    Weigl, Yuval; Harbour, Valerie L; Robinson, Barry; Dufresne, Line; Amir, Shimon

    2013-05-01

    The circadian system of mammals regulates the timing of occurrence of behavioral and physiological events, thereby optimizing adaptation to their surroundings. This system is composed of a single master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and a population of peripheral clocks. The SCN integrates time information from exogenous sources and, in turn, synchronizes the downstream peripheral clocks. It is assumed that under normal conditions, the circadian phenotype of different peripheral clocks would be conserved with respect to its period and robustness. To study this idea, we measured the daily wheel-running activity (WRA; a marker of the SCN output) in 84 male inbred LEW/Crl rats housed under a 12 h:12 h light-dark cycle. In addition, we assessed the mRNA expression of two clock genes, rPer2 and rBmal1, and one clock-controlled gene, rDbp, in four tissues that have the access to time cues other than those emanating from the SCN: olfactory bulbs (OBs), liver, tail skin, and white blood cells (WBCs). In contrast with the assumption stated above, we found that circadian clocks in peripheral tissues differ in the temporal pattern of the expression of circadian clock genes, in the robustness of the rhythms, and possibly in the number of functional ~24-h-clock cells. Based on the tissue diversity in the robustness of the clock output, the hepatic clock is likely to house the highest number of functional ~24-h-clock cells, and the OBs, the fewest number. Thus, the phenotype of the circadian clock in the periphery is tissue specific and may depend not only on the SCN but also on the sensitivity of the tissue to non-SCN-derived time cues. In the OBs and liver, the circadian clock phenotypes seem to be dominantly shaped by the SCN output. However, in the tail skin and WBC, other time cues participate in the phenotype design. Finally, our study suggests that the basic phenotype of the circadian clock is constructed at the transcript level of the core clock

  14. Experimental validation of clock synchronization algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.; Graham, R. Lynn

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work is to validate mathematically derived clock synchronization theories and their associated algorithms through experiment. Two theories are considered, the Interactive Convergence Clock Synchronization Algorithm and the Midpoint Algorithm. Special clock circuitry was designed and built so that several operating conditions and failure modes (including malicious failures) could be tested. Both theories are shown to predict conservative upper bounds (i.e., measured values of clock skew were always less than the theory prediction). Insight gained during experimentation led to alternative derivations of the theories. These new theories accurately predict the behavior of the clock system. It is found that a 100 percent penalty is paid to tolerate worst-case failures. It is also shown that under optimal conditions (with minimum error and no failures) the clock skew can be as much as three clock ticks. Clock skew grows to six clock ticks when failures are present. Finally, it is concluded that one cannot rely solely on test procedures or theoretical analysis to predict worst-case conditions.

  15. Circadian molecular clocks tick along ontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sumová, A; Bendová, Z; Sládek, M; El-Hennamy, R; Matejů, K; Polidarová, L; Sosniyenko, S; Illnerová, H

    2008-01-01

    The circadian system controls the timing of behavioral and physiological functions in most organisms studied. The review addresses the question of when and how the molecular clockwork underlying circadian oscillations within the central circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus (SCN) and the peripheral circadian clocks develops during ontogenesis. The current model of the molecular clockwork is summarized. The central SCN clock is viewed as a complex structure composed of a web of mutually synchronized individual oscillators. The importance of development of both the intracellular molecular clockwork as well as intercellular coupling for development of the formal properties of the circadian SCN clock is also highlighted. Recently, data has accumulated to demonstrate that synchronized molecular oscillations in the central and peripheral clocks develop gradually during ontogenesis and development extends into postnatal period. Synchronized molecular oscillations develop earlier in the SCN than in the peripheral clocks. A hypothesis is suggested that the immature clocks might be first driven by external entraining cues, and therefore, serve as "slave" oscillators. During ontogenesis, the clocks may gradually develop a complete set of molecular interlocked oscillations, i.e., the molecular clockwork, and become self-sustained clocks.

  16. Song I-Yeong's Armillary Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Yong Sam

    In 1669 (the 10th year of the reign of King Hyeonjong), Song I-Yeong (宋以穎, 1619-1692), who was a professor of astronomy at Gwansanggam (Bureau of Astronomy), developed the armillary clock which uses the weight power system of an alarm clock. The armillary clock is a unique astronomical clock that combines the traditional armillary sphere of Joseon and the principle of a Western alarm clock. Song I-Yeong's armillary clock was repaired in 1687-1688 according to the records, and since then not much is known about the history of the armillary clock. After many years, in the early 1930s which was the Japanese colonial era, Inchon (仁村) Kim Seong-Su (金性洙, 1891-1955) purchased the armillary clock at the Insa-dong antique street and donated to the Korea University Museum of the present time (designated as National Treasure No. 230 in 1985). Currently, the armillary clock is not in operation because some of the parts are damaged or lost.

  17. Circadian clock proteins and immunity.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Anne M; Bellet, Marina M; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; O'Neill, Luke A J

    2014-02-20

    Immune parameters change with time of day and disruption of circadian rhythms has been linked to inflammatory pathologies. A circadian-clock-controlled immune system might allow an organism to anticipate daily changes in activity and feeding and the associated risk of infection or tissue damage to the host. Responses to bacteria have been shown to vary depending on time of infection, with mice being more at risk of sepsis when challenged ahead of their activity phase. Studies highlight the extent to which the molecular clock, most notably the core clock proteins BMAL1, CLOCK, and REV-ERBα, control fundamental aspects of the immune response. Examples include the BMAL1:CLOCK heterodimer regulating toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) expression and repressing expression of the inflammatory monocyte chemokine ligand (CCL2) as well as REV-ERBα suppressing the induction of interleukin-6. Understanding the daily rhythm of the immune system could have implications for vaccinations and how we manage infectious and inflammatory diseases.

  18. Sound Clocks and Sonic Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Scott L.; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2017-08-01

    Sound propagation within certain non-relativistic condensed matter models obeys a relativistic wave equation despite such systems admitting entirely non-relativistic descriptions. A natural question that arises upon consideration of this is, "do devices exist that will experience the relativity in these systems?" We describe a thought experiment in which `acoustic observers' possess devices called sound clocks that can be connected to form chains. Careful investigation shows that appropriately constructed chains of stationary and moving sound clocks are perceived by observers on the other chain as undergoing the relativistic phenomena of length contraction and time dilation by the Lorentz factor, γ , with c the speed of sound. Sound clocks within moving chains actually tick less frequently than stationary ones and must be separated by a shorter distance than when stationary to satisfy simultaneity conditions. Stationary sound clocks appear to be length contracted and time dilated to moving observers due to their misunderstanding of their own state of motion with respect to the laboratory. Observers restricted to using sound clocks describe a universe kinematically consistent with the theory of special relativity, despite the preferred frame of their universe in the laboratory. Such devices show promise in further probing analogue relativity models, for example in investigating phenomena that require careful consideration of the proper time elapsed for observers.

  19. Chitosan Effects on Plant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Malerba, Massimo; Cerana, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan (CHT) is a natural, safe, and cheap product of chitin deacetylation, widely used by several industries because of its interesting features. The availability of industrial quantities of CHT in the late 1980s enabled it to be tested in agriculture. CHT has been proven to stimulate plant growth, to protect the safety of edible products, and to induce abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in various horticultural commodities. The stimulating effect of different enzyme activities to detoxify reactive oxygen species suggests the involvement of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in CHT signaling. CHT could also interact with chromatin and directly affect gene expression. Recent innovative uses of CHT include synthesis of CHT nanoparticles as a valuable delivery system for fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, and micronutrients for crop growth promotion by a balanced and sustained nutrition. In addition, CHT nanoparticles can safely deliver genetic material for plant transformation. This review presents an overview on the status of the use of CHT in plant systems. Attention was given to the research that suggested the use of CHT for sustainable crop productivity. PMID:27347928

  20. Sweet immunity in the plant circadian regulatory network.

    PubMed

    Bolouri Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza; Van den Ende, Wim

    2013-04-01

    All organisms have an internal timing mechanism, termed the circadian clock, to anticipate the light/dark cycle. The clock, with an oscillating rhythm that approximates 24h, is a rather robust system persisting to a great extent in continuous light and dark. It is widely accepted that plant growth and development are regulated by the clock, hormones, and sugar signals. On the one hand, sugar signalling can affect circadian rhythms by altering the expression pattern of clock-regulated genes. More in particular, the clock seems to be particularly sensitive to sucrose-mediated signalling which is also associated with immunity and abiotic stress responses. Also, hormonal interaction with the clock can contribute to appropriate plant immune responses. Recent data show a prominent role for the clock in growth and stress responses. On the other hand, the clock seems to be essential in controlling the gene expression and activity of an array of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, suggesting a complex reciprocal relationship between the clock and metabolic signalling processes. Therefore, the clock fulfils a crucial role at the heart of cellular networks. The players involved in the complex plant circadian network and their possible contribution to the novel 'sweet immunity' concept are discussed.

  1. The Glyoxal Clock Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ealy, Julie B.; Negron, Alexandra Rodriguez; Stephens, Jessica; Stauffer, Rebecca; Furrow, Stanley D.

    2007-01-01

    Research on the glyoxal clock reaction has led to adaptation of the clock reaction to a general chemistry experiment. This particular reaction is just one of many that used formaldehyde in the past. The kinetics of the glyoxal clock makes the reaction suitable as a general chemistry lab using a Calculator Based Laboratory (CBL) or a LabPro. The…

  2. The Glyoxal Clock Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ealy, Julie B.; Negron, Alexandra Rodriguez; Stephens, Jessica; Stauffer, Rebecca; Furrow, Stanley D.

    2007-01-01

    Research on the glyoxal clock reaction has led to adaptation of the clock reaction to a general chemistry experiment. This particular reaction is just one of many that used formaldehyde in the past. The kinetics of the glyoxal clock makes the reaction suitable as a general chemistry lab using a Calculator Based Laboratory (CBL) or a LabPro. The…

  3. [Identification of proteins interacting with the circadian clock protein PER1 in tumors using bacterial two-hybrid system technique].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Yao, Youlin; Jiang, Siyuan; Lu, Yilu; Liu, Yunqiang; Tao, Dachang; Zhang, Sizhong; Ma, Yongxin

    2015-04-01

    To identify protein-protein interaction partners of PER1 (period circadian protein homolog 1), key component of the molecular oscillation system of the circadian rhythm in tumors using bacterial two-hybrid system technique. Human cervical carcinoma cell Hela library was adopted. Recombinant bait plasmid pBT-PER1 and pTRG cDNA plasmid library were cotransformed into the two-hybrid system reporter strain cultured in a special selective medium. Target clones were screened. After isolating the positive clones, the target clones were sequenced and analyzed. Fourteen protein coding genes were identified, 4 of which were found to contain whole coding regions of genes, which included optic atrophy 3 protein (OPA3) associated with mitochondrial dynamics and homo sapiens cutA divalent cation tolerance homolog of E. coli (CUTA) associated with copper metabolism. There were also cellular events related proteins and proteins which are involved in biochemical reaction and signal transduction-related proteins. Identification of potential interacting proteins with PER1 in tumors may provide us new insights into the functions of the circadian clock protein PER1 during tumorigenesis.

  4. Gigabit Ethernet Asynchronous Clock Compensation FIFO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duhachek, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Clock compensation for Gigabit Ethernet is necessary because the clock recovered from the 1.25 Gb/s serial data stream has the potential to be 200 ppm slower or faster than the system clock. The serial data is converted to 10-bit parallel data at a 125 MHz rate on a clock recovered from the serial data stream. This recovered data needs to be processed by a system clock that is also running at a nominal rate of 125 MHz, but not synchronous to the recovered clock. To cross clock domains, an asynchronous FIFO (first-in-first-out) is used, with the write pointer (wprt) in the recovered clock domain and the read pointer (rptr) in the system clock domain. Because the clocks are generated from separate sources, there is potential for FIFO overflow or underflow. Clock compensation in Gigabit Ethernet is possible by taking advantage of the protocol data stream features. There are two distinct data streams that occur in Gigabit Ethernet where identical data is transmitted for a period of time. The first is configuration, which happens during auto-negotiation. The second is idle, which occurs at the end of auto-negotiation and between every packet. The identical data in the FIFO can be repeated by decrementing the read pointer, thus compensating for a FIFO that is draining too fast. The identical data in the FIFO can also be skipped by incrementing the read pointer, which compensates for a FIFO draining too slowly. The unique and novel features of this FIFO are that it works in both the idle stream and the configuration streams. The increment or decrement of the read pointer is different in the idle and compensation streams to preserve disparity. Another unique feature is that the read pointer to write pointer difference range changes between compensation and idle to minimize FIFO latency during packet transmission.

  5. Circadian clock genes universally control key agricultural traits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Circadian clocks are endogenous timers that enable plants to synchronize biological processes with daily and seasonal environmental conditions in order to allocate resources during the most beneficial times of day and year. The circadian clock regulates a number of central plant activities, includin...

  6. Coordination of the maize transcriptome by a conserved circadian clock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The plant circadian clock orchestrates 24-hour rhythms in internal physiological processes to coordinate these activities with daily and seasonal changes in the environment. The circadian clock has a profound impact on many aspects of plant growth and development, including biomass accumulation and ...

  7. The minute hand phenomenon in the Clock Test of patients with early Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Leyhe, Thomas; Milian, Monika; Müller, Stephan; Eschweiler, Gerhard W; Saur, Ralf

    2009-06-01

    Common scoring systems for the Clock Test do not sufficiently emphasize the correct time representation by the clock hands. We compared Clock Drawing, Clock Setting, and Clock Reading in healthy control persons, patients with mild cognitive impairment, early Alzheimer disease and progressed Alzheimer disease particularly analyzing clock time representation. We found that healthy control persons and participants with mild cognitive impairment did not show any impairment in Clock Test performance. Patients with early Alzheimer disease could be discriminated from healthy control persons and participants with mild cognitive impairment solely by misplacement of the minute hand in Clock Drawing and Clock Setting. The progressed Alzheimer disease group showed significantly more impairments in all Clock Test variants. It is assumed that early stage Alzheimer disease patient deficits in Clock Tests are mainly determined by a reduced access to semantic memory about the appearance and functionality of a clock.

  8. Collecting in Central Asia: National Plant Germplasm System Plant Explorations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System is charged with the preservation of economically important crop plants and their wild relatives. Curators in the System strive to develop collections capturing the genetic diversity of each species. One mechanism for filling gaps in collections is through...

  9. Direct Repression of Evening Genes by CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED1 in the Arabidopsis Circadian Clock.

    PubMed

    Kamioka, Mari; Takao, Saori; Suzuki, Takamasa; Taki, Kyomi; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Nakamichi, Norihito

    2016-03-01

    The circadian clock is a biological timekeeping system that provides organisms with the ability to adapt to day-night cycles. Timing of the expression of four members of the Arabidopsis thaliana PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR(PRR) family is crucial for proper clock function, and transcriptional control of PRRs remains incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that direct regulation of PRR5 by CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) determines the repression state of PRR5 in the morning. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) analyses indicated that CCA1 associates with three separate regions upstream of PRR5 CCA1 and its homolog LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) suppressed PRR5 promoter activity in a transient assay. The regions bound by CCA1 in the PRR5 promoter gave rhythmic patterns with troughs in the morning, when CCA1 and LHY are at high levels. Furthermore,ChIP-seq revealed that CCA1 associates with at least 449 loci with 863 adjacent genes. Importantly, this gene set contains genes that are repressed but upregulated incca1 lhy double mutants in the morning. This study shows that direct binding by CCA1 in the morning provides strong repression of PRR5, and repression by CCA1 also temporally regulates an evening-expressed gene set that includes PRR5. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimizing passive quantum clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullan, Michael; Knill, Emanuel

    2014-10-01

    We describe protocols for passive atomic clocks based on quantum interrogation of the atoms. Unlike previous techniques, our protocols are adaptive and take advantage of prior information about the clock's state. To reduce deviations from an ideal clock, each interrogation is optimized by means of a semidefinite program for atomic state preparation and measurement whose objective function depends on the prior information. Our knowledge of the clock's state is maintained according to a Bayesian model that accounts for noise and measurement results. We implement a full simulation of a running clock with power-law noise models and find significant improvements by applying our techniques.

  11. Rigorously modeling self-stabilizing fault-tolerant circuits: An ultra-robust clocking scheme for systems-on-chip☆

    PubMed Central

    Dolev, Danny; Függer, Matthias; Posch, Markus; Schmid, Ulrich; Steininger, Andreas; Lenzen, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    We present the first implementation of a distributed clock generation scheme for Systems-on-Chip that recovers from an unbounded number of arbitrary transient faults despite a large number of arbitrary permanent faults. We devise self-stabilizing hardware building blocks and a hybrid synchronous/asynchronous state machine enabling metastability-free transitions of the algorithm's states. We provide a comprehensive modeling approach that permits to prove, given correctness of the constructed low-level building blocks, the high-level properties of the synchronization algorithm (which have been established in a more abstract model). We believe this approach to be of interest in its own right, since this is the first technique permitting to mathematically verify, at manageable complexity, high-level properties of a fault-prone system in terms of its very basic components. We evaluate a prototype implementation, which has been designed in VHDL, using the Petrify tool in conjunction with some extensions, and synthesized for an Altera Cyclone FPGA. PMID:26516290

  12. Rigorously modeling self-stabilizing fault-tolerant circuits: An ultra-robust clocking scheme for systems-on-chip.

    PubMed

    Dolev, Danny; Függer, Matthias; Posch, Markus; Schmid, Ulrich; Steininger, Andreas; Lenzen, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    We present the first implementation of a distributed clock generation scheme for Systems-on-Chip that recovers from an unbounded number of arbitrary transient faults despite a large number of arbitrary permanent faults. We devise self-stabilizing hardware building blocks and a hybrid synchronous/asynchronous state machine enabling metastability-free transitions of the algorithm's states. We provide a comprehensive modeling approach that permits to prove, given correctness of the constructed low-level building blocks, the high-level properties of the synchronization algorithm (which have been established in a more abstract model). We believe this approach to be of interest in its own right, since this is the first technique permitting to mathematically verify, at manageable complexity, high-level properties of a fault-prone system in terms of its very basic components. We evaluate a prototype implementation, which has been designed in VHDL, using the Petrify tool in conjunction with some extensions, and synthesized for an Altera Cyclone FPGA.

  13. Optical clock networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehle, Fritz

    2017-01-01

    Within the last decade, optical atomic clocks have surpassed the best cesium clocks, which are used to realize the unit of time and frequency, in terms of accuracy and stability by about two orders of magnitude. When remote optical atomic clocks are connected by links without degradation in the clock signals, an optical clock network is formed, with distinct advantages for the dissemination of time, geodesy, astronomy and basic and applied research. Different approaches for time and frequency transfer in the microwave and optical regime, via satellites and free-space links, optical fibre links, or transportable optical atomic clocks, can be used to form a hybrid clock network that may allow a future redefinition of the unit of time based on an optical reference transition.

  14. The ozone-iodine-chlorate clock reaction.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Rafaela T P; Monteiro, Emily V; Pereira, Juliano R T; Faria, Roberto B

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a new clock reaction based on ozone, iodine, and chlorate that differs from the known chlorate-iodine clock reaction because it does not require UV light. The induction period for this new clock reaction depends inversely on the initial concentrations of ozone, chlorate, and perchloric acid but is independent of the initial iodine concentration. The proposed mechanism considers the reaction of ozone and iodide to form HOI, which is a key species for producing non-linear autocatalytic behavior. The novelty of this system lies in the presence of ozone, whose participation has never been observed in complex systems such as clock or oscillating reactions. Thus, the autocatalysis demonstrated in this new clock reaction should open the possibility for a new family of oscillating reactions.

  15. The Ozone-Iodine-Chlorate Clock Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Sant'Anna, Rafaela T. P.; Monteiro, Emily V.; Pereira, Juliano R. T.; Faria, Roberto B.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a new clock reaction based on ozone, iodine, and chlorate that differs from the known chlorate-iodine clock reaction because it does not require UV light. The induction period for this new clock reaction depends inversely on the initial concentrations of ozone, chlorate, and perchloric acid but is independent of the initial iodine concentration. The proposed mechanism considers the reaction of ozone and iodide to form HOI, which is a key species for producing non-linear autocatalytic behavior. The novelty of this system lies in the presence of ozone, whose participation has never been observed in complex systems such as clock or oscillating reactions. Thus, the autocatalysis demonstrated in this new clock reaction should open the possibility for a new family of oscillating reactions. PMID:24386257

  16. Connections between circadian clocks and carbon metabolism reveal species-specific effects on growth control.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lukas M; von Korff, Maria; Davis, Seth J

    2014-06-01

    The plant circadian system exists in a framework of rhythmic metabolism. Much has been learned about the transcriptional machinery that generates the clock rhythm. Interestingly, these components are largely conserved between monocots and dicots, but key differences in physiological and developmental output processes have been found. How the clock coordinates carbon metabolism to drive plant growth performance is described with a focus on starch breakdown in Arabidopsis. It is proposed that clock effects on plant growth and fitness are more complex than just matching internal with external rhythms. Interesting recent findings support that the products of photosynthesis, probably sucrose, in turn feeds back to the clock to set its rhythm. In this way, the clock both controls and is controlled by carbon fluxes. This has an interesting connection to stress signalling and water-use efficiency, and it is now known that the clock and abscisic acid pathways are reciprocally coordinated. These processes converge to drive growth in a species-specific context such that predictions from the Arabidopsis model to other species can be restricted. This has been seen from phenotypic growth studies that revealed that dicot shoot growth is rhythmic whereas monocot shoot growth is continuous. Taken together, emerging evidence suggests reciprocal interactions between metabolism, the circadian clock, and stress signalling to control growth and fitness in Arabidopsis, but transferability to other species is not always possible due to species-specific effects. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A low cost concept for data acquisition systems applied to decentralized renewable energy plants.

    PubMed

    Jucá, Sandro C S; Carvalho, Paulo C M; Brito, Fábio T

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS) and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE) plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems.

  18. A Low Cost Concept for Data Acquisition Systems Applied to Decentralized Renewable Energy Plants

    PubMed Central

    Jucá, Sandro C. S.; Carvalho, Paulo C. M.; Brito, Fábio T.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS) and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE) plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems. PMID:22346600

  19. Recombinant pharmaceuticals from plants: the plant endomembrane system as bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Alessandro; Pedrazzini, Emanuela

    2005-08-01

    The production of safe pharmaceuticals at affordable costs is one of the great challenges of our times. Research has proven that transgenic plants can fulfill this need. This review focuses on the peculiar features of plant cells that allow high accumulation of recombinant proteins. The endomembrane system and the secretory pathway of plant cells in themselves offer a fascinating model of protein sorting, and in practical terms, represent the potential for the facile and very low-cost purification of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins.

  20. Design and Evaluation of a Clock Multiplexing Circuit for the SSRL Booster Accelerator Timing System - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Araya, Million

    2015-08-25

    SPEAR3 is a 234 m circular storage ring at SLAC’s synchrotron radiation facility (SSRL) in which a 3 GeV electron beam is stored for user access. Typically the electron beam decays with a time constant of approximately 10hr due to electron lose. In order to replenish the lost electrons, a booster synchrotron is used to accelerate fresh electrons up to 3GeV for injection into SPEAR3. In order to maintain a constant electron beam current of 500mA, the injection process occurs at 5 minute intervals. At these times the booster synchrotron accelerates electrons for injection at a 10Hz rate. A 10Hz 'injection ready' clock pulse train is generated when the booster synchrotron is operating. Between injection intervalswhere the booster is not running and hence the 10 Hz ‘injection ready’ signal is not present-a 10Hz clock is derived from the power line supplied by Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) to keep track of the injection timing. For this project I constructed a multiplexing circuit to 'switch' between the booster synchrotron 'injection ready' clock signal and PG&E based clock signal. The circuit uses digital IC components and is capable of making glitch-free transitions between the two clocks. This report details construction of a prototype multiplexing circuit including test results and suggests improvement opportunities for the final design.

  1. Design and Evaluation of a Clock Multiplexing Circuit for the SSRL Booster Accelerator Timing System - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Araya, Million

    2015-08-21

    SPEAR3 is a 234 m circular storage ring at SLAC’s synchrotron radiation facility (SSRL) in which a 3 GeV electron beam is stored for user access. Typically the electron beam decays with a time constant of approximately 10hr due to electron lose. In order to replenish the lost electrons, a booster synchrotron is used to accelerate fresh electrons up to 3GeV for injection into SPEAR3. In order to maintain a constant electron beam current of 500mA, the injection process occurs at 5 minute intervals. At these times the booster synchrotron accelerates electrons for injection at a 10Hz rate. A 10Hz 'injection ready' clock pulse train is generated when the booster synchrotron is operating. Between injection intervals-where the booster is not running and hence the 10 Hz ‘injection ready’ signal is not present-a 10Hz clock is derived from the power line supplied by Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) to keep track of the injection timing. For this project I constructed a multiplexing circuit to 'switch' between the booster synchrotron 'injection ready' clock signal and PG&E based clock signal. The circuit uses digital IC components and is capable of making glitch-free transitions between the two clocks. This report details construction of a prototype multiplexing circuit including test results and suggests improvement opportunities for the final design.

  2. Crosstalk between the circadian clock and innate immunity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chong; Xie, Qiguang; Anderson, Ryan G; Ng, Gina; Seitz, Nicholas C; Peterson, Thomas; McClung, C Robertson; McDowell, John M; Kong, Dongdong; Kwak, June M; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock integrates temporal information with environmental cues in regulating plant development and physiology. Recently, the circadian clock has been shown to affect plant responses to biotic cues. To further examine this role of the circadian clock, we tested disease resistance in mutants disrupted in CCA1 and LHY, which act synergistically to regulate clock activity. We found that cca1 and lhy mutants also synergistically affect basal and resistance gene-mediated defense against Pseudomonas syringae and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Disrupting the circadian clock caused by overexpression of CCA1 or LHY also resulted in severe susceptibility to P. syringae. We identified a downstream target of CCA1 and LHY, GRP7, a key constituent of a slave oscillator regulated by the circadian clock and previously shown to influence plant defense and stomatal activity. We show that the defense role of CCA1 and LHY against P. syringae is at least partially through circadian control of stomatal aperture but is independent of defense mediated by salicylic acid. Furthermore, we found defense activation by P. syringae infection and treatment with the elicitor flg22 can feedback-regulate clock activity. Together this data strongly supports a direct role of the circadian clock in defense control and reveal for the first time crosstalk between the circadian clock and plant innate immunity.

  3. Crosstalk between the Circadian Clock and Innate Immunity in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chong; Xie, Qiguang; Anderson, Ryan G.; Ng, Gina; Seitz, Nicholas C.; Peterson, Thomas; McClung, C. Robertson; McDowell, John M.; Kong, Dongdong; Kwak, June M.; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock integrates temporal information with environmental cues in regulating plant development and physiology. Recently, the circadian clock has been shown to affect plant responses to biotic cues. To further examine this role of the circadian clock, we tested disease resistance in mutants disrupted in CCA1 and LHY, which act synergistically to regulate clock activity. We found that cca1 and lhy mutants also synergistically affect basal and resistance gene-mediated defense against Pseudomonas syringae and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Disrupting the circadian clock caused by overexpression of CCA1 or LHY also resulted in severe susceptibility to P. syringae. We identified a downstream target of CCA1 and LHY, GRP7, a key constituent of a slave oscillator regulated by the circadian clock and previously shown to influence plant defense and stomatal activity. We show that the defense role of CCA1 and LHY against P. syringae is at least partially through circadian control of stomatal aperture but is independent of defense mediated by salicylic acid. Furthermore, we found defense activation by P. syringae infection and treatment with the elicitor flg22 can feedback-regulate clock activity. Together this data strongly supports a direct role of the circadian clock in defense control and reveal for the first time crosstalk between the circadian clock and plant innate immunity. PMID:23754942

  4. Clock-associated genes in Arabidopsis: a family affair.

    PubMed Central

    Somers, D E

    2001-01-01

    The identification of components of the plant circadian clock has been advanced recently with the success of two forward genetics approaches. The ZEITLUPE and TOC1 loci were cloned and each was found to be part of two separate, larger gene families with intriguing domain structures. The ZTL family of proteins contains a subclass of the PAS domain coupled to an F box and kelch motifs, suggesting that they play a role in a novel light-regulated ubiquitination mechanism. TOC1 shares similarity to the receiver domain of the well-known two-component phosphorelay signalling systems, combined with a strong similarity to a region of the CONSTANS transcription factor, which is involved in controlling flowering time. When added to the repertoire of previously identified clock-associated genes, it is clear that both similarities and differences with other circadian systems will emerge in the coming years. PMID:11710981

  5. Laser controlled atom source for optical clocks.

    PubMed

    Kock, Ole; He, Wei; Świerad, Dariusz; Smith, Lyndsie; Hughes, Joshua; Bongs, Kai; Singh, Yeshpal

    2016-11-18

    Precision timekeeping has been a driving force in innovation, from defining agricultural seasons to atomic clocks enabling satellite navigation, broadband communication and high-speed trading. We are on the verge of a revolution in atomic timekeeping, where optical clocks promise an over thousand-fold improvement in stability and accuracy. However, complex setups and sensitivity to thermal radiation pose limitations to progress. Here we report on an atom source for a strontium optical lattice clock which circumvents these limitations. We demonstrate fast (sub 100 ms), cold and controlled emission of strontium atomic vapours from bulk strontium oxide irradiated by a simple low power diode laser. Our results demonstrate that millions of strontium atoms from the vapour can be captured in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). Our method enables over an order of magnitude reduction in scale of the apparatus. Future applications range from satellite clocks testing general relativity to portable clocks for inertial navigation systems and relativistic geodesy.

  6. Laser controlled atom source for optical clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kock, Ole; He, Wei; Świerad, Dariusz; Smith, Lyndsie; Hughes, Joshua; Bongs, Kai; Singh, Yeshpal

    2016-11-01

    Precision timekeeping has been a driving force in innovation, from defining agricultural seasons to atomic clocks enabling satellite navigation, broadband communication and high-speed trading. We are on the verge of a revolution in atomic timekeeping, where optical clocks promise an over thousand-fold improvement in stability and accuracy. However, complex setups and sensitivity to thermal radiation pose limitations to progress. Here we report on an atom source for a strontium optical lattice clock which circumvents these limitations. We demonstrate fast (sub 100 ms), cold and controlled emission of strontium atomic vapours from bulk strontium oxide irradiated by a simple low power diode laser. Our results demonstrate that millions of strontium atoms from the vapour can be captured in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). Our method enables over an order of magnitude reduction in scale of the apparatus. Future applications range from satellite clocks testing general relativity to portable clocks for inertial navigation systems and relativistic geodesy.

  7. A clock reaction based on molybdenum blue.

    PubMed

    Neuenschwander, Ulrich; Negron, Arnaldo; Jensen, Klavs F

    2013-05-30

    Clock reactions are rare kinetic phenomena, so far limited mostly to systems with ionic oxoacids and oxoanions in water. We report a new clock reaction in cyclohexanol that forms molybdenum blue from a noncharged, yellow molybdenum complex as precursor, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Interestingly, the concomitant color change is reversible, enabling multiple clock cycles to be executed consecutively. The kinetics of the clock reaction were experimentally characterized, and by adding insights from quantum chemical calculations, a plausible reaction mechanism was postulated. Key elementary reaction steps comprise sigmatropic rearrangements with five-membered or bicyclo[3.1.0] transition states. Importantly, numerical kinetic modeling demonstrated the mechanism's ability to reproduce the experimental findings. It also revealed that clock behavior is intimately connected to the sudden exhaustion of hydrogen peroxide. Due to the stoichiometric coproduction of ketone, the reaction bears potential for application in alcohol oxidation catalysis.

  8. Impact of clock-associated Arabidopsis pseudo-response regulators in metabolic coordination.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Kusano, Miyako; Nakamichi, Norihito; Kobayashi, Makoto; Hayashi, Naomi; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Mizuno, Takeshi; Saito, Kazuki

    2009-04-28

    In higher plants, the circadian clock controls a wide range of cellular processes such as photosynthesis and stress responses. Understanding metabolic changes in arrhythmic plants and determining output-related function of clock genes would help in elucidating circadian-clock mechanisms underlying plant growth and development. In this work, we investigated physiological relevance of PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATORS (PRR 9, 7, and 5) in Arabidopsis thaliana by transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses. Metabolite profiling using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry demonstrated well-differentiated metabolite phenotypes of seven mutants, including two arrhythmic plants with similar morphology, a PRR 9, 7, and 5 triple mutant and a CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1)-overexpressor line. Despite different light and time conditions, the triple mutant exhibited a dramatic increase in intermediates in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. This suggests that proteins PRR 9, 7, and 5 are involved in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis. Integrated analysis of transcriptomics and metabolomics revealed that PRR 9, 7, and 5 negatively regulate the biosynthetic pathways of chlorophyll, carotenoid and abscisic acid, and alpha-tocopherol, highlighting them as additional outputs of pseudo-response regulators. These findings indicated that mitochondrial functions are coupled with the circadian system in plants.

  9. Plant health sensing system for determining nitrogen status in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomasson, J. A.; Sui, Ruixiu; Read, John J.; Reddy, K. R.

    2004-03-01

    A plant health sensing system was developed for determining nitrogen status in plants. The system consists of a multi-spectral optical sensor and a data-acquisition and processing unit. The optical sensor"s light source provides modulated panchromatic illumination of a plant canopy with light-emitting diodes, and the sensor measures spectral reflectance through optical filters that partition the energy into blue, green, red, and near-infrared wavebands. Spectral reflectance of plants is detected in situ, at the four wavebands, in real time. The data-acquisition and processing unit is based on a single board computer that collects data from the multi-spectral sensor and spatial information from a global positioning system receiver. Spectral reflectance at the selected wavebands is analyzed, with algorithms developed during preliminary work, to determine nitrogen status in plants. The plant health sensing system has been tested primarily in the laboratory and field so far, and promising results have been obtained. This article describes the development, theory of operation, and test results of the plant health sensing system.

  10. Time zones: a comparative genetics of circadian clocks.

    PubMed

    Young, M W; Kay, S A

    2001-09-01

    The circadian clock is a widespread cellular mechanism that underlies diverse rhythmic functions in organisms from bacteria and fungi, to plants and animals. Intense genetic analysis during recent years has uncovered many of the components and molecular mechanisms comprising these clocks. Although autoregulatory genetic networks are a consistent feature in the design of all clocks, the weight of evidence favours their independent evolutionary origins in different kingdoms.

  11. Countdown Clock Ribbon Cutting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-01

    The newest display at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is the spaceport's historic countdown clock. It is now located at the entrance to the visitor complex. The clock was set up at the space center's Press Site and used from the launch of Apollo 12 on Nov. 14, 1969 to the final space shuttle mission, STS-135, launched on July 8, 2011. The old countdown clock was replaced in 2014 with a modern light emitting diode, or LED, display.

  12. Countdown Clock Ribbon Cutting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-01

    Kennedy Space Center Director Bob Cabana, left, and Therrin Protze, chief operating officer of Kennedy's Visitor Complex, celebrate the dedication of the spaceport's historic countdown clock as the newest display at the center's visitor complex. Now located at the entrance to the visitor complex, the spaceport's historic countdown clock was used starting with the launch of Apollo 12 on Nov. 14, 1969. Originally set up at the space center's Press Site, the clock operated through the final space shuttle mission, STS-135, launched on July 8, 2011. The old countdown clock was replaced in 2014 with a modern light emitting diode, or LED, display.

  13. Countdown Clock Ribbon Cutting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-01

    Therrin Protze, chief operating officer of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, speaks at the dedication of the center's historic countdown clock. To the right is space center director Bob Cabana. Now located at the entrance to the visitor complex, the spaceport's historic countdown clock was used starting with the launch of Apollo 12 on Nov. 14, 1969. Originally set up at the space center's Press Site, the clock was used through the final space shuttle mission, STS-135, launched on July 8, 2011. The old countdown clock was replaced in 2014 with a modern light emitting diode, or LED, display.

  14. Countdown Clock Ribbon Cutting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-01

    Confetti is launched as the spaceport's historic countdown clock is dedicated as the newest display at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Now located at the entrance to the visitor complex, the spaceport's historic countdown clock was used starting with the launch of Apollo 12 on Nov. 14, 1969. Originally set up at the space center's Press Site, the clock operated through the final space shuttle mission, STS-135, launched on July 8, 2011. The old countdown clock was replaced in 2014 with a modern light emitting diode, or LED, display.

  15. Countdown Clock Ribbon Cutting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-01

    Therrin Protze, chief operating officer of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, left, and center director Bob Cabana watch as confetti was launched as the spaceport's historic countdown clock is dedicated as the newest display at the entrance to Kennedy's visitor complex. The spaceport's historic countdown clock was used beginning with the launch of Apollo 12 on Nov. 14, 1969. Originally set up at the space center's Press Site, the clock was used through the final space shuttle mission, STS-135, launched on July 8, 2011. The old countdown clock was replaced in 2014 with a modern light emitting diode, or LED, display.

  16. Short-scale atomic clock based on the quantum magnetometers system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermak, S. V.; Sagitov, E. A.; Smolin, R. V.; Semenov, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    The experimental results of dependence of Allan variance as averaging time for system of two quantum magnetometers with laser pumping of the alkaline atoms are presented. Also the role of different components of luminous frequency shift of a radio optical resonance in case of an optimum operation mode of quantum magnetometers in such system is noted. It is shown that the effect of compensation of luminous shift components allows to reduce Allan variance in times of averaging more, than hundreds of seconds in comparison with the quantum standard of frequency on 0-0 transition.

  17. Parasites, proteomes and systems: has Descartes’ clock run out of time?

    PubMed Central

    WASTLING, J. M.; ARMSTRONG, S. D.; KRISHNA, R.; XIA, D.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Systems biology aims to integrate multiple biological data types such as genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics across different levels of structure and scale; it represents an emerging paradigm in the scientific process which challenges the reductionism that has dominated biomedical research for hundreds of years. Systems biology will nevertheless only be successful if the technologies on which it is based are able to deliver the required type and quality of data. In this review we discuss how well positioned is proteomics to deliver the data necessary to support meaningful systems modelling in parasite biology. We summarise the current state of identification proteomics in parasites, but argue that a new generation of quantitative proteomics data is now needed to underpin effective systems modelling. We discuss the challenges faced to acquire more complete knowledge of protein post-translational modifications, protein turnover and protein-protein interactions in parasites. Finally we highlight the central role of proteome-informatics in ensuring that proteomics data is readily accessible to the user-community and can be translated and integrated with other relevant data types. PMID:22828391

  18. A microbial clock provides an accurate estimate of the postmortem interval in a mouse model system

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonio; Lauber, Christian L; Knights, Dan; Ackermann, Gail; Humphrey, Gregory C; Gebert, Matthew J; Van Treuren, Will; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Keepers, Kyle; Guo, Yan; Bullard, James; Fierer, Noah; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Establishing the time since death is critical in every death investigation, yet existing techniques are susceptible to a range of errors and biases. For example, forensic entomology is widely used to assess the postmortem interval (PMI), but errors can range from days to months. Microbes may provide a novel method for estimating PMI that avoids many of these limitations. Here we show that postmortem microbial community changes are dramatic, measurable, and repeatable in a mouse model system, allowing PMI to be estimated within approximately 3 days over 48 days. Our results provide a detailed understanding of bacterial and microbial eukaryotic ecology within a decomposing corpse system and suggest that microbial community data can be developed into a forensic tool for estimating PMI. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01104.001 PMID:24137541

  19. a Zepto-Second Atomic Clock for Nuclear Contact Time Measurements at Superheavy Collision Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backe, H.

    2012-01-01

    The distance between the centers of gravity of two heavy colliding nuclei R(t) as function of time can be employed to describe the dynamical behavior of the di-nuclear system during the contact phase. In order to get information on this quantity, it was suggested by G. Soff, J. Reinhard, B. Müller and W. Greiner1,2 many years ago to investigate the spectral shape of electrons emitted in dissipative heavy ion collisions. It has been shown that in the limit of lowest order adiabatic perturbation theory the δ-electron spectrum just reflects the Fourier transform of the function Ṙ(t)/R(t). With this tool nuclear contact times in the order of 1 zs = 1 · 10-21 s have been determined for the U+Au collision system at an uranium beam energy of 8.65 MeV/u.9 The δ electron spectra observed for the U+Pd (Zu = 138) collision system at 6.1 MeV/u at impact parameters for which nuclear forces become important, most likely cannot anymore be analyzed within the framework of such a model because of its breakdown if time changes of Ṙ(t)/R(t) become too rapid.

  20. The Jumonji C domain-containing protein JMJ30 regulates period length in the Arabidopsis circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sheen X; Knowles, Stephen M; Webb, Candace J; Celaya, R Brandon; Cha, Chuah; Siu, Jonathan P; Tobin, Elaine M

    2011-02-01

    Histone methylation plays an essential role in regulating chromatin structure and gene expression. Jumonji C (JmjC) domain-containing proteins are generally known as histone demethylases. Circadian clocks regulate a large number of biological processes, and recent studies suggest that chromatin remodeling has evolved as an important mechanism for regulating both plant and mammalian circadian systems. Here, we analyzed a subgroup of JmjC domain-containing proteins and identified Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) JMJ30 as a novel clock component involved in controlling the circadian period. Analysis of loss- and gain-of-function mutants of JMJ30 indicates that this evening-expressed gene is a genetic regulator of period length in the Arabidopsis circadian clock. Furthermore, two key components of the central oscillator of plants, transcription factors CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL, bind directly to the JMJ30 promoter to repress its expression, suggesting that JMJ30 regulates the pace of the circadian clock in close association with the central oscillator. JMJ30 represents, to our knowledge, the first JmjC domain-containing protein involved in circadian function, and we envision that this provides a possible molecular connection between chromatin remodeling and the circadian clock.

  1. On the Compton clock and the undulatory nature of particle mass in graphene systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolce, Donatello; Perali, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    In undulatory mechanics the rest mass of a particle is associated to a rest periodicity known as Compton periodicity. In carbon nanotubes the Compton periodicity is determined geometrically, through dimensional reduction, by the circumference of the curled-up dimension, or by similar spatial constraints to the charge carrier wave function in other condensed matter systems. In this way the Compton periodicity is effectively reduced by several orders of magnitude with respect to that of the electron, allowing for the possibility to experimentally test foundational aspects of quantum mechanics. We present a novel powerful formalism to derive the electronic properties of carbon nanotubes, in agreement with the results known in literature, from simple geometric and relativistic considerations about the Compton periodicity as well as a dictionary of analogies between particle and graphene physics.

  2. Egyptian "Star Clocks"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, Sarah

    Diagonal, transit, and Ramesside star clocks are tables of astronomical information occasionally found in ancient Egyptian temples, tombs, and papyri. The tables represent the motions of selected stars (decans and hour stars) throughout the Egyptian civil year. Analysis of star clocks leads to greater understanding of ancient Egyptian constellations, ritual astronomical activities, observational practices, and pharaonic chronology.

  3. Biological Clocks & Circadian Rhythms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. Gail

    2009-01-01

    The study of biological clocks and circadian rhythms is an excellent way to address the inquiry strand in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) (NRC 1996). Students can study these everyday phenomena by designing experiments, gathering and analyzing data, and generating new experiments. As students explore biological clocks and circadian…

  4. Biological Clocks & Circadian Rhythms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. Gail

    2009-01-01

    The study of biological clocks and circadian rhythms is an excellent way to address the inquiry strand in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) (NRC 1996). Students can study these everyday phenomena by designing experiments, gathering and analyzing data, and generating new experiments. As students explore biological clocks and circadian…

  5. Clocked combustor can array

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Won-Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Srinivasan, Shiva Kumar

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a clocked combustor can array for coherence reduction in a gas turbine engine. The clocked combustor can array may include a number of combustor cans positioned in a circumferential array. A first set of the combustor cans may have a first orientation and a second set of the combustor cans may have a second orientation.

  6. Plant production systems for vaccines.

    PubMed

    Streatfield, Stephen J; Howard, John A

    2003-12-01

    Plants offer an attractive alternative for the production and delivery of subunit vaccines. Various antigens have been expressed at sufficiently high levels in plants to render vaccine development practical. An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that these plant-produced antigens can induce immunogenic responses and confer protection when delivered orally. Plant-based vaccines are relatively inexpensive to produce and production can be rapidly scaled up. There is also the potential for oral delivery of these vaccines, which can dramatically reduce distribution and delivery costs. Here we describe the technology to develop plant-based vaccines, review their advantages and discuss potential roadblocks and concerns over their commercialization. We also speculate on likely future developments with these vaccines and on their potential impact in the realms of human and animal health.

  7. GIGANTEA acts in blue light signaling and has biochemically separable roles in circadian clock and flowering time regulation.

    PubMed

    Martin-Tryon, Ellen L; Kreps, Joel A; Harmer, Stacey L

    2007-01-01

    Circadian clocks are widespread in nature. In higher plants, they confer a selective advantage, providing information regarding not only time of day but also time of year. Forward genetic screens in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have led to the identification of many clock components, but the functions of most of these genes remain obscure. To identify both new constituents of the circadian clock and new alleles of known clock-associated genes, we performed a mutant screen. Using a clock-regulated luciferase reporter, we isolated new alleles of ZEITLUPE, LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL, and GIGANTEA (GI). GI has previously been reported to function in red light signaling, central clock function, and flowering time regulation. Characterization of this and other GI alleles has helped us to further define GI function in the circadian system. We found that GI acts in photomorphogenic and circadian blue light signaling pathways and is differentially required for clock function in constant red versus blue light. Gene expression and epistasis analyses show that TIMING OF CHLOROPHYLL A/B BINDING PROTEIN1 (TOC1) expression is not solely dependent upon GI and that GI expression is only indirectly affected by TOC1, suggesting that GI acts both in series with and in parallel to TOC1 within the central circadian oscillator. Finally, we found that the GI-dependent promotion of CONSTANS expression and flowering is intact in a gi mutant with altered circadian regulation. Thus GI function in the regulation of a clock output can be biochemically separated from its role within the circadian clock.

  8. Gravity, gauges and clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyssandier, Pierre; Tucker, Robin W.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the definitions of standard clocks in theories of gravitation. These definitions are motivated by the invariance of actions under different gauge symmetries. We contrast the definition of a standard Weyl clock with that of a clock in general relativity and argue that the historical criticisms of theories based on non-metric compatible connections by Einstein, Pauli and others must be considered in the context of Weyl's original gauge symmetry. We argue that standard Einsteinian clocks can be defined in non-Riemannian theories of gravitation by adopting the Weyl group as a local gauge symmetry that preserves the metric and discuss the hypothesis that atomic clocks may be adopted to measure proper time in the presence of non-Riemannian gravitational fields. These ideas are illustrated in terms of a recently developed model of gravitation based on a non-Riemannian spacetime geometry.

  9. Photoperiodic plasticity in circadian clock neurons in insects.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Sakiko

    2013-01-01

    Since Bünning's observation of circadian rhythms and photoperiodism in the runner bean Phaseolus multiflorus in 1936, many studies have shown that photoperiodism is based on the circadian clock system. In insects, involvement of circadian clock genes or neurons has been recently shown in the photoperiodic control of developmental arrests, diapause. Photoperiod sets peaks of period (per) or timeless (tim) mRNA abundance at lights-off in Sarcophaga crassipalpis, Chymomyza costata and Protophormia terraenovae. Abundance of per and Clock mRNA changes by photoperiod in Pyrrhocoris apterus. Subcellular Per distribution in circadian clock neurons changes with photoperiod in P. terraenovae. Although photoperiodism is not known in Leucophaea maderae, under longer day length, more stomata and longer commissural fibers of circadian clock neurons have been found. These plastic changes in the circadian clock neurons could be an important constituent for photoperiodic clock mechanisms to integrate repetitive photoperiodic information and produce different outputs based on day length.

  10. Plant systems biology: insights, advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Bhavisha P; Thaker, Vrinda S

    2014-07-01

    Plants dwelling at the base of biological food chain are of fundamental significance in providing solutions to some of the most daunting ecological and environmental problems faced by our planet. The reductionist views of molecular biology provide only a partial understanding to the phenotypic knowledge of plants. Systems biology offers a comprehensive view of plant systems, by employing a holistic approach integrating the molecular data at various hierarchical levels. In this review, we discuss the basics of systems biology including the various 'omics' approaches and their integration, the modeling aspects and the tools needed for the plant systems research. A particular emphasis is given to the recent analytical advances, updated published examples of plant systems biology studies and the future trends.

  11. Circadian clocks and the regulation of virulence in fungi: Getting up to speed.

    PubMed

    Hevia, Montserrat A; Canessa, Paulo; Larrondo, Luis F

    2016-09-01

    You cannot escape time. Therefore, it seems wise to learn how to keep track of it and use it to your advantage. Circadian clocks are molecular circuits that allow organisms to temporally coordinate a plethora of processes, including gene expression, with a close to 24h rhythm, optimizing cellular function in synchrony with daily environmental cycles. The molecular bases of these clocks have been extensively studied in the fungus Neurospora crassa, providing a detailed molecular description. Surprisingly, there is scarce molecular information of clocks in fungi other than Neurospora, despite the existence of rhythmic phenomena in many fungal species, including pathogenic ones. This review will comment on the overall importance of clocks, what is known in Neurospora and what has been described in other fungi including new insights on the evolution of fungal clock components. The molecular description of the circadian system of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea will be revisited, as well as time-of-the-day variation in host-pathogen interaction dynamics, utilizing an Arabidopsis-Botrytis system, including also what is known regarding circadian regulation of defense mechanisms in the Arabidopsis thaliana plant model. Finally, this review will mention how little is known about circadian regulation of human pathogenic fungi, commenting on potential future directions and the overall perspective of fungal circadian studies.

  12. Circadian clock signals in the adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ota, Takumi; Fustin, Jean-Michel; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Doi, Masao; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2012-02-05

    Circadian secretion of steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex is required to maintain whole body homeostasis and to adequately respond to or anticipate environmental changes. The richly vascularized zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells in the pericapsular region regulate osmotic balance of body fluid by secreting mineralocorticoids responding to circulating bioactive substances, and more medially located zona fasciculata (ZF) cells regulate energy supply and consumption by secreting glucocorticoids under neuronal and hormonal regulation. The circadian clock regulates both steroidogenic pathways: the clock within the ZG regulates mineralocorticoid production via controlling rate-limiting synthetic enzymes, and the ZF secretes glucocorticoid hormones into the systemic circulation under the control of central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. A functional biological clock at the systemic and cellular levels is therefore necessary for steroid synthesis and secretion.

  13. Clock jitter generator with picoseconds resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanović, Goran; Stojčev, Mile; Nikolić, Tatjana

    2013-06-01

    The clock is one of the most critical signals in any synchronous system. As CMOS technology has scaled, supply voltages have dropped chip power consumption has increased and the effects of jitter due to clock frequency increase have become critical and jitter budget has become tighter. This article describes design and development of low-cost mixed-signal programmable jitter generator with high resolution. The digital technique is used for coarse-grain and an analogue technique for fine-grain clock phase shifting. Its structure allows injection of various random and deterministic jitter components in a controllable and programmable fashion. Each jitter component can be switched on or off. The jitter generator can be used in jitter tolerance test and jitter transfer function measurement of high-speed synchronous digital circuits. At operating system clock frequency of 220 MHz, a jitter with 4 ps resolution can be injected.

  14. Biological clocks and the practice of psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Endogenous biological clocks enable living species to acquire some independence in relation to time. They improve the efficiency of biological systems, by allowing them to anticipate future constraints on major physyological systems and cell energy metabolism. The temporal organization of a giwen biological function can be impaired in its coordination with astronomical time or with other biological function. There are also external conditions that influence biological clocks. This temporal organization is complex, and it is possible that a series of psychiatric disorders and syndromes involve primary or secondary changes in biological clocks: seasonal and other mood disorders, premenstrual syndromes, social jet lag, free-running rhythms, and several sleep disorders are among them. In this review, we describe the main concepts relevant to chronobiology and explore the relevance of knowledge about biological clocks to the clinical practice of psychiatry PMID:17969862

  15. The mammalian circadian clock protein period counteracts cryptochrome in phosphorylation dynamics of circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK).

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Ritsuko; Tsuchiya, Yoshiki; Tokuda, Isao; Matsuo, Takahiro; Sato, Miho; Node, Koichi; Nishida, Eisuke; Akashi, Makoto

    2014-11-14

    The circadian transcription factor CLOCK exhibits a circadian oscillation in its phosphorylation levels. Although it remains unclear whether this phosphorylation contributes to circadian rhythm generation, it has been suggested to be involved in transcriptional activity, intracellular localization, and degradative turnover of CLOCK. Here, we obtained direct evidence that CLOCK phosphorylation may be essential for autonomous circadian oscillation in clock gene expression. Importantly, we found that the circadian transcriptional repressors Cryptochrome (CRY) and Period (PER) showed an opposite effect on CLOCK phosphorylation; CRY impaired BMAL1-dependent CLOCK phosphorylation, whereas PER protected the phosphorylation against CRY. Interestingly, unlike PER1 and PER2, PER3 did not exert a protective action, which correlates with the phenotypic differences among mice lacking the Per genes. Further studies on the regulatory mechanism of CLOCK phosphorylation would thus lead to elucidation of the mechanism of CRY-mediated transcriptional repression and an understanding of the true role of PER in the negative feedback system.

  16. Effect of angiotensin II infusion on rhythmic clock gene expression and local renin-angiotensin system in the aorta of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Herichova, I; Zsoldosova, K; Vesela, A; Zeman, M

    2014-07-01

    Endogenous daily rhythms in physiology are regulated by the circadian system consisting of the central and peripheral components. The renin-angiotensin system, involved predominantly in water balance and blood pressure control, exerts 24 h rhythmicity in many of its parameters. The present study is aimed to study possible interactions between these two control systems. We analyzed effects induced by angiotensin II administration on clock gene expression in the aorta of rat and an ability of angiotensin II to influence the local tissue renin-angiotensin system. Angiotensin II was infused in a dose of 100 ng/kg/min by subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps for 28 days to male Wistar rats. Gene expression was measured by real time PCR. Angiotensin II administration resulted in an increase in blood pressure, heart weight/body weight index, and water intake in comparison with controls. We observed a significant phase advance in per2 and npas2 mRNA rhythms and decreased mesor of npas2 rhythmic expression in the aorta of angiotensin II-treated rats compared to control. Angiotensin II administration did not influence daily pattern and level of at1 mRNA expression. The ratio ace/ace2 showed a rhythmic pattern in the aorta of control rats with peak levels in the dark period. Angiotensin II infusion influenced clock gene expression and diminished a daily rhythm in ace/ace2 mRNA ratio indicating modulatory effect of angiotensin II on tissue renin-angiotensin system in the aorta.

  17. The Neurospora circadian clock: simple or complex?

    PubMed Central

    Bell-Pedersen, D; Crosthwaite, S K; Lakin-Thomas, P L; Merrow, M; Økland, M

    2001-01-01

    The fungus Neurospora crassa is being used by a number of research groups as a model organism to investigate circadian (daily) rhythmicity. In this review we concentrate on recent work relating to the complexity of the circadian system in this organism. We discuss: the advantages of Neurospora as a model system for clock studies; the frequency (frq), white collar-1 and white collar-2 genes and their roles in rhythmicity; the phenomenon of rhythmicity in null frq mutants and its implications for clock mechanisms; the study of output pathways using clock-controlled genes; other rhythms in fungi; mathematical modelling of the Neurospora circadian system; and the application of new technologies to the study of Neurospora rhythmicity. We conclude that there may be many gene products involved in the clock mechanism, there may be multiple interacting oscillators comprising the clock mechanism, there may be feedback from output pathways onto the oscillator(s) and from the oscillator(s) onto input pathways, and there may be several independent clocks coexisting in one organism. Thus even a relatively simple lower eukaryote can be used to address questions about a complex, networked circadian system. PMID:11710976

  18. Conserved expression profiles of circadian clock-related genes in two Lemna species showing long-day and short-day photoperiodic flowering responses.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Kumiko; Serikawa, Masayuki; Suzuki, Sayaka; Kondo, Takao; Oyama, Tokitaka

    2006-05-01

    The Lemna genus is a group of monocotyledonous plants with tiny, floating bodies. Lemna gibba G3 and L. paucicostata 6746 were once intensively analyzed for physiological timing systems of photoperiodic flowering and circadian rhythms since they showed obligatory and sensitive photoperiodic responses of a long-day and a short-day plant, respectively. We attempted to approach the divergence of biological timing systems at the molecular level using these plants. We first employed molecular techniques to study their circadian clock systems. We developed a convenient bioluminescent reporter system to monitor the circadian rhythms of Lemna plants. As in Arabidopsis, the Arabidopsis CCA1 promoter produced circadian expression in Lemna plants, though the phases and the sustainability of bioluminescence rhythms were somewhat diverged between them. Lemna homologs of the Arabidopsis clock-related genes LHY/CCA1, GI, ELF3 and PRRs were then isolated as candidates for clock-related genes in these plants. These genes showed rhythmic expression profiles that were basically similar to those of Arabidopsis under light-dark conditions. Results from co-transfection assays using the bioluminescence reporter and overexpression effectors suggested that the LHY and GI homologs of Lemna can function in the circadian clock system like the counterparts of Arabidopsis. All these results suggested that the frame of the circadian clock appeared to be conserved not only between the two Lemna plants but also between monocotyledons and dicotyledons. However, divergence of gene numbers and expression profiles for LHY/CCA1 homologs were found between Lemna, rice and Arabidopsis, suggesting that some modification of clock-related components occurred through their evolution.

  19. The role of clock genes and circadian rhythm in the development of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Norihiko; Maemura, Koji

    2015-09-01

    The time of onset of cardiovascular disorders such as myocardial infarctions or ventricular arrhythmias exhibits a circadian rhythm. Diurnal variations in autonomic nervous activity, plasma cortisol level or renin-angiotensin activity underlie the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Transcriptional-translational feedback loop of the clock genes constitute a molecular clock system. In addition to the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, clock genes are also expressed in a circadian fashion in each organ to make up the peripheral clock. The peripheral clock seems to be beneficial for anticipating external stimuli and thus contributes to the maintenance of organ homeostasis. Loss of synchronization between the central and peripheral clocks also augments disease progression. Moreover, accumulating evidence shows that clock genes affect inflammatory and intracellular metabolic signaling. Elucidating the roles of the molecular clock in cardiovascular pathology through the identification of clock controlled genes will help to establish a novel therapeutic approach for cardiovascular disorders.

  20. Optical clocks and relativity.

    PubMed

    Chou, C W; Hume, D B; Rosenband, T; Wineland, D J

    2010-09-24

    Observers in relative motion or at different gravitational potentials measure disparate clock rates. These predictions of relativity have previously been observed with atomic clocks at high velocities and with large changes in elevation. We observed time dilation from relative speeds of less than 10 meters per second by comparing two optical atomic clocks connected by a 75-meter length of optical fiber. We can now also detect time dilation due to a change in height near Earth's surface of less than 1 meter. This technique may be extended to the field of geodesy, with applications in geophysics and hydrology as well as in space-based tests of fundamental physics.

  1. Optical Clocks and Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C. W.; Hume, D. B.; Rosenband, T.; Wineland, D. J.

    2010-09-01

    Observers in relative motion or at different gravitational potentials measure disparate clock rates. These predictions of relativity have previously been observed with atomic clocks at high velocities and with large changes in elevation. We observed time dilation from relative speeds of less than 10 meters per second by comparing two optical atomic clocks connected by a 75-meter length of optical fiber. We can now also detect time dilation due to a change in height near Earth’s surface of less than 1 meter. This technique may be extended to the field of geodesy, with applications in geophysics and hydrology as well as in space-based tests of fundamental physics.

  2. A tunable artificial circadian clock in clock-defective mice

    PubMed Central

    D'Alessandro, Matthew; Beesley, Stephen; Kim, Jae Kyoung; Chen, Rongmin; Abich, Estela; Cheng, Wayne; Yi, Paul; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Lee, Choogon

    2015-01-01

    Self-sustaining oscillations are essential for diverse physiological functions such as the cell cycle, insulin secretion and circadian rhythms. Synthetic oscillators using biochemical feedback circuits have been generated in cell culture. These synthetic systems provide important insight into design principles for biological oscillators, but have limited similarity to physiological pathways. Here we report the generation of an artificial, mammalian circadian clock in vivo, capable of generating robust, tunable circadian rhythms. In mice deficient in Per1 and Per2 genes (thus lacking circadian rhythms), we artificially generate PER2 rhythms and restore circadian sleep/wake cycles with an inducible Per2 transgene. Our artificial clock is tunable as the period and phase of the rhythms can be modulated predictably. This feature, and other design principles of our work, might enhance the study and treatment of circadian dysfunction and broader aspects of physiology involving biological oscillators. PMID:26617050

  3. Evolutionary relationships among barley and Arabidopsis core circadian clock and clock-associated genes.

    PubMed

    Calixto, Cristiane P G; Waugh, Robbie; Brown, John W S

    2015-02-01

    The circadian clock regulates a multitude of plant developmental and metabolic processes. In crop species, it contributes significantly to plant performance and productivity and to the adaptation and geographical range over which crops can be grown. To understand the clock in barley and how it relates to the components in the Arabidopsis thaliana clock, we have performed a systematic analysis of core circadian clock and clock-associated genes in barley, Arabidopsis and another eight species including tomato, potato, a range of monocotyledonous species and the moss, Physcomitrella patens. We have identified orthologues and paralogues of Arabidopsis genes which are conserved in all species, monocot/dicot differences, species-specific differences and variation in gene copy number (e.g. gene duplications among the various species). We propose that the common ancestor of barley and Arabidopsis had two-thirds of the key clock components identified in Arabidopsis prior to the separation of the monocot/dicot groups. After this separation, multiple independent gene duplication events took place in both monocot and dicot ancestors.

  4. Molecular targets for small-molecule modulators of circadian clocks

    PubMed Central

    He, Baokun; Chen, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Circadian clocks are endogenous timing systems that regulate various aspects of mammalian metabolism, physiology and behavior. Traditional chronotherapy refers to the administration of drugs in a defined circadian time window to achieve optimal pharmacokinetic and therapeutic efficacies. In recent years, substantial efforts have been dedicated to developing novel small-molecule modulators of circadian clocks. Methods Here, we review the recent progress in the identification of molecular targets of small-molecule clock modulators and their efficacies in clock-related disorders. Specifically, we examine the clock components and regulatory factors as possible molecular targets of small molecules, and we review several key clock-related disorders as promising venues for testing the preventive/therapeutic efficacies of these small molecules. Finally, we also discuss circadian regulation of drug metabolism. Results Small molecules can modulate the period, phase and/or amplitude of the circadian cycle. Core clock proteins, nuclear hormone receptors, and clock-related kinases and other epigenetic regulators are promising molecular targets for small molecules. Through these targets small molecules exert protective effects against clock-related disorders including the metabolic syndrome, immune disorders, sleep disorders and cancer. Small molecules can also modulate circadian drug metabolism and response to existing therapeutics. Conclusion Small-molecule clock modulators target clock components or diverse cellular pathways that functionally impinge upon the clock. Target identification of new small-molecule modulators will deepen our understanding of key regulatory nodes in the circadian network. Studies of clock modulators will facilitate their therapeutic applications, alone or in combination, for clock-related diseases. PMID:26750111

  5. Control of daily transcript oscillations in Drosophila by light and the circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Wijnen, Herman; Naef, Felix; Boothroyd, Catharine; Claridge-Chang, Adam; Young, Michael W

    2006-03-01

    The transcriptional circuits of circadian clocks control physiological and behavioral rhythms. Light may affect such overt rhythms in two ways: (1) by entraining the clock circuits and (2) via clock-independent molecular pathways. In this study we examine the relationship between autonomous transcript oscillations and light-driven transcript responses. Transcript profiles of wild-type and arrhythmic mutant Drosophila were recorded both in the presence of an environmental photocycle and in constant darkness. Systematic autonomous oscillations in the 12- to 48-h period range were detectable only in wild-type flies and occurred preferentially at the circadian period length. However, an extensive program of light-driven expression was confirmed in arrhythmic mutant flies. Many light-responsive transcripts are preferentially expressed in the compound eyes and the phospholipase C component of phototransduction, NORPA (no receptor potential), is required for their light-dependent regulation. Although there is evidence for the existence of multiple molecular clock circuits in cyanobacteria, protists, plants, and fungi, Drosophila appears to possess only one such system. The sustained photic expression responses identified here are partially coupled to the circadian clock and may reflect a mechanism for flies to modulate functions such as visual sensitivity and synaptic transmission in response to seasonal changes in photoperiod.

  6. Network balance via CRY signalling controls the Arabidopsis circadian clock over ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gould, Peter D; Ugarte, Nicolas; Domijan, Mirela; Costa, Maria; Foreman, Julia; Macgregor, Dana; Rose, Ken; Griffiths, Jayne; Millar, Andrew J; Finkenstädt, Bärbel; Penfield, Steven; Rand, David A; Halliday, Karen J; Hall, Anthony J W

    2013-01-01

    Circadian clocks exhibit 'temperature compensation', meaning that they show only small changes in period over a broad temperature range. Several clock genes have been implicated in the temperature-dependent control of period in Arabidopsis. We show that blue light is essential for this, suggesting that the effects of light and temperature interact or converge upon common targets in the circadian clock. Our data demonstrate that two cryptochrome photoreceptors differentially control circadian period and sustain rhythmicity across the physiological temperature range. In order to test the hypothesis that the targets of light regulation are sufficient to mediate temperature compensation, we constructed a temperature-compensated clock model by adding passive temperature effects into only the light-sensitive processes in the model. Remarkably, this model was not only capable of full temperature compensation and consistent with mRNA profiles across a temperature range, but also predicted the temperature-dependent change in the level of LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL, a key clock protein. Our analysis provides a systems-level understanding of period control in the plant circadian oscillator.

  7. Network balance via CRY signalling controls the Arabidopsis circadian clock over ambient temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Peter D; Ugarte, Nicolas; Domijan, Mirela; Costa, Maria; Foreman, Julia; MacGregor, Dana; Rose, Ken; Griffiths, Jayne; Millar, Andrew J; Finkenstädt, Bärbel; Penfield, Steven; Rand, David A; Halliday, Karen J; Hall, Anthony J W

    2013-01-01

    Circadian clocks exhibit ‘temperature compensation', meaning that they show only small changes in period over a broad temperature range. Several clock genes have been implicated in the temperature-dependent control of period in Arabidopsis. We show that blue light is essential for this, suggesting that the effects of light and temperature interact or converge upon common targets in the circadian clock. Our data demonstrate that two cryptochrome photoreceptors differentially control circadian period and sustain rhythmicity across the physiological temperature range. In order to test the hypothesis that the targets of light regulation are sufficient to mediate temperature compensation, we constructed a temperature-compensated clock model by adding passive temperature effects into only the light-sensitive processes in the model. Remarkably, this model was not only capable of full temperature compensation and consistent with mRNA profiles across a temperature range, but also predicted the temperature-dependent change in the level of LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL, a key clock protein. Our analysis provides a systems-level understanding of period control in the plant circadian oscillator. PMID:23511208

  8. Open systems for plant process computers

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, D.L.; Pate, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    Arizona Public Service (APS) Company recently upgraded the Emergency Response Facility (ERF) computer at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Stations (PVNGS). The project was initiated to provide the ability to record and display plant data for later analysis of plant events and operational problems (one of the great oversights at nearly every nuclear plant constructed) and to resolve a commitment to correct performance problems on the display side of the system. A major forming objective for the project was to lay a foundation with ample capability and flexibility to provide solutions for future real-time data needs at the plants. The Halliburton NUS Corporation`s Idaho Center (NUS) was selected to develop the system. Because of the constant changes occurring in the computer hardware and software industry, NUS designed and implemented a distributed Open Systems solution based on the UNIX Operating System. This Open System is highly portable across a variety of computer architectures and operating systems and is based on NUS` R*TIME{reg_sign}, a mature software system successfully operating in 14 nuclear plants and over 80 fossil plants. Along with R*TIME, NUS developed two Man-Machine Interface (MMI) versions: R*TIME/WIN, a Microsoft Windows application designed for INTEL-based personal computers operating either Microsoft`s Windows 3.1 or Windows NT operating systems; and R*TIME/X, based on the standard X Window System utilizing the Motif Window Manager.

  9. Circadian clock circuitry in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Papa, Gennaro; Piepoli, Ada

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the most prevalent among digestive system cancers. Carcinogenesis relies on disrupted control of cellular processes, such as metabolism, proliferation, DNA damage recognition and repair, and apoptosis. Cell, tissue, organ and body physiology is characterized by periodic fluctuations driven by biological clocks operating through the clock gene machinery. Dysfunction of molecular clockworks and cellular oscillators is involved in tumorigenesis, and altered expression of clock genes has been found in cancer patients. Epidemiological studies have shown that circadian disruption, that is, alteration of bodily temporal organization, is a cancer risk factor, and an increased incidence of colorectal neoplastic disease is reported in shift workers. In this review we describe the involvement of the circadian clock circuitry in colorectal carcinogenesis and the therapeutic strategies addressing temporal deregulation in colorectal cancer. PMID:24764658

  10. Circadian clock circuitry in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Papa, Gennaro; Piepoli, Ada

    2014-04-21

    Colorectal cancer is the most prevalent among digestive system cancers. Carcinogenesis relies on disrupted control of cellular processes, such as metabolism, proliferation, DNA damage recognition and repair, and apoptosis. Cell, tissue, organ and body physiology is characterized by periodic fluctuations driven by biological clocks operating through the clock gene machinery. Dysfunction of molecular clockworks and cellular oscillators is involved in tumorigenesis, and altered expression of clock genes has been found in cancer patients. Epidemiological studies have shown that circadian disruption, that is, alteration of bodily temporal organization, is a cancer risk factor, and an increased incidence of colorectal neoplastic disease is reported in shift workers. In this review we describe the involvement of the circadian clock circuitry in colorectal carcinogenesis and the therapeutic strategies addressing temporal deregulation in colorectal cancer.

  11. The circadian clock of Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Christopher L.; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Circadian clocks organize our inner physiology with respect to the external world providing life with the ability to anticipate and thereby better prepare for major fluctuations in its environment. Circadian systems are widely represented in nearly all major branches of life except archaebacteria, and within the eukaryotes the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa has served for nearly half a century as a durable model organism for uncovering the basic circadian physiology and molecular biology. Studies using Neurospora have clarified our fundamental understanding of the clock as nested positive and negative feedback loops regulated through transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes. These feedback loops are centered on a limited number of proteins that form molecular complexes, and their regulation provides a physical explanation for nearly all clock properties. This review will introduce the basics of circadian rhythms, the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, and provide an overview of the molecular components and regulation of the circadian clock. PMID:21707668

  12. Stem cells and the circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Weger, Meltem; Diotel, Nicolas; Dorsemans, Anne-Claire; Dickmeis, Thomas; Weger, Benjamin D

    2017-09-09

    The circadian timing system is a complex biological network of interacting circadian clocks that regulates 24h rhythms of behavioral and physiological processes. One intriguing observation is that stem cell homeostasis is subject to circadian clock regulation. Rhythmic oscillations have been observed in a variety of embryonic and adult stem cell dependent processes, such as hematopoietic progenitor cell migration, the hair follicle cycle, bone remodeling, regenerative myogenesis and neurogenesis. This review aims to discuss the nature of the circadian clock in embryonic stem cells and how it changes during differentiation. Furthermore, it will examine how the circadian clock contributes to adult stem cell function in different tissues of the body with an emphasis on the brain and adult neurogenesis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Course in power plant systems interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, G.E.; Baratta, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Like most nuclear engineering programs, the Pennsylvania State Univ. (Penn State) program includes in-depth studies of reactor theory and thermal hydraulics, heat transfer, and fluid flow. The compartmentalization of these topics results in a distinct lack of understanding of the way that typical systems in a nuclear power plant interact to produce the transients that occur in a plant. To correct the deficiency, attempts have been made to develop a comprehensive systems course, which not only educates the students about power plant systems but also teaches them the way they interact. This paper describes the various approaches used and the problems encountered with each approach.

  14. 5. DETAIL TO NORTHEAST OF ROOF CLOCK AND SIGN SUPPORTS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL TO NORTHEAST OF ROOF CLOCK AND SIGN SUPPORTS, WITH HEADHOUSE IN BACKGROUND - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building Nos. B-7 & B-8, 85-89 Hudson Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  15. Quantum time-of-flight measurements: Kicked clock versus continuous clock

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, Daniel; Sala Mayato, R.; Muga, J.G.

    2003-03-01

    The measurement of time durations or instants of occurrence of events has been frequently modeled 'operationally' by coupling the system of interest to a ''clock.'' According to several of these models, the operational approach is limited at low energies because the perturbation of the clock does not allow to reproduce accurately the corresponding ideal time quantity, defined for the system in isolation. We show that, for a time-of-flight measurement model that can be set to measure dwell or arrival times, these limitations may be overcome by extending the range of energies where the clock works properly using pulsed couplings rather than continuous ones.

  16. Iodine Clock Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a combination of solutions that can be used in the study of kinetics using the iodine clock reaction. The combination slows down degradation of the prepared solutions and can be used successfully for several weeks. (JRH)

  17. Iodine Clock Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a combination of solutions that can be used in the study of kinetics using the iodine clock reaction. The combination slows down degradation of the prepared solutions and can be used successfully for several weeks. (JRH)

  18. Molecular Iodine Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jun; Ma, Long Sheng; Hall, John L.

    2001-12-01

    We demonstrate a simple optical clock based on an optical transition of iodine molecules, providing a frequency stability superior to most rf sources. Combined with a femtosecond-laser-based optical comb to provide the phase coherent clock mechanism linking the optical and microwave spectra, we derive an rf clock signal of comparable stability over an extended period. Measurements suggest the stability ( 5×10-14 at 1 s) of the cw laser locked on the iodine transition is transferred to every comb component throughout the optical octave bandwidth (from 532 to 1064 nm) with a precision of 3.5×10-15. Characterization of the performance of the optical clock shows (in-)stability below 3×10-13 at 1 s (currently limited by the microwave sources), and 4.6×10-13 over one year.

  19. Molecular iodine clock.

    PubMed

    Ye, J; Ma, L S; Hall, J L

    2001-12-31

    We demonstrate a simple optical clock based on an optical transition of iodine molecules, providing a frequency stability superior to most rf sources. Combined with a femtosecond-laser-based optical comb to provide the phase coherent clock mechanism linking the optical and microwave spectra, we derive an rf clock signal of comparable stability over an extended period. Measurements suggest the stability ( 5x10(-14) at 1 s) of the cw laser locked on the iodine transition is transferred to every comb component throughout the optical octave bandwidth (from 532 to 1064 nm) with a precision of 3.5x10(-15). Characterization of the performance of the optical clock shows (in-)stability below 3x10(-13) at 1 s (currently limited by the microwave sources), and 4.6x10(-13) over one year.

  20. Short-term GNSS satellite clock stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggs, E.; Kursinski, E. R.; Akos, D.

    2015-08-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) clock stability is characterized via the modified Allan deviation using active hydrogen masers as the receiver frequency reference. The high stability of the maser reference allows the GNSS clock contribution to the GNSS carrier phase variance to be determined quite accurately. Satellite clock stability for four different GNSS constellations are presented, highlighting the similarities and differences between the constellations as well as satellite blocks and clock types. Impact on high-rate applications, such as GNSS radio occultation (RO), is assessed through the calculation of the maximum carrier phase error due to clock instability. White phase noise appears to dominate at subsecond time scales. However, while we derived the theoretical contribution of white phase modulation to the modified Allan deviation, our analysis of the GNSS satellite clocks was limited to 1-200 s time scales because of inconsistencies between the subsecond results from the commercial and software-defined receivers. The rubidium frequency standards on board the Global Positioning System (GPS) Block IIF, BeiDou, and Galileo satellites show improved stability results in comparison to previous GPS blocks for time scales relevant to RO. The Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) satellites are the least stable of the GNSS constellations in the short term and will need high-rate corrections to produce RO results comparable to those from the other GNSS constellations.

  1. Cost and Precision of Brownian Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2016-10-01

    Brownian clocks are biomolecular networks that can count time. A paradigmatic example are proteins that go through a cycle, thus regulating some oscillatory behavior in a living system. Typically, such a cycle requires free energy often provided by ATP hydrolysis. We investigate the relation between the precision of such a clock and its thermodynamic costs. For clocks driven by a constant thermodynamic force, a given precision requires a minimal cost that diverges as the uncertainty of the clock vanishes. In marked contrast, we show that a clock driven by a periodic variation of an external protocol can achieve arbitrary precision at arbitrarily low cost. This result constitutes a fundamental difference between processes driven by a fixed thermodynamic force and those driven periodically. As a main technical tool, we map a periodically driven system with a deterministic protocol to one subject to an external protocol that changes in stochastic time intervals, which simplifies calculations significantly. In the nonequilibrium steady state of the resulting bipartite Markov process, the uncertainty of the clock can be deduced from the calculable dispersion of a corresponding current.

  2. Coupling governs entrainment range of circadian clocks.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Ute; Granada, Adrián E; Westermark, Pål O; Heine, Markus; Kramer, Achim; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2010-11-30

    Circadian clocks are endogenous oscillators driving daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. Synchronization of these timers to environmental light-dark cycles ('entrainment') is crucial for an organism's fitness. Little is known about which oscillator qualities determine entrainment, i.e., entrainment range, phase and amplitude. In a systematic theoretical and experimental study, we uncovered these qualities for circadian oscillators in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN-the master clock in mammals) and the lung (a peripheral clock): (i) the ratio between stimulus (zeitgeber) strength and oscillator amplitude and (ii) the rigidity of the oscillatory system (relaxation rate upon perturbation) determine entrainment properties. Coupling among oscillators affects both qualities resulting in increased amplitude and rigidity. These principles explain our experimental findings that lung clocks entrain to extreme zeitgeber cycles, whereas SCN clocks do not. We confirmed our theoretical predictions by showing that pharmacological inhibition of coupling in the SCN leads to larger ranges of entrainment. These differences between master and the peripheral clocks suggest that coupling-induced rigidity in the SCN filters environmental noise to create a robust circadian system.

  3. Coupling governs entrainment range of circadian clocks

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Ute; Granada, Adrián E; Westermark, Pål O; Heine, Markus; Kramer, Achim; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2010-01-01

    Circadian clocks are endogenous oscillators driving daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. Synchronization of these timers to environmental light–dark cycles (‘entrainment') is crucial for an organism's fitness. Little is known about which oscillator qualities determine entrainment, i.e., entrainment range, phase and amplitude. In a systematic theoretical and experimental study, we uncovered these qualities for circadian oscillators in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN—the master clock in mammals) and the lung (a peripheral clock): (i) the ratio between stimulus (zeitgeber) strength and oscillator amplitude and (ii) the rigidity of the oscillatory system (relaxation rate upon perturbation) determine entrainment properties. Coupling among oscillators affects both qualities resulting in increased amplitude and rigidity. These principles explain our experimental findings that lung clocks entrain to extreme zeitgeber cycles, whereas SCN clocks do not. We confirmed our theoretical predictions by showing that pharmacological inhibition of coupling in the SCN leads to larger ranges of entrainment. These differences between master and the peripheral clocks suggest that coupling-induced rigidity in the SCN filters environmental noise to create a robust circadian system. PMID:21119632

  4. Network features of the mammalian circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Baggs, Julie E; Price, Tom S; DiTacchio, Luciano; Panda, Satchidananda; Fitzgerald, Garret A; Hogenesch, John B

    2009-03-10

    The mammalian circadian clock is a cell-autonomous system that drives oscillations in behavior and physiology in anticipation of daily environmental change. To assess the robustness of a human molecular clock, we systematically depleted known clock components and observed that circadian oscillations are maintained over a wide range of disruptions. We developed a novel strategy termed Gene Dosage Network Analysis (GDNA) in which small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced dose-dependent changes in gene expression were used to build gene association networks consistent with known biochemical constraints. The use of multiple doses powered the analysis to uncover several novel network features of the circadian clock, including proportional responses and signal propagation through interacting genetic modules. We also observed several examples where a gene is up-regulated following knockdown of its paralog, suggesting the clock network utilizes active compensatory mechanisms rather than simple redundancy to confer robustness and maintain function. We propose that these network features act in concert as a genetic buffering system to maintain clock function in the face of genetic and environmental perturbation.

  5. Atomic clocks for astrophysical measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessot, R. F. C.; Mattison, E. M.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that recently developed atomic hydrogen masers have achieved stability well into the 10 to the -16th domain for averaging time intervals beyond 1000 sec and that further improvements are in prospect. These devices are highly adaptable for space use in very high precision measurements of angle through Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and of range and range-rate through Doppler techniques. Space missions that will use these clocks for measuring the sun's gravity field distribution and for testing gravitation and relativity (a project that will include a search for pulsed low-frequency gravitational waves) are discussed. Estimates are made of system performance capability, and the accuracy capability of relativistic measurements is evaluated in terms of the results from the 1976 NASA/SAO spaceborne clock test of the Einstein Equivalence Principle.

  6. Countdown Clock Ribbon Cutting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-01

    Kennedy Space Center Director Bob Cabana speaks at the dedication of the newest display at the entrance to the center's visitor complex. The historic countdown clock was originally set up at the space center's Press Site and was used from the launch of Apollo 12 on Nov. 14, 1969 to the final space shuttle mission, STS-135, launched on July 8, 2011. The old countdown clock was replaced in 2014 with a modern light emitting diode, or LED, display.

  7. [Transgenic plants as medicine production systems].

    PubMed

    Okada, Y

    1997-10-01

    Transgenic plants are emerging as an important system for the expression of many recombinant proteins, especially those intended for therapeutic purpose. The production of foreign proteins in plants has several advantages. In terms of required equipment and cost, mass production in plants is far easier to achieve than techniques involving animal cells. Successful production of several proteins in plants, including human serum albumin, haemoglobin, monoclonal antibodies, viral antigens (vaccines), enkephalin, and trichosanthin, has been reported. Particularly, the demonstration that vaccine antigens can be produced in plants in their native, immunogenic forms opens exciting possibilities for the "bio-farming" of vaccines. If the antigens are orally active, food-based "edible vaccines" could allow economical production. In this review, I will discuss the progress that has been made by several groups in what is now an expanding area of medicine research that utilizes transgenic plants.

  8. Calcium messenger system in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poovaiah, B. W.; Reddy, A. S.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to delineate the ubiquitous and pivotal role of Ca2+ in diverse physiological processes. Emphasis will be given to the role of Ca2+ in stimulus-response coupling. In addition to reviewing the present status of research, our intention is to critically evaluate the existing data and describe the newly developing areas of Ca2+ research in plants.

  9. Promises in intelligent plant control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Otaduy, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The control system is the brain of a power plant. The traditional goal of control systems has been productivity. However, in nuclear power plants the potential for disaster requires safety to be the dominant concern, and the worldwide political climate demands trustworthiness for nuclear power plants. To keep nuclear generation as a viable option for power in the future, trust is the essential critical goal which encompasses all others. In most of today's nuclear plants the control system is a hybrid of analog, digital, and human components that focuses on productivity and operates under the protective umbrella of an independent engineered safety system. Operation of the plant is complex, and frequent challenges to the safety system occur which impact on their trustworthiness. Advances in nuclear reactor design, computer sciences, and control theory, and in related technological areas such as electronics and communications as well as in data storage, retrieval, display, and analysis have opened a promise for control systems with more acceptable human brain-like capabilities to pursue the required goals. This paper elaborates on the promise of futuristic nuclear power plants with intelligent control systems and addresses design requirements and implementation approaches.

  10. [Bacteria ecology in planting-culturing system].

    PubMed

    Huang, Fenglian; Xia, Beicheng; Dai, Xin; Chen, Guizhu

    2004-06-01

    Planting-culturing system in inter-tidal zone is a new type eco-culturing model. The survey on bacteria biomass and water quality in the designed planting-culturing system in inter-tidal zone showed that the mangrove planted in the system improved water quality and made water quality to II-III type, better than the IV and V type in the control pond. Designed ponds made heterotrophic bacteria, vibrio, phosphorus bacteria and enzyme-producing bacteria populations 1-2 order lower than the control pond without mongrove planting. Correlation analyses with CORREL software showed that the biomass of these bacteria was positively related with the nitrogen and phosphorus contents in water of the system, and the correlation coefficient for heterogeneous bacteria and vibrio was up to 0.9205. Heterotrophic bacteria and vibrio could be used as the water-quality monitoring organisms.

  11. Improving pumping system efficiency at coal plants

    SciTech Connect

    Livoti, W.C.; McCandless, S.; Poltorak, R.

    2009-03-15

    The industry must employ ultramodern technologies when building or upgrading power plant pumping systems thereby using fuels more efficiently. The article discusses the uses and efficiencies of positive displacement pumps, centrifugal pumps and multiple screw pumps. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  12. The circadian clock-associated gene zea mays gigantea1 affects maize developmental transitions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The circadian clock is the internal timing mechanism that allows plants to make developmental decisions in accordance with environmental conditions. The genes of the maize circadian clock are not well defined. Gigantea (gi) genes are conserved across flowering plants, including maize. In model plant...

  13. Algorithms to get the maximum operation frequency for skew-tolerant clocking schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, D.; Bellido, M.; Juan, J.; Millan, A.; Ruiz, P.; Ostua, E.; Viejo, J.

    2005-06-01

    Nowadays it is not possible to neglect the delay of interconnection lines. The die size is rising very fast, and the delay of the interconnection lines grows quadrically with it. Also, the fact that the gate delay keeps getting smaller increases the importance of the delay of the interconnection lines. The delay of the clock lines is specially important: If the clock skew is underestimated and the clocking scheme is not properly designed, then the system may not work under any clock frequency. In this paper we evaluate the timing performance of three skew-tolerant clocking schemes. These schemes are the well known Master-Slave clocking scheme (MS) and two schemes developed by the authors: Parallel Alternating Latches Clocking Scheme (PALACS) and four-phase Parallel Alternating Latches Clocking Scheme (four-phase PALACS). To carry out these analysis, the authors introduce new algorithms to obtain the clock waveforms required by a synchronous sequential circuit. Separated algorithms were developed for every clocking scheme. The algorithms take a set of timing parameters as input and generate a chronogram of the circuit trying to minimise the clock period but ensuring the timing restrictions of the circuit are met for a given clock skew. Using these algorithms is it possible to draw a representation of the computation frequency as a function of the clock skew for every clock scheme. Once we have estimated the timing parameters and the skew, these representations can help us to choose the best clocking scheme for our design.

  14. Systems biology for enhanced plant nitrogen nutrition.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A

    2012-06-29

    Nitrogen (N)-based fertilizers increase agricultural productivity but have detrimental effects on the environment and human health. Research is generating improved understanding of the signaling components plants use to sense N and regulate metabolism, physiology, and growth and development. However, we still need to integrate these regulatory factors into signal transduction pathways and connect them to downstream response pathways. Systems biology approaches facilitate identification of new components and N-regulatory networks linked to other plant processes. A holistic view of plant N nutrition should open avenues to translate this knowledge into effective strategies to improve N-use efficiency and enhance crop production systems for more sustainable agricultural practices.

  15. Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Tetsushi; Takamoto, Masao; Ushijima, Ichiro; Ohmae, Noriaki; Akatsuka, Tomoya; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Kuroishi, Yuki; Munekane, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Basara; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2016-10-01

    According to Einstein's theory of relativity, the passage of time changes in a gravitational field. On Earth, raising a clock by 1 cm increases its apparent tick rate by 1.1 parts in 1018, allowing chronometric levelling through comparison of optical clocks. Here, we demonstrate such geopotential measurements by determining the height difference of master and slave clocks separated by 15 km with an uncertainty of 5 cm. A subharmonic of the master clock laser is delivered through a telecom fibre to synchronously operate the distant clocks. Clocks operated under such phase coherence reject clock laser noise and facilitate proposals for linking clocks and interferometers. Taken over half a year, 11 measurements determine the fractional frequency difference between the two clocks to be 1,652.9(5.9) × 10-18, consistent with an independent measurement by levelling and gravimetry. Our system demonstrates a building block for an internet of clocks, which may constitute ‘quantum benchmarks’, serving as height references with dynamic responses.

  16. Optical Lattice Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oates, Chris

    2012-06-01

    Since they were first proposed in 2003 [1], optical lattice clocks have become one of the leading technologies for the next generation of atomic clocks, which will be used for advanced timing applications and in tests of fundamental physics [2]. These clocks are based on stabilized lasers whose frequency is ultimately referenced to an ultra-narrow neutral atom transition (natural linewidths << 1 Hz). To suppress the effects of atomic motion/recoil, the atoms in the sample (˜10^4 atoms) are confined tightly in the potential wells of an optical standing wave (lattice). The wavelength of the lattice light is tuned to its ``magic'' value so as to yield a vanishing net AC Stark shift for the clock transition. As a result lattice clocks have demonstrated the capability of generating high stability clock signals with small absolute uncertainties (˜ 1 part in 10^16). In this presentation I will first give an overview of the field, which now includes three different atomic species. I will then use experiments with Yb performed in our laboratory to illustrate the key features of a lattice clock. Our research has included the development of state-of-the-art optical cavities enabling ultra-high-resolution optical spectroscopy (1 Hz linewidth). Together with the large atom number in the optical lattice, we are able to achieve very low clock instability (< 0.3 Hz in 1 s) [3]. Furthermore, I will show results from some of our recent investigations of key shifts for the Yb lattice clock, including high precision measurements of ultracold atom-atom interactions in the lattice and the dc Stark effect for the Yb clock transition (necessary for the evaluation of blackbody radiation shifts). [4pt] [1] H. Katori, M. Takamoto, V. G. Pal'chikov, and V. D. Ovsiannikov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173005 (2003). [0pt] [2] Andrei Derevianko and Hidetoshi Katori, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 331 (2011). [0pt] [3] Y. Y. Jiang, A. D. Ludlow, N. D. Lemke, R. W. Fox, J. A. Sherman, L.-S. Ma, and C. W. Oates

  17. Secure network of entangled atomic clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komar, Peter; Bishof, Michael; Jiang, Liang; Ye, Jun; Lukin, Mikhail

    2013-05-01

    We propose a scheme for entangling atomic clocks separated by large distances using the concept of quantum networks. The protocol allows the clocks at different locations to be used in a network for a ``supreme clock signal'' with a stability set by the Heisenberg limit for the total number of atoms in the network. The realization we consider consists of multiple optical clock qubits at each location, as well as entanglement links created by sharing EPR photon pairs using quantum repeaters. We analyze the effect of local oscillator phase noise, time delays, and decoherence on the overall stability using different feedback schemes. We show that, for the current-state-of-the-art laser noise spectrum, the network is able to utilize a fully entangled GHZ state for a large number of clock qubits. We show that such a network can be made completely secure by preventing outside parties and individual participants from taking unfair advantage, while at the same time, providing access to the ``supreme clock signal'' for all honest contributors. Our protocol could serve as the backbone for a future global positioning system that will greatly surpass the accuracy and stability of the current GPS network.

  18. Circadian clocks and mood-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Urs

    2013-01-01

    Circadian clocks are present in nearly all tissues of an organism, including the brain. The brain is not only the site of the master coordinator of circadian rhythms located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) but also contains SCN-independent oscillators that regulate various functions such as feeding and mood-related behavior. Understanding how clocks receive and integrate environmental information and in turn control physiology under normal conditions is of importance because chronic disturbance of circadian rhythmicity can lead to serious health problems. Genetic modifications leading to disruption of normal circadian gene functions have been linked to a variety of psychiatric conditions including depression, seasonal affective disorder, eating disorders, alcohol dependence, and addiction. It appears that clock genes play an important role in limbic regions of the brain and influence the development of drug addiction. Furthermore, analyses of clock gene polymorphisms in diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) suggest a direct or indirect influence of circadian clock genes on brain function. In this chapter, I will present evidence for a circadian basis of mood disorders and then discuss the involvement of clock genes in such disorders. The relationship between metabolism and mood disorders is highlighted followed by a discussion of how mood disorders may be treated by changing the circadian cycle.

  19. Adipose Clocks: Burning the Midnight Oil.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Emma; Lamia, Katja A

    2015-10-01

    Circadian clocks optimize the timing of physiological processes in synchrony with daily recurring and therefore predictable changes in the environment. Until the late 1990s, circadian clocks were thought to exist only in the central nervous systems of animals; elegant studies in cultured fibroblasts and using genetically encoded reporters in Drosophila melanogaster and in mice showed that clocks are ubiquitous and cell autonomous. These findings inspired investigations of the advantages construed by enabling each organ to independently adjust its function to the time of day. Studies of rhythmic gene expression in several organs suggested that peripheral organ clocks might play an important role in optimizing metabolic physiology by synchronizing tissue-intrinsic metabolic processes to cycles of nutrient availability and energy requirements. The effects of clock disruption in liver, pancreas, muscle, and adipose tissues support that hypothesis. Adipose tissues coordinate energy storage and utilization and modulate behavior and the physiology of other organs by secreting hormones known as "adipokines." Due to behavior- and environment-driven diurnal variations in supply and demand for chemical and thermal energy, adipose tissues might represent an important peripheral location for coordinating circadian energy balance (intake, storage, and utilization) over the whole organism. Given the complexity of adipose cell types and depots, the sensitivity of adipose tissue biology to age and diet composition, and the plethora of known and yet-to-be-discovered adipokines and lipokines, we have just begun to scratch the surface of understanding the role of circadian clocks in adipose tissues. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Optical Atomic Clocks for Ground and Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehle, Fritz

    Optical atomic clocks on ground have now matured to a status where they compete favourably with the best caesium atomic clocks that realize the unit of time in the International System of Units (SI). Optical clocks can have orders of magnitude better short term stability than their radio-frequency counterparts. Even though optical clocks cannot realize the second in the SI better than the best caesium clocks (as long as the definition of the SI second is based on the caesium transition) they can realize the unperturbed center of a quantum transition with much better accuracy and stability. Optical atomic clocks now represent the most accurate measuring devices for applications in technology and basic science. Three alternative routes are followed by optical atomic clocks: In the first approach -the single ion clock -a single quantum absorber is trapped in a field-free region for virtually unlimited time. In neutral atom clocks a large number of atoms trapped in a light field can interrogated in parallel which allows for unprecedented high short-term stability. A very promising third avenue relies on ions where the quantum transition is read out by means of quantum logic techniques. This approach allows to use nearly ideal transitions that are otherwise not accessible. In the first part of this presentation the principles and status of the different types of clocks will be outlined using examples of the PTB's Y b+ single ion clock and the Sr neutral atom lattice clock. Particular emphasis is given to the application of such clocks for advanced applications in science and technology. A number of proposals has been made to utilize the superior properties of optical clocks also for novel science and applications in space and several attempts are under way to realize optical clocks for space applications. Thus, the second part of this contribution will deal with the special requirements for optical clocks in space and the associated similarities and differences of

  1. Body weight, metabolism and clock genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Biological rhythms are present in the lives of almost all organisms ranging from plants to more evolved creatures. These oscillations allow the anticipation of many physiological and behavioral mechanisms thus enabling coordination of rhythms in a timely manner, adaption to environmental changes and more efficient organization of the cellular processes responsible for survival of both the individual and the species. Many components of energy homeostasis exhibit circadian rhythms, which are regulated by central (suprachiasmatic nucleus) and peripheral (located in other tissues) circadian clocks. Adipocyte plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, the signaling of satiety and cellular differentiation and proliferation. Also, the adipocyte circadian clock is probably involved in the control of many of these functions. Thus, circadian clocks are implicated in the control of energy balance, feeding behavior and consequently in the regulation of body weight. In this regard, alterations in clock genes and rhythms can interfere with the complex mechanism of metabolic and hormonal anticipation, contributing to multifactorial diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The aim of this review was to define circadian clocks by describing their functioning and role in the whole body and in adipocyte metabolism, as well as their influence on body weight control and the development of obesity. PMID:20712885

  2. Operational development of small plant growth systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a study undertaken on the first phase of an empricial effort in the development of small plant growth chambers for production of salad type vegetables on space shuttle or space station are discussed. The overall effort is visualized as providing the underpinning of practical experience in handling of plant systems in space which will provide major support for future efforts in planning, design, and construction of plant-based (phytomechanical) systems for support of human habitation in space. The assumptions underlying the effort hold that large scale phytomechanical habitability support systems for future space stations must evolve from the simple to the complex. The highly complex final systems will be developed from the accumulated experience and data gathered from repetitive tests and trials of fragments or subsystems of the whole in an operational mode. These developing system components will, meanwhile, serve a useful operational function in providing psychological support and diversion for the crews.

  3. Synthetic Spin-Orbit Coupling in an Optical Lattice Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Michael L.; Koller, Andrew P.; Li, Shuming; Zhang, Xibo; Cooper, Nigel R.; Ye, Jun; Rey, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    We propose the use of optical lattice clocks operated with fermionic alkaline-earth atoms to study spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in interacting many-body systems. The SOC emerges naturally during the clock interrogation, when atoms are allowed to tunnel and accumulate a phase set by the ratio of the "magic" lattice wavelength to the clock transition wavelength. We demonstrate how standard protocols such as Rabi and Ramsey spectroscopy that take advantage of the sub-Hertz resolution of state-of-the-art clock lasers can perform momentum-resolved band tomography and determine SOC-induced s -wave collisions in nuclear-spin-polarized fermions. With the use of a second counterpropagating clock beam, we propose a method for engineering controlled atomic transport and study how it is modified by p - and s -wave interactions. The proposed spectroscopic probes provide clean and well-resolved signatures at current clock operating temperatures.

  4. Synthetic Spin-Orbit Coupling in an Optical Lattice Clock.

    PubMed

    Wall, Michael L; Koller, Andrew P; Li, Shuming; Zhang, Xibo; Cooper, Nigel R; Ye, Jun; Rey, Ana Maria

    2016-01-22

    We propose the use of optical lattice clocks operated with fermionic alkaline-earth atoms to study spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in interacting many-body systems. The SOC emerges naturally during the clock interrogation, when atoms are allowed to tunnel and accumulate a phase set by the ratio of the "magic" lattice wavelength to the clock transition wavelength. We demonstrate how standard protocols such as Rabi and Ramsey spectroscopy that take advantage of the sub-Hertz resolution of state-of-the-art clock lasers can perform momentum-resolved band tomography and determine SOC-induced s-wave collisions in nuclear-spin-polarized fermions. With the use of a second counterpropagating clock beam, we propose a method for engineering controlled atomic transport and study how it is modified by p- and s-wave interactions. The proposed spectroscopic probes provide clean and well-resolved signatures at current clock operating temperatures.

  5. Quantum primordial standard clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xingang; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein; Wang, Yi E-mail: mohammad.namjoo@cfa.harvard.edu

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we point out and study a generic type of signals existing in the primordial universe models, which can be used to model-independently distinguish the inflation scenario from alternatives. These signals are generated by massive fields that function as standard clocks. The role of massive fields as standard clocks has been realized in previous works. Although the existence of such massive fields is generic, the previous realizations require sharp features to classically excite the oscillations of the massive clock fields. Here, we point out that the quantum fluctuations of massive fields can actually serve the same purpose as the standard clocks. We show that they are also able to directly record the defining property of the scenario type, namely, the scale factor of the primordial universe as a function of time a(t), but through shape-dependent oscillatory features in non-Gaussianities. Since quantum fluctuating massive fields exist in any realistic primordial universe models, these quantum primordial standard clock signals are present in any inflation models, and should exist quite generally in alternative-to-inflation scenarios as well. However, the amplitude of such signals is very model-dependent.

  6. Plants and the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Carlini, E A

    2003-06-01

    This review article draws the attention to the many species of plants possessing activity on the central nervous system (CNS). In fact, they cover the whole spectrum of central activity such as psychoanaleptic, psycholeptic and psychodysleptic effects, and several of these plants are currently used in therapeutics to treat human ailments. Among the psychoanaleptic (stimulant) plants, those utilized by human beings to reduce body weight [Ephedra spp. (Ma Huang), Paullinia spp. (guaraná), Catha edulis Forssk. (khat)] and plants used to improve general health conditions (plant adaptogens) were scrutinized. Many species of hallucinogenic (psychodysleptic) plants are used by humans throughout the world to achieve states of mind distortions; among those, a few have been used for therapeutic purposes, such as Cannabis sativa L., Tabernanthe iboga Baill. and the mixture of Psychotria viridis Ruiz and Pav. and Banisteriopsis caapi (Spruce ex Griseb.) C.V. Morton. Plants showing central psycholeptic activities, such as analgesic or anxiolytic actions (Passiflora incarnata L., Valeriana spp. and Piper methysticum G. Forst.), were also analysed.Finally, the use of crude or semipurified extracts of such plants instead of the active substances seemingly responsible for their therapeutic effect is discussed.

  7. Room 103, transom woodwork and original clock. All clocks are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Room 103, transom woodwork and original clock. All clocks are driven by a common signal. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. Partners in time: EARLY BIRD associates with ZEITLUPE and regulates the speed of the Arabidopsis clock.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Mikael; McWatters, Harriet G; Bakó, László; Takata, Naoki; Gyula, Péter; Hall, Anthony; Somers, David E; Millar, Andrew J; Eriksson, Maria E

    2011-04-01

    The circadian clock of the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is made up of a complex series of interacting feedback loops whereby proteins regulate their own expression across day and night. early bird (ebi) is a circadian mutation that causes the clock to speed up: ebi plants have short circadian periods, early phase of clock gene expression, and are early flowering. We show that EBI associates with ZEITLUPE (ZTL), known to act in the plant clock as a posttranslational mediator of protein degradation. However, EBI is not degraded by its interaction with ZTL. Instead, ZTL counteracts the effect of EBI during the day and increases it at night, modulating the expression of key circadian components. The partnership of EBI with ZTL reveals a novel mechanism involved in controlling the complex transcription-translation feedback loops of the clock. This work highlights the importance of cross talk between the ubiquitination pathway and transcriptional control for regulation of the plant clock.

  9. On systems thinking, systems biology, and the in silico plant.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Graeme L; Sinclair, Thomas R; Chapman, Scott C; van Oosterom, Erik

    2004-03-01

    The recent summary report of a Department of Energy Workshop on Plant Systems Biology (P.V. Minorsky [2003] Plant Physiol 132: 404-409) offered a welcomed advocacy for systems analysis as essential in understanding plant development, growth, and production. The goal of the Workshop was to consider methods for relating the results of molecular research to real-world challenges in plant production for increased food supplies, alternative energy sources, and environmental improvement. The rather surprising feature of this report, however, was that the Workshop largely overlooked the rich history of plant systems analysis extending over nearly 40 years (Sinclair and Seligman, 1996) that has considered exactly those challenges targeted by the Workshop. Past systems research has explored and incorporated biochemical and physiological knowledge into plant simulation models from a number of perspectives. The research has resulted in considerable understanding and insight about how to simulate plant systems and the relative contribution of various factors in influencing plant production. These past activities have contributed directly to research focused on solving the problems of increasing biomass production and crop yields. These modeling approaches are also now providing an avenue to enhance integration of molecular genetic technologies in plant improvement (Hammer et al., 2002).

  10. The Functional Interplay between Protein Kinase CK2 and CCA1 Transcriptional Activity Is Essential for Clock Temperature Compensation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Portolés, Sergi; Más, Paloma

    2010-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are daily biological oscillations driven by an endogenous mechanism known as circadian clock. The protein kinase CK2 is one of the few clock components that is evolutionary conserved among different taxonomic groups. CK2 regulates the stability and nuclear localization of essential clock proteins in mammals, fungi, and insects. Two CK2 regulatory subunits, CKB3 and CKB4, have been also linked with the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian system. However, the biological relevance and the precise mechanisms of CK2 function within the plant clockwork are not known. By using ChIP and Double–ChIP experiments together with in vivo luminescence assays at different temperatures, we were able to identify a temperature-dependent function for CK2 modulating circadian period length. Our study uncovers a previously unpredicted mechanism for CK2 antagonizing the key clock regulator CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1). CK2 activity does not alter protein accumulation or subcellular localization but interferes with CCA1 binding affinity to the promoters of the oscillator genes. High temperatures enhance the CCA1 binding activity, which is precisely counterbalanced by the CK2 opposing function. Altering this balance by over-expression, mutation, or pharmacological inhibition affects the temperature compensation profile, providing a mechanism by which plants regulate circadian period at changing temperatures. Therefore, our study establishes a new model demonstrating that two opposing and temperature-dependent activities (CCA1-CK2) are essential for clock temperature compensation in Arabidopsis. PMID:21079791

  11. The functional interplay between protein kinase CK2 and CCA1 transcriptional activity is essential for clock temperature compensation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Portolés, Sergi; Más, Paloma

    2010-11-04

    Circadian rhythms are daily biological oscillations driven by an endogenous mechanism known as circadian clock. The protein kinase CK2 is one of the few clock components that is evolutionary conserved among different taxonomic groups. CK2 regulates the stability and nuclear localization of essential clock proteins in mammals, fungi, and insects. Two CK2 regulatory subunits, CKB3 and CKB4, have been also linked with the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian system. However, the biological relevance and the precise mechanisms of CK2 function within the plant clockwork are not known. By using ChIP and Double-ChIP experiments together with in vivo luminescence assays at different temperatures, we were able to identify a temperature-dependent function for CK2 modulating circadian period length. Our study uncovers a previously unpredicted mechanism for CK2 antagonizing the key clock regulator CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1). CK2 activity does not alter protein accumulation or subcellular localization but interferes with CCA1 binding affinity to the promoters of the oscillator genes. High temperatures enhance the CCA1 binding activity, which is precisely counterbalanced by the CK2 opposing function. Altering this balance by over-expression, mutation, or pharmacological inhibition affects the temperature compensation profile, providing a mechanism by which plants regulate circadian period at changing temperatures. Therefore, our study establishes a new model demonstrating that two opposing and temperature-dependent activities (CCA1-CK2) are essential for clock temperature compensation in Arabidopsis.

  12. The renewable electric plant information system

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, K.

    1995-12-01

    This report explains the procedures used for creating the Renewable Electric Plant Information System (REPiS) database, describes the database fields, and summarizes the data. The REPiS database contains comprehensive information on grid-connected renewable electric generation plants in the United States. Originally designed in 1987 and updated in 1990, the database includes information through 1994. The report also illustrates ways of using the data for analysis is and describes how researchers validated the data.

  13. Carbonate fuel cell power plant systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinstrom, R. M.

    1981-12-01

    Carbonate fuel cells are an attractive means of developing highly efficient power plants capable of achieving low atmospheric emissions. Because carbonate fuel cells can be used with coal derived fuel gases and their operating temperatures allow the use of turbomachinery bottoming cycles, they are well suited for large installations like central utility stations. Presently, system development activity is directed toward evaluating the readiness of gasifier and fuel processor technology, defining candidate cycle configurations, and calculating projected plant efficiencies.

  14. Mode-locked laser realized by selective area growth for short pulse generation and optical clock recovery in TDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, Eugen; Baums, Dieter; Bouayad-Amine, Jamal; Hache, Claudia; Haisch, Hansjorg; Kuhn, Edgar; Satzke, Klaus; Schilling, Michael; Weber, Juergen; Zielinski, Erich

    1996-04-01

    We report on monolithically integrated active/passive coupled cavity mode locked lasers for 1.55 micrometer realized by selective area growth technology of InGaAs(P) quantum wells. Mode locked FP or DBR lasers are fabricated with an integrated cavity comprising up to three different band gaps. The devices emit short light pulses at around 10 GHz repetition rate with pulse width down to 8.7 ps. A time-bandwidth product of 0.5 is achieved for mode locked DBR lasers. Active/passive integrated mode locked laser is used for generation of optical 10 GHz clock signal from optical 10 Gb/s PRBS RZ data stream injected into the laser cavity.

  15. The SCN-independent clocks, methamphetamine and food restriction.

    PubMed

    Honma, Ken-ichi; Honma, Sato

    2009-11-01

    The circadian system in mammals consists of the central clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the peripheral clocks in a variety of tissues and organs. The SCN clock entrains to a light-dark cycle and resets the peripheral clocks. In addition, there are at least two other clocks in the circadian domain which are independent of the SCN and which entrain to nonphotic time cues: methamphetamine (MAP)-induced and restricted daily feeding (RF)-induced clocks. Neither the site nor the mechanism of SCN-independent clocks is known. Canonical clock genes for circadian oscillation are not required for the expression of either SCN-independent rhythm. The central catecholaminergic system is probably involved in the expression of the SCN-independent rhythms, especially of the MAP-induced rhythm. MAP-induced activity rhythms in rats and the sleep-wake cycles in humans share unique phenomena such as spontaneous internal desynchronization, circabidian rhythm and nonphotic entrainment, suggesting overlapping oscillatory mechanisms. The SCN-independent clock is an adaptation that regulates behavior in response to nonphotic time cues, and seems to be closely related to the arousal mechanism.

  16. Plausible link between circabidian activity rhythms and circadian-clock systems in the large black chafer Holotrichia parallela.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Yuta; Nishimura, Hitoshi; Shiga, Sakiko

    2017-09-06

    Two-day rhythms referred to as circabidian rhythms were reported in humans and mosquitos. However, these rhythms only appear under constant conditions, and functional mechanisms of two-day rhythms have not been known. Here, we report clear circabidian rhythms of large black chafers (Holotrichia parallela, Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in both the laboratory and field. Under 12 h light and 12 h dark conditions (LD 12:12) at 25°C, H. parallela appeared on the ground at the beginning of the dark phase every two days. Under constant darkness, H. parallela exhibited free-running with a period of 47.9 ± 0.3 h, suggesting the existence of a clear circabidian rhythm entrained to two LD 12:12 cycles. Phase responses of the circabidian rhythm to light pulses occurred under constant darkness in a phase dependent manner. Phase responses suggest that there are two circadian cycles, each consisted of a less responsive and high responsive period, in a circabidian oscillation, and the circabidian rhythm is driven by the circadian clock. A mark and recapture study showed that beetles repeatedly appeared on the same tree approximately every two days. However, the periodicity was not as rigid as that observed under laboratory conditions in that individuals often switched appearance days. For instance, large precipitation made the two-day rhythm shift the phase by a half cycle of the rhythm at a time. Here, we propose a novel function of the circadian clock characterized by the release of an output signal every two cycles to produce the two-day rhythm. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. The social clock of the honeybee.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Guy

    2010-10-01

    The honeybee has long been an important model for studying the interplay between the circadian clock and complex behaviors. This article reviews studies further implicating the circadian clock in complex social behaviors in bees. The article starts by introducing honeybee social behavior and sociality and then briefly summarizes current findings on the molecular biology and neuroanatomy of the circadian system of honeybees that point to molecular similarities to the mammalian clockwork rather than to that of Drosophila. Foraging is a social behavior in honeybees that relies on the circadian clock for timing visits to flowers, time-compensated sun-compass navigation, and dance communication used by foragers to recruit nestmates to rewarding flower patches. The circadian clock is also important for the social organization of honeybee societies. Social factors influence the ontogeny of circadian rhythms and are important for social synchronization of worker activities. Both queen and worker bees switch between activities with and without circadian rhythms. In workers this remarkable plasticity is associated with the division of labor; nurse bees care for the brood around the clock with similar levels of clock gene expression throughout the day, whereas foragers have strong behavioral circadian rhythms with oscillating brain clock gene levels. This plasticity in circadian rhythms is regulated by direct contact with the brood and is context-specific in that nurse bees that are removed from the hive exhibit activity with strong behavioral and molecular rhythms. These studies on the sociochronobiology of honeybees and comparative studies with other social insects suggest that the evolution of sociality has influenced the characteristics of the circadian system in honeybees.

  18. Somites without a clock.

    PubMed

    Dias, Ana S; de Almeida, Irene; Belmonte, Julio M; Glazier, James A; Stern, Claudio D

    2014-02-14

    The formation of body segments (somites) in vertebrate embryos is accompanied by molecular oscillations (segmentation clock). Interaction of this oscillator with a wave traveling along the body axis (the clock-and-wavefront model) is generally believed to control somite number, size, and axial identity. Here we show that a clock-and-wavefront mechanism is unnecessary for somite formation. Non-somite mesoderm treated with Noggin generates many somites that form simultaneously, without cyclic expression of Notch-pathway genes, yet have normal size, shape, and fate. These somites have axial identity: The Hox code is fixed independently of somite fate. However, these somites are not subdivided into rostral and caudal halves, which is necessary for neural segmentation. We propose that somites are self-organizing structures whose size and shape is controlled by local cell-cell interactions.

  19. Optical atomic clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, N.; Oates, C. W.; Gill, P.; Tino, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    In the last ten years extraordinary results in time and frequency metrology have been demonstrated. Frequency-stabilization techniques for continuous-wave lasers and femtosecond optical frequency combs have enabled a rapid development of frequency standards based on optical transitions in ultra-cold neutral atoms and trapped ions. As a result, today's best performing atomic clocks tick at an optical rate and allow scientists to perform high-resolution measurements with a precision approaching a few parts in 1018. This paper reviews the history and the state of the art in optical-clock research and addresses the implementation of optical clocks in a possible future redefinition of the SI second as well as in tests of fundamental physics.

  20. Clock synchronization on the RAX spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springmann, John C.; Kempke, Benjamin P.; Cutler, James W.; Bahcivan, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    The Radio Aurora Explorer (RAX) is a CubeSat that was developed to study space weather in Earth's ionosphere. The scientific payload is a bistatic radar system in which an onboard receiver works in cooperation with a ground-based transmitter. Accuracy of the onboard clock is critical for processing the radar measurements. The RAX timing system utilizes commercial off-the-shelf components integrated into custom subsystems. GPS is used to maintain absolute timing accuracy better than 1 μs, but the subsystem is not always available due to power constraints, so a method has been developed to correct the onboard clock error without the use of GPS. The clock correction utilizes range measurements extracted from the pulses emitted by the transmitter, and resulting absolute clock accuracies of better than 0.20 s with drift of less than 21 ns/s have been demonstrated. The RAX timing system and the clock correction algorithm are presented as a reference for other spacecraft designers and are critical for those analyzing RAX data.

  1. Circadian clocks, brain function, and development.

    PubMed

    Frank, Ellen; Sidor, Michelle M; Gamble, Karen L; Cirelli, Chiara; Sharkey, Katherine M; Hoyle, Nathaniel; Tikotzky, Liat; Talbot, Lisa S; McCarthy, Michael J; Hasler, Brant P

    2013-12-01

    Circadian clocks are temporal interfaces that organize biological systems and behavior to dynamic external environments. Components of the molecular clock are expressed throughout the brain and are centrally poised to play an important role in brain function. This paper focuses on key issues concerning the relationship among circadian clocks, brain function, and development, and discusses three topic areas: (1) sleep and its relationship to the circadian system; (2) systems development and psychopathology (spanning the prenatal period through late life); and (3) circadian factors and their application to neuropsychiatric disorders. We also explore circadian genetics and psychopathology and the selective pressures on the evolution of clocks. Last, a lively debate is presented on whether circadian factors are central to mood disorders. Emerging from research on circadian rhythms is a model of the interaction among genes, sleep, and the environment that converges on the circadian clock to influence susceptibility to developing psychopathology. This model may lend insight into effective treatments for mood disorders and inform development of new interventions.

  2. Central and peripheral circadian clocks in mammals.

    PubMed

    Mohawk, Jennifer A; Green, Carla B; Takahashi, Joseph S

    2012-01-01

    The circadian system of mammals is composed of a hierarchy of oscillators that function at the cellular, tissue, and systems levels. A common molecular mechanism underlies the cell-autonomous circadian oscillator throughout the body, yet this clock system is adapted to different functional contexts. In the central suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, a coupled population of neuronal circadian oscillators acts as a master pacemaker for the organism to drive rhythms in activity and rest, feeding, body temperature, and hormones. Coupling within the SCN network confers robustness to the SCN pacemaker, which in turn provides stability to the overall temporal architecture of the organism. Throughout the majority of the cells in the body, cell-autonomous circadian clocks are intimately enmeshed within metabolic pathways. Thus, an emerging view for the adaptive significance of circadian clocks is their fundamental role in orchestrating metabolism.

  3. SRC: Smart Reminder Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Leong, Tan Hua; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, some people facing the problem to wake up in the morning. This was result to absence of the classes, meetings, and even exams. The aim of this project is to develop an android application that can force the user to wake up. The method used in this application are pedometer and Short Message Service (SMS) function. This application need the user to take their smartphone and walk about 10 steps to disable it, when the alarm clock is activated. After that, when the alarm clock was rang, this alarm application has automatically send a message to the users’ friends or parents phone to wake them up.

  4. New Countdown Clock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-03

    At NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Public Affairs Officer George Diller digs in behind the current countdown clock during the groundbreaking ceremony for the new countdown clock. The old timepiece was designed by Kennedy engineers and built by Kennedy technicians in 1969. Not including the triangular concrete and aluminum base, the famous landmark is nearly 6 feet 70 inches high, 26 feet 315 inches wide and 3 feet deep. The new display will be similar in size, with the screen being nearly 26 feet wide by 7 feet high.

  5. Diffuse-Illumination Systems for Growing Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, George; Ryan, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture in both terrestrial and space-controlled environments relies heavily on artificial illumination for efficient photosynthesis. Plant-growth illumination systems require high photon flux in the spectral range corresponding with plant photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) (400 700 nm), high spatial uniformity to promote uniform growth, and high energy efficiency to minimize electricity usage. The proposed plant-growth system takes advantage of the highly diffuse reflective surfaces on the interior of a sphere, hemisphere, or other nearly enclosed structure that is coated with highly reflective materials. This type of surface and structure uniformly mixes discrete light sources to produce highly uniform illumination. Multiple reflections from within the domelike structures are exploited to obtain diffuse illumination, which promotes the efficient reuse of photons that have not yet been absorbed by plants. The highly reflective surfaces encourage only the plant tissue (placed inside the sphere or enclosure) to absorb the light. Discrete light sources, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), are typically used because of their high efficiency, wavelength selection, and electronically dimmable properties. The light sources are arranged to minimize shadowing and to improve uniformity. Different wavelengths of LEDs (typically blue, green, and red) are used for photosynthesis. Wavelengths outside the PAR range can be added for plant diagnostics or for growth regulation

  6. A Novel Photonic Clock and Carrier Recovery Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. Steve; Lutes, George; Maleki, Lute

    1996-01-01

    As data communication rates climb toward ten Gb/s, clock recovery and synchronization become more difficult, if not impossible, using conventional electronic circuits. We present in this article experimental results of a high speed clock and carrier recovery using a novel device called a photonic oscillator that we recently developed in our laboratory. This device is capable of recovering clock signals up to 70 GHz. To recover the clock, the incoming data is injected into the photonic oscillator either through the optical injection port or the electrical injection port. The free running photonic oscillator is tuned to oscillate at a nominal frequency equal to the clock frequency of the incoming data. With the injection of the data, the photonic oscillator will be quickly locked to clock frequency of the data stream while rejecting other frequency components associated with the data. Consequently, the output of the locked photonic oscillator is a continuous periodical wave synchronized with the incoming data or simply the recovered clock. We have demonstrated a clock to spur ratio of more than 60 dB of the recovered clock using this technique. Similar to the clock recovery, the photonic oscillator can be used to recover a high frequency carrier degraded by noise and an improvement of about 50 dB in signal-to-noise ratio was demonstrated. The photonic oscillator has both electrical and optical inputs and outputs and can be directly interfaced with a photonic system without signal conversion. In addition to clock and carrier recovery, the photonic oscillator can also be used for (1) stable high frequency clock signal generation, (2) frequency multiplication, (3) square wave and comb frequency generation, and (4) photonic phase locked loop.

  7. Estimating the instability of a composite clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    A composite clock created from a local clock ensemble is known by its time offsets from the ensemble clocks. By a geometrical argument, estimate for the instability of the composite clock are calculated from the instabilities of the ensemble clocks, individually and against the composite clock. The method is illustrated by examples using simulated and real ensembles.

  8. Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stys, Z. S.

    1983-09-01

    The design features and performance capabilities of Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants for transferring off-peak utility electricity to on-peak hours are described. The plant operations involve compressing ambient air with an axial flow compressor and depositing it in an underground reservoir at 70 bar pressure. Released during a peaking cycle, the pressure is reduced to 43 bar, the air is heated to 550 C, passed through an expander after a turbine, and passed through a low pressure combustion chamber to be heated to 850 C. A West German plant built in 1978 to supply over 300 MW continuous power for up to two hours is detailed, noting its availability factor of nearly 98 percent and power delivery cost of $230/kW installed. A plant being constructed in Illinois will use limestone caverns as the air storage tank.

  9. Dynamics of statistical distance: Quantum limits for two-level clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Braunstein, S.L. ); Milburn, G.J. )

    1995-03-01

    We study the evolution of statistical distance on the Bloch sphere under unitary and nonunitary dynamics. This corresponds to studying the limits to clock precision for a clock constructed from a two-state system. We find that the initial motion away from pure states under nonunitary dynamics yields the greatest accuracy for a one-tick'' clock; in this case the clock's precision is not limited by the largest frequency of the system.

  10. The circadian clock-associated gene gigantea1 affects maize developmental transitions.

    PubMed

    Bendix, Claire; Mendoza, Juan M; Stanley, Desiree N; Meeley, Robert; Harmon, Frank G

    2013-07-01

    The circadian clock is an internal timing mechanism that allows plants to make developmental decisions in accordance with environmental conditions. In model plants, circadian clock-associated gigantea (gi) genes are directly involved in control of growth and developmental transitions. The maize gigantea1 (gi1) gene is the more highly expressed of the two gi homeologs, and its function is uncharacterized. To understand the role of gi1 in the regulatory networks of the maize circadian clock system, gi1 mutants were evaluated for changes in flowering time, phase change and growth control. When grown in long-day (LD) photoperiods, gi1 mutants flowered earlier than non-mutant plants, but this difference was not apparent in short-day (SD) photoperiods. Therefore, gi1 participates in a pathway that suppresses flowering in LD photoperiods, but not in SD. Part of the underlying cause of early flowering was up-regulated expression of the FT-like floral activator gene zea mays centroradialis8 (zcn8) and the CONSTANS-like flowering regulatory gene constans of zea mays1 (conz1). gi1 mutants also underwent vegetative phase change earlier and grew taller than non-mutant plants. These findings indicate gi1 has a repressive function in multiple regulatory pathways that govern maize growth and development. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Circadian Clock Mutation Promotes Intestinal Dysbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Robin M.; Summa, Keith C.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Green, Stefan J.; Engen, Phillip; Naqib, Ankur; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Turek, Fred W; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Circadian rhythm disruption is a prevalent feature of modern day society that is associated with an increase in pro-inflammatory diseases and there is a clear need for a better understanding of the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon. We have previously demonstrated that both environmental and genetic circadian rhythm disruption causes intestinal hyperpermeability and exacerbates alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability and liver pathology. The intestinal microbiota can influence intestinal barrier integrity and impact immune system function; thus, in the current study, we sought to determine if genetic alteration of the core circadian clock gene, Clock, altered the intestinal microbiota community. Methods Male ClockΔ19 mutant mice (mice homozygous for a dominant-negative mutant allele) or littermate wild-type mice were fed one of three experimental diets: (1) a standard chow diet, (2) an alcohol-containing diet, or (3) an alcohol-control diet in which the alcohol calories were replaced with dextrose. Stool microbiota was assessed with 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing. Results The fecal microbial community of Clock mutant mice had lower taxonomic diversity, relative to wild type mice and the ClockΔ19 mutation was associated with intestinal dysbiosis when mice were fed either the alcohol-containing or the control diet. We found that alcohol consumption significantly altered the intestinal microbiota in both wild type and Clock mutant mice. Conclusion Our data support a model by which circadian rhythm disruption by the ClockΔ19 mutation perturbs normal intestinal microbial communities and this trend was exacerbated in the context of a secondary dietary intestinal stressor. PMID:26842252

  12. Synthesizing genetic sequential logic circuit with clock pulse generator.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Chia-Hua; Lin, Chun-Liang

    2014-05-28

    Rhythmic clock widely occurs in biological systems which controls several aspects of cell physiology. For the different cell types, it is supplied with various rhythmic frequencies. How to synthesize a specific clock signal is a preliminary but a necessary step to further development of a biological computer in the future. This paper presents a genetic sequential logic circuit with a clock pulse generator based on a synthesized genetic oscillator, which generates a consecutive clock signal whose frequency is an inverse integer multiple to that of the genetic oscillator. An analogous electronic waveform-shaping circuit is constructed by a series of genetic buffers to shape logic high/low levels of an oscillation input in a basic sinusoidal cycle and generate a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) output with various duty cycles. By controlling the threshold level of the genetic buffer, a genetic clock pulse signal with its frequency consistent to the genetic oscillator is synthesized. A synchronous genetic counter circuit based on the topology of the digital sequential logic circuit is triggered by the clock pulse to synthesize the clock signal with an inverse multiple frequency to the genetic oscillator. The function acts like a frequency divider in electronic circuits which plays a key role in the sequential logic circuit with specific operational frequency. A cascaded genetic logic circuit generating clock pulse signals is proposed. Based on analogous implement of digital sequential logic circuits, genetic sequential logic circuits can be constructed by the proposed approach to generate various clock signals from an oscillation signal.

  13. Derivation and experimental verification of clock synchronization theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work is to validate mathematically derived clock synchronization theories and their associated algorithms through experiment. Two theories are considered, the Interactive Convergence Clock Synchronization Algorithm and the Mid-Point Algorithm. Special clock circuitry was designed and built so that several operating conditions and failure modes (including malicious failures) could be tested. Both theories are shown to predict conservative upper bounds (i.e., measured values of clock skew were always less than the theory prediction). Insight gained during experimentation led to alternative derivations of the theories. These new theories accurately predict the clock system's behavior. It is found that a 100% penalty is paid to tolerate worst case failures. It is also shown that under optimal conditions (with minimum error and no failures) the clock skew can be as much as 3 clock ticks. Clock skew grows to 6 clock ticks when failures are present. Finally, it is concluded that one cannot rely solely on test procedures or theoretical analysis to predict worst case conditions. conditions.

  14. Derivation and experimental verification of clock synchronization theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of this work is to validate mathematically derived clock synchronization theories and their associated algorithms through experiment. Two theories are considered, the Interactive Convergence Clock Synchronization Algorithm and the Mid-Point Algorithm. Special clock circuitry was designed and built so that several operating conditions and failure modes (including malicious failures) could be tested. Both theories are shown to predict conservative upper bounds (i.e., measured values of clock skew were always less than the theory prediction). Insight gained during experimentation led to alternative derivations of the theories. These new theories accurately predict the clock system's behavior. It is found that a 100% penalty is paid to tolerate worst case failures. It is also shown that under optimal conditions (with minimum error and no failures) the clock skew can be as much as 3 clock ticks. Clock skew grows to 6 clock ticks when failures are present. Finally, it is concluded that one cannot rely solely on test procedures or theoretical analysis to predict worst case conditions. conditions.

  15. Derivation and experimental verification of clock synchronization theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work is to validate mathematically derived clock synchronization theories and their associated algorithms through experiment. Two theories are considered, the Interactive Convergence Clock Synchronization Algorithm and the Mid-Point Algorithm. Special clock circuitry was designed and built so that several operating conditions and failure modes (including malicious failures) could be tested. Both theories are shown to predict conservative upper bounds (i.e., measured values of clock skew were always less than the theory prediction). Insight gained during experimentation led to alternative derivations of the theories. These new theories accurately predict the clock system's behavior. It is found that a 100% penalty is paid to tolerate worst case failures. It is also shown that under optimal conditions (with minimum error and no failures) the clock skew can be as much as 3 clock ticks. Clock skew grows to 6 clock ticks when failures are present. Finally, it is concluded that one cannot rely solely on test procedures or theoretical analysis to predict worst case conditions. conditions.

  16. Circadian Clock Genes Universally Control Key Agricultural Traits.

    PubMed

    Bendix, Claire; Marshall, Carine M; Harmon, Frank G

    2015-08-01

    Circadian clocks are endogenous timers that enable plants to synchronize biological processes with daily and seasonal environmental conditions in order to allocate resources during the most beneficial times of day and year. The circadian clock regulates a number of central plant activities, including growth, development, and reproduction, primarily through controlling a substantial proportion of transcriptional activity and protein function. This review examines the roles that alleles of circadian clock genes have played in domestication and improvement of crop plants. The focus here is on three groups of circadian clock genes essential to clock function in Arabidopsis thaliana: PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATORs, GIGANTEA, and the evening complex genes early flowering 3, early flowering 4, and lux arrhythmo. homologous genes from each group underlie quantitative trait loci that have beneficial influences on key agricultural traits, especially flowering time but also yield, biomass, and biennial growth habit. Emerging insights into circadian clock regulation of other fundamental plant processes, including responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, are discussed to highlight promising avenues for further crop improvement. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rodent Models for the Analysis of Tissue Clock Function in Metabolic Rhythms Research

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Anthony H.; Astiz, Mariana; Leinweber, Brinja; Oster, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The circadian timing system consists on a distributed network of cellular clocks that together coordinate 24-h rhythms of physiology and behavior. Clock function and metabolism are tightly coupled, from the cellular to the organismal level. Genetic and non-genetic approaches in rodents have been employed to study circadian clock function in the living organism. Due to the ubiquitous expression of clock genes and the intricate interaction between the circadian system and energy metabolism, genetic approaches targeting specific tissue clocks have been used to assess their contribution in systemic metabolic processes. However, special requirements regarding specificity and efficiency have to be met to allow for valid conclusions from such studies. In this review, we provide a brief summary of different approaches developed for dissecting tissue clock function in the metabolic context in rodents, compare their strengths and weaknesses, and suggest new strategies in assessing tissue clock output and the consequences of circadian clock disruption in vivo. PMID:28243224

  18. Redox rhythm reinforces the circadian clock to gate immune response.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mian; Wang, Wei; Karapetyan, Sargis; Mwimba, Musoki; Marqués, Jorge; Buchler, Nicolas E; Dong, Xinnian

    2015-07-23

    Recent studies have shown that in addition to the transcriptional circadian clock, many organisms, including Arabidopsis, have a circadian redox rhythm driven by the organism's metabolic activities. It has been hypothesized that the redox rhythm is linked to the circadian clock, but the mechanism and the biological significance of this link have only begun to be investigated. Here we report that the master immune regulator NPR1 (non-expressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1) of Arabidopsis is a sensor of the plant's redox state and regulates transcription of core circadian clock genes even in the absence of pathogen challenge. Surprisingly, acute perturbation in the redox status triggered by the immune signal salicylic acid does not compromise the circadian clock but rather leads to its reinforcement. Mathematical modelling and subsequent experiments show that NPR1 reinforces the circadian clock without changing the period by regulating both the morning and the evening clock genes. This balanced network architecture helps plants gate their immune responses towards the morning and minimize costs on growth at night. Our study demonstrates how a sensitive redox rhythm interacts with a robust circadian clock to ensure proper responsiveness to environmental stimuli without compromising fitness of the organism.

  19. Quantum Clock Synchronization with a Single Qudit

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Armin; Cabello, Adán; Żukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Clock synchronization for nonfaulty processes in multiprocess networks is indispensable for a variety of technologies. A reliable system must be able to resynchronize the nonfaulty processes upon some components failing causing the distribution of incorrect or conflicting information in the network. The task of synchronizing such networks is related to Byzantine agreement (BA), which can classically be solved using recursive algorithms if and only if less than one-third of the processes are faulty. Here we introduce a nonrecursive quantum algorithm, based on a quantum solution of the detectable BA, which achieves clock synchronization in the presence of arbitrary many faulty processes by using only a single quantum system. PMID:25613754

  20. How to synchronize biological clocks.

    PubMed

    Russo, G; Di Bernardo, M

    2009-02-01

    This paper is concerned with a novel algorithm to study networks of biological clocks. A new set of conditions is established that can be used to verify whether an existing network synchronizes or to give guidelines to construct a new synthetic network of biological oscillators that synchronize. The methodology uses the so-called contraction theory from dynamical system theory and Gershgorin disk theorem. The strategy is validated on two examples: a model of glycolisis in yeast cells and a synthetic network of Repressilators that synchronizes.

  1. Remote Clock Calibration Via GPS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    cesium clocks and a Global Positioning System ( GPS ) receiver. The f i rs t purpose was t o ca l ibra te t h e propagation delays and timing... positions in t h e vicinity of each t r ansmi t t e r could be obtained f rom survey markers in the a r e a or determined by t h e GPS receiver a...t any desired location. While t h e GPS receiver was used to obtain positions f o r t h e LORAN par t of t h e experiment, i t was also

  2. Using circadian entrainment to find cryptic clocks.

    PubMed

    Eelderink-Chen, Zheng; Olmedo, Maria; Bosman, Jasper; Merrow, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Three properties are most often attributed to the circadian clock: a ca. 24-h free-running rhythm, temperature compensation of the circadian rhythm, and its entrainment to zeitgeber cycles. Relatively few experiments, however, are performed under entrainment conditions. Rather, most chronobiology protocols concern constant conditions. We have turned this paradigm around and used entrainment to study the circadian clock in organisms where a free-running rhythm is weak or lacking. We describe two examples therein: Caenorhabditis elegans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By probing the system with zeitgeber cycles that have various structures and amplitudes, we can demonstrate the establishment of systematic entrained phase angles in these organisms. We conclude that entrainment can be utilized to discover hitherto unknown circadian clocks and we discuss the implications of using entrainment more broadly, even in model systems that show robust free-running rhythms.

  3. An Automated and Continuous Plant Weight Measurement System for Plant Factory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Tai; Yeh, Yu-Hui F; Liu, Ting-Yu; Lin, Ta-Te

    2016-01-01

    In plant factories, plants are usually cultivated in nutrient solution under a controllable environment. Plant quality and growth are closely monitored and precisely controlled. For plant growth evaluation, plant weight is an important and commonly used indicator. Traditional plant weight measurements are destructive and laborious. In order to measure and record the plant weight during plant growth, an automated measurement system was designed and developed herein. The weight measurement system comprises a weight measurement device and an imaging system. The weight measurement device consists of a top disk, a bottom disk, a plant holder and a load cell. The load cell with a resolution of 0.1 g converts the plant weight on the plant holder disk to an analog electrical signal for a precise measurement. The top disk and bottom disk are designed to be durable for different plant sizes, so plant weight can be measured continuously throughout the whole growth period, without hindering plant growth. The results show that plant weights measured by the weight measurement device are highly correlated with the weights estimated by the stereo-vision imaging system; hence, plant weight can be measured by either method. The weight growth of selected vegetables growing in the National Taiwan University plant factory were monitored and measured using our automated plant growth weight measurement system. The experimental results demonstrate the functionality, stability and durability of this system. The information gathered by this weight system can be valuable and beneficial for hydroponic plants monitoring research and agricultural research applications.

  4. An Automated and Continuous Plant Weight Measurement System for Plant Factory

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Tai; Yeh, Yu-Hui F.; Liu, Ting-Yu; Lin, Ta-Te

    2016-01-01

    In plant factories, plants are usually cultivated in nutrient solution under a controllable environment. Plant quality and growth are closely monitored and precisely controlled. For plant growth evaluation, plant weight is an important and commonly used indicator. Traditional plant weight measurements are destructive and laborious. In order to measure and record the plant weight during plant growth, an automated measurement system was designed and developed herein. The weight measurement system comprises a weight measurement device and an imaging system. The weight measurement device consists of a top disk, a bottom disk, a plant holder and a load cell. The load cell with a resolution of 0.1 g converts the plant weight on the plant holder disk to an analog electrical signal for a precise measurement. The top disk and bottom disk are designed to be durable for different plant sizes, so plant weight can be measured continuously throughout the whole growth period, without hindering plant growth. The results show that plant weights measured by the weight measurement device are highly correlated with the weights estimated by the stereo-vision imaging system; hence, plant weight can be measured by either method. The weight growth of selected vegetables growing in the National Taiwan University plant factory were monitored and measured using our automated plant growth weight measurement system. The experimental results demonstrate the functionality, stability and durability of this system. The information gathered by this weight system can be valuable and beneficial for hydroponic plants monitoring research and agricultural research applications. PMID:27066040

  5. Nuclear plants gain integrated information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Villavicencio-Ramirez, A.; Rodriquez-Alvarez, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    With the objective of simplifying the complex mesh of computing devices employed within nuclear power plants, modern technology and integration techniques are being used to form centralized (but backed up) databases and distributed processing and display networks. Benefits are immediate as a result of the integration and the use of standards. The use of a unique data acquisition and database subsystem optimizes the high costs of engineering, as this task is done only once for the life span of the system. This also contributes towards a uniform user interface and allows for graceful expansion and maintenance. This article features an integrated information system, Sistema Integral de Informacion de Proceso (SIIP). The development of this system enabled the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant to fully use the already existing universe of signals and its related engineering during all plant conditions, namely, start up, normal operation, transient analysis, and emergency operation. Integrated systems offer many advantages over segregated systems, and this experience should benefit similar development efforts in other electric power utilities, not only for nuclear but also for other types of generating plants.

  6. A rate-transparent, self-clocking line code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prucnal, Paul R.; Perrier, Philippe A.

    1987-01-01

    A reliable and economical new transmission code is presented with the following properties: zero dc content, baseband bandwidth conservation, self-clocking capability, and data-rate-transparent decoding and synchronization. Simple encoder/decoder and clock extractor circuits are given. The code is demonstrated in a wavelength-multiplexed fiber-optic communication system.

  7. A Role for Timely Nuclear Translocation of Clock Repressor Proteins in Setting Circadian Clock Speed

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Euna

    2014-01-01

    By means of a circadian clock system, all the living organisms on earth including human beings can anticipate the environmental rhythmic changes such as light/dark and warm/cold periods in a daily as well as in a yearly manner. Anticipating such environmental changes provide organisms with survival benefits via manifesting behavior and physiology at an advantageous time of the day and year. Cell-autonomous circadian oscillators, governed by transcriptional feedback loop composed of positive and negative elements, are organized into a hierarchical system throughout the organisms and generate an oscillatory expression of a clock gene by itself as well as clock controlled genes (ccgs) with a 24 hr periodicity. In the feedback loop, hetero-dimeric transcription factor complex induces the expression of negative regulatory proteins, which in turn represses the activity of transcription factors to inhibit their own transcription. Thus, for robust oscillatory rhythms of the expression of clock genes as well as ccgs, the precise control of subcellular localization and/or timely translocation of core clock protein are crucial. Here, we discuss how sub-cellular localization and nuclear translocation are controlled in a time-specific manner focusing on the negative regulatory clock proteins. PMID:25258565

  8. Clock Reaction: Outreach Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Yuen-ying; Phillips, Heather A.; Jakubinek, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Chemistry students are often introduced to the concept of reaction rates through demonstrations or laboratory activities involving the well-known iodine clock reaction. For example, a laboratory experiment involving thiosulfate as an iodine scavenger is part of the first-year general chemistry laboratory curriculum at Dalhousie University. With…

  9. Clock Reaction: Outreach Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Yuen-ying; Phillips, Heather A.; Jakubinek, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Chemistry students are often introduced to the concept of reaction rates through demonstrations or laboratory activities involving the well-known iodine clock reaction. For example, a laboratory experiment involving thiosulfate as an iodine scavenger is part of the first-year general chemistry laboratory curriculum at Dalhousie University. With…

  10. Pulsed Optically Pumped Rb clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micalizio, S.; Levi, F.; Godone, A.; Calosso, C. E.; François, B.; Boudot, R.; Affolderbach, C.; Kang, S.; Gharavipour, M.; Gruet, F.; Mileti, G.

    2016-06-01

    INRIM demonstrated a Rb vapour cell clock based on pulsed optical pumping (POP) with unprecedented frequency stability performances, both in the short and in the medium-long term period. In the frame of a EMRP project, we are developing a new clock based on the same POP principle but adopting solutions aimed at reducing the noise sources affecting the INRIM clock. At the same time, concerning possible technological applications, particular care are devoted in the project to reduce the size and the weight of the clock, still keeping the excellent stability of the INRIM clock. The paper resumes the main results of this activity.

  11. Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Safeguards System Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Elayat, H A; O'Connell, W J; Boyer, B D

    2006-06-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in developing tools and methods for potential U.S. use in designing and evaluating safeguards systems used in enrichment facilities. This research focuses on analyzing the effectiveness of the safeguards in protecting against the range of safeguards concerns for enrichment plants, including diversion of attractive material and unauthorized modes of use. We developed an Extend simulation model for a generic medium-sized centrifuge enrichment plant. We modeled the material flow in normal operation, plant operational upset modes, and selected diversion scenarios, for selected safeguards systems. Simulation modeling is used to analyze both authorized and unauthorized use of a plant and the flow of safeguards information. Simulation tracks the movement of materials and isotopes, identifies the signatures of unauthorized use, tracks the flow and compilation of safeguards data, and evaluates the effectiveness of the safeguards system in detecting misuse signatures. The simulation model developed could be of use to the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, enabling the IAEA to observe and draw conclusions that uranium enrichment facilities are being used only within authorized limits for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It will evaluate improved approaches to nonproliferation concerns, facilitating deployment of enhanced and cost-effective safeguards systems for an important part of the nuclear power fuel cycle.

  12. Laser controlled atom source for optical clocks

    PubMed Central

    Kock, Ole; He, Wei; Świerad, Dariusz; Smith, Lyndsie; Hughes, Joshua; Bongs, Kai; Singh, Yeshpal

    2016-01-01

    Precision timekeeping has been a driving force in innovation, from defining agricultural seasons to atomic clocks enabling satellite navigation, broadband communication and high-speed trading. We are on the verge of a revolution in atomic timekeeping, where optical clocks promise an over thousand-fold improvement in stability and accuracy. However, complex setups and sensitivity to thermal radiation pose limitations to progress. Here we report on an atom source for a strontium optical lattice clock which circumvents these limitations. We demonstrate fast (sub 100 ms), cold and controlled emission of strontium atomic vapours from bulk strontium oxide irradiated by a simple low power diode laser. Our results demonstrate that millions of strontium atoms from the vapour can be captured in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). Our method enables over an order of magnitude reduction in scale of the apparatus. Future applications range from satellite clocks testing general relativity to portable clocks for inertial navigation systems and relativistic geodesy. PMID:27857214

  13. Circadian Clock Control of Liver Metabolic Functions.

    PubMed

    Reinke, Hans; Asher, Gad

    2016-03-01

    The circadian clock is an endogenous biological timekeeping system that synchronizes physiology and behavior to day/night cycles. A wide variety of processes throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract and notably the liver appear to be under circadian control. These include various metabolic functions such as nutrient uptake, processing, and detoxification, which align organ function to cycle with nutrient supply and demand. Remarkably, genetic or environmental disruption of the circadian clock can cause metabolic diseases or exacerbate pathological states. In addition, modern lifestyles force more and more people worldwide into asynchrony between the external time and their circadian clock, resulting in a constant state of social jetlag. Recent evidence indicates that interactions between altered energy metabolism and disruptions in the circadian clock create a downward spiral that can lead to diabetes and other metabolic diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of rhythmic processes in the liver and highlight the functions of circadian clock genes under physiological and pathological conditions; we focus on their roles in regulation of hepatic glucose as well as lipid and bile acid metabolism and detoxification and their potential effects on the development of fatty liver and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nuclear receptors rock around the clock

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xuan; Cho, Han; Yu, Ruth T; Atkins, Annette R; Downes, Michael; Evans, Ronald M

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms characterize almost every aspect of human physiology, endocrinology, xenobiotic detoxification, cell growth, and behavior. Modern lifestyles that disrupt our normal circadian rhythms are increasingly thought to contribute to various disease conditions ranging from depression and metabolic disorders to cancer. This self-sustained time-keeping system is generated and maintained by an endogenous molecular machine, the circadian clock, which is a transcriptional mechanism composed of the transcription factors CLOCK and BMAL and their co-repressors, PER and CRY. Nuclear receptors (NRs) represent a large family of hormone-sensitive transcriptional regulators involved in a myriad of biological processes such as development, energy metabolism, reproduction, inflammation, and tissue homeostasis. Recent studies point not only to NR regulation by the clock, but also to NR regulation of the clock itself. Here, we discuss recent studies that functionally and mechanistically implicate NRs as key components of both the universal and adaptive circadian clock mechanisms. As proven pharmacological targets, nuclear receptors are promising targets for therapeutic control of many pathological conditions associated with the disruption of circadian rhythm. PMID:24737872

  15. A genetic screen for leaf movement mutants identifies a potential role for AGAMOUS-LIKE 6 (AGL6) in circadian-clock control.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung Kwan; Hong, Sung Myun; Lee, Jong Seob; Ahn, Ji Hoon

    2011-03-01

    The circadian clock in plants regulates many important physiological and biological processes, including leaf movement. We have used an imaging system to genetically screen Arabidopsis seedlings for altered leaf movement with the aim of identifying a circadian clock gene. A total of 285 genes were selected from publicly available microarrays that showed an expression pattern similar to those of the Arabidopsis core oscillator genes. We subsequently isolated 42 homozygous recessive mutants and analyzed their leaf movements. We also analyzed leaf movements of activation tagging mutants that showed altered flowering time. We found that agl6-1D plants, in which AGAMOUS-LIKE 6 (AGL6) was activated by the 35S enhancer, showed a shortened period of leaf movement as well as a high level of ZEITLUPE (ZTL) expression, reduced amplitude of LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) expression, and arrhythmic TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1)/CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) expression. A shortened period of leaf movement was also seen in 35S-AGL6-myc plants, although 35S-amiRAGL6 plants, transgenic plants overexpressing an artificial miRNA (amiR) targeting AGL6, showed unaltered leaf movement. The amplitude of CHLOROPHYLL A/B BINDING PROTEIN 2 (CAB2) expression, a circadian output gene, was also reduced in agl6-1D plants. Taken together, these results suggest that AGL6 plays a potential role in the regulation of the circadian clock by regulating ZTL mRNA level in Arabidopsis.

  16. A precise clock distribution network for MRPC-based experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Cao, P.; Shang, L.; An, Q.

    2016-06-01

    In high energy physics experiments, the MRPC (Multi-Gap Resistive Plate Chamber) detectors are widely used recently which can provide higher-resolution measurement for particle identification. However, the application of MRPC detectors leads to a series of challenges in electronics design with large number of front-end electronic channels, especially for distributing clock precisely. To deal with these challenges, this paper presents a universal scheme of clock transmission network for MRPC-based experiments with advantages of both precise clock distribution and global command synchronization. For precise clock distributing, the clock network is designed into a tree architecture with two stages: the first one has a point-to-multipoint long range bidirectional distribution with optical channels and the second one has a fan-out structure with copper link inside readout crates. To guarantee the precision of clock frequency or phase, the r-PTP (reduced Precision Time Protocol) and the DDMTD (digital Dual Mixer Time Difference) methods are used for frequency synthesis, phase measurement and adjustment, which is implemented by FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) in real-time. In addition, to synchronize global command execution, based upon this clock distribution network, synchronous signals are coded with clock for transmission. With technique of encoding/decoding and clock data recovery, signals such as global triggers or system control commands, can be distributed to all front-end channels synchronously, which greatly simplifies the system design. The experimental results show that both the clock jitter (RMS) and the clock skew can be less than 100 ps.

  17. Synergism of coupled subsarcolemmal Ca2+ clocks and sarcolemmal voltage clocks confers robust and flexible pacemaker function in a novel pacemaker cell model

    PubMed Central

    Maltsev, Victor A.; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent experimental studies have demonstrated that sinoatrial node cells (SANC) generate spontaneous, rhythmic, local subsarcolemmal Ca2+ releases (Ca2+ clock), which occur during late diastolic depolarization (DD) and interact with the classic sarcolemmal voltage oscillator (membrane clock) by activating Na+-Ca2+ exchanger current (INCX). This and other interactions between clocks, however, are not captured by existing essentially membrane-delimited cardiac pacemaker cell numerical models. Using wide-scale parametric analysis of classic formulations of membrane clock and Ca2+ cycling, we have constructed and initially explored a prototype rabbit SANC model featuring both clocks. Our coupled oscillator system exhibits greater robustness and flexibility than membrane clock operating alone. Rhythmic spontaneous Ca2+ releases of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)-based Ca2+ clock ignite rhythmic action potentials via late DD INCX over much broader ranges of membrane clock parameters [e.g., L-type Ca2+ current (ICaL) and/or hyperpolarization-activated (“funny”) current (If) conductances]. The system Ca2+ clock includes SR and sarcolemmal Ca2+ fluxes, which optimize cell Ca2+ balance to increase amplitudes of both SR Ca2+ release and late DD INCX as SR Ca2+ pumping rate increases, resulting in a broad pacemaker rate modulation (1.8–4.6 Hz). In contrast, the rate modulation range via membrane clock parameters is substantially smaller when Ca2+ clock is unchanged or lacking. When Ca2+ clock is disabled, the system parametric space for fail-safe SANC operation considerably shrinks: without rhythmic late DD INCX ignition signals membrane clock substantially slows, becomes dysrhythmic, or halts. In conclusion, the Ca2+ clock is a new critical dimension in SANC function. A synergism of the coupled function of Ca2+ and membrane clocks confers fail-safe SANC operation at greatly varying rates. PMID:19136600

  18. Single electron relativistic clock interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushev, P. A.; Cole, J. H.; Sholokhov, D.; Kukharchyk, N.; Zych, M.

    2016-09-01

    Although time is one of the fundamental notions in physics, it does not have a unique description. In quantum theory time is a parameter ordering the succession of the probability amplitudes of a quantum system, while according to relativity theory each system experiences in general a different proper time, depending on the system's world line, due to time dilation. It is therefore of fundamental interest to test the notion of time in the regime where both quantum and relativistic effects play a role, for example, when different amplitudes of a single quantum clock experience different magnitudes of time dilation. Here we propose a realization of such an experiment with a single electron in a Penning trap. The clock can be implemented in the electronic spin precession and its time dilation then depends on the radial (cyclotron) state of the electron. We show that coherent manipulation and detection of the electron can be achieved already with present day technology. A single electron in a Penning trap is a technologically ready platform where the notion of time can be probed in a hitherto untested regime, where it requires a relativistic as well as quantum description.

  19. Silver nanoparticles in soil-plant systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjum, Naser A.; Gill, Sarvajeet S.; Duarte, Armando C.; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2013-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have broad spectrum antimicrobial/biocidal properties against all classes of microorganisms and possess numerous distinctive physico-chemical properties compared to bulk Ag. Hence, AgNPs are among the most widely used engineered NPs in a wide range of consumer products and are expected to enter natural ecosystems including soil via diverse pathways. However, despite: (i) soil has been considered as a critical pathway for NPs environmental fate, (ii) plants (essential base component of all ecosystems) have been strongly recommended to be included for the development of a comprehensive toxicity profile for rapidly mounting NPs in varied environmental compartments, and (iii) the occurrence of an intricate relationship between "soil-plant systems" where any change in soil chemical/biological properties is bound to have impact on plant system, the knowledge about AgNPs in soils and investigations on AgNPs-plants interaction is still rare and in its rudimentary stage. To this end, the current paper: (a) overviews sources, status, fate, and chemistry of AgNPs in soils, AgNPs-impact on soil biota, (b) critically discusses terrestrial plant responses to AgNPs exposure, and (c) illustrates the knowledge-gaps in the current perspective. Based on the available literature critically appraised herein, a multidisciplinary integrated approach is strongly recommended for future research in the current direction aimed at unveiling the rapidly mounting AgNPs-fate, transformation, accumulation, and toxicity potential in "soil-plant systems," and their cumulative impact on environmental and human health.

  20. Relativity and Al^+ Optical Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chin-Wen; Hume, David B.; Wineland, David J.; Rosenband, Till

    2010-03-01

    We have constructed an optical clock based on quantum logic spectroscopy of an Al+ ion that has a fractional frequency inaccuracy of 8.6x10-18. The frequency of the ^1S0<->^3P0 clock transition is compared to that of a previously constructed Al^+ optical clock with a statistical measurement uncertainty of 7.0x10-18. The two clocks exhibit a relative stability of 2.8x10-15&-1/2circ;, and a fractional frequency difference of -1.8x10-17, consistent with the accuracy limit of the older clock. By comparing the frequencies of the clocks, we have observed relativistic effects, such as time dilation due to velocities less than 10 m/s and the gravitational red shift from a 0.33 m height change of one of the clocks.

  1. Biochemical basis for the biological clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. James; Chueh, Pin-Ju; Pletcher, Jake; Tang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Lian-Ying; Morre, Dorothy M.

    2002-01-01

    NADH oxidases at the external surface of plant and animal cells (ECTO-NOX proteins) exhibit stable and recurring patterns of oscillations with potentially clock-related, entrainable, and temperature-compensated period lengths of 24 min. To determine if ECTO-NOX proteins might represent the ultradian time keepers (pacemakers) of the biological clock, COS cells were transfected with cDNAs encoding tNOX proteins having a period length of 22 min or with C575A or C558A cysteine to alanine replacements having period lengths of 36 or 42 min. Here we demonstrate that such transfectants exhibited 22, 36, or 40 to 42 h circadian patterns in the activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a common clock-regulated protein, in addition to the endogenous 24 h circadian period length. The fact that the expression of a single oscillatory ECTO-NOX protein determines the period length of a circadian biochemical marker (60 X the ECTO-NOX period length) provides compelling evidence that ECTO-NOX proteins are the biochemical ultradian drivers of the cellular biological clock.

  2. Biochemical basis for the biological clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. James; Chueh, Pin-Ju; Pletcher, Jake; Tang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Lian-Ying; Morre, Dorothy M.

    2002-01-01

    NADH oxidases at the external surface of plant and animal cells (ECTO-NOX proteins) exhibit stable and recurring patterns of oscillations with potentially clock-related, entrainable, and temperature-compensated period lengths of 24 min. To determine if ECTO-NOX proteins might represent the ultradian time keepers (pacemakers) of the biological clock, COS cells were transfected with cDNAs encoding tNOX proteins having a period length of 22 min or with C575A or C558A cysteine to alanine replacements having period lengths of 36 or 42 min. Here we demonstrate that such transfectants exhibited 22, 36, or 40 to 42 h circadian patterns in the activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a common clock-regulated protein, in addition to the endogenous 24 h circadian period length. The fact that the expression of a single oscillatory ECTO-NOX protein determines the period length of a circadian biochemical marker (60 X the ECTO-NOX period length) provides compelling evidence that ECTO-NOX proteins are the biochemical ultradian drivers of the cellular biological clock.

  3. Real clocks and the Zeno effect

    SciTech Connect

    Egusquiza, Inigo L.; Garay, Luis J.

    2003-08-01

    Real clocks are not perfect. This must have an effect in our predictions for the behavior of a quantum system, an effect for which we present a unified description, encompassing several previous proposals. We study the relevance of clock errors in the Zeno effect and find that generically no Zeno effect can be present (in such a way that there is no contradiction with currently available experimental data). We further observe that, within the class of stochasticities in time addressed here, there is no modification in emission line shapes.

  4. Clock Genes, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Tarquini, Roberto; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2017-10-01

    The molecular clockwork drives rhythmic oscillations of signaling pathways managing intermediate metabolism; the circadian timing system synchronizes behavioral cycles and anabolic/catabolic processes with environmental cues, mainly represented by light/darkness alternation. Metabolic pathways, bile acid synthesis, and autophagic and immune/inflammatory processes are driven by the biological clock. Proper timing of hormone secretion, metabolism, bile acid turnover, autophagy, and inflammation with behavioral cycles is necessary to avoid dysmetabolism. Disruption of the biological clock and mistiming of body rhythmicity with respect to environmental cues provoke loss of internal synchronization and metabolic derangements, causing liver steatosis, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chromatin remodelling and the Arabidopsis biological clock.

    PubMed

    Más, Paloma

    2008-02-01

    Plants, as sessile organisms, rely on accurate time measurement to synchronize their physiology and development to the most favourable time-of-day or time-of-year. The biological clock is the endogenous mechanism responsible for the integration of the photoperiodic information thus coordinating metabolism in resonance with the environmental cycle. Despite the importance of circadian clock function in plant reproduction and survival, we are still far from understanding the specific molecular mechanisms governing the rhythmic expression of clock components. Recently, we have described a new mechanism of circadian regulation that involves changes in chromatin structure at the TOC1 (TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1) locus. The mechanism is defined by activators and repressors that are precisely coordinated to favor a hyper- or hypo-acetylated state of histones that leads to TOC1 transcriptional activation or repression, respectively. The clockcontrolled rhythms in histone acetylation/deacetylation at the TOC1 promoter are differentially modulated by day-length or photoperiod suggesting a mechanism by which plants ensure the phase of entrainment in physiological and developmental outputs.

  6. Micro-managing the circadian clock: The role of microRNAs in biological timekeeping.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Neel; Cheng, Hai-Ying M

    2013-10-09

    Evolved under the selective pressures of a 24-h world, circadian timekeeping mechanisms are present in virtually all living organisms to coordinate daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. Until recently, the circadian clock was modeled as simple, interlocked transcription-translation feedback loops driving rhythms in gene expression of a handful of core clock genes. However, it has become evident that circadian clock regulation is immensely more complex than once thought and involves posttranscriptional, translational and posttranslational mechanisms. In particular, there has been a growing awareness of the vital role played by microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating various aspects of circadian clock function. In this review, we will summarize our current knowledge of miRNA-dependent regulation of the circadian timing system in multiple organisms, including flies, mammals and higher plants. We will also discuss future perspectives for research on the role of miRNAs and noncoding RNAs in circadian regulation of health and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Beyond Cannabis: Plants and the Endocannabinoid System.

    PubMed

    Russo, Ethan B

    2016-07-01

    Plants have been the predominant source of medicines throughout the vast majority of human history, and remain so today outside of industrialized societies. One of the most versatile in terms of its phytochemistry is cannabis, whose investigation has led directly to the discovery of a unique and widespread homeostatic physiological regulator, the endocannabinoid system. While it had been the conventional wisdom until recently that only cannabis harbored active agents affecting the endocannabinoid system, in recent decades the search has widened and identified numerous additional plants whose components stimulate, antagonize, or modulate different aspects of this system. These include common foodstuffs, herbs, spices, and more exotic ingredients: kava, chocolate, black pepper, and many others that are examined in this review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inducible gene expression systems and plant biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Giandomenico; Karali, Marianthi

    2009-01-01

    Plant biotechnology relies heavily on the genetic manipulation of crops. Almost invariantly, the gene of interest is expressed in a constitutive fashion, although this may not be strictly necessary for several applications. Currently, there are several regulatable expression systems for the temporal, spatial and quantitative control of transgene activity. These molecular switches are based on components derived from different organisms, which range from viruses to higher eukaryotes. Many inducible systems have been designed for fundamental and applied research and since their initial development, they have become increasingly popular in plant molecular biology. This review covers a broad number of inducible expression systems examining their properties and relevance for plant biotechnology in its various guises, from molecular breeding to pharmaceutical and industrial applications. For each system, we examine some advantages and limitations, also in relation to the strategy on which they rely. Besides being necessary to control useful genes that may negatively affect crop yield and quality, we discuss that inducible systems can be also used to increase public acceptance of GMOs, reducing some of the most common concerns. Finally, we suggest some directions and future developments for their further diffusion in agriculture and biotechnology.

  9. Sample-Clock Phase-Control Feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Gin, Jonathan W.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy

    2012-01-01

    To demodulate a communication signal, a receiver must recover and synchronize to the symbol timing of a received waveform. In a system that utilizes digital sampling, the fidelity of synchronization is limited by the time between the symbol boundary and closest sample time location. To reduce this error, one typically uses a sample clock in excess of the symbol rate in order to provide multiple samples per symbol, thereby lowering the error limit to a fraction of a symbol time. For systems with a large modulation bandwidth, the required sample clock rate is prohibitive due to current technological barriers and processing complexity. With precise control of the phase of the sample clock, one can sample the received signal at times arbitrarily close to the symbol boundary, thus obviating the need, from a synchronization perspective, for multiple samples per symbol. Sample-clock phase-control feedback was developed for use in the demodulation of an optical communication signal, where multi-GHz modulation bandwidths would require prohibitively large sample clock frequencies for rates in excess of the symbol rate. A custom mixedsignal (RF/digital) offset phase-locked loop circuit was developed to control the phase of the 6.4-GHz clock that samples the photon-counting detector output. The offset phase-locked loop is driven by a feedback mechanism that continuously corrects for variation in the symbol time due to motion between the transmitter and receiver as well as oscillator instability. This innovation will allow significant improvements in receiver throughput; for example, the throughput of a pulse-position modulation (PPM) with 16 slots can increase from 188 Mb/s to 1.5 Gb/s.

  10. A transportable optical clock for chronometric levelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisdat, C.; Koller, S. B.; Grotti, J.; Vogt, S.; Al-Masoudi, A.; Dörscher, S.; Herbers, S.; Häfner, S.; Sterr, U.

    2016-12-01

    With their supreme accuracy and precision, optical clocks in combination with new methods of long-distance frequency transfer can be used to determine height differences by measuring the gravitational red shift between two clocks without accumulation of measurement errors, as in classical levelling. We are developing transportable optical clocks for this purpose that will also serve for the technology development regarding optical clocks in Space and for international comparisons between optical clocks that cannot be linked with sufficient accuracy otherwise.In this talk we will focus on the transportable strontium lattice clock that we are developing and its first evaluation. Presently, we achieve a fractional frequency instability of 3×10-17 after 1000 s averaging time, which is equivalent to a height resolution of 30 cm. The first uncertainty evaluation of the system yielded 7×10-17. We expect rapid improvements to an uncertainty of a few parts in 1017.The clock then placed within a car trailer, which requires compact and rugged lasers systems and physics package. Special care has been taken in the design of the ultra-frequency stable interrogation laser that has to achieve fractional frequency instabilities of considerably below 10-15. Typical laboratory constructions of the reference resonator system used to pre-stabilize the laser frequency are not compatible with the requirement of transportability.In an actual levelling campaign, this clock will be connected e.g. via a stabilized optical fibre link with another, stationary frequency standard. The measured gravitational red shift can be compared to the ones calculated from potential differences derived with state of the art geodetic data and models. A first campaign has been completed in cooperation with colleagues from the Italian and UK metrology institutes INRIM and NPL, respectively, and the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE), Leibniz University Hannover. We will discuss the status of the evaluation and

  11. Generating clock signals for a cycle accurate, cycle reproducible FPGA based hardware accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Asaad, Sameth W.; Kapur, Mohit

    2016-01-05

    A method, system and computer program product are disclosed for generating clock signals for a cycle accurate FPGA based hardware accelerator used to simulate operations of a device-under-test (DUT). In one embodiment, the DUT includes multiple device clocks generating multiple device clock signals at multiple frequencies and at a defined frequency ratio; and the FPG hardware accelerator includes multiple accelerator clocks generating multiple accelerator clock signals to operate the FPGA hardware accelerator to simulate the operations of the DUT. In one embodiment, operations of the DUT are mapped to the FPGA hardware accelerator, and the accelerator clock signals are generated at multiple frequencies and at the defined frequency ratio of the frequencies of the multiple device clocks, to maintain cycle accuracy between the DUT and the FPGA hardware accelerator. In an embodiment, the FPGA hardware accelerator may be used to control the frequencies of the multiple device clocks.

  12. Phylogenetics and molecular clocks reveal the repeated evolution of ant-plants after the late Miocene in Africa and the early Miocene in Australasia and the Neotropics.

    PubMed

    Chomicki, Guillaume; Renner, Susanne S

    2015-07-01

    Ant-plant symbioses involve over 110 ant species in five subfamilies that are facultative or obligate occupants of stem, leaf or root domatia formed by hundreds of ant-plant species. The phylogenetic distribution and geological ages of these associations, and the frequency of gains or losses of domatium, are largely unknown. We compiled an up-to-date list of ant domatium-bearing plants, estimated their probable true number from model-based statistical inference, generated dated phylogenies that include c. 50% of ant-plant lineages, and traced the occurrence of domatia and extrafloral nectaries on a 1181-species tree, using likelihood and Bayesian methods. We found 681 vascular plants with domatia (159 genera in 50 families) resulting from minimally 158 inferred domatium origins and 43 secondary losses over the last 19 Myr. The oldest African ant-plant symbioses are younger than those in Australasia and the Neotropics. The best statistical model suggests that the true number of myrmecophytes may approach 1140 species. The phylogenetic distribution of ant-plants shows that domatia evolved from a range of pre-adapted morphological structures and have been lost frequently, suggesting that domatia have no generalizable effect on diversification. The Miocene origin of ant-plant symbioses is consistent with inferred changes in diet and behaviour during ant evolution. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Clock Synchronization for Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solis Robles, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks, more so generally than in other types of distributed systems, clock synchronization is crucial since by having this service available, several applications such as media access protocols, object tracking, or data fusion, would improve their performance. In this dissertation, we propose a set of algorithms to achieve…

  14. Clock Synchronization for Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solis Robles, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks, more so generally than in other types of distributed systems, clock synchronization is crucial since by having this service available, several applications such as media access protocols, object tracking, or data fusion, would improve their performance. In this dissertation, we propose a set of algorithms to achieve…

  15. A single-cell bioluminescence imaging system for monitoring cellular gene expression in a plant body.

    PubMed

    Muranaka, Tomoaki; Kubota, Saya; Oyama, Tokitaka

    2013-12-01

    Gene expression is a fundamental cellular process and expression dynamics are of great interest in life science. We succeeded in monitoring cellular gene expression in a duckweed plant, Lemna gibba, using bioluminescent reporters. Using particle bombardment, epidermal and mesophyll cells were transfected with the luciferase gene (luc+) under the control of a constitutive [Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S)] and a rhythmic [Arabidopsis thaliana CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (AtCCA1)] promoter. Bioluminescence images were captured using an EM-CCD (electron multiply charged couple device) camera. Luminescent spots of the transfected cells in the plant body were quantitatively measured at the single-cell level. Luminescence intensities varied over a 1,000-fold range among CaMV35S::luc+-transfected cells in the same plant body and showed a log-normal-like frequency distribution. We monitored cellular gene expression under light-dark conditions by capturing bioluminescence images every hour. Luminescence traces of ≥50 individual cells in a frond were successfully obtained in each monitoring procedure. Rhythmic and constitutive luminescence behaviors were observed in cells transfected with AtCCA1::luc+ and CaMV35S::luc+, respectively. Diurnal rhythms were observed in every AtCCA1::luc+-introduced cell with traceable luminescence, and slight differences were detected in their rhythmic waveforms. Thus the single-cell bioluminescence monitoring system was useful for the characterization of cellular gene expression in a plant body.

  16. VIEW OF SITE EMPLOYEES CHECKINGIN IN THE CLOCK ROOM. EMPLOYEES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SITE EMPLOYEES CHECKING-IN IN THE CLOCK ROOM. EMPLOYEES WERE REQUIRED TO HAVE A SEPARATE BADGE FOR EACH AREA OF THE SITE THAT THEY ENTERED. (7/31/67) - Rocky Flats Plant, Offices, Print Shop & Photography Lab, Northwest quad of plant near terminus of Central Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. A model for plant lighting system selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciolkosz, D. E.; Albright, L. D.; Sager, J. C.; Langhans, R. W.

    2002-01-01

    A decision model is presented that compares lighting systems for a plant growth scenario and chooses the most appropriate system from a given set of possible choices. The model utilizes a Multiple Attribute Utility Theory approach, and incorporates expert input and performance simulations to calculate a utility value for each lighting system being considered. The system with the highest utility is deemed the most appropriate system. The model was applied to a greenhouse scenario, and analyses were conducted to test the model's output for validity. Parameter variation indicates that the model performed as expected. Analysis of model output indicates that differences in utility among the candidate lighting systems were sufficiently large to give confidence that the model's order of selection was valid.

  18. Clock Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Ill-Keun; Lee, Jaehan; Kim, Jangsub; Serpedin, Erchin; Wu, Yik-Chung

    2009-01-01

    The development of tiny, low-cost, low-power and multifunctional sensor nodes equipped with sensing, data processing, and communicating components, have been made possible by the recent advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) assume a collection of such tiny sensing devices connected wirelessly and which are used to observe and monitor a variety of phenomena in the real physical world. Many applications based on these WSNs assume local clocks at each sensor node that need to be synchronized to a common notion of time. This paper reviews the existing clock synchronization protocols for WSNs and the methods of estimating clock offset and clock skew in the most representative clock synchronization protocols for WSNs. PMID:22389588

  19. Lattice-induced nonadiabatic frequency shifts in optical lattice clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Beloy, K.

    2010-09-15

    We consider the frequency shift in optical lattice clocks which arises from the coupling of the electronic motion to the atomic motion within the lattice. For the simplest of three-dimensional lattice geometries this coupling is shown to affect only clocks based on blue-detuned lattices. We have estimated the size of this shift for the prospective strontium lattice clock operating at the 390-nm blue-detuned magic wavelength. The resulting fractional frequency shift is found to be on the order of 10{sup -18} and is largely overshadowed by the electric quadrupole shift. For lattice clocks based on more complex geometries or other atomic systems, this shift could potentially be a limiting factor in clock accuracy.

  20. An Anomaly Clock Detection Algorithm for a Robust Clock Ensemble

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    41 st Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 121 AN ANOMALY CLOCK DETECTION ALGORITHM FOR A ROBUST CLOCK ENSEMBLE...clocks are in phase and on frequency all the time with advantages of relatively simple, robust, fully redundant, and improved performance. It allows...Algorithm parameters, such as the sliding window width as a function of the time constant, and the minimum detectable levels have been optimized and

  1. Clocking in the face of unpredictability beyond quantum uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madjid, F. Hadi; Myers, John M.

    2015-05-01

    In earlier papers we showed unpredictability beyond quantum uncertainty in atomic clocks, ensuing from a proven gap between given evidence and explanations of that evidence. Here we reconceive a clock, not as an isolated entity, but as enmeshed in a self-adjusting communications network adapted to one or another particular investigation, in contact with an unpredictable environment. From the practical uses of clocks, we abstract a clock enlivened with the computational capacity of a Turing machine, modified to transmit and to receive numerical communications. Such "live clocks" phase the steps of their computations to mesh with the arrival of transmitted numbers. We lift this phasing, known in digital communications, to a principle of logical synchronization, distinct from the synchronization defined by Einstein in special relativity. Logical synchronization elevates digital communication to a topic in physics, including applications to biology. One explores how feedback loops in clocking affect numerical signaling among entities functioning in the face of unpredictable influences, making the influences themselves into subjects of investigation. The formulation of communications networks in terms of live clocks extends information theory by expressing the need to actively maintain communications channels, and potentially, to create or drop them. We show how networks of live clocks are presupposed by the concept of coordinates in a spacetime. A network serves as an organizing principle, even when the concept of the rigid body that anchors a special-relativistic coordinate system is inapplicable, as is the case, for example, in a generic curved spacetime.

  2. Circadian Clocks as Modulators of Metabolic Comorbidity in Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Barandas, Rita; Landgraf, Dominic; McCarthy, Michael J; Welsh, David K

    2015-12-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder are often accompanied by metabolic dysfunction symptoms, including obesity and diabetes. Since the circadian system controls important brain systems that regulate affective, cognitive, and metabolic functions, and neuropsychiatric and metabolic diseases are often correlated with disturbances of circadian rhythms, we hypothesize that dysregulation of circadian clocks plays a central role in metabolic comorbidity in psychiatric disorders. In this review paper, we highlight the role of circadian clocks in glucocorticoid, dopamine, and orexin/melanin-concentrating hormone systems and describe how a dysfunction of these clocks may contribute to the simultaneous development of psychiatric and metabolic symptoms.

  3. The circadian clock rephases during lateral root organ initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Voß, Ute; Wilson, Michael H.; Kenobi, Kim; Gould, Peter D.; Robertson, Fiona C.; Peer, Wendy A.; Lucas, Mikaël; Swarup, Kamal; Casimiro, Ilda; Holman, Tara J.; Wells, Darren M.; Péret, Benjamin; Goh, Tatsuaki; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Hodgman, T. Charlie; Laplaze, Laurent; Halliday, Karen J.; Ljung, Karin; Murphy, Angus S.; Hall, Anthony J.; Webb, Alex A. R.; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2015-01-01

    The endogenous circadian clock enables organisms to adapt their growth and development to environmental changes. Here we describe how the circadian clock is employed to coordinate responses to the key signal auxin during lateral root (LR) emergence. In the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, LRs originate from a group of stem cells deep within the root, necessitating that new organs emerge through overlying root tissues. We report that the circadian clock is rephased during LR development. Metabolite and transcript profiling revealed that the circadian clock controls the levels of auxin and auxin-related genes including the auxin response repressor IAA14 and auxin oxidase AtDAO2. Plants lacking or overexpressing core clock components exhibit LR emergence defects. We conclude that the circadian clock acts to gate auxin signalling during LR development to facilitate organ emergence. PMID:26144255

  4. The circadian clock rephases during lateral root organ initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Voß, Ute; Wilson, Michael H; Kenobi, Kim; Gould, Peter D; Robertson, Fiona C; Peer, Wendy A; Lucas, Mikaël; Swarup, Kamal; Casimiro, Ilda; Holman, Tara J; Wells, Darren M; Péret, Benjamin; Goh, Tatsuaki; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Hodgman, T Charlie; Laplaze, Laurent; Halliday, Karen J; Ljung, Karin; Murphy, Angus S; Hall, Anthony J; Webb, Alex A R; Bennett, Malcolm J

    2015-07-06

    The endogenous circadian clock enables organisms to adapt their growth and development to environmental changes. Here we describe how the circadian clock is employed to coordinate responses to the key signal auxin during lateral root (LR) emergence. In the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, LRs originate from a group of stem cells deep within the root, necessitating that new organs emerge through overlying root tissues. We report that the circadian clock is rephased during LR development. Metabolite and transcript profiling revealed that the circadian clock controls the levels of auxin and auxin-related genes including the auxin response repressor IAA14 and auxin oxidase AtDAO2. Plants lacking or overexpressing core clock components exhibit LR emergence defects. We conclude that the circadian clock acts to gate auxin signalling during LR development to facilitate organ emergence.

  5. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    SciTech Connect

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-02-24

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

  6. Disruption of the circadian clock due to the Clock mutation has discrete effects on aging and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Antoch, Marina P; Gorbacheva, Victoria Y; Vykhovanets, Olena; Toshkov, Illia A; Kondratov, Roman V; Kondratova, Anna A; Lee, Choogon; Nikitin, Alexander Yu

    2008-05-01

    The mammalian circadian system has been implicated in the regulation of various biological processes including those involved in genotoxic stress responses and tumor suppression. Here we report that mice with the functional deficiency in circadian transcription factor CLOCK (Clock/Clock mutant mice) do not display predisposition to tumor formation both during their normal lifespan or when challenged by gamma- radiation. This phenotype is consistent with high apoptotic and low proliferation rate in lymphoid tissues of Clock mutant mice and is supported by the gene expression profiling of a number of apoptosis and cell cycle-related genes, as well as by growth inhibition of cells with CLOCK downregulation. At the same time, Clock mutant mice respond to low-dose irradiation by accelerating their aging program, and develop phenotypes that are reminiscent of those in Bmal1-deficient mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate the dichotomy in biological consequences of the disruption of the circadian clock with respect to ageing and cancer. They also highlight the existence of a complex interconnection between ageing, carcinogenesis and individual components of the circadian clock machinery.

  7. Disruption of the circadian clock due to the Clock mutation has discrete effects on aging and carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Antoch, Marina P.; Gorbacheva, Victoria Y.; Vykhovanets, Olena; Toshkov, Illia A.; Kondratov, Roman V.; Kondratova, Anna A.; Lee, Choogon; Nikitin, Alexander Yu.

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian circadian system has been implicated in the regulation of various biological processes including those involved in genotoxic stress responses and tumor suppression. Here we report that mice with the functional deficiency in circadian transcription factor CLOCK (Clock/Clock mutant mice) do not display predisposition to tumor formation both during their normal lifespan or when challenged by γ-radiation. This phenotype is consistent with high apoptotic and low proliferation rate in lymphoid tissues of Clock mutant mice and is supported by the gene expression profiling of a number of apoptosis and cell cycle-related genes, as well as by growth inhibition of cells with CLOCK downregulation. At the same time, Clock mutant mice respond to low-dose irradiation by accelerating their aging program, and develop phenotypes that are reminiscent of those in Bmal1-deficient mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate the dichotomy in biological consequences of the disruption of the circadian clock with respect to ageing and cancer. They also highlight the existence of a complex interconnection between ageing, carcinogenesis and individual components of the circadian clock machinery. PMID:18418054

  8. Feedback system design with an uncertain plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milich, D.; Valavani, L.; Athans, M.

    1986-01-01

    A method is developed to design a fixed-parameter compensator for a linear, time-invariant, SISO (single-input single-output) plant model characterized by significant structured, as well as unstructured, uncertainty. The controller minimizes the H(infinity) norm of the worst-case sensitivity function over the operating band and the resulting feedback system exhibits robust stability and robust performance. It is conjectured that such a robust nonadaptive control design technique can be used on-line in an adaptive control system.

  9. Feedback system design with an uncertain plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milich, D.; Valavani, L.; Athans, M.

    1986-01-01

    A method is developed to design a fixed-parameter compensator for a linear, time-invariant, SISO (single-output single-output) plant model characterized by significant structured, as well as unstructured, uncertainty. The controller minimizes the H(infinity) norm of the worst-case sensitivity function over the operating band and the resulting feedback system exhibits robust stability and robust performance. It is conjectured that such a robust nonadaptive control design technique can be used on-line in an adaptive control system.

  10. The Vitamin C Clock Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Stephen W.

    2002-01-01

    An iodine clock reaction that gives a colorless to black result similar to that of the familiar Landolt iodate-bisulfite clock reaction is described. The vitamin C clock reaction uses chemicals that are readily available on the retail market: vitamin C, tincture of iodine, 3% hydrogen peroxide, and laundry starch. Orange juice may be used as the vitamin C source to give an orange to black reaction.

  11. Huygens synchronization of two clocks.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Henrique M; Melo, Luís V

    2015-07-23

    The synchronization of two pendulum clocks hanging from a wall was first observed by Huygens during the XVII century. This type of synchronization is observed in other areas, and is fundamentally different from the problem of two clocks hanging from a moveable base. We present a model explaining the phase opposition synchronization of two pendulum clocks in those conditions. The predicted behaviour is observed experimentally, validating the model.

  12. A mixed relaxed clock model.

    PubMed

    Lartillot, Nicolas; Phillips, Matthew J; Ronquist, Fredrik

    2016-07-19

    Over recent years, several alternative relaxed clock models have been proposed in the context of Bayesian dating. These models fall in two distinct categories: uncorrelated and autocorrelated across branches. The choice between these two classes of relaxed clocks is still an open question. More fundamentally, the true process of rate variation may have both long-term trends and short-term fluctuations, suggesting that more sophisticated clock models unfolding over multiple time scales should ultimately be developed. Here, a mixed relaxed clock model is introduced, which can be mechanistically interpreted as a rate variation process undergoing short-term fluctuations on the top of Brownian long-term trends. Statistically, this mixed clock represents an alternative solution to the problem of choosing between autocorrelated and uncorrelated relaxed clocks, by proposing instead to combine their respective merits. Fitting this model on a dataset of 105 placental mammals, using both node-dating and tip-dating approaches, suggests that the two pure clocks, Brownian and white noise, are rejected in favour of a mixed model with approximately equal contributions for its uncorrelated and autocorrelated components. The tip-dating analysis is particularly sensitive to the choice of the relaxed clock model. In this context, the classical pure Brownian relaxed clock appears to be overly rigid, leading to biases in divergence time estimation. By contrast, the use of a mixed clock leads to more recent and more reasonable estimates for the crown ages of placental orders and superorders. Altogether, the mixed clock introduced here represents a first step towards empirically more adequate models of the patterns of rate variation across phylogenetic trees.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'.

  13. A hydroponic system for microgravity plant experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, B. D.; Bausch, W. C.; Knott, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    The construction of a permanently manned space station will provide the opportunity to grow plants for weeks or months in orbit for experiments or food production. With this opportunity comes the need for a method to provide plants with a continuous supply of water and nutrients in microgravity. The Capillary Effect Root Environment System (CERES) uses capillary forces to maintain control of circulating plant nutrient solution in the weightless environment of an orbiting spacecraft. The nutrient solution is maintained at a pressure slightly less than the ambient air pressure while it flows on one side of a porous membrane. The root, on the other side of the membrane, is surrounded by a thin film of nutrient solution where it contacts the moist surface of the membrane. The root is provided with water, nutrients and air simultaneously. Air bubbles in the nutrient solution are removed using a hydrophobic/hydrophilic membrane system. A model scaled to the size necessary for flight hardware to test CERES in the space shuttle was constructed.

  14. A hydroponic system for microgravity plant experiments.

    PubMed

    Wright, B D; Bausch, W C; Knott, W M

    1988-01-01

    The construction of a permanently manned space station will provide the opportunity to grow plants for weeks or months in orbit for experiments or food production. With this opportunity comes the need for a method to provide plants with a continuous supply of water and nutrients in microgravity. The Capillary Effect Root Environment System (CERES) uses capillary forces to maintain control of circulating plant nutrient solution in the weightless environment of an orbiting spacecraft. The nutrient solution is maintained at a pressure slightly less than the ambient air pressure while it flows on one side of a porous membrane. The root, on the other side of the membrane, is surrounded by a thin film of nutrient solution where it contacts the moist surface of the membrane. The root is provided with water, nutrients and air simultaneously. Air bubbles in the nutrient solution are removed using a hydrophobic/hydrophilic membrane system. A model scaled to the size necessary for flight hardware to test CERES in the space shuttle was constructed.

  15. A hydroponic system for microgravity plant experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, B. D.; Bausch, W. C.; Knott, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    The construction of a permanently manned space station will provide the opportunity to grow plants for weeks or months in orbit for experiments or food production. With this opportunity comes the need for a method to provide plants with a continuous supply of water and nutrients in microgravity. The Capillary Effect Root Environment System (CERES) uses capillary forces to maintain control of circulating plant nutrient solution in the weightless environment of an orbiting spacecraft. The nutrient solution is maintained at a pressure slightly less than the ambient air pressure while it flows on one side of a porous membrane. The root, on the other side of the membrane, is surrounded by a thin film of nutrient solution where it contacts the moist surface of the membrane. The root is provided with water, nutrients and air simultaneously. Air bubbles in the nutrient solution are removed using a hydrophobic/hydrophilic membrane system. A model scaled to the size necessary for flight hardware to test CERES in the space shuttle was constructed.

  16. Entrainment of peripheral clock genes by cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Mavroudis, Panteleimon D.; Scheff, Jeremy D.; Calvano, Steve E.; Lowry, Stephen F.

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythmicity in mammals is primarily driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), often called the central pacemaker, which converts the photic information of light and dark cycles into neuronal and hormonal signals in the periphery of the body. Cells of peripheral tissues respond to these centrally mediated cues by adjusting their molecular function to optimize organism performance. Numerous systemic cues orchestrate peripheral rhythmicity, such as feeding, body temperature, the autonomic nervous system, and hormones. We propose a semimechanistic model for the entrainment of peripheral clock genes by cortisol as a representative entrainer of peripheral cells. This model demonstrates the importance of entrainer's characteristics in terms of the synchronization and entrainment of peripheral clock genes, and predicts the loss of intercellular synchrony when cortisol moves out of its homeostatic amplitude and frequency range, as has been observed clinically in chronic stress and cancer. The model also predicts a dynamic regime of entrainment, when cortisol has a slightly decreased amplitude rhythm, where individual clock genes remain relatively synchronized among themselves but are phase shifted in relation to the entrainer. The model illustrates how the loss of communication between the SCN and peripheral tissues could result in desynchronization of peripheral clocks. PMID:22510707

  17. Internal clock formulation of quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Małkiewicz, Przemysław; Miroszewski, Artur

    2017-08-01

    The basic tenet of the present work is the assumption of the lack of external and fixed time in the Universe. This assumption is best embodied by general relativity, which replaces the fixed space-time structure with the gravitational field, which is subject to dynamics. The lack of time does not imply the lack of evolution but rather brings to the forefront the role of internal clocks which are some largely arbitrary internal degrees of freedom with respect to which the evolution of timeless systems can be described. We take this idea seriously and try to understand what it implies for quantum mechanics when the fixed external time is replaced by an arbitrary internal clock. We put the issue in a solid, mathematically rigorous framework. We find that the dynamical interpretation of a quantum state of a timeless system depends on the employed internal clock. In particular, we find that the continuous spectra of well-known dynamical observables like the position of a free particle on the real line may turn discrete if measured in unusual clocks. We discuss the meaning of our result for attempts at quantization of global gravitational degrees of freedom.

  18. Circadian clock function in the mammalian ovary.

    PubMed

    Sellix, Michael T

    2015-02-01

    Rhythmic events in the female reproductive system depend on the coordinated and synchronized activity of multiple neuroendocrine and endocrine tissues. This coordination is facilitated by the timing of gene expression and cellular physiology at each level of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis, including the basal hypothalamus and forebrain, the pituitary gland, and the ovary. Central to this pathway is the primary circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that, through its myriad outputs, provides a temporal framework for gonadotropin release and ovulation. The heart of the timing system, a transcription-based oscillator, imparts SCN pacemaker cells and a company of peripheral tissues with the capacity for daily oscillations of gene expression and cellular physiology. Although the SCN sits comfortably at the helm, peripheral oscillators (such as the ovary) have undefined but potentially critical roles. Each cell type of the ovary, including theca cells, granulosa cells, and oocytes, harbor a molecular clock implicated in the processes of follicular growth, steroid hormone synthesis, and ovulation. The ovarian clock is influenced by the reproductive cycle and diseases that perturb the cycle and/or follicular growth can disrupt the timing of clock gene expression in the ovary. Chronodisruption is known to negatively affect reproductive function and fertility in both rodent models and women exposed to shiftwork schedules. Thus, influencing clock function in the HPO axis with chronobiotics may represent a novel avenue for the treatment of common fertility disorders, particularly those resulting from chronic circadian disruption.

  19. The Plant Cellular Systems for Plant Virus Movement

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jin-Sung; Ju, Ho-Jong

    2017-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PDs) are specialized intercellular channels that facilitate the exchange of various molecules, including sugars, ribonucleoprotein complexes, transcription factors, and mRNA. Their diameters, estimated to be 2.5 nm in the neck region, are too small to transfer viruses or viral genomes. Tobacco mosaic virus and Potexviruses are the most extensively studied viruses. In viruses, the movement protein (MP) is responsible for the PD gating that allows the intercellular movement of viral genomes. Various host factors interact with MP to regulate complicated mechanisms related to PD gating. Virus replication and assembly occur in viral replication complex (VRC) with membrane association, especially in the endoplasmic reticulum. VRC have a highly organized structure and are highly regulated by interactions among the various host factors, proteins encoded by the viral genome, and the viral genome. Virus trafficking requires host machineries, such as the cytoskeleton and the secretory systems. MP facilitates the virus replication and movement process. Despite the current level of understanding of virus movement, there are still many unknown and complex interactions between virus replication and virus movement. While numerous studies have been conducted to understand plant viruses with regards to cell-to-cell movement and replication, there are still many knowledge gaps. To study these interactions, adequate research tools must be used such as molecular, and biochemical techniques. Without such tools, virologists will not be able to gain an accurate or detailed understanding of the virus infection process. PMID:28592941

  20. EGR1 regulates hepatic clock gene amplitude by activating Per1 transcription

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Weiwei; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Qian; Lai, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Shan; Jiang, Chen; Xu, Ying; Xue, Bin; Du, Jie; Li, Chao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian clock system is composed of a master clock and peripheral clocks. At the molecular level, the rhythm-generating mechanism is controlled by a molecular clock composed of positive and negative feedback loops. However, the underlying mechanisms for molecular clock regulation that affect circadian clock function remain unclear. Here, we show that Egr1 (early growth response 1), an early growth response gene, is expressed in mouse liver in a circadian manner. Consistently, Egr1 is transactivated by the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer through a conserved E-box response element. In hepatocytes, EGR1 regulates the transcription of several core clock genes, including Bmal1, Per1, Per2, Rev-erbα and Rev-erbβ, and the rhythm amplitude of their expression is dependent on EGR1’s transcriptional function. Further mechanistic studies indicated that EGR1 binds to the proximal region of the Per1 promoter to activate its transcription directly. When the peripheral clock is altered by light or feeding behavior transposition in Egr1-deficient mice, the expression phase of hepatic clock genes shifts normally, but the amplitude is also altered. Our data reveal a critical role for EGR1 in the regulation of hepatic clock circuitry, which may contribute to the rhythm stability of peripheral clock oscillators. PMID:26471974

  1. Metabolism control by the circadian clock and vice versa

    PubMed Central

    Eckel-Mahan, Kristin; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms govern a wide variety of physiological and metabolic functions in most organisms. At the heart of these regulatory pathways in mammals is the clock machinery, a remarkably coordinated transcription-translation system that relies on dynamic changes in chromatin states. Recent findings indicate that regulation also goes the other way, as specific elements of the clock can sense changes in the cellular metabolism. Understanding in full detail the intimate links between cellular metabolism and the circadian clock machinery will provide not only crucial insights into system physiology but also new avenues toward pharmacological intervention of metabolic disorders. PMID:19421159

  2. Insect photoperiodic calendar and circadian clock: independence, cooperation, or unity?

    PubMed

    Koštál, Vladimír

    2011-05-01

    The photoperiodic calendar is a seasonal time measurement system which allows insects to cope with annual cycles of environmental conditions. Seasonal timing of entry into diapause is the most often studied photoperiodic response of insects. Research on insect photoperiodism has an approximately 80-year-old tradition. Despite that long history, the physiological mechanisms underlying functionality of the photoperiodic calendar remain poorly understood. Thus far, a consensus has not been reached on the role of another time measurement system, the biological circadian clock, in the photoperiodic calendar. Are the two systems physically separated and functionally independent, or do they cooperate, or is it a single system with dual output? The relationship between calendar and clock functions are the focus of this review, with particular emphasis on the potential roles of circadian clock genes, and the circadian clock system as a whole, in the transduction pathway for photoperiodic token stimulus to the overt expression of facultative diapause.

  3. Plant Metabolomics: An Indispensable System Biology Tool for Plant Science.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jun; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin

    2016-06-01

    As genomes of many plant species have been sequenced, demand for functional genomics has dramatically accelerated the improvement of other omics including metabolomics. Despite a large amount of metabolites still remaining to be identified, metabolomics has contributed significantly not only to the understanding of plant physiology and biology from the view of small chemical molecules that reflect the end point of biological activities, but also in past decades to the attempts to improve plant behavior under both normal and stressed conditions. Hereby, we summarize the current knowledge on the genetic and biochemical mechanisms underlying plant growth, development, and stress responses, focusing further on the contributions of metabolomics to practical applications in crop quality improvement and food safety assessment, as well as plant metabolic engineering. We also highlight the current challenges and future perspectives in this inspiring area, with the aim to stimulate further studies leading to better crop improvement of yield and quality.

  4. An endogenous, systemic RNAi pathway in plants.

    PubMed

    Dunoyer, Patrice; Brosnan, Christopher A; Schott, Gregory; Wang, Yu; Jay, Florence; Alioua, Abdelmalek; Himber, Christophe; Voinnet, Olivier

    2010-05-19

    systemic RNAi pathway in plants that may have implications in adaptation, epiallelism and trans-generational memory.

  5. The circadian oscillator gene GIGANTEA mediates a long-term response of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock to sucrose

    PubMed Central

    Dalchau, Neil; Baek, Seong J.; Briggs, Helen M.; Robertson, Fiona C.; Dodd, Antony N.; Gardner, Michael J.; Stancombe, Matthew A.; Haydon, Michael J.; Stan, Guy-Bart; Gonçalves, Jorge M.; Webb, Alex A. R.

    2011-01-01

    Circadian clocks are 24-h timing devices that phase cellular responses; coordinate growth, physiology, and metabolism; and anticipate the day–night cycle. Here we report sensitivity of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian oscillator to sucrose, providing evidence that plant metabolism can regulate circadian function. We found that the Arabidopsis circadian system is particularly sensitive to sucrose in the dark. These data suggest that there is a feedback between the molecular components that comprise the circadian oscillator and plant metabolism, with the circadian clock both regulating and being regulated by metabolism. We used also simulations within a three-loop mathematical model of the Arabidopsis circadian oscillator to identify components of the circadian clock sensitive to sucrose. The mathematical studies identified GIGANTEA (GI) as being associated with sucrose sensing. Experimental validation of this prediction demonstrated that GI is required for the full response of the circadian clock to sucrose. We demonstrate that GI acts as part of the sucrose-signaling network and propose this role permits metabolic input into circadian timing in Arabidopsis. PMID:21383174

  6. Transcriptional control of antioxidant defense by the circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sonal A; Velingkaar, Nikkhil S; Kondratov, Roman V

    2014-06-20

    The circadian clock, an internal timekeeping system, is implicated in the regulation of metabolism and physiology, and circadian dysfunctions are associated with pathological changes in model organisms and increased risk of some diseases in humans. Data obtained in different organisms, including humans, have established a tight connection between the clock and cellular redox signaling making it among the major candidates for a link between the circadian system and physiological processes. In spite of the recent progress in understanding the importance of the circadian clock in the regulation of reactive oxygen species homeostasis, molecular mechanisms and key regulators are mostly unknown. Here we review, with an emphasis on transcriptional control, the circadian-clock-dependent control of oxidative stress response system as a potential mechanism in age-associated diseases. We will discuss the roles of the core clock components such as brain and muscle ARNT-like 1, Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput, the circadian-clock-controlled transcriptional factors such as nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and circadian clock control chromatin modifying enzymes from sirtuin family in the regulation of cellular and organism antioxidant defense.

  7. Transcriptional Control of Antioxidant Defense by the Circadian Clock

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sonal A.; Velingkaar, Nikkhil S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The circadian clock, an internal timekeeping system, is implicated in the regulation of metabolism and physiology, and circadian dysfunctions are associated with pathological changes in model organisms and increased risk of some diseases in humans. Recent Advances: Data obtained in different organisms, including humans, have established a tight connection between the clock and cellular redox signaling making it among the major candidates for a link between the circadian system and physiological processes. Critical Issues: In spite of the recent progress in understanding the importance of the circadian clock in the regulation of reactive oxygen species homeostasis, molecular mechanisms and key regulators are mostly unknown. Future Directions: Here we review, with an emphasis on transcriptional control, the circadian-clock-dependent control of oxidative stress response system as a potential mechanism in age-associated diseases. We will discuss the roles of the core clock components such as brain and muscle ARNT-like 1, Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput, the circadian-clock-controlled transcriptional factors such as nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and circadian clock control chromatin modifying enzymes from sirtuin family in the regulation of cellular and organism antioxidant defense. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2997–3006. PMID:24111970

  8. System identification of the Arabidopsis plant circadian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foo, Mathias; Somers, David E.; Kim, Pan-Jun

    2015-02-01

    The circadian system generates an endogenous oscillatory rhythm that governs the daily activities of organisms in nature. It offers adaptive advantages to organisms through a coordination of their biological functions with the optimal time of day. In this paper, a model of the circadian system in the plant Arabidopsis (species thaliana) is built by using system identification techniques. Prior knowledge about the physical interactions of the genes and the proteins in the plant circadian system is incorporated in the model building exercise. The model is built by using primarily experimentally-verified direct interactions between the genes and the proteins with the available data on mRNA and protein abundances from the circadian system. Our analysis reveals a great performance of the model in predicting the dynamics of the plant circadian system through the effect of diverse internal and external perturbations (gene knockouts and day-length changes). Furthermore, we found that the circadian oscillatory rhythm is robust and does not vary much with the biochemical parameters except those of a light-sensitive protein P and a transcription factor TOC1. In other words, the circadian rhythmic profile is largely a consequence of the network's architecture rather than its particular parameters. Our work suggests that the current experimental knowledge of the gene-to-protein interactions in the plant Arabidopsis, without considering any additional hypothetical interactions, seems to suffice for system-level modeling of the circadian system of this plant and to present an exemplary platform for the control of network dynamics in complex living organisms.

  9. The Retina and Other Light-sensitive Ocular Clocks.

    PubMed

    Besharse, Joseph C; McMahon, Douglas G

    2016-06-01

    Ocular clocks, first identified in the retina, are also found in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), cornea, and ciliary body. The retina is a complex tissue of many cell types and considerable effort has gone into determining which cell types exhibit clock properties. Current data suggest that photoreceptors as well as inner retinal neurons exhibit clock properties with photoreceptors dominating in nonmammalian vertebrates and inner retinal neurons dominating in mice. However, these differences may in part reflect the choice of circadian output, and it is likely that clock properties are widely dispersed among many retinal cell types. The phase of the retinal clock can be set directly by light. In nonmammalian vertebrates, direct light sensitivity is commonplace among body clocks, but in mice only the retina and cornea retain direct light-dependent phase regulation. This distinguishes the retina and possibly other ocular clocks from peripheral oscillators whose phase depends on the pace-making properties of the hypothalamic central brain clock, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). However, in mice, retinal circadian oscillations dampen quickly in isolation due to weak coupling of its individual cell-autonomous oscillators, and there is no evidence that retinal clocks are directly controlled through input from other oscillators. Retinal circadian regulation in both mammals and nonmammalian vertebrates uses melatonin and dopamine as dark- and light-adaptive neuromodulators, respectively, and light can regulate circadian phase indirectly through dopamine signaling. The melatonin/dopamine system appears to have evolved among nonmammalian vertebrates and retained with modification in mammals. Circadian clocks in the eye are critical for optimum visual function where they play a role fine tuning visual sensitivity, and their disruption can affect diseases such as glaucoma or retinal degeneration syndromes.

  10. A Light Clock Satisfying the Clock Hypothesis of Special Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The design of the FMEL, a floor-mirrored Einstein-Langevin "light clock", is introduced. The clock provides a physically intuitive manner to calculate and visualize the time dilation effects for a spatially extended set of observers (an accelerated "frame") undergoing unidirectional acceleration or observers on a rotating cylinder of constant…

  11. A Light Clock Satisfying the Clock Hypothesis of Special Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The design of the FMEL, a floor-mirrored Einstein-Langevin "light clock", is introduced. The clock provides a physically intuitive manner to calculate and visualize the time dilation effects for a spatially extended set of observers (an accelerated "frame") undergoing unidirectional acceleration or observers on a rotating cylinder of constant…

  12. The Mouse Clock Mutation Behaves as an Antimorph and Maps within the W(19h) Deletion, Distal of Kit

    PubMed Central

    King, D. P.; Vitaterna, M. H.; Chang, A. M.; Dove, W. F.; Pinto, L. H.; Turek, F. W.; Takahashi, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    Clock is a semidominant mutation identified from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis screen in mice. Mice carrying the Clock mutation exhibit abnormalities of circadian behavior, including lengthening of endogenous period and loss of rhythmicity. To identify the gene affected by this mutation, we have generated a high-resolution genetic map (>1800 meioses) of the Clock locus. We report that Clock is 0.7 cM distal of Kit on mouse chromosome 5. Mapping shows that Clock lies within the W(19H) deletion. Complementation analysis of different Clock and W(19H) compound genotypes indicates that the Clock mutation behaves as an antimorph. This antimorphic behavior of Clock strongly argues that Clock defines a gene centrally involved in the mammalian circadian system. PMID:9215907

  13. Partners in Time: EARLY BIRD Associates with ZEITLUPE and Regulates the Speed of the Arabidopsis Clock1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Mikael; McWatters, Harriet G.; Bakó, László; Takata, Naoki; Gyula, Péter; Hall, Anthony; Somers, David E.; Millar, Andrew J.; Eriksson, Maria E.

    2011-01-01

    The circadian clock of the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is made up of a complex series of interacting feedback loops whereby proteins regulate their own expression across day and night. early bird (ebi) is a circadian mutation that causes the clock to speed up: ebi plants have short circadian periods, early phase of clock gene expression, and are early flowering. We show that EBI associates with ZEITLUPE (ZTL), known to act in the plant clock as a posttranslational mediator of protein degradation. However, EBI is not degraded by its interaction with ZTL. Instead, ZTL counteracts the effect of EBI during the day and increases it at night, modulating the expression of key circadian components. The partnership of EBI with ZTL reveals a novel mechanism involved in controlling the complex transcription-translation feedback loops of the clock. This work highlights the importance of cross talk between the ubiquitination pathway and transcriptional control for regulation of the plant clock. PMID:21300918

  14. The Mechanism of the Formaldehyde Clock Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    Provides background information and problems with the formaldehyde clock reaction, including comparisons of experimental clock times reported in the literature and conditions for the reliable use of the formaldehyde clock based on a method discussed. (JN)

  15. The Mechanism of the Formaldehyde Clock Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    Provides background information and problems with the formaldehyde clock reaction, including comparisons of experimental clock times reported in the literature and conditions for the reliable use of the formaldehyde clock based on a method discussed. (JN)

  16. Relativistic effects of the rotation of the earth on remote clock synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, V.

    1974-01-01

    A treatment is given of relativistic clock synchronization effects due to the rotation of the earth. Unlike other approaches, the point of view of an earth fixed coordinate system is used which offers insight to many problems. An attempt is made to give the reader an intuitive grasp of the subject as well as to provide formulae for his use. Specific applications to global timekeeping, navigation, VLBI, relativistic clock experiments, and satellite clock synchronization are discussed. The question of whether atomic clocks are ideal clocks is also treated.

  17. Clocks and cardiovascular function

    PubMed Central

    McLoughlin, Sarah C.; Haines, Philip; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks in central and peripheral tissues enable the temporal synchronization and organization of molecular and physiological processes of rhythmic animals, allowing optimum functioning of cells and organisms at the most appropriate time of day. Disruption of circadian rhythms, from external or internal forces, leads to widespread biological disruption and is postulated to underlie many human conditions, such as the incidence and timing of cardiovascular disease. Here, we describe in vivo and in vitro methodology relevant to studying the role of circadian rhythms in cardiovascular function and dysfunction PMID:25707279

  18. Digital processing clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    Tthe digital processing clock SG 1157/U is described. It is compatible with the PTTI world where it can be driven by an external cesium source. Built-in test equipment shows synchronization with cesium through 1 pulse per second. It is built to be expandable to accommodate future time-keeping needs of the Navy as well as any other time ordered functions. Examples of this expandibility are the inclusion of an unmodulated XR3 time code and the 2137 modulate time code (XR3 with 1 kHz carrier).

  19. Quartz Crystal Clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    General Time Corporation, under contract to NASA, developed a quartz crystal for obtaining a stable time base from which all mission times could be derived. This later became basis of consumer clocks and watches with accuracy of one minute a year, watches useful in timing sports events as well as general use. When quartz is electrically stimulated it can vibrate millions of times a second. Since timepieces use a vibrating body to keep up time, incredibly fast vibration of a quartz crystal--up to 4,194,304 beats a second opened a new horizon in accuracy.

  20. Einstein’s Clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-09-09

    One of the most non-intuitive physics theories ever devised is Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity, which claim such crazy-sounding things as two people disagreeing on such familiar concepts as length and time. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln shows that every single day particle physicists prove that moving clocks tick more slowly than stationary ones. He uses an easy to understand example of particles that move for far longer distances than you would expect from combining their velocity and stationary lifetime.